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Sample records for colectivo laboral del

  1. Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at labor issues. The first article examines the unionization efforts of the Wobblies in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. The second article explores the protests of the Luddites during Britain's Industrial Revolution. The final article looks at whether…

  2. Preterm Labor

    MedlinePlus

    Preterm labor is labor that starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. It can lead to premature ... babies may face serious health risks. Symptoms of preterm labor include Contractions every 10 minutes or more ...

  3. Labor Induction

    MedlinePlus

    ... for labor and delivery, the cervix begins to soften (ripen), thin out, and open. These changes usually ... cervix is a process that helps the cervix soften and thin out in preparation for labor. Medications ...

  4. Labor Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…

  5. Labor Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  6. Distinción Empírica Entre Engagement y Trabajolismo en Enfermeras Hospitalarias de Japón: Efecto Sobre la Calidad del Sueño y el Desempeño Laboral

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kazumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo El objetivo de este estudio es demostrar la distinción entre engagement y trabajolismo, estudiando su relación con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Método Un total de 447 enfermeras de 3 hospitales de Japón fueron entrevistadas mediante un cuestionario autoadministrado que incluía la escala Utrecht (UWES, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale), la Escala de Adicción al Trabajo Holandesa (DUWAS, Dutch Workaholism Scale), preguntas sobre la calidad del sueño (7 ítems) con respecto a (1) dificultad para conciliar el sueño, (2) dificultad para mantener el sueño, (3) despertar temprano por la mañana, (4) dormirse o tomar siestas durante el día, (5) somnolencia diurna excesiva en el trabajo, (6) dificultad para despertarse por la mañana, y (7) despertar cansado en la mañana, y el Cuestionario sobre Salud y Desempeño (CSD) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados Los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales demostraron que el engagement se relaciona positivamente con la calidad del sueño y el rendimiento laboral, mientras que el trabajolismo tiene una relación negativa con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Conclusión Los resultados indican que el engagement y el trabajolismo son conceptualmente diferentes. El primero tiene una connotación positiva, mientras que el segundo se asocia de manera negativa al bienestar (buena calidad del sueño y buen rendimiento en el trabajo). PMID:26752805

  7. International labor migration and domestic labor supply.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, R

    1992-04-01

    "This paper constructs a dynamic, general equilibrium framework to study the relationship between international labor migration and domestic labor supply. The general equilibrium nature of the model enables us to endogenize the pattern of labor migration. The effect of labor migration on domestic wage rates and labor supply is shown to depend on the pattern of labor migration. If the substitution effect dominates the income effect in labor supply, the domestic supply of labor necessarily decreases in response to an inflow of migrants....Similarly, if the dominant effect is the income effect, the immigration of labor necessarily increases the domestic supply of labor."

  8. Inducing labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... inducing labor is to "break the bag of waters" or rupture the membranes. Your health care provider will do a pelvic exam and will guide a small plastic probe with a hook on the end through your cervix to create a hole in the membrane. This does not hurt you ...

  9. Effect of labor analgesia on labor outcome.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Stephen H; Abdallah, Faraj W

    2010-06-01

    Labor is among the most painful experiences that humans encounter. Neuraxial analgesia is the most effective means of treating this pain. In this review, we discussed the effect of neuraxial analgesia on the progress of labor when compared with parenteral opioids. We then compared initiation of analgesia with a combined spinal-epidural technique (CSE) to conventional epidural analgesia. Finally we discussed the impact of neuraxial analgesia, given early in labor, compared with later administration. Compared with parenteral opioids, neuraxial analgesia does not increase the incidence of cesarean section, although it is associated with a longer (approximately 16 min) second stage of labor. The incidence of operative vaginal delivery is higher in the epidural group but this may be due to indirect reasons such as changes in physician behavior. There was no difference in labor outcome when CSE was compared with low-concentration epidural analgesia, but higher concentrations may prolong labor. Early administration of neuraxial analgesia does not increase the incidence of operative delivery or prolong labor. Neuraxial analgesia does not interfere with the progress or outcome of labor. There is no need to withhold neuraxial analgesia until the active stage of labor.

  10. Introducing Labor History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmer, John Dale

    1997-01-01

    Provides a brief overview for including labor history in the social studies curriculum. Notes the broad range of subjects (geography, history, economics, music, and art) and approaches (women's history, social history, oral history) that encompass labor history. (MJP)

  11. Tips for labor coaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... some tips for getting prepared. Before the big day Arrives Labor coaches should go to childbirth classes ... get through her labor and delivery. When the day Arrives You might be at the hospital for ...

  12. Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... and eat during labor, which can provide needed energy later. Yet some doctors advise laboring women to avoid solid food as a precaution should a cesarean delivery be needed. Ask your doctor about eating during labor. While at home, time your contractions and keep your doctor up ...

  13. Industrial labor relations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Industrial Labor Relations Manual provides internal guidelines and procedures to assist NASA Field Installations in dealing with contractor labor management disputes, Service Contract Act variance hearings, and to provide access of Labor Union Representatives to NASA for the purpose of maintaining schedules and goals in connection with vital NASA programs. This manual will be revised by page changes as revisions become necessary. Initial distribution of this manual has been made to NASA Headquarters and Field Installations.

  14. Descripcion y Medida del Bilinguismo a Nivel Colectivo. [Description and Measurement of Bilingualism at the Collective Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siguan, Miguel

    1976-01-01

    A presentation of a rigorous method allowing an accurate description of collective bilingualism in any given population, including both the speaker's degree of language command and the patterns of linguistic behavior in each of the languages. [In Spanish] (NQ)

  15. Descripcion y Medida del Bilinguismo a Nivel Colectivo. [Description and Measurement of Bilingualism at the Collective Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siguan, Miguel

    1976-01-01

    A presentation of a rigorous method allowing an accurate description of collective bilingualism in any given population, including both the speaker's degree of language command and the patterns of linguistic behavior in each of the languages. [In Spanish] (NQ)

  16. PROBLEMS OF MIGRANT LABOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WALLS, FOREST

    PRESENT MIGRANT LABOR PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS WHICH HAVE BEEN PROPOSED ARE PRESENTED. THE FIRST PROBLEM AREA IS PROVIDING EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN. THIS IS HINDERED BY THE PROBLEM OF SECURING COMPLIANCE WITH MINIMUM EDUCATION LAWS AND BY LAWS PROHIBITING EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN DURING SCHOOL HOURS. A SECOND PROBLEM AREA IS THAT OF CHILD LABOR.…

  17. MIGRATORY LABOR IN COLORADO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOUGLASS, M.R.; AND OTHERS

    CONDITIONS AND PROBLEMS RELATING TO THE EMPLOYMENT OF SEASONAL FARM WORKERS AND MIGRANTS IN COLORADO ARE PRESENTED. THE FIVE MAJOR SEASONAL FARM LABOR STATE EMPLOYMENT AREAS ARE SURVEYED ACCORDING TO (1) THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SEASONAL FARM LABOR (4) TRENDS IN AGRICULTURAL ACREAGE, PRODUCTION, AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, (5) COMMUNITY ATTITUDES AND…

  18. On Writing Labor History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Penny

    1997-01-01

    Examines the personal views, research methods, and writing strategies of an author who specializes in books on labor history aimed at the young adult market. Discusses some of the work that went into biographies of Mother Jones, Rosie the Riveter, and Frances Perkins. Recommends an increased focus on labor history. (MJP)

  19. MIGRATORY LABOR IN COLORADO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOUGLASS, M.R.; AND OTHERS

    CONDITIONS AND PROBLEMS RELATING TO THE EMPLOYMENT OF SEASONAL FARM WORKERS AND MIGRANTS IN COLORADO ARE PRESENTED. THE FIVE MAJOR SEASONAL FARM LABOR STATE EMPLOYMENT AREAS ARE SURVEYED ACCORDING TO (1) THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SEASONAL FARM LABOR (4) TRENDS IN AGRICULTURAL ACREAGE, PRODUCTION, AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, (5) COMMUNITY ATTITUDES AND…

  20. Advances in labor analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Cynthia A

    2010-01-01

    The pain of childbirth is arguably the most severe pain most women will endure in their lifetimes. The pain of the early first stage of labor arises from dilation of the lower uterine segment and cervix. Pain from the late first stage and second stage of labor arises from descent of the fetus in the birth canal, resulting in distension and tearing of tissues in the vagina and perineum. An array of regional nerve blocks, systemic analgesic, and nonpharmacologic techniques are currently used for labor analgesia. Nonpharmacologic methods are commonly used, but the effectiveness of these techniques generally lacks rigorous scientific study. Continuous labor support has been shown to decrease the use of pharmacologic analgesia and shorten labor. Intradermal water injections decrease back labor pain. Neuraxial labor analgesia (most commonly epidural or combined spinal-epidural) is the most effective method of pain relief during childbirth, and the only method that provides complete analgesia without maternal or fetal sedation. Current techniques commonly combine a low dose of local anesthetic (bupivacaine or ropivacaine) with a lipid soluble opioid (fentanyl or sufentanil). Neuraxial analgesia does not increase the rate of cesarean delivery compared to systemic opioid analgesia; however, dense neuraxial analgesia may increase the risk of instrumental vaginal delivery. PMID:21072284

  1. Hydrotherapy in labor.

    PubMed

    Benfield, Rebecca D

    2002-01-01

    To review the literature on hydrotherapy in labor to direct prescription of the intervention and design studies to test its effectiveness. Studies of hydrotherapy were identified via searching literature and electronic databases. A primary effect of immersion is a central blood volume bolus, which occurs almost immediately after bathing begins. Subjective maternal responses to bathing in labor have been favorable. No maternal or infant infections have been attributed to bathing by parturients with either intact or ruptured membranes. Maternal bathing in labor does not appear to affect infant Apgar scores or stress hormones at birth. No clear evidence exists to indicate that hydrotherapy increases cervical dilation, increases fetal descent, reduces uterine dyskinesia, shortens labor, decreases use of epidurals or analgesia, or decreases rates of operative delivery or hemorrhage. Study findings indicate support for using hydrotherapy for relief of rapid pain and anxiety in labor. A methodical approach must be taken to determine for whom and under what circumstances intervention with hydrotherapy in labor is efficacious. Studies of the maternal and fetal effects of hydrotherapy in labor, including mechanisms of action, as well as large, prospective, randomized clinical outcome trials with control for intervening variables, are needed to help practitioners decide whether to prescribe hydrotherapy.

  2. Antibiotics and preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Mertz, H L; Ernest, J M

    2001-08-01

    Prematurity is a profound obstetric problem and to date no effective treatment or prevention strategies have been found. Many animal and clinical data exist to link infection and preterm labor, yet clinical trials examining the effect of antibiotic treatment in patients with patterns labor and intact membranes have been conflicting and disappointing. Beyond treatment to reduce neonatal group B streptococcal infection, sexually transmitted infections, symptomatic bacterial vaginosis, and bacteriuria, no clinical data exist at this time to support the routine use of antibiotics in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes.

  3. Stages of Labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... youth volunteer leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day What's happening in your area Find ... you and your partner welcome him to the world. Last reviewed: May, 2014 Pregnancy Labor & birth Other ...

  4. Preterm Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scientific Name Preterm labor Preterm birth Preterm infant Late-preterm birth ... first-time pregnancies No benefit in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  5. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum in Labor

    PubMed Central

    Benlamkadem, Said; Labib, Smael; Harandou, Mustapha

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema also known as Hamman's syndrome is a very rare complication of labor that is often related to the valsalva maneuver during the labor. In most case, Hamman's syndrome is a self-limiting condition, rarely complicated unless there are underlying respiratory diseases. Chest X-ray can be a useful early diagnostic technique in severe clinical presentation. We report an uneventful pregnancy in a primigravid parturient, which was complicated in the late second stage of labor by the development of subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and mild pneumothorax. Spontaneous recovery occurred after four days of conservative management. This condition shows the major interest of labor analgesia especially locoregional techniques. PMID:28316849

  6. Second stage of labor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yvonne W; Caughey, Aaron B

    2015-06-01

    Current American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' definition of prolonged second stage diagnoses 10% to 14% of nulliparous and 3% to 3.5% of multiparous women as having a prolonged second stage. The progression of labor in modern obstetrics may have deviated from the current labor norms established in the 1950s, likely due to differences in obstetric population characteristics and variation in clinical practice. Optimal management of the second stage in women with and without epidural remains debatable. Although prolonged second stage is associated with increased risk of maternal morbidity, conflicting data exist regarding the duration of second stage and associated neonatal morbidity and mortality.

  7. Management of preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Hole, J W; Tressler, T B

    2001-02-01

    Preterm labor and delivery continues to be one of the most serious problems in obstetrics, both medically and socioeconomically. The more classically used definitions of preterm delivery may not be useful in this era of advances in neonatal care. Similarly, the classically used criteria for "success" in tocolysis may obscure benefits from prolongation of gestation that does not meet these criteria. This article reviews the etiologic theories, risk factors, diagnostic techniques, and possible primary and adjunctive modes of therapy for preterm labor. The emphasis of these recommendations is on their clinical utility for the practicing obstetric care provider.

  8. 75 FR 8402 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, USDOL, 200... labor or forced labor in violation of international standards under Trafficking Victims Protection... information are requested to provide their submission to the Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and...

  9. Labor Issues. Transition Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    Major policy, management, and program issues face the Congress and new administration in the area of labor. Many of the nation's youth are leaving school poorly prepared for the new work world. The nation already has a large group of economically disadvantaged people who lack necessary skills. Annually, 900,000 or more workers are at least…

  10. Labor Market Progeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodeheaver, Dean

    1990-01-01

    Social ambivalence toward women's roles, sexuality, appearance, and aging combine with social standards of attractiveness to create both age and sex discrimination in the workplace. The life expectancy of presentability is shorter among women than men, thus creating an accelerated aging process termed labor market progeria. (SK)

  11. Cultivating Labor Management Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Stacy

    2013-01-01

    In many districts, the notion of labor groups and district administration working together conjures descriptions of war and battle rather than cooperation and collaboration. However, in San Juan Unified School District, the headline, "Union and District Exhibit Positive Partnership" exemplifies the changing relationship between teacher…

  12. Labor Market Progeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodeheaver, Dean

    1990-01-01

    Social ambivalence toward women's roles, sexuality, appearance, and aging combine with social standards of attractiveness to create both age and sex discrimination in the workplace. The life expectancy of presentability is shorter among women than men, thus creating an accelerated aging process termed labor market progeria. (SK)

  13. Labor analytics software can help control labor costs.

    PubMed

    Murray, Lawrence R

    2002-07-01

    One of the largest costs in healthcare organizations is labor. As volume of activity fluctuates, the labor supply needs to be adjusted appropriately. Having an appropriate quantity and skill mix of full- and part-time employees affects labor costs per hour and labor efficiency, two labor-cost control points that department managers need to monitor to make effective hiring decisions. Managers can use software applications for operating budgets, productivity monitoring, position control, and staffing/scheduling to manage labor expenses. Knowing the type of information each of these cost-control tools provides is critical to making effective decisions related to labor expenses. Because of their unique expertise, healthcare financial managers can serve as a resource to help the organization's department managers manage labor costs.

  14. Significant Decisions in Labor Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monthly Labor Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Several significant court decisions involving labor cases are discussed including a series of decisions concerning constitutional protections afforded aliens; the First Amendment and national labor relations laws; and the bifurcated backpay rule. (BM)

  15. Child Labor in America's History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  16. Child Labor in America's History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  17. Significant Decisions in Labor Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monthly Labor Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Several significant court decisions involving labor cases are discussed including a series of decisions concerning constitutional protections afforded aliens; the First Amendment and national labor relations laws; and the bifurcated backpay rule. (BM)

  18. Pennsylvania Public Employe Labor Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrush, John D.

    This volume is intended to help public administrators and attorneys deal with the legal problems in Pennsylvania public sector labor relations. In it, the Pennsylvania Labor Relations Board is discussed and public sector labor relations court decisions are cited. The volume is intended to be a reference book and to reveal inconsistencies in…

  19. [Management of preterm labor].

    PubMed

    Kayem, G; Lorthe, E; Doret, M

    2016-12-01

    To define the management of preterm labor (MAP). The literature search was conducted using computer databases Medline and the Cochrane Library for a period from 1969 to March 2016. Leukocytosis screening may be useful in case of hospitalization for Preterm labor (PTL). Its use is not routine (professional consensus). Screening for urinary tract infection by urine culture should be systematic and antibiotic treatment should be performed in cases of bacterial colonization or urinary tract infection for a period of 7 days (grade A). The vaginal swab is useful to detect a strep B and was prescribed antibiotics during labor if positive (grade A). Routine antibiotic therapy is not recommended in case of PTL (grade A). Prolonged hospitalization does not reduce the risk of preterm delivery (NP3) and is not recommended (grade B). Bed rest does not reduce the risk of PTL (NP3), increases the risk of thromboembolism (NP3), and is not recommended (grade C). After hospitalization for PTL, a regular visit by a caregiver at home may be helpful when patients belong to a precarious environment or are psychologically vulnerable (Professional consensus). The benefit of monitoring home uterine activity repeated in the aftermath of hospitalization for PTL is not shown (NP3). It is not recommended to follow-up uterine activity systematically after hospitalization for PTL (grade C). The management of PTL should be individualized, include searching and treatment of infection and avoid prolonged hospitalization or bed rest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Labor contractors: a conceptual overview.

    PubMed

    Martin, P M

    1996-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of labor brokering or contracting that helps to explain why employers turn to foreign workers to fill certain vacant jobs, and how the presence of foreign workers brought to a country by labor contractors can affect the size and duration of migration flows. The major conclusion is that East Asian policies that aim to avoid the settlement of unskilled foreign workers also make labor brokering a prominent feature of labor migration and migrant labor markets in the region."

  1. 48 CFR 222.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.101 Labor relations. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labor relations. 222.101...

  2. 48 CFR 222.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.101 Labor relations. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Labor relations. 222.101...

  3. 48 CFR 222.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.101 Labor relations. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Labor relations. 222.101...

  4. How to Tell When Labor Begins

    MedlinePlus

    ... Several days before labor begins or at the onset of labor What is false labor? Your uterus may contract ... for changes in your cervix that signal the onset of labor. One good way to tell the difference is ...

  5. 29 CFR 401.9 - Labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any...

  6. 29 CFR 401.9 - Labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any...

  7. 29 CFR 401.9 - Labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any...

  8. 29 CFR 401.9 - Labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any...

  9. 29 CFR 401.9 - Labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any...

  10. 29 CFR 401.7 - Labor dispute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.7 Labor dispute. Labor dispute includes any controversy concerning terms, tenure, or conditions of employment, or concerning the association or representation...

  11. Levobupivacaine for labor analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Attri, Joginder Pal; Makhni, Reena; Sethi, Savinder

    2016-01-01

    Background: Combined spinal-epidural analgesia has become the preferred technique for labor analgesia as it combines the benefits of both spinal analgesia and flexibility of epidural catheter. Study was carried out with the primary aim to compare levobupivacaine and ropivacaine with fentanyl in terms of onset and duration of sensory block and to know maternal and fetal outcome. Materials and Methods: In a prospective randomized double-blind study, 60 primipara of the American Society of Anesthesiologists health status Class I and II with singleton pregnancy in active stage of labor were randomly allocated into two groups of 30 each. Group A received 3 mg intrathecal levobupivacaine with 25 μg fentanyl followed by epidural top-ups of 14 ml of levobupivacaine 0.125% with fentanyl 30 μg whereas Group B received 4 mg intrathecal ropivacaine with 25 μg fentanyl followed by epidural top-ups of 14 ml of ropivacaine 0.2% with fentanyl 30 μg. Patients were monitored for sensory and motor block characteristics, hemodynamics, maternal and fetal outcome, side effects, and complications. These characteristics were analyzed using the “Chi-square tests” and “unpaired t-test.” Results: Onset of analgesia was rapid in Group A (4.72 ± 0.54 min) as compared to Group B (5.58 ± 0.49 min). Duration of analgesia was also prolonged in Group A (117.00 ± 11.86 min) as compared to Group B (90.17 ± 8.85 min). Patients remained hemodynamically stable and side effects, and complications were comparable in both groups. Conclusion: Levobupivacaine with fentanyl leads to early onset and prolonged duration of analgesia as compared to ropivacaine with fentanyl during labor analgesia. PMID:27746539

  12. Acupuncture and Acupressure in Labor.

    PubMed

    Schlaeger, Judith M; Gabzdyl, Elizabeth M; Bussell, Jeanie L; Takakura, Nobuari; Yajima, Hiroyoshi; Takayama, Miho; Wilkie, Diana J

    2017-01-01

    Acupuncture and acupressure, 2 modalities of Traditional Chinese Medicine, are based on reducing pain and symptoms of disease through balancing yin and yang. Acupuncture and acupressure have been used in China for reduction of labor pain, labor augmentation, and other intrapartum indications for more than 2 millennia. This article presents a review of the current literature that has addressed the effects of acupuncture and acupressure on intrapartum events. Studies of acupuncture have demonstrated that acupuncture may reduce labor pain, the use of pharmacologic agents, the use of forceps and vacuum-assisted births, and the length of labor. Studies that examined the effect of acupuncture on labor that is induced or augmented for premature rupture of membranes have found that acupuncture may increase the degree of cervical ripening but does not reduce the amount of oxytocin or epidural analgesia administration, nor does it shorten length of induced labor. Acupressure may reduce labor pain and labor duration, but acupressure has not been found to increase cervical ripening or induce labor. There are insufficient studies about acupuncture and acupressure and their effects on labor at this time, and there is need for further research. Areas of uncertainty include efficacy, optimal point selection, best techniques, and length of time for point stimulation.

  13. The Labor Games.

    PubMed

    Bou Nemer, Laurice; Kalin, Dawn; Fiorentino, Desiree; Garcia, Jorge J; Estes, Christopher M

    2016-10-01

    To develop and evaluate a simulation laboratory designed to stimulate learning and increase medical students' preparedness for an obstetrics and gynecology clinical clerkship. Ninety-seven medical students participated in the games during their obstetrics and gynecology clerkship in 1 year. Using the resident-as-teacher model, students rotated through seven stations, each with a simulated obstetric task. Points were awarded at each station, and the student with the highest score won. Self-perceived proficiency level and general preparedness for the clerkship were evaluated through paired pregame and postgame assessments. Postassessment results showed statistically significant (P<.001) increases in self-perceived competence performing all tested skills including reading fetal heart tracings, knot-tying, measuring cervical dilation, amniotomy, estimating fetal weight, and estimating blood loss. Approximately 97% enjoyed The Labor Games, 97.9% reported increased knowledge, and 96.9% learned valuable skills. Students also reported feeling more prepared for the obstetrics and gynecology rotation (2.6 compared with 3.3, P<.001). The Labor Games improved medical students' self-confidence and self-perceived skill level on obstetric tasks. Students also felt more prepared for the obstetrics and gynecology clerkship. This study creates a low-cost and reproducible simulation laboratory that is identified as effective by medical students in teaching skills, knowledge, and preparedness for an obstetrics and gynecology clerkship.

  14. Current methods of labor induction.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Geeta K

    2012-10-01

    In 2009, approximately 23% of all pregnant women in the United States underwent induction of labor, which is more than double the incidence of 9.5% in 1990. The ultimate goal of labor induction is to achieve vaginal delivery by stimulating uterine contractions before the spontaneous onset of labor. Labor induction is clearly indicated when the benefits outweigh the maternal and fetal risks of continued gestation, as well as potential risks associated with the procedure. Many women undergoing labor induction require cervical ripening--a method to facilitate softening, thinning, and dilation of an unfavorable cervix--because it reduces the time to delivery and incidence of failed induction. This article summarizes currently available methods for labor induction and cervical ripening, advantages and disadvantages of various methods, and the safety and effectiveness of each method based on well-conducted clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mothers' Perceptions of Labor Support.

    PubMed

    Nikula, Pirkko; Laukkala, Helena; Pölkki, Tarja

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe mothers' perceptions of labor support during childbirth. A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational survey design was used. Data were collected using the Bryanton Adaptation of Nursing Support in Labor Questionnaire (BANSILQ) completed by new mothers (n = 260) in the postnatal ward in a Finnish university hospital. Nonparametric methods were used for data analysis. Mothers perceived emotional assistance to be most important. From the list of midwives' labor support behaviors provided in the survey, the following were considered most helpful: giving praise, treating on an individual basis, and answering questions truthfully and understandably. Emotional, tangible, and informational labor support enhanced the mothers' birth experiences. Labor support should be provided when caring for every mother during childbirth. An evidence-based model of labor support should be used for nursing and midwifery education and clinical practice.

  16. Expectant fathers and labor epidurals.

    PubMed

    Chapman, L L

    2000-01-01

    A qualitative research study was conducted to describe and explain expectant father's experiences during labor when their partners receive labor epidurals. Grounded theory. Seventeen couples were interviewed using a semi-structured interview format. Two major concepts were identified: "Losing Her" and "She's Back." The men reported that these were the two critical points at which the epidural affected their experience. The theory, "Cruising through Labor," explained the fathers' experiences. Childbirth preparation classes that describe and explain women's responses to the increasing pain of labor contractions, the exhaustion of labor, and the effect of epidural analgesia could possibly assist men in preparing for the changes they will witness in their partners during the labor experience. Knowing that these changes are normal responses to the effects of labor might reduce men's levels of anxiety, frustration, and sense of helplessness. The labor nurse is a major support to the expectant fathers. Labor nurses who remain in the room during this phase, explain what is happening, and include the expectant father in their nursing care provide the best support.

  17. Understanding Microbial Divisions of Labor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheren; Claessen, Dennis; Rozen, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Divisions of labor are ubiquitous in nature and can be found at nearly every level of biological organization, from the individuals of a shared society to the cells of a single multicellular organism. Many different types of microbes have also evolved a division of labor among its colony members. Here we review several examples of microbial divisions of labor, including cases from both multicellular and unicellular microbes. We first discuss evolutionary arguments, derived from kin selection, that allow divisions of labor to be maintained in the face of non-cooperative cheater cells. Next we examine the widespread natural variation within species in their expression of divisions of labor and compare this to the idea of optimal caste ratios in social insects. We highlight gaps in our understanding of microbial caste ratios and argue for a shift in emphasis from understanding the maintenance of divisions of labor, generally, to instead focusing on its specific ecological benefits for microbial genotypes and colonies. Thus, in addition to the canonical divisions of labor between, e.g., reproductive and vegetative tasks, we may also anticipate divisions of labor to evolve to reduce the costly production of secondary metabolites or secreted enzymes, ideas we consider in the context of streptomycetes. The study of microbial divisions of labor offers opportunities for new experimental and molecular insights across both well-studied and novel model systems. PMID:28066387

  18. Organized Labor in the United States. Labor-Management Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Joseph B.

    These two lesson plans deal with the historical role of government in resisting and/or protecting the activities of organized labor and the goals and methods of both management and labor. They are multiclass activities and may be used alone or together. The first lesson plan provides materials for a trial to be conducted by the students. The topic…

  19. The Japanese Domestic Labor Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Chizuko

    The changing role of Japanese women can be seen in the stages of a domestic labor debate which occurred at three different times in the past 30 years. The first debate began with Ayako Ishigaki's (1955) insistence that women should have a job outside the home. Wartime production helped break down traditional divisions of labor by encouraging women…

  20. Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Roger D.

    1996-01-01

    Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize…

  1. Volunteer Labor Sorting across Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Lewis M.; Weisbrod, Burton A.

    2002-01-01

    Volunteer labor is generally analyzed as a homogeneous activity, implying that the marginal effects of tax changes and demographic shifts are equal across industries and forms of volunteering. Here the homogeneity assumption is tested by estimating and comparing volunteer labor supply functions in three sectors that rely on volunteer…

  2. The Division of Household Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitze, Glenna D.; Huber, Joan

    A study was conducted to test the following hypotheses concerning division of household labor (DOHL) between husbands and wives: (1) the division of household labor is somewhat affected by the availability of time, especially the wife's time; (2) there are strong effects of relative power, as measured by market-related resources, marital…

  3. Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Roger D.

    1996-01-01

    Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize…

  4. Migrant labor absorption in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nayagam, J

    1992-01-01

    The use of migrant workers to ease labor shortages caused by rapid industrialization in Malaysia during the twentieth century is examined. "This paper will focus on: (1) the extent, composition and distribution of migrant workers; (2) the labor shortage and absorption of migrant workers; and (3) the role of migrant workers in the government's economic restructuring process."

  5. Technological Education or Labor Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasova, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the need to turn away from technological education in general education schools and go back to labor training has been expressed, particularly by: (1) long-term teachers in the "Labor" (Trud) general education school who do not want to change their ways, go through retraining, and increase the amount of their work efforts in…

  6. EPIDURAL ANALGESIA IN LABOR - CONTROVERSIES.

    PubMed

    Bilić, Nada; Djaković, Ivka; Kličan-Jaić, Katarina; Rudman, Senka Sabolović; Ivanec, Željko

    2015-09-01

    Labor pain is one of the most severe pains. Labor is a complex and individual process with varying maternal requesting analgesia. Labor analgesia must be safe and accompanied by minimal amount of unwanted consequences for both the mother and the child, as well as for the delivery procedure. Epidural analgesia is the treatment that best meets these demands. According to the American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology and American Society of Anesthesiologists, mother's demand is a reason enough for the introduction of epidural analgesia in labor, providing that no contraindications exist. The application of analgesics should not cease at the end of the second stage of labor, but it is recommended that lower concentration analgesics be then applied. Based on the latest studies, it can be claimed that epidural analgesia can be applied during the major part of the first and second stage of labor. According to previous investigations, there is no definitive conclusion about the incidence of instrumental delivery, duration of second stage of labor, time of epidural analgesia initiation, and long term outcomes for the newborn. Cooperation of obstetric and anesthesiology personnel, as well as appropriate technical equipment significantly decrease the need of instrumental completion of a delivery, as well as other complications encountered in the application of epidural analgesia. Our hospital offers 24/7 epidural analgesia service. The majority of pregnant women in our hospital were aware of the advantages of epidural analgesia for labor, however, only a small proportion of them used it, mainly because of inadequate level of information.

  7. A Select Bibliography of Books on Labor Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography of 90 books on labor issues presents selections in the following areas: labor history, biographies, contemporary issues, labor economics and labor relations, labor law, labor unions, women and work, and reference books. (DB)

  8. A Select Bibliography of Books on Labor Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography of 90 books on labor issues presents selections in the following areas: labor history, biographies, contemporary issues, labor economics and labor relations, labor law, labor unions, women and work, and reference books. (DB)

  9. Popularizing labor analgesia in China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zi Tian; Gao, Xue Lian; Yang, Hui Xia

    2007-09-01

    In China many women in labor are young primigravidas whose fear of labor pain leads them to request cesarean deliveries. While the rate of cesarean deliveries has reached 50% in many hospitals, less than 1% of women in labor are given neuraxial analgesia. The necessary equipment is seldom available in China and many physicians have misconceptions about the risks associated with neuraxial analgesia, which are low with the ultra-low-dosages used today. However, attitudes have begun to change. Meetings held in China have brought together Chinese physicians and world experts on the various epidural and combined spinal-epidural techniques. Thanks to the information and support provided at these meetings clinical trials were carried out, more than 5000 women benefited from labor analgesia, and publications appeared in Chinese journals. An effective, safe, and cost-effective way to provide analgesia to women in labor may slow the increase in cesarean delivery rates across China and improve women's health in general.

  10. Misoprostol for induction of labor.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Megan L; Wing, Deborah A

    2015-10-01

    Labor-induction rates have increased considerably in the United States as well as around the world. With up to half of all induced labors requiring cervical ripening, prostaglandins have been utilized to increase induction success and achieve vaginal delivery. Misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analog has the ability to mimic the changes of spontaneous labor and has been used off label for over 30 years as a labor-induction agent. In the following article, cervical ripening and induction of labor with misoprostol will be discussed. The risks and benefits of misoprostol for ripening and induction and routes of administration will be reviewed, as well as future directions and new developments for its use.

  11. Child Labor Requirements in Agriculture under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Child Labor Bulletin No. 102.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.

    This booklet is a guide to the provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (also known as the Wage-Hour Law) which apply to minors employed in agriculture. The content is as follows: coverage of the child labor provisions regarding agricultural employment, minimum age standards for employment in agriculture, school hours and employment in…

  12. 29 CFR 401.13 - Labor relations consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor relations consultant. 401.13 Section 401.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.13 Labor relations consultant. Labor...

  13. Labor patterns in twin gestations

    PubMed Central

    Leftwich, Heidi K.; Zaki, Mary N.; Wilkins, Isabelle; Hibbard, Judith U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare labor progression in twin vs singleton gestations. Study Design Retrospective review of electronic database created by Consortium on Safe Labor, reflecting labor and delivery information from 12 clinical centers 2002-2008. Women with twin gestations, cephalic presentation of presenting twin, gestational age ≥34 weeks, with ≥2 cervical examinations were included. Exclusion criteria were fetal anomalies or demise. Singleton controls were selected by the same criteria. Categorical variables were analyzed by χ2; continuous by Student t test. Interval censored regression was used to determine distribution for time of cervical dilation in centimeters, or “traverse times,” and controlled for confounding factors. Repeated-measures analysis constructed mean labor curves by parity and number of fetuses. Results A total of 891 twin gestations were compared with 100,513 singleton controls. Twin gestations were more often older, white or African American, earlier gestational age, increased prepregnancy body mass index, and with lower birthweight. There was no difference in number of prior cesarean deliveries, induction, or augmentation, or epidural use. Median traverse times increased at every centimeter interval in nulliparous twins, in both unadjusted and adjusted analysis (P < .01). A similar pattern was noted for multiparas in both analyses. Labor curves demonstrated a delayed inflection point in the labor pattern for nulliparous and multiparous twin gestations. Conclusion Both nulliparous and multiparous women have slower progression of active phase labor with twins even when controlling for confounding factors. PMID:23871795

  14. Markets in women's reproductive labor.

    PubMed

    Satz, Debra

    1992-01-01

    Much of the evolution of social policy in the twentieth century has occurred around conflicts over the scope of markets. To what extent, under what conditions, and for what reasons should we limit the use of markets? Recently, American society has begun to experiment with markets in women's reproductive labor. Many people believe that markets in women's reproductive labor, as exemplified by contract pregnancy, are more problematic than other currently accepted labor markets. I will call this the asymmetry thesis because its proponents believe that there ought to be an asymmetry between our treatment of reproductive labor and our treatment of other forms of labor. Advocates of the asymmetry thesis hold that treating reproductive labor as a commodity, as something subject to the supply-and-demand principles that govern economic markets, is worse than treating other types of human labor as commodities. Is the asymmetry thesis true? And, if so, what are the reasons for thinking that it is true? My aims in this article are to criticize several popular ways of defending the asymmetry thesis and to offer an alternative defense....I focus my discussion on those arguments against contract pregnancy that depend on the asymmetry thesis. I believe that the asymmetry thesis both captures strong intuitions that exist in our society and provides a plausible argument against contract pregnancy.

  15. Labor Shortage: Menace or Mirage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Jon

    1988-01-01

    There are many uncertainties about the magnitude and nature of labor shortages. Data needed to identify and quantify shortages are not available from national statistical offices so most of what is known comes from employer reports. (JOW)

  16. Strategies for getting through labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... voice goes a long way in helping you deal with pain. Use your labor coach. Tell them ... Group Health Cooperative, Bellevue, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  17. Labor Functions of Illegal Aliens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro

    1977-01-01

    Concludes that to the extent that collective defenselessness of workers exists anywhere, movements like illegal immigration, the self-transportation of cheap labor toward the places where needed, are bound to continue. (Author/AM)

  18. [Cerebral blood flow during labor].

    PubMed

    Fendel, H; Funk, A; Jörn, H; Gans, A

    1990-01-01

    The successful results obtained using Doppler sonography for antepartal diagnosis gave cause to use the method during labor. For this purpose doppler measurements of the intern fetal carotid artery of a group of 7 patients with normal course of pregnancy were made and a continuous direct CTG was recorded simultaneously. The Doppler parameter, the S/D-ratio, for the contraction phases were compared with those of the contraction--free phases. During the contraction phase the S/D-ratio was higher than during the relaxation period of the uterus. The difference between these values were proved to be statistically significant. A comparison of the doppler parameter of the patients at onset of labor and the patients at the end of labor showed, that the S/D-ratio increased significantly at the end of labor. This result demonstrates, that the intravascular resistance in the fetal carotid artery increased due to the cephalic pressure.

  19. Labor Force Trends: A Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devens, Richard M.

    1977-01-01

    This annotated bibliography reflects relevant issues covered in the accompanying article in this issue (CE 506 866). It presents a general outline of recent literature on labor force participation, including underlying secular movements and cyclical analysis. (MF)

  20. Labor Shortage: Menace or Mirage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Jon

    1988-01-01

    There are many uncertainties about the magnitude and nature of labor shortages. Data needed to identify and quantify shortages are not available from national statistical offices so most of what is known comes from employer reports. (JOW)

  1. Progesterone, inflammation and preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Pařízek, Antonín; Koucký, Michal; Dušková, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    The initiation of human parturition is not fully understood to date. The data from animal experiments demonstrate that the primary impulse for the initiation of physiological labor arises from the fetal hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). HPA is responsible for the stimulation of steroid synthesis and prostaglandin production and, in turn, the cervical dilation and the beginning of myometrial contractions. Animal experiments, however, are only partly suitable for understanding the mechanism of human labor due to substantial species-specificity. In human, the changing levels of placental CRH control the production of fetal and placental steroids. The fundamental pathogenic manifestation of spontaneous preterm labor is inflammation and similar processes also underlie the full term one. While in full term labor it is not yet precisely known what starts this process, in the preterm one, several factors have been discussed like infection, uteroplacental ischemia, and hormonal abnormalities (progesterone- or CRH-related). Inflammatory processes affect both the mother and the fetus. Fetal inflammatory response (FIRS), which can be expected for children born preterm, is frequently associated with long-term complications, in particular neurological and pulmonary. Research in this field is therefore aimed at predicting preterm labor, and on predicting the fetal inflammatory response. The role of progesterone and its receptors in the pathophysiology of preterm labor are likewise intensively studied. Clinical results on the use of additive doses of progesterone in secondary prevention of preterm labor and current experimental studies point to progesterone and its receptors playing a key role in the pathophysiology of preterm labor. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Pregnancy and Steroids'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Economic implications of labor induction.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Simon, Raquel; Montañes, Antonio; Clemente, Jesús; Del Pino, María D; Romero, Manuel A; Fabre, Ernesto; Oros, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    To assess health service costs associated with labor induction according to different clinical situations in a tertiary-level hospital. In a prospective study, individual patient cost data were assessed for women admitted for induction of labor at a tertiary hospital in Spain between November 1, 2012, and August 31, 2013. The costs of labor induction were estimated according to maternal and neonatal outcomes, method of delivery, cervical condition at admission, and obstetric indication. Direct costs including professional fees, epidural, maternal stay, consumables, and drugs were calculated. Overall, 412 women were included in the final cost analysis. The mean total cost of labor induction was €3589.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3475.13-3704.61). Cesarean delivery after labor induction (€4830.45, 95% CI 4623.13-5037.58) was significantly more expensive than spontaneous delivery (€3037.45, 95% CI 2966.91-3179.99) and instrumental vaginal delivery (€3344.31, 95%CI 3151.69-3536.93). The total cost for patients with a very unfavorable cervix (Bishop score <2; €4283.47, 95% CI 4063.06-4503.88) was almost double that for women with a favorable cervix (€2605.09, 95% CI 2327.38-2837.58). Labor induction for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was the most expensive obstetric indication for induction of labor (€4347.32, 95% CI 3890.45-4804.18). Following the induction of labor, a number of patient- and treatment-related factors influence costs associated with delivery. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rockdusting technique cuts labor requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.H.

    1983-12-01

    Brownies Creek Collieries has aggressively sought cost reductions while maintaining production quotas. The operation scrutinized costs in a computerized analysis, and found that exact costs could not be determined for rockdusting. Rockdusting costs were buried under mine supply costs and maintenance labor. Mine management had to physically examine rockdusting procedures to determine costs. Mine Manager Dave Roberts and his staff discovered in their personal underground analysis of rockdusting that labor and supplies were being unnecessarily wasted.

  4. [Use of ultrasound in labor].

    PubMed

    Koterová, K; Krofta, L; Velebil, P; Mechurová, A; Feyereisl, J

    2011-12-01

    In the managing of labor, the obstetrician gets often to the border situations especially at the end of the second stage of labor, where only accurate diagnosis allows the make correct decisions on how to end the delivery. Since clinical vaginal examination does not always give complete informations about station and rotation of the head, the intrapartum fetal ultrasound showing the fetus inside the birth canal can refine and document the diagnosis and help us to decide.

  5. New Labor Pain Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Koyyalamudi, Veerandra; Sidhu, Gurleen; Cornett, Elyse M; Nguyen, Viet; Labrie-Brown, Carmen; Fox, Charles J; Kaye, Alan D

    2016-02-01

    Presently, the gold standard for pain control in laboring patients is neuraxial blockade, which includes a spinal, epidural, or a combined spinal-epidural technique. In conjunction with neuraxial blockade or by itself, some of the other agents employed related to labor pain include opioids, non-opioids, nitrous oxide, patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), and distraction therapy. Alternative treatments include acupuncture, hypnotism, yoga, exercise during pregnancy, hydrotherapy, transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation, massage, and relaxation techniques. This review will focus on current updates and recent trends in labor pain management. Neuraxial management, pharmacotherapy, and newer alternative methods to mitigate labor pain are reviewed. Newer techniques in epidural analgesia include the dural puncture epidural technique, which needs further evaluation. There are limited published data on the use of acupuncture, hypnotism, yoga, exercise during pregnancy, hydrotherapy, transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation, massage, and relaxation techniques in the alleviation of labor pain. These alternative therapies maybe considered as an adjuvant as the analgesic efficiency is inferior to that provided by typical standard pharmacotherapy. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the role of immersion virtual reality in alleviating labor pain.

  6. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…

  7. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…

  8. Oxytocin regimen for labor augmentation, labor progression, and perinatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Branch, D Ware; Ramirez, Mildred M; Laughon, S Katherine; Reddy, Uma; Hoffman, Mathew; Bailit, Jennifer; Kominiarek, Michelle; Chen, Zhen; Hibbard, Judith U

    2011-08-01

    To examine the effects and safety of high-dose (compared with low-dose) oxytocin regimen for labor augmentation on perinatal outcomes. Data from the Consortium on Safe Labor were used. A total of 15,054 women from six hospitals were eligible for the analysis. Women were grouped based on their oxytocin starting dose and incremental dosing of 1, 2, and 4 milliunits/min. Duration of labor and a number of maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared among these three groups stratified by parity. Multivariable logistic regression and generalized linear mixed model were used to adjust for potential confounders. Oxytocin regimen did not affect the rate of cesarean delivery or other perinatal outcomes. Compared with 1 milliunit/min, the regimens starting with 2 milliunits/min and 4 milliunits/min reduced the duration of first stage by 0.8 hours (95% confidence interval 0.5-1.1) and 1.3 hours (1.0-1.7), respectively, in nulliparous women. No effect was observed on the second stage of labor. Similar patterns were observed in multiparous women. High-dose regimen was associated with a reduced risk of meconium stain, chorioamnionitis, and newborn fever in multiparous women. High-dose oxytocin regimen (starting dose at 4 milliunits/min and increment of 4 millliunits/min) is associated with a shorter duration of first-stage of labor for all parities without increasing the cesarean delivery rate or adversely affecting perinatal outcomes. II.

  9. What is a failed labor induction?

    PubMed

    Lin, Monique G; Rouse, Dwight J

    2006-09-01

    Criteria for failed labor induction have not been standardized. The increasing prevalence of labor induction and the lack of a definition for failed induction contribute to unnecessary abdominal deliveries. Labor duration, cervical dilation, and uterine activity necessary to attain the active phase are reviewed. A practical definition of failed induction of labor is suggested.

  10. 24 CFR 585.313 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild Trainees. (1) All laborers and mechanics (other than... such laborers and mechanics on assisted housing shall be subject to the provisions of the Contract Work... standards apply to laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild trainees to the extent required by the...

  11. 24 CFR 585.313 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild Trainees. (1) All laborers and mechanics (other than... such laborers and mechanics on assisted housing shall be subject to the provisions of the Contract Work... standards apply to laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild trainees to the extent required by the other...

  12. 24 CFR 585.313 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild Trainees. (1) All laborers and mechanics (other than... such laborers and mechanics on assisted housing shall be subject to the provisions of the Contract Work... standards apply to laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild trainees to the extent required by the other...

  13. 24 CFR 585.313 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild Trainees. (1) All laborers and mechanics (other than... such laborers and mechanics on assisted housing shall be subject to the provisions of the Contract Work... standards apply to laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild trainees to the extent required by the other...

  14. 24 CFR 585.313 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild Trainees. (1) All laborers and mechanics (other than... such laborers and mechanics on assisted housing shall be subject to the provisions of the Contract Work... standards apply to laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild trainees to the extent required by the other...

  15. 48 CFR 1322.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Labor relations. 1322.101 Section 1322.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1322.101 Labor relations. ...

  16. 48 CFR 1322.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Labor relations. 1322.101 Section 1322.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1322.101 Labor relations. ...

  17. 48 CFR 522.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labor relations. 522.101 Section 522.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 522.101 Labor relations. ...

  18. 48 CFR 1422.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Labor relations. 1422.101 Section 1422.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1422.101 Labor relations. ...

  19. 48 CFR 1222.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Labor relations. 1222.101 Section 1222.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1222.101 Labor relations. ...

  20. 75 FR 13429 - Unfair Labor Practice Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... / Monday, March 22, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY 5 CFR Part 2423 Unfair Labor Practice Proceedings AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel, Federal Labor Relations Authority. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The General Counsel of the Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA...

  1. 48 CFR 522.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Labor relations. 522.101 Section 522.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 522.101 Labor relations. ...

  2. 48 CFR 1222.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Labor relations. 1222.101 Section 1222.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1222.101 Labor relations. ...

  3. 48 CFR 22.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Labor relations. 22.101 Section 22.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 22.101 Labor relations. ...

  4. 48 CFR 1322.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labor relations. 1322.101 Section 1322.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1322.101 Labor relations. ...

  5. 48 CFR 1222.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Labor relations. 1222.101 Section 1222.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1222.101 Labor relations. ...

  6. 48 CFR 522.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Labor relations. 522.101 Section 522.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 522.101 Labor relations. ...

  7. 48 CFR 1422.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labor relations. 1422.101 Section 1422.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1422.101 Labor relations. ...

  8. 48 CFR 1422.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Labor relations. 1422.101 Section 1422.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1422.101 Labor relations. ...

  9. 48 CFR 22.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Labor relations. 22.101 Section 22.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 22.101 Labor relations. ...

  10. 48 CFR 1222.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labor relations. 1222.101 Section 1222.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1222.101 Labor relations. ...

  11. 48 CFR 1322.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Labor relations. 1322.101 Section 1322.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1322.101 Labor relations. ...

  12. 48 CFR 522.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Labor relations. 522.101 Section 522.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 522.101 Labor relations. ...

  13. Labor Exchange Skills Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Eleanor; Hendrickson-Larson, Joanna; Hoppe, Ruth; Paige, Bruce; Rosenow, Steve

    The Labor Exchange Skills Project, which was conducted under the sponsorship and direction of the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, was designed to develop a labor exchange skills database (ETA) that would improve the usability of many Department of Labor applications and products developed by other public and…

  14. Intrauterine infection and preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Varkha; Hirsch, Emmet

    2012-02-01

    Preterm labor is defined as labor that begins before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. More than 12% of infants born in the USA are preterm. At least 40% of preterm births are associated with intrauterine infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are members of a family of cell-surface proteins responsible for recognition of a diverse spectrum of bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens. TLRs initiate the host innate (i.e. non-adaptive) immune response, inducing a proinflammatory cascade involving cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, and other effector molecules that result in the characteristic phenomena of labor, such as uterine contractions and rupture of fetal membranes. These cascades may also be activated by mechanisms that are not primarily infectious but are accompanied by inflammatory responses. Now that the molecular mechanisms linking infection and labor have been, to a large extent, elucidated, the challenge is to identify points of overlap with non-infectious causes of labor and to find intervention strategies that can minimize the negative impact of preterm delivery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrasound in labor and delivery.

    PubMed

    Molina, Francisca S; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound may play an important role in the management of labor and delivery. Induction of labor is a common obstetric intervention, performed in about 20% of pregnancies. Pre-induction cervical length, measured by transvaginal sonography, has been shown to have a significant association with the induction-to-delivery interval and the risk for cesarean section. In the management of labor there is extensive evidence that digital pelvic examination does not provide accurate assessment of the position and descend of the fetal head both during the first but also in the second stage of labor. Several recent studies using both two- and three-dimensional ultrasound have now described objective measures of progression of the fetal head during labor. In instrumental deliveries an important determinant of a successful and safe use of vacuum and forceps is the correct determination of the fetal head position and appropriate application of the instrument. However, ultrasound studies have shown that digital examination before instrumental delivery fails to identify the correct fetal position in a high proportion of cases. The use of ultrasound is of crucial importance in performing a safe operative delivery and can help in the prediction of whether a vaginal delivery would be successful. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Intrauterine infection and preterm labor

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Varkha; Hirsch, Emmet

    2011-01-01

    Summary Preterm labor is defined as labor that begins before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. More than 12% of infants born in the USA are preterm. At least 40% of preterm births are associated with intrauterine infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are members of a family of cell-surface proteins responsible for recognition of a diverse spectrum of bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens. TLRs initiate the host innate (i.e. non-adaptive) immune response, inducing a proinflammatory cascade involving cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, and other effector molecules that result in the characteristic phenomena of labor, such as uterine contractions and rupture of fetal membranes. These cascades may also be activated by mechanisms that are not primarily infectious but are accompanied by inflammatory responses. Now that the molecular mechanisms linking infection and labor have been, to a large extent, elucidated, the challenge is to identify points of overlap with non-infectious causes of labor and to find intervention strategies that can minimize the negative impact of preterm delivery. PMID:21944863

  17. Hypnotherapy for labor and birth.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Kathleen R

    2014-01-01

    Hypnotherapy is an integrative mind-body technique with therapeutic potential in various health care applications, including labor and birth. Evaluating the efficacy of this modality in controlled studies can be difficult, because of methodologic challenges, such as obtaining adequate sample sizes and standardizing experimental conditions. Women using hypnosis techniques for childbirth in hospital settings may face barriers related to caregiver resistance or institutional policies. The potential anxiolytic and analgesic effects of clinical hypnosis for childbirth merit further study. Nurses caring for women during labor and birth can increase their knowledge and skills with strategies for supporting hypnotherapeutic techniques. © 2014 AWHONN.

  18. Normal first stage of preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Spain, Janine E; Tuuli, Methodius; Caughey, Aaron B; Roehl, Kimberly A; Zhao, Qiuhong; Cahill, Alison G

    2014-04-01

    To compare first-stage labor patterns in women in preterm labor to those in labor at term. We performed a retrospective cohort study of consecutive women admitted from 2004 to 2008 with viable (≥ 24 weeks) vertex singleton gestations who reached the second stage of labor. Labor curves for preterm and term labor were created using a repeated-measures analysis with polynomial modeling. Interval-censored regression was used to estimate and compare median time of progression of labor. Multivariable analyses were performed to adjust for smoking, obesity (body mass index ≥ 30), induction, and nulliparity. The adjusted model was stratified by parity and induction of labor. Of 5,612 consecutive births, 224 were preterm (<37 weeks) and 5,388 were term (≥ 37 weeks). Preterm first-stage labor progressed significantly faster than term labor (median time 4 to 10 cm: 3.3 hours versus 4.5 hours, p < 0.01). When stratified by parity, preterm labor progressed significantly more rapidly than term labor in both nulliparous and multiparous women (median time 4 to 10 cm: 3.7 hours versus 4.9 hours [p = 0.04] in nulliparous women and 2.5 hours versus 4.3 hours [p = 0.01] in multiparous women). Women in preterm labor progress more rapidly through the first stage of labor than women at term. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Oxytocin Regimen for Labor Augmentation, Labor Progression, Perinatal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Branch, D. Ware; Ramirez, Mildred M.; Laughon, S. Katherine; Reddy, Uma; Hoffman, Mathew; Bailit, Jennifer; Kominiarek, Michelle; Chen, Zhen; Hibbard, Judith U.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects and safety of high-dose (compared with low-dose) oxytocin regimen for labor augmentation on perinatal outcomes. Methods Data from the Consortium on Safe Labor were used. A total of 15,054 women from six hospitals were eligible for the analysis. Women were grouped based on their oxytocin starting dose and incremental dosing: 1, 2, and 4 mU/min. Duration of labor and a number of maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared among these three groups stratified by parity. Multivariable logistic regression and generalized linear mixed model were used to adjust for potential confounders. Results Oxytocin regimen did not affect the rate of cesarean delivery or other perinatal outcomes. Compared to 1 mU/min, the regimens starting with 2 mU/min and 4 mU/min reduced the duration of 1st stage by 0.8 hours (95% confidence interval 0.5 – 1.1) and 1.3 hours (1.0 – 1.7), respectively, in nulliparas. No effect was observed on the second stage of labor. Similar patterns were observed in multiparas. High-dose regimen was associated with a reduced risk of meconium stain, chorioamnionitis, and newborn fever in multiparas. Conclusion High-dose oxytocin regimen (starting dose at 4 mU/min and increment of 4 mU/min) is associated with a shorter duration of first stage of labor in all parities without increasing the cesarean delivery rate or adversely affecting perinatal outcomes. PMID:21775839

  20. Labor in 2013: the new frontier.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Alison G; Tuuli, Methodius G

    2013-12-01

    Despite the frequency with which obstetrics providers manage labor, evidence has emerged in the past few years challenging our historical understanding of normal labor progress over time. We are also confronted with the dearth of evidence to guide the optimal management of labor. With these data, we are presented with both the challenge of changing practice at the bedside and the opportunity for new discovery to optimize labor and delivery outcomes. Given the sheer frequency of labor and delivery, changes that improve outcomes even by a small magnitude have the potential to dramatically impact labor-associated morbidity at the population level. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Misguided guidelines for managing labor.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Wayne R; Friedman, Emanuel A

    2015-06-01

    In a recent review we expressed concerns about new guidelines for the assessment and management of labor recommended jointly by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM). These guidelines are based heavily on a new concept of how cervical dilatation and fetal descent progress, derived from the work of Zhang et al. In their Viewpoint article they have addressed, but not allayed, the concerns we described in our review. We assert that the dilatation curve promulgated by Zhang et al cannot be reconciled with direct clinical observation. Even if they were correct, however, it still does not follow that the ACOG/SMFM guidelines should recommend replacing the coherent system of identifying and managing labor aberrations described by Friedman. That system is grounded in well-established clinical principles based on decades of use and the objectively documented association of some labor abnormalities with poor fetal and maternal outcomes. Recommendations for new clinical management protocols should require the demonstration of superior outcomes through extensive, preferably prospective, assessment. Using untested guidelines for the management of labor may adversely affect women and children. Even if those guidelines were to reduce the currently excessive cesarean delivery rate, the price of that benefit is likely to be a trade-off in harm to parturients and their offspring. The nature and degree of that harm needs to be documented before considering adoption of the guidelines.

  2. Library Labor Cost Accounting System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Bois, Dan

    The Library Labor Cost Accounting System will provide visibility on current costs of manually processing library materials, at each campus as well as system-wide. The scope of the study includes the following: (1) 100 individual activities, grouped into 14 functional areas, e.g., Ordering, Receiving; and into 3 major operations: Acquisitions,…

  3. Economic and Labor Market Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nightingale, Demetra Smith; Fix, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A number of economic and labor market trends in the United States over the past 30 years affect the well-being of workers and their families. This article describes key changes taking place and the implications for social and economic policies designed to help low-income working families and their children, particularly those families that include…

  4. Seven Important Labor Force Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, John A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents statistics on the changing human resources mix in the labor force, which vocational counselors should be aware of. Trends include higher percentages of women working, and older men and married men leaving the work force. One result is an increasing number of persons are able to retire earlier. (JAC)

  5. Pennsylvania Migratory Labor Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Committee on Migratory Labor, Harrisburg, PA.

    Operating for the 18th year, the Pennsylvania Governor's Committee on Migratory Labor, which is charged with coordinating and bringing into focus the activities of various governmental and nongovernmental agencies relating to Pennsylvania's migrant workers, submits the present document as an annual report. Some specific areas reported on by…

  6. The Future of Humanities Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2008-01-01

    "Publish or perish" has long been the formula of academic labor at research universities, but for many humanities professors that imperative has decayed into a simple rule of production. The publish-or-perish model assumed a peer-review process that maintained quality, but more and more it is the bare volume of printed words that counts. When…

  7. BUREAU OF MIGRANT LABOR REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    YERSAK, CHARLES G.

    A GRADUAL REDUCTION IN MIGRANT LABOR HAS OCCURRED IN NEW JERSEY BECAUSE OF MECHANIZATION AND URBANIZATION. THIS REDUCTION IS REFLECTED IN FEWER ACTIVE CAMPS THAT HOUSE WORKERS. THE TREND IS AWAY FROM THE USE OF FRAME BUILDINGS AND NEW CAMPS BEING BUILT ARE CONSTRUCTED OF CINDER BLOCK. THE MIGRANT FORCE IS LARGELY COMPOSED OF NEGROES FROM THE SOUTH…

  8. Labor Market Experiences and Expectancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurin, Patricia

    This paper reports on a study which measured labor market experience and its possible effects on workers' psychological expectancies. Past efforts that employed black and white men and women had made to improve their market situations are described, as well as attributions they gave for their experiences. Work or educational changes attempted by…

  9. Child Labor Laws in Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Jerry H.

    Child labor laws have not attracted much attention in recent years. Much of the basic legislation and the case law dates from the early part of the 20th century. This paper discusses the Mississippi statutory law on the subject, compares that law with legislation in five other States, and discusses case law in Mississippi and in other States.…

  10. The Chilean Teacher Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Maria del Rosario

    2013-01-01

    In Chile, as many other countries, understanding how high-qualified teachers are distributed across schools and which are the relationships that may lead to teachers' potential sorting are key aspect of the teacher labor market and it is central to addressing student achievement gaps. The first paper uses rich new data on all elementary public…

  11. Labor Policy, Minorities, and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln Inst. for Research and Education, Washington, DC.

    The central theme of the papers presented in this symposium is that the labor market for minorities and youth does not appear to function properly because of structural impediments (often caused by government regulations meant to help minorities) and that these impediments must be identified and effective remedies proposed. Following an…

  12. Academic Labor Markets and Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breneman, David W., Ed.; Youn, Ted I. K., Ed.

    As part of the Stanford Series on Education and Public Policy, academic careers and academic labor markets in American higher education are examined from a perspective based on both economic reasoning and sociological analysis. Research common to both fields is considered in a series of 10 essays that discuss the following subjects: "Studies…

  13. Labor Policy, Minorities, and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln Inst. for Research and Education, Washington, DC.

    The central theme of the papers presented in this symposium is that the labor market for minorities and youth does not appear to function properly because of structural impediments (often caused by government regulations meant to help minorities) and that these impediments must be identified and effective remedies proposed. Following an…

  14. The Chilean Teacher Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Maria del Rosario

    2013-01-01

    In Chile, as many other countries, understanding how high-qualified teachers are distributed across schools and which are the relationships that may lead to teachers' potential sorting are key aspect of the teacher labor market and it is central to addressing student achievement gaps. The first paper uses rich new data on all elementary public…

  15. A global strategy for labor.

    PubMed

    Faux, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    The rules of the global market were established to protect the interests of investors at the expense of workers and they shift benefits to investors, costs to workers. Globalization is measured by the interests of investors. But 20 years of investor protectionism show that growth has slowed and equality has gotten worse. The purpose of neo-liberal policies has been to discipline labor to free capital from having to bargain with workers over gains from rising productivity. But such bargaining is the essence of a democratic market. Uncontrolled globalization puts government's domestic policies on the side of capital. In an economy whose growth depends on foreign markets, rising domestic wages make it harder to compete internationally. There has been a general deterioration of labor's position relative to capital's. A global marketplace implies a global politics, and the real work happens when representatives of multi-national business privately negotiate the rules. Labor must change the framework in which the investor class pursues its interest across borders, while workers are constricted by borders. Labor unions are critical; they can deny the human resource necessary for profits. The strike is the ultimate threat to investors. One solution: a "grand bargain" linking development with broadly increased living standards connected to planning for sustainable development to create a global social contract. Workers have advantages: they are the majority and they are indispensable.

  16. The Future of Humanities Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2008-01-01

    "Publish or perish" has long been the formula of academic labor at research universities, but for many humanities professors that imperative has decayed into a simple rule of production. The publish-or-perish model assumed a peer-review process that maintained quality, but more and more it is the bare volume of printed words that counts. When…

  17. BUREAU OF MIGRANT LABOR REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    YERSAK, CHARLES G.

    A GRADUAL REDUCTION IN MIGRANT LABOR HAS OCCURRED IN NEW JERSEY BECAUSE OF MECHANIZATION AND URBANIZATION. THIS REDUCTION IS REFLECTED IN FEWER ACTIVE CAMPS THAT HOUSE WORKERS. THE TREND IS AWAY FROM THE USE OF FRAME BUILDINGS AND NEW CAMPS BEING BUILT ARE CONSTRUCTED OF CINDER BLOCK. THE MIGRANT FORCE IS LARGELY COMPOSED OF NEGROES FROM THE SOUTH…

  18. Organized Labor at the Crossroads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Wei-Chiao, Ed.

    These papers are organized around the theme that labor unions in the United States, having suffered a precipitous decline in membership and influence, must reassess their past practices and strategies and seek new methods and solutions. Following an introduction by Wei-Chiao Huang, the document includes "Bargaining Realities: Responding to a…

  19. 78 FR 72714 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking (OCFT) at the email or physical address below by 5 p.m... information above). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Section 105(b)(1) of the Trafficking Victims...

  20. 77 FR 70473 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking (OCFT) at the email or physical address below by 5 p.m... Trafficking Victims ] Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005 (``TVPRA of 2005''), Public Law 109-164...

  1. 29 CFR 215.8 - Department of Labor contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Department of Labor contact. 215.8 Section 215.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GUIDELINES, SECTION 5333(b), FEDERAL TRANSIT LAW § 215.8 Department of Labor contact. Questions concerning the...

  2. 29 CFR 215.8 - Department of Labor contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Department of Labor contact. 215.8 Section 215.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GUIDELINES, SECTION 5333(b), FEDERAL TRANSIT LAW § 215.8 Department of Labor contact. Questions concerning the...

  3. 29 CFR 215.8 - Department of Labor contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Department of Labor contact. 215.8 Section 215.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GUIDELINES, SECTION 5333(b), FEDERAL TRANSIT LAW § 215.8 Department of Labor contact. Questions concerning the...

  4. 29 CFR 215.8 - Department of Labor contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Department of Labor contact. 215.8 Section 215.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GUIDELINES, SECTION 5333(b), FEDERAL TRANSIT LAW § 215.8 Department of Labor contact. Questions concerning the...

  5. 29 CFR 215.8 - Department of Labor contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Department of Labor contact. 215.8 Section 215.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GUIDELINES, SECTION 5333(b), FEDERAL TRANSIT LAW § 215.8 Department of Labor contact. Questions concerning the...

  6. 29 CFR 402.2 - Labor organization initial information report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization initial information report. 402.2... LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS LABOR ORGANIZATION INFORMATION REPORTS § 402.2 Labor organization initial information report. Every labor organization shall file a report signed by its president and...

  7. Labor Dystocia: A Common Approach to Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Neal, Jeremy L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Holley, Sharon L; Ryan, Sharon L; Buxton, Margaret; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary labor and birth population norms should be the basis for evaluating labor progression and determining slow progress that may benefit from intervention. The aim of this article is to present guidelines for a common, evidence-based approach for determination of active labor onset and diagnosis of labor dystocia based on a synthesis of existing professional guidelines and relevant contemporary publications. A 3-point approach for diagnosing active labor onset and classifying labor dystocia-related labor aberrations into well-defined, mutually exclusive categories that can be used clinically and validated by researchers is proposed. The approach comprises identification of 1) an objective point that strictly defines active labor onset (point of active labor determination); 2) an objective point that identifies when labor progress becomes atypical, beyond which interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia may be justified (point of protraction diagnosis); and 3) an objective point that identifies when interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia, if used, can first be determined to be unsuccessful, beyond which assisted vaginal or cesarean birth may be justified (earliest point of arrest diagnosis). Widespread adoption of a common approach for diagnosing labor dystocia will facilitate consistent evaluation of labor progress, improve communications between clinicians and laboring women, indicate when intervention aimed at speeding labor progress or facilitating birth may be appropriate, and allow for more efficient translation of safe and effective management strategies into clinical practice. Correct application of the diagnosis of labor dystocia may lead to a decrease in the rate of cesarean birth, decreased health care costs, and improved health of childbearing women and neonates.

  8. 78 FR 38075 - International Labor Comparisons

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    .... ADDRESSES: Send inquiries to John Ruser, Office of Productivity and Technology, Bureau of Labor Statistics... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Ruser, Office of Productivity and Technology, Bureau of Labor Statistics...

  9. The 1995 Labor Force: A Second Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Howard N., Jr.; Tschetter, John

    1983-01-01

    Presents new projections for the 1995 labor force with alternative demographic and economic assumptions. Lists significant changes in the labor force trends reflecting the aging of the baby-boom generation and the growth of the Black population. (NRJ)

  10. Special Issue on Labor in the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornfield, Daniel B.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Includes "Labor Transnationalism?" (Cornfield); "Globalization and International Labor Organizing" (Boswell, Stevis); "Trade Unions and European Integration" (Hyman); "Trade Policy and Southern Economy" (Margo, Griffin); "Institutionalization of the Sociology of Work in Latin America" (Abramo et…

  11. Working Children: A Report on Child Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    This report explains the applicability of the Fair Labor Standards Act to child labor. Statistics are provided on violations which occurred during fiscal year 1970, and individual cases are described. This document is a revision of ED 048 498. (BH)

  12. Special Issue on Labor in the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornfield, Daniel B.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Includes "Labor Transnationalism?" (Cornfield); "Globalization and International Labor Organizing" (Boswell, Stevis); "Trade Unions and European Integration" (Hyman); "Trade Policy and Southern Economy" (Margo, Griffin); "Institutionalization of the Sociology of Work in Latin America" (Abramo et…

  13. 24 CFR 242.55 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... mortgages insured under this part. (c) Each laborer or mechanic employed on any facility covered by a... advance a certificate as required by HUD certifying that the laborers and mechanics employed in...

  14. 24 CFR 1006.345 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... under the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a-276a-5) to be paid to laborers and mechanics employed in the... laborers and mechanics employed in the operation, and to architects, technical engineers, draftsmen and...

  15. 24 CFR 1006.345 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a-276a-5) to be paid to laborers and mechanics employed in the... laborers and mechanics employed in the operation, and to architects, technical engineers, draftsmen and...

  16. 24 CFR 242.55 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... mortgages insured under this part. (c) Each laborer or mechanic employed on any facility covered by a... advance a certificate as required by HUD certifying that the laborers and mechanics employed in...

  17. "A Welcome Debate" over Labor Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Cat

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Wilma B. Liebman, the new chair of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB). In this interview, Liebman talks about labor law, academics, and reversing ossification.

  18. "A Welcome Debate" over Labor Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Cat

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Wilma B. Liebman, the new chair of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB). In this interview, Liebman talks about labor law, academics, and reversing ossification.

  19. State Labor Legislation Enacted in 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Richard R.

    1994-01-01

    Looks at labor legislation enacted by states in 1993 in terms of wages, family issues, child labor, equal employment opportunity, employee drug and alcohol testing, employee leasing, resident preference, and whistleblowers. (JOW)

  20. Migrant labor in agriculture: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Martin, P L

    1985-01-01

    The May 1984 Conference on Migrant Labor in Agriculture at the University of California-Davis discussed papers by 22 farm labor experts from 12 nations. Each industrial nation utilizes a different set of public and private policies to supply workers for labor-intensive agriculture, but none is entirely satisfactory. Labor-intensive agriculture is becoming more dependent on workers who are shut out of labor markets. Some countries have simply accepted foreign workers in agriculture, while others have adopted policies to integrate farm and nonfarm labor markets. Polices to reduce agriculture's reliance on workers-without-options include restructuring employment practices to employ fewer seasonal workers for longer periods, mechanizing production, and importing fruits and vegetables from nearby developing countries. This article explains the salient features of labor-intensive agriculture, the various polices for obtaining seasonal farmworkers, and options to reduce farming's dependence on migrant labor.

  1. Health problems of Maryland's migrant farm laborers.

    PubMed

    Go, V; Baker, T

    1995-08-01

    The health problems of Maryland's agricultural migrant labor force are presented for the information of Maryland's health care providers. Maryland's problems are placed in the context of U.S. and worldwide migrant labor practices.

  2. 48 CFR 222.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Labor relations. 222.101 Section 222.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Policies 222.101 Labor relations....

  3. Water Breaking: Understand This Sign of Labor

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Labor and delivery, postpartum care Water breaking worries? Prepare yourself for childbirth by getting the facts about this important sign of labor. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're ...

  4. Labor law update--Part 1.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1997-01-01

    To ensure proper actions when making managerial decisions, nurses must be aware of labor laws and the policies that apply to them. Part 1 of "Labor Law Update" discusses public policy considerations and gender, racial and pregnancy discrimination.

  5. China's export of labor and its management.

    PubMed

    Wang, S

    1995-01-01

    "This research note presents trends and data on China's labor export from 1979-1991. By 1990, China had deployed over 400,000 workers in 139 countries and regions, with labor export becoming an important source of foreign exchange. Data include China's contract value and number of workers annually; international distribution of Chinese workers; comparative figures for construction; contractors and labor cooperatives; and China's labor exports by corporation." excerpt

  6. State Labor Legislation Enacted in 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Richard R.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies major subjects of state labor legislation in 1998: increases in minimum-wage rates, prevailing wage changes, child-labor revisions, workplace surveillance regulations, and bans on employment discrimination. Offers a state-by-state summary of labor legislation. (JOW)

  7. Native Americans and Wage Labor: Ethnohistorical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Alice, Ed.; Knack, Martha C., Ed.

    This book reconsiders a largely ignored fact of North American Indian economic life--the place of wage labor in the culture and history of Native Americans. Case studies examine social networks of Native agricultural laborers, the decline of Native communities from self-sufficient producers to lower-class wage laborers, vocational education in…

  8. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  9. 22 CFR 901.19 - Labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Labor organization. 901.19 Section 901.19 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.19 Labor organization. Labor organization means any employee organization accorded recognition as...

  10. 22 CFR 901.19 - Labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labor organization. 901.19 Section 901.19 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.19 Labor organization. Labor organization means any employee organization accorded recognition as...

  11. 22 CFR 901.19 - Labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labor organization. 901.19 Section 901.19 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.19 Labor organization. Labor organization means any employee organization accorded recognition as...

  12. 22 CFR 901.19 - Labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Labor organization. 901.19 Section 901.19 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.19 Labor organization. Labor organization means any employee organization accorded recognition as...

  13. 22 CFR 901.19 - Labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Labor organization. 901.19 Section 901.19 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.19 Labor organization. Labor organization means any employee organization accorded recognition as...

  14. Education: The Key to Labor Market Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Janet L.

    Although education is the key to labor market success, it never has been a sufficient condition for that goal. In addition to the changing educational attainment of U.S. workers, the shifts in the demographic composition of the labor force and in the very conditions and expectations of the workplace have made the task of efficient use of labor a…

  15. State Labor Legislation Enacted in 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Richard R.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a summary, by state jurisdiction, of labor legislation during 1985. Legislation covered such topics as wages, equal employment opportunity, background clearance, occupational safety and health, employment and training, child labor, industrial homework, hours, agriculture, labor relations, plant closings, worker privacy, private employment…

  16. John R. Commons: Pioneer in Labor Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbash, Jack

    1989-01-01

    John R. Commons has contributed in one way or another to pratically every piece of social and labor legislation that has been enacted in the twentieth century. He has made his mark on such diverse aspects of American labor as apprenticeship, vocational education, workers' compensation, and the administration of labor law. (Author/JOW)

  17. 10 CFR 440.19 - Labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labor. 440.19 Section 440.19 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.19 Labor. Payments for labor... supplement wages paid to training participants, public service employment workers, or other Federal or...

  18. 75 FR 5003 - Unfair Labor Practice Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ...; Federal Register #0; #0; #0;This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains notices to the public of #0;the...; ] FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY 5 CFR Part 2423 Unfair Labor Practice Proceedings AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel, Federal Labor Relations Authority. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The...

  19. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  20. Labor Statistics: The BLS and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplan, Margaret A.

    1984-01-01

    Lists federal, state, and private organizations that publish statistical data of interest to persons in labor field and focuses on two areas of labor statistics--labor force and employment and unemployment and union membership. Gaps in statistics and users' problems in finding desired data are discussed. Eight references are cited. (EJS)

  1. Unemployment and Household Division of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamir, Boas

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the relationship between unemployment of men and women and the division of labor in their households and how the psychological well-being of unemployed individuals related to the division of labor in their families. Changes in the employment status of men and women had only limited effects on household division of labor. (Author/ABL)

  2. Labor analgesia for the obese parturient.

    PubMed

    Ellinas, Elizabeth H

    2012-10-01

    Obese parturients present obstetric anesthesia providers with multiple challenges, including increased incidence of maternal coexisting disease, labor complications, and potential for difficult initiation and failure of neuraxial labor analgesia. This focused review discusses these challenges, and suggests potential methods to increase labor analgesia success in this population.

  3. The Labor Values of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khlopova, T. V.; Ozernikova, T. G.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports the labor values of young people. The problem of the transformation of labor values occupies a special place in the transition economy of Russia. In this article, the authors look at labor values as an element of the motivation mechanism. Furthermore, the authors examine the the term "motivation" in its content sense…

  4. State Labor Legislation Enacted in 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Richard R.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies major subjects of state labor legislation in 1998: increases in minimum-wage rates, prevailing wage changes, child-labor revisions, workplace surveillance regulations, and bans on employment discrimination. Offers a state-by-state summary of labor legislation. (JOW)

  5. Native Americans and Wage Labor: Ethnohistorical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Alice, Ed.; Knack, Martha C., Ed.

    This book reconsiders a largely ignored fact of North American Indian economic life--the place of wage labor in the culture and history of Native Americans. Case studies examine social networks of Native agricultural laborers, the decline of Native communities from self-sufficient producers to lower-class wage laborers, vocational education in…

  6. Labor for thinning--trends and prospects

    Treesearch

    James E. Granskog

    1980-01-01

    The labor supply for timber harvesting has been a chronic issue for the southern pulp and paper industry since the mid-1950s. Whenever woodyard inventories drop substantially below desired levels, a renewed chorus of "Wood Labor Crisis" laments the dwindling labor force in a time of rising wood needs. Now that large acreages of pine plantations are reaching...

  7. How to Tell When Labor Begins

    MedlinePlus

    ... before labor begins: Signs That You Are Approaching Labor Sign What It Is When It Happens Feeling as if the baby has dropped lower Lightening. This is known as the ... a few hours before labor begins Increase in vaginal discharge (clear, pink, or ...

  8. John R. Commons: Pioneer in Labor Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbash, Jack

    1989-01-01

    John R. Commons has contributed in one way or another to pratically every piece of social and labor legislation that has been enacted in the twentieth century. He has made his mark on such diverse aspects of American labor as apprenticeship, vocational education, workers' compensation, and the administration of labor law. (Author/JOW)

  9. 24 CFR 266.225 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Program Requirements § 266.225 Labor standards. (a) Applicability of Davis-Bacon. (1) All laborers and mechanics employed by... mechanics employed in construction of a similar character, as determined by the Secretary of Labor...

  10. A dynamical model of labor-market change in international labor migrations when demand for labor is exogenous.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, P V

    1987-08-01

    "Relatively little is known about the long-run behavior of international labor migrations. One of the biggest concerns in immigration debates relates to the continued pressure on the borders of the wealthy countries. This immigration pressure will decline significantly only if the poor nations manage to provide more high-wage jobs. An earlier model of international labor migration is used to derive additional insights into the growth and decline of labor supply in different labor markets resulting from migration. Particular attention is paid to labor demand growth requirements in a sending country so that out-migration will slow down and eventually stop." excerpt

  11. Not by Labor Alone: Considerations for Value Influence Use of the Labor Rule in Ownership Transfers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Hood, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    People often assign ownership to the person who has invested labor into making an object (labor rule). However, labor usually improves objects and increases their value, and it has not been investigated whether these considerations underlie people's use of the labor rule. We presented participants with third-party ownership conflicts between…

  12. 77 FR 31549 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... child labor provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 29 U.S.C. 203(l), 212, 213, primarily to... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of...

  13. 76 FR 61289 - Public Hearing on Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... labor regulations issued pursuant to the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) which set forth the criteria... and 13 of the Fair Labor Standards Act (29 U.S.C. 203, 213). Signed at Washington, DC, this 28th day... in Agriculture The FLSA, since its enactment in 1938, has applied child labor standards to the...

  14. 76 FR 59741 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; National Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open Meeting AGENCY... Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements (``Committee'' or ``NAC''), which was...

  15. Solar Installation Labor Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.

    2011-12-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  16. [Intravenous remifentanyl for labor analgesia].

    PubMed

    Arnal, D; Serrano, M L; Corral, E M; García del Valle, S

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous remifentanil may be the preferred analgesic when regional techniques are contraindicated. To perform a systematic review on the use of remifentanil for analgesia in labor. We searched MEDLINE (January 1995-August 2007) for studies on obstetric analgesia with remifentanil. We found 32 references representing the use of remifentanil in 257 women in labor. In most cases, patients reported relief of pain and a high level of satisfaction, with no severe side effects in mothers or neonates. When compared with meperidine and nitrous oxide in clinical trials, remifentanil provided better analgesia with fewer adverse effects. Analgesia with intravenous remifentanil is more effective and safer than other alternatives to regional analgesic techniques in obstetrics. Nevertheless, the optimum system for infusing the drug must b e established and further studies of maternal and fetal safety should be carried out.

  17. Women in the labor force.

    PubMed

    Vatter, R H

    1994-01-01

    Unlike the rate for men, the labor force participation rate for women has increased significantly over the past three decades or so. This trend is expected to continue at least through 2005. Among the reasons for the growing role of women in the labor market are higher levels of educational attainment, improved employment opportunities, changing values in society, and economic pressures and aspirations that require women to assume dual careers as homemakers and family income producers. By the year 2005, it is estimated that women workers will number about 72 million, with more than 63 percent of all women age 16 and over either working or actively looking for work. While traditional occupations such as secretarial and clerical administrative support and professions such as nursing and teaching still predominate, about 4 million women are now in executive, administrative and managerial positions in the private sectors of the economy. As for the types of industry in which women are employed, service industries clearly predominate. Projections suggest that women workers of the future will be older on average, with the fastest growth occurring in the 45-64 age cohort. They will also be a more diverse group as the number of black, Asian and Hispanic women workers grows more rapidly than the number of white non-Hispanic labor force participants.

  18. 48 CFR 22.102 - Federal and State labor requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 22.102 Federal and State labor requirements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Federal and State labor...

  19. 48 CFR 22.102 - Federal and State labor requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 22.102 Federal and State labor requirements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal and State labor...

  20. 29 CFR 452.26 - Elections in local labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elections in local labor organizations. 452.26 Section 452.26 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.26 Elections in local...

  1. Calidad de Imagen del Telescopio UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Teiada de Vargas, C.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2, del Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, situado en la Sierra de San Pedro Mártir (Baja California, México), cumplira en un futuro muy cercano siete años de uso para fines de investigación astronómica. Aunque en este tiempo no se ha efectuado un estudio sistemático acerca de su comportamiento óptico y de los factores que influyen en la calidad de las imágenes, se han realizado pruebas diversas, estudios parciales y reuniones especificas, cuyos resultados no siempre se han difundido ampliamente y generalmente no se han presentado por escrito. Es por ello que hemos creido necesario intentar una recopilación de la información existente para poder con ella establecer un diagnóstjco que, aunque no sea definitivo, sirva de base para futuros trabajos tendientes a optimizar el comportamiento óptico del telescopio. Es evidente que un buen número de las conclusiones que se presentan son resultado del trabajo de muchas personas ó de esfuerzos colectivos. Asimismo, hemos tratado de localizar información bibliográfica que pueda ser de utilidad. Nuestro objetivo primordial ha consistido en centrarnos en la óptica del telescopio y su calidad, pero también se han considerado otros aspectos que puedan afectar las imágenes obtenidas tales como: celda del primario, `seeing' local y externo, flexiones posibles en la estructura mecánica del telescopio, etc.

  2. Korean Emotional Laborers' Job Stressors and Relievers: Focus on Work Conditions and Emotional Labor Properties

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Garam

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aims to investigate job stressors and stress relievers for Korean emotional laborers, specifically focusing on the effects of work conditions and emotional labor properties. Emotional laborers are asked to hide or distort their real emotions in their interaction with clients. They are exposed to high levels of stress in the emotional labor process, which leads to serious mental health risks including burnout, depression, and even suicide impulse. Exploring job stressors and relieving factors would be the first step in seeking alternatives to protect emotional laborers from those mental health risks. Methods Using the third wave data of Korean Working Conditions Survey, logistic regression analysis was conducted for two purposes: to examine the relations of emotional labor and stress, and to find out job stressors and relievers for emotional laborers. Results The chances of stress arousal are 3.5 times higher for emotional laborers; emotional laborers experience double risk-burden for stress arousal. In addition to general job stressors, emotional laborers need to bear burdens related to emotional labor properties. The effect of social support at the workplace is not significant for stress relief, unlike common assumptions, whereas subjective satisfaction (wage satisfaction and work-life balance) is proven to have relieving effects on emotional laborers' job stress. Conclusion From the results, the importance of a balanced understanding of emotional labor for establishing effective policies for emotional laborer protection is stressed. PMID:26929847

  3. Korean Emotional Laborers' Job Stressors and Relievers: Focus on Work Conditions and Emotional Labor Properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Garam

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate job stressors and stress relievers for Korean emotional laborers, specifically focusing on the effects of work conditions and emotional labor properties. Emotional laborers are asked to hide or distort their real emotions in their interaction with clients. They are exposed to high levels of stress in the emotional labor process, which leads to serious mental health risks including burnout, depression, and even suicide impulse. Exploring job stressors and relieving factors would be the first step in seeking alternatives to protect emotional laborers from those mental health risks. Using the third wave data of Korean Working Conditions Survey, logistic regression analysis was conducted for two purposes: to examine the relations of emotional labor and stress, and to find out job stressors and relievers for emotional laborers. The chances of stress arousal are 3.5 times higher for emotional laborers; emotional laborers experience double risk-burden for stress arousal. In addition to general job stressors, emotional laborers need to bear burdens related to emotional labor properties. The effect of social support at the workplace is not significant for stress relief, unlike common assumptions, whereas subjective satisfaction (wage satisfaction and work-life balance) is proven to have relieving effects on emotional laborers' job stress. From the results, the importance of a balanced understanding of emotional labor for establishing effective policies for emotional laborer protection is stressed.

  4. Maternal inflammatory markers and term labor performance.

    PubMed

    Cierny, Jill T; Unal, E Ramsey; Flood, Pamela; Rhee, Ka Young; Praktish, Allison; Olson, Tara Hudak; Goetzl, Laura

    2014-05-01

    We sought to examine the relationship between maternal markers of inflammation and labor performance. A nested cohort study was performed utilizing an established cohort of term nulliparous patients. Maternal blood was collected at the onset of regular, painful contractions in patients undergoing labor induction or at admission in patients with spontaneous labor. Levels of cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were determined using standard multiplex methodology. Maternal demographic data were collected prospectively. Detailed retrospective chart review was performed to extract data on cervical dilation, effacement, and station during labor. Subjects were excluded if they failed to achieve complete dilation. Mixed effects modeling was used to examine the association between serum cytokine quartiles and labor progress in the latent and active phases. In all, 334 women were included in our analysis. The lowest quartile of IL-6 was associated with slower latent labor (P = .001). In contrast, the highest quartiles of IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α were associated with slower active labor (P = .03 and .0002, respectively). Proinflammatory activation is important in labor initiation. However, once active labor is established, excess inflammation can be detrimental to efficient labor progress. These data may explain, in part, the known associations among clinical chorioamnionitis, cesarean delivery, and postpartum hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Immune cells in term and preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; StLouis, Derek; Lehr, Marcus A; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Elly N; Arenas-Hernandez, Marcia

    2014-11-01

    Labor resembles an inflammatory response that includes secretion of cytokines/chemokines by resident and infiltrating immune cells into reproductive tissues and the maternal/fetal interface. Untimely activation of these inflammatory pathways leads to preterm labor, which can result in preterm birth. Preterm birth is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity; therefore, the elucidation of the process of labor at a cellular and molecular level is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of preterm labor. Here, we summarize the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the physiological or pathological activation of labor. We review published literature regarding the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the cervix, myometrium, fetal membranes, decidua and the fetus in late pregnancy and labor at term and preterm. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate immune cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) mediate the process of labor by releasing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Adaptive immune cells (T-cell subsets and B cells) participate in the maintenance of fetomaternal tolerance during pregnancy, and an alteration in their function or abundance may lead to labor at term or preterm. Also, immune cells that bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems (natural killer T (NKT) cells and dendritic cells (DCs)) seem to participate in the pathophysiology of preterm labor. In conclusion, a balance between innate and adaptive immune cells is required in order to sustain pregnancy; an alteration of this balance will lead to labor at term or preterm.

  6. Statistical aspects of modeling the labor curve.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Troendle, James; Grantz, Katherine L; Reddy, Uma M

    2015-06-01

    In a recent review by Cohen and Friedman, several statistical questions on modeling labor curves were raised. This article illustrates that asking data to fit a preconceived model or letting a sufficiently flexible model fit observed data is the main difference in principles of statistical modeling between the original Friedman curve and our average labor curve. An evidence-based approach to construct a labor curve and establish normal values should allow the statistical model to fit observed data. In addition, the presence of the deceleration phase in the active phase of an average labor curve was questioned. Forcing a deceleration phase to be part of the labor curve may have artificially raised the speed of progression in the active phase with a particularly large impact on earlier labor between 4 and 6 cm. Finally, any labor curve is illustrative and may not be instructive in managing labor because of variations in individual labor pattern and large errors in measuring cervical dilation. With the tools commonly available, it may be more productive to establish a new partogram that takes the physiology of labor and contemporary obstetric population into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Immune cells in term and preterm labor

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; StLouis, Derek; Lehr, Marcus A; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Elly N; Arenas-Hernandez, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Labor resembles an inflammatory response that includes secretion of cytokines/chemokines by resident and infiltrating immune cells into reproductive tissues and the maternal/fetal interface. Untimely activation of these inflammatory pathways leads to preterm labor, which can result in preterm birth. Preterm birth is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity; therefore, the elucidation of the process of labor at a cellular and molecular level is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of preterm labor. Here, we summarize the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the physiological or pathological activation of labor. We review published literature regarding the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the cervix, myometrium, fetal membranes, decidua and the fetus in late pregnancy and labor at term and preterm. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate immune cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) mediate the process of labor by releasing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Adaptive immune cells (T-cell subsets and B cells) participate in the maintenance of fetomaternal tolerance during pregnancy, and an alteration in their function or abundance may lead to labor at term or preterm. Also, immune cells that bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems (natural killer T (NKT) cells and dendritic cells (DCs)) seem to participate in the pathophysiology of preterm labor. In conclusion, a balance between innate and adaptive immune cells is required in order to sustain pregnancy; an alteration of this balance will lead to labor at term or preterm. PMID:24954221

  8. 78 FR 60317 - Notice of Updates to the Department of Labor's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTACT: Director, Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International... Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking carries out this mandate. ILAB published the... Child Labor or Forced Labor Required by the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of...

  9. 75 FR 11512 - Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in... public meeting of the Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported... Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural Products, Room 104-A, Jamie L...

  10. Interregional equilibrium with heterogeneous labor.

    PubMed

    Michel, P; Perrot, A; Thisse J-f

    1996-02-01

    "The impact of labor migration on interregional equilibrium is studied when workers are heterogeneous in productivity and regional mobility. The skilled respond to market disequilibrium by moving into the most attractive region. The unskilled are immobile in the short-run and move with the skilled in the long-run. Both regions have a neoclassical production function affected by an externality depending on the number of skilled. Workers move according to the utility differential when regional amenities vary with population or according to the wage differential. The equilibrium pattern depends on the unskilled's mobility and on migration incentives. Typically, regional imbalance characterizes the equilibrium which is often suboptimal."

  11. A global perspective on foreign contract labor.

    PubMed

    Smart, J E; Casco, R R

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview on foreign contract labor. The growth in the use of foreign contract labor is described with reference to other types of international labor movements such as 1) illegal, undocumented, or irregular migration; 2) free migration; and 3) permanent settlement migration. Within this general context, the various national advantages and disadvantages of contract labor are outlined. Particular issues like the role of trade unions and the likely future international labor circulation are noted. The 1984 World Labour Report estimates a global stock of almost 22 million foreign workers. Despite lack of reliable data, the size of irregular labor flows is considerable. More than 4 million undocumented workers, primarily Mexicans, can be found in the US alone. Other major flows of illegal labor go from China to Hong Kong, Malaysia to Singapore, Columbia to Venezuela, and poor Arab countries to oil-exporting countries in the Middle East. Laws are often poorly enforced and contradictory. Employers often actively recruit illegal migrants. While permanent migration was formerly the primary source of foreign workers, the numbers migrating in this manner are decreasing significantly. In absolute terms, host countries gain considerably more through the use of contract labor than sending countries. The pervasive commitment of national governments to economic growth is a prime consideration in the decision to import foreign labor. In general, trade unions have created an environment wherein the use of foreign labor in the formal as opposed to the informal labor market is more difficult. The disadvantages of labor export include the costs of family separation, worker exploitation, and cultural alienation. Remittances constitute the most tangible return of labor export. In many countries they have made a very considerable impact on the balance of payments deficit.

  12. Molecular aspects of preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Challis, J R

    1998-01-01

    Preterm birth is a major problem in clinical obstetrics, occurring in approximately 10% of all pregnancies, and leading to 75% of early neonatal mortality and morbidity. Studies in our laboratory have examined the neuroendocrine mechanisms by which the fetus, through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, provides the stimulus to the onset of parturition. Maturation of this axis occurs prematurely in response to stimuli such as stress. Stress induced activation of HPA function in human pregnancy, may lead to increased output of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from placenta and fetal membranes. CRH is one of the agonists that acts in concert with increased prostaglandin biosynthesis to provide the stimulus to myometrial contractility in late gestation. Recent studies have also recognized that approximately 15% of patients in idiopathic preterm labor present, with deficiency of the major prostaglandin metabolizing enzyme in the fetal membranes, particularly chorionic trophoblast. Understanding these processes may lead to new methods of managing the patient presenting in preterm labor.

  13. Preterm Labor: Prevention and Management.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Kristen; Panchal, Bethany

    2017-03-15

    In the United States, preterm delivery is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and is the most common reason for hospitalization during pregnancy. The rate of preterm delivery (before 37 weeks' gestation) has been declining since 2007. Clinical diagnosis of preterm labor is made if there are regular contractions and concomitant cervical change. Less than 10% of women with a clinical diagnosis of preterm labor will deliver within seven days of initial presentation. Women with a history of spontaneous preterm delivery are 1.5 to two times more likely to have a subsequent preterm delivery. Antenatal progesterone is associated with a significant decrease in subsequent preterm delivery in certain pregnant women. Current recommendations are to prescribe vaginal progesterone in women with a shortened cervix and no history of preterm delivery, and to use progesterone supplementation regardless of cervical length in women with a history of spontaneous preterm delivery. Cervical cerclage has been used to help correct structural defects or cervical weakening in high-risk women with a shortened cervix. A course of corticosteroids is the only antenatal intervention that has been shown to improve postdelivery neonatal outcomes, including a reduction in neonatal mortality, intracranial hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, and neonatal infection. Tocolytics, especially prostaglandin inhibitors and calcium channel blockers, may allow time for the administration of antenatal corticosteroids and transfer to a tertiary care facility if necessary. When used in specific at-risk populations, magnesium sulfate provides neuroprotection and decreases the incidence of cerebral palsy in preterm infants.

  14. Protecting labor rights: roles for public health.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Gaydos, Megan; Yu, Karen; Weintraub, June

    2013-11-01

    Federal, state, and local labor laws establish minimum standards for working conditions, including wages, work hours, occupational safety, and collective bargaining. The adoption and enforcement of labor laws protect and promote social, economic, and physical determinants of health, while incomplete compliance undermines these laws and contributes to health inequalities. Using existing legal authorities, some public health agencies may be able to contribute to the adoption, monitoring, and enforcement of labor laws. We describe how routine public health functions have been adapted in San Francisco, California, to support compliance with minimum wage and workers' compensation insurance standards. Based on these experiences, we consider the opportunities and obstacles for health agencies to defend and advance labor standards. Increasing coordinated action between health and labor agencies may be a promising approach to reducing health inequities and efficiently enforcing labor standards.

  15. Protecting Labor Rights: Roles for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, Megan; Yu, Karen; Weintraub, June

    2013-01-01

    Federal, state, and local labor laws establish minimum standards for working conditions, including wages, work hours, occupational safety, and collective bargaining. The adoption and enforcement of labor laws protect and promote social, economic, and physical determinants of health, while incomplete compliance undermines these laws and contributes to health inequalities. Using existing legal authorities, some public health agencies may be able to contribute to the adoption, monitoring, and enforcement of labor laws. We describe how routine public health functions have been adapted in San Francisco, California, to support compliance with minimum wage and workers' compensation insurance standards. Based on these experiences, we consider the opportunities and obstacles for health agencies to defend and advance labor standards. Increasing coordinated action between health and labor agencies may be a promising approach to reducing health inequities and efficiently enforcing labor standards. PMID:24179278

  16. Time is money--labor analysis toolkit.

    PubMed

    2002-11-01

    Ststemic workforce shortages combined with increased demand for healthcare services can lead to significant capacity limitations. Organizations can improve profitability through informed strategic and front-line labor management. For example, a typical 300-bed hospital could potentially save $5.3 million annually by moving from the median of labor-cost-per-discharge performers to the top quartile. These cost savings can be reinvested in labor resources--the salaries, benefits, and retention activities essential for long-term success.

  17. Defense spending and interregional labor migration.

    PubMed

    Ellis, M; Barff, R; Markusen, A R

    1993-04-01

    The impact of defense-related industry on labor migration within the United States is analyzed using census data for the period 1975-1980. The results "suggest that workers follow jobs in the defense industry, rather than vice versa, and indicate that a process of defense-related regional labor pool formation, amplified by interstate migration, adds to the volume of interregional labor flows."

  18. The evidence supporting nursing management of labor.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, Susan; Mayberry, Linda J; Kafulafula, Ursula

    2007-01-01

    Although nursing practice is responsive to research findings, the practice site in which a nurse works has an impact on the ability to incorporate research changes into practice in a timely fashion. This review of the evidence base for nursing management of labor care focuses on care that typically falls within the nurses' domain and highlights the evidence in five areas in which there is research on patient preferences. These include management of admission and of progression during the first stage of labor, fetal monitoring, care and comfort practices during labor, and the management of second-stage labor. Directions for achieving progress toward practice change are highlighted.

  19. Labor induction: a review of current methods.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Mildred M

    2011-06-01

    This article reviews the essential criteria for inductions of labor, weighing both the advantages and disadvantages of labor induction, and the various mechanical and pharmacologic agents available for cervical ripening. At the end of this article, one should be able to counsel women about the potential risks and benefit of labor induction and understand the neonatal consequences of elective induction of labor before 39 weeks of gestation. This article also discusses the different mechanical and pharmacologic agents available for cervical ripening. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Labor Market Characteristics and the Labor Force Participation of Individuals,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Bass, 1970, pp. 38-47. Durkheim , Emile , Les Regles del la Methode Sociologieque, Paris, F. Alcan, 1895. Fuguitt, Glenn and Stanley Lieberson...and conditioned by the cultural (e.g., Durkheim , 1895) or material (e.g., Marx and Engels, 1922) conditions of the collectivities in which people live...demography, economics and social policy that in industrial societies the social organization of families, and of women’s lives in general, is deeply affected

  1. 76 FR 38110 - Notice of Intent To Resume the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Resume the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports. AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of resumption of... National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to resume a currently approved information collection,...

  2. Physician Labor Market in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Bagat, Mario; Sekelj Kauzlarić, Katarina

    2006-01-01

    Aim To analyze the physician labor market in Croatia with respect to the internship and employment opportunities, Croatian needs for physicians and specialists, and trends in physician labor market in the European Union (EU) in the context of EU enlargement. Methods Data were collected from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, the Croatian Employment Service, and the Croatian Institute for Public Health. We compared the number of physicians waiting for internship before and 14 months after the implementation of the State Program for Intern Employment Stimulation. Also, the number of employed specialists in internal medicine, general surgery, gynecology and obstetrics, and pediatrics was compared with estimated number of specialists that will have been needed by the end of 2007. Average age of hospital physicians in the four specialties was determined and the number of Croatian physicians compared with the number of physicians in EU countries. Results The number of unemployed physicians waiting for internship decreased from 335 in 2003 to 82 in 2004, while a total number of unemployed physicians decreased from 436 to 379 (χ2 = 338, P<0.001). In October 2004, 79.3% of unemployed physicians waited for internship <6 months; of them, 89.2% waited for internship <3 months. In February 2005, 365 unemployed physicians were registered at the Croatian Employment Service and that number has been decreasing in the last couple of years. The number of employed specialists was lower than the estimated number of specialists needed in the analyzed specialists, as defined by the prescribed standards. A shortage of 328 internists, 319 surgeons, 209 gynecologists, and 69 pediatricians in Croatian hospitals is expected in 2007. Conclusion The lack of employment incentive seems to be the main reason for the large number of unemployed physicians waiting for internship before the implementation of the Employment Stimulation Program. According to the number of physicians per 100

  3. Child Labor Requirements in Nonagricultural Occupations under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Child Labor Bulletin No. 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.

    This booklet is a guide to the provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (also known as the Wage-Hour Law) which apply to minors employed in nonagricultural occupations. The content is as follows: coverage of the child labor provisions (covers employees in commerce, the production of goods for commerce, an enterprise engaged in commerce, and an…

  4. 78 FR 13897 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Labor Affairs Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Affairs Council of the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Public Session Meeting AGENCY.... Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Room S-5303, Washington, DC 20210; phone (202) 693-4811.... ADDRESSES: The LAC will meet at the U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington,...

  5. Preterm labor and prenatal harm.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    A young pregnant woman, diagnosed as extremely immature with a personality disorder, refuses treatment to stop preterm labor despite advice that a premature birth may result in fetal death or a handicapped baby. Her physician considers acquiescing and risking a premature delivery, transferring the patient to a compliant physician, or obtaining a court order to force treatment. Steinbock, a professor of philosophy and public policy, takes a psychological approach of exploring the reasons for the refusal and of gentle persuasion. Marquis, a philosopher, employs a comparison of harms analysis and concludes that the rights of the postnatal child not to risk permanent, substantial, preventable injury overrides the pregnant woman's right not to be confined involuntarily. Kayata, a pediatrician, raises the issue of the obstetrician's conflicting legal obligations and recommends seeking a court order.

  6. Organized Labor: Source Materials for the Study of Labor in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Carl, Comp.

    Designed for use in secondary economics or other social studies classes, this kit presents instructional materials and replications of primary source documents on the development of the labor movement in America. The documents are divided into four major areas of study: the growth of organized labor, the function of a union, labor and politics,…

  7. 76 FR 67104 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... the Fair Labor Standards Act, which set forth the criteria for the permissible employment of minors... pursuant to the Fair Labor Standards Act, which set forth the criteria for the permissible employment of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and...

  8. Child Labor and Health: Quantifying the Global Health Impacts of Child Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graitcer, Philip L.; Lerer, Leonard B.

    Child labor remains one of the most controversial challenges at the end of the 20th century. Approximately 250 million children in developing countries work either full- or part-time. Child labor is not confined to less-developed countries, as economic transitions bring shifts in the prevalence and nature of child labor. Throughout the world,…

  9. New Labor Force Projections to 1990. Special Labor Force Report 197.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Howard N., Jr.; Flaim, Paul O.

    Prepared as part of the Bureau of Labor Statistics' periodic reassessment of its projections of the future growth trends of the various sectors of the American economy, new labor force projections to 1990 are presented based on trends in labor force participation as observed through 1975 and on the most recent population projections of the U.S.…

  10. Department of Labor Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... compliance with minimum wage, overtime, and child labor requirements under the FLSA, or the records to be... increasing the minimum wage in three steps: to $5.85 per hour effective July 24, 2007; to $6.55 per hour...: Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) section 13(a)(15) provides an exemption from minimum wage and overtime...

  11. Causality between Literacy and Labor Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Shahrukh R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Utilizes the Granger causality test to estimate case and effect relationships between literacy and labor productivity in Pakistani manufacturing and agricultural sectors. Despite data set limitations, literacy appears to "cause" labor productivity to increase in the manufacturing sector. (27 references) (MLH)

  12. The Division of Labor as Social Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freidson, Eliot

    1976-01-01

    Three different principles and ideologies by which the division of labor can be organized are sketched, along with their consequences for variation in structure and content. It is noted that the reality of the division of labor lies in the social interaction of its participants. (Author/AM)

  13. Wage and Hour Farm Labor Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertel, Catherine

    This paper, by a teacher of migrants, summarizes various farm labor laws and child labor laws pertaining to migrant and seasonal workers. The Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act of 1983 provides workers with assurances about pay, hours, and working conditions, including safety and health. This legislation permits anyone…

  14. Labor and Migration; An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Thomas R.

    This annotated bibliography is intended to contribute toward an understanding of labor and migration, both of which have helped to shape our nation. A total of 131 works, including a few periodicals and newspapers, focus on immigration and internal migration as it affects organized and unorganized labor. (BH)

  15. Handbook of Labor Statistics. Bulletin 2175.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springsteen, Rosalind, Comp.; Epstein, Rosalie, Comp.

    This publication makes available in one volume the major series produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Technical notes preceding each major section contain information on data changes and explain the services. Forty-four tables derived from the Current Population Survey (CPS) provide statistics on labor force and employment status,…

  16. Third Stage of Labor and Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Djakovic, Zeljko; Bilić, Nada; Košec, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Acupuncture use in obstetrics has been increasing in Western medicine, especially to alleviate complications of pregnancy, the most important cause of maternal mortality worldwide. One quarter of maternal deaths are caused by complications in the third stage of labor, an interval between complete delivery of the baby and the complete expulsion of the placenta. Methods: This review analyzes the increased acupuncture use for pregnancy complications as a potential method of reducting maternal mortality during the third stage of labor. This overview focuses on acupuncture points and techniques to manage the third stage of labor and help patients with retained placentas. Passive (or expectant) management of the third stage of labor is occasionally associated with massive obstetric hemorrhage, a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, especially in low-income countries. Conclusions: Active management of the third stage of labor has been shown to reduce the risk of postpartum hemorrhage. Use of acupuncture in the first and second stages of labor could lead to a faster separation of the placenta in the third stage of labor. The possible effects of acupuncture in cases of retained placentas may have significant implications for possible complications and final outcomes of labor. Further studies are needed for more conclusive results. PMID:25784967

  17. Organized Labor and Old Age Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglim, Christopher; Gratton, Brian

    1987-01-01

    Contends that organized labor in the United States strongly supported pre-New Deal proposals for state pensions for the elderly. Reviews activities of the highly political state federations and of the campaign for old age pensions in Massachusetts to show that labor, rather than middle class reformers, was responsible for promotion of new public…

  18. Immersion in water during labor and delivery.

    PubMed

    2014-04-01

    Immersion in water has been suggested as a beneficial alternative for labor, delivery, or both and over the past decades has gained popularity in many parts of the world. Immersion in water during the first stage of labor may be associated with decreased pain or use of anesthesia and decreased duration of labor. However, there is no evidence that immersion in water during the first stage of labor otherwise improves perinatal outcomes, and it should not prevent or inhibit other elements of care. The safety and efficacy of immersion in water during the second stage of labor have not been established, and immersion in water during the second stage of labor has not been associated with maternal or fetal benefit. Given these facts and case reports of rare but serious adverse effects in the newborn, the practice of immersion in the second stage of labor (underwater delivery) should be considered an experimental procedure that only should be performed within the context of an appropriately designed clinical trial with informed consent. Facilities that plan to offer immersion in the first stage of labor need to establish rigorous protocols for candidate selection, maintenance and cleaning of tubs and immersion pools, infection control procedures, monitoring of mothers and fetuses at appropriate intervals while immersed, and immediately and safely moving women out of the tubs if maternal or fetal concerns develop.

  19. Is Cheap Labor a Magnet for Capital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, John R., II

    1995-01-01

    Contends that it is widely believed that cheap labor in poor countries attracts foreign investors. Asserts that historical evidence indicates that past patterns of direct foreign investment in poor countries are inconsistent with the cheap-labor argument. Includes two figures and one table. (CFR)

  20. MAJOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…

  1. Labor History and Industrial Relations: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvatore, Nick; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Includes "Labor History, Industrial Relations, and the Crisis of American Labor" (Brody); "Reckoning with Company Unions: The Case of Thompson Products, 1934-1964" (Jacoby); "Managers and Nonunion Workers in the Rubber Industry: Union Avoidance Strategies in the 1930s" (Nelson); and "'Light Manufacturing': The…

  2. TEXAS MIGRANT LABOR, THE 1966 MIGRATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    THE CALENDAR YEAR 1966 WAS THE SECOND FULL YEAR IN WHICH NO BRACEROS WERE IMPORTED FROM MEXICO. CRITICAL LABOR SHORTAGES OCCURRED IN SOME AREAS, HOWEVER, THE DOMESTIC LABOR SUPPLY BECAME MORE STABLE AND FEWER PROBLEMS WERE EXPERIENCED THAN IN 1965. THE MAJORITY OF TEXAS MIGRANTS LIVE IN SOUTH TEXAS AND APPROXIMATELY 95 PERCENT OF THEM ARE OF…

  3. MAJOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…

  4. The 1995 Labor Force: A First Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Howard N., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    In a look ahead at the 1995 labor force, all three projections--high, middle, and low--indicate that women will account for two-thirds of the growth, most of which will occur in the prime working-age group; the Black labor force will grow twice as fast as the White. (CT)

  5. MIGRATORY LABOR IN COLORADO. PROGRESS REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SIMPSON, RAY; AND OTHERS

    DEVELOPMENTS, FROM 1950 THROUGH 1960, ARE TRACED CONCERNING MIGRATORY LABOR IN COLORADO IN THE AREAS OF EMPLOYMENT, WAGE RATES, MINIMUM WAGE LEGISLATION, EMPLOYMENT OF MEXICAN NATIONALS, EDUCATION, HEALTH, HOUSING, SANITATION, WELFARE, UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION, WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION COVERAGE, AND THE LICENSING AND REGULATION OF LABOR CONTRACTORS…

  6. 24 CFR 200.33 - Labor standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Miscellaneous Cross Cutting Regulations § 200.33 Labor... apply to projects under these programs to the extent that labor standards apply as provided in...

  7. 24 CFR 200.33 - Labor standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Miscellaneous Cross Cutting Regulations § 200.33 Labor... apply to projects under these programs to the extent that labor standards apply as provided in...

  8. 76 FR 55779 - Labor Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8707 of September 2, 2011 Labor Day, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Every day, hard-working men and women... our highways and skylines, to the goods and services driving us in the 21st century. On Labor Day...

  9. 75 FR 55251 - Labor Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Proclamation 8555--Labor Day, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75... President ] Proclamation 8555 of September 3, 2010 Labor Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of... Day, we honor the enduring values and immeasurable contributions of working men and women today...

  10. Labor Market Segmentation and Librarian Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van House, Nancy A.

    1987-01-01

    Segmented labor market theory is used to explain how the structure of the library labor market may determine salary differences by type of library. Evidence that segmentation exists at intraoccupational levels and the possibility that comparing entire occupations may obscure results are also reported. (Author/CLB)

  11. MIGRATORY LABOR IN COLORADO. PROGRESS REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SIMPSON, RAY; AND OTHERS

    DEVELOPMENTS, FROM 1950 THROUGH 1960, ARE TRACED CONCERNING MIGRATORY LABOR IN COLORADO IN THE AREAS OF EMPLOYMENT, WAGE RATES, MINIMUM WAGE LEGISLATION, EMPLOYMENT OF MEXICAN NATIONALS, EDUCATION, HEALTH, HOUSING, SANITATION, WELFARE, UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION, WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION COVERAGE, AND THE LICENSING AND REGULATION OF LABOR CONTRACTORS…

  12. Third Stage of Labor and Acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Djakovic, Ivka; Djakovic, Zeljko; Bilić, Nada; Košec, Vesna

    2015-02-01

    Background: Acupuncture use in obstetrics has been increasing in Western medicine, especially to alleviate complications of pregnancy, the most important cause of maternal mortality worldwide. One quarter of maternal deaths are caused by complications in the third stage of labor, an interval between complete delivery of the baby and the complete expulsion of the placenta. Methods: This review analyzes the increased acupuncture use for pregnancy complications as a potential method of reducting maternal mortality during the third stage of labor. This overview focuses on acupuncture points and techniques to manage the third stage of labor and help patients with retained placentas. Passive (or expectant) management of the third stage of labor is occasionally associated with massive obstetric hemorrhage, a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, especially in low-income countries. Conclusions: Active management of the third stage of labor has been shown to reduce the risk of postpartum hemorrhage. Use of acupuncture in the first and second stages of labor could lead to a faster separation of the placenta in the third stage of labor. The possible effects of acupuncture in cases of retained placentas may have significant implications for possible complications and final outcomes of labor. Further studies are needed for more conclusive results.

  13. 23 CFR 140.906 - Labor costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of actual costs provided that (i) the rate is based on historical cost data of the company, (ii) such... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor costs. 140.906 Section 140.906 Highways FEDERAL... Railroad Work § 140.906 Labor costs. (a) General. (1) Salaries and wages, at actual or average rates,...

  14. Texas Migrant Labor. Annual Report, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    Among the responsibilities of the Good Neighbor Commission of Texas are (1) a survey of conditions and (2) a study of problems related to migrant labor in Texas. This annual report of the 1969 migrant scene shows the results of that survey and study. Beginning with an overview of Texas migrant labor, which goes back several years and includes a…

  15. Texas Migrant Labor. 1975 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    The Good Neighbor Commission of Texas coordinates the work of the Federal, State, and local government toward the improvement of travel and living and working conditions of Texas migrant laborers and their families. Covering the full spectrum of migrant labor activity directly related to the improvement of the well-being of migrant and seasonal…

  16. Induction of labor: update and review.

    PubMed

    Bonsack, Carrie F; Lathrop, Anthony; Blackburn, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Rates of labor induction in the United States have more than doubled in the past 2 decades. Trends of indications and risk factors related to induction of labor are also increasing. Professional organizations such as the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and The Joint Commission have taken steps to discourage elective induction of labor prior to 39 weeks' gestation and have created new definitions of early-term, full-term, late-term, and postterm gestation to guide clinicians in the timing of birth for specified indications. Induction of labor is associated with potential risks to both the woman and her fetus. The cost associated with induction of labor and the impact on the health care system is of growing concern. Education of women and the process of shared decision making when obtaining informed consent are key factors in reducing early elective births. Use of tools such as scheduling forms, hard stop methods, induction of labor indication tools, and informed consents may aid the provider in reducing overdiagnosis, overtreatment, and disease creep. This article provides a review of the trends of induction of labor, medical indications and criteria, associated risks, cost and health system impact, and initiatives to lower the incidence of induction of labor.

  17. Teaching Emotional Labor through Television and Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Katie; Paino, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Emotional labor refers to the process by which workers manage their emotions to align with organizational rules (Hochschild, 2012). In the classroom, the discussion of emotional labor was found to be a contentious issue, with students debating the validity of the concept and/or not understanding its relationship to status. The purpose of this…

  18. Teaching Emotional Labor through Television and Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Katie; Paino, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Emotional labor refers to the process by which workers manage their emotions to align with organizational rules (Hochschild, 2012). In the classroom, the discussion of emotional labor was found to be a contentious issue, with students debating the validity of the concept and/or not understanding its relationship to status. The purpose of this…

  19. Militant Motherhood: Labor's Mary Harris "Mother" Jones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonn, Mari Boor

    1996-01-01

    Uses "Mother Jones" to explore the link between labor union agitation and use of symbolic motherhood by female labor leaders. Argues that maternal aims such as physical protection helped empower oppressed mining audiences. Suggests that Jones's militant motherhood--realized through nondiscursive maternal practices and a…

  20. Report on the Youth Labor Force. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC.

    This report explains the current U.S. regulations governing child labor; provides a detailed look at youth labor in this country, including how it differs among major demographic groups and economic sectors, and over time; and describes the outcomes of young people's work activities, including occupational injuries and fatalities and other…

  1. Labor law for the nonunion agency.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, J C

    1997-03-01

    Providers should not assume that because they are union free they need not worry about labor law. An agency can have obligations under labor laws even when no union is involved. Who are nonunion employees, legally speaking? What rights do they have, and how can agencies ensure that they are in compliance with those rights?

  2. Child Labor in Agriculture. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shelley

    An estimated 200,000-800,000 children and adolescents work in the United States as migrant agricultural laborers, either alone or with their families. This digest describes the statutory and economic factors contributing to the presence of children in the fields and the impact of this labor on their health and educational progress. The Fair Labor…

  3. Labor in the Public and Nonprofit Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamermesh, Daniel S., Ed.

    Originally presented at a Conference on Labor in Nonprofit Industry and Government held at Princeton University, the studies are the first to provide an economic discussion of the public sector labor market. Melvin Reder examines the effect of the absence of the profit motive on employment and wage determination in the public sector. Orley…

  4. 24 CFR 266.225 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 266.225 Labor standards. (a) Applicability of Davis-Bacon. (1) All laborers and mechanics employed by... accordance with the Davis-Bacon Act, as amended (40 U.S.C. 276a-276a-5), where the project meets all of the... units. (2) Projects that do not meet these conditions are not subject to Davis-Bacon wage rates...

  5. 24 CFR 266.225 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 266.225 Labor standards. (a) Applicability of Davis-Bacon. (1) All laborers and mechanics employed by... accordance with the Davis-Bacon Act, as amended (40 U.S.C. 276a-276a-5), where the project meets all of the... units. (2) Projects that do not meet these conditions are not subject to Davis-Bacon wage rates...

  6. 24 CFR 266.225 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 266.225 Labor standards. (a) Applicability of Davis-Bacon. (1) All laborers and mechanics employed by... accordance with the Davis-Bacon Act, as amended (40 U.S.C. 276a-276a-5), where the project meets all of the... units. (2) Projects that do not meet these conditions are not subject to Davis-Bacon wage rates...

  7. "American Gothic" and the Division of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Provides historical review of gender-based division of labor. Argues that gender-based division of labor served a purpose in survival of tribal communities but has lost meaning today and may be a handicap to full use of human talent and ability in the arts. There is nothing in various art forms which make them more appropriate for males or…

  8. 29 CFR 552.108 - Child labor provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.108 Child labor provisions. Congress made no change in section 12 as regards domestic service employees. Accordingly, the child labor... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child labor provisions. 552.108 Section 552.108...

  9. 29 CFR 552.108 - Child labor provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.108 Child labor provisions. Congress made no change in section 12 as regards domestic service employees. Accordingly, the child labor... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Child labor provisions. 552.108 Section 552.108...

  10. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...

  11. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS...

  12. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS...

  13. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS...

  14. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...

  15. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...

  16. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS...

  17. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...

  18. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...

  19. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS...

  20. 48 CFR 1422.101-3 - Reporting labor disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1422.101-3 Reporting labor disputes. Labor disputes that may interfere with contract performance shall be reported to... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes...

  1. 48 CFR 1322.101-3 - Reporting labor disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1322.101-3 Reporting labor disputes. (a) The designee authorized to report any potential or actual labor disputes that... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes...

  2. 48 CFR 1322.101-3 - Reporting labor disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1322.101-3 Reporting labor disputes. (a) The designee authorized to report any potential or actual labor disputes that... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes...

  3. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  4. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  5. 29 CFR 401.13 - Labor relations consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Labor relations consultant. 401.13 Section 401.13 Labor... STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.13 Labor relations consultant. Labor relations consultant means any person who, for compensation, advises or represents an employer, employer organization...

  6. 29 CFR 401.13 - Labor relations consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Labor relations consultant. 401.13 Section 401.13 Labor... STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.13 Labor relations consultant. Labor relations consultant means any person who, for compensation, advises or represents an employer, employer organization...

  7. 29 CFR 401.13 - Labor relations consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Labor relations consultant. 401.13 Section 401.13 Labor... STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.13 Labor relations consultant. Labor relations consultant means any person who, for compensation, advises or represents an employer, employer organization...

  8. 29 CFR 401.13 - Labor relations consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Labor relations consultant. 401.13 Section 401.13 Labor... STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.13 Labor relations consultant. Labor relations consultant means any person who, for compensation, advises or represents an employer, employer organization...

  9. 29 CFR 1620.29 - Relationship to other labor laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relationship to other labor laws. 1620.29 Section 1620.29 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.29 Relationship to other labor laws. If a higher minimum wage than that required under the...

  10. 48 CFR 1422.101-3 - Reporting labor disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1422.101-3 Reporting labor disputes. Labor disputes that may interfere with contract performance shall be reported to... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes...

  11. 29 CFR 1620.29 - Relationship to other labor laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relationship to other labor laws. 1620.29 Section 1620.29 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.29 Relationship to other labor laws. If a higher minimum wage than that required under the...

  12. 29 CFR 1620.29 - Relationship to other labor laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relationship to other labor laws. 1620.29 Section 1620.29 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.29 Relationship to other labor laws. If a higher minimum wage than that required under the...

  13. 29 CFR 1620.29 - Relationship to other labor laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relationship to other labor laws. 1620.29 Section 1620.29 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.29 Relationship to other labor laws. If a higher minimum wage than that required under the...

  14. 48 CFR 1322.101-3 - Reporting labor disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1322.101-3 Reporting labor disputes. (a) The designee authorized to report any potential or actual labor disputes that... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes...

  15. 48 CFR 1422.101-3 - Reporting labor disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1422.101-3 Reporting labor disputes. Labor disputes that may interfere with contract performance shall be reported to... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes...

  16. 29 CFR 552.108 - Child labor provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Child labor provisions. 552.108 Section 552.108 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.108 Child labor provisions. Congress made no change in section 12 as regards domestic service employees. Accordingly, the child...

  17. 29 CFR 552.108 - Child labor provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Child labor provisions. 552.108 Section 552.108 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.108 Child labor provisions. Congress made no change in section 12 as regards domestic service employees. Accordingly, the child...

  18. 29 CFR 552.108 - Child labor provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Child labor provisions. 552.108 Section 552.108 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.108 Child labor provisions. Congress made no change in section 12 as regards domestic service employees. Accordingly, the child...

  19. [Labor duration: from normality to dystocia].

    PubMed

    Kayem, G

    2015-04-01

    "Normal" labor has been surprisingly little studied in the past 60 years even though it is a central axis in obstetrics. Standards were proposed 60 years ago by Emmanuel Friedman and adopted by many countries to become then, driven from Dublin school, the conditions allowing the management of labor: rupture of membranes and oxytocin with, in case of failure for dynamic dystocia, cesarean. Recent data have suggested that labor duration had changed since the 1960s. Changes in women's characteristics and in obstetric practice especially with the widespread use of oxytocin and realization of epidural may have an impact on labor duration. Current studies suggest that it may be possible to authorize longer labor duration without significant increase in maternal or neonatal morbidity. However, it is premature to change practices following the latest American recommendations without prior studies.

  20. Evidence-based guidelines in labor management.

    PubMed

    Millen, Katherine Rodewald; Kuo, Kelly; Zhao, Lulu; Gecsi, Kimberly

    2014-04-01

    Evidence-based care of women in labor requires a thorough understanding of both "normal" and abnormal labor progress. In response to the growing cesarean delivery rate for dystocia at our institution, a multidisciplinary team of attending physicians, nurse-midwives, resident physicians, and nurses was established to review the literature and create evidence-based guidelines. This article describes the background literature and consensus guidelines reached for the diagnosis of active phase labor, active phase arrest, second-stage arrest, protraction of the active phase, and failed induction of labor. Our review illustrates that slower labor patterns than traditionally described often result in a vaginal delivery without unacceptable increases in maternal or neonatal morbidity.

  1. Modern Neuraxial Anesthesia for Labor and Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Marie-Louise; Smiley, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The availability of safe, effective analgesia during labor has become an expectation for women in most of the developed world over the past two or three decades. More than 60% of women in the United States now receive some kind of neuraxial procedure during labor. This article is a brief review of the advantages and techniques of neuraxial labor analgesia along with the recent advances and controversies in the field of labor analgesia. For the most part, we have aimed the discussion at the non-anesthesiologist to give other practitioners a sense of the state of the art and science of labor analgesia in the second decade of the 21st century. PMID:28781763

  2. Elective induction of labor: part 2.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Warren

    2008-12-01

    The elective induction of labor has become commonplace, and many are concerned that the practice introduces risks for the woman and the fetus that would not be incurred if labor had been allowed to begin spontaneously. This second paper of a two-part communication reviews the risks and benefits of the elective induction of labor, and concludes that the risks of the induction of labor are few when the patient is properly screened medically and appropriately informed. The principal worry is a doubled risk of Cesarean delivery among primigravidas (not multiparas) in whom labor is electively induced. The benefits of selecting the date of delivery are powerful incentives for busy working women. But the benefits are primarily social, and add to the convenience of both the patient and her doctor. The risks, however, are medical, and are not confined to the pregnancy at risk. Appropriately informed consent is the key to balance the risks and benefits.

  3. Use of an Early Labor Lounge to Promote Admission in Active Labor.

    PubMed

    Paul, Julie A; Yount, Susan M; Breman, Rachel Blankstein; LeClair, Melissa; Keiran, Diane M; Landry, Nannette; Dever, Kimberly

    2017-03-01

    Professional maternity care organizations within the United States are aligned in the goal to prevent the first cesarean birth in nulliparous women with a term, singleton, vertex fetus. Currently, one in 3 women are at risk for having a cesarean birth. The most common reason for cesarean in the United States is labor dystocia. The evidence supports delaying admission to the birthing unit until active labor is established, thereby minimizing the inadvertent diagnosis of labor dystocia. Providers are familiar with the rationale supporting delayed admission to the birthing unit until active labor is established; however, there is very little evidence on how to effectively promote this delay. Provider apprehension and the lack of early labor support are challenges to sending women home to await the onset of active labor. Maternal anxiety, fear, pain, and unpreparedness also play a part in this reluctance. To address these obstacles, South Shore Hospital created an early labor lounge with stations aimed at instilling confidence in the birth team, promoting teamwork, facilitating relaxation, and reducing anxiety for laboring women. A literature review focusing on women's perceptions of promoting admission in active labor, maternal anxiety, and nonpharmacologic strategies for managing early labor are discussed within the context of the creation, implementation, and evaluation of an early labor lounge. © 2017 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  4. Histologic chorioamnionitis is more common after spontaneous labor than after induced labor at term.

    PubMed

    Park, H S; Romero, R; Lee, S M; Park, C W; Jun, J K; Yoon, B H

    2010-09-01

    Inflammation of the chorioamniotic membranes (histologic chorioamnionitis) is a risk factor for adverse neonatal outcome. Labor has many common features with inflammatory processes; therefore, an important question is whether the frequency of histologic chorioamnionitis in spontaneous labor at term is higher than that of women in labor after induction. This study was conducted to address this question. The frequency of histologic chorioamnionitis was compared between patients who delivered after the spontaneous onset of labor versus those who delivered after induction of labor at term in singleton gestations (> or = 37 weeks). Patients in whom uterotonic agents were used during the latent phase of labor were excluded. (1) The overall frequency of histologic chorioamnionitis was 20.2% (107/531); (2) histologic chorioamnionitis was significantly more frequent in women who delivered after the spontaneous onset of labor than in those who underwent induction of labor (24.3% [81/333] versus 13.1% [26/198], p < 0.005). This difference remained significant after adjusting for parity, gestational age at delivery, total duration of labor, the interval from rupture of membranes to delivery and the mode of delivery. Histologic chorioamnionitis is more common in women who delivered after the spontaneous onset of labor than in those who underwent induction of labor at term. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Normal first stage of labor in women undergoing trial of labor after cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Graseck, Anna S; Odibo, Anthony O; Tuuli, Methodius; Roehl, Kimberly A; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2012-04-01

    To compare first-stage labor patterns in women undergoing trial of labor after cesarean delivery (TOLAC) and those without a previous cesarean to explore whether a uterine scar alters this stage of labor. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of consecutive term vertex singletons who reached the second stage of labor. Cervical examinations and obstetric outcomes were collected from medical records. Labor curves of those laboring spontaneously, stratified by TOLAC status, were constructed using a repeated-measures analysis. Interval-censored regression was used to estimate duration of labor, centimeter by centimeter, stratified by TOLAC status and adjusted for race, obesity, macrosomia, and previous vaginal delivery. Of 5,388 consecutive term births, 2,021 labored spontaneously and were included. The 1,881 laboring women with no previous cesarean delivery were compared with 140 women undergoing TOLAC. There was no significant difference in rates of cervical dilation between the groups. The median time for dilation from 4 to 10 cm was 3.0 hours for TOLAC and 2.8 hours for non-TOLAC (P=.52). A post hoc sample size calculation (alpha=0.05) shows 90% power to detect a median difference of 0.4 hours with the fixed sample size available. There was no significant difference in first-stage labor curves or cervical dilation rate between women undergoing TOLAC and those without a previous cesarean. Diagnoses of labor disorders should be made with similar standards between those with and without a uterine scar. II.

  6. [Changes in labor market participation of older employees in Germany: the perspective of labor market research].

    PubMed

    Brussig, M

    2009-08-01

    For many years, Germany has been regarded in international comparisons as an example of a generous early retirement culture, resulting in a low labor market participation of older employees. Recently, however, employment rates of older employees have increased remarkably. Reasons are the demographic structure of older persons in Germany, a long-term trend of increasing female labor market participation, and reforms in labor-market policies and pension policies during the last 10 years. Despite an increasing labor market participation of older employees, traditional labor market risks for older persons partly remained, but some new risks evolved as well. Therefore, social differentiation among older employees increased.Although detailed macro descriptions exist, the causes of labor market developments cannot be fully understood with cross-sectional data alone. An important stimulus is to be expected from individual longitudinal data which reflect employment histories and labor market transitions such as employment exit and retirement.

  7. Peasants in reserve: temporary West Indian labor in the U.S. farm labor market.

    PubMed

    Griffith, D

    1986-01-01

    In the past 10 years, the British West Indies Temporary Alien Labor Program has received widespread judicial and legislative support and criticism. While sugar and apple producers who import West Indians argue that domestic labor is insufficient to harvest their crops, labor organizations and their supporters maintain that domestic labor is adequate. The resulting labor disputes focus primarily on the issue of whether or not West Indians are displacing US workers or undermining wage rates and working conditions. This article examines the relationships among legal issues surrounding the program, the US farm labor market, and the Jamaican peasantry. It argues that continued imports of foreign labor during times of high domestic unemployment, as well as the varied factors which underlie the continued willingness and ability of Jamaican peasant households to supply workers to US producers, can be most clearly understood from an international and historical perspective, rather than focussing on the needs and problems of any 1 nation.

  8. 20 CFR 656.26 - Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review of denials of labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review of denials of labor certification. 656.26 Section 656.26 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR CERTIFICATION PROCESS FOR PERMANENT EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor...

  9. 20 CFR 656.26 - Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review of denials of labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review of denials of labor certification. 656.26 Section 656.26 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR CERTIFICATION PROCESS FOR PERMANENT EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor...

  10. Statistical Mechanics of Labor Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, He; Inoue, Jun-ichi

    We introduce a probabilistic model of labor markets for university graduates, in particular, in Japan. To make a model of the market efficiently, we take into account several hypotheses. Namely, each company fixes the (business year independent) number of opening positions for newcomers. The ability of gathering newcomers depends on the result of job matching process in past business years. This fact means that the ability of the company is weaken if the company did not make their quota or the company gathered applicants too much over the quota. All university graduates who are looking for their jobs can access the public information about the ranking of companies. Assuming the above essential key points, we construct the local energy function of each company and describe the probability that an arbitrary company gets students at each business year by a Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution. We evaluate the relevant physical quantities such as the employment rate. We find that the system undergoes a sort of `phase transition' from the `good employment phase' to `poor employment phase' when one controls the degree of importance for the ranking.

  11. Influence of acupuncture on duration of labor.

    PubMed

    Zeisler, H; Tempfer, C; Mayerhofer, K; Barrada, M; Husslein, P

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this case control study was to evaluate the thus far controversially discussed influence of acupuncture (AP) on the duration of labor. Fifty-seven women with AP treatment (group A) were included in our study after spontaneous vaginal full-term delivery. The control group included 63 women (group B). Median duration of the first stage of labor was 196 min in group A and 321 min in group B (Wilcoxon 2-sample test, p < 0.0001). Median duration of the second stage of labor was 57 min in group A and 57 min in group B (Wilcoxon 2-sample test, p = 0.82). Thirty women had a premature rupture of the membranes (PROM), in group A 66.7% and in group B 33.3% (chi2 test, p = 0.02). Women without AP (group B) received significantly more often oxytocin during the first stage of labor compared with group A women (85 and 15%, respectively, chi2 test, p = 0.01) as well as during the second stage of labor (72 and 28%, respectively, chi2 test, p = 0.03). Our study suggests that AP treatment is a recommendable form of childbirth preparation due to its positive effect on the duration of labor, namely by shortening the first stage of labor.

  12. Health and child labor in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Seventy percent of child laborers--more than 150 million girls and boys under 18--are agricultural workers. They are harshly exploited, toiling in poor to appalling conditions, performing dangerous jobs with little or no pay, and are deprived of an education. Because children's bodies and minds are still growing and developing, exposure to workplace hazards and risks can be more devastating and long-lasting for them. The line between what is acceptable work and what is not is easily crossed. However, not all work that children undertake in agriculture is bad for them. Age-appropriate, lower-risk tasks that do not interfere with schooling and leisure time are not at issue here. The goal of this paper is to examine the links between health and child labor in agriculture. It aims to explain why the International Labour Organization' goal of eliminating all of the worst forms of child labor by 2016 will only be possible if more work is done in agriculture. Review of the relevant literature and data on the hazards of child labor and the reasons why agricultural child labor is particularly difficult to tackle. Children who work in agriculture are exposed to a large number of health hazards, and yet the problem is particularly difficult to tackle because of the large numbers involved, the young age at which children start to work, the hazardous nature of the work, lack of regulation, invisibility of child laborers, denial of education, the effects of poverty, and ingrained attitudes and perceptions about the roles of children in rural areas. Policies for preventing and reducing agricultural child labor should mainstream and integrate child labor issues at the national and international levels with increasing emphasis on poverty alleviation and expanding and improving institutional mechanisms for education, law enforcement, health, and so forth. Cooperation between the International Labour Organization and international agricultural organizations is needed to ensure that

  13. The risk factors for labor onset hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yasumasa; Terauchi, Mikio; Tamakoshi, Koji; Shiozaki, Arihiro; Saito, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to clarify the perinatal outcomes of and risk factors for hypertension that is first detected after labor onset (labor onset hypertension, LOH), which may be a risk factor for eclampsia and stroke during labor. A total of 1349 parturient women who did not exhibit preeclampsia or gestational hypertension prior to labor were examined. The patients were classified into four groups: the normotensive (n=1023) (whose systolic blood pressure (SBP) remained below 140 mm Hg throughout labor), mild LOH (n=241) (whose maximum SBP during labor ranged from 140 to 159 mm Hg), severe LOH (n=66) (whose maximum SBP during labor ranged from 160 to 179 mm Hg) and emergent LOH groups (n=19) (whose maximum SBP during labor was greater than 180 mm Hg). The perinatal outcomes and patient characteristics of the four groups were compared. Twenty-four percent of the pregnant women who remained normotensive throughout pregnancy developed hypertension during labor. One of the patients in the emergent LOH group developed eclampsia. The blood pressure at delivery and frequencies of hypotensor use, interventional delivery and low Apgar scores differed significantly among the four groups. The following risk factors for severe/emergent LOH were extracted: being over 35 years old, a body mass index at delivery of >30, an SBP at 36 weeks' gestation of 130-134 mm Hg, an SBP at admission of 130-139 mm Hg, proteinuria (a score of 2+ on the dipstick test) and severe edema. The risk factors for severe/emergent LOH were identified in this study. In high risk cases, repeatedly measuring maternal blood pressure during delivery might help detect critical hypertension early.

  14. Outcomes of nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset admitted to hospitals in preactive versus active labor.

    PubMed

    Neal, Jeremy L; Lamp, Jane M; Buck, Jacalyn S; Lowe, Nancy K; Gillespie, Shannon L; Ryan, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    The timing of when a woman is admitted to the hospital for labor care following spontaneous contraction onset may be among the most important decisions that labor attendants make because it can influence care patterns and birth outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate the percentage of low-risk, nulliparous women at term who are admitted to labor units prior to active labor and to evaluate the effects of the timing of admission (ie, preactive vs active labor) on labor interventions and mode of birth. Data from low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset at term gestation were merged from 2 prospective studies conducted at 3 large Midwestern hospitals. Baseline characteristics, labor interventions, and outcomes were compared between groups using Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests, as appropriate. Likelihoods for oxytocin augmentation, amniotomy, and cesarean birth were assessed by logistic regression. Of the sample of 216 low-risk nulliparous women, 114 (52.8%) were admitted in preactive labor and 102 (47.2%) were admitted in active labor. Women who were admitted in preactive labor were more likely to undergo oxytocin augmentation (84.2% and 45.1%, respectively; odds ratio [OR], 6.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.43-12.27) but not amniotomy (55.3% and 61.8%, respectively; OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.44-1.32) when compared to women admitted in active labor. The likelihood of cesarean birth was higher for women admitted before active labor onset (15.8% and 6.9%, respectively; OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.02-6.37). Many low-risk nulliparous women with regular, spontaneous uterine contractions are admitted to labor units before active labor onset, which increases their likelihood of receiving oxytocin and giving birth via cesarean. An evidence-based, standardized approach for labor admission decision making is recommended to decrease inadvertent admissions of women in preactive labor. When active labor cannot be diagnosed with relative certainty, observation

  15. 77 FR 9267 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ..., Forced Labor and Human Trafficking (OCFT) at the email or physical address below by 5 p.m. March 9, 2012... information above). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Section 105(b)(1) of the Trafficking Victims...

  16. 76 FR 22921 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... Labor and Human Trafficking (OCFT) at the e-mail or physical address below by 5 p.m., May 20, 2011. To... information above). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Section 105(b)(1) of the Trafficking Victims...

  17. Tocolysis for preterm labor: expert opinion.

    PubMed

    Hösli, Irène; Sperschneider, Christiane; Drack, Gero; Zimmermann, Roland; Surbek, Daniel; Irion, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    Tocolysis is an important treatment in the improvement of outcome in preterm labor and preterm birth, provided that its use follows clear evidence-based recommendations. In this expert opinion, the most recent evidence about efficacy and side effects of different tocolytics is being reviewed and evidence-based recommendation about diagnosis and treatment of preterm labor is given. Further aspects such as progesterone administration or antibiotic treatment for the prevention of preterm birth are included. Our review demonstrates that an individualized choice of different tocolytics and additional treatments is necessary to improve short- and long-term neonatal outcome in preterm labor and preterm birth.

  18. Migraine headache and labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rees, Daniel I; Sabia, Joseph J

    2015-06-01

    While migraine headache can be physically debilitating, no study has attempted to estimate its effects on labor market outcomes. Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate the effect of being diagnosed with migraine headache on labor force participation, hours worked, and wages. Ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates suggest that migraines are associated with reduced labor force participation and lower wages among females. A negative association between migraine headache and the wages of female respondents is also obtained using an instrumental variables (IV) approach, although the IV estimates are imprecise relative to the OLS estimates.

  19. Global perspectives on elective induction of labor.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Joshua P; Gülmezoglu, Ahmet M Metin; Hofmeyr, George J; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-06-01

    Elective labor induction is an increasingly common practice not only in high-income countries, but also in many low-income and middle-income countries. Many questions remain unanswered on the safety and cost-effectiveness of elective labor induction, particularly in resource-constrained settings where there may be a high unmet need for medically indicated inductions, as well as limited or no access to appropriate medications and equipment for induction and monitoring, comprehensive emergency obstetric care, safe and timely cesarean section, and appropriate supervision from health professionals. This article considers the global perspective on the epidemiology, practices, safety, and costs associated with elective labor induction.

  20. The best encouraging persons in labor: A content analysis of Iranian mothers' experiences of labor support.

    PubMed

    Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Ebrahimipour, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    The process of giving birth is very stressing for the mother. Meanwhile, maternity ward staff's lack of awareness of mothers' fears make mothers feel lonely and helpless. This study aimed to explore women's perceptions of labor support during vaginal delivery. This exploratory qualitative study used qualitative content analysis to explore Iranian mothers' experiences of labor support. Data were collected using observations and semi-structured interviews with 25 individuals. The participants were recruited through a purposive sampling method. Three categories, including "involvement of the spouse in the labor process", "asking for a companion during labor", and "mother's self-care to cope with labor pain", emerged during data analysis. These categories were merged to form the main theme of "trying to comply with the labor process". Women believed that the presence of a companion, e.g. their husband, a family member, or a doula, during labor helped them better deal with the labor process, particularly when they felt lonely. Health care providers are expected to consider the needs of mothers and try to provide holistic support for mothers during labor pain. It seems that some mothers adopted particular coping strategies without receiving any relevant training. It is noteworthy that although mothers may make every effort to minimize their pain, health professionals should also practice medical approaches to help them through the process of labor.

  1. 22 CFR 40.51 - Labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... alien's labor skills. An alien within one of the classes to which INA 212(a)(5) applies as described in... who are members of the teaching profession or who have exceptional ability in the sciences or the...

  2. 22 CFR 40.51 - Labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... alien's labor skills. An alien within one of the classes to which INA 212(a)(5) applies as described in... who are members of the teaching profession or who have exceptional ability in the sciences or the...

  3. Genetic contributions to labor pain and progress.

    PubMed

    Landau, Ruth

    2013-09-01

    Studies on genetic contributions to labor analgesia have essentially evaluated the μ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), with some evidence that p.118A/G of OPRM1 influences the response to neuraxial opioids. As for labor progress, the β2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) is associated with preterm labor and delivery, and impacts the course of labor. Taken together though, there is no evidence that pharmacogenetic testing is needed or beneficial in the context of obstetric anesthesia; however, realizing the influence of genetic variants on specific phenotypes provides the rationale for a more cautious interpretation of clinical studies that attempt to find a dose-regimen that fits all. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 78 FR 54749 - Labor Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9012 of August 30, 2013 Labor Day, 2013 By the President of the United States... stronger foundation. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue...

  5. #2: Freedom of Movement throughout Labor

    PubMed Central

    Shilling, Teri; DiFranco, Joyce; Simkin, Penny

    2004-01-01

    In this position paper—one of six care practice papers published by Lamaze International and reprinted here with permission—the benefit of allowing freedom of movement throughout labor is discussed and presented as an evidence-based practice that helps promote, protect, and support normal birth. The paper is written for childbearing women and their families. The accompanying commentary—written by a well-known author of numerous articles and books on childbirth—compares the activities of women in two birthing environments: the conventional medicalized setting and the unconventional naturalistic setting. Reasons why women may not move in labor are presented. Lamaze International encourages women to use movement in labor in order to make labor more comfortable and more efficient. PMID:17273383

  6. #2: Freedom of Movement throughout Labor.

    PubMed

    Shilling, Teri; Difranco, Joyce; Simkin, Penny

    2004-01-01

    In this position paper-one of six care practice papers published by Lamaze International and reprinted here with permission-the benefit of allowing freedom of movement throughout labor is discussed and presented as an evidence-based practice that helps promote, protect, and support normal birth. The paper is written for childbearing women and their families. The accompanying commentary-written by a well-known author of numerous articles and books on childbirth-compares the activities of women in two birthing environments: the conventional medicalized setting and the unconventional naturalistic setting. Reasons why women may not move in labor are presented. Lamaze International encourages women to use movement in labor in order to make labor more comfortable and more efficient.

  7. The Labor Market Problems of Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roner, Philip L.

    1983-01-01

    This study concludes that older workers do not have especially high unemployment rates, but when they become unemployed, they are less likely to find a job and more likely to leave the labor force in discouragement. (Author/SSH)

  8. Alternative Work Schedules: A Labor Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalusky, John L.

    1977-01-01

    The compressed work week, flexitime, and job sharing are discussed from the labor perspective. The author suggests that it is unlikely that unions will endorse flexible work arrangements that jeopardize the eight-hour-day concept. (LBH)

  9. National Labor Relations Board Reform Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Alexander, Lamar [R-TN

    2014-09-16

    Senate - 09/16/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Working Children. A Report on Child Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wage and Hour and Public Contracts Divisions (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report describes violations of Federal child labor laws. Included are statistics on illegal employment in 1969, according to region, age, school grade, and occupation. This document is a revision of ED 034 026. (BH)

  11. Not by labor alone: considerations for value influence use of the labor rule in ownership transfers.

    PubMed

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Hood, Bruce

    2014-03-01

    People often assign ownership to the person who has invested labor into making an object (labor rule). However, labor usually improves objects and increases their value, and it has not been investigated whether these considerations underlie people's use of the labor rule. We presented participants with third-party ownership conflicts between an owner of materials and an artist who used the materials for some artwork. Experiment 1 revealed that participants were more likely to transfer ownership to the artist for low-value materials than for high-value materials, and Experiment 2 showed that this effect was further moderated by the amount of effort the artist had invested. A third experiment confirmed that participants transferred ownership more often if the artist's labor had increased the value of the materials than when it had added no value. These findings suggest that considerations for value underlie ownership transfers following the investment of labor.

  12. Labor Mobilization Project (1981). Extended Period. Addendum.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-30

    Douglas Primarily flash floods , thunderstorms. Higher risk because of expansion of city into the canyons. .......... Labor Mobilization Project’s Final...exercise. Labor Mobilization Project’s Final Report #2 Page 35 Flash flooding is considered a very potential threat in Chelan County, but there has been a...Insurance Administration. 1. Type of Scenario The city of Wenatchee has in the past been deluged by flash floods caused by severe thunderstorms in the

  13. Child-Labor Proposal Eyes Private Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2007-01-01

    Proposed child-labor-rule changes--the most ambitious in 30 years--would carve out a permanent exemption to U.S. Department of Labor regulations for the work-study program run by a national network of Roman Catholic high schools. The program is a requirement of the Chicago-based Cristo Rey Network, which now has 12 high schools around the country…

  14. The labor force of the future.

    PubMed

    Norwood, J L

    1987-07-01

    In the decades ahead, the US labor force will reflect changes in the industrial structure, with declines in some manufacturing industries and expansion in service industries. The services sector is so diverse that the jobs within it cannot be categorized as either high wage or low wage. The service-producing sector employs 85% of professional specialty workers in the US. In general, information on compensation trends indicates that greater increases in compensation have occurred for workers in service-producing as opposed to goods-producing industries. The increase in service sector jobs has created opportunities for women to enter the labor force and, at present, 5 out of 6 women work in this sector compared to fewer than 2 out of 3 men. Productivity growth rates in the service-producing industries vary substantially and are strongly affected by the business cycle. Central to employment opportunities in the years ahead will be the effect of new technology. To date, the aggregate effect of new technology has been increased employment and higher living standards. Although retraining programs should be in place, the scenario of a huge technology-created labor surplus seems unlikely. In fact, a more likely problem is a shortage of labor resulting from earlier labor force withdrawal and demographic aging of the population. Those in the 25-54-year age group will represent a larger share of the labor force in the years ahead. In addition, blacks are expected to account for 20% of the labor force growth in the next decade. Finally, given increasing labor force participation rates among mothers, employers may have to provide more flexible work schedules, assistance with day care, and more attractive benefits packages.

  15. Child-Labor Proposal Eyes Private Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2007-01-01

    Proposed child-labor-rule changes--the most ambitious in 30 years--would carve out a permanent exemption to U.S. Department of Labor regulations for the work-study program run by a national network of Roman Catholic high schools. The program is a requirement of the Chicago-based Cristo Rey Network, which now has 12 high schools around the country…

  16. Maternal obesity and induction of labor.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Vicky; O'Kelly, Sarah; Monaghan, Bernadette; Rowan, Ann; Farah, Nadine; Turner, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    To review induction of labor analyzed by body mass index (BMI) category in primigravidas and multigravidas. Prospective observational study. Women enrolled after sonographic confirmation of singleton pregnancy in the first trimester. Large university teaching hospital. Maternal height and weight were measured accurately before BMI calculation. Clinical details were recorded after review of individual obstetric records. Emergency cesarean section and obstetric interventions. Of 2000 women enrolled, 50.4% (n = 1008) were primigravidas and 17.3% (n = 346) were obese. The induction rate was 25.6% and the overall cesarean section rate 22.0%. Primigravidas were more likely to have labor induced than multigravidas (38.1% vs. 23.4%, p < 0.001). Compared with women with a normal BMI, obese primigravidas but not obese multigravidas were more likely to have labor induced. In primigravidas who had labor induced, the cesarean section rate was 20.6% (91/442) compared with 8.3% (17/206) in multigravidas who had labor induced (p < 0.001). In obese primigravidas, induction of labor was also more likely to be associated with other interventions such as epidural analgesia, fetal blood sampling and emergency cesarean section. In contrast, induction of labor in obese multigravidas was not only less common but also not associated with an increase in other interventions compared with multigravidas with a normal BMI. Due to the short-term and long-term implications of an unsuccessful induction in an obese primigravida, we recommend that induction of labor should only be undertaken for strict obstetric indications after careful consideration by an experienced clinician. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Cervical balloon for dysfunctional labor following amniotomy.

    PubMed

    Lurie, S; Rabinerson, D; Feinstein, M; Mamet, Y

    1998-01-01

    The conventional treatment for arrest of protracted active phase dilatation is amniotomy and oxitocin. This kind of labor dystocia is associated with an increased incidence in Cesarean delivery. We describe the use of cervical balloon after amniotomy for protracted active phase dilatation. We have used this approach in five parturients. All five patients had a spontaneous vaginal delivery. Intrapartum cervical balloon in patients with dysfunctional labor may reduce the need for Cesarean delivery.

  18. Contemporary labor patterns and maternal age.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Mary N; Hibbard, Judith U; Kominiarek, Michelle A

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate labor progress and length according to maternal age. Data were abstracted from the Consortium on Safe Labor, a multicenter retrospective study from 19 hospitals in the U.S. We studied 120,442 laboring gravid women with singleton, term, cephalic fetuses with normal outcomes and without a prior cesarean delivery from 2002 to 2008. Maternal age categories were younger than 20 years of age, 20-29 years of age, 30-39 years of age, and 40 years of age or older with the reference being younger than 20 years of age. Interval-censored regression analysis was used to determine median traverse times (progression centimeter by centimeter) with 95th percentiles adjusting for covariates (race, admission body mass index, diabetes, gestational age, induction, augmentation, epidural use, and birth weight). A repeated-measures analysis with an eighth-degree polynomial model was used to construct mean labor curves for each maternal age category stratified by parity. Traverse times for nulliparous women demonstrated the time to progress from 4 to 10 cm decreased as age increased up to age 40 years (median 8.5 hours compared with 7.8 hours in those 20-29 years of age group and 7.4 hours in the 30-39 years of age group, P<.001); the length of the second stage with and without epidural increased with age (P<.001). For multiparous women, time to progress from 4 to 10 cm decreased as age increased (median 8.8 hours, 7.5, 6.7, and 6.5 from the youngest to oldest maternal age groups, P<.001). Labor progressed faster with increasing maternal age in both nulliparous and multiparous women in the labor curves analysis. The first stage of labor progressed more quickly with increasing age for nulliparous women up to age 40 years and all multiparous women. Contemporary labor management should account for maternal age. II.

  19. Labor Economists Get Their Microscope: Big Data and Labor Market Analysis.

    PubMed

    Horton, John J; Tambe, Prasanna

    2015-09-01

    This article describes how the fine-grained data being collected by Internet labor market intermediaries, such as employment websites, online labor markets, and knowledge discussion boards, are providing new research opportunities and directions for the empirical analysis of labor market activity. After discussing these data sources, we examine some of the research opportunities they have created, highlight some examples of existing work that already use these new data sources, and enumerate the challenges associated with the use of these corporate data sources.

  20. Perils of the new labor management guidelines.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Wayne R; Friedman, Emanuel A

    2015-04-01

    Recent guidelines issued jointly by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine for assessing labor progress differ substantially from those described initially by Friedman, which have guided clinical practice for decades. The guidelines are based on results obtained from new and untested methods of analyzing patterns of cervical dilatation and fetal descent. Before these new guidelines are adopted into clinical practice, the results obtained by these unconventional analytic approaches should be validated and shown to be superior, or at least equivalent, to currently accepted standards. The new guidelines indicate the patterns of labor originally described by Friedman are incorrect and, further, are inapplicable to modern obstetric practice. We contend that the original descriptions of normal and abnormal labor progress, which were based on direct clinical observations, accurately describe progress in dilatation and descent, and that the differences reported more recently are likely attributable to patient selection and the potential inaccuracy of very high-order polynomial curve-fitting methods. The clinical evaluation of labor is a process of serially estimating the likelihood of a safe vaginal delivery. Because many factors contribute to that likelihood, such as cranial molding, head position and attitude, and the bony architecture and capacity of the pelvis, graphic labor patterns should never be used in isolation. The new guidelines are based heavily on unvalidated notions of labor progress and ignore clinical parameters that should remain cornerstones of intrapartum decision-making.

  1. Influence of labor on fetoplacental adrenomedullin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Di Iorio, R; Marinoni, E; Letizia, C; Alò, P; Villaccio, B; Poverini, R; Cosmi, E V

    2001-09-01

    Circulating adrenomedullin is increased in pregnancy, and placental and fetal membranes participate significantly in its secretion. Recent studies have suggested a potential role for this peptide in the regulation of fetoplacental circulation and placental hormonal secretion. Because adrenomedullin acts also as a uterorelaxant in rats, this study was designed to investigate whether fetoplacental adrenomedullin production changes with human labor, either at term or preterm. Eighty pregnant women grouped according to gestational age and presence of labor were studied. Adrenomedullin concentrations in plasma, amniotic fluid, and placental tissue extracts were measured by means of radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry. In addition, the ability of amnion and chorion-decidua to secrete adrenomedullin was investigated in vitro. Adrenomedullin concentrations in amniotic fluid were higher in preterm labor, whereas no differences were found in adrenomedullin expression or concentrations in tissues or in maternal and fetal plasma between vaginal delivery or elective cesarean section, both at term and preterm. During term labor (8 patients), maternal plasma adrenomedullin concentration decreased with advancing cervical dilatation, being 173 pg/mL at the beginning of the active stage of labor and 57 pg/mL at the time of delivery. Adrenomedullin concentration in the medium of amnion- and chorion-decidua-cultured cells was higher after vaginal delivery. These results suggest that a decrease in adrenomedullin production is not involved in the onset of labor in human subjects but rather that it may play a role other than that of a myometrial relaxant in human parturition.

  2. Prostaglandins in labor--a translational approach.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul H; Carson, Ray J; Nelson, Scott M

    2008-05-01

    The mechanisms involved in the initiation of human labor are largely unknown. Understanding the molecular pathways is fundamental in both the development of effective therapeutic strategies and intervention to prevent preterm labor. Prostaglandins are bioactive lipids and members of the eicosanoids family, derived from arachidonic acid, which act in a paracrine or autocrine manner and function via binding to specific G-protein-coupled receptors, activating intracellular signaling and gene transcription. Prostaglandins have a central role in the maintenance of pregnancy and initiation of labor, with the change from uterine quiescence to a contractile state facilitated by differential expression of prostaglandin receptors within the myometrium and fetal membranes. Clinical evidence for the key role of prostaglandins in human parturition is evident from their successful exploitation as exogenous agents for the induction of labor and the role of prostaglandin synthase inhibitors as a preventative therapy for preterm labor. This review aims to focus on prostaglandin synthesis and metabolism and how differential regulation of prostaglandins and their receptors in gestational tissues interact in the initiation of labor.

  3. Teaching Labor Support: An Interprofessional Simulation.

    PubMed

    Pilkenton, Deanna; Collins, Michelle R; Holley, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Support for women during labor encompasses the continuous presence of a person who provides psychosocial, emotional, and physical support. Providing labor support to women in the intrapartum setting is a core midwifery competency and a clinical skill that midwifery students are expected to master. Instruction on labor support is a common objective in midwifery education intrapartum courses and skills labs, yet there is no standard for teaching this skill to midwifery students. Thus, in order to accomplish this objective, we created an interprofessional simulation on labor support that involves the use of a standardized patient, a written scenario, an interprofessional team of nursing and midwifery students, faculty observations, and a reflective debrief. The goals of the labor support simulation are to allow midwifery students the opportunity to practice intrapartum labor support techniques and interprofessional communication prior to entering the clinical setting. A postsimulation structured debrief allows for student learning and reflection. This article describes the design, planning, and implementation of this unique simulation experience. This article is part of a special series of articles that address midwifery innovations in clinical practice, education, interprofessional collaboration, health policy, and global health.

  4. Changes in labor patterns over 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Laughon, S. Katherine; Branch, D. Ware; Beaver, Julie; Zhang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to examine differences in labor patterns in a modern cohort compared with the 1960s in the United States. Study Design Data from pregnancies at term, in spontaneous labor, with cephalic, singleton fetuses were compared between the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP, n = 39,491 delivering 1959-1966) and the Consortium on Safe Labor (CSL; n = 98,359 delivering 2002-2008). Results Compared with the CPP, women in the CSL were older (26.8 ± 6.0 vs 24.1 ± 6.0 years), heavier (body mass index 29.9 ± 5.0 vs 26.3 ±4.1 kg/m2), had higher epidural (55% vs 4%) and oxytocin use (31% vs 12%), and cesarean delivery (12% vs 3%). First stage of labor in the CSL was longer by a median of 2.6 hours in nulliparas and 2.0 hours in multiparas, even after adjusting for maternal and pregnancy characteristics, suggesting that the prolonged labor is mostly due to changes in practice patterns. Conclusion Labor is longer in the modern obstetrical cohort. The benefit of extensive interventions needs further evaluation. PMID:22542117

  5. Changes in labor patterns over 50 years.

    PubMed

    Laughon, S Katherine; Branch, D Ware; Beaver, Julie; Zhang, Jun

    2012-05-01

    The objective of the study was to examine differences in labor patterns in a modern cohort compared with the 1960s in the United States. Data from pregnancies at term, in spontaneous labor, with cephalic, singleton fetuses were compared between the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP, n = 39,491 delivering 1959-1966) and the Consortium on Safe Labor (CSL; n = 98,359 delivering 2002-2008). Compared with the CPP, women in the CSL were older (26.8 ± 6.0 vs 24.1 ± 6.0 years), heavier (body mass index 29.9 ± 5.0 vs 26.3 ± 4.1 kg/m(2)), had higher epidural (55% vs 4%) and oxytocin use (31% vs 12%), and cesarean delivery (12% vs 3%). First stage of labor in the CSL was longer by a median of 2.6 hours in nulliparas and 2.0 hours in multiparas, even after adjusting for maternal and pregnancy characteristics, suggesting that the prolonged labor is mostly due to changes in practice patterns. Labor is longer in the modern obstetrical cohort. The benefit of extensive interventions needs further evaluation. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  6. The coping with labor algorithm: an alternate pain assessment tool for the laboring woman.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Leissa; Gulliver, Brenda; Fisher, Janet; Cloyes, Kristin G

    2010-01-01

    The documentation of pain in the labor and delivery setting is one of the essential tasks of all health care providers who care for women in labor. The Joint Commission standards mandate regular pain assessments, but compliance with this mandate in the highly unique patient population of laboring woman is problematic when using the standard 0 to 10 Numeric Rating Scale. Labor pain is always unique given the various contributing physiologic, emotional, social, and cultural components. This article describes the work of a process improvement group to create an alternative pain assessment tool named the Coping With Labor Algorithm. The group, consisting of nurses and nurse-midwives, used the FOCUS format and Deming's "Plan, Do, Check, and Act" cycle to create a formalized assessment tool for use with laboring women. The Coping With Labor Algorithm is currently in use in the labor unit of a large tertiary care facility, which successfully passed a Joint Commission inspection while using the coping algorithm. The value of the coping algorithm is two-fold: it provides a mechanism for pain documentation, and it provides nursing care suggestions for the laboring woman. This article reports nurses' perceptions of the tool.

  7. Proteomic network analysis of human uterine smooth muscle in pregnancy, labor, and preterm labor

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Craig; Quilici, David R.; Schlauch, Karen A.; Buxton, Iain L. O.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in human uterine quiescence during gestation and the induction of labor at term or preterm are not completely known. Preterm delivery is associated with major morbidity and mortality and current efforts to prevent delivery until term are largely ineffective. Identification and semi-quantification of proteomic changes in uterine smooth muscle during pregnancy will allow for targeted research into how quiescence is maintained and what changes are associated with induction of labor. Examining preterm labor in this context will provide potential therapeutic targets for the management of preterm labor. We have recently performed two dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry on myometrial proteins isolated from pregnant patients in labor, pregnant patients not in labor, and pregnant patients in labor preterm. Using a conservative false discovery rate of 1% we have identified 2132 protein groups using this method and semi-quantitative spectral counting shows 201 proteins that have disparate levels of expression in preterm laboring samples. To our knowledge this is the first large scale proteomic study examining human uterine smooth muscle and this initial work has provided a target list for future experiments that can address how changing protein levels are involved in the induction of labor at term and preterm. PMID:26413312

  8. The best encouraging persons in labor: A content analysis of Iranian mothers' experiences of labor support

    PubMed Central

    Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Ebrahimipour, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The process of giving birth is very stressing for the mother. Meanwhile, maternity ward staff’s lack of awareness of mothers’ fears make mothers feel lonely and helpless. This study aimed to explore women’s perceptions of labor support during vaginal delivery. Materials and methods This exploratory qualitative study used qualitative content analysis to explore Iranian mothers’ experiences of labor support. Data were collected using observations and semi-structured interviews with 25 individuals. The participants were recruited through a purposive sampling method. Results Three categories, including “involvement of the spouse in the labor process”, “asking for a companion during labor”, and “mother’s self-care to cope with labor pain”, emerged during data analysis. These categories were merged to form the main theme of “trying to comply with the labor process”. Conclusion Women believed that the presence of a companion, e.g. their husband, a family member, or a doula, during labor helped them better deal with the labor process, particularly when they felt lonely. Health care providers are expected to consider the needs of mothers and try to provide holistic support for mothers during labor pain. Implications for practice It seems that some mothers adopted particular coping strategies without receiving any relevant training. It is noteworthy that although mothers may make every effort to minimize their pain, health professionals should also practice medical approaches to help them through the process of labor. PMID:28683112

  9. The Economic Context of Labor Allocation: Implications for Gender Stratification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    Used data from Panel Study of Income Dynamics to investigate process by which spouses allocate their labor between employment and housework. Findings indicated that both women's market and domestic labor were highly sensitive to family economy, whereas men's market labor was subject to macroeconomic structure and men's domestic labor was little…

  10. 20 CFR 656.17 - Basic labor certification process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basic labor certification process. 656.17 Section 656.17 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR CERTIFICATION PROCESS FOR PERMANENT EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process §...

  11. Service to the Labor Community: A Public Library Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparanese, Ann C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between public libraries and the labor movement. Highlights include the literature of labor and libraries; historical background; labor education; the role of the AFL-CIO/ALA (American Federation of Labor (AFL)-Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)/American Library Association (ALA)) Joint Committee on Library…

  12. Little Red Songbooks: Songs for the Labor Force of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volk, Terese M.

    2001-01-01

    Explains that labor songs were song parodies with lyrics frequently written by college students. States that labor songs were used not to teach about music, but about labor concepts. Reports that labor colleges taught singing and acting to prepare students to speak in front of large crowds. (DAJ)

  13. Labor Studies Programs: Objectives, Proposals, Policies, Outlines & Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, Detroit, MI.

    This document outlines a labor studies program which may lead to several levels of achievement: a certificate in labor studies, an associate degree, an associate of arts degree, or a transfer of credits leading to a baccalaureate degree. The program is intended for labor union members or for anyone else interested in labor studies. Objectives of…

  14. 20 CFR 654.5 - Classification of labor surplus areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... jurisdiction as a labor surplus area whenever, as determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the average... as determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, or (2) 10 percent or higher. No civil jurisdiction... jurisdiction, a Metropolitan Statistical Area, or a Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area as a labor...

  15. 20 CFR 654.5 - Classification of labor surplus areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Classification of labor surplus areas. 654.5... Classification of labor surplus areas. (a) Basic criteria. The Assistant Secretary shall classify a civil jurisdiction as a labor surplus area whenever, as determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the average...

  16. 20 CFR 654.5 - Classification of labor surplus areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Classification of labor surplus areas. 654.5... Classification of labor surplus areas. (a) Basic criteria. The Assistant Secretary shall classify a civil jurisdiction as a labor surplus area whenever, as determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the average...

  17. 20 CFR 654.5 - Classification of labor surplus areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classification of labor surplus areas. 654.5... Classification of labor surplus areas. (a) Basic criteria. The Assistant Secretary shall classify a civil jurisdiction as a labor surplus area whenever, as determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the average...

  18. Using Mythematics in the Classroom: The Fifth Labor of Hercules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The mythology surrounding Hercules has been a part of human culture for over 2,500 years. In ancient Greek mythology, Eurystheus assigns various labors to Hercules, who has to perform them in order to cleanse his soul. This article treats one of the more famous labors, the fifth labor: The Augean Stables. The labor is provided verbatim from…

  19. FARM LABOR ORGANIZING 1905-1967, A BRIEF HISTORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TOONI, LINDA LEWIS; AND OTHERS

    AGRICULTURAL LABORERS HAVE BEEN INEFFECTIVE IN ORGANIZING A LABOR UNION. THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT WRITTEN IN 1935 ORIGINALLY HAD PROVISIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL LABORERS, BUT IT WAS DELETED BEFORE FINAL PASSAGE. EARLY ORGANIZING ATTEMPTS OCCURRED IN THE LATE YEARS OF THE 19TH CENTURY WHEN CHINESE IMMIGRANTS ORGANIZED PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATIONS…

  20. 48 CFR 222.101-3 - Reporting labor disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.101-3 Reporting labor disputes. Follow the procedures at PGI 222.101-3 for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes...

  1. 36 CFR 8.4 - Federal and State labor laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal and State labor laws... State labor laws. A concessioner shall comply with all standards established pursuant to Federal or State labor laws, such as those concerning minimum wages, child labor, hours of work, and safety, that...

  2. 48 CFR 222.101-3 - Reporting labor disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.101-3 Reporting labor disputes. Follow the procedures at PGI 222.101-3 for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes...

  3. 48 CFR 222.102 - Federal and State labor requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.102 Federal and State labor requirements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal and State labor...

  4. 36 CFR 8.4 - Federal and State labor laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal and State labor laws... State labor laws. A concessioner shall comply with all standards established pursuant to Federal or State labor laws, such as those concerning minimum wages, child labor, hours of work, and safety, that...

  5. 36 CFR 8.4 - Federal and State labor laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal and State labor laws... State labor laws. A concessioner shall comply with all standards established pursuant to Federal or State labor laws, such as those concerning minimum wages, child labor, hours of work, and safety, that...

  6. 48 CFR 222.102 - Federal and State labor requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.102 Federal and State labor requirements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Federal and State labor...

  7. 48 CFR 222.101-3 - Reporting labor disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.101-3 Reporting labor disputes. Follow the procedures at PGI 222.101-3 for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes...

  8. 48 CFR 222.101-3 - Reporting labor disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.101-3 Reporting labor disputes. Follow the procedures at PGI 222.101-3 for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes...

  9. 36 CFR 8.4 - Federal and State labor laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal and State labor laws... State labor laws. A concessioner shall comply with all standards established pursuant to Federal or State labor laws, such as those concerning minimum wages, child labor, hours of work, and safety, that...

  10. 48 CFR 2922.101-3 - Reporting labor disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Reporting labor disputes. 2922.101-3 Section 2922.101-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 2922.101-3 Reporting...

  11. 48 CFR 22.101-3 - Reporting labor disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 22.101-3 Reporting labor disputes. The office administering the contract shall report, in accordance with agency... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes...

  12. 36 CFR 8.4 - Federal and State labor laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal and State labor laws... State labor laws. A concessioner shall comply with all standards established pursuant to Federal or State labor laws, such as those concerning minimum wages, child labor, hours of work, and safety, that...

  13. 48 CFR 222.102 - Federal and State labor requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.102 Federal and State labor requirements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal and State labor...

  14. 48 CFR 2922.101-3 - Reporting labor disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes. 2922.101-3 Section 2922.101-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 2922.101-3 Reporting...

  15. 48 CFR 22.101-3 - Reporting labor disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 22.101-3 Reporting labor disputes. The office administering the contract shall report, in accordance with agency... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes...

  16. Using Mythematics in the Classroom: The Fifth Labor of Hercules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The mythology surrounding Hercules has been a part of human culture for over 2,500 years. In ancient Greek mythology, Eurystheus assigns various labors to Hercules, who has to perform them in order to cleanse his soul. This article treats one of the more famous labors, the fifth labor: The Augean Stables. The labor is provided verbatim from…

  17. Rebuilding the labor curve during neuraxial analgesia.

    PubMed

    Frigo, Maria Grazia; Larciprete, Giovanni; Rossi, Federica; Fusco, Paolo; Todde, Cristina; Jarvis, Sheba; Panetta, Valentina; Celleno, Danilo

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of labor progression among nulliparous women under neuraxial analgesia to obtain a new, specific reference labor curve and to compare the different effects of epidural and combined spinal epidural (CSE) analgesia on the progression of labor. This perspective cohort study was carried out in the Obstetrics and Gynecology tertiary care unit. Six hundred nulliparous parturients were enrolled. A total of 545 nulliparous women were assigned to receive either epidural (272) or CSE (273) analgesia during labor. The mean duration of the first stage was 4 h and 30 min (SD 1.52 h) and the mean duration of the second stage was 1 h and 10 min (SD 0.43). In the second stage, the CSE analgesia labors showed an overall faster progression compared to the epidural labors but both lasted longer than the duration reported by Zhang (53 min) and Friedman (39 min). Both the first and the second-stage duration were significantly lower if neuraxial analgesia was performed as a CSE procedure with respect to the simple epidural procedure (first stage 4 h and 1 min vs. 4 h and 60 min, P = 0.043; second stage 1 h and 5 min vs 1 h and 15 min, P = 0.0356). The pattern of labor progression in contemporary obstetrics differs significantly from the Friedman curve. Based on these observations, we can obtain a more comprehensive knowledge of the partogram's modifications due to the analgesia. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. The need for a new outlook on labor monitoring.

    PubMed

    Farine, Dan; Shenhav, Michael; Barnea, Ofer; Jaffa, Ariel; Fox, Harold E

    2006-03-01

    Fetal heart rate monitors, including the newer pulse-oximetry and STAN monitors, are designed to detect fetal distress that affects less than 1% of women in labor. Non-progressive labor is a much more common disorder than fetal distress, with approximately 50% of women in labor requiring oxytocin. Current technology assessing labor progress is subjective and inaccurate. There is a need for objective and accurate technology to measure labor progress and the effect it may have on managing labor and, specifically, non-progressive labor.

  19. 48 CFR 52.222-44 - Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Labor Standards-Price Adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Service Contract Labor Standards-Price Adjustment. 52.222-44 Section 52.222-44 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-44 Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract... Labor Standards Act And Service Contract Labor Standards—Price Adjustment (MAY 2014) (a) This...

  20. 76 FR 81984 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain-United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain--United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Extension of the Period of Review for Submission 2011-01 AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  1. Nonmetro and Metro Teens in the U.S. Labor Force: Local Labor Markets, Race, and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deseran, Forrest A.; Keithly, Diane

    Drawing on theories of family organization and labor market structures, it is argued that teenagers are a useful population for research on the effects of race, household characteristics, and local labor markets on labor force participation. Predictive models of labor force participation were applied to a sample of all White and Black 16- to…

  2. Labor Market Policy: A Comparative View on the Costs and Benefits of Labor Market Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    I review theories and evidence on wage-setting institutions and labor market policies in an international comparative context. These include collective bargaining, minimum wages, employment protection laws, unemployment insurance (UI), mandated parental leave, and active labor market policies (ALMPs). Since it is unlikely that an unregulated…

  3. The Labor-Management Communication Process: Current Developments in Labor-Management Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Douglas M.

    Two major developments have occurred in recent years in the area of labor-management relations, both of them based on the principle of cooperation, in contrast with the traditional adversarial stance of the two parties. The first is cooperation between management and its counterpart in the labor movement, union leadership; and the second is…

  4. A Guide to Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wage and Hour and Public Contracts Divisions (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This revised guide to the child labor provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act contains general information useful to employers and coordinators of cooperative and work experience programs involving employment of youth under 18 years of age. Included in the document are provisions relating to: (1) age standards, (2) coverage of the act, (3)…

  5. 76 FR 31641 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: June 28, 2011; 3 p.m.-4:30 p...

  6. 77 FR 20054 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: May 14, 2012; 2 p.m.-4 p.m...

  7. 75 FR 78758 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: January 12, 2011; 10 a.m.-11...

  8. 76 FR 28730 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of suspension of data collection and publication. SUMMARY: This notice announces the intention of the National...

  9. Labor Market Policy: A Comparative View on the Costs and Benefits of Labor Market Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    I review theories and evidence on wage-setting institutions and labor market policies in an international comparative context. These include collective bargaining, minimum wages, employment protection laws, unemployment insurance (UI), mandated parental leave, and active labor market policies (ALMPs). Since it is unlikely that an unregulated…

  10. "Arab Labor"'s Alternative Vision: The "Liberal Bargain" in the Welfare State of Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal-Ezer, Miri; Tidhar, Chava

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on "Independence Day", an episode of "Arab Labor" (first season, 2008), a pioneer bilingual Hebrew-Arabic satirical Israeli TV series, written by Sayed Kashua, an Arab-Israeli author and journalist. "Arab Labor" was a breakthrough in the Israeli popular TV scape, where, as a rule, Arab-Israeli…

  11. "Arab Labor"'s Alternative Vision: The "Liberal Bargain" in the Welfare State of Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal-Ezer, Miri; Tidhar, Chava

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on "Independence Day", an episode of "Arab Labor" (first season, 2008), a pioneer bilingual Hebrew-Arabic satirical Israeli TV series, written by Sayed Kashua, an Arab-Israeli author and journalist. "Arab Labor" was a breakthrough in the Israeli popular TV scape, where, as a rule, Arab-Israeli…

  12. The Volatile Teenage Labor Market: Labor Force Entry, Exit, and Unemployment Flows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph E.; Vanski, Jean E.

    1979-01-01

    Alerts researchers to the potential value and limitations of the gross flow data published in the Department of Labor's Current Population Survey (CPS). Reports on research which used CPS data to analyze patterns of teenage unemployment and labor force participation. (PR)

  13. Labor Relations: Unions and the United States Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-08

    reflect today’s labor relations environment as commanders still do not understand labor law and the roles of unions. 3 Labor Relations in Federal...current leanings of the administration, it is not likely the uniform services would be considered for exclusion from labor law , at least in the near term...better understanding of labor law and employee relations. Popular with companies in the private sector, business management companies provide a variety

  14. The Pattern of Labor Preceding Uterine Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Lorie M.; Cahill, Alison G.; Roehl, Kimberly A.; Odibo, Anthony O.; Stamilio, David M.; Macones, George A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterize the labor of women attempting trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) who experience uterine rupture. Methods Secondary analysis of a nested case-control study of women attempting TOLAC. Women experiencing uterine rupture (cases) were compared to 2 reference groups, successful TOLAC and failed TOLAC. Interval censored regression was used to estimate the median time to progress 1-cm in dilation and the total time from 4–10-cm. Results 115 cases were compared to 341 successful TOLAC and 120 failed TOLAC. The time to progress 1-cm was similar between groups until 7-cm dilation. After 7-cm, cases of uterine rupture required longer to progress than successful TOLAC (median (95th percentile) (hrs) from 7–8-cm 0.38 (1.91) vs 0.16 (0.79), from 8–9-cm 0.28 (1.10) vs 0.10 (0.39)). Women with a uterine rupture had similar labor curves to those with a failed TOLAC. Conclusion Women with labor dystocia in the active phase of labor should be closely monitored for uterine rupture in TOLAC. PMID:22749410

  15. Remifentanil for labor analgesia: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Yayoi; Baghirzada, Leyla; Sumikura, Hiroyuki; Balki, Mrinalini

    2016-12-01

    Japan has seen significant developments in obstetric anesthesia in recent years, including the establishment of the Japanese Society of Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology. However, labor pain, which is one of the most important issues in obstetric practice, is still not treated aggressively. The rate of epidural administration for labor analgesia is very low in Japan as compared to other developed countries. Remifentanil has been used for labor analgesia, as part of general anesthesia for cesarean delivery, as well as for various fetal procedures around the world. Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) with remifentanil is considered to be a reasonable option for labor pain relief. Several studies have demonstrated its efficacy with minimal maternal and neonatal adverse effects. On the other hand, reports of cases of maternal cardiac and respiratory arrest with remifentanil IVPCA within the past couple of years have redirected our attention to its safe use. Remifentanil IVPCA warrants one-to-one nursing monitoring, appropriate education of healthcare providers, continuous maternal oxygen saturation monitoring, end-tidal CO2 monitoring, and availability of both maternal and neonatal resuscitation equipment. This article provides an overview of knowledge and principles of using remifentanil IVPCA for labor analgesia and introduces its potential usage in Japan.

  16. Correlation between cervical infection and preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Mešić Ðogić, Larisa; Lučić, Nenad; Mićić, Dragana; Omeragić, Feđa; Hodžić, Enes; Fazlagić, Seid; Kovač, Refka; Pavlović, Nevenka

    2017-02-01

    Aim To investigate a correlation between cervical canal infection and imminent preterm labor and to identify most frequent pathogens. Methods A prospective study was conducted in obstetrics/gynecology departments of Health Center and the University Clinical Center Tuzla, and General Hospital Tešanj (Bosnia and Herzegovina, B&H) between October 2013 and May 2014. An examined group included 50 healthy pregnant women with singleton pregnancy of the gestation age between the 28th and 37th week, with cervical changes that are related to imminent preterm labor. Changes were detected by ultrasound biometry of cervix and modified Bishop score. A control group included 30 healthy pregnant women with singleton pregnancy of the gestation age between the 28th and 37th week of pregnancy without signs of imminent preterm labor. Cervical mucus was microbiologically analyzed for identification of pathogens. Results The infection in cervical canal was proven in 35 (70%) examinees and four (13%) patients from the control group (p=0.015). In seven (20%) cases each Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma were detected followed by E. coli in five (14%) cases (p=0.001). Conclusion Cervical canal infection is associated with changes on cervix and premature rupture of fetal membranes, i.e. preterm labor and imminent preterm labor. Screening for infection before pregnancy should be the main task of family doctors as well as gynecologists.

  17. Employment Growth through Labor Flow Networks

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Omar A.; Axtell, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    It is conventional in labor economics to treat all workers who are seeking new jobs as belonging to a labor pool, and all firms that have job vacancies as an employer pool, and then match workers to jobs. Here we develop a new approach to study labor and firm dynamics. By combining the emerging science of networks with newly available employment micro-data, comprehensive at the level of whole countries, we are able to broadly characterize the process through which workers move between firms. Specifically, for each firm in an economy as a node in a graph, we draw edges between firms if a worker has migrated between them, possibly with a spell of unemployment in between. An economy's overall graph of firm-worker interactions is an object we call the labor flow network (LFN). This is the first study that characterizes a LFN for an entire economy. We explore the properties of this network, including its topology, its community structure, and its relationship to economic variables. It is shown that LFNs can be useful in identifying firms with high growth potential. We relate LFNs to other notions of high performance firms. Specifically, it is shown that fewer than 10% of firms account for nearly 90% of all employment growth. We conclude with a model in which empirically-salient LFNs emerge from the interaction of heterogeneous adaptive agents in a decentralized labor market. PMID:23658682

  18. Retrospective Cohort Study of Hydrotherapy in Labor.

    PubMed

    Vanderlaan, Jennifer

    To describe the use of hydrotherapy for pain management in labor. This was a retrospective cohort study. Hospital labor and delivery unit in the Northwestern United States, 2006 through 2013. Women in a nurse-midwifery-managed practice who were eligible to use hydrotherapy during labor. Descriptive statistics were used to report the proportion of participants who initiated and discontinued hydrotherapy and duration of hydrotherapy use. Logistic regression was used to provide adjusted odds ratios for characteristics associated with hydrotherapy use. Of the 327 participants included, 268 (82%) initiated hydrotherapy. Of those, 80 (29.9%) were removed from the water because they met medical exclusion criteria, and 24 (9%) progressed to pharmacologic pain management. The mean duration of tub use was 156.3 minutes (standard deviation = 122.7). Induction of labor was associated with declining the offer of hydrotherapy, and nulliparity was associated with medical removal from hydrotherapy. In a hospital that promoted hydrotherapy for pain management in labor, most women who were eligible initiated hydrotherapy. Hospital staff can estimate demand for hydrotherapy by being aware that hydrotherapy use is associated with nulliparity. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Induction of labor in women with a history of fast labor.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Tiffany H; Fenton, Bradford W; Melrose, Erica L; McCarroll, Michele L; von Gruenigen, Vivian E

    2016-01-01

    History of fast labor is currently subjectively defined and inductions for non-medical indications are becoming restricted. We hypothesized that women induced for a history of fast labor do not have faster previous labors and do not deliver more quickly. A retrospective case-control cohort design studied multiparas undergoing elective induction at one high risk center. Outcomes of dyads electively induced for a history of previous fast labor indication (PFast) were compared to controls with a psychosocial indication. A total of 612 elective inductions with 1074 previous deliveries were evaluated: 81 (13%) PFast and 531 (87%) control. PFast had faster previous labors (median 5.5 h, IQR: 4.5-6) versus. control (10 h, IQR: 9-10.5; p < 0.001). Subsequent delivery time from start to expulsion was shorter for PFast (median 7 h, IQR: 5-9, p < 0.001) than controls with and without a previous labor <5.5 h (8.6 h, IQR: 6-14 and 9.5 h, IQR: 7-15, respectively). PFast were less likely to have a serious maternal complication. Neonatal complications were similar. Patients induced for a history of fast labor do have faster previous labors, suggesting a significant history of fast labor can be defined as <5.5 h. These women deliver more quickly and with lower morbidity than controls when subsequently induced, therefore the benefit may warrant the risk for a select number of women with a history of a prior labor length <5.5 h.

  20. Calcium levels during the initiation of labor.

    PubMed

    Papandreou, Lampros; Chasiotis, Georgios; Seferiadis, Konstantinos; Thanasoulias, Nikos C; Dousias, Vasilis; Tsanadis, Georgios; Stefos, Theodor

    2004-07-15

    To investigate the physiological role of calcium in the labor process. Eighty-eight term healthy pregnant women who gave birth to normal healthy neonates participated in our study. We compared calcium levels between pregnant women who had normal delivery and those who underwent scheduled cesarean section. The control group consisted of pregnant women with gestation > or =37 weeks without contractions. The groups were compared with respect to calcium levels: (a) in maternal blood serum; (b) in blood serum of the neonates and mothers; and (c) in blood serum between neonates. Significantly higher calcium levels were found in the group of pregnant women who delivered vaginally compared to those who delivered by scheduled cesarean section and those of the control group. We assume that the increased calcium levels during the first stage of labor are involved with a possible role of calcium in the mechanism of initiation of labor.

  1. Conceptualizing international labor migration: a structuration perspective.

    PubMed

    Goss, J D; Lindquist, B

    1995-01-01

    "This article applies the theory of structuration to international labor migration using case study material from the Philippines. It first provides a brief review of the functional and structural approaches to understanding labor migration and the theoretical impasse that has been created between them. It then reviews several attempts to resolve this impasse, including systems and networks approaches; these solutions are rejected on theoretical and empirical grounds. We suggest that migrant institutions may be a more appropriate mid-level concept than households or social networks to articulate various levels of analysis. We develop this concept in the context of the structuration theory of Anthony Giddens and attempt to apply this to the Philippines, concluding that this framework is eminently suited for further research on international labor migration."

  2. Vaginal absorption of hexachlorophene during labor.

    PubMed

    Strickland, D M; Leonard, R G; Stavchansky, S; Benoit, T; Wilson, R T

    1983-12-01

    Surgical soap that contains hexachlorophene is used as an antiseptic lubricant for vaginal examinations during labor in some centers. Theoretically, hexachlorophene can be absorbed from the vaginal mucosa and be potentially toxic to the fetus and neonate. To evaluate vaginal absorption and placental transfer of hexachlorophene, we measured levels in mixed arterial/venous cord serum and postpartum maternal serum in 28 women whose vaginal examinations were lubricated with pHisoHex during labor. The serum of 12 women had detectable levels of hexachlorophene, with a high level of 942 ng/ml. Cord serum had detectable levels in nine neonates, with a high level of 617 ng/ml. The conclusion is that hexachlorophene from vaginal lubricants is variably absorbed from the vaginal mucosa, and appreciable amounts can be detected in maternal and cord serum. Because of the potential for neonatal hexachlorophene toxicity, we recommend the use of alternative lubricants for pelvic examinations during labor.

  3. Is Pethidine Safe during Labor? Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rogevando Rodrigues; Colares, Paulo Giordano Baima; Montenegro, Juliana Pinto

    2017-06-30

    Purpose To verify if pethidine is safe for the conceptus when used during labor. Methods Systematic review in the Capes Periodicals/PubMed and MEDLINE/Virtual Health Library (BVS, in the Portuguese acronym) databases. Results A total of 17 studies published from January 1st, 2000, to September 2nd, 2016, with a total of 1,688 participants involved were included in the present review. There was no record of conceptus vitality decrease associated with low doses of pethidine being administered to mothers during labor. Conclusions Intramuscular (IM) or intravenous (IV) pethidine at low doses, of up to 50 mg, is safe to administer during labor. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  4. Preterm Labor: One Syndrome, Many Causes

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Roberto; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Fisher, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with 5-18% of pregnancies and is a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Spontaneous preterm labor, a syndrome caused by multiple pathologic processes, leads to 70% of preterm births. The prevention and treatment of preterm labor have been a long-standing challenge. We summarize the current understanding of the mechanisms of disease implicated in this condition, and review advances relevant to intra-amniotic infection, decidual senescence, and breakdown of maternal-fetal tolerance. The success of progestogen treatment to prevent preterm birth in a subset of patients at risk is a cause for optimism. Solving the mystery of preterm labor, which compromises the health of future generations, is a formidable scientific challenge worthy of investment. PMID:25124429

  5. Preterm labor: one syndrome, many causes.

    PubMed

    Romero, Roberto; Dey, Sudhansu K; Fisher, Susan J

    2014-08-15

    Preterm birth is associated with 5 to 18% of pregnancies and is a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Spontaneous preterm labor, a syndrome caused by multiple pathologic processes, leads to 70% of preterm births. The prevention and the treatment of preterm labor have been long-standing challenges. We summarize the current understanding of the mechanisms of disease implicated in this condition and review advances relevant to intra-amniotic infection, decidual senescence, and breakdown of maternal-fetal tolerance. The success of progestogen treatment to prevent preterm birth in a subset of patients at risk is a cause for optimism. Solving the mystery of preterm labor, which compromises the health of future generations, is a formidable scientific challenge worthy of investment. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. The Fair Labor Standards Act. Enforcement of Child Labor Provisions in Massachusetts. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    During 1987, investigations of 113 cases of alleged or suspected child labor violations at Massachusetts business establishments were conducted. Thirteen (38 percent) of these were randomly selected for review. Compliance officers in the Department of Labor's Wage and Hour Division substantiated child labor violations in 9 of the 13 cases. A total…

  7. Back pain during pregnancy and labor.

    PubMed

    Diakow, P R; Gadsby, T A; Gadsby, J B; Gleddie, J G; Leprich, D J; Scales, A M

    1991-02-01

    A retrospective study of 400 pregnancies and deliveries was undertaken by interview of 170 consecutive female patients presenting to five chiropractic offices in the Niagara Peninsula. Back pain was reported during 42.5% (170) of the pregnancies and 44.7% (179) of the deliveries. There was a statistically significant association between back pain during the two events (p less than .001). Of the 170 pregnancies with reported back pain, 72% (122) also reported back labor. A subsample of 170 painful pregnancies was divided into those that had received manual manipulation and those that had not. The treated group experienced less pain during labor (p less than .001).

  8. Diverging patterns with endogenous labor migration.

    PubMed

    Reichlin, P; Rustichini, A

    1998-05-05

    "The standard neoclassical model cannot explain persistent migration flows and lack of cross-country convergence when capital and labor are mobile. Here we present a model where both phenomena may take place.... Our model is based on the Arrow-Romer approach to endogenous growth theory. We single out the importance of a (however weak) scale effect from the size of the workforce.... The main conclusion of this simple model is that lack of convergence, or even divergence, among countries is possible, even with perfect capital mobility and labor mobility."

  9. Epidural analgesia for labor: Current techniques

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marcos; Halpern, Stephen H

    2010-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is an extremely effective and popular treatment for labor pain. In this review, we trace the history of the use of epidural analgesia and its refinements. We then outline the goals of treatment and methods used to attain those goals. The use of low concentrations of local anesthetics, combined with lipid-soluble opioids, does not impede the progress of labor or depress the newborn. The incidence of side effects is low. Maintenance of analgesia that allows patient control enhances patient satisfaction. PMID:23144567

  10. The onset of human labor: current theories.

    PubMed

    Navitsky; Greene; Curry

    2000-09-01

    Innovative research has led to marked improvement in medical knowledge. Advances in technology have allowed us to attain a clearer understanding of many physiologic processes. Despite these impressive gains in knowledge, the cause of the initiation of the process of human labor remains unclear. Potential factors include changes in hormonal levels of estrogen and progesterone, increased production of prostaglandins, and elevation of levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone, as well as increased sensitivity of the myometrium to endogenous oxytocin. It is most likely that interactions between these factors play an essential role in the process of labor, but the precise mechanism of onset still eludes us.

  11. Contemporary Labor Patterns and Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    ZAKI, Mary N.; HIBBARD, Judith U.; KOMINIAREK, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate labor progress and length according to maternal age. Methods Data were abstracted from the Consortium on Safe Labor, a multicenter retrospective study from 19 hospitals in the United States. We studied 120,442 laboring gravid women with singleton, term, cephalic fetuses with normal outcomes and without a prior cesarean delivery from 2002 to 2008. Maternal age categories were less than 20 years old, greater than or equal to 20 to less than 30, greater than or equal to 30 to less than 40 and greater than or 40 years old, with the reference being less than 20 years. Interval-censored regression analysis was used to determine median traverse times (progression cm by cm) with 95th percentiles, adjusting for covariates (race, admission body mass index, diabetes, gestational age, induction, augmentation, epidural use and birth weight). A repeated-measures analysis with an eighth-degree polynomial model was used to construct mean labor curves for each maternal age category, stratified by parity. Results Traverse times for nulliparous women demonstrated the time to progress from 4 to 10 cm decreased as age increased up to age 40 (median 8.5 hrs vs. 7.8 hrs in those greater than or equal to 20 to less than 30 year old group and 7.4 hrs in the greater than or equal to 30 to less than 40 year old group, p<0.001); the length of the second stage with and without epidural increased with age (p<0.001). For multiparous women, time to progress from 4 to 10 cm decreased as age increased (median 8.8 hrs, 7.5, 6.7 and 6.5 from the youngest to oldest maternal age groups, p<0.001). Labor progressed faster with increasing maternal age in both nulliparous and multiparous women in the labor curves analysis. Conclusion The first stage of labor progressed more quickly with increasing age for nulliparous up to age 40 and all multiparous women. Contemporary labor management should account for maternal age. PMID:24104787

  12. From Labor Shortage to Labor Surplus: The Changing Labor Market Context and Its Meaning for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how the American economy has experienced sharp contractions in overall levels of output, income, and wealth resulting from the recent financial crisis, and how these losses have had an impact on the nation's labor market. The significance of these trends to American higher education is summarized in these terms: "Large labor…

  13. Monitoring the progress of pregnancy and labor using electromyography.

    PubMed

    Schlembach, Dietmar; Maner, Wiliam L; Garfield, Robert E; Maul, Holger

    2009-05-01

    At present, there is no effective treatment for preterm labor. The most obvious reason for this anomaly is that there is no objective manner in which to evaluate the progression of pregnancy through steps leading to labor, either at term or preterm. Understanding the physiology of the uterus during term and preterm parturition is important for developing methods to control uterine function and is essential to solving clinical problems related to labor. Several techniques have been adopted to monitor and/or to diagnose labor. Unfortunately they are either subjective or indirect and do not provide an accurate prediction especially for preterm labor. Uterine electromyography (EMG) may provide more objective, highly accurate, and clinically useful information. This may be especially important in clinical scenarios such as prediction of preterm labor, differentiation between true and false labor, and management of labor augmentation, labor induction or tocolysis. Thereby EMG would enable clinicians to apply much better treatment for pregnant patients.

  14. Labor length among overweight and obese women undergoing induction of labor

    PubMed Central

    Hirshberg, Adi; Levine, Lisa D.; Srinivas, Sindhu

    2017-01-01

    Objective Maternal weight is thought to impact labor. With rising rates of obesity and inductions, we sought to evaluate labor times among induced women by body mass index (BMI) category. Methods Retrospective cohort study of term inductions from 2005 to 2010. BMI categories were: normal weight (NW), overweight (OW), and obese (Ob) (18.5–24.9, 25–29.9, ≥30kg/m2). Kruskal-Wallis tests compared median latent labor (LL) length and active labor (AL) length. Chi-square determined associations. Multivariable logistic regression controlled for confounders. Analyses were stratified by parity. Results A total of 448 inductions were analyzed. For nulliparas, there was no difference in LL by BMI category (p = 0.22). However, OW nulliparas had a longer AL compared to NW and Ob nulliparas (3.2, 1.7, 2.0 h, p = 0.005). For multiparas, NW had the shortest LL (5.5 h, p = 0.025) with no difference in AL among BMI categories (p = 0.42). The overall cesarean rate was 23% with no difference by BMI category (p = 0.95). However, Ob women had a greater percentage of first stage cesareans (41%) and NW had a greater percentage of second stage cesareans (55%), p = 0.06. Conclusion The association between BMI and labor length among inductions differs by phase of labor and parity. BMI also influences the stage of labor in which a cesarean occurs. PMID:24392860

  15. Effects of LI4 acupressure on labor pain in the first stage of labor.

    PubMed

    Hamidzadeh, Azam; Shahpourian, Farangis; Orak, Roohangiz Jamshidi; Montazeri, Akram Sadat; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicines have been used to decrease labor pain for many years. Despite reports that some of these methods reduce pain, increase maternal satisfaction, and improve other obstetric outcomes, they have received limited attention in the US medical literature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of LI4 acupressure on labor pain in the first stage of labor, on labor duration, and on patient satisfaction. A single, blind, randomized clinical trial was performed with eligible women (N = 100) who were at the beginning of the active phase of labor (3-4 cm dilatation of cervix with regular uterine contractions). The women in the acupressure group (n = 50) received LI4 acupressure at the onset of the active phase for the duration of each uterine contraction over a period of 20 minutes, and the women in the control group (n = 50) received a touch on this point without massage. Labor pain was measured using a structured questionnaire of a subjective labor pain scale (visual analogue scale) before the intervention, immediately after the intervention, 20 and 60 minutes after the intervention, and then every hour. There were significant differences between the groups in subjective labor pain scores immediately and 20, 60, and 120 minutes after intervention (P ≤ .001). Active phase duration (3-4 cm dilatation to full dilatation) and second stage duration (full dilatation to birth) were shorter in the acupressure group. The women in the acupressure group reported greater satisfaction. LI4 acupressure was effective at decreasing pain and duration of labor. The participants were satisfied, and no adverse effects were noted. © 2012 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  16. Induction of Labor and Cesarean: What is the True Relationship?

    PubMed

    Little, Sarah E; Caughey, Aaron B

    2015-06-01

    It is a commonly held belief that labor induction increases the risk of cesarean delivery; women who are induced are at higher risk of cesarean as compared with those in spontaneous labor. This comparison group is inaccurate, however, as women and providers cannot choose spontaneous labor as the alternative to labor induction. With expectant management, spontaneous labor may occur, but as gestation advances, pregnancy complications may occur, or women may progress postterm requiring induction at a later gestation. Using the proper comparison group, studies find that labor induction is actually associated with a small decreased risk of cesarean delivery.

  17. 24 CFR 570.603 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labor standards. 570.603 Section 570.603 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  18. 24 CFR 266.225 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Program Requirements... exemption for volunteers. (c) Labor standards. Any contract, subcontract, or building loan agreement... clauses or wage determination in a contract or building loan agreement may require the HFA to fund...

  19. Proposed Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-24

    Stern and Rachel Van Dongen, Christian Science Monitor, June 17, 2003. and the Escuela Nacional Sindical (ENS) or National Labor School, a non...of death threats between 2003 and 2007, when murders were lower. Source: Escuela Nacional Sindical (ENS, 2008) Impunity The second main issue of

  20. 1970 Farm Labor and Rural Manpower Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Labor, Detroit. Michigan Employment Security Commission.

    In an effort to provide better manpower services to workers and employers in rural areas, the Farm Labor and Rural Manpower Service established new manpower service centers in 4 Michigan counties during 1970. The field staff provided referral services to over 1,000 migrant families and provided part-time personnel services during periods of peak…

  1. National Labor Administration and Democracy in Argentina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    algunas experiencias Latinoanericanas," Estudios CEDES, V. 3, N. 2 (1980); Oszlak, "Notas Criticas para una Teoria de la Burocracia Estatal," Documento...Interpretation of Weber on Bureaucracy." World Politics, V. 31, N. 2 (January, 1979), pp. 195-227. 7 2For a discussion of the "Proceso"’s labor policies and

  2. Arizona Labor Market Information (LMI) Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Economic Security, Phoenix.

    This directory lists an array of socioeconomic, employment and training, career decision-making, and job search information available through Arizona's Labor Market Information (LMI) program. Publications are first arranged by subject. Following the subject guide is a complete alphabetical listing of all publications, including their description…

  3. Towards an Environmental/Labor: Coalition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alan S.

    1980-01-01

    The polarization of organized labor v environmentalists on the political scene is discussed. The angry workers claim that environmentalists in their zeal for cleaning up the air and water and protecting wildlife are throwing people out of work. (Author/SA)

  4. Sex Discrimination and Women's Labor Market Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; McLennan, Michele

    1995-01-01

    Using self-reported sex discrimination data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, a study found that working women who report discrimination are more likely to change employers or interrupt their labor force participation. However, women who report discrimination do not accrue less experience or have lower wage growth. (SK)

  5. Texas Migrant Labor. Annual Report 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    The Texas farm labor pool is made up almost entirely of Mexican Americans; many of these are naturalized but the majority are native-born American citizens whose families and ethnic ties remain in and around the border. All of these field workers have, at some time, migrated to a job or in search of a job either interstate or within the boundaries…

  6. Labor Market Information for Career Cluster Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jared

    2008-01-01

    In the midst of several upheavals in the American labor market, career clusters entered the scene in the late 1990s. Career clusters, sometimes called career pathways or ladders, have exploded in popularity and are now being implemented by most states. Job types can be grouped according to similar work interests and knowledge/skill requirements.…

  7. Slave Labor Camps of the Third Reich.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Adolf

    1983-01-01

    Describes the ground rules used by Nazi architects in choosing the sites for slave labor camps. While some, like Auschwitz, became extermination camps, others also produced armaments. One camp, Theresienstadt, became a "model" camp to show to reporters and Red Cross representatives. (CS)

  8. Arizona Labor Market Information (LMI) Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Economic Security, Phoenix.

    This directory lists an array of socioeconomic, employment and training, career decision-making, and job search information available through Arizona's Labor Market Information (LMI) program. Publications are first arranged by subject. Following the subject guide is a complete alphabetical listing of all publications, including their description…

  9. Labor Studies in the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Wallace E.

    The experience of El Camino College in starting a Labor Studies Program is recounted. The issues and problems discussed are: Advisory Committee Model, College or Union Control?, Administration and Faculty Support, Funding, Enrollment Projections, Coordination, Publicity and Student Recruitment, College Credit, Course Content, Who Should Be…

  10. Origins of the Sexual Division of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibowitz, Lila

    An interactive, biosocial model of early hominids presents evidence that physical sex differences are not the basis for the sexual division of labor as is commonly believed. Production (the deliberate collection and distribution of food) developed among early hominids as a prerequisite for survival. Although the population appears to have had…

  11. Pension Policy for a Mobile Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John A.; And Others

    This book analyzes what happens to the pension benefits of workers who quit or are laid off jobs. The first chapter reviews the connection between job mobility and pension portability. Chapter 2 portrays a labor market undergoing changes that often result in reductions in retirement benefits. Chapter 3 describes job change further by examining…

  12. The Labor Market and Human Capital Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallmann, Judith I.; And Others

    This study tests the hypothesis that the local labor market structure, particularly the proportions of high- and low-paying occupations, affects human capital investment. Most studies have assumed that the direction of causation flows from the supply of human capital to employment growth. However, the creation of low-skilled jobs merely reshuffles…

  13. MIGRANT FARM LABOR IN NEW YORK STATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Interdepartmental Committee on Farm and Food Processing Labor, Albany.

    SEVEN NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENTS WORK TOGETHER TO SEE THAT THE MIGRANT IS TREATED FAIRLY AND HUMANELY IN THE AREAS OF HEALTH, HOUSING, CHILD CARE, EDUCATION, LABOR CONDITIONS, SAFETY, AND EMPLOYER-EMPLOYEE RELATIONS. AN INTERDEPARTMENTAL COMMITTEE GUIDES THE EFFORTS OF THE DEPARTMENTS. THE AGENCIES WORK WITH A BODY OF STATE LAW WHICH IS UPDATED…

  14. General Semantics in the Labor Room.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Jo

    This paper provides a review of some basic general semantic principles and then applies them to the area of prenatal classes and labor room practices. It first presents an overview of the principle that language is not a neutral factor in human perceptions but an active, reactive force. Next, it looks at the relationship between language and…

  15. Labor migration and child mortality in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Yabiku, Scott T.; Agadjanian, Victor; Cau, Boaventura

    2013-01-01

    Male labor migration is widespread in many parts of the world, yet its consequences for child outcomes and especially childhood mortality remain unclear. Male labor migration could bring benefits, in the form of remittances, to the families that remain behind and thus help child survival. Alternatively, the absence of a male adult could imperil the household's well-being and its ability to care for its members, increasing child mortality risks. In this analysis, we use longitudinal survey data from Mozambique collected in 2006 and 2009 to examine the association between male labor migration and under-five mortality in families that remain behind. Using a simple migrant/non-migrant dichotomy, we find no difference in mortality rates across migrant and non-migrant men's children. When we separated successful from unsuccessful migration based on the wife's perception, however, stark contrasts emerge: children of successful migrants have the lowest mortality, followed by children of non-migrant men, followed by the children of unsuccessful migrants. Our results illustrate the need to account for the diversity of men's labor migration experience in examining the effects of migration on left-behind households. PMID:23121856

  16. Recent Initiatives in Labor-Management Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Productivity and Quality of Working Life, Washington, DC.

    This report draws on a series of conferences held to develop guides for labor-management cooperation at the plant level. These included six recent initiatives conferences held in cooperation with State University Institutes of Industrial Relations and the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service (FMCS) and a seventh sponsored by the Commission…

  17. College Labor Shortages in 2018? Part Deux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Paul E.; Sum, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    The recent response by Anthony Carnevale et al. to the authors' analysis of the fundamental shortcomings associated with their predictions of widespread college labor shortages focuses on three areas. First, Anthony Carnevale et al. suggest that the authors are educational Luddites by noting in the title of their response that the authors believe…

  18. Schools and the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Robert P.

    1986-01-01

    Traces the history of the Fair Labor Standards Act's applicability to public employees. Beginning in April 1986, schools must pay covered employees who work more than 40 hours in a workweek time-and-a-half (in money or compensatory time off). Defines terms and lists recordkeeping requirements. (MLF)

  19. New Evidence on Teacher Labor Supply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Mimi; Jacob, Brian A.; Curran, F. Chris

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence on the large variance in teacher effectiveness has spurred interest in teacher labor markets. Research documents that better qualified teachers typically work in more advantaged schools but cannot determine the relative importance of supply versus demand. To isolate teacher preferences, we document which schools prospective…

  20. Labor Factor Efficiency in the Agricultural Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    R?y, Inna U.; Shakulikova, Gulzada T.; Kozhakhmetova, Gulnar A.; Lashkareva, Olga V.; Bondarenko, Elena G.; Bermukhambetova, Botagoz B.; Baimagambetova, Zamzagul A.; Zhetessova, Mariyam T.; Beketova, Kamar N.; Anafiyaeva, Zhibek

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural problems associated with prospects of the rural population and agriculture in general have recently become an important factor in the modern economic policy development. The urgency of finding ways to improve the labor resource efficiency in agriculture pursuant to the state tasks is determined by the need to restore the agricultural…

  1. Internal Labor Markets and Manpower Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeringer, Peter B.; Piore, Michael J.

    Using data gathered in a series of interviews with management and union officials in over 75 companies between 1964 and 1969, this report analyzes the concept of the internal labor market and describes its relevance for federal manpower policy. The management interviews, which were mostly in personnel, industrial engineering, and operations areas…

  2. Merchange of Labor. The Mexican Bracero Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galarza, Ernesto

    The subject of this study is the more or less seasonal influx of Mexican (bracero) laborers to work in agriculture in California between 1942 and 1960. The migration began as a joint effort between the governments of Mexico and the United States to ease the manpower shortage created by World War II. Dire needs of these migrants, and their…

  3. Department of Labor Issues. Transition Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Secretary of Labor should place emphasis on five issues to ensure safe and healthful workplaces and to promote the welfare of wage earners. First, the Secretary should improve the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's enforcement program. Second, the Secretary should enhance the use of Job Training Partnership Act resources. Third,…

  4. Labor/Management Workplace Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernow, Harneen

    This report includes two sections: (1) an overview of the issues involved in joint labor/management workplace education programs and (2) a description of such a program partnering two union locals, nine hospitals, and Bunker Hill Community College to implement a workplace-based career ladder program. The first section explains that unions and…

  5. Cognitive Capitalism, Education and Digital Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A., Ed.; Bulut, Ergin, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive capitalism--sometimes referred to as "third capitalism," after mercantilism and industrial capitalism--is an increasingly significant theory, given its focus on the socio-economic changes caused by Internet and Web 2.0 technologies that have transformed the mode of production and the nature of labor. The theory of cognitive…

  6. Origins of the Sexual Division of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibowitz, Lila

    An interactive, biosocial model of early hominids presents evidence that physical sex differences are not the basis for the sexual division of labor as is commonly believed. Production (the deliberate collection and distribution of food) developed among early hominids as a prerequisite for survival. Although the population appears to have had…

  7. Future Labor Market Demand and Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harold

    Review of the methods for estimating future employment opportunities shows that there is an ongoing system, involving the Department of Labor and state employment agencies, for making projections for the United States as a whole and for states and major metropolitan areas. This system combines national research on economic growth, technological…

  8. Wages and Labor Management in African Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Soderbom, Mans

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from ten African countries, we examine the relationship between wages, worker supervision, and labor productivity in manufacturing. Wages increase with firm size for both production workers and supervisors. We develop a two-tier model of supervision that can account for this stylized fact and we fit the…

  9. The Labor Market And Schizoprenics' Posthospital Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Lee; Lorei, Theodore W.

    1973-01-01

    Survey results indicated that posthospital employment was meagre and that it was unrelated to urbanization industrialization and local unemployment rates. Variance in vocational adjustment was more importantly accounted for by characteristics of the subject than by labor market characteristics, and was seen as having encouraging implications for…

  10. Teaching Labor Relations with "Norma Rae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Vicki Fairbanks; Provitera, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate business students in North America are often unfamiliar with the labor organizing process and frequently fail to identify with the reasons why workers join unions. This article suggests a discussion exercise based on the 1979 film, "Norma Rae," by 20th Century Fox, as an effective tool for familiarizing students with fundamental…

  11. Labor Market Areas for the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolbert, Charles M., II; Killian, Molly Sizer

    This research report identifies labor market areas (LMAs) that can be used for statistical and planning purposes in research on rural America. It details the process by which the 382 LMAs were delineated, using commuting-to-work data from the 1980 Census. A rationale for identifying LMAs appears first. The next part describes the research…

  12. Labor Mobility Demonstration Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuskegee Inst., AL.

    The labor mobility program is designed to provide such counseling, technical, and financial assistance as will be needed to place retrained persons on jobs that make decent wages in other communities, in contrast to those programs which retrain persons for local employment. The general objectives include: developing jobs for persons having…

  13. Understanding China's Demographic Dividends and Labor Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Xizhe

    2013-01-01

    One of the major concerns about the one-child policy is its negative impact on the current and future labor force in China. People have talked about the Lewis Turning Point and the end of demographic dividends. Some of these arguments, however, can be misleading. The working-age population (ages 15 to 59) can be treated as the potential labor…

  14. A Positive Stigma for Child Labor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a simple empirical model that assumes a positive stigma (or norm) towards child labor that is common in some developing countries. We then illustrate our positive stigma model using data from Guatemala. Controlling for several child- and household-level characteristics, we use two instruments for measuring stigma: a child's indigenous…

  15. Teaching Labor Relations with "Norma Rae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Vicki Fairbanks; Provitera, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate business students in North America are often unfamiliar with the labor organizing process and frequently fail to identify with the reasons why workers join unions. This article suggests a discussion exercise based on the 1979 film, "Norma Rae," by 20th Century Fox, as an effective tool for familiarizing students with fundamental…

  16. Targeted Business Incentives and Local Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to examine the effects of geographically targeted business incentives on local labor markets. Unlike elsewhere in the United States, enterprise zone (EZ) designations in Texas are determined in part by a cutoff rule based on census block group poverty rates. Exploiting this discontinuity as a…

  17. Caesar Chavez: Labor Leader. Hispanic Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedeno, Maria E.

    Written for young people, this book traces the accomplishments of Cesar Chavez, a labor leader who fought to improve the lives of Mexican-American farmworkers in California. Chavez was born in 1927 in the Gila Valley, Arizona. When Chavez was 10, his family lost their farm and was forced to move to California and become migrant workers. Chavez and…

  18. Understanding China's Demographic Dividends and Labor Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Xizhe

    2013-01-01

    One of the major concerns about the one-child policy is its negative impact on the current and future labor force in China. People have talked about the Lewis Turning Point and the end of demographic dividends. Some of these arguments, however, can be misleading. The working-age population (ages 15 to 59) can be treated as the potential labor…

  19. General Semantics in the Labor Room.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Jo

    This paper provides a review of some basic general semantic principles and then applies them to the area of prenatal classes and labor room practices. It first presents an overview of the principle that language is not a neutral factor in human perceptions but an active, reactive force. Next, it looks at the relationship between language and…

  20. Targeted Business Incentives and Local Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to examine the effects of geographically targeted business incentives on local labor markets. Unlike elsewhere in the United States, enterprise zone (EZ) designations in Texas are determined in part by a cutoff rule based on census block group poverty rates. Exploiting this discontinuity as a…

  1. Merchange of Labor. The Mexican Bracero Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galarza, Ernesto

    The subject of this study is the more or less seasonal influx of Mexican (bracero) laborers to work in agriculture in California between 1942 and 1960. The migration began as a joint effort between the governments of Mexico and the United States to ease the manpower shortage created by World War II. Dire needs of these migrants, and their…

  2. 24 CFR 1003.603 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS FOR INDIAN TRIBES AND ALASKA NATIVE VILLAGES Other Program Requirements... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor standards. 1003.603 Section...

  3. New Evidence on Teacher Labor Supply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Mimi; Jacob, Brian A.; Curran, F. Chris

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence on the large variance in teacher effectiveness has spurred interest in teacher labor markets. Research documents that better qualified teachers typically work in more advantaged schools but cannot determine the relative importance of supply versus demand. To isolate teacher preferences, we document which schools prospective…

  4. Labor Market Information for Career Cluster Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jared

    2008-01-01

    In the midst of several upheavals in the American labor market, career clusters entered the scene in the late 1990s. Career clusters, sometimes called career pathways or ladders, have exploded in popularity and are now being implemented by most states. Job types can be grouped according to similar work interests and knowledge/skill requirements.…

  5. The Youth Labor Market: A Dynamic Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antos, Joseph R.; Mellow, Wesley S.

    Based on the National Longitudinal Surveys of over 10,000 men and women aged eighteen to twenty-seven who were interviewed annually from 1966 through 1971, this study investigates how the youth labor market operates and identifies its manpower problems that should be addressed by policymakers. A five-part recursive model is established for the…

  6. State Labor Legislation Enacted in 1973

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, David A.

    1974-01-01

    The primary areas considered by State legislatures in 1973 included higher minimum wage rates and broader coverage of minimum wage laws, improved occupational safety, collective bargaining procedures for public employees, elimination of discrimination in employment, and updating of child labor standards. (Author)

  7. Labor migration and child mortality in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Yabiku, Scott T; Agadjanian, Victor; Cau, Boaventura

    2012-12-01

    Male labor migration is widespread in many parts of the world, yet its consequences for child outcomes and especially childhood mortality remain unclear. Male labor migration could bring benefits, in the form of remittances, to the families that remain behind and thus help child survival. Alternatively, the absence of a male adult could imperil the household's well-being and its ability to care for its members, increasing child mortality risks. In this analysis, we use longitudinal survey data from Mozambique collected in 2006 and 2009 to examine the association between male labor migration and under-five mortality in families that remain behind. Using a simple migrant/non-migrant dichotomy, we find no difference in mortality rates across migrant and non-migrant men's children. When we separated successful from unsuccessful migration based on the wife's perception, however, stark contrasts emerge: children of successful migrants have the lowest mortality, followed by children of non-migrant men, followed by the children of unsuccessful migrants. Our results illustrate the need to account for the diversity of men's labor migration experience in examining the effects of migration on left-behind households. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. State Labor Legislation Enacted in 1973

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, David A.

    1974-01-01

    The primary areas considered by State legislatures in 1973 included higher minimum wage rates and broader coverage of minimum wage laws, improved occupational safety, collective bargaining procedures for public employees, elimination of discrimination in employment, and updating of child labor standards. (Author)

  9. The Future of International Labor Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt, John

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the nature of international labor migration today and the economic and political rationale for its occurrence. It is suggested that developed economies will have little need for mass immigration by those with low-level skills, whereas poorer countries will encourage emigration, resulting in more illegal immigration. (SLD)

  10. The Labor Market Effects of Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, George E.

    1980-01-01

    The probable effects on the U.S. labor market of a continued high rate of illegal immigration are examined. The impact each additional immigrant has on the employment of the domestic population, on GNP, and on the distribution of income is estimated. (CT)

  11. Wages and Labor Management in African Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Soderbom, Mans

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from ten African countries, we examine the relationship between wages, worker supervision, and labor productivity in manufacturing. Wages increase with firm size for both production workers and supervisors. We develop a two-tier model of supervision that can account for this stylized fact and we fit the…

  12. Work without Justice: Low Wage Immigrant Laborers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Catholic Conference, Washington, DC. Catholic Legal Immigration Network, Inc.

    This report focuses on "at risk" immigrants in the United States. This third report in a series highlights the plight of low-income immigrant laborers in the United States. This series does not seek to advance specific policies or reforms. It intends merely to relate the stories of newcomers in the confidence that they will speak powerfully for…

  13. 48 CFR 37.301 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Dismantling, Demolition, or Removal of Improvements 37.301 Labor standards. Contracts for dismantling, demolition, or removal of improvements are subject to either 41 U.S.C. chapter 67... (Construction). If the contract is solely for dismantling, demolition, or removal of improvements, the Service...

  14. TEXAS MIGRANT LABOR, THE 1965 MIGRATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    THE CALENDAR YEAR 1965 WAS THE FIRST FULL YEAR IN WHICH NO BRACEROS WERE IMPORTED FROM MEXICO. CROP LOSSES OCCURRED IN SOME AREAS OF THE COUNTRY DUE TO LABOR SHORTAGES, HOWEVER, GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS STATE THAT THESE SHORTAGES CAN BE AVOIDED IN THE FUTURE. THE MAJORITY OF TEXAS MIGRANTS LIVE IN SOUTH TEXAS AND APPROXIMATELY 95 PERCENT OF THEM ARE…

  15. Women in the Labor Force: 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Employment Security Commission, Jackson. Dept. of Research & Statistics.

    There has been a rapid increase in Mississippi women's participation in the labor force, but female participation still lags behind male participation. The 1960s witnessed dramatic increases in younger women's participation. The trend is expected to continue into the late 1970s. Annual 1977 averages showed women made up almost 40% of Mississippi's…

  16. Reproducing Domestic Laborers through Office Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valli, Linda R.

    Scholars have long acknowledged the role schools have in reproducing a sexual division of labor. Despite the reemergence of a feminist movement and anti-sex-discrimination legislation, schools are still places where boys and girls tend to study different curricula and where traditional sex roles are perpetuated. Physics, calculus, and shop classes…

  17. Work without Justice: Low Wage Immigrant Laborers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Catholic Conference, Washington, DC. Catholic Legal Immigration Network, Inc.

    This report focuses on "at risk" immigrants in the United States. This third report in a series highlights the plight of low-income immigrant laborers in the United States. This series does not seek to advance specific policies or reforms. It intends merely to relate the stories of newcomers in the confidence that they will speak powerfully for…

  18. On Durkheim's Explanation of Division of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueschemeyer, Dietrich

    1982-01-01

    In De la Division du Travail Social, Durkheim's causal explanation for secular increases in the division of labor and the differentiation of social structure is flawed. His metatheoretical concerns expressed in the critique of utilitarian social theory flawed his contributions to a causal explanation of social differentiation. (Author/AM)

  19. The Labor Market And Schizoprenics' Posthospital Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Lee; Lorei, Theodore W.

    1973-01-01

    Survey results indicated that posthospital employment was meagre and that it was unrelated to urbanization industrialization and local unemployment rates. Variance in vocational adjustment was more importantly accounted for by characteristics of the subject than by labor market characteristics, and was seen as having encouraging implications for…

  20. Cognitive Capitalism, Education and Digital Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A., Ed.; Bulut, Ergin, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive capitalism--sometimes referred to as "third capitalism," after mercantilism and industrial capitalism--is an increasingly significant theory, given its focus on the socio-economic changes caused by Internet and Web 2.0 technologies that have transformed the mode of production and the nature of labor. The theory of cognitive…

  1. Labor-Management Relations in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, A. Lee

    1970-01-01

    Labor-management relations in higher education are undergoing dramatic changes as a result of the rapidly growing unionization of personnel. A comparison of past experiences with unionization both in academe and industry reveals that administrations must determine their human resources policies and objectives before dealing with the unionization…

  2. Labor market costs of illness: prevalence matters.

    PubMed

    DeLeire, Thomas; Manning, Willard

    2004-03-01

    We present a model of the labor market effects of health impairments. In particular, we describe several economic models in which health affects worker productivity and the demand for and supply of market labor services. These models provide a framework for estimating the social cost of prevalent health impairments - a necessary step in conducting cost-benefit analyses and in determining the cost-effectiveness of potential health interventions from a broader social perspective. Our approach suggests that several measures used in the literature provide an incomplete and systematically biased assessment of the economic impact of health impairment or of the treatment of illness and impairment. The problem arises because of the reliance on an approximation at the firm level and from the bias from the neglect of the effect of impairment in shifting the labor market equilibrium. If the illness is prevalent, the effects on labor market equilibrium wage rates could be substantial. In addition, many analyses also ignore the effects of illness on producers' surplus. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Labor Law and Practice in Great Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douty, H.M.

    This 4-part report is one of a series prepared to provide background material for United States businessmen and others employing local workers abroad, trade union and labor specialists, consulting economists, and students. The data used were obtained from personnel in London's Departments of Employment, Health and Social Security, the Commission…

  4. Labor Laws Affecting Private Household Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Wages and working conditions for private household workers have not kept pace with other occupations, partly because of lack of coverage by labor laws. This pamphlet describes the protection available to domestics under both federal and state laws. Not only wages and hours, but also coverage by Unemployment Compensation, Workmen's Compensation,…

  5. 22 CFR 40.51 - Labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS... Immigrants § 40.51 Labor certification. (a) INA 212(a)(5) applicable only to certain immigrant aliens. INA 212(a)(5)(A) applies only to immigrant aliens described in INA 203(b)(2) or (3) who are seeking...

  6. 22 CFR 40.51 - Labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS... Immigrants § 40.51 Labor certification. (a) INA 212(a)(5) applicable only to certain immigrant aliens. INA 212(a)(5)(A) applies only to immigrant aliens described in INA 203(b)(2) or (3) who are seeking...

  7. 22 CFR 40.51 - Labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS... Immigrants § 40.51 Labor certification. (a) INA 212(a)(5) applicable only to certain immigrant aliens. INA 212(a)(5)(A) applies only to immigrant aliens described in INA 203(b)(2) or (3) who are seeking...

  8. Studying Ourselves: The Academic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    This paper focuses on three academic labor market issues that researchers at Cornell University are addressing currently: (1) the declining salaries of faculty employed at public colleges and universities relative to the salaries of their counterparts at private higher education institutions; (2) the growing dispersion of average faculty salaries…

  9. 24 CFR 1006.345 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-Bacon wage rates. (1) As described in section 805(b) of the Act, contracts and agreements for assistance... under the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a-276a-5) to be paid to laborers and mechanics employed in the... single family housing, the Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to the construction of the housing if there is...

  10. 24 CFR 1006.345 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-Bacon wage rates. (1) As described in section 805(b) of the Act, contracts and agreements for assistance... under the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a-276a-5) to be paid to laborers and mechanics employed in the... single family housing, the Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to the construction of the housing if there is...

  11. 24 CFR 1006.345 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-Bacon wage rates. (1) As described in section 805(b) of the Act, contracts and agreements for assistance... under the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a-276a-5) to be paid to laborers and mechanics employed in the... single family housing, the Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to the construction of the housing if there is...

  12. 29 CFR 101.2 - Initiation of unfair labor practice cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation of unfair labor practice cases. 101.2 Section 101.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD STATEMENTS OF PROCEDURES... Initiation of unfair labor practice cases. The investigation of an alleged violation of the National Labor...

  13. 29 CFR 403.4 - Simplified annual reports for smaller labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Simplified annual reports for smaller labor organizations..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS LABOR ORGANIZATION ANNUAL FINANCIAL REPORTS § 403.4 Simplified annual reports for smaller labor organizations. (a)(1) If a labor organization, not in trusteeship,...

  14. 29 CFR 401.10 - Labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce. 401.10 Section 401.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.10...

  15. 29 CFR 401.12 - Trust in which a labor organization is interested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trust in which a labor organization is interested. 401.12 Section 401.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.12 Trust in which...

  16. [Interventions during labor for reducing instrumental deliveries].

    PubMed

    Schmitz, T; Meunier, E

    2008-12-01

    Several interventions have been demonstrated, with high evidence levels (EL), to be associated with reduced instrumental deliveries and should therefore be undertaken during labor for increasing spontaneous vaginal deliveries. Using a partogram (EL1) and continuous support during labor and childbirth (EL1) lead to fewer operative vaginal deliveries. Systematic early amniotomy increases the frequency of fetal heart rate abnormalities (EL2) without decreasing the incidence of instrumental deliveries (EL1) and should thus be avoided. Early oxytocin in dysfunctional labor (EL2) and manual rotation of posterior and transverse presentations (EL3) may reduce operative vaginal deliveries. Even without epidural analgesia, any upright or lateral positions compared to supine or lithotomy positions do not reduce instrumental deliveries (EL2). Epidural analgesia alters significantly instrumental delivery rates and therefore patient management in the labor ward. Indeed, when used with high concentration of local anesthetic, epidural analgesia is associated with increased operative vaginal deliveries (EL1), at least in part because of increased posterior presentations (EL2). However, the effect of epidural analgesia on instrumental delivery rates closely depends from the type of anesthetic and concentrations used. This effect is reduced when low concentrations of local anesthetic are used in combination with fat-soluble morphinated agent (EL1). Finally, for nulliparous women with continuous epidural analgesia, unless irresistible urge to push or medical indication to shorten second stage of labor, delayed pushing is associated with reduced difficult instrumental deliveries (EL1). Fundal pressure maneuvers should be prohibited because of their inefficiency (EL2) and dangerousness (EL4).

  17. Labor Dystocia: Uses of Related Nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Neal, Jeremy L; Ryan, Sharon L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Buxton, Margaret; Holley, Sharon L; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Labor dystocia (slow or difficult labor or birth) is the most commonly diagnosed aberration of labor and the most frequently documented indication for primary cesarean birth. Yet, dystocia remains a poorly specified diagnostic category, with determinations often varying widely among clinicians. The primary aims of this review are to 1) summarize definitions of active labor and dystocia, as put forth by leading professional obstetric and midwifery organizations in world regions wherein English is the majority language and 2) describe the use of dystocia and related terms in contemporary research studies. Major national midwifery and obstetric organizations from qualifying United Nations-member sovereign nations and international organizations were searched to identify guidelines providing definitions of active labor and dystocia or related terms. Research studies (2000-2013) were systematically identified via PubMed, MEDLINE, and CINAHL searches to describe the use of dystocia and related terms in contemporary scientific publications. Only 6 organizational guidelines defined dystocia or related terms. Few research teams (n = 25 publications) defined dystocia-related terms with nonambiguous clinical parameters that can be applied prospectively. There is heterogeneity in the nomenclature used to describe dystocia, and when a similar term is shared between guidelines or research publications, the underlying definition of that term is sometimes inconsistent between documents. Failure to define dystocia in evidence-based, well-described, clinically meaningful terms that are widely acceptable to and reproducible among clinicians and researchers is concerning at both national and global levels. This failure is particularly problematic in light of the major contribution of this diagnosis to primary cesarean birth rates. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  18. Comparison of labor progression between induced and noninduced multiparous women.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Matthew K; Vahratian, Anjel; Sciscione, Anthony C; Troendle, James F; Zhang, Jun

    2006-05-01

    The incidence of labor induction is rising rapidly in the United States. Among multiparas, labor is often followed with traditional labor curves derived from noninduced pregnancies. We sought to determine how labor progression of multiparous women who presented in spontaneous labor differed from those who were electively induced with and from those induced without preinduction cervical ripening. We analyzed data on all low-risk multiparous women with an elective induction or spontaneous onset of labor between 37(+0) and 40(+6) weeks of gestation from January 2002 to March 2004 at a single institution. The median duration of labor by each centimeter of cervical dilatation and the risk of cesarean delivery were computed for 61 women with preinduction cervical ripening and oxytocin induction, 735 women with oxytocin induction, and 1,885 women with a spontaneous onset of labor. An intracervical Foley catheter was used to ripen the cervix. Those women who experienced electively induced labor without cervical ripening had a shorter active phase of labor than did those admitted in spontaneous labor (99 minutes in induced labor versus 161 minutes in spontaneous labor, P < .001). However, the cesarean delivery rate was elevated in the induction group (3.9% versus 2.3%, P < .05). Women who underwent preinduction cervical ripening also had a shorter active phase than those admitted in spontaneous labor (109 minutes versus 161 minutes, P = .01). The pattern of labor progression differs for women with an electively induced labor without cervical ripening compared with those who present with spontaneous onset of labor.

  19. [Labor rights and the organization of workers in a context of change in labor relations: effects on health workers].

    PubMed

    Pessanha, Elina Gonçalves da Fonte; Artur, Karen

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the main institutional changes in labor relations in Brazil, highlighting their impact on the organization of workers. A more recent central change is the regulation of outsourcing by the Labor Judiciary. Research into claims in the Superior Labor Court, guidelines from the Labor Prosecution Office, and trade union lawsuits, show that outsourcing and working hours are subjects which have directly affected health workers. By addressing the institutional principles of justice in contracts, it was concluded that labor reform should deal with the inequality of rights that have characterized the Brazilian labor market.

  20. Preterm Induction of Labor: Predictors of Vaginal Delivery and Labor Curves

    PubMed Central

    Feghali, Maisa; Timofeev, Julia; Huang, Chun-Chih; Driggers, Rita; Miodovnik, Menachem; Landy, Helain J.; Umans, Jason G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the labor curves of patients undergoing preterm induction of labor (IOL) and assess possible predictors of vaginal delivery (VD). Study Design Data from the NICHD Consortium on Safe Labor were analyzed. A total of 6,555 women undergoing medically-indicated IOL before 37 weeks gestational age (GA) were included in this analysis. Patients were divided into four groups based on gestational age: A: 24-27+6, B: 28-30+6, C: 31-33+6, and D: 34-36+6 weeks. Pregnant women with a contraindication to VD, IOL at or after 37 weeks and those without data from cervical exam on admission were excluded. ANOVA was used to assess differences between GA groups. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess predictors of VD. A repeated measures analysis was used to determine average labor curves. Results Rates of vaginal live births increased with GA, from 35% (Group A) to 76% (Group D). Parous women [odds ratio (OR)=6.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.38-7.21] and those with a favorable cervix at the start of IOL (OR=2.35, 95% CI 2.23-2.48) were more likely to deliver vaginally. Analysis of labor curves in nulliparous women showed shorter duration of labor with increasing GA; the active phase of labor was, however, similar across all GA. Conclusion The majority of women undergoing medically-indicated preterm IOL between 24 and 36+6 weeks’ GA deliver vaginally. The strongest predictor of VD was parity. Preterm IOL had a limited influence on estimated labor curves across gestational age. PMID:25068566