Science.gov

Sample records for coli endotoxin lipopolysaccharide

  1. Lipopolysaccharide Endotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Raetz, Christian R. H.; Whitfield, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Summary Since lipopolysaccharide endotoxins of Gram-negative bacteria were last reviewed in this series in 1990, much has been learned about the assembly and signaling functions of these remarkable glycoconjugates. Lipopolysaccharides typically consist of a hydrophobic domain known as lipid A (or endotoxin), a non-repeating “core” oligosaccharide, and a distal polysaccharide (or O-antigen). The flood of recent genomic data has made it possible to study lipopolysaccharide assembly in diverse Gram-negative bacteria, many of which are human or plant pathogens, and to create mutants or hybrid constructs with novel properties. Unexpectedly, key genes for lipid A biosynthesis have also been found in higher plants, indicating that eucaryotic lipid A-like molecules may exist. The carbohydrate diversity of lipopolysaccharides is better appreciated now than ten years ago, but much remains to be learned about function. Sequence comparisons suggest that extensive lateral transfer of genes for the assembly of O-antigens has occurred among bacteria. The most significant finding in the field of endotoxin biology since 1990 has been the identification of the plasma membrane protein TLR4 as the lipid A signaling receptor of animal cells. The latter belongs to a family of innate immunity receptors, all of which possess a large extracellular domain of leucine-rich repeats, a single trans-membrane segment and a smaller cytoplasmic signaling region that engages the adaptor protein MyD88. The expanding knowledge of TLR4 specificity and its downstream signaling pathways should provide new opportunities for blocking the inflammatory side effects of sepsis. Future progress will require insights into lipopolysaccharide-protein recognition at the atomic level, greater understanding of intra- and inter-cellular lipopolysaccharide trafficking, and incisive biological approaches that combine the tools of bacterial and animal genetics. PMID:12045108

  2. INTERACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION AND E. COLI ENDOTOXIN. I. EFFECT OF RADIATION ON ENDOTOXIN SHOCK.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    E . coli endotoxin and total body irradiation has been studied in 38 adult mongrel dogs. Results indicate that prior irradiation (1000 r) abolishes the endotoxin shock syndrome, and the dogs die of radiation sickness on an average of 62 hr after exposure. Unirradiated dogs given E . coli endotoxin die on an average of 5 hr after injection of the toxin. It is postulated that irradiation interferes with, or actually prevents, the ’trigger mechanism’ of endotoxin shock. This interaction may involve the immune mechanism, complement, liberation

  3. Redefining the requisite lipopolysaccharide structure in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Timothy C; Aggarwal, Parag; Mamat, Uwe; Lindner, Buko; Woodard, Ronald W

    2006-02-17

    Gram-negative bacteria possess an asymmetric lipid bilayer surrounding the cell wall, the outer membrane (OM). The OM inner leaflet is primarily composed of various glycerophospholipids, whereas the outer leaflet predominantly contains the unique amphiphilic macromolecule, lipopolysaccharide (LPS or endotoxin). The majority of all gram-negative bacteria elaborate LPS containing at least one 2-keto 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate (Kdo) molecule. The minimal LPS structure required for growth of Escherichia coli has long been recognized as two Kdo residues attached to lipid A, inextricably linking viability to toxicity. Here we report the construction and characterization of the nonconditional E. coli K-12 suppressor strain KPM22 that lacks Kdo and is viable despite predominantly elaborating the endotoxically inactive LPS precursor lipid IV(A). Our results challenge the established E. coli Kdo2-lipid A dogma, indicating that the previously observed and well-documented dependence of cell viability on the synthesis of Kdo stems from a lethal pleiotropy precipitated after the depletion of the carbohydrate, rather than an inherent need for the Kdo molecule itself as an indispensable structural component of the OM LPS layer. Inclusion of the inner membrane LPS transporter MsbA on a multicopy plasmid partially suppresses the lethal deltaKdo phenotype directly in the auxotrophic parent strain, suggesting increased rates of nonglycosylated lipid A transport can, in part, compensate for Kdo depletion. The unprecedented nature of a lipid IV(A) OM redefines the requisite LPS structure for viability in E. coli.

  4. Temperature Responses of Mice to Escherichia Coli Endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Prashker, D.; Wardlaw, A. C.

    1971-01-01

    SJL mice kept in a 23° environment and injected intravenously with Escherichia coli endotoxin developed a marked hypothermia compared with animals given pyrogen-free saline (PFS). In contrast, giving endotoxin to SJL mice which had been “pre-conditioned” for 4 hr at 36° caused relative hyperthermia. Both responses were best observed at 1½ hr after injection. An endotoxin dose of 0·02 μg. was at the threshold of detectability in mice pre-conditioned at 36°, while with 23° animals, the threshold dose was 0·2 μg. Dose-response curves, with an index of precision (λ) of about 0·73, were obtained for mice in both environments, endotoxin doses of about 20 μg. being in the plateau regions of maximum responses. Mouse strains SWR/J and CMRL behaved similarly to SJL, but the temperature responses at both 23° and 36° were smaller. BALB/cJ and AKR/J mice showed a hyperthermic response to endotoxin at 36° but no hypothermia at 23°, while ST/bJ mice showed the converse pattern of hypothermia after endotoxin at 23° but no hyperthermia at 36°. Thus the strain of mouse is an important variable. We suggest that a hypothermia test in SJL mice may provide a simple and convenient bioassay procedure for endotoxin. Although its sensitivity is much less than the rabbit pyrogenicity test, it may be useful for the quantitative measurement of endotoxin activity of such preparations as typhoid, pertussis and cholera vaccines which are rich in endotoxin. PMID:4926536

  5. CARDIORESPIRATORY AND METABOLIC RESPONSES TO LIVE E. COLI AND ENDOTOXIN IN THE MONKEY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    of live organisms (Escherichia coli) were compared with endotoxin and saline in rhesus monkeys. Six animals were given E . coli , six endotoxin, and...five served as controls. Studies were conducted for 2-4 hours. The mean cardiac output decreased 62% within 60-90 minutes in the E . coli group and 41...Pco2 decreased to 24 mm Hg in the E . coli group and 26 mm Hg in the endotoxin group. Arterial hypoxemia developed in four animals and high

  6. An interleukin-1 receptor antagonist blocks lipopolysaccharide-induced colony-stimulating factor production and early endotoxin tolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Henricson, B E; Neta, R; Vogel, S N

    1991-01-01

    In this report, administration of a recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein to mice was found to inhibit induction of colony-stimulating factor as well as induction of early endotoxin tolerance by lipopolysaccharide. These findings provide direct evidence that interleukin-1 is an intermediate in these two lipopolysaccharide-induced phenomena. PMID:1825485

  7. Administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin to rat increases liver mass and hepatocyte volume in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Qian, D; Brosnan, J T

    1996-01-01

    We have established, in vivo, an increase in liver mass and hepatocyte volume after a single intraperitoneal administration, to fasted rats, of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (0127:B8) at 3 mg/kg. The phenomenon was time- and dose-dependent and could be prevented by treatment with polyclonal antiserum against tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) before the endotoxin injection. Endotoxin caused an increase of 26% in the hepatic mass compared with fasted controls at 24 h. An increase of 27% in the hepatic water content underlay the altered hepatic mass which could not be accounted for by a change in the volume of hepatic blood and/or interstitial fluid (measured in vivo), suggesting an expansion in the hepatocellular volume. This is supported by an increase of 25% in the K+ content of the endotoxic livers. Morphometric study confirmed a 15% increase in hepatocyte volume after endotoxin administration. The data are discussed in the light of possible metabolic effects of increased hepatocyte volume. PMID:8573081

  8. Adrenoceptor hyporeactivity is responsible for Escherichia coli endotoxin-induced acute vascular dysfunction in humans.

    PubMed

    Pleiner, Johannes; Heere-Ress, Elisabeth; Langenberger, Herbert; Sieder, Anna E; Bayerle-Eder, Michaela; Mittermayer, Fritz; Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, Gabriele; Böhm, Johannes; Jansen, Burkhard; Wolzt, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Impaired response to catecholamines contributes to the altered hemodynamics in sepsis, which has been attributed to excessive NO formation. We have studied the systemic hemodynamic and local forearm responses and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression during experimental endotoxemia in humans. Escherichia coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) was administered at doses of 1 or 2 ng/kg to healthy volunteers. In 10 subjects, the systemic pressor effect of phenylephrine was assessed before and after the administration of LPS. In 9 further subjects, forearm blood flow responses to intra-arterial noradrenaline, acetylcholine, glyceryl trinitrate, and N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) were studied at baseline and after LPS administration. Peripheral blood was collected and analyzed for iNOS mRNA and protein. Four hours after LPS, the response of systolic blood pressure (P<0.0005) and heart rate (P<0.05) to phenylephrine was significantly reduced. In the forearm, noradrenaline-induced vasoconstriction was also reduced by approximately 50% (P<0.01), but L-NMMA responsiveness was unchanged. iNOS mRNA or protein was not increased. Marked vascular adrenoceptor hyporeactivity is detectable in the absence of increased NO activity or iNOS expression in endotoxemia, arguing against major involvement of vascular iNOS activity in the acute systemic vasodilation to LPS.

  9. Capture of Lipopolysaccharide (Endotoxin) by the Blood Clot: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Margaret T.; Rickles, Frederick R.; Armstrong, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrates and arthropods, blood clotting involves the establishment of a plug of aggregated thrombocytes (the cellular clot) and an extracellular fibrillar clot formed by the polymerization of the structural protein of the clot, which is fibrin in mammals, plasma lipoprotein in crustaceans, and coagulin in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Both elements of the clot function to staunch bleeding. Additionally, the extracellular clot functions as an agent of the innate immune system by providing a passive anti-microbial barrier and microbial entrapment device, which functions directly at the site of wounds to the integument. Here we show that, in addition to these passive functions in immunity, the plasma lipoprotein clot of lobster, the coagulin clot of Limulus, and both the platelet thrombus and the fibrin clot of mammals (human, mouse) operate to capture lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin). The lipid A core of LPS is the principal agent of gram-negative septicemia, which is responsible for more than 100,000 human deaths annually in the United States and is similarly toxic to arthropods. Quantification using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test shows that clots capture significant quantities of LPS and fluorescent-labeled LPS can be seen by microscopy to decorate the clot fibrils. Thrombi generated in the living mouse accumulate LPS in vivo. It is suggested that capture of LPS released from gram-negative bacteria entrapped by the blood clot operates to protect against the disease that might be caused by its systemic dispersal. PMID:24282521

  10. TOPOMIMETICS OF AMPHIPATHIC β-SHEET AND HELIX-FORMING BACTERICIDAL PEPTIDES NEUTRALIZE LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE ENDOTOXINS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuemei; Dings, Ruud P.M.; Nesmelova, Irina; Debbert, Stefan; Haseman, Judith R.; Maxwell, Jacques; Hoye, Thomas R.; Mayo, Kevin H.

    2008-01-01

    Release of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin from Gram negative bacterial membranes triggers macrophages to produce large quantities of cytokines that can lead to septic shock and eventual death. Agents that bind to and neutralize LPS may provide a means to clinically prevent septic shock upon bacterial infection. Previously, we reported the design of antibacterial helix peptide SC4 and β-sheet-forming βpep peptides that neutralize LPS in vitro. We hypothesized that the ability of these and other such peptides to neutralize LPS rested in the common denominator of positively charged amphipathic structure. Here, we describe the design and synthesis of non-peptide, calixarene-based helix/sheet topomimetics that mimic the folded conformations of these peptides in their molecular dimensions, amphipathic surface topology, and compositional properties. From a small library of topomimetics, we identified several compounds that neutralize LPS in the 10−8 M range, making them as effective as bactericidal/permeability increasing (BPI) protein and polymyxin B. In an endotoxemia mouse model, three of the most in vitro effective topomimetics are shown to be at least partially protective against challenges of LPS from different bacterial species. NMR studies provide mechanistic insight by suggesting the site of molecular interaction between topomimetics and the lipid A component of LPS, with binding being mediated by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. This research contributes to the development of pharmaceutical agents against endotoxemia and septic shock. PMID:17181157

  11. Hemodynamic and Respiratory Responses of Conscious Swine to E. coli Endotoxin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    E . coli endotoxin into conscious swine produced an early increase in pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and a decrease in left atrial pressure (LAP). This hemodynamic effect may be secondary to the pulmonary venous constriction seen in other species, or may relate to demonstrated multiple pulmonary microemboli. Hypoxemia developed in only 4 of 17 animals although all endotoxin-treated swine showed interstitial pulmonary edema and elevated wet/dry weight ratios with normal pulmonary surfactant. In addition, endotoxin-treated swine developed signs of disseminated

  12. Tetrahydrobiopterin corrects Escherichia coli endotoxin-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mittermayer, Friedrich; Pleiner, Johannes; Schaller, Georg; Zorn, Stefan; Namiranian, Khodadad; Kapiotis, Stylianos; Bartel, Gregor; Wolfrum, Mathias; Brügel, Mathias; Thiery, Joachim; Macallister, Raymond J; Wolzt, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Acute inflammation causes endothelial dysfunction, which is partly mediated by oxidant stress and inactivation of nitric oxide. The contribution of depletion of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), the cofactor required for nitric oxide generation, is unclear. In this randomized, double-blind, three-way crossover study, forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to ACh and glyceryltrinitrate (GTN) were measured before and 3.5 h after infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS, 20 IU/kg iv) in eight healthy men. The effect of intra-arterial BH(4) (500 microg/min), placebo, or vitamin C (24 mg/min) was studied on separate days 3.5 h after LPS infusion. In addition, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated for 24 h with vitamin C and LPS. ACh and GTN caused dose-dependent forearm vasodilation. The FBF response to ACh, which was decreased by 23 +/- 17% (P < 0.05) by LPS infusion, was restored to baseline reactivity by BH(4) and vitamin C. FBF responses to GTN were not affected by BH(4) or vitamin C. LPS increased leukocyte count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6, IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, pulse rate, and body temperature and decreased platelet count and vitamin C concentration. Vitamin C increased forearm plasma concentration of BH(4) by 32% (P < 0.02). Incubation with LPS and vitamin C, but not LPS alone, increased intracellular BH(4) concentration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Impaired endothelial function during acute inflammation can be restored by BH(4) or vitamin C. Vitamin C may exert some of its salutary effects by increasing BH(4) concentration.

  13. Effects of endotoxin on mammary secretion of lactating cows. [Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Lengemann, F.W.; Pitzrick, M.

    1986-05-01

    The objectives were to describe the magnitude and time course of changes in milk pH, Na, K, lactose, and somatic cells and to determine if paracellular pathways were altered after infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin (serotype 0128:AB12) to produce inflammation in one-half of the udder of the goat. Intramammary infusion of endotoxin increased pH, number of somatic cells, and Na and decreased K and lactose in milk. Sodium and number of somatic cells were increased by as little as .1..mu..g of endotoxin; .25 ..mu..g produced changes in most of the other parameters; maximal effect was elicited by 1..mu..g of endotoxin. The gland response peaked from 5 to 7 h after infusion of endotoxin with an increase in milk cellularity as the only significant effect noted in the control gland. Infusion of (/sup 14/C)lactose into the gland and (/sup 99m/Tc)albumin into the blood demonstrated that large molecules were more able to cross into and out of udder halves after endotoxin treatment. It is suggested that ion interchange rather than bulk flow across paracellular paths is responsible for changes. In addition, endotoxin appeared to reduce lactose secretion and synthesis.

  14. PmrD is Required for Modifications to Escherichia Coli Endotoxin that Promote Antimicrobial Resistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-20

    for modification of the lipid A domain of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under low-Mg(2+) growth conditions. Further, RNA sequencing shows that E...that pmrD is required for modifi- cation of the lipid A domain of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under low-Mg2 growth conditions. Further, RNA ...as shown by RNA sequencing ( RNA -seq) analysis. Intriguingly, our findings also uncover the existence of a second PhoPQ-independent system that

  15. Effect of Solcoseryl on the clinical course of experimental Escherichia coli-endotoxin mastitis.

    PubMed

    Ziv, G; Jöchle, W

    1981-09-01

    Experimental Escherichia coli-endotoxin mastitis was induced in a single quarter in twenty-eight cows. The inflamed quarters of six of the cows were treated with 50 mg Solcoseryl infusion in an oil base starting 4-6 h after endotoxin infusion, and four additional infusions were given at 12-h intervals. The inflamed quarters of eight of the cows were similarly treated with 200 mg Solcoseryl whereas the remaining fourteen cows served as control. Solcoseryl treatment did not alter the systemic or local course of acute mastitis. Local reaction, as assessed by the California Mastitis Test (CMT), however, subsided considerably sooner in quarters treated with Solcoseryl, and the effect of Solcoseryl in hastening udder tissue repair processes appeared to be dose dependent. The 200 mg dose of Solcoseryl resulted in pre-endotoxin CMT scores as early as 6 days after endotoxin infusion.

  16. Differential cytokine induction by doses of lipopolysaccharide and monophosphoryl lipid A that result in equivalent early endotoxin tolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Henricson, B E; Benjamin, W R; Vogel, S N

    1990-01-01

    The phenomenon of early endotoxin tolerance, which is induced by sublethal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), results in a protracted period of hyporesponsiveness that is most profound at 3 to 4 days after injection and is marked by reduced cytokine production after a challenge injection of LPS. Early endotoxin tolerance is also induced by the nontoxic LPS derivative monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), although much more of the monophosphoryl derivative is required to produce a state of tolerance equivalent to that evoked by LPS. In this study, equivalent tolerance-inducing doses of LPS and MPL were tested, and the levels of cytokines induced by LPS and MPL were compared. Although induced levels of colony-stimulating factor were comparable following doses of LPS and MPL that elicited an equivalent state of early endotoxin tolerance, levels of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and interferon were significantly lower in MPL-injected animals. These results suggest that the lowered toxicity of MPL may be related to its elicitation of significantly lower levels of potentially toxic intermediaries such as tumor necrosis factor, interferon, and interleukin-6. PMID:1695201

  17. Hemolymph coagulation and phenoloxidase activity in Uca tangeri induced by Escherichia coli endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Salawu, Musa O; Oloyede, Hussein O B; Oladiji, Temidayo A; Yakubu, Musa T; Amuzat, Aliyu O

    2016-05-01

    Uca tangeri is a marine fiddler crab found commonly in the West African coast and is often exposed to Gram-negative pathogens upon injury. The aim of this study was to document the patterns of endotoxin-induced protein coagulation and phenoloxidase (PO) activity in hemolymph fractions of Uca tangeri. Hemolymph from live crabs was obtained by carapace puncture, pooled. and then separated into plasma, hemocyte Lysate (HL), hemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS) and hemocyte lysate debris (HLD). The effect of Escherichia coli (O1111:B4) endotoxin and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) on protein coagulation in the presence/absence of endotoxin and the endotoxin dose-dependence of coagulation and PO activity were each studied in the plasma, HL, HLS and HLD. The results showed Ca(2+) was required to induce coagulation, and was endotoxin concentration-dependent in the plasma. PO activity was highest in the HLS but PO specific activity was highest in HLD. PO activity remained relatively constant with increased LPS concentration in the range studied 0-10 EU/ml. From the data we conclude that endotoxin-induced protein coagulation occurs in the plasma alone and might be mediated by trans-glutaminases, while PO activity is localized inside hemocytes and cell membranes in Uca tangeri.

  18. Effectiveness of castor oil extract on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals.

    PubMed

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Chung, Adriana; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of castor oil extract used as an irrigating solution on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals. Sixty single-rooted teeth were prepared (using castor oil extract as irrigating solution) and divided into five groups (n = 12): Group 1 samples were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), Group 2 samples were treated with polymyxin B, Group 3 samples were treated with Ca(OH)2 and 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), and Group 4 samples were treated with castor oil extract. A control group used physiological saline solution as an irrigant. Canal content samples were collected at four different times: immediately after instrumentation, seven days after instrumentation, after 14 days of intracanal medication, and seven days after removal of intracanal medication. A plating method was used to assess antimicrobial activity and the quantification of endotoxins was evaluated by the chromogenic Limulus lysate assay. Data were submitted to ANOVA and a Dunn test (a = 5%). Irrigation with castor oil extract decreased E. coli counts but had no effect on the level of endotoxins. Samples taken seven days after removal of medication revealed a significant reduction in endotoxin levels in Groups 3 and 4. Compared to the saline solution irrigation, castor oil extract decreased microorganism counts in root canals immediately after canal preparation. None of the medications used completely eliminated endotoxins in the root canal.

  19. Distribution of core oligosaccharide types in lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Amor, K; Heinrichs, D E; Frirdich, E; Ziebell, K; Johnson, R P; Whitfield, C

    2000-03-01

    In the lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli there are five distinct core oligosaccharide (core OS) structures, designated K-12 and R1 to R4. The objective of this work was to determine the prevalences of these core OS types within the species. Unique sequences in the waa (core OS biosynthesis) gene operon were used to develop a PCR-based system that facilitated unequivocal determination of the core OS types in isolates of E. coli. This system was applied to the 72 isolates in the E. coli ECOR collection, a compilation of isolates that is considered to be broadly representative of the genetic diversity of the species. Fifty (69. 4%) of the ECOR isolates contained the R1 core OS, 8 (11.1%) were representatives of R2, 8 (11.1%) were R3, 2 (2.8%) were R4, and only 4 (5.6%) were K-12. R1 is the only core OS type found in all four major phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D) in the ECOR collection. Virulent extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli isolates tend to be closely related to group B2 and, to a lesser extent, group D isolates. All of the ECOR representatives from the B2 and D groups had the R1 core OS. In contrast, commensal E. coli isolates are more closely related to group A, which contains isolates representing each of the five core OS structures. R3 was the only core OS type found in 38 verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) isolates from humans and cattle belonging to the common enterohemorrhagic E. coli serogroups O157, O111, and O26. Although isolates from other VTEC serogroups showed more core OS diversity, the R3 type (83.1% of all VTEC isolates) was still predominant. When non-VTEC commensal isolates from cattle were analyzed, it was found that most possessed the R1 core OS type.

  20. Peptide-assembled graphene oxide as a fluorescent turn-on sensor for lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) detection.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seng Koon; Chen, Peng; Lee, Fook Loy; Moochhala, Shabbir; Liedberg, Bo

    2015-09-15

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a toxic inflammatory stimulator released from the outer cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, known to be directly related to, for example, septic shock, that causes millions of casualties annually. This number could potentially be lowered significantly if specific, sensitive, and more simply applicable LPS biosensors existed. In this work, we present a facile, sensitive and selective LPS sensor, developed by assembling tetramethylrhodamine-labeled LPS-binding peptides on graphene oxide (GO). The fluorescence of the dye-labeled peptide is quenched upon interaction with GO. Specific binding to LPS triggers the release of the peptide-LPS complex from GO, resulting in fluorescence recovery. This fluorescent turn-on sensor offers an estimated limit of detection of 130 pM, which is the lowest ever reported among all synthetic LPS sensors to date. Importantly, this sensor is applicable for detection of LPS in commonly used clinical injectable fluids, and it enables selective detection of LPS from different bacterial strains as well as LPS on the membrane of living E. coli.

  1. E. coli endotoxin shock in the dog; treatment with lidocaine or indomethacin.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, J R; Ramwell, P W

    1978-01-01

    1 Dogs treated with lidocaine (1 mg kg-1 h-1) or indomethacin (1.5 mg/kg) before and after an LD60 dose (1 mg/kg) of E. coli endotoxin survived for at least 72 h. 2 Although all dogs in both treated groups survived, only those treated with indomethacin were significantly protected against the fall in the arterial blood pressure 1 to 2 min following endotoxin administration. 3 Endotoxin increased the plasma prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) concentration in the control and lidocaine-treated groups, however, no increase was observed with indomethacin treatment. 4 Neither lidocaine nor indomethacin alone had any significant effect on the parameters measured in this model. 5 Following the administration of endotoxin, lidocaine-treated animals had significantly decreased plasma fibrinogen concentrations when compared to the other groups. 6 This study suggests that lidocaine, a local anaesthetic and a drug widely used for cardiac arrhythmias, might offer protection in endotoxin shock. PMID:361135

  2. Trametinib, a novel MEK kinase inhibitor, suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production and endotoxin shock.

    PubMed

    Du, Shi-lin; Yuan, Xue; Zhan, Sun; Tang, Luo-jia; Tong, Chao-yang

    2015-03-13

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), one of the most prominent pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), activates macrophages, causing release of toxic cytokines (i.e. tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α) that may provoke inflammation and endotoxin shock. Here, we tested the potential role of trametinib, a novel and highly potent MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor, against LPS-induced TNF-α response in monocytes, and analyzed the underlying mechanisms. We showed that trametinib, at nM concentrations, dramatically inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α mRNA expression and protein secretion in transformed (RAW 264.7 cells) and primary murine macrophages. In ex-vivo cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), this MEK inhibitor similarly suppressed TNF-α production by LPS. For the mechanism study, we found that trametinib blocked LPS-induced MEK-ERK activation in above monocytes, which accounted for the defective TNF-α response. Macrophages or PBMCs treated with a traditional MEK inhibitor PD98059 or infected with MEK1/2-shRNA lentivirus exhibited a similar defect as trametinib, and nullified the activity of trametinib. On the other hand, introducing a constitutively-active (CA) ERK1 restored TNF-α production by LPS in the presence of trametinib. In vivo, mice administrated with trametinib produced low levels of TNF-α after LPS stimulation, and these mice were protected from LPS-induced endotoxin shock. Together, these results show that trametinib inhibits LPS-induced TNF-α expression and endotoxin shock probably through blocking MEK-ERK signaling.

  3. Endotoxin of Escherichia coli and permeability of the mammary glands of goats

    SciTech Connect

    Lengemann, F.W.; Pitzrick, M.

    1987-01-01

    Serial collections of milk were used to determine where in the mammary gland endotoxin of Escherichia coli was effective in altering the transfer of selected milk components into blood and blood components into milk. Lactating goats had half the gland infused with 1 ..mu..g of endotoxin and the other half served as a control. Sodium-24 and /sup 42/K or (/sup 14/C) lactose were included with /sup 141/Ce in the infusate in some experiments, whereas in others /sup 99m/Tc-labelled albumin or /sup 24/Na and /sup 42/K were given intravenously 2 h after the endotoxin infusion. Milk was collected 3 h after endotoxin infusion. Endotoxin increased the loss of /sup 24/Na, /sup 42/K, and (/sup 14/C) lactose from the mammary gland and increased the transfer of /sup 24/Na and /sup 99m/Tc-albumin into the gland. The transfer in of /sup 42/K was reduced compared with control halves. Movement of stable Na and K was in accord with the movement of the /sup 24/Na and /sup 42/K. Endotoxin was effective in all parts of the gland but particularly from the mid-portion upward to the alveoli. For the control halves there was evidence that some /sup 24/Na and /sup 42/K crossed the ductal or cisternal epithelium into blood outside of the alveoli, whereas only /sup 42/K provided evidence for transfer from blood to milk in these same regions. There was no demonstrable transfer of lactose and albumin in regions other than the alveoli.

  4. Exposure of periodontal ligament progenitor cells to lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli changes osteoblast differentiation pattern

    PubMed Central

    ALBIERO, Mayra Laino; AMORIM, Bruna Rabelo; MARTINS, Luciane; CASATI, Márcio Zaffalon; SALLUM, Enilson Antonio; NOCITI, Francisco Humberto; SILVÉRIO, Karina Gonzales

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells (PDLMSCs) are an important alternative source of adult stem cells and may be applied for periodontal tissue regeneration, neuroregenerative medicine, and heart valve tissue engineering. However, little is known about the impact of bacterial toxins on the biological properties of PDLSMSCs, including self-renewal, differentiation, and synthesis of extracellular matrix. Objective : This study investigated whether proliferation, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and osteogenic differentiation of CD105-enriched PDL progenitor cell populations (PDL-CD105+ cells) would be affected by exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (EcLPS). Material and Methods : Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression was assessed in PDL-CD105+ cells by the immunostaining technique and confirmed using Western blotting assay. Afterwards, these cells were exposed to EcLPS, and the following assays were carried out: (i) cell viability using MTS; (ii) expression of the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) genes; (iii) osteoblast differentiation assessed by mineralization in vitro, and by mRNA levels of run-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN) determined by quantitative PCR. Results : PDL-CD105+ cells were identified as positive for TLR4. EcLPS did not affect cell viability, but induced a significant increase of transcripts for IL-6 and IL-8. Under osteogenic condition, PDL-CD105+ cells exposed to EcLPS presented an increase of mineralized matrix deposition and higher RUNX2 and ALP mRNA levels when compared to the control group. Conclusions : These results provide evidence that CD105-enriched PDL progenitor cells are able to adapt to continuous Escherichia coli endotoxin challenge, leading to an upregulation of osteogenic activities. PMID:26018305

  5. Effect of E coli endotoxin on the leakage of /sup 14/C-sucrose from phosphatidylcholine liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Onji, T.; Liu, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of E coli endotoxin on the leakage of /sup 14/C-sucrose from phosphatidylcholine liposomes in the absence or presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ was studied. Endotoxin decreased the leakage from liposomes from 27% to 4% in 5 hr when Ca/sup 2 +/ (1 mM) was incorporated into liposomes during sonication. The effect of endotoxin on the leakiness of liposomes was concentration dependent. Ca/sup 2 +/ alone increased the leakage of /sup 14/C-sucrose from liposomes. Mg/sup 2 +/ at concentrations higher than 5 mM exhibited an effect similar to that of Ca/sup 2 +/. These findings suggest that endotoxin increases the molecular packing of phosphatidylcholine bilayers in the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ or Mg/sup 2 +/. A change in the physical state of membrane lipid bilayers induced by endotoxin may affect the function of biological membranes.

  6. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides form procollagen-endotoxin complexes that trigger cartilage inflammation and degeneration: implications for the development of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We have previously reported that bacterial toxins, especially endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), might be important causative agents in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in an in vitro model that simulates the potential effects of residing in damp buildings. Since numerous inflammatory processes are linked with the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), we investigated in detail the effects of LPS on the NF-κB pathway and the postulated formation of procollagen-endotoxin complexes. Methods An in vitro model of human chondrocytes was used to investigate LPS-mediated inflammatory signaling. Results Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that LPS physically interact with collagen type II in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and anti-collagen type II significantly reduced this interaction. BMS-345541 (a specific inhibitor of IκB kinase (IKK)) or wortmannin (a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)) inhibited the LPS-induced degradation of the ECM and apoptosis in chondrocytes. This effect was completely inhibited by combining BMS-345541 and wortmannin. Furthermore, BMS-345541 and/or wortmannin suppressed the LPS-induced upregulation of catabolic enzymes that mediate ECM degradation (matrix metalloproteinases-9, -13), cyclooxygenase-2 and apoptosis (activated caspase-3). These proteins are regulated by NF-κB, suggesting that the NF-κB and PI-3K pathways are involved in LPS-induced cartilage degradation. The induction of NF-κB correlated with activation of IκBα kinase, IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation. Further upstream, LPS induced the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and bound with TLR4, indicating that LPS acts through TLR4. Conclusion These results suggest that molecular associations between LPS/TLR4/collagen type II in chondrocytes upregulate the NF-κB and PI-3K signaling pathways and activate proinflammatory activity. PMID:24020912

  7. Endotoxin "priming" potentiates lung vascular abnormalities in response to Escherichia coli hemolysin: an example of synergism between endo- and exotoxin

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The pore-forming hemolysin of Escherichia coli (HlyA), an important virulence factor in extraintestinal E. coli infections, causes thromboxane generation and related vasoconstriction in perfused rabbit lungs (Seeger, W., H. Walter, N. Suttorp, M. Muhly, and S. Bhakdi. 1989. J. Clin. Invest. 84:220). We investigated the influence of pulmonary vascular "priming" with endotoxin on the responsiveness of the lung to a low-dose HlyA challenge. Rabbit lungs were perfused with Krebs Henseleit buffer containing 0.1-100 ng/ml Salmonella abortus equii lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 60-180 min. This treatment caused protracted release of tumor necrosis factor into the recirculating medium, but did not induce significant alterations of pulmonary hemodynamics and fluid balance. At a dose of 1 ng/ml, HlyA elicited only moderate thromboxane release (< 200 pg/ml) and pulmonary artery pressure increase (< or = 6 mmHg) in control lungs. Acceleration and potentiation of both the metabolic and vasoconstrictor response occurred in lungs primed with LPS. This priming effect displayed dose (threshold integral of 0.1-1 ng/ml LPS) and time dependencies (threshold integral of 60-90 min LPS incubation). Maximum thromboxane release and pulmonary artery pressure increase surpassed the responses to HlyA in nonprimed lungs by more than 15-fold. Cyclooxygenase inhibition and thromboxane-receptor antagonism blocked these effects. These data demonstrate that LPS priming synergizes with HlyA challenge to provoke vascular abnormalities that are possibly relevant to the pathogenesis of organ failure in severe local and systemic infections. PMID:7931076

  8. The influence of sanitizers on the lipopolysaccharide composition of Escherichia coli O111.

    PubMed

    Venter, P; Abraham, M; Lues, J F R; Ivanov, I

    2006-10-01

    This study focused on the influence of typical sanitizers on the composition of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) produced by the verocytotoxin-producing (VTEC) Escherichia coli O111. We also aimed to cast light on the applicability of O-antigen-based serotyping and endotoxin based Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assays applied in the food industry for the identification and quantification of Gram-negative bacteria. E. coli O111 was propagated in the presence of three typical commercially applied sanitizing solutions that included a Clean in Place (CIP) chlorinated sanitizer (bacteriocidal), heavy-duty alkaline sanitizer (bacteriocidal) and a phenolic hand wash solution (bacteriostatic). After the required growth phase was reached the LPS from both the intact cells and debris was extracted and methanolysed followed by trifluoroacetylation. Subsequently GC-MS analysis and the chromogenic LAL assay were applied to assess both the ultra-structure and the toxicity of the extracted LPS. The viability and debris formation during growth was also evaluated to verify the bacteriocidial and static effect of the applied sanitizers as well as to assess its relationship with LPS formation. The total LPS produced was quantified at 1.3 x 10(6) [KDO] x OD(620 nm)(-1) for the control samples, 6.5 x 10(3) [KDO] x OD(620 nm)(-1) for E. coli grown in the presence of CIP chlorinated sanitizer and 2.1 x 10(5) and 2.85 x 10(6) [KDO] x OD(620 nm)(-1) for the organisms grown in the presence of heavy-duty alkaline sanitizer and phenolic hand wash solution respectively (KDO = 2-keto-3-deoxy-octulosonic acid). A negative correlation (gamma(2)= -0.880) between the [KDO] and Delta viability was evident and indicated that E. coli O111 responds to factors that hinder viability by producing more LPS in its outer membrane. Subsequent assessment of the LPS ultra-structure revealed a definite change in both the total assessed saccharide and lipid fractions. The cumulative change of the LPS in response to

  9. Fimbriae and lipopolysaccharides are necessary for co-aggregation between Lactobacilli and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kouhei; Furukawa, Soichi; Usui, Yumi; Ishiba, Madoka; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Morinaga, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Cells of Lactobacilli co-aggregated with Escherichia coli K-12 cells to form co-aggregates under mixed-culture conditions at 37 °C for 24 h. Co-aggregation was inhibited by sodium dodecyl sulfate but not by protease. E. coli deletion mutants of fimbriae formation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) formation did not co-aggregate with Lactobacilli. These results showed that fimbriae and LPS are necessary for co-aggregation between Lactobacilli and E. coli.

  10. The effect of the intramammary infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin on ovulation in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Amelia M; Hatler, Thomas B; Silvia, William J

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine if intramammary inflammation during the periovulatory period affects the occurrence of ovulation in lactating dairy cows. Ten lactating, cyclic, Holstein dairy cows received 2 injections of prostaglandin F2alpha at eleven-day intervals, to synchronize luteolysis. The day of the second injection was designated as day 0. Ovulation was anticipated to occur 3-5 days later (on days 3-5). Beginning at the morning milking on day 1, cows received intramammary infusions of either Escherichia coli endotoxin (10 microg; n=5) or infusion vehicle (pyrogen free Hank's balanced salt solution; n=5) into 2 quarters immediately after milking. The same quarters were infused after each milking through day 4. Venous blood samples were collected daily from day -1 through 13 for determination of progesterone to monitor luteolysis and formation of a new corpus luteum. Blood samples were also collected at 4-h intervals (days -1 to 2), then at 2-h intervals (days 2 to 5) to measure concentrations of luteinizing hormone. Ovaries were examined ultrasonographically on days -1 through 5 and on day 12 to monitor follicular growth and formation of the corpus luteum. Collectively, these observations were used to determine if and when ovulation occurred. Intramammary infusion of E. coli endotoxin induced an immediate increase in the concentration of somatic cells in milk from treated quarters. However, this treatment had no effect on the occurrence or timing of ovulation. Based on ultrasonography and concentrations of progesterone, four of five cows in each treatment group appeared to have ovulated. Preovulatory surges of LH were detected within the intensive bleeding periods for three cows in each treatment group. The magnitude of the LH surge was reduced in cows receiving endotoxin.

  11. Comparison of bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide concentrations in the blood, ovarian follicular fluid and uterine fluid: a clinical case of bovine metritis

    PubMed Central

    MAGATA, Fumie; ISHIDA, Yoshikazu; MIYAMOTO, Akio; FURUOKA, Hidefumi; INOKUMA, Hisashi; SHIMIZU, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the concentration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the blood, ovarian follicular fluid and uterine fluid of a clinical case of bovine metritis. A 2-year-old lactating Holstein cow exhibited continuous fever >39.5°C for more than 2 weeks after normal calving. The cow produced a fetid, watery, red-brown uterine discharge from the vagina and was diagnosed with metritis. The LPS concentrations in plasma and uterine fluid were 0.94 and 6.34 endotoxin units (EU)/ml, respectively. One of seven follicles showed an extremely high level of LPS (12.40 EU/ml) compared to the other follicles (0.62–0.97 EU/ml). These results might suggest the presence of high concentration of LPS in follicles in cows with postpartum metritis. PMID:25223344

  12. Interaction of bacterial endotoxine (lipopolysaccharide) with latex particles: application to latex agglutination immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Peula-García, J M; Molina-Bolivar, J A; Velasco, J; Rojas, A; Galisteo-González, F

    2002-01-15

    The latex agglutination immunoassay technique uses polymer colloids as carriers for antibodies or antigens to enhance the immunological reaction. In this work, the interaction of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Brucella Melitensis with two conventional latexes has been studied. Some experiments on the physical adsorption of the LPS onto these polystyrene beads have been performed and several complexes with different coverage degrees were obtained by modifying the incubation conditions. Regarding the application in the development of diagnostic test systems, it is advisable to study the latex-LPS complexes from an electrokinetic and colloidal stability point of view. The complexes were electrokinetically characterized by measuring the electrophoretic mobility under different redispersion conditions. The colloidal stability was determined by simple turbidity measurements. Experimental and theoretical data have been employed to study the molecular disposition of the LPS in the latex particle surface to compare with the outer membrane of bacterial cells. Latex complexes covered by different LPS amounts showed high colloidal stability and adequate immunoreactivity that remains for a long time period.

  13. An infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopic (IRRAS) study of the interaction of lipid A and lipopolysaccharide Re with endotoxin-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kerth, Andreas; Garidel, Patrick; Howe, Jörg; Alexander, Christian; Mach, Jean-Pierre; Waelli, Thierry; Blume, Alfred; Th Rietschel, Ernst; Brandenburg, K

    2009-11-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxins) are main constituents of the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, with the 'endotoxic principle' lipid A anchoring LPS into the membrane. When LPS is removed from the bacteria by the action of the immune system or simply by cell dividing, it may interact strongly with immunocompetent cells such as mononuclear cells. This interaction may lead, depending on the LPS concentration, to beneficial (at low) or pathophysiological (at high concentrations) reactions, the latter frequently causing the septic shock syndrome. There is a variety of endogenous LPS-binding proteins. To this class belong lactoferrin (LF) and hemoglobin (Hb), which have been shown to suppress and enhance the LPS-induced cytokine secretion in mononuclear cells, respectively. To elucidate the interaction mechanisms of endotoxins with these proteins, we have investigated in an infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) study the interaction of LPS or lipid A monolayers at the air/water interface with LF and Hb proteins, injected into the aqueous subphase. The data are clearly indicative of completely different interaction mechanisms of the endotoxins with the proteins, with the LF acting only at the LPS backbone, whereas Hb incorporates into the lipid monolayer. These data allow an understanding of the different reactivities in the biomedicinal systems.

  14. Passive Immunization against Cachectin/Tumor Necrosis Factor Protects Mice from Lethal Effect of Endotoxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutler, B.; Milsark, I. W.; Cerami, A. C.

    1985-08-01

    A highly specific polyclonal rabbit antiserum directed against murine cachectin/tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was prepared. When BALB/c mice were passively immunized with the antiserum or with purified immune globulin, they were protected against the lethal effect of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide produced by Escherichia coli. The prophylactic effect was dose-dependent and was most effective when the antiserum was administered prior to the injection of the endotoxin. Antiserum to cachectin/TNF did not mitigate the febrile response of endotoxin-treated animals, and very high doses of endotoxin could overcome the protective effect. The median lethal dose of endotoxin in mice pretreated with 50 microliters of the specific antiserum was approximately 2.5 times greater the median lethal dose for controls given nonimmune serum. The data suggest that cachectin/TNF is one of the principal mediators of the lethal effect of endotoxin.

  15. PmrD is required for modifications to escherichia coli endotoxin that promote antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Erica J; Herrera, Carmen M; Crofts, Alexander A; Trent, M Stephen

    2015-04-01

    In Salmonella enterica, PmrD is a connector protein that links the two-component systems PhoP-PhoQ and PmrA-PmrB. While Escherichia coli encodes a PmrD homolog, it is thought to be incapable of connecting PhoPQ and PmrAB in this organism due to functional divergence from the S. enterica protein. However, our laboratory previously observed that low concentrations of Mg(2+), a PhoPQ-activating signal, leads to the induction of PmrAB-dependent lipid A modifications in wild-type E. coli (C. M. Herrera, J. V. Hankins, and M. S. Trent, Mol Microbiol 76:1444-1460, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07150.x). These modifications include phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) and 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose (l-Ara4N), which promote bacterial resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) when affixed to lipid A. Here, we demonstrate that pmrD is required for modification of the lipid A domain of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under low-Mg(2+) growth conditions. Further, RNA sequencing shows that E. coli pmrD influences the expression of pmrA and its downstream targets, including genes coding for the modification enzymes that transfer pEtN and l-Ara4N to the lipid A molecule. In line with these findings, a pmrD mutant is dramatically impaired in survival compared with the wild-type strain when exposed to the CAMP polymyxin B. Notably, we also reveal the presence of an unknown factor or system capable of activating pmrD to promote lipid A modification in the absence of the PhoPQ system. These results illuminate a more complex network of protein interactions surrounding activation of PhoPQ and PmrAB in E. coli than previously understood.

  16. Dose-response investigation of oral ketoprofen in pigs challenged with Escherichia coli endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, K; Banting, A; Raekallio, M; Heinonen, M; Peltoniemi, O A T; Vainio, O

    2012-07-21

    In order to determine the effective dose, the effects of orally administered ketoprofen were evaluated in pigs following intravenous challenge with Escherichia coli endotoxin. One hour after the challenge, five groups of pigs were treated with either tap water or ketoprofen (0.5 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg or 4 mg/kg). The body temperature was measured and a total clinical score was calculated after assessing the general behaviour, respiratory rate and locomotion of the pigs. Thromboxane B(2) and ketoprofen concentrations were analysed from blood samples. Ketoprofen treatment significantly reduced the rectal temperature and total clinical scores, and lowered blood thromboxane B(2) concentrations when compared with the control group. Ketoprofen plasma concentrations were lower than previously reported in healthy pigs after similar doses. The appropriate dose of orally administered ketoprofen in pigs in this model is 2 mg/kg, as the higher dose of 4 mg/kg failed to provide an additional benefit.

  17. Bacteriophage PhiX174's Ecological Niche and the Flexibility of Its Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide Receptor▿

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Alix; Clermont, Olivier; Denamur, Erick; Tenaillon, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    To determine bacteriophage PhiX174's ecological niche, 783 Escherichia coli isolates were screened for susceptibility. Sensitive strains are diverse regarding their phylogenies and core lipopolysaccharides (LPS), but all have rough phenotypes. Further analysis of E. coli K-12 LPS mutants revealed that PhiX174 can use a wide diversity of LPS structures to initiate its infectious process. PMID:20833781

  18. Paeonol suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokines in macrophage cells and protects mice from lethal endotoxin shock.

    PubMed

    Chen, Na; Liu, Dianfeng; Soromou, Lanan Wassy; Sun, Jingjing; Zhong, Weiting; Guo, Weixiao; Huo, Meixia; Li, Hongyu; Guan, Shuang; Chen, Zhenwen; Feng, Haihua

    2014-06-01

    Paeonol (2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone) is the main phenolic compound of the radix of Paeonia suffruticosa which has been used as traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, we primarily investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying mechanisms of paeonol in RAW macrophage cells; and based on these effects, we assessed the protective effects of paeonol on lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia in mice. The in vitro study showed that paeonol regulated the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 via inactivation of IκBα, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK. In mouse model of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are significantly regulated, and thus the survival rates of lipolysaccharide-challenged mice are improved by paeonol (150, 200, or 250 mg/kg). Therefore, paeonol has a beneficial activity against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cell and mouse models.

  19. Influence of Core Oligosaccharide of Lipopolysaccharide to Outer Membrane Behavior of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhou; Wang, Jianli; Ren, Ge; Li, Ye; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides, major molecules in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, play important roles on membrane integrity of the cell. However, how the core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide affect the membrane behavior is not well understood. In this study, the relationship between the core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide and the membrane behavior was investigated using a series of Escherichia coli mutants defective in genes to affect the biosynthesis of core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide. Cell surface hydrophobicity, outer membrane permeability, biofilm formation and auto-aggregation of these mutant cells were compared. Compared to the wild type W3110, cell surface hydrophobicities of mutant ΔwaaC, ΔwaaF, ΔwaaG, ΔwaaO, ΔwaaP, ΔwaaY and ΔwaaB were enhanced, outer membrane permeabilities of ΔwaaC, ΔwaaF, ΔwaaG and ΔwaaP were significantly increased, abilities of biofilm formation by ΔwaaC, ΔwaaF, ΔwaaG, ΔwaaO, ΔwaaR, ΔwaaP, ΔwaaQ and ΔwaaY decreased, and auto-aggregation abilities of ΔwaaC, ΔwaaF, ΔwaaG, ΔwaaO, ΔwaaR, ΔwaaU, ΔwaaP and ΔwaaY were strongly enhanced. These results give new insight into the influence of core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide on bacterial cell membrane behavior. PMID:26023839

  20. Colistin inhibits E. coli O157:H7 Shiga-like toxin release, binds endotoxins and protects Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Percivalle, Elena; Monzillo, Vincenzina; Pauletto, Alessandro; Marone, Piero; Imberti, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The role of antibiotics in the treatment of Shiga-like toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli infection is still controversial. This study investigated the effects of colistin on Vero cell cytotoxicity caused by the enterohemorrhagic EC O157:H7, and the effects of colistin on Stx and endotoxin release by EC O157:H7. Vero cells were incubated with supernatant collected from EC O157:H7 cultured for 18 h without (control) or with various concentrations of colistin. In the absence of colistin, Vero cell viability after 48 h was 29.1±6.5%. Under the same conditions, the overnight presence of colistin reduced cytotoxicity to Vero cells (viability: 97±3.5 to 56.5±14.4% for colistin concentrations ≥MIC). Sub-MIC concentrations of colistin also provided partial protection (viability: 38.8±12.5 to 36.6±14% for 0.125 and 0.06 mcg/ml colistin, respectively). Endotoxins contributed to the cytotoxic effects on Vero cells since lower but still significant protection was observed when colistin was added directly to the supernatant collected from cultures of untreated EC O157:H7. Colistin reduced Stx release in a concentration-dependent manner, also at sub-MIC concentrations. Coincubation of the supernatant from EC O157:H7 cultures with colistin markedly reduced the endotoxin concentration at all doses investigated. In conclusion, colistin protects Vero cells from EC O157:H7 at supra- and sub-MIC concentrations by inhibiting Stx release and binding endotoxins. Colistin might be a valuable treatment for clinically severe forms of EC O157:H7 infection.

  1. Structural and Dynamic Insights into a Glycine-Mediated Short Analogue of a Designed Peptide in Lipopolysaccharide Micelles: Correlation Between Compact Structure and Anti-Endotoxin Activity.

    PubMed

    Datta, Aritreyee; Jaiswal, Nancy; Ilyas, Humaira; Debnath, Shibjyoti; Biswas, Kaushik; Kumar, Dinesh; Bhunia, Anirban

    2017-02-21

    In this study, we report an interaction study of a 13-residue analogue peptide VG13P (VARGWGRKCPLFG), derived from a designed VG16KRKP peptide (VARGWKRKCPLFGKGG), with a Lys6Gly mutation and removal of the last three residues Lys(14)-Gly(15)-Gly(16), in lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and responsible for sepsis or septic shock. VG13P displays an enhanced anti-endotoxin property as evident from significant reduction in LPS-induced TNF-α gene expression levels in a monocytic cell line, while it retains almost unchanged antimicrobial activity as its parent VG16KRKP against Gram-negative bacterial as well as fungal pathogens. In addition, in vitro LPS binding properties of VG13P in comparison to its parent VG16KRKP also remained unhindered, suggesting that the flexible C-terminal end of VG16KRKP may not play a major role in its observed antibacterial and LPS binding properties. An NMR-resolved solution structure of VG13P in LPS reveals two consecutive β-turns: one at the N-terminus, followed by another at the central region, closely resembling a rocking chair. The crucial Lys6Gly mutation along with C-terminal truncation from VG16KRKP reorients the hydrophobic hub in VG13P in a unique way so as to fold the N-terminal end back on itself, forming a turn and allowing Val1 and Ala2 to interact with Leu11 and Phe12 to bring the hydrophobic residues closer together to form a more compact hub compared to its parent. The hub is further strengthened via CH-π interaction between Gly4 and Phe12. This accounts for its improved anti-endotoxin activity as well as to its uninterrupted antimicrobial activity.

  2. Protective effect of porphyran isolated from discolored nori (Porphyra yezoensis) on lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxin shock in mice.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Cho, Kichul; Isaka, Shogo; Ueno, Mikinori; Jin, Jun-O; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Kim, Daekyung; Oda, Tatsuya

    2016-12-01

    Porphyran, a sulfated polysaccharide, isolated from discolored nori (Porphyra yezoensis) (dc-porphyran) and one fraction (F1) purified from dc-porphyran by DEAE-chromatography showed the protective effects on LPS-induced endotoxin shock in mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment with dc-porphyran or F1 (100mg/kg) 60min prior to i.p. injection of LPS (30mg/kg) completely protected mice from LPS lethality. At 10mg/kg concentration, F1 demonstrated more protection than dc-porphyran. Intravenous (i.v.) challenge of LPS, even at 20mg/kg, was more lethal than i.p. administration; i.v. injection of F1 (100mg/kg) with LPS significantly improved the survival rate. However, i.v. dc-porphyran (100mg/kg) produced an even lower survival rate than that of LPS alone. We examined pro-inflammatory mediators such as NO and TNF-α in serum. F1 significantly reduced the levels of these markers. Additionally, F1 significantly decreased the malondialdehyde level in the liver, a marker of oxidative stress, while dc-porphyran had almost no effect. Furthermore, F1 significantly decreased the production of TNF-α and NO in peritoneal exudate cells harvested from LPS-challenged mice, while dc-porphyran treatment showed a lesser decrease. Our results suggest that porphyran isolated from discolored nori, especially F1, is capable of suppressing LPS-induced endotoxin shock in vivo.

  3. Enhanced host immune recognition of E.coli causing mastitis in CD-14 transgenic mice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherchia coli causes mastitis, an economically significant disease in dairy animals. E. coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) when bound by host membrane proteins such as CD-14, causes release of pro-inflammatory cytokines recruiting neutrophils as a early innate immune response. Excessive pr...

  4. RAPID BREAKING OF TOLERANCE AGAINST ESCHERICHIA COLI LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE IN VIVO AND IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Sjöberg, Olof

    1972-01-01

    The breaking of tolerance against the lipopolysaccharide from E. coli 055:B5 was studied. It was found that immune responsiveness recovered very slowly in vivo, tolerance still existing 3 wk after the last tolerizing injection. However, if spleen cells from tolerant mice were transferred into irradiated syngeneic recipients, the tolerant state was readily broken. Spleen cells transferred 3 days after the last tolerance-maintaining dose did not respond, whereas cells transferred on day 5 or 7 responded equally well as normal spleen cells. It was also possible to break tolerance by incubating tolerant spleen cells, which did not respond after transfer, for 20 hr in vitro before transfer into irradiated recipients. The results suggest that there exist reversibly inactivated cells in tolerant animals and that these cells can be reactivated upon removal of the cells to a neutral environment. PMID:4553014

  5. Combined effect of ampicillin, colistin and dexamethasone administered intramuscularly to dairy cows on the clinico-pathological course of E. coli-endotoxin mastitis.

    PubMed

    Ziv, G; Shem-Tov, M; Ascher, F

    1998-01-01

    The effects of a single intramuscular injection of a drug product containing ampicillin, colistin and dexamethasone, as a suspension in a diester of propylene glycol of medium-chain fatty acids, on the clinico-pathological course of experimental Escherichia coli-endotoxin mastitis was examined in 30 dairy cows. Cows were divided into five groups, six cows per group, and 24 of them were infused with E. coli endotoxin into two quarters of their udders. The drug product was injected at 25,000 IU colistin sulphate, 10.0 mg ampicillin anhydrate and 0.025 mg dexamethasone acetate.kg-1 body weight as follows: Group 2 cows, immediately post-endotoxin infusion (PEI); Group 3 cows, 2 h PEI and, Group 4 cows, 4 h PEI. Group 1 cows were not treated with the product and served as a positive (endotoxin only) control while Group 5 cows were not challenged with endotoxin and were not treated with the product. A clinical mastitis score (CMS) was developed to quantitatively assess the degree of inflammation. Blood biochemistry and hematological parameters were used to monitor the immediate effects of treatment on several conventional inflammatory markers. Milk somatic cell counts (MSCC), milk electrical conductivity and daily milk production were among the parameters used to monitor systemic and local inflammatory reactions. Administration of the drug product immediately PEI and 2 h PEI clearly nullified some of the most severe early systemic reactions to inflammation but the effect of therapy on the local inflammatory markers was not as obvious. Notewhorthy, however, were the effects of the treatment on reducing the duration of elevated quarter MSCC and the increase in the speed of return to pre-endotoxin challenge daily milk production levels.

  6. Bladder instillation of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide alters the muscle contractions in rat urinary bladder via a protein kinase C-related pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, T.I.; Chen, W.J.; Liu, S.H. . E-mail: shliu@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2005-10-15

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli is a common cause of urinary tract infection. We determined the effects of intravesical instillation of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) on muscle contractions, protein kinase C (PKC) translocation, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in rat urinary bladder. The contractions of the isolated rat detrusor muscle evoked by electrical field stimulations were measured short-term (1 h) or long-term (24 h) after intravesical instillation of LPS. One hour after LPS intravesical instillation, bladder PKC-{alpha} translocation from cytosolic fraction to membrane fraction and endothelial (e)NOS protein was elevated, and detrusor muscle contractions were significantly increased. PKC inhibitors chelerythrine and Ro32-0432 inhibited this LPS-enhanced contractile response. Application of PKC activator {beta}-phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate enhanced the muscle contractions. Three hours after intravesical instillation of LPS, iNOS mRNA was detected in the bladder. Immunoblotting study also demonstrated that the induction of iNOS proteins is detected in bladder in which LPS was instilled. 24 h after intravesical instillation of LPS, PKC-{alpha} translocation was impaired in the bladder; LPS did not affect PKC-{delta} translocation. Muscle contractions were also decreased 24 h after LPS intravesical instillation. Aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor, blocked the decrease in PKC-{alpha} translocation and detrusor contractions induced by LPS. These results indicate that there are different mechanisms involved in the alteration of urinary bladder contractions after short-term and long-term treatment of LPS; an iNOS-regulated PKC signaling may participate in causing the inhibition of muscle contractions in urinary bladder induced by long-term LPS treatment.

  7. Extraction, Purification and Characterization of Lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi.

    PubMed

    Rezania, Simin; Amirmozaffari, Noor; Tabarraei, Bahman; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Zarei, Omid; Alizadeh, Reza; Masjedian, Faramarz; Zarnani, Amir Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an important structural component of the outer cell membrane complex of gram negative microorganisms. Its causative role in gram negative bacteria-induced diseases and broad applications in different kinds of cell stimulation experiments provided a conceptual basis for studies directed at the isolation, purification, and detailed chemical characterization of LPS. The main problem with LPS purification protocols is the contamination of the end product with nucleic acids and proteins in variable proportions which could potentially interfere with downstream applications. In this study, a simple procedure for purification of LPS from Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Salmonella typhi (S.typhi) with high purity and very low contaminating nucleic acids and proteins based on the hot phenol-water extraction protocol has been introduced. The purity of extracted LPS was evaluated by silver and coomassie blue staining of SDS-PAGE gels and HPLC analysis. Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) coagulation activity and rabbit pyrogen assay were exploited to monitor the functionality of purified LPS. The results showed that DNase and RNase treatment of the sample is essential after the sonication step to eliminate nucleic acid contamination in the LPS fraction. Silver staining demonstrated ladder pattern which is characteristic of LPS. No contaminating protein was found as assessed by coomassie blue staining. HPLC fractionation revealed high degree of purity comparable with commercial LPS. Parenteral administration of purified LPS resulted in substantial increase of rabbits' body temperature (mean: 1.45°C). LAL coagulation assay confirmed the functional activity of the purified LPS. In conclusion, the protocol presented here could be employed for isolation of LPS with high purity and functional activity.

  8. Oral administration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii reduces mortality associated with immune and cortisol responses to Escherichia coli endotoxin in weaned pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of active dry yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii (Scb), on the immune/cortisol response and subsequent mortality to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration were evaluated in newly weaned piglets (26.1 +/- 3.4 d of age). Barrows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups, wit...

  9. Early effects of Escherichia coli endotoxin infusion on vasopressin-stimulated breakdown and metabolism of inositol lipids in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez de Turco, E.B.; Spitzer, J.A.

    1988-08-30

    The turnover of vasopressin-stimulated 32P-phosphoinositides and 32P-phosphatidic acid and accumulation of (2-3H)-inositol phosphates were examined in hepatocytes from rats infused i.v. with saline and E. coli endotoxin for 3 hrs. Within 60s of VP stimulation the decrease in phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate labeling as well as the increased uptake of 32P into phosphatidic acid were similar in both groups. However, at a later time (300s) the 32P-phosphatidylinositol turnover was greatly decreased concomitantly with a higher labeling of phosphatidic acid. The accumulation of (2-3H)-inositol phosphates in ET-cells was significantly decreased both at 30s and 600s after VP addition. The distribution of (2-3H)-inositol labeling accumulated in the different inositol phosphate fractions over the first 30s of VP stimulation showed a tendency to lower accumulation of inositol trisphosphate, and a significantly lower accumulation of inositol bisphosphate simultaneously with a higher labeling of the inositol tetrakisphosphate fraction. These observations reflect an early effect of ET-infusion on VP-stimulated inositol lipid turnover and on the subsequent metabolism of the released inositol phosphates.

  10. Plasma and tissue disposition of florfenicol in Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxaemic sheep.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fernández, Rubén; Cazanga, Victoria; Jeldres, Jessie Ana; Silva, Pedro P; Riquelme, José; Quiroz, Fernando; Palma, Cristina; Carretta, Maria D; Burgos, Rafael A

    2017-05-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of the acute inflammatory response (AIR) induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on florfenicol (FFC) and FFC-amine (FFC-a) plasma and tissue concentrations. 2. Ten Suffolk Down sheep, 60.5 ± 4.7 kg, were distributed into two experimental groups: group 1 (LPS) treated with three intravenous doses of 1 μg/kg bw of LPS at 24, 16, and 0.75 h (45 min) before FFC treatment; group 2 (Control) was treated with saline solution (SS) in parallel to group 1. An IM dose of 20 mg FFC/kg was administered at 0.75 h after the last injection of LPS or SS. Blood and tissue samples were taken after FFC administration. 3. The plasma AUC0-4 h values of FFC were higher (p = 0.0313) in sheep treated with LPS (21.8 ± 2.0 μg·min/mL) compared with the control group (12.8 ± 2.3 μg·min/mL). Lipopolysaccharide injections increased FFC concentrations in kidneys, spleen, and brain. Low levels of plasma FFC-a were observed in control sheep (Cmax = 0.14 ± 0.01 μg/mL) with a metabolite ratio (MR) of 4.0 ± 0.87%. While in the LPS group, Cmax increased slightly (0.25 ± 0.01 μg/mL), and MR decreased to 2.8 ± 0.17%. 4. The changes observed in the plasma and tissue concentrations of FFC were attributed to the pathophysiological effects of LPS on renal hemodynamics that modified tissue distribution and reduced elimination of the drug.

  11. Metabolic and hematological consequences of dietary deoxynivalenol interacting with systemic Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Bannert, Erik; Tesch, Tanja; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Kahlert, Stefan; Renner, Lydia; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-11-16

    Previous studies have shown that chronic oral deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure modulated Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation, whereby the liver was suspected to play an important role. Thus, a total of 41 barrows was fed one of two maize-based diets, either a DON-diet (4.59 mg DON/kg feed, n = 19) or a control diet (CON, n = 22). Pigs were equipped with indwelling catheters for pre- or post-hepatic (portal vs. jugular catheter) infusion of either control (0.9% NaCl) or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW) for 1h and frequent blood sampling. This design yielded six groups: CON_CONjugular‑CONportal, CON_CONjugular‑LPSportal, CON_LPSjugular‑CONportal, DON_CONjugular‑CONportal, DON_CONjugular‑LPSportal and DON_LPSjugular‑CONportal. Blood samples were analyzed for blood gases, electrolytes, glucose, pH, lactate and red hemogram. The red hemogram and electrolytes were not affected by DON and LPS. DON-feeding solely decreased portal glucose uptake (p < 0.05). LPS-decreased partial oxygen pressure (pO₂) overall (p < 0.05), but reduced pCO₂ only in arterial blood, and DON had no effect on either. Irrespective of catheter localization, LPS decreased pH and base-excess (p < 0.01), but increased lactate and anion-gap (p < 0.01), indicating an emerging lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis was more pronounced in the group DON_LPSjugular-CONportal than in CON-fed counterparts (p < 0.05). DON-feeding aggravated the porcine acid-base balance in response to a subsequent immunostimulus dependent on its exposure site (pre- or post-hepatic).

  12. Metabolic and Hematological Consequences of Dietary Deoxynivalenol Interacting with Systemic Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Bannert, Erik; Tesch, Tanja; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Kahlert, Stefan; Renner, Lydia; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that chronic oral deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure modulated Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation, whereby the liver was suspected to play an important role. Thus, a total of 41 barrows was fed one of two maize-based diets, either a DON-diet (4.59 mg DON/kg feed, n = 19) or a control diet (CON, n = 22). Pigs were equipped with indwelling catheters for pre- or post-hepatic (portal vs. jugular catheter) infusion of either control (0.9% NaCl) or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW) for 1h and frequent blood sampling. This design yielded six groups: CON_CONjugular-CONportal, CON_CONjugular-LPSportal, CON_LPSjugular-CONportal, DON_CONjugular-CONportal, DON_CONjugular-LPSportal and DON_LPSjugular-CONportal. Blood samples were analyzed for blood gases, electrolytes, glucose, pH, lactate and red hemogram. The red hemogram and electrolytes were not affected by DON and LPS. DON-feeding solely decreased portal glucose uptake (p < 0.05). LPS-decreased partial oxygen pressure (pO2) overall (p < 0.05), but reduced pCO2 only in arterial blood, and DON had no effect on either. Irrespective of catheter localization, LPS decreased pH and base-excess (p < 0.01), but increased lactate and anion-gap (p < 0.01), indicating an emerging lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis was more pronounced in the group DON_LPSjugular-CONportal than in CON-fed counterparts (p < 0.05). DON-feeding aggravated the porcine acid-base balance in response to a subsequent immunostimulus dependent on its exposure site (pre- or post-hepatic). PMID:26580654

  13. Removal of endotoxins from bacteriophage preparations by extraction with organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Szermer-Olearnik, Bożena; Boratyński, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin, pyrogen) constitutes a very troubling contaminant of crude phage lysates produced in Gram-negative bacteria. Toxicity of LPS depends on the strong innate immunity response including the cytokines. Therefore, its removal is important for bacteriophage applications. In this paper, we present a procedure for extractive removal of endotoxin from bacteriophage preparations with water immiscible solvents (1-octanol or 1-butanol). During extraction most of the phage lytic activity is retained in the aqueous phase, while endotoxin accumulates in the organic solvent. The levels of endotoxin (expressed as endotoxin units, EU) in the aqueous bacteriophage-containing fraction determined by limulus amebocyte lysate or EndoLISA assay were exceptionally low. While the initial endotoxin levels in the crude phage lysates ranged between 10(3) and 10(5) EU/ml the average level after organic extraction remaining in the aqueous fraction was 5.3 EU/ml. These values when related to phage titers decreased from 10(3)-10(5) EU/10(9) PFU (plaque forming units) down to an average of 2.8 EU/10(9) PFU. The purification procedure is scalable, efficient and applicable to all the bacteriophages tested: T4, HAP1 (E. coli) and F8 (P. aeruginosa).

  14. Residual endotoxin contaminations in recombinant proteins are sufficient to activate human CD1c+ dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Harald; Schmittner, Maria; Duschl, Albert; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Many commercially available recombinant proteins are produced in Escherichia coli, and most suppliers guarantee contamination levels of less than 1 endotoxin unit (EU). When we analysed commercially available proteins for their endotoxin content, we found contamination levels in the same range as generally stated in the data sheets, but also some that were higher. To analyse whether these low levels of contamination have an effect on immune cells, we stimulated the monocytic cell line THP-1, primary human monocytes, in vitro differentiated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and primary human CD1c+ dendritic cells (DCs) with very low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; ranging from 0.002-2 ng/ml). We show that CD1c+ DCs especially can be activated by minimal amounts of LPS, equivalent to the levels of endotoxin contamination we detected in some commercially available proteins. Notably, the enhanced endotoxin sensitivity of CD1c+ DCs was closely correlated with high CD14 expression levels observed in CD1c+ DCs that had been maintained in cell culture medium for 24 hours. When working with cells that are particularly sensitive to LPS, even low endotoxin contamination may generate erroneous data. We therefore recommend that recombinant proteins be thoroughly screened for endotoxin contamination using the limulus amebocyte lysate test, fluorescence-based assays, or a luciferase based NF-κB reporter assay involving highly LPS-sensitive cells overexpressing TLR4, MD-2 and CD14.

  15. Removal of Endotoxins from Bacteriophage Preparations by Extraction with Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Szermer-Olearnik, Bożena; Boratyński, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin, pyrogen) constitutes a very troubling contaminant of crude phage lysates produced in Gram-negative bacteria. Toxicity of LPS depends on the strong innate immunity response including the cytokines. Therefore, its removal is important for bacteriophage applications. In this paper, we present a procedure for extractive removal of endotoxin from bacteriophage preparations with water immiscible solvents (1-octanol or 1-butanol). During extraction most of the phage lytic activity is retained in the aqueous phase, while endotoxin accumulates in the organic solvent. The levels of endotoxin (expressed as endotoxin units, EU) in the aqueous bacteriophage-containing fraction determined by limulus amebocyte lysate or EndoLISA assay were exceptionally low. While the initial endotoxin levels in the crude phage lysates ranged between 103 and 105 EU/ml the average level after organic extraction remaining in the aqueous fraction was 5.3 EU/ml. These values when related to phage titers decreased from 103-105 EU/109 PFU (plaque forming units) down to an average of 2.8 EU/109 PFU. The purification procedure is scalable, efficient and applicable to all the bacteriophages tested: T4, HAP1 (E. coli) and F8 (P. aeruginosa). PMID:25811193

  16. Assembly of LamB and OmpF in deep rough lipopolysaccharide mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Laird, M W; Kloser, A W; Misra, R

    1994-01-01

    Assembly of the OmpF and LamB proteins was kinetically retarded in deep rough lipopolysaccharide mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. OmpF assembly was affected at the step of conversion of metastable trimers to stable trimers, whereas LamB assembly was influenced both at the monomer-to-metastable trimer and metastable-to-stable trimer steps. These assembly defects were reversed in the presence of the sfaA1 and sfaB3 suppressor alleles, which were isolated by using ompF assembly mutants. Images PMID:8157594

  17. Resistance of MMP9 and TIMP1 to endotoxin tolerance.

    PubMed

    Muthukuru, Manoj; Cutler, Christopher W

    2015-07-01

    Inflammatory cytokines activate tissue collagenases such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs are antagonized by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) that attempt to regulate excessive collagenase activity during inflammatory conditions. During chronic inflammatory conditions, induction of endotoxin tolerance negatively regulates the cytokine response in an attempt to curtail excessive host tissue damage. However, little is known about how downregulation of inflammatory cytokines during endotoxin tolerance regulates MMP activities. In this study, human monocyte-derived macrophages were either sensitized or further challenged to induce tolerance with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PgLPS) or Escherichia coli (EcLPS). Inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β, and levels of MMP9 and TIMP1 were analyzed by a combination of cytometric bead array, western blot/gelatin zymography and real-time RT-PCR. Functional blocking with anti-TLR4 but not with anti-TLR2 significantly downregulated TNF-α and IL-1β. However, MMP9 levels were not inhibited by toll-like receptor (TLR) blocking. Interestingly, endotoxin tolerance significantly upregulated TIMP1 relative to MMP9 and downmodulated MMP9 secretion and its enzymatic activity. These results suggest that regulatory mechanisms such as induction of endotoxin tolerance could inhibit MMP activities and could facilitate restoring host tissue homeostasis.

  18. Assembly of lipopolysaccharide in Escherichia coli requires the essential LapB heat shock protein.

    PubMed

    Klein, Gracjana; Kobylak, Natalia; Lindner, Buko; Stupak, Anna; Raina, Satish

    2014-05-23

    Here, we describe two new heat shock proteins involved in the assembly of LPS in Escherichia coli, LapA and LapB (lipopolysaccharide assembly protein A and B). lapB mutants were identified based on an increased envelope stress response. Envelope stress-responsive pathways control key steps in LPS biogenesis and respond to defects in the LPS assembly. Accordingly, the LPS content in ΔlapB or Δ(lapA lapB) mutants was elevated, with an enrichment of LPS derivatives with truncations in the core region, some of which were pentaacylated and exhibited carbon chain polymorphism. Further, the levels of LpxC, the enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step of lipid A synthesis, were highly elevated in the Δ(lapA lapB) mutant. Δ(lapA lapB) mutant accumulated extragenic suppressors that mapped either to lpxC, waaC, and gmhA, or to the waaQ operon (LPS biosynthesis) and lpp (Braun's lipoprotein). Increased synthesis of either FabZ (3-R-hydroxymyristoyl acyl carrier protein dehydratase), slrA (novel RpoE-regulated non-coding sRNA), lipoprotein YceK, toxin HicA, or MurA (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferase) suppressed some of the Δ(lapA lapB) defects. LapB contains six tetratricopeptide repeats and, at the C-terminal end, a rubredoxin-like domain that was found to be essential for its activity. In pull-down experiments, LapA and LapB co-purified with LPS, Lpt proteins, FtsH (protease), DnaK, and DnaJ (chaperones). A specific interaction was also observed between WaaC and LapB. Our data suggest that LapB coordinates assembly of proteins involved in LPS synthesis at the plasma membrane and regulates turnover of LpxC, thereby ensuring balanced biosynthesis of LPS and phospholipids consistent with its essentiality.

  19. E. Coli Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is E. coli?E. coli is short for Escherichia coli -- bacteria (germs) that cause severe cramps and diarrhea. ... staff Tags: bacterial endotoxin, bloody diarrhea, enterohemorrhagic infection, Escherichia coli, food-borne illness, gastroenteritis, hemorrhagic colitis, HUS, thrombotic ...

  20. Naturally occurring hypothermia is more advantageous than fever in severe forms of lipopolysaccharide- and Escherichia coli-induced systemic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Elaine; Lewis, Kevin; Al-Saffar, Hiba; Krall, Catherine M.; Singh, Anju; Kulchitsky, Vladimir A.; Corrigan, Joshua J.; Simons, Christopher T.; Petersen, Scott R.; Musteata, Florin M.; Bakshi, Chandra S.; Romanovsky, Andrej A.; Sellati, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The natural switch from fever to hypothermia observed in the most severe cases of systemic inflammation is a phenomenon that continues to puzzle clinicians and scientists. The present study was the first to evaluate in direct experiments how the development of hypothermia vs. fever during severe forms of systemic inflammation impacts the pathophysiology of this malady and mortality rates in rats. Following administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 or 18 mg/kg) or of a clinical Escherichia coli isolate (5 × 109 or 1 × 1010 CFU/kg), hypothermia developed in rats exposed to a mildly cool environment, but not in rats exposed to a warm environment; only fever was revealed in the warm environment. Development of hypothermia instead of fever suppressed endotoxemia in E. coli-infected rats, but not in LPS-injected rats. The infiltration of the lungs by neutrophils was similarly suppressed in E. coli-infected rats of the hypothermic group. These potentially beneficial effects came with costs, as hypothermia increased bacterial burden in the liver. Furthermore, the hypotensive responses to LPS or E. coli were exaggerated in rats of the hypothermic group. This exaggeration, however, occurred independently of changes in inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins. Despite possible costs, development of hypothermia lessened abdominal organ dysfunction and reduced overall mortality rates in both the E. coli and LPS models. By demonstrating that naturally occurring hypothermia is more advantageous than fever in severe forms of aseptic (LPS-induced) or septic (E. coli-induced) systemic inflammation, this study provides new grounds for the management of this deadly condition. PMID:22513748

  1. Exacerbation of murine ileitis by Toll‐like receptor 4 mediated sensing of lipopolysaccharide from commensal Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Heimesaat, M M; Fischer, A; Jahn, H‐K; Niebergall, J; Freudenberg, M; Blaut, M; Liesenfeld, O; Schumann, R R; Göbel, U B; Bereswill, S

    2007-01-01

    Background In the course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and acute murine ileitis following peroral Toxoplasma gondii infection, commensal Escherichia coli accumulate at inflamed mucosal sites and aggravate small intestinal immunopathology. Aim To unravel the molecular mechanisms by which commensal E coli exacerbate ileitis. Methods Ileitis was investigated in mice that lack Toll‐like receptors (TLR) 2 or 4, specific for bacterial lipoproteins (LP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively. Gnotobiotic mice, in which any cultivable gut bacteria were eradicated by antibiotic treatment, were used to study the role of LPS in ileitis. Results Microbiological analyses revealed that E coli increase in the inflamed ileum. TLR4−/−, but not TLR2−/−, mice displayed reduced mortality and small intestinal immunopathology. Decreased interferon (IFN)‐γ and nitric oxide (NO) levels in the inflamed terminal ileum of TLR4−/− mice indicated that TLR4 signalling aggravates ileitis via local mediator release from immune cells. E coli strains isolated from the inflamed ileum activated cultured mouse macrophages and induced TLR4‐dependent nuclear factor κB activation and NO production in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and in peritoneal macrophages, respectively. Most strikingly, in contrast with wild‐type mice, gnotobiotic TLR4−/− mice were protected from induction of ileitis by treatment with purified E coli lipid A or colonisation with live E coli. Finally, prophylactic treatment with the LPS scavenger polymyxin B ameliorated T gondii‐induced ileitis. Conclusion These findings highlight the innate immune system as a key player in T gondii‐induced ileal immunopathology. Treatment with LPS or TLR4 antagonists may represent a novel strategy for prophylaxis and/or therapy of small intestinal inflammation in IBD. PMID:17255219

  2. Recent advances in biosensor based endotoxin detection.

    PubMed

    Das, A P; Kumar, P S; Swain, S

    2014-01-15

    Endotoxins also referred to as pyrogens are chemically lipopolysaccharides habitually found in food, environment and clinical products of bacterial origin and are unavoidable ubiquitous microbiological contaminants. Pernicious issues of its contamination result in high mortality and severe morbidities. Standard traditional techniques are slow and cumbersome, highlighting the pressing need for evoking agile endotoxin detection system. The early and prompt detection of endotoxin assumes prime importance in health care, pharmacological and biomedical sectors. The unparalleled recognition abilities of LAL biosensors perched with remarkable sensitivity, high stability and reproducibility have bestowed it with persistent reliability and their possible fabrication for commercial applicability. This review paper entails an overview of various trends in current techniques available and other possible alternatives in biosensor based endotoxin detection together with its classification, epidemiological aspects, thrust areas demanding endotoxin control, commercially available detection sensors and a revolutionary unprecedented approach narrating the influence of omics for endotoxin detection.

  3. Bacterial endotoxins: biological properties and mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Freudenberg, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) are agents of pathogenicity of Gram-negative bacteria, implicated in the development of Gram-negative shock. Endotoxin reacts with lipopolysaccharide-sensitive cells producing endogenous mediators such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Macrophages are cells mediating the toxic activities of LPS and TNFα is the primary mediator of the lethal action of endotoxin. This review article discusses the various mechanisms by which endotoxin hypersensitivity in bacteria-sensitized animals develops. The paper concludes with a discussion on the possible protective effect of carnitine congeners against the lethal action of LPS. PMID:18475562

  4. Relation Between Excreted Lipopolysaccharide Complexes and Surface Structures of a Lysine-Limited Culture of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Knox, K. W.; Vesk, Maret; Work, Elizabeth

    1966-01-01

    Knox, K. W. (Twyford Laboratories, London, England), Maret Vesk, and Elizabeth Work. Relation between excreted lipopolysaccharide complexes and surface structures of a lysine-limited culture of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 92:1206–1217. 1966.—The lysine-requiring mutant Escherichia coli 12408, when grown in 15 liters of defined medium containing a suboptimal amount of lysine, showed a biphasic type of growth. During a long stationary phase of 15 hr, there was a steady accumulation of diaminopimelic acid (DAP) and an antigenic complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoprotein; the accumulation continued unchanged until the end of the second growth phase. The rapid rate of DAP excretion suggested that it was the result of a derepressed state of a biosynthetic pathway. LPS excretion was such that the amount in the culture fluid was doubled during a period corresponding to the normal generation time for the organism; this suggested that the LPS-lipoprotein complex was a product of unbalanced growth. Surface defects were suggested by the action of lysozyme, which, in low concentrations (10 μg/ml), lysed the lysine-limited cells even in the absence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, but had no effect at 10 μg/ml on cells grown with adequate lysine. Electron microscopy of cells excreting the LPS complex showed them to be surrounded by a mass of stacked leaflets and globules, some of which were bounded by triple membranes. Sections showed no lysis but changes in cell surfaces; outer layers of the walls had numerous blebs whose outer membranes were sometimes continuous with the outer triple membrane of the wall. LPS-lipoprotein probably originates from these blebs. Images PMID:4959044

  5. In Vitro Assembly of the Outer Core of the Lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There are five distinct core structures in the lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli and at least two in Salmonella isolates, which vary principally in the outer core oligosaccharide. Six outer core glycosyltransferases, E. coli K-12 WaaG, WaaB, and WaaO and Salmonella typhimurium WaaI, WaaJ, and WaaK, were cloned, overexpressed, and purified. A novel substrate for WaaG was isolated from ΔwaaG E. coli overexpressing the lipid A phosphatase lpxE and the lipid A late acyltransferase lpxM. The action of lpxE and lpxM in the ΔwaaG background yielded heptose2-1-dephospho Kdo2-lipid A, a 1-dephosphorylated hexa-acylated lipid A with the inner core sugars that is easily isolated by organic extraction. Using this structurally defined acceptor and commercially available sugar nucleotides, each outer core glycosyltransferases was assayed in vitro. We show that WaaG and WaaB add a glucose and galactose sequentially to heptose2-1-dephospho Kdo2-lipid A. E. coli K-12 WaaO and S. typhimurium WaaI add a galactose to the WaaG/WaaB product but can also add a galactose to the WaaG product directly without the branched core sugar added by WaaB. Both WaaI and WaaO require divalent metal ions for optimal activity; however, WaaO, unlike WaaI, can add several glucose residues to its lipid acceptor. Using the product of WaaG, WaaB, and WaaI, we show that S. typhimurium WaaJ and WaaK transfer a glucose and N-acetylglucosamine, respectively, to yield the full outer core. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro assembly of the outer core of the lipopolysaccharide using defined lipid A-oligosaccharide acceptors and sugar donors. PMID:24479701

  6. Endotoxin emissions from commercial composting activities.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Lewis; Pankhurst, Louise; Liu, Jian; Drew, Gillian H; Hayes, Enda T; Jackson, Simon; Longhurst, James; Longhurst, Philip; Pollard, Simon; Tyrrel, Sean

    2009-12-21

    This paper describes an exploratory study of endotoxin emissions and dispersal from a commercial composting facility. Replicated samples of air were taken by filtration at different locations around the facility on 10 occasions. Measurements were made of endotoxin and associated culturable microorganisms. The inflammatory response of cell cultures exposed to extracts from the filters was measured. Endotoxin was detected in elevated concentrations close to composting activities. A secondary peak, of lesser magnitude than the peak at source was detected at 100-150 m downwind of the site boundary. Unexpectedly high concentrations of endotoxin were measured at the most distant downwind sampling point. Extracted endotoxin was found to stimulate human monocytes and a human lung epithelial cell line to produce significant amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines. On a weight basis, endotoxin extracted from the composting source has a greater inflammatory cytokine inducing effect than commercial E. coli endotoxin.

  7. The structural characterization of the O-polysaccharide antigen in the lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli serotype O118 and its relationship to the O-antigens of Salmonella enterica O47 and Escherichia coli serotype O151

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide produced by Escherichia coli O118:H16 (standard reference strain; NRCC 6613) contained an O-polysaccharide (O-PS) composed of D-galactose, 2-acetimidoylamino-2,6-dideoxy-L-galactose (L-FucNAm), 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose, ribitol, and phosphate (1:1...

  8. Thoracic epidural anesthesia decreases endotoxin-induced endothelial injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The sympathetic nervous system is considered to modulate the endotoxin-induced activation of immune cells. Here we investigate whether thoracic epidural anesthesia with its regional symapathetic blocking effect alters endotoxin-induced leukocyte-endothelium activation and interaction with subsequent endothelial injury. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized, cannulated and hemodynamically monitored. E. coli lipopolysaccharide (Serotype 0127:B8, 1.5 mg x kg-1 x h-1) or isotonic saline (controls) was infused for 300 minutes. An epidural catheter was inserted for continuous application of lidocaine or normal saline in endotoxemic animals and saline in controls. After 300 minutes we measured catecholamine and cytokine plasma concentrations, adhesion molecule expression, leukocyte adhesion, and intestinal tissue edema. Results In endotoxemic animals with epidural saline, LPS significantly increased the interleukin-1β plasma concentration (48%), the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules E-selectin (34%) and ICAM-1 (42%), and the number of adherent leukocytes (40%) with an increase in intestinal myeloperoxidase activity (26%) and tissue edema (75%) when compared to healthy controls. In endotoxemic animals with epidural infusion of lidocaine the values were similar to those in control animals, while epinephrine plasma concentration was 32% lower compared to endotoxemic animals with epidural saline. Conclusions Thoracic epidural anesthesia attenuated the endotoxin-induced increase of IL-1β concentration, adhesion molecule expression and leukocyte-adhesion with subsequent endothelial injury. A potential mechanism is the reduction in the plasma concentration of epinephrine. PMID:24708631

  9. Structural Characterization of a Model Gram-Negative Bacterial Surface Using Lipopolysaccharides from Rough Strains of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) make up approximately 75% of the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane (OM) surface, but because of the complexity of the molecule, there are very few model OMs that include LPS. The LPS molecule consists of lipid A, which anchors the LPS within the OM, a core polysaccharide region, and a variable O-antigen polysaccharide chain. In this work we used RcLPS (consisting of lipid A plus the first seven sugars of the core polysaccharide) from a rough strain of Escherichia coli to form stable monolayers of LPS at the air–liquid interface. The vertical structure RcLPS monolayers were characterized using neutron and X-ray reflectometry, while the lateral structure was investigated using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and Brewster angle microscopy. It was found that RcLPS monolayers at surface pressures of 20 mN m–1 and above are resolved as hydrocarbon tails, an inner headgroup, and an outer headgroup of polysaccharide with increasing solvation from tails to outer headgroups. The lateral organization of the hydrocarbon lipid chains displays an oblique hexagonal unit cell at all surface pressures, with only the chain tilt angle changing with surface pressure. This is in contrast to lipid A, which displays hexagonal or, above 20 mN m–1, distorted hexagonal packing. This work provides the first complete structural analysis of a realistic E. coli OM surface model. PMID:23617615

  10. Genes for TDP-rhamnose synthesis affect the pattern of lipopolysaccharide heterogeneity in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Klena, J D; Schnaitman, C A

    1994-01-01

    The rough lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of commonly used strains of Escherichia coli K-12 has two distinctly different band patterns when analyzed by high-resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The LPS of ancestral strains such as W1485F- consists primarily of a single broad gel band. In contrast, the LPS of strains derived from strain Y10 such as AB1133 or C600 gives three sharp gel bands. Complementation studies using DNA fragments from the rfb gene cluster of Shigella dysenteriae 1 indicated that the difference between the two gel patterns is due to a mutation in the gene encoding the TDP-rhamnose synthetase, the final enzyme involved in TDP-rhamnose biosynthesis. This mutation arose during the construction of strain Y10, and not in strain 679-680 as previously thought. The requirement for the rfaS gene for synthesis of the broad major band seen in W1485F- LPS and the shift in gel migration of a component of this band when an rfaQ mutation was introduced indicated that this broad band contained the unique form of rough E. coli LPS which has been termed lipooligosaccharide. This finding indicates that lipooligosaccharide is likely to contain rhamnose and suggests a model in which one of the functions of partial substituents such as rhamnose may be to direct core synthesis into different pathways to produce alternative forms of LPS. Images PMID:7517388

  11. Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides lipid A derivatives block in vitro induction of tumor necrosis factor and endotoxin tolerance by smooth lipopolysaccharide and monophosphoryl lipid A.

    PubMed Central

    Henricson, B E; Perera, P Y; Qureshi, N; Takayama, K; Vogel, S N

    1992-01-01

    Rhodopseudomonas (Rhodobacter) sphaeroides diphosphoryl lipid A is a relatively inert species of lipid A but has been shown to antagonize the effects of toxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) both in vivo and in vitro. The antagonist and its monophosphoryl derivative were examined for the ability to block tumor necrosis factor synthesis and reverse tolerance induction in vitro in macrophage cultures stimulated with bioactive preparations of smooth LPS, rough LPS, diphosphoryl lipid A, and monophosphoryl lipid A. Inhibition of agonist activity and reversal of tolerance by these novel penta-acylated lipid A antagonists provides new insight into macrophage-LPS interactions. PMID:1398939

  12. Endotoxin hitchhiking on polymer nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnell, Mason L.; Lyon, Andrew J.; Mormile, Melanie R.; Barua, Sutapa

    2016-07-01

    The control of microbial infections is critical for the preparation of biological media including water to prevent lethal septic shock. Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. More than half a million patients suffer from sepsis every year. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are responsible for septic infection by the most common organisms i.e., Escherichia coli and Pseuodomonas aeruginosa. The bacterial cell membrane releases negatively charged endotoxins upon death and enzymatic destruction, which stimulate antigenic response in humans to gram-negative infections. Several methods including distillation, ethylene oxide treatment, filtration and irradiation have been employed to remove endotoxins from contaminated samples, however, the reduction efficiency remains low, and presents a challenge. Polymer nanoparticles can be used to overcome the current inability to effectively sequester endotoxins from water. This process is termed endotoxin hitchhiking. The binding of endotoxin on polymer nanoparticles via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions offers efficient removal from water. However, the effect of polymer nanoparticles and its surface areas has not been investigated for removal of endotoxins. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymer was tested for its ability to effectively bind and remove endotoxins from water. By employing a simple one-step phase separation technique, we were able to synthesize PCL nanoparticles of 398.3 ± 95.13 nm size and a polydispersity index of 0.2. PCL nanoparticles showed ∼78.8% endotoxin removal efficiency, the equivalent of 3.9 × 105 endotoxin units (EU) per ml. This is 8.34-fold more effective than that reported for commercially available membranes. Transmission electron microscopic images confirmed binding of multiple endotoxins to the nanoparticle surface. The concept of using nanoparticles may be applicable not only to eliminate gram-negative bacteria, but also for any gram

  13. [Biological activity of lipopolysaccharides from clinical Bacteroides fragilis strains isolated in Poland determined in reaction with limulus amoebocyte lysate].

    PubMed

    Rokosz, Alicja; Górska, Paulina; Michałkiewicz, Jacek; Łuczak, Miroslaw

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a biological activity of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from clinical Bacterioides fragilis strains isolated in Poland by means of quantitative, photometric BET (LAL) method with Limulus polyphemus amoebocyte lysate and chromogenic substrate S-2423. Lipopolysaccharides were extracted from nine clinical B. fragilis strains by the procedure of Westphal and Jann (1965). Crude LPS preparations were purified with ultracentrifugation. Biological activities of bacterial endotoxins were determined by quantitative BET method with chromogenic substrate S-2423 (ENDOCHROME kit). Tests were performed according to the recommendations of the producer (Charles River Endosafe Ltd., USA). E. coli O55:B5 LPS and LPS preparations from reference B. fragilis strains were applied to compare the results of examinations. Activities of endotoxins from clinical B. fragilis strains isolated in Poland determined in reaction with Limulus amoebocyte lysate were differentiated. Among endotoxins of clinical B. fragilis strains the most active was the preparation from strain cultured in the case of pancreatic ulcer (B. fragilis 80/81 LPS). Lipopolysaccharides of examined B. fragilis strains were less active in BET test than E. coli O55:B5 LPS.

  14. Protective effects of imipramine in murine endotoxin-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Qu, Jie-ming; Summah, Hanssa; Zhang, Jin; Zhu, Ying-gang; Jiang, Hong-ni

    2010-07-25

    The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine has recently emerged as a cytoprotective agent, exerting beneficial effects in inflammatory tissue injury. The present study aimed to investigate therapeutic effects of imipramine in murine model of endotoxin-induced acute lung injury. Mice were administrated intraperitoneally with LPS (lipopolysaccharide) from Escherichia coli or vehicle. Imipramine was administrated intraperitoneally 30 min before LPS challenge. Pretreatment of mice with imipramine reduced lethality. Impramine also significantly attenuated lung inflammation, lung edema, MPO (myeloperoxidase) activity, lung tissue pathological changes and nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding activity. The results of this study suggest that imipramine can exert protective effects in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury by suppressing nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated expression of inflammatory genes. Thus, imipramine could be a potential novel therapeutic agent for the treatment for acute lung injury.

  15. Purification and characterization of lipopolysaccharides from six strains of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Stromberg, Loreen R; Stromberg, Zachary R; Banisadr, Afsheen; Graves, Steven W; Moxley, Rodney A; Mukundan, Harshini

    2015-09-01

    Certain Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are virulent human pathogens that are most often acquired through contaminated food. The United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service has declared several serogroups of STEC as adulterants in non-intact raw beef products. Hence, sensitive and specific tests for the detection of these STEC are a necessity for implementation in food safety programs. E. coli serogroups are identified by their respective O-antigen moiety on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) macromolecule. We propose that the development of O-antigen-specific immunological assays can facilitate simple and rapid discriminatory detection of STEC in beef. However, the resources (antigens and antibodies) required for such development are not readily available. To overcome this, we extracted and characterized LPS and O-antigen from six STEC strains. Using hot phenol extraction, we isolated the LPS component from each strain and purified it using a series of steps to eliminate proteins, nucleic acids, and lipid A antigens. Antigens and crude LPS extracts were characterized using gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and modified Western blotting with commercially available antibodies, thus assessing the serogroup specificity and sensitivity of available ligands as well. The results indicate that, while many commercially available antibodies bind LPS, their activities and specificities are highly variable, and often not as specific as those required for serogroup discrimination. This variability could be minimized by the production of antibodies specific for the O-antigen. Additionally, the antigens generated from this study provide a source of characterized LPS and O-antigen standards for six serogroups of STEC.

  16. New cysE-pyrE-linked rfa mutation in Escherichia coli K-12 that results in a heptoseless lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, W G; Deshpande, K S

    1985-01-01

    A new novobiocin-supersensitive mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 has been characterized biochemically and genetically. Lipopolysaccharide prepared from this mutant strain is truncated and contains 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid as its only core sugar. This new core-defective mutation, designated rfa-2, results in increased sensitivity to several hydrophobic and some hydrophilic agents. Genetic analysis of the rfa mutant indicated that the rfa-2 locus is located at 81 min on the chromosome. The order of the genes in this region based on transduction analysis is xyl cysE rfa-2 rfaD70 pyrE. P1 transduction analyses indicate that the rfa-2 marker is nonallelic with the recently described cysE-pyrE-linked rfaD70 locus. Plasmids carrying the wild-type rfaD70+ allele failed to abolish the rfa-2 phenotypes. Further, the rfaD gene product, ADP-L-glycero-D-mannoheptose-6-epimerase, was detected in crude extracts of a rfa-2 mutant strain, CL609, and was absent in the rfaD70 mutant. The wild-type rfa-2 allele codes either for a specific heptose biosynthetic enzyme (different from the rfaD gene product) or an enzymatic activity required for the addition of heptose to the lipid A-2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid acceptor. Images PMID:3882666

  17. Mediated effect of endotoxin and lead upon hepatic metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Kuttner, R.E.; Ebata, T.; Schumer, W.

    1984-10-01

    A test was made of the possibility that gram-negative bacterial cell wall lipopolysaccharides acted directly on key glucoregulatory enzymes in rat liver cytosol to cause the characteristic hypoglycemia of severe endotoxemia. Fasted male rats were sensitized to endotoxin by the simultaneous intravenous injection of lead acetate. The minimum systemic dosage of endotoxin necessary to perturb the normal pattern of hepatic glycolytic intermediates was determined by serial testing with diminishing dosages of endotoxin. The hepatocyte concentration of endotoxin was then calculated from this minimum dosage by use of literature data on the fraction of endotoxin delivered to liver cells after a systemic intravenous injection of radiochromium labeled lipopolysaccharides. Accepting a molecular weight of 118,000 daltons for the smallest endotoxin monomer capable of evoking a physiologic response, the molar amount of endotoxin present in 1 gram of hepatocytes was readily calculated. The concentration of glucoregulatory enzymes in parenchymal cells was then estimated from other literature sources. It was found that the amount of endotoxin in the hepatocytes was insufficient to combine directly with even 1 per cent of the quantity of a single key glucoregulatory enzyme in liver parenchyma. Since a one to one stoichiometric reaction between endotoxin and enzyme could not occur in the liver cytosol, a direct interaction mechanism between agonist and biocatalyst can be ruled out. It is concluded that bacterial endotoxin must act on hepatic glucoregulation by an indirect mechanism presumably based upon the release and operation of mediators.

  18. Interleukin-1 decreases renal sodium reabsorption: possible mechanism of endotoxin-induced natriuresis

    SciTech Connect

    Caverzasio, J.; Rizzoli, R.; Dayer, J.M.; Bonjour, J.P.

    1987-05-01

    Administration of pyrogen or endotoxins such as Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide can elicit a marked increase in urinary sodium excretion. This response occurs without any elevation in the filtered load of sodium and it does not appear to be prostaglandin mediated. The various effects produced by endotoxins appear to have interleukin-1 as a common mediator. In the present work, the authors have studied whether human recombinant interleukin-1..beta.. (hrIL-1) could affect the renal handling of sodium and thus, could be implicated in natriuretic response to pyrogens or endotoxins. They observed that hrIL-1 intravenously injected into conscious rats provokes a marked increase in sodium excretion. This natriuretic response was not associated with any increase in glomerular filtration rate (clearance of (/sup 3/H)inulin), nor was it accompanied by significant changes in the urinary excretion of potassium, calcium, or inorganic phosphate. The only concomitant alteration was a decrease in urinary pH. Pretreatment with indomethacin abolished the effect of hrIL-1 on urinary pH but did not modify the natriuretic response. In conclusion, hrIL-1 elicits a selective decrease in tubular sodium reabsorption, which does not appear to involve a change in prostaglandin synthesis. This observation strongly suggests that interleukin-1 could be a key mediator in endotoxin-induced natriuresis.

  19. Biological Activity of Masked Endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Harald; Gornicec, Jan; Neuper, Theresa; Parigiani, Maria Alejandra; Wallner, Michael; Duschl, Albert; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta

    2017-01-01

    Low endotoxin recovery (LER) is a recently discovered phenomenon describing the inability of limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-based assays to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) because of a “masking effect” caused by chelators or detergents commonly used in buffer formulations for medical products and recombinant proteins. This study investigates the masking capacities of different buffer formulations and whether masked endotoxin is biologically active. We show that both naturally occurring endotoxin as well as control standard endotoxin can be affected by LER. Furthermore, whereas masked endotoxin cannot be detected in Factor C based assays, it is still detectable in a cell-based TLR4-NF-κB-luciferase reporter gene assay. Moreover, in primary human monocytes, masked LPS induces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and surface activation markers even at very low concentrations. We therefore conclude that masked LPS is a potent trigger of immune responses, which emphasizes the potential danger of masked LPS, as it may pose a health threat in pharmaceutical products or compromise experimental results. PMID:28317862

  20. Bacterial phagocytosis by macrophages from lipopolysaccharide responder and nonresponder mouse strains.

    PubMed Central

    Cuffini, A; Carlone, N A; Forni, G

    1980-01-01

    The phagocytic capacity of macrophages from C3H/H3J mice was assessed against lipopolysaccharide-producing (Escherichia coli) and -nonproducing (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Despite their gene-coded unresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide endotoxin and lymphokines and their defective tumoricidal activity, proteose peptone-induced C3H/HeJ macrophages did not display a defective phagocytic capacity, but rather displayed an enhanced phagocytosis of both bacterial strains compared with macrophages from closely related C3H/HeN mice. Unstimulated peritoneal resident C3H/HeJ macrophages, on the other hand, displayed a normal phagocytic activity toward E. coli and enhanced phagocytosis toward S. aureus. PMID:6995321

  1. Endotoxin-Binding Peptides Derived from Casein Glycomacropeptide Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Inflammatory Responses via Blockade of NF-κB activation in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xue; Gao, Dongxiao; Chen, Bin; Mao, Xueying

    2015-01-01

    Systemic low-grade inflammation and increased circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contribute to metabolic dysfunction. The inhibitory effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of casein glycomacropeptide (GMP) hydrolysate on the inflammatory response of LPS-stimulated macrophages were investigated. Results showed that the inhibitory effect of GMP hydrolysates obtained with papain on nitric oxide (NO) production were obviously higher than that of GMP hydrolysates obtained with pepsin, alcalase and trypsin (p < 0.05), and the hydrolysate obtained with papain for 1 h hydrolysis (GHP) exhibited the highest inhibitory effect. Compared with native GMP, GHP markedly inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner with decreased mRNA level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). GHP blocked toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway activation, accompanied by downregulation of LPS-triggered significant upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β gene expression. Furthermore, GHP could neutralize LPS not only by direct binding to LPS, but also by inhibiting the engagement of LPS with the TLR4/MD2 complex, making it a potential LPS inhibitor. In conclusion, these findings suggest that GHP negatively regulates TLR4-mediated inflammatory response in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, and therefore may hold potential to ameliorate inflammation-related issues. PMID:25923657

  2. [The importance of endotoxin producing bacterias for practical purposes

    PubMed

    Schimmel, Dietrich

    1994-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) cause according to resorption out of the intestinal tract or aerogenic inhalation or by a septic infection clinical signs. The clinical reactions are praeshock symptoms, acute forms of shock and death. The experimental intratracheally administration of lipopolysaccharides into calves caused pneumonic lesions without bacterial experimental infection.

  3. 5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone suppresses pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and protects mice from lethal endotoxin shock.

    PubMed

    Rim, Hong-Kun; Yun, Chang Hyeon; Shin, Ji-Sun; Cho, Young-Wuk; Jang, Dae Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Park, Haeil; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2013-12-01

    5,6,7-Trimethoxyflavone (TMF), methylations of the hydroxyl groups of oroxylin A or baicalein, was found to significantly inhibit the productions of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, no report has been issued on the anti-inflammatory potential of TMF and the underlying molecular mechanism. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of TMF in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and LPS-induced septic shock in mice. TMF dose-dependently inhibits iNOS and COX-2 at the protein, mRNA, and promoter binding levels and that these inhibitions cause attendant decreases in the productions of NO and PGE2. TMF inhibits the productions and mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 induced by LPS. Furthermore, TMF suppress the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), and nuclear translocations of NF-κB, AP-1, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1/3 (STAT1/3). Pretreatment with TMF increase the survival rate of mice with LPS-induced endotoxemia and reduced the serum levels of cytokines. Taken together, these findings suggest that TMF down-regulates the expressions of the pro-inflammatory iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 genes in macrophages by interfering with the activation of NF-κB, AP-1, and STAT1/3.

  4. Salt-inducible kinase 3 deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxin shock accompanied by increased levels of pro-inflammatory molecules in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sanosaka, Masato; Fujimoto, Minoru; Ohkawara, Tomoharu; Nagatake, Takahiro; Itoh, Yumi; Kagawa, Mai; Kumagai, Ayako; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Kunisawa, Jun; Naka, Tetsuji; Takemori, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages play important roles in the innate immune system during infection and systemic inflammation. When bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binds to Toll-like receptor 4 on macrophages, several signalling cascades co-operatively up-regulate gene expression of inflammatory molecules. The present study aimed to examine whether salt-inducible kinase [SIK, a member of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family] could contribute to the regulation of immune signal not only in cultured macrophages, but also in vivo. LPS up-regulated SIK3 expression in murine RAW264.7 macrophages and exogenously over-expressed SIK3 negatively regulated the expression of inflammatory molecules [interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide (NO) and IL-12p40] in RAW264.7 macrophages. Conversely, these inflammatory molecule levels were up-regulated in SIK3-deficient thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages (TEPM), despite no impairment of the classical signalling cascades. Forced expression of SIK3 in SIK3-deficient TEPM suppressed the levels of the above-mentioned inflammatory molecules. LPS injection (10 mg/kg) led to the death of all SIK3-knockout (KO) mice within 48 hr after treatment, whereas only one mouse died in the SIK1-KO (n = 8), SIK2-KO (n = 9) and wild-type (n = 8 or 9) groups. In addition, SIK3-KO bone marrow transplantation increased LPS sensitivity of the recipient wild-type mice, which was accompanied by an increased level of circulating IL-6. These results suggest that SIK3 is a unique negative regulator that suppresses inflammatory molecule gene expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages. PMID:25619259

  5. Piscidin-1-analogs with double L- and D-lysine residues exhibited different conformations in lipopolysaccharide but comparable anti-endotoxin activities

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Mahajan, Mukesh; Awasthi, Bhanupriya; Tandon, Anshika; Harioudh, Munesh Kumar; Shree, Sonal; Singh, Pratiksha; Shukla, Praveen Kumar; Ramachandran, Ravishankar; Mitra, Kalyan; Bhattacharjya, Surajit; Ghosh, Jimut Kanti

    2017-01-01

    To become clinically effective, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) should be non-cytotoxic to host cells. Piscidins are a group of fish-derived AMPs with potent antimicrobial and antiendotoxin activities but limited by extreme cytotoxicity. We conjectured that introduction of cationic residue(s) at the interface of polar and non-polar faces of piscidins may control their insertion into hydrophobic mammalian cell membrane and thereby reducing cytotoxicity. We have designed several novel analogs of piscidin-1 by substituting threonine residue(s) with L and D-lysine residue(s). L/D-lysine-substituted analogs showed significantly reduced cytotoxicity but exhibited either higher or comparable antibacterial activity akin to piscidin-1. Piscidin-1-analogs demonstrated higher efficacy than piscidin-1 in inhibiting lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory responses in THP-1 cells. T15,21K-piscidin-1 (0.5 mg/Kg) and T15,21dK-piscidin-1 (1.0 mg/Kg) demonstrated 100% survival of LPS (12.0 mg/Kg)-administered mice. High resolution NMR studies revealed that both piscidin-1 and T15,21K-piscidin-1 adopted helical structures, with latter showing a shorter helix, higher amphipathicity and cationic residues placed at optimal distances to form ionic/hydrogen bond with lipid A of LPS. Remarkably, T15,21dK-piscidin-1 showed a helix-loop-helix structure in LPS and its interactions with LPS could be sustained by the distance of separation of side chains of R7 and D-Lys-15 which is close to the inter-phosphate distance of lipid A. PMID:28051162

  6. Endotoxin removal by radio frequency gas plasma (glow discharge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Angela

    2011-12-01

    Contaminants remaining on implantable medical devices, even following sterilization, include dangerous fever-causing residues of the outer lipopolysaccharide-rich membranes of Gram-negative bacteria such as the common gut microorganism E. coli. The conventional method for endotoxin removal is by Food & Drug Administration (FDA)-recommended dry-heat depyrogenation at 250°C for at least 45 minutes, an excessively time-consuming high-temperature technique not suitable for low-melting or heat-distortable biomaterials. This investigation evaluated the mechanism by which E. coli endotoxin contamination can be eliminated from surfaces during ambient temperature single 3-minute to cumulative 15-minute exposures to radio-frequency glow discharge (RFGD)-generated residual room air plasmas activated at 0.1-0.2 torr in a 35MHz electrodeless chamber. The main analytical technique for retained pyrogenic bio-activity was the Kinetic Chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) Assay, sufficiently sensitive to document compliance with FDA-required Endotoxin Unit (EU) titers less than 20 EU per medical device by optical detection of enzymatic color development corresponding to < 0.5 EU/ml in sterile water extracts of each device. The main analytical technique for identification of chemical compositions, amounts, and changes during sequential reference Endotoxin additions and subsequent RFGD-treatment removals from infrared (IR)-transparent germanium (Ge) prisms was Multiple Attenuated Internal Reflection (MAIR) infrared spectroscopy sensitive to even monolayer amounts of retained bio-contaminant. KimaxRTM 60 mm x 15 mm and 50mm x 15mm laboratory glass dishes and germanium internal reflection prisms were inoculated with E. coli bacterial endotoxin water suspensions at increments of 0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 5 EU, and characterized by MAIR-IR spectroscopy of the dried residues on the Ge prisms and LAL Assay of sterile water extracts from both glass and Ge specimens. The Ge prism MAIR

  7. A comparison of the endotoxin biosynthesis and protein oxidation pathways in the biogenesis of the outer membrane of Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Piek, Susannah; Kahler, Charlene M

    2012-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterial cell envelope consists of an inner membrane (IM) that surrounds the cytoplasm and an asymmetrical outer-membrane (OM) that forms a protective barrier to the external environment. The OM consists of lipopolysaccahride (LPS), phospholipids, outer membrane proteins (OMPs), and lipoproteins. Oxidative protein folding mediated by periplasmic oxidoreductases is required for the biogenesis of the protein components, mainly constituents of virulence determinants such as pili, flagella, and toxins, of the Gram-negative OM. Recently, periplasmic oxidoreductases have been implicated in LPS biogenesis of Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis. Differences in OM biogenesis, in particular the transport pathways for endotoxin to the OM, the composition and role of the protein oxidation, and isomerization pathways and the regulatory networks that control them have been found in these two Gram-negative species suggesting that although form and function of the OM is conserved, the pathways required for the biosynthesis of the OM and the regulatory circuits that control them have evolved to suit the lifestyle of each organism.

  8. Acute mammary and liver transcriptome responses after an intramammary Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide challenge in postpartal dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Minuti, Andrea; Zhou, Zheng; Graugnard, Daniel E; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Palladino, Alejandro R; Cardoso, Felipe C; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on the bovine mammary and liver transcriptome and its consequences on metabolic biomarkers and liver tissue composition. At 7 days of lactation, 7 cows served as controls (CTR) and 7 cows (LPS) received an intramammary Escherichia coli LPS challenge. The mammary and liver tissues for transcriptomic profiling were biopsied at 2.5 h from challenge. Liver composition was evaluated at 2.5 h and 7 days after challenge, and blood biomarkers were analyzed at 2, 3, 7 and 14 days from challenge. In mammary tissue, the LPS challenge resulted in 189 differentially expressed genes (DEG), with 20 down-regulated and 169 up-regulated. In liver tissue, there were 107 DEG in LPS compared with CTR with 42 down-regulated and 65 up-regulated. In mammary, bioinformatics analysis highlighted that LPS led to activation of NOD-like receptor signaling, Toll-like receptor signaling, RIG-I-like receptor signaling and apoptosis pathways. In liver, LPS resulted in an overall inhibition of fatty acid elongation in mitochondria and activation of the p53 signaling pathway. The LPS challenge induced changes in liver lipid composition, a systemic inflammation (rise of blood ceruloplasmin and bilirubin), and an increase in body fat mobilization. The data suggest that cells within the inflamed mammary gland respond by activating mechanisms of pathogen recognition. However, in the liver the response likely depends on mediators originating from the udder that affect liver functionality and specifically fatty acid metabolism (β-oxidation, ketogenesis, and lipoprotein synthesis). PMID:25921778

  9. Pre-treatment with low-dose endotoxin prolongs survival from experimental lethal endotoxic shock: Benefit for lethal peritonitis by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kopanakis, Konstantinos; Tzepi, Ira-Maria; Pistiki, Aikaterini; Carrer, Dionyssia-Pinelopi; Netea, Mihai G; Georgitsi, Marianna; Lymperi, Maria; Droggiti, Dionyssia-Irini; Liakakos, Theodoros; Machairas, Anastasios; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2013-06-01

    Although LPS tolerance is well-characterized, it remains unknown if it is achieved even with single doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and if it offers protection against lethal bacterial infections. To this end, C57B6 mice were assigned to groups A (sham); B (saline i.p followed after 24h by i.p 30mg/kg LPS); and C (3mg/kg LPS i.p followed after 24h by i.p 30mg/kg LPS). Survival was monitored and animals were sacrificed early after lethal challenge for measurement of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) in serum; isolation of splenocytes and cytokine stimulation; and flow-cytometry for apoptosis and TREM-1. Experiments were repeated with mice infected i.p by Escherichia coli after challenging with saline or LPS. Mortality of group B was 72.2% compared with 38.9% of group C (p: 0.020). Serum TNFα of group C was lower than group B. Expression of TREM-1 of group C on monocytes/neutrophils was greater than group B. Release of TNFα, of IFNγ and of IL-17 from splenocytes of group C was lower than group B and the opposite happened for IL-10 showing evidence of cellular reprogramming. In parallel, apoptosis of circulating lymphocytes and of splenocytes of group C was greater compared with group B. Pre-treatment of mice challenged by E. coli with low dose LPS led to 0% mortality compared with 90% of saline pre-treated mice; in these mice, splenocytes improved over-time their capacity for release of IFNγ. It is concluded that single low doses of LPS lead to early reprogramming of the innate immune response and prolong survival after lethal E. coli challenge.

  10. The effects of berberine on the magnitude of the acute inflammatory response induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y B; Piao, X S; Kim, S W; Wang, L; Liu, P

    2010-01-01

    One hundred twenty-six 19-d-old male broiler chickens were used to determine the effects of berberine on the magnitude of the acute inflammatory response induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The birds were weighed and randomly allotted to 1 of 3 treatments at d 19 (3 treatments x 7 replicates x 6 birds). The treatments comprised a control group in which saline was injected at d 21, an LPS-treated group in which LPS (3 mg/kg of BW) was injected at d 21, and finally a berberine and LPS-treated group in which berberine (15 mg/kg of BW) was orally administered from d 19 to d 24 with LPS injection (3 mg/kg of BW) at d 21. Injection of LPS alone decreased (P < 0.01) weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion compared with the control and the berberine-administered group. Relative liver weight was increased (P < 0.05) in the LPS-treated group 72 h postinjection compared with the control and the berberine-treated group. Total counts of white blood cells and lymphocytes were also increased (P < 0.05) in the LPS-treated group 72 h postinjection. The heterophil concentration of the LPS-treated group was greater (P < 0.05) than that of both the control and the berberine-administered group 24 h postinjection. Broilers in the LPS-treated group had greater (P < 0.05) total serum protein compared with birds in the control and the berberine-administered group both 24 and 72 h postinjection. In addition, the plasma interleukin-6 level of the LPS-treated group was significantly elevated (P < 0.01) at 24 h compared with that of the control and the berberine-administered group. Our results indicate that LPS injection initiated a series of physiological changes typical of an acute phase response in broiler chickens. These effects were largely mitigated by oral administration of berberine.

  11. Effects of the antimicrobial peptide BMAP-27 in a mouse model of obstructive jaundice stimulated by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Ghiselli, Roberto; Cirioni, Oscar; Giacometti, Andrea; Mocchegiani, Federico; Orlando, Fiorenza; Bergnach, Cristina; Skerlavaj, Barbara; Silvestri, Carmela; Vittoria, Agnese Della; Zanetti, Margherita; Rocchi, Marco; Scalise, Giorgio; Saba, Vittorio

    2006-11-01

    An experimental study was designed to investigate the efficacy of BMAP-27, a compound of the cathelicidin family, in neutralizing Escherichia coli 0111:B4 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in bile duct-ligated mice. Main outcome measures were: endotoxin and TNF-alpha concentrations in plasma, evidence of bacterial translocation in blood and peritoneum, and lethality. Adult male BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with 2 mg/kg E. coli 0111:B4 LPS 1 week after sham operation or bile duct ligation (BDL). Six groups were studied: sham with placebo, sham with 120 mg/kg tazobactam-piperacillin (TZP), sham with 1 mg/kg BMAP-27, BDL with placebo, BDL with 120 mg/kg TZP, and BDL with 1mg/kg BMAP-27. After LPS, TNF-alpha plasma levels were significantly higher in BDL mice compared to sham-operated animals. BMAP-27 achieved a significant reduction of plasma endotoxin and TNF-alpha concentration when compared with placebo- and TZP-treated groups. On the other hand, both TZP and BMAP-27 significantly reduced the bacterial growth compared with saline treatment. Finally, LPS induced 60% and 55% lethality in BDL placebo- and TZP-treated treated mice and no lethality in sham-operated mice, while only BMAP-27 significantly reduced the lethality to 10%. In light of its dual antimicrobial and anti-endotoxin properties, BMAP-27 could be an interesting compound to inhibit bacterial translocation and endotoxin release in obstructive jaundice.

  12. Detecting endotoxin with a flow cytometry-based magnetic aptasensor.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ming-Yan; Chen, Li-Juan; Jiang, Hao; Tan, Lin; Luo, Zhao-Feng; Wang, Yan-Mei

    2014-12-01

    Endotoxin, which is also known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is a marker for intruding gram-negative pathogens. It is essential to detect endotoxin quickly and sensitively in a complex milieu. A new flow cytometry (FCM)-based magnetic aptasensor assay that employs two endotoxin-binding aptamers and magnetic beads has been developed to detect endotoxin. The endotoxin-conjugated sandwich complex on magnetic beads was observed by scanning confocal laser microscopy. The resulting magnetic aptasensor rapidly detected (<1 min) endotoxin within a broad dynamic detection range of 10(-8) to 10(0)mg/ml in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), RNA, sucrose, and glucose, which are most likely to coexist with endotoxin in the majority of biological liquids. Only 2 μl of magnetic aptasensor was required to quantify the endotoxin solution. Furthermore, the magnetic aptasensor could be regenerated seven times and still presented an outstanding response to the endotoxin solution. Therefore, the magnetic aptasensor exhibited high sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility, thereby serving as a powerful tool for the quality control and high-throughput detection of endotoxin in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  13. CD36 regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling pathways and mediates the internalization of Escherichia coli in cooperation with TLR4 in goat mammary gland epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Duoyao; Luo, Jun; Chen, Dekun; Xu, Huifen; Shi, Huaiping; Jing, Xiaoqi; Zang, Wenjuan

    2016-01-01

    The scavenger receptor CD36 is involved in pathogen recognition, phagocytosis, and pathogen-induced signaling. This study investigated the relationship between CD36 and TLR4 in modifying lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced signaling pathways and mediating Escherichia coli (E. coli) endocytosis in primary goat mammary epithelial cells (pGMECs). The manipulation of CD36 expression significantly influenced TLR4 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) mRNA expression in pGMECs stimulated with LPS for 12 h. NF-κB and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity was regulated by the manipulation of CD36 expression in LPS-induced pGMECs. However, CD36-mediated AP-1 activation occurred primarily through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (c-JNK). Adaptor proteins and proinflammatory cytokines were also involved in these signaling pathways and acted by regulating CD36 expression in LPS-stimulated cells. Moreover, CD36 cooperated with TLR4 in TLR4-mediated phagocytosis following E. coli simulation, but this complex was not induced by LPS treatment. Our study is the first to illuminate CD36 as a scavenger receptor in ruminants. Additionally, this study indicates that CD36 plays a vital role in the LPS-induced activation of downstream signaling cascades and mediates E. coli phagocytosis via TLR4 in pGMECs, which offers a novel treatment strategy for mastitis. PMID:26976286

  14. The Global Regulatory hns Gene Negatively Affects Adhesion to Solid Surfaces by Anaerobically Grown Escherichia coli by Modulating Expression of Flagellar Genes and Lipopolysaccharide Production

    PubMed Central

    Landini, Paolo; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.

    2002-01-01

    The initial binding of bacterial cells to a solid surface is a critical and essential step in biofilm formation. In this report we show that stationary-phase cultures of Escherichia coli W3100 (a K-12 strain) can efficiently attach to sand columns when they are grown in Luria broth medium at 28°C in fully aerobic conditions. In contrast, growth in oxygen-limited conditions results in a sharp decrease in adhesion to hydrophilic substrates. We show that the production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and of flagella, as well as the transcription of the fliC gene, encoding the major flagellar subunit, increases under oxygen-limited conditions. Inactivation of the global regulatory hns gene counteracts increased production of LPS and flagella in response to anoxia and allows E. coli W3100 to attach to sand columns even when it is grown under oxygen-limited conditions. We propose that increased production of the FliC protein and of LPS in response to oxygen limitation results in the loss of the ability of E. coli W3100 to adhere to hydrophilic surfaces. Indeed, overexpression of the fliC gene results in a decreased adhesion to sand even when W3100 is grown in fully aerobic conditions. Our observations strongly suggest that anoxia is a negative environmental signal for adhesion in E. coli. PMID:11872702

  15. Concentration, physical state, and purity of bacterial endotoxin affect its detoxification by ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Csako, G.; Tsai, C.M.; Hochstein, H.D.; Elin, R.J.

    1986-11-01

    Increasing concentrations of a highly purified bacterial lipopolysaccharide preparation, the U.S. Reference Standard Endotoxin, were exposed to increasing doses of ionizing radiation from a 60Co source. At identical radiation doses both the structural change and Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) reactivity were progressively smaller with increasing concentrations of the lipopolysaccharide in an aqueous medium. Under the experimental conditions used, there was a linear relationship between the endotoxin concentration and radiation dose for the structural changes. In contrast to endotoxin in aqueous medium, endotoxin irradiated in its dry state showed no decrease in LAL reactivity and rabbit pyrogenicity. Endotoxin exposed to radiation in water in the presence of albumin showed a much smaller decrease in LAL and pyrogenic activities than expected. The results show that the concentration, physical state, and purity of endotoxin influence its structural and functional alteration by ionizing radiation.

  16. Duration of in vivo endotoxin tolerance in horses.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, Susan J; Jacobs, Carrie C; Cook, Vanessa L; Gandy, Jeffery C; Hauptman, Joseph G; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2016-05-01

    Endotoxemia models are used to study mechanisms and treatments of early sepsis. Repeated endotoxin exposures induce periods of endotoxin tolerance, characterized by diminished proinflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and modulated production of proinflammatory cytokines. Repeated measure designs using equine endotoxemia models are rarely performed, despite the advantages associated with reduced variability, because the altered responsiveness would confound study results and because the duration of equine endotoxin tolerance is unknown. We determined the interval of endotoxin tolerance, in vivo, in horses based on physical, clinicopathologic, and proinflammatory gene expression responses to repeated endotoxin exposures. Six horses received 30 ng/kg LPS in saline infused over 30 min. Behavior pain scores, physical examination parameters, and blood for complete blood count and proinflammatory gene expression were obtained at predetermined intervals for 24h. Horses received a total of 3 endotoxin exposures. The first exposure was LPS 1, followed 7 days later by LPS 7 or 14-21 days later by LPS 14-21. Lipopolysaccharide exposures were allocated in a randomized, crossover design. Lipopolysaccharide produced clinical and clinicopathologic signs of endotoxemia and increased expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, P<0.001. Horses exhibited evidence of endotoxin tolerance following LPS 7 but not following LPS 14-21. Horses had significantly lower pain scores, heart rates, respiratory rates and duration of fever, after LPS 7 compared to LPS 1 and LPS 14-21, P<0.001, and expression of TNFα was lower in the whole blood of horses after LPS 7, P=0.05. Clinical parameters and TNFα gene expression were similar or slightly increased in horses following LPS 14-21 compared to measurements made in horses following LPS 1, suggesting that endotoxin tolerance had subsided. A minimum of 3 weeks between experiments is warranted if

  17. Collagenase Production by Endotoxin-Activated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Larry M.; Wahl, Sharon M.; Mergenhagen, Stephan E.; Martin, George R.

    1974-01-01

    Peritoneal exudate macrophages, when exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide in culture, were found to produce collagenase (EC 3.4.24.3). This enzyme was not detected in extracts of the macrophages or in media from nonstimulated macrophage cultures. Lipidcontaining fractions of the lipopolysaccharide, including a glycolipid from the rough mutant of Salmonella minnesota (R595) and lipid A, were potent stimulators of collagenase production. The lipid-free polysaccharide fraction had no effect. Cycloheximide prevented the production of collagenase by endotoxin-treated macrophages, suggesting that it was newly synthesized. Images PMID:4372628

  18. Functional Interaction between the Cytoplasmic ABC Protein LptB and the Inner Membrane LptC Protein, Components of the Lipopolysaccharide Transport Machinery in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Martorana, Alessandra M.; Benedet, Mattia; Maccagni, Elisa A.; Sperandeo, Paola; Villa, Riccardo; Dehò, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The assembly of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane (OM) requires the transenvelope Lpt (lipopolysaccharide transport) complex, made in Escherichia coli of seven essential proteins located in the inner membrane (IM) (LptBCFG), periplasm (LptA), and OM (LptDE). At the IM, LptBFG constitute an unusual ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter, composed by the transmembrane LptFG proteins and the cytoplasmic LptB ATPase, which is thought to extract LPS from the IM and to provide the energy for its export across the periplasm to the cell surface. LptC is a small IM bitopic protein that binds to LptBFG and recruits LptA via its N- and C-terminal regions, and its role in LPS export is not completely understood. Here, we show that the expression level of lptB is a critical factor for suppressing lethality of deletions in the C-terminal region of LptC and the functioning of a hybrid Lpt machinery that carries Pa-LptC, the highly divergent LptC orthologue from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We found that LptB overexpression stabilizes C-terminally truncated LptC mutant proteins, thereby allowing the formation of a sufficient amount of stable IM complexes to support growth. Moreover, the LptB level seems also critical for the assembly of IM complexes carrying Pa-LptC which is otherwise defective in interactions with the E. coli LptFG components. Overall, our data suggest that LptB and LptC functionally interact and support a model whereby LptB plays a key role in the assembly of the Lpt machinery. IMPORTANCE The asymmetric outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria contains in its outer leaflet an unusual glycolipid, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS largely contributes to the peculiar permeability barrier properties of the OM that prevent the entry of many antibiotics, thus making Gram-negative pathogens difficult to treat. In Escherichia coli the LPS transporter (the Lpt machine) is made of seven essential proteins (LptABCDEFG) that form a

  19. Dose-dependent changes in the antigenicity of bacterial endotoxin exposed to ionizing radiation. Report No. 2, 1986-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Csako, G.; Suba, E.A.; Tsai, C.M.; Mocca, L.F.; Elin, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The antigenic properties of the highly purified US reference standard endotoxin (RSE) exposed to varying doses of ionizing radiation were studied with double immuno-diffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, and immunoblotting. Rabbit RSE antisera identified 2 distinct major antigenic components for untreated RSE: one related to the O-polysaccharide side chain (O-antigenic specificity), the other to the R-core. Based on a serologic cross-reactivity of R-core of RSE (Escherichia coli 0113) with the R-core of the lipopolysaccharide from E. coli 0111, the core type of E. coli 0113 was identified as coli R3. Increasing exposure of RSE to ionizing radiation progressively destroyed all antigenic reactivities; at lower doses of radiation the rate of elimination differed for the 2 antigen classes. The O-polysaccharide was more sensitive to gamma radiation than the R-core and the O-antigenicity was lost before that of the R-core. Endotoxin molecules containing incomplete R-core (radiation-induced or mutant) did not react with the RSE antiserum. Keywords: Antigenicity, Reprints. (KT/KR)

  20. Effects of endotoxin on the lactating mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The regulation of endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) sequences in trans by a host gene, the Lps locus on mouse chromosome 4, was suspected from a genetic linkage analysis. The Lps locus mediates the mouse's response to the injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the responder mouse while mice with the deficient allele are incapable of responding. Others have found that endotoxin exposure reduces milk production in lactating animals. This observation was confirmed in mice and extended by examining /sup 125/I-prolactin binding to liver membranes of lactating mice. Endotoxin treatment of responder mice increases liver prolactin binding within 15 minutes, followed by a decline over 6 hours. Scatchard analysis shows that the immediate increase comes from both increased affinity and abundance of the prolactin receptor. No such change in prolactin binding is seen in the non-responder following endotoxin treatment nor in /sup 125/I-insulin binding in responders.

  1. In vivo effects of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide on regulation of immune response and protein expression in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    PubMed

    Hang, Bui Thi Bich; Milla, Sylvain; Gillardin, Virginie; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Lipolysaccharide (LPS), a component of outer membrane protein of gram-negative bacteria, reportedly stimulates fish immune system. However, mechanisms driving this immunomodulatory effect are yet unknown. To determine effects of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide on regulation of immune response and protein expression of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), juvenile fish (20-25 g) were injected with 3, 15 or 45 mg E.coli LPS/kg and challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri. Plasma cortisol and glucose were rather low and did not differ (p<0.05) among treatments. All LPS treatments differed regarding blood cell count and immune variables such as plasma and spleen lysozyme, complement activity and antibody titer, 3mg LPS/kg yielding best results; red blood cell count was not affected by LPS treatment. Accumulated mortalities after bacterial challenge were 23.4, 32.8, 37.7 and 52.5% for treatment 3, 15, 45 mg LPS/kg fish and control respectively. Proteomic analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) confirmed that LPS induced differentially over-expressed immune proteins such as complement component C3 and lysozyme C2 precursor. Regulation of other proteins such as Wap65, alpha-2 macroglobulin-3 and transferrin precursor was also demonstrated. Striped catfish injected with E.coli LPS enhanced innate immune responses.

  2. The O4 specific antigen moiety of lipopolysaccharide but not the K54 group 2 capsule is important for urovirulence of an extraintestinal isolate of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, T; Brown, J J; Jodush, S T; Johnson, J R

    1996-01-01

    Group 2 capsules and lipopolysaccharides are regarded as important virulence factors in extraintestinal isolates of Escherichia coli, but their specific contributions to bladder and renal infections, if any, are unknown. Proven isogenic derivatives deficient in the K54 antigen alone (CP9.137), the O4 antigen alone (CP921), or both the K54 and O4 antigens (CP923) were compared with their wild-type parent (CP9 [O4/K54JH5]) for growth in human urine in vitro and for virulence in vivo in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection (UTI). Growth of CP9.137 and CP921 was equivalent to that of CP9 in human urine. CP923 demonstrated a small but reproducible decrease in log-phase growth but achieved the same plateau density. In the mouse model of UTI, the isogenic mutant deficient in the 04 antigen alone (CP921) and, to a greater degree, the derivative deficient in both the K54 and O4 antigens (CP923) were significantly less virulent in nearly all parameters measured. In contrast, the K54 knockout derivative was as virulent as its parent, CP9, in causing bladder infection and nearly as virulent in causing renal infection. These results demonstrate an important role for the O4 antigen moiety of lipopolysaccharide in the pathogenesis of UTI. The possibility that the K54 antigen also plays a minor role cannot be excluded. PMID:8675348

  3. Intact rough- and smooth-form lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli separated by preparative gel electrophoresis exhibit differential biologic activity in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pupo, Elder; Lindner, Buko; Brade, Helmut; Schromm, Andra B

    2013-02-01

    We established a new preparative separation procedure, based on DOC/PAGE, to isolate intact lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fractions from natural LPS preparations of Escherichia coli. Analysis of the chemical integrity of LPS fractions by MS showed that no significant chemical modifications were introduced by the procedure. Contamination with toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-reactive cell-wall components present in the natural LPS mixture was effectively removed by the procedure, as determined by the absence of reactivity of the purified fractions in a HEK293-TLR2 cell line. Biologic analysis of LPS fractions derived from E. coli O111 in human macrophages demonstrated that the rough (R), semirough (SR) and smooth (S) LPS fractions were highly active at inducing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the presence of human serum; however, on a weight basis the R-LPS and SR-LPS fractions were more active, by a factor of 10-100, than was the S-LPS fraction. Under serum-free conditions, the natural LPS mixture, as well as the R-LPS and SR-LPS fractions, showed dose-dependent activation of macrophages, although the response was attenuated by about 10- to 100-fold. In contrast, the S-LPS fraction failed to induce TNF-α. Remarkably, the dose-response of the natural LPS mixture resembled that of the R-LPS and SR-LPS fractions, supporting that short-chain (R and SR) forms of LPS dominate the innate immune response of human macrophages to LPS in vitro. Biologic activity to the S-LPS fraction under serum-free conditions could be restored by the addition of recombinant lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP). In contrast, soluble cluster of differentiation antigen 14 was not able to confer activity of the S-LPS fraction, indicating a crucial role of LBP in the recognition of S-LPS by human macrophages.

  4. [Review on characteristics and detecting assay of bacterial endotoxin contamination in water environment].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Can; Liu, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Ming-Lu; Tian, Fang; Yang, Yi; An, Dai-Zhi

    2014-04-01

    Endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharide complexes, are anchored in the outer membrane cell wall of most Gram-negative bacteria and some cyanobacteria. They are continuously released to environment during cell decay. Being common pyrogens and highly immunogenic molecules, endotoxins are related to many human diseases. Due to the tolerances and thermo-stability of endotoxin molecules, they were hard to be removed by common methods. The health risk caused by the endotoxin contamination in drinking water and water environment by various exposure pathways have attracted more and more attention in recent years. In this paper, the physical and chemical properties, biological activities and detection assay of the endotoxin contamination were reviewed, and interfere factors of the main assay, the LAL/TAL (Limulus amebocyte lysate/Tachypleus amebocyte lysate) assay, for detecting endotoxin in water sample were investigated, and the development tendency of the endotoxin detection assay was analyzed.

  5. Distribution of radiolabeled endotoxin with particular reference to the eye: concise communication.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, J T; Hendricks, P A; Shively, J E; McDougall, I R

    1983-01-01

    A single systemic injection of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide or LPS) reproducibly induces a cellular infiltrate in the uveal tract of the rat eye within 24 hr. Other organs are not comparably sensitive to systemic endotoxin. One hypothesis to explain this unique sensitivity is that endotoxin is preferentially bound by ocular tissue. We tested this hypothesis by studying the distribution in the rat of intravenously injected endotoxin that had been radiolabeled with Tc-99m or P-32. With either radionuclide the concentration of endotoxin per gram of tissue at a variety of times after injection ranging from 5 min to 3 hr and 45 min, was markedly less in the eye than in liver, kidney, or spleen. A study with radiolabeled albumin indicated that these differences could not be ascribed solely to the organ's blood volume. They demonstrate, therefore, that the eye does not preferentially bind endotoxin, and they are compatible with the hypothesis that endotoxin's ocular effects are indirectly mediated.

  6. Distribution of radiolabeled endotoxin with particular reference to the eye: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, J.T.; Hendricks, P.A.; Shively, J.E.; McDougall, I.R.

    1983-01-01

    A single systemic injection of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide or LPS) reproducibly induces a cellular infiltrate in the uveal tract of the rat eye within 24 hr. Other organs are not comparably sensitive to systemic endotoxin. One hypothesis to explain this unique sensitivity is that endotoxin is preferentially bound by ocular tissue. Researchers tested this hypothesis by studying the distribution in the rat of intravenously injected endotoxin that had been radiolabeled with /sup 99m/Tc or /sup 32/P. With either radionuclide the concentration of endotoxin per gram of tissue at a variety of times after injection ranging from 5 min to 3 hr and 45 min, was markedly less in the eye than in liver, kidney, or spleen. A study with radiolabeled albumin indicated that these differences could not be ascribed solely to the organ's blood volume. They demonstrate, therefore, that the eye does not preferentially bind endotoxin, and they are compatible with the hypothesis that endotoxin's ocular effects are indirectly mediated.

  7. Influence of sanitizers on the lipopolysaccharide toxicity of Escherichia coli strains cultivated in the presence of Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Mogotsi, Lerato; De Smidt, Olga; Venter, Pierre; Groenewald, Willem

    2014-01-01

    The influence of sublethal concentrations of two sanitizers, liquid iodophor and liquid hypochlorite (LH), on the growth rates and toxicity of food-borne pathogenic Escherichia coli strains grown in the presence of spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was assessed. When grown in combination with Z. bailii both E. coli O113 and E. coli O26 exhibited slower growth rates, except when E. coli O113 was grown in combination with Z. bailii at 0.2% LH. The growth rate of Z. bailii was not impacted by the addition of the sanitizers or by communal growth with E. coli strains. LAL and IL-6 results indicated a decrease in toxicity of pure E. coli cultures with comparable profiles for control and sanitizer exposed samples, although the LAL assay proved to be more sensitive. Interestingly, pure cultures of Z. bailii showed increased toxicity measured by LAL and decreased toxicity measured by IL-6. LAL analysis showed a decrease in toxicity of both E. coli strains grown in combination with Z. bailii, while IL-6 analysis of the mixed cultures showed an increase in toxicity. The use of LAL for toxicity determination in a mixed culture overlooks the contribution made by spoilage yeast, thus demonstrating the importance of using the appropriate method for toxicity testing in mixed microbe environments.

  8. Influence of Sanitizers on the Lipopolysaccharide Toxicity of Escherichia coli Strains Cultivated in the Presence of Zygosaccharomyces bailii

    PubMed Central

    Mogotsi, Lerato; De Smidt, Olga; Venter, Pierre; Groenewald, Willem

    2014-01-01

    The influence of sublethal concentrations of two sanitizers, liquid iodophor and liquid hypochlorite (LH), on the growth rates and toxicity of food-borne pathogenic Escherichia coli strains grown in the presence of spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was assessed. When grown in combination with Z. bailii both E. coli O113 and E. coli O26 exhibited slower growth rates, except when E. coli O113 was grown in combination with Z. bailii at 0.2% LH. The growth rate of Z. bailii was not impacted by the addition of the sanitizers or by communal growth with E. coli strains. LAL and IL-6 results indicated a decrease in toxicity of pure E. coli cultures with comparable profiles for control and sanitizer exposed samples, although the LAL assay proved to be more sensitive. Interestingly, pure cultures of Z. bailii showed increased toxicity measured by LAL and decreased toxicity measured by IL-6. LAL analysis showed a decrease in toxicity of both E. coli strains grown in combination with Z. bailii, while IL-6 analysis of the mixed cultures showed an increase in toxicity. The use of LAL for toxicity determination in a mixed culture overlooks the contribution made by spoilage yeast, thus demonstrating the importance of using the appropriate method for toxicity testing in mixed microbe environments. PMID:24977173

  9. Phospholipid imprinted polymers as selective endotoxin scavengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulc, Robert; Szekely, Gyorgy; Shinde, Sudhirkumar; Wierzbicka, Celina; Vilela, Filipe; Bauer, David; Sellergren, Börje

    2017-03-01

    Herein we explore phospholipid imprinting as a means to design receptors for complex glycolipids comprising the toxic lipopolysaccharide endotoxin. A series of polymerizable bis-imidazolium and urea hosts were evaluated as cationic and neutral hosts for phosphates and phosphonates, the latter used as mimics of the phospholipid head groups. The bis-imidazolium hosts interacted with the guests in a cooperative manner leading to the presence of tight and well defined 1:2 ternary complexes. Optimized monomer combinations were subsequently used for imprinting of phosphatidic acid as an endotoxin dummy template. Presence of the aforementioned ternary complexes during polymerization resulted in imprinting of lipid dimers – the latter believed to crudely mimic the endotoxin Lipid A motif. The polymers were characterized with respect to template rebinding, binding affinity, capacity and common structural properties, leading to the identification of polymers which were thereafter subjected to an industrially validated endotoxin removal test. Two of the polymers were capable of removing endotoxin down to levels well below the accepted threshold (0.005 EU/mg API) in pharmaceutical production.

  10. Phospholipid imprinted polymers as selective endotoxin scavengers

    PubMed Central

    Sulc, Robert; Szekely, Gyorgy; Shinde, Sudhirkumar; Wierzbicka, Celina; Vilela, Filipe; Bauer, David; Sellergren, Börje

    2017-01-01

    Herein we explore phospholipid imprinting as a means to design receptors for complex glycolipids comprising the toxic lipopolysaccharide endotoxin. A series of polymerizable bis-imidazolium and urea hosts were evaluated as cationic and neutral hosts for phosphates and phosphonates, the latter used as mimics of the phospholipid head groups. The bis-imidazolium hosts interacted with the guests in a cooperative manner leading to the presence of tight and well defined 1:2 ternary complexes. Optimized monomer combinations were subsequently used for imprinting of phosphatidic acid as an endotoxin dummy template. Presence of the aforementioned ternary complexes during polymerization resulted in imprinting of lipid dimers – the latter believed to crudely mimic the endotoxin Lipid A motif. The polymers were characterized with respect to template rebinding, binding affinity, capacity and common structural properties, leading to the identification of polymers which were thereafter subjected to an industrially validated endotoxin removal test. Two of the polymers were capable of removing endotoxin down to levels well below the accepted threshold (0.005 EU/mg API) in pharmaceutical production. PMID:28303896

  11. Genetic analysis of the genes involved in synthesis of the lipopolysaccharide core in Escherichia coli K-12: three operons in the rfa locus.

    PubMed Central

    Roncero, C; Casadaban, M J

    1992-01-01

    The region of the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome encoding the enzymes responsible for the synthesis of responsible for the synthesis of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core has been cloned in vivo by using a mini-Mu vector. This region, formerly known as the rfa locus, comprises 18 kb of DNA between the markers tdh and rpmBG. Results of in vitro mutagenesis of this region with MudII1734 indicate the presence of at least 17 open reading frames or genes, a number considerably higher than expected on the basis of genetic and biochemical studies. Specific insertions in different genes have been recombined into the chromosome, and the mutations have been phenotypically characterized. Complementation analysis indicates that these genes are arranged in three different operons transcribed in opposite directions. A detailed physical map of this region has been constructed on the basis of complementation analysis, fusion protein data, and phenotypic characterizations. Additionally, the role of some genes in the synthesis of LPS has been defined by complementation analysis with known Salmonella typhimurium LPS mutants. The genetic organization of this locus seems to be identical in E. coli K-12 and S. typhimurium. Images PMID:1577693

  12. Identification and sequences of the lipopolysaccharide core biosynthetic genes rfaQ, rfaP, and rfaG of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, C T; Pradel, E; Schnaitman, C A

    1992-01-01

    The rfa locus of Escherichia coli K-12 includes a block of about 10 closely spaced genes transcribed in the same direction which are involved in synthesis and modification of the hexose region of the lipopolysaccharide core. We have sequenced the first three genes in this block. The function of the first of these genes is unknown, but we have designated it rfaQ on the basis of its location and similarity to other rfa genes. Complementation of Salmonella typhimurium rfa mutants with E. coli rfa restriction fragments indicated that the second and third genes in the block were rfaG and rfaP. The deduced sizes of the RfaQ, RfaG, and RfaP proteins are 36,298, 42,284, and 30,872 Da, respectively, and the proteins are basic and lack extensive hydrophobic domains. RfaQ shares regions of homology with proteins RfaC and RfaF, which are involved in synthesis of the heptose region of the core. Proteins RfaB, RfaG, and RfaK share a region of homology, which suggests that they belong to a second family of Rfa proteins which are thought to be hexose transferases. PMID:1732225

  13. Transfer of immunoglobulins through the mammary endothelium and epithelium and in the local lymph node of cows during the initial response after intramammary challenge with E. coli endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Östensson, Karin; Lun, Shichun

    2008-01-01

    Background The first hours after antigen stimulation, interactions occur influencing the outcome of the immunological reaction. Immunoglobulins originate in blood and/or are locally synthesized. The transfer of Ig isotypes (Igs) in the udder has been studied previously but without the possibility to distinguish between the endothelium and the epithelium. The purpose of this study was to map the Ig transfer through each barrier, separately, and Ig transfer in the local lymph nodes of the bovine udder during the initial innate immune response. Methods The content of IgG1, IgG2, IgM, IgA and albumin (BSA) was examined in peripheral/afferent mammary lymph and lymph leaving the supramammary lymph nodes, and in blood and milk before (0 h) and during 4 hours after intramammary challenge with Esherichia coli endotoxin in 5 cows. Results Igs increased most rapidly in afferent lymph resulting in higher concentrations than in efferent lymph at postinfusion hour (PIH) 2, contrary to before challenge. Ig concentrations in milk were lower than in lymph; except for IgA at 0 h; and they increased more slowly. Afferent lymph:serum and efferent lymph:serum concentration ratios (CR) of Igs were similar to those of BSA but slightly lower. Milk:afferent lymph (M:A) CRs of each Ig, except for IgG2, showed strikingly different pattern than those of BSA. The M:A CR of IgG1, IgM and IgA were higher than that of BSA before challenge and the CR of IgA and IgG1 remained higher also thereafter. At PIH 2 there was a drop in Ig CRs, except for IgG2, in contrast to the BSA CR which gradually increased. The M:A CR of IgM and Ig A decreased from 0 h to PIH 4, in spite of increasing permeability. Conclusion The transfer of Igs through the endothelium appeared to be merely a result of diffusion although their large molecular size may hamper the diffusion. The transfer through the epithelium and the Ig concentrations in milk seemed more influenced by selective mechanisms and local sources

  14. A selective sorbent for removing bacterial endotoxins from blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A. S.; Kopitsyna, M. N.; Bessonov, I. V.; Karelina, N. V.; Nuzhdina, A. V.; Sarkisov, I. Yu.; Pavlova, L. A.; Tsyurupa, M. P.; Blinnikova, Z. K.; Davankov, V. A.

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic ligands carrying a positive charge and capable of selective binding of bacterial endotoxins are covalently immobilized on surfaces of domestic hemosorbent Styrosorb-514 based on hypercrosslinked polystyrene. It is shown that the resulting sorbent aimed at treating sepsis exceeds imported specific hemosorbent in Toraymyxin™ columns in removing lipopolysaccharides, and can be used in domestically-produced Desepta columns.

  15. Bovine whole-blood culture as a tool for the measurement of endotoxin activities in Gram-negative bacterial vaccines.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Saiki; Nakamizo, Mari; Kawanishi, Michiko; Nakajima, Nao; Yamamoto, Kinya; Uchiyama, Mariko; Hirano, Fumiya; Nagai, Hidetaka; Kijima, Mayumi; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Mekata, Hirohisa; Murata, Shiro; Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2013-05-15

    In order to analyze bovine immune reactions against the Gram-negative bacterial vaccine, bovine whole-blood culture was used to investigate the pro-inflammatory cytokine responses stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We also examined the interaction between LPS and aluminum hydroxide gel for endotoxin activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine responses of whole bovine blood. Alteration in the mRNA concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-10 in whole-blood culture at 4h after stimulation with different doses of LPS was observed and determined by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The mRNA concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β changed in a dose-dependent manner and differed depending on the type of LPS. Limulus test revealed that endotoxin activity was remarkably reduced when aluminum hydroxide gel was added to LPS. In contrast, the mRNA concentration of TNF-α in whole bovine blood was enhanced by LPS mixed with aluminum hydroxide gel. These results suggest that bovine whole-blood culture can be utilized to detect endotoxin activity of Gram-negative bacterial vaccines. In addition, whole-blood culture offers several advantages, such as ease of performance, few preparation artifacts, and a physiological cell environment, for investigating bovine immune response compared with the Limulus test.

  16. Cloning and characterization of the Escherichia coli K-12 rfa-2 (rfaC) gene, a gene required for lipopolysaccharide inner core synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L; Coleman, W G

    1993-01-01

    A genetically defined mutation, designated rfa-2, results in altered lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis. rfa-2 mutants produce a core-defective LPS that contains lipid A and a single sugar moiety, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid, in the LPS core region. Such LPS core-defective or deep-rough (R) mutant structures were previously designated chemotype Re. Phenotypically, rfa-2 mutants exhibit increased permeability to a number of hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents. By restriction analyses and complementation studies, we clearly defined the rfa-2 gene on a 1,056-bp AluI-DraI fragment. The rfa-2 gene and the flanking rfa locus regions were completely sequenced. Additionally, the location of the rfa-2 gene on the physical map of the Escherichia coli chromosome was determined. The rfa-2 gene encodes a 36,000-dalton polypeptide in an in vivo expression system. N-terminal analysis of the purified rfa-2 gene product confirmed the first 24 amino acid residues as deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the rfa-2 gene coding region. By interspecies complementation, a Salmonella typhimurium rfaC mutant (LPS chemotype Re) is transformed with the E. coli rfa-2+ gene, and the transformant is characterized by wild-type sensitivity to novobiocin (i.e., uninhibited growth at 600 micrograms of novobiocin per ml) and restoration of the ability to synthesize wild-type LPS structures. On the basis of the identity and significant similarity of the rfa-2 gene sequence and its product to the recently defined (D. M. Sirisena, K. A. Brozek, P. R. MacLachlan, K. E. Sanderson, and C. R. H. Raetz, J. Biol. Chem. 267:18874-18884, 1992), the S. typhimurium rfaC gene sequence and its product (heptosyltransferase 1), the E. coli K-12 rfa-2 locus will be designated rfaC. Images PMID:8478319

  17. A probiotic strain of Escherichia coli, Nissle 1917, given orally exerts local and systemic anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Arribas, B; Rodríguez-Cabezas, ME; Camuesco, D; Comalada, M; Bailón, E; Utrilla, P; Nieto, A; Concha, A; Zarzuelo, A; Gálvez, J

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 is a probiotic strain used in the treatment of intestinal immune diseases, including ulcerative colitis. The aim of the present study was to test if this probiotic bacterium can also show systemic immunomodulatory properties after oral administration. Experimental approach: The probiotic strain was administered to rats or mice for 2 weeks before its assay in two experimental models of altered immune response, the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis, localized in the colon, and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model of systemic septic shock in mice. Inflammatory status was evaluated both macroscopically and biochemically after 1 week in the TNBS model or after 24 h in the LPS shock model. In addition, splenocytes were obtained from mice and stimulated, ex vivo, with concanavalin A or LPS to activate T or B cells, respectively, and cytokine production (IL-2, IL-5 and IL-10) by T cells and IgG secretion by B cells measured. Key results: E. coli Nissle 1917 was anti-inflammatory in both models of altered immune response. This included a reduction in the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α both in the intestine from colitic rats, and in plasma and lungs in mice treated with LPS. The systemic beneficial effect was associated with inhibited production of the T cell cytokines and by down-regulation of IgG release from splenocyte-derived B cells. Conclusions and implications: The anti-inflammatory effects of E. coli Nissle 1917 given orally were not restricted to the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:19486007

  18. The Escherichia coli Serogroup O1 and O2 Lipopolysaccharides Are Encoded by Multiple O-antigen Gene Clusters.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Sabine; Beutin, Lothar; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Fleiss, Aubin; Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Fach, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains belonging to serogroups O1 and O2 are frequently associated with human infections, especially extra-intestinal infections such as bloodstream infections or urinary tract infections. These strains can be associated with a large array of flagellar antigens. Because of their frequency and clinical importance, a reliable detection of E. coli O1 and O2 strains and also the frequently associated K1 capsule is important for diagnosis and source attribution of E. coli infections in humans and animals. By sequencing the O-antigen clusters of various O1 and O2 strains we showed that the serogroups O1 and O2 are encoded by different sets of O-antigen encoding genes and identified potentially new O-groups. We developed qPCR-assays to detect the various O1 and O2 variants and the K1-encoding gene. These qPCR assays proved to be 100% sensitive and 100% specific and could be valuable tools for the investigations of zoonotic and food-borne infection of humans with O1 and O2 extra-intestinal (ExPEC) or Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains.

  19. The Escherichia coli Serogroup O1 and O2 Lipopolysaccharides Are Encoded by Multiple O-antigen Gene Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Delannoy, Sabine; Beutin, Lothar; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Fleiss, Aubin; Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Fach, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains belonging to serogroups O1 and O2 are frequently associated with human infections, especially extra-intestinal infections such as bloodstream infections or urinary tract infections. These strains can be associated with a large array of flagellar antigens. Because of their frequency and clinical importance, a reliable detection of E. coli O1 and O2 strains and also the frequently associated K1 capsule is important for diagnosis and source attribution of E. coli infections in humans and animals. By sequencing the O-antigen clusters of various O1 and O2 strains we showed that the serogroups O1 and O2 are encoded by different sets of O-antigen encoding genes and identified potentially new O-groups. We developed qPCR-assays to detect the various O1 and O2 variants and the K1-encoding gene. These qPCR assays proved to be 100% sensitive and 100% specific and could be valuable tools for the investigations of zoonotic and food-borne infection of humans with O1 and O2 extra-intestinal (ExPEC) or Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains. PMID:28224115

  20. Risks associated with endotoxins in feed additives produced by fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wallace, R John; Gropp, Jürgen; Dierick, Noël; Costa, Lucio G; Martelli, Giovanna; Brantom, Paul G; Bampidis, Vasileios; Renshaw, Derek W; Leng, Lubomir

    2016-01-15

    Increasingly, feed additives for livestock, such as amino acids and vitamins, are being produced by Gram-negative bacteria, particularly Escherichia coli. The potential therefore exists for animals, consumers and workers to be exposed to possibly harmful amounts of endotoxin from these products. The aim of this review was to assess the extent of the risk from endotoxins in feed additives and to calculate how such risk can be assessed from the properties of the additive. Livestock are frequently exposed to a relatively high content of endotoxin in the diet: no additional hazard to livestock would be anticipated if the endotoxin concentration of the feed additive falls in the same range as feedstuffs. Consumer exposure will be unaffected by the consumption of food derived from animals receiving endotoxin-containing feed, because the small concentrations of endotoxin absorbed do not accumulate in edible tissues. In contrast, workers processing a dusty additive may be exposed to hazardous amounts of endotoxin even if the endotoxin concentration of the product is low. A calculation method is proposed to compare the potential risk to the worker, based on the dusting potential, the endotoxin concentration and technical guidance of the European Food Safety Authority, with national exposure limits.

  1. The rfaS gene, which is involved in production of a rough form of lipopolysaccharide core in Escherichia coli K-12, is not present in the rfa cluster of Salmonella typhimurium LT2.

    PubMed Central

    Klena, J D; Pradel, E; Schnaitman, C A

    1993-01-01

    Partial sequencing of the rfa cluster of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 indicated a region of 336 bp between rfaP and rfaB in the site occupied by the rfaS gene in Escherichia coli K-12. This region does not contain a functional rfaS gene, although DNA analysis suggests that the region may have contained an ancestral gene. This conclusion that S. typhimurium LT2 lacks rfaS is supported by its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) gel phenotype, since LT2 does not make the lipooligosaccharide band characteristic of LPS from smooth strains of E. coli K-12. Images PMID:8444813

  2. Role of Escherichia coli K-12 rfa genes and the rfp gene of Shigella dysenteriae 1 in generation of lipopolysaccharide core heterogeneity and attachment of O antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Klena, J D; Ashford, R S; Schnaitman, C A

    1992-01-01

    The rfp gene of Shigella dysenteriae 1 and the rfa genes of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium LT2 have been studied to determine their relationship to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core heterogeneity and their role in the attachment of O antigen to LPS. It has been inferred from the nucleotide sequence that the rfp gene encodes a protein of 41,864 Da which has a structure similar to that of RfaG protein. Expression of this gene in E. coli K-12 results in the loss of one of the three bands seen in gel analysis of the LPS and in the appearance of a new, more slowly migrating band. This is consistent with the hypothesis that Rfp is a sugar transferase which modifies a subset of core molecules so that they become substrates for attachment of S. dysenteriae O antigen. A shift in gel migration of the bands carrying S. dysenteriae O antigen and disappearance of the Rfp-modified band in strains producing O antigen suggest that the core may be trimmed or modified further before attachment of O antigen. Mutation of rfaL results in a loss of the rough LPS band which appears to be modified by Rfp and prevents the appearance of the Rfp-modified band. Thus, RfaL protein is involved in core modification and is more than just a component of the O-antigen ligase. The products of rfaK and rfaQ also appear to be involved in modification of the core prior to attachment of O antigen, and the sites of rfaK modification are different in E. coli K-12 and S. typhimurium. In contrast, mutations in rfaS and rfaZ result in changes in the LPS core but do not affect the attachment of O antigen. We propose that these genes are involved in an alternative pathway for the synthesis of rough LPS species which are similar to lipooligosaccharides of other species and which are not substrates for O-antigen attachment. All of these studies indicate that the apparent heterogeneity of E. coli K-12 LPS observed on gels is not an artifact but instead a reflection of functional differences among

  3. Contamination of nanoparticles by endotoxin: evaluation of different test methods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nanomaterials can be contaminated with endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) during production or handling. In this study, we searched for a convenient in vitro method to evaluate endotoxin contamination in nanoparticle samples. We assessed the reliability of the commonly used limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay and an alternative method based on toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 reporter cells when applied with particles (TiO2, Ag, CaCO3 and SiO2), or after extraction of the endotoxin as described in the ISO norm 29701. Results Our results indicate that the gel clot LAL assay is easily disturbed in the presence of nanoparticles; and that the endotoxin extraction protocol is not suitable at high particle concentrations. The chromogenic-based LAL endotoxin detection systems (chromogenic LAL assay and Endosafe-PTS), and the TLR4 reporter cells were not significantly perturbed. Conclusion We demonstrated that nanoparticles can interfere with endotoxin detection systems indicating that a convenient test method must be chosen before assessing endotoxin contamination in nanoparticle samples. PMID:23140310

  4. Genetic analysis of lipopolysaccharide core biosynthesis by Escherichia coli K-12: insertion mutagenesis of the rfa locus.

    PubMed Central

    Austin, E A; Graves, J F; Hite, L A; Parker, C T; Schnaitman, C A

    1990-01-01

    Tn10 insertions were selected on the basis of resistance to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific bacteriophage U3. The majority of these were located in a 2-kilobase region within the rfa locus, a gene cluster of about 18 kb that contains genes for LPS core biosynthesis. The rfa::Tn10 insertions all exhibited a deep rough phenotype that included hypersensitivity to hydrophobic antibiotics, a reduction in major outer membrane proteins, and production of truncated LPS. These mutations were complemented by a Clarke-Carbon plasmid known to complement rfa mutations of Salmonella typhimurium, and analysis of the insert from this plasmid showed that it contained genes for at least six polypeptides which appear to be arranged in the form of a complex operon. Defects in two of these genes were specifically implicated as the cause of the deep rough phenotype. One of these appeared to be rfaG, which encodes a function required for attachment of the first glucose residue to the heptose region of the core. The other gene did not appear to be directly involved in determination of the sugar composition of the core. We speculate that the product of this gene is involved in the attachment of phosphate or phosphorylethanolamine to the core and that it is the lack of one of these substituents which results in the deep rough phenotype. Images PMID:2168379

  5. Loss of the O4 antigen moiety from the lipopolysaccharide of an extraintestinal isolate of Escherichia coli has only minor effects on serum sensitivity and virulence in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, T A; Sharma, G; Brown, C R; Campagnari, A A

    1995-01-01

    The O-specific antigen in extraintestinal isolates of Escherichia coli is believed to be an important virulence factor. To assess its role in the pathogenic process, proven isogenic derivatives with either a complete (CP921) or nearly complete (CP920) deficiency of the O4 antigen were obtained by TnphoA'1-mediated transposon mutagenesis of an O4/K54/H5 blood isolate (CP9). By utilizing a previously reported isogenic K54 capsule-deficient derivative (CP9.137), additional isogenic derivatives deficient in both the K54 capsular antigen and either all (CP923) or nearly all (CP922) of the O4 antigen were also constructed. These strains and their wild-type parent were evaluated in vitro for serum sensitivity and in vivo by intraperitoneal challenge of outbred mice. The complete or nearly complete loss of the O4 antigen (CP920 and CP921) resulted in only a minor increase in serum sensitivity. In contrast, CP9.137 had a significant increase in serum sensitivity, and CP922 and CP923 were extremely serum sensitive. When tested in vivo, the complete or nearly complete loss of the O4 antigen resulted in a small but significant increase (P < or = 0.05), not the expected decrease, in virulence compared with its wild-type parent. In contrast, CP9.137 and CP922 were significantly less virulent (P < or = 0.05). These studies do not exclude a role for the O4 antigen moiety of lipopolysaccharide in the pathogenesis of extraintestinal E. coli infection; however, they demonstrate that the O4 antigen plays only a minor role in serum resistance in vitro and that its loss does not diminish and perhaps enhances the virulence of CP9 in vivo after intraperitoneal challenge. PMID:7890383

  6. GM1 and GD1a gangliosides modulate toxic and inflammatory effects of E. coli lipopolysaccharide by preventing TLR4 translocation into lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Bayunova, Lubov; Sokolova, Tatyana; Vlasova, Yulia; Bachteeva, Vera; Avrova, Natalia; Parnova, Rimma

    2015-03-01

    Exogenous gangliosides are known to inhibit the effects of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in different cells exhibiting anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities. The mechanisms underlying ganglioside action are not fully understood. Because LPS recognition and receptor complex formation occur in lipid rafts, and gangliosides play a key role in their maintenance, we hypothesize that protective effects of exogenous gangliosides would depend on inhibition of LPS signaling via prevention of TLR4 translocation into lipid rafts. The effect of GM1 and GD1a gangliosides on LPS-induced toxic and inflammatory reactions in PC12 cells, and in epithelial cells isolated from the frog urinary bladder, was studied. In PC12 cells, GD1a and GM1 significantly reduced the effect of LPS on the decrease of cell survival and on stimulation of reactive oxygen species production. In epithelial cells, gangliosides decreased LPS-stimulated iNOS expression, NO, and PGE2 production. Subcellular fractionation, in combination with immunoblotting, showed that pretreatment of cells with GM1, GD1a, or methyl-β-cyclodextrin, completely eliminated the effect of LPS on translocation of TLR4 into lipid rafts. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that ganglioside-induced prevention of TLR4 translocation into lipid rafts could be a mechanism of protection against LPS in various cells.

  7. Quantitative comparison of C-X-C chemokines produced by endotoxin-stimulated human alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Goodman, R B; Strieter, R M; Frevert, C W; Cummings, C J; Tekamp-Olson, P; Kunkel, S L; Walz, A; Martin, T R

    1998-07-01

    The C-X-C chemokines are a structurally related and functionally redundant family of proteins with neutrophil chemotactic activity. Many of the C-X-C chemokines are produced by endotoxin-stimulated alveolar macrophages (AMs), but knowledge of their relative quantities and their relative contributions to the total chemotactic activity released from these cells is incomplete. Human AMs were stimulated with or without Escherichia coli endotoxin for 2, 4, 8, and 24 h. The mRNA sequences of interleukin (IL)-8, the 78-amino acid epithelial cell-derived neutrophil activator (ENA-78), growth-related protein (GRO) alpha, GRObeta, and GROgamma were cloned by PCR and identified by sequence analysis. The relative mRNA quantities were compared by Northern analysis, and IL-8 was found to predominate. Similarly, IL-8 protein concentrations in the cell supernatants were consistently higher than either the ENA-78 or GRO concentration, and by 24 h, IL-8 concentrations were 10-fold higher than those of the other C-X-C chemokines. Blocking polyclonal antibodies to IL-8 substantially reduced the chemotactic activity in the AM supernatants, whereas antibodies to ENA-78 and GRO had little or no effect. We conclude that IL-8 is the predominant C-X-C chemokine and the dominant neutrophil chemoattractant accumulating in 24-h supernatants of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human AMs. These studies provide insight into potentially effective strategies of interrupting AM-derived inflammatory signals in the lungs.

  8. [Use of reactions with Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) to determine biological activity of lipopolysaccharides from reference and clinical strains of the Bacteroides fragilis group].

    PubMed

    Rokosz, Alicja; Fiejka, Maria; Górska, Paulina; Aleksandrowicz, Janina; Meisel-Mikołajczyk, Felicja; Łuczak, MirosŁaw

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare a biological activity of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from reference and clinical strains of strictly anaerobic bacteria belonging to the Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG) by means of quantitative, photometric BET (LAL) method with Limulus polyphemus amoebocyte lysate and chromogenic substrate S-2423. Lipopolysaccharides of five BFG species were extracted by Westphal and Jann method (1965) from eight reference and two clinical strains of B. fragilis group. Crude LPS preparations were purified according to the procedure described by Gmeiner (1975) with ultracentrifugation and nuclease treatment. Biological activities of bacterial endotoxins were determined by quantitative BET method with chromogenic substrate S-2423 (ENDOCHROME kit, Charles River Endosafe Ltd., USA). Tests were performed according to the producer's recommendations. E. coli O55:B5 LPS was applied to compare its activity in reaction with LAL reagent with activities of LPS preparations from rods of the Bacteroides genus. Among examined bacterial compounds the most active in BET method was E. coli O55:B5 LPS. Activities of lipopolysaccharides from five species of BFG rods in reaction with Limulus amoebocyte lysate were differentiated. Greater ability to activate LAL proenzyme revealed lipopolysaccharides of these species of the Bacteroides genus, which are important from the clinical point of view--B. fragilis and B. thetaiotaomicron.

  9. Studies on the Protein Moiety of Endotoxin from Gram-Negative Bacteria: Characterization of the Protein Moiety Isolated by Phenol Treatment of Endotoxin from S. marcescens 08 and E. coli O 141:K85(B)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    E . coli 0 141:k85 (B) by aqueous phenol treatment were characterized by the determination of hydrodynamic properties, electrophoretic behavior, immunochemical specificity and chemical analysis. The chemical composition of both proteins revealed the presence of lipid A constituents such as glucosamine, phosphorus and fatty acids; the B-hydroxy myristic acid regarded as the characteristic marker for lipid A was present in all protein preparations. Evidence presented in this paper indicates that a portion of lipid A is firmly bound to the protein moieties. Therefore,

  10. Growth inhibitory effects of endotoxins from Bacteroides gingivalis and intermedius on human gingival fibroblasts in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Layman, D.L.; Diedrich, D.L.

    1987-06-01

    Purified endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide from Bacteroides gingivalis and Bacteroides intermedius caused a similar dose-dependent inhibition of growth of cultured human gingival fibroblasts as determined by /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation and direct cell count. Approximately 200 micrograms/ml endotoxin caused a 50% reduction in /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake of logarithmically growing cells. Inhibition of growth was similar in cultures of fibroblasts derived from either healthy or diseased human gingiva. When examining the change in cell number with time of exposure in culture, the rate of proliferation was significantly suppressed during the logarithmic phase of growth. However, the cells recovered so that the rate of proliferation, although reduced, was sufficient to produce a cell density similar to the control cells with prolonged culture. The endotoxins were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The profiles of the Bacteroides endotoxins were different. B. gingivalis endotoxin showed a wide range of distinct bands indicating a heterogeneous distribution of molecular species. Endotoxin from B. intermedius exhibited a few discrete low molecular weight bands, but the majority of the lipopolysaccharides electrophoresed as a diffuse band of high molecular weight material. The apparent heterogeneity of the two Bacteroides endotoxins and the similarity in growth inhibitory capacity suggest that growth inhibitory effects of these substances cannot be attributed to any polysaccharide species of endotoxin.

  11. Adherent endotoxin on dental implant surfaces: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Morra, Marco; Cassinelli, Clara; Bollati, Daniele; Cascardo, Giovanna; Bellanda, Marco

    2015-02-01

    Osteoimmunology is the crosstalk between cells from the immune and skeletal systems, suggesting a role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the stimulation of osteoclast activity. Endotoxin or bacterial challenges to inflammatory cells are directly relevant to dental implant pathologies involving bone resorption, such as osseointegration failure and peri-implantitis. While the endotoxin amount on implant devices is regulated by standards, it is unknown whether commercially available dental implants elicit different levels of adherent-endotoxin stimulated cytokines. The objective of this work is to develop a model system and evaluate endotoxin-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes relevant to osteoclast activation on commercially available dental implants. Murine J774-A1 macrophages were cultured on Ti disks with different level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination to define the time-course of the inflammatory response to endotoxin, as evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. The developed protocol was then used to measure adherent endotoxin on commercially available packaged and sterile dental implants in the "as-implanted" condition. Results show that tested dental implants induce variable expression of endotoxin-stimulated genes, sometimes above the level expected to promote bone resorption in vivo. Results are unaffected by the specific surface treatment; rather, they likely reflect care in cleaning and packaging protocols. In conclusion, expression of genes that enhance osteoclast activity through endotoxin stimulation of inflammatory cells is widely different on commercially available dental implants. A reappraisal of the clinical impact of adherent endotoxins on dental (and bone) implant devices is required in light of increasing knowledge on crosstalk between cells from the immune and skeletal systems.

  12. Some metabolic effects of bacterial endotoxins in salmonid fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, G.A.; Ross, A.J.; Smith, L.

    1968-01-01

    Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were highly resistant to endotoxins from both Escherichia coli and Aeromonas salmonicida (a fish pathogen) at 14 and 18 C.This resistance was investigated with liver tryptophan pyrrolase, liver glycogen depletion in vitro, and the arterial blood pressure as indicators. Liver glycogen depletion was accelerated by both endotoxins, but there was no significant cardiovascular response or effect on liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity. Since the cardiovascular effects of histamine were also limited, it was concluded that the metabolic effects of bacterial endotoxins in salmonids are qualitatively different from those of the higher vertebrates.

  13. Topically applied standardized aqueous extract of Curcuma longa Linn. suppresses endotoxin-induced uveal inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Renu; Gupta, S K; Agarwal, Puneet; Srivastava, Sushma

    2013-10-01

    Aqueous extract of C. longa when administered 4 h after induction of E. coli lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in rats showed significantly suppressed inflammation with a significantly lower mean clinical grade, histopathological grade and aqueous humor (AH) protein level compared to vehicle treated group. Although, prednisolone group showed significantly lower clinical grade, histopathological grades and AH protein levels compared to C. longa group, TNF-alpha levels did not differ significantly. Moreover, when the aqueous extract was administered starting from 3 days before induction of uveitis, the mean clinical and histopathological grade as well as AH protein and TNF-alpha levels were comparable to C. longa group when treatment was administered 4 h after induction of uveitis. It is concluded that topically applied standardized aqueous extract of C. longa suppresses endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats by reducing TNF-alpha activity.

  14. Hormone and Cytokine Responses to Repeated Endotoxin Exposures-No Evidence of Endotoxin Tolerance After 5 Weeks in Humans.

    PubMed

    Rittig, Nikolaj; Thomsen, Henrik H; Bach, Ermina; Jørgensen, Jens Otto L; Møller, Niels

    2015-07-01

    Endotoxin administrations are used in experimental models of inflammatory disease. Short-term endotoxin tolerance in response to repeated endotoxin exposure is well known, but the duration of endotoxin tolerance in humans remains unknown. The main purpose of this study was to test whether endotoxin tolerance is present in vivo when separating endotoxin exposures with more than 5 weeks, a time span often used between individual investigations in clinical experimental studies. Seventeen healthy young men were exposed twice to Escherichia coli endotoxin. The inflammatory response was calculated as area under the curve between the first and second endotoxin exposures for heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, temperature, cortisol, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10. The median interval between exposures was 90 days (range, 37-244). The ratio between the inflammatory responses during the second and the first endotoxin exposures was 0.89 ± 0.09 (P = 0.28) for tumor necrosis factor α, 0.96 ± 0.07 (P = 0.53) for IL-1β, 0.97 ± 0.11 (P = 0.78) for IL-6, 1.30 ± 0.18 (P = 0.12) for IL-10, and 0.92 ± 0.04 (P = 0.10) for cortisol. Our data do not show evidence of in vivo tolerance to repeated endotoxin exposure when administrations are separated with at least 5 weeks. This observation is important in the planning and interpretation of future experimental endotoxin studies.

  15. Methods of Endotoxin Detection.

    PubMed

    Su, Wenqiong; Ding, Xianting

    2015-08-01

    Endotoxin, present in the outer membrane of all gram-negative bacteria, can pose serious risks to human health, from irreversible shock to death. Therefore, it is essential to develop sensitive, accurate, and rapid methods for its detection. The rabbit pyrogen test is the first standard technique for endotoxin detection and, nowadays, has been replaced by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test, which is the most popular detection technique for endotoxin. With in-depth understanding of endotoxin, biosensors based on endotoxin-sensing components are promising alternatives to pursue in developing low-cost, easy-operation, and fast-response endotoxin detection techniques. This article summarizes the recent advances of endotoxin detection methods with a particular emphasis on optical and electrochemical biosensors based on various sensing elements ranging from nature biomolecules to artificial materials. As the research and technological revolution continues, the highly integrated and miniaturized commercial devices for sensitively and reliably detecting endotoxin will provide a wide range of applications in people's daily life.

  16. The effects of diode laser on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide adherent to titanium oxide surface of dental implants. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Giannelli, Marco; Landini, Giulia; Materassi, Fabrizio; Chellini, Flaminia; Antonelli, Alberto; Tani, Alessia; Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Bani, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    Effective decontamination of biofilm and bacterial toxins from the surface of dental implants is a yet unresolved issue. This in vitro study aims at providing the experimental basis for possible use of diode laser (λ 808 nm) in the treatment of peri-implantitis. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm was grown for 48 h on titanium discs with porous surface corresponding to the bone-implant interface and then irradiated with a diode laser (λ 808 nm) in noncontact mode with airflow cooling for 1 min using a Ø 600-μm fiber. Setting parameters were 2 W (400 J/cm(2)) for continuous wave mode; 22 μJ, 20 kHz, 7 μs (88 J/cm(2)) for pulsed wave mode. Bactericidal effect was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy and counting the residual colony-forming units. Biofilm and titanium surface morphology were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In parallel experiments, the titanium discs were coated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), laser-irradiated and seeded with RAW 264.7 macrophages to quantify LPS-driven inflammatory cell activation by measuring the enhanced generation of nitric oxide (NO). Diode laser irradiation in both continuous and pulsed modes induced a statistically significant reduction of viable bacteria and nitrite levels. These results indicate that in addition to its bactericidal effect laser irradiation can also inhibit LPS-induced macrophage activation and thus blunt the inflammatory response. The λ 808-nm diode laser emerges as a valuable tool for decontamination/detoxification of the titanium implant surface and may be used in the treatment of peri-implantitis.

  17. Effects of photodynamic laser and violet-blue led irradiation on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide attached to moderately rough titanium surface: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Giannelli, Marco; Landini, Giulia; Materassi, Fabrizio; Chellini, Flaminia; Antonelli, Alberto; Tani, Alessia; Nosi, Daniele; Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Bani, Daniele

    2017-03-10

    Effective decontamination of biofilm and bacterial toxins from the surface of dental implants is a yet unresolved issue. This study investigates the in vitro efficacy of photodynamic treatment (PDT) with methylene blue (MB) photoactivated with λ 635 nm diode laser and of λ 405 nm violet-blue LED phototreatment for the reduction of bacterial biofilm and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) adherent to titanium surface mimicking the bone-implant interface. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm grown on titanium discs with a moderately rough surface was subjected to either PDT (0.1% MB and λ 635 nm diode laser) or λ 405 nm LED phototreatment for 1 and 5 min. Bactericidal effect was evaluated by vital staining and residual colony-forming unit count. Biofilm and titanium surface morphology were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In parallel experiments, discs coated with Escherichia coli LPS were treated as above before seeding with RAW 264.7 macrophages to quantify LPS-driven inflammatory cell activation by measuring the enhanced generation of nitric oxide (NO). Both PDT and LED phototreatment induced a statistically significant (p < 0.05 or higher) reduction of viable bacteria, up to -99 and -98% (5 min), respectively. Moreover, besides bactericidal effect, PDT and LED phototreatment also inhibited LPS bioactivity, assayed as nitrite formation, up to -42%, thereby blunting host inflammatory response. Non-invasive phototherapy emerges as an attractive alternative in the treatment of peri-implantitis to reduce bacteria and LPS adherent to titanium implant surface without causing damage of surface microstructure. Its efficacy in the clinical setting remains to be investigated.

  18. Statistical optimization of medium composition and culture condition for the production of recombinant anti-lipopolysaccharide factor of Eriocheir sinensis in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shan; Liu, Mei; Wang, Baojie; Jiang, Keyong; Wang, Lei

    2011-11-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are important antimicrobial peptides that are isolated from some aquatic species. In a previous study, we isolated ALF genes from Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. In this study, we optimized the production of a recombinant ALF by expressing E. sinensis ALF genes in Escherichia coli maintained in shake-flasks. In particular, we focused on optimization of both the medium composition and the culture condition. Various medium components were analyzed by the Plackett-Burman design, and two significant screened factors, (NH4)2SO4 and KH2PO4, were further optimized via the central composite design (CCD). Based on the CCD analysis, we investigated the induction start-up time, the isopropylthio-D-galactoside (IPTG) concentration, the post-induction time, and the temperature by response surface methodology. We found that the highest level of ALF fusion protein was achieved in the medium containing 1.89 g/L (NH4)2SO4 and 3.18 g/L KH2PO4, with a cell optical density of 0.8 at 600 nm before induction, an IPTG concentration of 0.5 mmol/L, a post-induction temperature of 32.7°C, and a post-induction time of 4 h. Applying the whole optimization strategy using all optimal factors improved the target protein content from 6.1% (without optimization) to 13.2%. We further applied the optimized medium and conditions in high cell density cultivation, and determined that the soluble target protein constituted 10.5% of the total protein. Our identification of the economic medium composition, optimal culture conditions, and details of the fermentation process should facilitate the potential application of ALF for further research.

  19. Binding of /sup 125/I-labeled endotoxin to bovine, canine, and equine platelets and endotoxin-induced agglutination of canine platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, K.M.; Boehme, M.; Inbar, O.

    1982-10-01

    Endotoxin from Escherichia coli O127:B8, Salmonella abortus-equi and S minnesota induced clumping of some canine platelets (PLT) at a final endotoxin concentration of 1 microgram/ml. Endotoxin-induced clumping of canine PLT was independent of PLT energy-requiring processes, because clumping was observed with canine PLT incubated with 2-deoxy-D-glucose and antimycin A. The PLT responded to adenosine diphosphate before, but not after, incubation with the metabolic inhibitors. Endotoxin induced a slight and inconsistant clumping of bovine and equine PLT at high (mg/ml) endotoxin concentration. High-affinity binding sites could not be demonstrated on canine, bovine, and equine PLT, using /sup 125/I-labeled E coli O127:B8 endotoxin. Nonspecific binding was observed and appeared to be due primarily to an extraneous coat on the PLT surface that was removed by gel filtration. The endotoxin that was bound to PLT did not appear to modify PLT function. An attempt to identify plasma proteins that bound physiologically relevant amounts of endotoxin was not successful. The significance of the endotoxin-induced clumping or lack of it on the pathophysiology of endotoxemia is discussed.

  20. Endotoxin contamination of engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Esch, R Keith; Han, Li; Foarde, Karin K; Ensor, David S

    2010-03-01

    Endotoxin has established health impacts and may be a potential confounding factor in toxicity studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENM). We aimed to characterize endotoxin contamination for a representative set of carbon-based ENM. The established method for quantifying endotoxin relies on its activity in a complex biochemical assay system. Because of their physical and chemical properties, measurement of endotoxin associated with many ENM presents non-trivial technical challenges. We have made progress in identifying and implementing methods for ENM analysis with respect to endotoxin content, revealing varying levels of endotoxin contamination in the ENM examined here. The physical association of ENM and endotoxin and their shared physiological effects suggest the possibility that contaminating endotoxin may contribute to the toxicity that is ascribed to ENM. We found in this small number of samples that endotoxin levels were not related to type of ENM or surface area but may be introduced randomly during manufacture.

  1. Complex links between dietary lipids, endogenous endotoxins and metabolic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Laugerette, Fabienne; Vors, Cécile; Peretti, Noël; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic diseases such as obesity are characterized by a subclinical inflammatory state that contributes to the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Recent reports also indicate that (i) there are alterations of the intestinal microbiota in metabolic diseases and (ii) absorption of endogenous endotoxins (namely lipopolysaccharides, LPS) can occur, particularly during the digestion of lipids. The aim of the present review is to highlight recently gained knowledge regarding the links between high fat diets, lipid digestion, intestinal microbiota and metabolic endotoxemia & inflammation.

  2. Endotoxins in commercial vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Geier, M R; Stanbro, H; Merril, C R

    1978-01-01

    Twenty samples of commercial vaccines intended for administration to humans were assayed for the presence of bacterial endotoxins by using the Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Sixteen of the vaccines contained more than 0.1 ng of endotoxin per ml (which corresponds to 103 bacterial cell wall equivalents per ml in the undiluted vaccines). These results suggest that at some stage of preparation, the vaccines have contained varying amounts of gram-negative bacteria and may indicate the presence of other bacterial products as well. It might be useful to list the level of endotoxins, phage, and other contaminants on each vaccine lot to facilitate studies on any side effects of these contaminants. Selection of vaccine lots with the least endotoxin might reduce some of the adverse effects of vaccinations. PMID:727776

  3. Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovikova, Lyudmila V.; Ivanova, Svetlana; Zhang, Minghuang; Yang, Huan; Botchkina, Galina I.; Watkins, Linda R.; Wang, Haichao; Abumrad, Naji; Eaton, John W.; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2000-05-01

    Vertebrates achieve internal homeostasis during infection or injury by balancing the activities of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), produced by all gram-negative bacteria, activates macrophages to release cytokines that are potentially lethal. The central nervous system regulates systemic inflammatory responses to endotoxin through humoral mechanisms. Activation of afferent vagus nerve fibres by endotoxin or cytokines stimulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal anti-inflammatory responses. However, comparatively little is known about the role of efferent vagus nerve signalling in modulating inflammation. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized, parasympathetic anti-inflammatory pathway by which the brain modulates systemic inflammatory responses to endotoxin. Acetylcholine, the principle vagal neurotransmitter, significantly attenuated the release of cytokines (tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-18), but not the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human macrophage cultures. Direct electrical stimulation of the peripheral vagus nerve in vivo during lethal endotoxaemia in rats inhibited TNF synthesis in liver, attenuated peak serum TNF amounts, and prevented the development of shock.

  4. Endotoxin Interactions with Platelets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    irreversible aggregation of human platelets (Hamberg and Sainuelsson 1974; Hlamberg et al 1975). Acetylsalicylic acid , an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase aud...exposure to endotoxin (100 ttg/nil). To simulate the lipopolysac- charide of endotoxin, several different fatty acids were added individually to platelet...platelet lytic capability. Similarity, iflegaradt doses of ganima radiation 6wCo destroy fatty acid groups on lipid A (L. Bertok, personal communication

  5. Kinetics of Hydrothermal Inactivation of Endotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lixiong; Wilbur, Chris L.; Mintz, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    A kinetic model was established for the inactivation of endotoxins in water at temperatures ranging from 210°C to 270°C and a pressure of 6.2 × 106 Pa. Data were generated using a bench scale continuous-flow reactor system to process feed water spiked with endotoxin standard (Escherichia coli O113:H10). Product water samples were collected and quantified by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. At 250°C, 5-log endotoxin inactivation was achieved in about 1 s of exposure, followed by a lower inactivation rate. This non-log-linear pattern is similar to reported trends in microbial survival curves. Predictions and parameters of several non-log-linear models are presented. In the fast-reaction zone (3- to 5-log reduction), the Arrhenius rate constant fits well at temperatures ranging from 120°C to 250°C on the basis of data from this work and the literature. Both biphasic and modified Weibull models are comparable to account for both the high and low rates of inactivation in terms of prediction accuracy and the number of parameters used. A unified representation of thermal resistance curves for a 3-log reduction and a 3 D value associated with endotoxin inactivation and microbial survival, respectively, is presented. PMID:21193667

  6. Intramammary infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide negatively affects feed intake, chewing, and clinical variables, but some effects are stronger in cows experiencing subacute rumen acidosis.

    PubMed

    Aditya, S; Humer, E; Pourazad, P; Khiaosa-Ard, R; Huber, J; Zebeli, Q

    2017-02-01

    Feeding high-grain diets increases the risk of subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) and adversely affects rumen health. This condition might impair the responsiveness of cows when they are exposed to external infectious stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The main objective of this study was to evaluate various responses to intramammary LPS infusion in healthy dairy cows and those experimentally subjected to SARA. Eighteen early-lactating Simmental cows were subjected to SARA (n = 12) or control (CON; n = 6) feeding conditions. Cows of the control group received a diet containing 40% concentrates (DM basis) throughout the experiment. The intermittent SARA feeding regimen consisted in feeding the cows a ration with 60% concentrate (DM basis) for 32 d, consisting of a first SARA induction for 8 d, switched to the CON diet for 7 d, and re-induction during the last 17 d. On d 30 of the experiment, 6 SARA (SARA-LPS) and 6 CON (CON-LPS) cows were intramammary challenged once with a single dose of 50 μg of LPS from Escherichia coli (O26:B6), whereas the other 6 SARA cows (SARA-PLA) received 10 mL of sterile saline solution as placebo. To confirm the induction of SARA, the reticular pH was continuously monitored via wireless pH probes. The DMI remained unchanged between SARA and CON cows during the feeding experiment, but was reduced in both treatment groups receiving the LPS infusion compared with SARA-PLA, whereby a significant decline was observed for cows of the SARA-LPS treatment (-38%) compared with CON-LPS (-19%). The LPS infusion did not affect the reticuloruminal pH dynamics, but significantly enhanced ruminal temperature and negatively affected chewing behavior. The ruminal temperature increased after the LPS infusion and peaked about 1 h earlier in SARA-LPS cows compared with the cows of the CON-LPS treatment. Moreover, a significant decline in milk yield was found in SARA-LPS compared with CON-LPS following the LPS infusion. Cows receiving LPS had elevated

  7. Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus dietary supplementation on the performance, intestinal barrier function, rectal microflora and serum immune function in weaned piglets challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jiayun; Li, Haihua; Wang, Zhixiang; Wang, Wenjie

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglet model to determine the effects of diets containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on the performance, intestinal barrier function, rectal microflora and serum immune function. A total of 150 piglets (initial body weight (BW) 7.53 ± 0.21 kg) were allotted to one of the following diets, including a basal diet, a basal diet supplemented with 250 mg/kg Flavomycin, or basal diet plus 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2 % L. acidophilus. On day 28 of the trial, the pigs were given an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (200 μg/kg body weight) followed by blood collection 3 h later. Diets with either antibiotics, 0.1 or 0.2 % Lactobacillus increased (P < 0.05) the final BW and decreased (P < 0.05) feed gain ratio (F/G) compared with the control group. Pigs fed diets containing antibiotic or Lactobacillus had greater average daily gain (ADG) (P < 0.05) than pigs fed the control diet. The rectal content Lactobacillus counts for pigs fed diet containing Lactobacillus were significant higher (P < 0.01) than those fed antibiotic or control diet. Feeding the Lactobacillus diets decreased the Escherichia coli counts of rectal content (P < 0.01). Pigs fed diets containing 0.1 or 0.2 % Lactobacillus decreased serum DAO activity (P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed the control diet. Serum IL-10 concentration was enhanced in pigs fed the diet with Lactobacillus compared to pigs fed the control diet and antibiotic diet. Feeding a diet with Lactobacillus reduced (P < 0.05) IFN-γ concentration compared to the control diet. Inclusion of Lactobacillus in diets fed to pigs reduced TNF-α concentration compared with pigs fed no Lactobacillus (P < 0.05). These results indicate that feeding with L. acidophilus improved growth performance and protected against LPS-induced inflammatory status.

  8. α-Chaconine isolated from a Solanum tuberosum L. cv Jayoung suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory mediators via AP-1 inactivation in RAW 264.7 macrophages and protects mice from endotoxin shock.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Goo; Lee, Suel-Gie; Lee, Hwi-Ho; Lee, Hae Jun; Shin, Ji-Sun; Kim, Nan-Jung; An, Hyo-Jin; Nam, Jung-Hwan; Jang, Dae Sik; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2015-06-25

    In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of α-chaconine in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and in LPS-induced septic mice. α-Chaconine inhibited the expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at the transcriptional level, and attenuated the transcriptional activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1) by reducing the translocation and phosphorylation of c-Jun. α-Chaconine also suppressed the phosphorylation of TGF-β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), which lies upstream of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (MKK7)/Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. JNK knockdown using siRNA prevented the α-chaconine-mediated inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators. In a sepsis model, pretreatment with α-chaconine reduced the LPS-induced lethality and the mRNA and production levels of pro-inflammatory mediators by inhibiting c-Jun activation. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of α-chaconine are associated with the suppression of AP-1, and support its possible therapeutic role for the treatment of sepsis.

  9. Cynandione A attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced production of inflammatory mediators via MAPK inhibition and NF-κB inactivation in RAW264.7 macrophages and protects mice against endotoxin shock

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sang Min; Park, Ji Hae; Park, Keun Hyung; Jung, Mira; Jung, Hana; Mohamed, Mohamed Antar Aziz; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, In Sik

    2014-01-01

    Cynanchum wilfordii has been traditionally used in eastern Asia for the treatment of various diseases such as gastrointestinal diseases and arteriosclerosis. Cynandione A (CA), an acetophenone, is one of major constituents from roots of C. wilfordii. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory activities of CA were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 macrophages and LPS-administered C57BL/6 N mice. CA significantly decreased LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 in a dose-dependent manner, while CA up to 200 μM did not exhibit cytotoxic activity. Our data also showed that CA significantly attenuated expression of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-stimulated macrophages. CA inhibited phosphorylation of IκB-α and MAP kinases such as ERK and p38. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CA inhibited translocation of NF-κB to the nucleus, transcription of the NF-κB minimal promoter and NF-κB DNA binding activity. Administration of CA significantly decreased the plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in LPS-injected mice and improved survival of septic mice with lethal endotoxemia. These results demonstrate that CA has effective inhibitory effects on production of inflammatory mediators via suppressing activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, suggesting that CA may be used as a potential anti-inflammatory agent for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25361770

  10. Stress-Derived Corticotropin Releasing Factor Breaches Epithelial Endotoxin Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yong; Geng, Xiao-Rui; Yang, Gui; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Loss of the endotoxin tolerance of intestinal epithelium contributes to a number of intestinal diseases. The etiology is not clear. Psychological stress is proposed to compromise the intestinal barrier function. The present study aims to elucidate the role of the stress-derived corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in breaching the established intestinal epithelial endotoxin tolerance. Methods Epithelial cells of HT-29, T84 and MDCK were exposed to lipopolysaccharide to induce the endotoxin tolerance; the cells were then stimulated with CRF. The epithelial barrier function was determined using as indicators of the endotoxin tolerant status. A water-avoid stress mouse model was employed to test the role of CRF in breaching the established endotoxin tolerance in the intestine. Results The established endotoxin tolerance in the epithelial cell monolayers was broken down by a sequent exposure to CRF and LPS manifesting a marked drop of the transepithelial resistance (TER) and an increase in the permeability to a macromolecular tracer, horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The exposure to CRF also increased the expression of Cldn2 in the epithelial cells, which could be mimicked by over expression of TLR4 in epithelial cells. Over expression of Cldn2 resulted in low TER in epithelial monolayers and high permeability to HRP. After treating mice with the 10-day chronic stress, the intestinal epithelial barrier function was markedly compromised, which could be prevented by blocking either CRF, or TLR4, or Cldn2. Conclusions Psychological stress-derived CRF can breach the established endotoxin tolerance in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:23840363

  11. The natural immunity to evolutionary atavistic endotoxin for human cancer.

    PubMed

    Moncevičiūtė-Eringienė, Elena; Rotkevič, Kristina; Grikienis, Ruta Grikienyte

    2015-11-01

    We propose a new theory of the immunological control of cancer corresponding to the hypothesis that the specific natural immunity to evolutionary atavistic endotoxin has a potential role in human cancer prevention. The results of our studies have shown that IgMNAE, i.e. endogenous or spontaneous IgM class antibodies to enterobacterial lipopolysaccharide molecules (lipid A), control the immune mechanisms responsible for the internal medium stability not only against the damaging impact of the carcinogenic factors, but also against the malignant transformation of its own degenerated cells. Among people who in 1979 and 1982 had IgMNAE in their blood serum, after 15-30years fell ill with cancer 10%, versus 15% among people who had no IgMNAE (p<0.05). Therefore, it is possible to maintain that the stimulation of IgMNAE synthesis would help in the destruction and elimination of damaged somatic cells or prevent their mechanisms from the formation of invasiveness, metastatic and other properties of their parasitism. In the mechanism of the natural immunity to endotoxin it is possible to see the formation of the respective evolutionary protective reactions which protect the damaged cells from acquiring resistance to damaging factors and thus from becoming an independent new parasitic population. Thereby the presented theory of the immunological control of cancer has a causal connection with our evolutionary resistance theory of the origin of cancer. Collectively, these data suggest that activation of natural immunity to endotoxin and production of vaccines against evolutionary atavistic endotoxin or gram-negative bacterial endotoxin can be helpful when applied in cancer prophylaxis for persons with a low level of natural immunity to endotoxin and perhaps in creating immunotherapeutic methods for stopping the endogenous parasitism of tumour cells by binding IgMNAE to atavistic endotoxin in cancer patients.

  12. Physical and biological properties of U. S. standard endotoxin EC after exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Csako, G.; Elin, R.J.; Hochstein, H.D.; Tsai, C.M.

    1983-07-01

    Techniques that reduce the toxicity of bacterial endotoxins are useful for studying the relationship between structure and biological activity. We used ionizing radiation to detoxify a highly refined endotoxin preparation. U.S. standard endotoxin EC. Dose-dependent changes occurred by exposure to /sup 60/Co-radiation in the physical properties and biological activities of the endotoxin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis showed gradual loss of the polysaccharide components (O-side chain and R-core) from the endotoxin molecules. In contrast, although endotoxin revealed a complex absorption pattern in the UV range, radiation treatment failed to modify that pattern. Dose-related destruction of the primary toxic component, lipid A, was suggested by the results of activity tests: both the pyrogenicity and limulus reactivity of the endotoxin were destroyed by increasing doses of radiation. The results indicate that the detoxification is probably due to multiple effects of the ionizing radiation on bacterial lipopolysaccharides, and the action involves (i) the destruction of polysaccharide moieties and possibly (ii) the alteration of lipid A component of the endotoxin molecule.

  13. Puerarin ameliorates experimental alcoholic liver injury by inhibition of endotoxin gut leakage, Kupffer cell activation, and endotoxin receptors expression.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing-Hua; Cui, Tuan; Huang, Fu; Chen, Liang; Zhao, Yu; Xu, Lin; Xu, Li-Li; Feng, Qin; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2013-03-01

    Puerarin, an isoflavone component extracted from Kudzu (Pueraria lobata), has been demonstrated to alleviate alcohol-related disorders. Our study examined whether puerarin ameliorates chronic alcoholic liver injury through inhibition of endotoxin gut leakage, the subsequent Kupffer cell activation, and endotoxin receptors expression. Rats were provided with the Liber-DeCarli liquid diet for 8 weeks. Puerarin (90 mg/kg or 180 mg/kg daily) was orally administered from the beginning of the third week until the end of the experiment. Chronic alcohol intake caused increased serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and triglyceride levels as well as fatty liver and neutrophil infiltration in hepatic lobules as determined by biochemical and histologic assays. A significant increase of liver tumor necrosis factor α was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These pathologic effects correlated with increased endotoxin level in portal vein and upregulated protein expression of hepatic CD68, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, CD14, Toll-like receptor 2, and Toll-like receptor 4. Meanwhile, the intestinal microvilli were observed to be sparse, shortened, and irregularity in distribution under the transmission electron microscope in conjunction with the downregulated intestinal zonula occludens-1 protein expression. These hepatic pathologic changes were significantly inhibited in puerarin-treated animals as were the endotoxin levels and hepatic CD68 and endotoxin receptors. Moreover, the pathologic changes in intestinal microvillus and the decreased intestinal zonula occludens-1 were also ameliorated with puerarin treatment. These results thus demonstrate that puerarin inhibition of endotoxin gut leakage, Kupffer cell activation, and endotoxin receptors expression is involved in the alleviation of chronic alcoholic liver injury in rats.

  14. Aminoglycosides modify the in vitro metachromatic reaction and murine generalized Shwartzman phenomenon induced by Salmonella minnesota R595 lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Focà, A; Matera, G; Iannello, D; Berlinghieri, M C; Liberto, M C

    1991-01-01

    Endotoxin-neutralizing activity may be an important property for antibiotics to be used in severe sepsis. Several antibiotics, belonging to different classes, were evaluated as to their endotoxin-neutralizing ability, using the inhibition of an in vitro metachromatic assay for lipopolysaccharides and a murine generalized Shwartzman reaction model. Gentamicin, amikacin, and sisomicin have been found to share significant in vitro antiendotoxin activity at an antibiotic/endotoxin ratio as low as 1.0/5 (by weight) and to reduce the murine generalized Shwartzman reaction at an antibiotic/endotoxin ratio of 3.3/5. Images PMID:1759842

  15. Endotoxin inactivation by selected drinking water treatment oxidants.

    PubMed

    Anderson, William B; Mayfield, Colin I; Dixon, D George; Huck, Peter M

    2003-11-01

    Exposure to endotoxins in treated drinking water can occur through ingestion, dermal abrasions, inhalation of water vapor, intravenous injection or during dialysis. While the risks associated with endotoxin ingestion and entry through dermal abrasions are not well quantified, adverse effects of intravenous injection and dialysis are well known and some studies indicate that inhalation of moisture-laden air may impact human health. This study quantifies the inactivation of endotoxin derived from Escherichia coli O55:B5 by three substances used either as disinfectants or oxidants in drinking water treatment: chlorine, monochloramine and potassium permanganate. Inactivation rates were found to be 1.4, 1.0 and 0.7 endotoxin units (EU)/mL h, for free chlorine, potassium permanganate and monochloramine, respectively. These rates are relatively slow given that contact times in drinking water distribution systems are typically less than 48 h. While small amounts of endotoxin may be removed by oxidation the observed removals are much less than those provided by physical removal processes. The significance of this finding is important for dialysis considerations but is as yet unclear with regard to inhalation, as the risk of inhaling sufficient quantities of endotoxin-containing aerosolized water droplets to adversely affect human health has not yet been adequately quantified.

  16. Biosensor of endotoxin and sepsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yang; Wang, Xiang; Wu, Xi; Gao, Wei; He, Qing-hua; Cai, Shaoxi

    2001-09-01

    To investigate the relation between biosensor of endotoxin and endotoxin of plasma in sepsis. Method: biosensor of endotoxin was designed with technology of quartz crystal microbalance bioaffinity sensor ligand of endotoxin were immobilized by protein A conjugate. When a sample soliton of plasma containing endotoxin 0.01, 0.03, 0.06, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0Eu, treated with perchloric acid and injected into slot of quartz crystal surface respectively, the ligand was released from the surface of quartz crystal to form a more stable complex with endotoxin in solution. The endotoxin concentration corresponded to the weight change on the crystal surface, and caused change of frequency that occurred when desorbed. The result was biosensor of endotoxin might detect endotoxin of plasma in sepsis, measurements range between 0.05Eu and 0.5Eu in the stop flow mode, measurement range between 0.1Eu and 1Eu in the flow mode. The sensor of endotoxin could detect the endotoxin of plasm rapidly, and use for detection sepsis in clinically.

  17. Ultrasensitive detection of endotoxins using computationally designed nanoMIPs.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Zeynep; Abdin, Mohammed J; Tothill, Alexander M; Karim, Kal; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2016-09-07

    Novel molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) were designed for endotoxin from Escherichia coli 0111:B4, using computational modeling. The screening process based on binding energy between endotoxin and each monomer was performed with 21 commonly used monomers, resulting in the selection of itaconic acid, methacrylic acid and acrylamide as functional monomers due to their strong binding interaction with the endotoxin template. The nanoMIPs were successfully synthesized with functional groups on the outer surface to aid in the immobilization onto sensor surface. The solid phase photopolymerization approach used for the synthesis of nanoMIPs ranging from 200 to 235 nm in diameter. The limit of detection and KD were significantly improved when endotoxin samples were prepared using a novel triethylamine method. This improved the efficiency of gold nanoparticle functionalization by targeting the subunits of the endotoxin. Compared to the vancomycin MIP control, the endotoxin MIPs displayed outstanding affinity and selectivity towards the endotoxin with KD values in the range of 4.4-5.3 × 10(-10) M, with limits of detection of 0.44 ± 0.02 ng mL(-1) as determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor when itaconic acid was used as the functional monomer. The MIP surface can be regenerated >30 times without significant loss of binding activity making this approach highly cost effective for expensive analyte templates. The combination of molecular modeling and solid phase synthesis enabled the successful synthesis of nanoMIPs capable of recognition and ultrasensitive detection of endotoxins using the highly sensitive SPR biosensor with triethylamine method.

  18. In vivo effect of surfactant on inflammatory cytokines during endotoxin-induced lung injury in rodents.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Neha; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2011-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a known inducer of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in humans and animals. In this study, ARDS was developed in rats by intratracheal instillation of LPS and the effect of two types of surfactant (natural vs. synthetic) was examined to determine their potential corrective roles in general, as well as to compare the two surfactants against one another in particular, in endotoxin-induced lung injury. Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into four groups, i.e., rats given: buffer controls; 055:B5 E. coli LPS only; LPS and then porcine surfactant (P-SF); or, LPS and then synthetic surfactant (S-SF). In vivo administration of LPS led to an increase in expression of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, interferon-γ, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β in the lungs of rats. These effects were confirmed by immunofluorescence in lung tissue sections and/or by protein (Western immunoblot) and mRNA expression (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) analyses of tissue samples. Apart from IL-4, concentrations of each of these cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid recovered from the animals were significantly increased in the LPS-treated hosts. Instillation of either surfactant (70 h after the LPS) into the airways diminished the expression of each of the inducible-cytokines, with the porcine (natural) form seeming having the greater inhibitory effect. These data suggest that surfactant can play an important role in the treatment of endotoxin-induced lung injury and might possess robust anti-inflammatory effects. Further, it seems that both the natural and synthetic surfactants prevent inflammatory outcomes in the lungs by controlling cytokine(s) production by various inflammatory cells. Last, the studies here clearly indicated that in this aspect, natural surfactant appears to be more beneficial compared to synthetic surfactant.

  19. Effects of diesel exhaust on lung inflammation related to bacterial endotoxin in mice.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ken-Ichiro; Takano, Hirohisa; Yanagisawa, Rie; Sakurai, Miho; Ueki, Naoko; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2006-11-01

    We have previously shown that intratracheal instillation of diesel exhaust particles enhances lung inflammation and lung expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines related to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) in mice. The present study was designed to elucidate the effects of inhalation of diesel exhaust on lung inflammation related to lipopolysaccharide. ICR mice were exposed for 12 hr to clean air or diesel exhaust at a soot concentration of 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/m(3) after intratracheal challenge with 125 microg/kg of lipopolysaccharide. Lung inflammation and lung expression of proinflammatory chemokines such as macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 and keratinocyte chemoattractant were evaluated 24 hr after intratracheal administration. Diesel exhaust inhalation decreased lipopolysaccharide-elicited inflammatory cell recruitment into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as compared with clean air inhalation. Histological study demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust did not affect lipopolysaccharide-enhanced neutrophil recruitment into the lung parenchyma. Lipopolysaccharide instillation elevated lung expression of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 and keratinocyte chemoattractant under clean air or diesel exhaust inhalation. However, diesel exhaust exposure did not influence but rather did suppress these levels in the presence of lipopolysaccharide. These results suggest that short-term exposure to diesel exhaust did not exacerbate lung inflammation related to bacterial endotoxin.

  20. Elevated concentrations of endotoxin in indoor air due to cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Aleksandra; Pehrson, Christina; Larsson, Lennart

    2006-05-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an important worldwide public health issue. The present study demonstrates that cigarette smoke can be a major source of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) in indoor environments. Gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry was used to determine 3-hydroxy fatty acids as markers of endotoxin in air-borne house dust in homes of smokers and non-smokers. Air concentrations of endotoxin were 4-63 times higher in rooms of smoking students than in identical rooms of non-smoking students. The fact that cigarette smoke contains large amounts of endotoxin may partly explain the high prevalence of respiratory disorders among smokers and may also draw attention to a hitherto neglected risk factor of ETS.

  1. Removal of endotoxin from water by microfiltration through a microporous polyethylene hollow-fiber membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, Y.; Fujii, R.; Igami, I.; Kawai, A.; Kamiki, T.; Niwa, M.

    1986-04-01

    The microporous polyethylene hollow-fiber membrane has a unique microfibrile structure throughout its depth and has been found to possess the functions of filtration and adsorption of endotoxin in water. The membrane has a maximum pore diameter of approximately 0.04 micron, a diameter which is within the range of microfiltration. Approximately 10 and 20% of the endotoxin in tap water and subterranean water, respectively, was smaller than 0.025 micron. Endotoxin in these water sources was efficiently removed by the microporous polyethylene hollow-fiber membrane. Escherichia coli O113 culture broth contained 26.4% of endotoxin smaller than 0.025 micron which was also removed. Endotoxin was leaked into the filtrate only when endotoxin samples were successively passed through the membrane. These results indicate that endotoxin smaller than the pore size of the membrane was adsorbed and then leaked into the filtrate because of a reduction in binding sites. Dissociation of /sup 3/H-labeled endotoxin from the membrane was performed, resulting in the removal of endotoxin associated with the membrane by alcoholic alkali at 78% efficiency.

  2. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO LIVE E. COLI ORGANISMS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    shock and shock produced by injection of live E . coli organisms in dogs. A primary purpose of our research has been to determine the effects of...intravenous injections of living E . coli organisms in dogs and monkeys and compare them with responses produced by endotoxin. Hemodynamic changes...pathologic alterations, and metabolic abnormalities have been evaluated in animals receiving lethal and sublethal injections of live E . coli organisms and comparable dosages of purified endotoxin.

  3. Endotoxin structures in the psychrophiles Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis contain distinctive acyl features.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Charles R; Alpuche, Giancarlo M; Landis, Corinne A; Sandman, Benjamin C

    2014-07-09

    Lipid A is the essential component of endotoxin (Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide), a potent immunostimulatory compound. As the outer surface of the outer membrane, the details of lipid A structure are crucial not only to bacterial pathogenesis but also to membrane integrity. This work characterizes the structure of lipid A in two psychrophiles, Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis, and also two mesophiles to which they are related using MALDI-TOF MS and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) GC-MS. P. marina lipid A is strikingly similar to that of Escherichia coli in organization and total acyl size, but incorporates an unusual doubly unsaturated tetradecadienoyl acyl residue. P. cryohalolentis also shows structural organization similar to a closely related mesophile, Acinetobacter baumannii, however it has generally shorter acyl constituents and shows many acyl variants differing by single methylene (-CH2-) units, a characteristic it shares with the one previously reported psychrotolerant lipid A structure. This work is the first detailed structural characterization of lipid A from an obligate psychrophile and the second from a psychrotolerant species. It reveals distinctive structural features of psychrophilic lipid A in comparison to that of related mesophiles which suggest constitutive adaptations to maintain outer membrane fluidity in cold environments.

  4. Activated protein C protection from lung inflammation in endotoxin-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Pirrone, Federica; Mazzola, Silvia M; Pastore, Camilla; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Sironi, Giuseppe; Riccaboni, Pietro; Viola, Manuela; Passi, Alberto; Clement, Maria G; Albertini, Mariangela

    2008-11-01

    We studied the protection of recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) in endotoxin-induced lung inflammation and injury and whether this effect is correlated with modulation of lung matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. We randomly assigned 12 Large White pigs to receive intravenous Escher-ichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 40 mu g/kg/hr), rhAPC (24 mu g/ kg/hr), or both. We monitored respiratory mechanics and function, cell counts, and cytokine concentrations in bron-choalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Lung samples were collected for the zymography of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and for histology. In septic pigs, rhAPC decreased proMMP-9 release as well as MMP-9 activation, and increased proMMP-2 presence without any evident activation compared with specimens that were given LPS alone. In addition, lung injury in rhAPC-treated animals was significantly attenuated, as shown by higher respiratory compliance, delayed increase in tumor necrosis alfa and interleukin-1beta as well as neutrophil recruitment in the BALF, reduced lung edema, and histologic changes. In conclusion, rhAPC is beneficial in acute lung injury, and the protection may depend, at least in part, on modulation of MMP-2/9 activity.

  5. Determination of endotoxins in sugar with the Limulus test.

    PubMed

    Haskå, G; Nystrand, R

    1979-12-01

    The Limulus amebocyte lysate test has been used for determination of pyrogens in sugar of different qualities. All the samples of domestic white sugar and beet raw sugar produced in Sweden during 1976 had a very low content of endotoxins, less than 10 ng/g of sugar. Imported cane raw sugar was, however, highly contaminated. The highest value obtained corresponds to about 100 mg of Escherichia coli endotoxin per g of raw sugar. Such crude sugar cannot, even after refining, be used for medical purposes. Instead, Swedish beet sugar is used as the raw material for production of invert sugar solutions for parenteral administration. The amount of endotoxin in this sugar is less than 1 ng/g.

  6. Peripherally administered orexin improves survival of mice with endotoxin shock

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Irukayama-Tomobe, Yoko; Murakoshi, Nobuyuki; Kiyama, Maiko; Ishikawa, Yui; Hosokawa, Naoto; Tominaga, Hiromu; Uchida, Shuntaro; Kimura, Saki; Kanuka, Mika; Morita, Miho; Hamada, Michito; Takahashi, Satoru; Hayashi, Yu; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection, accounting for the most common cause of death in intensive care units. Here, we report that peripheral administration of the hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin improves the survival of mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced endotoxin shock, a well-studied septic shock model. The effect is accompanied by a suppression of excessive cytokine production and an increase of catecholamines and corticosterone. We found that peripherally administered orexin penetrates the blood-brain barrier under endotoxin shock, and that central administration of orexin also suppresses the cytokine production and improves the survival, indicating orexin’s direct action in the central nervous system (CNS). Orexin helps restore body temperature and potentiates cardiovascular function in LPS-injected mice. Pleiotropic modulation of inflammatory response by orexin through the CNS may constitute a novel therapeutic approach for septic shock. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21055.001 PMID:28035899

  7. Proteogenomics of selective susceptibility to endotoxin using circulating acute phase biomarkers and bioassay development in sheep: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have injected endotoxin into animals to investigate and understand various pathologies and novel therapies for several decades. Recent observations have shown that there is selective susceptibility to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin in sheep, despite having similar breed characteristics. The reason behind this difference is unknown, and has prompted studies aiming to explain the variation by proteogenomic characterisation of circulating acute phase biomarkers. It is hypothesised that genetic trait, biochemical, immunological and inflammation marker patterns contribute in defining and predicting mammalian response to LPS. This review discusses the effects of endotoxin and host responses, genetic basis of innate defences, activation of the acute phase response (APR) following experimental LPS challenge, and the current approaches employed in detecting novel biomarkers including acute phase proteins (APP) and micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) in serum or plasma. miRNAs are novel targets for elucidating molecular mechanisms of disease because of their differential expression during pathological, and in healthy states. Changes in miRNA profiles during a disease challenge may be reflected in plasma. Studies show that gel-based two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with either matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) or liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are currently the most used methods for proteome characterisation. Further evidence suggests that proteomic investigations are preferentially shifting from 2-DE to non-gel based LC-MS/MS coupled with data extraction by sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) approaches that are able to identify a wider range of proteins. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and most recently proteomic methods have been used to

  8. Single session of Nd:YAG laser intracanal irradiation neutralizes endotoxin in dental root dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archilla, José R. F.; Moreira, Maria S. N. A.; Miyagi, Sueli P. H.; Bombana, Antônio C.; Gutknecht, Norbert; Marques, Márcia M.

    2012-11-01

    Endotoxins released in the dental root by Gram-negative microorganisms can be neutralized by calcium hydroxide, when this medication is applied inside the root canal for at least seven days. However, several clinical situations demand faster root canal decontamination. Thus, for faster endotoxin neutralization, endodontists are seeking additional treatments. The in vitro study tested whether or not intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation would be able to neutralize endotoxin within the human dental root canal in a single session. Twenty-four human teeth with one root were mounted between two chambers. After conventional endodontic treatment, root canals were contaminated with Escherichia coli endotoxin. Then they were irradiated or not (controls) in contact mode with an Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 15 Hz, 100 mJ and pulse fluency of 124 J/cm2). The endotoxin activity was measured using the limulus lysate technique and data were statistically compared (p≤0.05). The concentration of active endotoxin measured in the negative control group was significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.04). The concentrations of endotoxin in both irradiated groups were significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.027) and similar to that of negative control group (p=0.20). A single session of intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation is able to neutralize endotoxin in the dental root tissues.

  9. Single session of Nd:YAG laser intracanal irradiation neutralizes endotoxin in dental root dentin.

    PubMed

    Archilla, José R F; Moreira, Maria S N A; Miyagi, Sueli P H; Bombana, Antônio C; Gutknecht, Norbert; Marques, Márcia M

    2012-11-01

    Endotoxins released in the dental root by Gram-negative microorganisms can be neutralized by calcium hydroxide, when this medication is applied inside the root canal for at least seven days. However, several clinical situations demand faster root canal decontamination. Thus, for faster endotoxin neutralization, endodontists are seeking additional treatments. The in vitro study tested whether or not intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation would be able to neutralize endotoxin within the human dental root canal in a single session. Twenty-four human teeth with one root were mounted between two chambers. After conventional endodontic treatment, root canals were contaminated with Escherichia coli endotoxin. Then they were irradiated or not (controls) in contact mode with an Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 15 Hz, 100 mJ and pulse fluency of 124  J/cm2). The endotoxin activity was measured using the limulus lysate technique and data were statistically compared (p≤0.05). The concentration of active endotoxin measured in the negative control group was significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.04). The concentrations of endotoxin in both irradiated groups were significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.027) and similar to that of negative control group (p=0.20). A single session of intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation is able to neutralize endotoxin in the dental root tissues.

  10. Modulating endotoxin activity by combinatorial bioengineering of meningococcal lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Zariri, Afshin; Pupo, Elder; van Riet, Elly; van Putten, Jos P. M.; van der Ley, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis contains a very potent hexa-acylated LPS that is too toxic for therapeutic applications. We used systematic molecular bioengineering of meningococcal LPS through deletion of biosynthetic enzymes in combination with induction of LPS modifying enzymes to yield a variety of novel LPS mutants with changes in both lipid A acylation and phosphorylation. Mass spectrometry was used for detailed compositional determination of the LPS molecular species, and stimulation of immune cells was done to correlate this with endotoxic activity. Removal of phosphethanolamine in lipid A by deletion of lptA slightly reduces activity of hexa-acylated LPS, but this reduction is even more evident in penta-acylated LPS. Surprisingly, expression of PagL deacylase in a penta-acylated lpxL1 mutant increased LPS activity, contradicting the general rule that tetra-acylated LPS is less active than penta-acylated LPS. Further modification included expression of lpxP, an enzyme known to add a secondary 9-hexadecenoic acid to the 2’ acyl chain. The LpxP enzyme is temperature-sensitive, enabling control over the ratio of expressed modified hexa- and penta-acylated LPS by simply changing the growth temperature. These LPS derivatives display a broad range of TLR4 activity and differential cytokine induction, which can be exploited for use as vaccine adjuvant or other TLR4-based therapeutics. PMID:27841285

  11. Effect of radio-detoxified endotoxin on the liver microsomal drug metabolizing enzyme system in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bertok, L.; Szeberenyi, S.

    1983-06-01

    E. coli endotoxin (LPS) depresses the hepatic microsomal mono-oxygenase activity. Radio-detoxified LPS (TOLERIN: /sup 60/Co irradiated endotoxin preparation) decreases this biotransforming activity to a smaller extent. Phenobarbital, an inducer of this mono-oxygenase system, failed to induce in LPS-treated animals. In radio-detoxified LPS-treated rats, phenobarbital induced the mono-oxygenase and almost fully restored the biotransformation.

  12. The structures of core regions from enterobacterial lipopolysaccharides - an update.

    PubMed

    Holst, Otto

    2007-06-01

    To the major virulence factors of Gram-negative bacteria belong the lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins), which are very well characterized for their immunological, pharmacological and pathophysiological effects displayed in eucaryotic cells and organisms. In general, these amphiphilic lipopolysaccharides comprise three regions, which can be differentiated by their structures, function, genetics and biosynthesis: lipid A, the core region and a polysaccharide portion, which may be the O-specific polysaccharide, Enterobacterial Common Antigen (ECA) or a capsular polysaccharide. In the past, much emphasis has been laid on the elucidation of the structure-function relation. The lipid A was proven to represent the toxic principle of endotoxic active lipopolysaccharides, however, its toxicity depends not only on its structure but also on that of the core region, which is covalently linked to lipid A. Thus, and since the core region possesses immunogenic properties, complete structural analyses of lipopolysaccharides core regions and of structure-function relation are highly important for a better understanding of lipopolysaccharides action. To date, quite a number of core structures from lipopolysaccharides of various Gram-negative bacteria have been published and summarized in several overviews. This short review adds to this knowledge those structures of enterobacterial lipopolysaccharides that were published between January 2002 and October 2006.

  13. Temperament influences endotoxin-induced changes in rectal temperature, sickness behavior, and plasma epinephrine concentrations in bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the influence of temperament on endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) induced changes in body temperature and the secretion of cortisol and epinephrine. Purebred Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS...

  14. Ultrasound body composition traits response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers supplemented with Omnigen-AF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the body composition traits response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183 ± 5 kg) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separat...

  15. The effect of yeast cell wall supplementation on the metabolic responses of crossbred heifers to endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the metabolic responses of newly-received heifers to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.9±2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and transported to the Texas Tech University Beef Cent...

  16. The effect of yeast cell wall supplementation on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred newly-received heifers to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.9+/-2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and tra...

  17. OmniGen-AF supplementation modulated the physiological and acute phase responses of Brahman heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton...

  18. Dried citrus pulp modulates the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding dried citrus pulp (CP) pellets on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-received crossbred heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.3±2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and transported...

  19. Modulation of the metabolic response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers through OmniGen-AF supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the metabolic response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separated into 2...

  20. Sexually dimorphic secretion of cortisol but not catecholamines in response to an endotoxin challenge in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge on secretion of the adrenal stress-related hormones cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine in bull and heifer calves. Brahman calves (n = 12; 269 ± 11.7 kg) were randomly selected from the fall 2007 c...

  1. Removal of endotoxin from deionized water using micromachined silicon nanopore membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ross A.; Goldman, Ken; Fissell, William H.; Fleischman, Aaron J.; Zorman, Christian A.; Roy, Shuvo

    2011-05-01

    Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharide components of the cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that trigger the body's innate immune system and can cause shock and death. Water for medical therapy, including parenteral and dialysate solutions, must be free of endotoxin. This purity is challenging to achieve as many Gram-negative bacteria are endemic in the environment, and can thrive in harsh, nutrient-poor conditions. Current methods for removing endotoxin include distillation and reverse osmosis, both of which are resource intensive processes. Membranes that present an absolute barrier to macromolecular passage may be capable of delivering pure water for biomedical applications. In this work, endotoxin has been filtered from aqueous solutions using silicon nanopore membranes (SNMs) with monodisperse pore size distributions. SNMs with critical pore sizes between 26 and 49 nm were challenged with solutions of deionized water spiked with endotoxin and with Pseudomonas cepacia. The filtrate produced by the SNM from Pseudomonas-contaminated water had <1.0 endotoxin unit (EU) ml-1, which meets standards for dialysate purity. This approach suggests a technique for single-step cleanup of heavily contaminated water that may be suitable for field or clinical use.

  2. Human endotoxin tolerance is associated with enrichment of the CD14+ CD16+ monocyte subset.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Nieto, Aimée; Zentella, Alejandro; Moreno, José; Ventura, José L; Pedraza, Sigifredo; Velázquez, Juan R

    2015-01-01

    Prior exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induces a state of cell resistance to subsequent LPS restimulation, known as endotoxin tolerance, mainly by repressing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We established an endotoxin tolerance model in human monocytes Endotoxin-tolerant cells showed a decrease in IκBα degradation and diminished expression of Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) (both messenger RNA [mRNA] and protein content). The myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/MyD88 splice variant (MyD88s) ratio, an indirect way to test the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) MyD88-dependent signaling cascade, did not change in endotoxin-tolerant cells when compared to LPS-stimulated or -unstimulated ones. Remarkably, cell population analysis indicated a significant increase of the CD14+ CD16+ subset only under the endotoxin-tolerant condition. Furthermore, endotoxin-tolerant cells produced higher amounts of C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), a typical MyD88-independent cytokine.

  3. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 as mediators of endotoxin-induced beneficial effects

    SciTech Connect

    Urbaschek, R.; Urbaschek, B.

    1987-09-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharides or endotoxins are known to induce tumor necrosis; enhanced nonspecific resistance to bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections and to radiation sickness; and tolerance to lethal doses of endotoxin. These beneficial effects are achieved by pretreatment with minute amounts of endotoxin. Recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) are among the mediators capable of invoking radioprotection or resistance to the consequences of cecal ligation and puncture. Both cytokines are potent inducers of serum colony-stimulating factor (CSF) in C3H/HeJ mice (low responders to endotoxin). The number of splenic granulocyte-macrophage precursors was found to increase 5 days after injection of TNF in these mice. Although with IL-1 no increase in the number of granulocyte-macrophage colonies occurred in culture in the presence of serum CSF, a marked stimulation was observed when TNF was added. This stimulation of myelopoiesis observed in vivo and in vitro may be related to the radioprotective effect of TNF. The data presented suggest that TNF and IL-1 released after injection of endotoxin participate in the mediation of endotoxin-induced enhancement of nonspecific resistance and stimulation of hematopoiesis. 76 references.

  4. Endotoxin induction of an inhibitor of plasminogen activator in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-05

    The effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) on the fibrinolytic activity of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were examined. Endotoxin suppressed the net fibrinolytic activity of cell extracts and conditioned media in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of endotoxin required at least 6 h for expression. Cell extracts and conditioned media contained a 44-kDa urokinase-like plasminogen activator. Media also contained multiple plasminogen activators with molecular masses of 65-75 and 80-100 kDa. Plasminogen activators in extracts and media were unchanged by treatment of cells with endotoxin. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP)-abolished fibrinolytic activity of extracts and conditioned media. DFP-treated samples from endotoxin-treated but not untreated cells inhibited urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator, but not plasmin. Inhibitory activity was lost by incubation at pH 3 or heating to 56/sup 0/C for 10 min. These treatments did not affect inhibitory activity of fetal bovine serum. Incubation of /sup 125/I-urokinase with DFP-treated medium from endotoxin-treated cells produced an inactive complex with an apparent molecular mass of 80-85 kDa.

  5. Endotoxin suppresses surfactant synthesis in cultured rat lung cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.J.; Sanders, R.L.; McAdam, K.P.; Gelfand, J.A.; Burke, J.F.

    1989-02-01

    Pulmonary complications secondary to postburn sepsis are a major cause of death in burned patients. Using an in vitro organotypic culture system, we examined the effect of E. coli endotoxin (LPS) on lung cell surfactant synthesis. Our results showed that E. coli endotoxin (1.0, 2.5, 10 micrograms LPS/ml) was capable of suppressing the incorporation of /sup 3/H-choline into de novo synthesized surfactant, lamellar bodies (LB), and common myelin figures (CMF) at 50%, 68%, and 64%, respectively. In a similar study, we were able to show that LPS also inhibited /sup 3/H-palmitate incorporation by cultured lung cells. LPS-induced suppression of surfactant synthesis was reversed by hydrocortisone. Our results suggest that LPS may play a significant role in reducing surfactant synthesis by rat lung cells, and thus contribute to the pathogenesis of sepsis-related respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in burn injury.

  6. Oxidative degradation of endotoxin by advanced oxidation process (O3/H2O2 & UV/H2O2).

    PubMed

    Oh, Byung-Taek; Seo, Young-Suk; Sudhakar, Dega; Choe, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Park, Youn-Jong; Cho, Min

    2014-08-30

    The presence of endotoxin in water environments may pose a serious public health hazard. We investigated the effectiveness of advanced oxidative processes (AOP: O3/H2O2 and UV/H2O2) in the oxidative degradation of endotoxin. In addition, we measured the release of endotoxin from Escherichia coli following typical disinfection methods, such as chlorine, ozone alone and UV, and compared it with the use of AOPs. Finally, we tested the AOP-treated samples in their ability to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in mouse peritoneal macrophages. The production of hydroxyl radical in AOPs showed superior ability to degrade endotoxin in buffered solution, as well as water samples from Korean water treatment facilities, with the ozone/H2O2 being more efficient compared to UV/H2O2. In addition, the AOPs proved effective not only in eliminating E. coli in the samples, but also in endotoxin degradation, while the standard disinfection methods lead to the release of endotoxin following the bacteria destruction. Furthermore, in the experiments with macrophages, the AOPs-deactivated endotoxin lead to the smallest induction of TNF-α, which shows the loss of inflammation activity, compared to ozone treatment alone. In conclusion, these results suggest that AOPs offer an effective and mild method for endotoxin degradation in the water systems.

  7. Leakage of Microbial Endotoxin through the Implant-Abutment Interface in Oral Implants: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Garrana, Rhoodie; Mohangi, Govindrau; Malo, Paulo; Nobre, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background. Endotoxin initiates osteoclastic activity resulting in bone loss. Endotoxin leakage through implant abutment connections negatively influences peri-implant bone levels. Objectives. (i) To determine if endotoxin can traverse different implant-abutment connection (IAC) designs; (ii) to quantify the amount of endotoxins traversing the IAC; (iii) to compare the in vitro comportments of different IACs. Materials and Methods. Twenty-seven IACs were inoculated with E. coli endotoxin. Six of the twenty-seven IACs were external connections from one system (Southern Implants) and the remaining twenty-one IACs were made up of seven internal IAC types from four different implant companies (Straumann, Ankylos, and Neodent, Southern Implants). Results. Of the 27 IACs tested, all 6 external IACs leaked measurable amounts of endotoxin. Of the remaining 21 internal IACs, 9 IACs did not show measurable leakage whilst the remaining 12 IACs leaked varying amounts. The mean log endotoxin level was significantly higher for the external compared to internal types (p = 0.015). Conclusion. Within the parameters of this study, we can conclude that endotoxin leakage is dependent on the design of the IAC. Straumann Synocta, Straumann Cross-fit, and Ankylos displayed the best performances of all IACs tested with undetectable leakage after 7 days. Each of these IACs incorporated a morse-like component in their design. Speculation still exists over the impact of IAC endotoxin leakage on peri-implant tissues in vivo; hence, further investigations are required to further explore this.

  8. Leakage of Microbial Endotoxin through the Implant-Abutment Interface in Oral Implants: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohangi, Govindrau; Malo, Paulo; Nobre, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background. Endotoxin initiates osteoclastic activity resulting in bone loss. Endotoxin leakage through implant abutment connections negatively influences peri-implant bone levels. Objectives. (i) To determine if endotoxin can traverse different implant-abutment connection (IAC) designs; (ii) to quantify the amount of endotoxins traversing the IAC; (iii) to compare the in vitro comportments of different IACs. Materials and Methods. Twenty-seven IACs were inoculated with E. coli endotoxin. Six of the twenty-seven IACs were external connections from one system (Southern Implants) and the remaining twenty-one IACs were made up of seven internal IAC types from four different implant companies (Straumann, Ankylos, and Neodent, Southern Implants). Results. Of the 27 IACs tested, all 6 external IACs leaked measurable amounts of endotoxin. Of the remaining 21 internal IACs, 9 IACs did not show measurable leakage whilst the remaining 12 IACs leaked varying amounts. The mean log endotoxin level was significantly higher for the external compared to internal types (p = 0.015). Conclusion. Within the parameters of this study, we can conclude that endotoxin leakage is dependent on the design of the IAC. Straumann Synocta, Straumann Cross-fit, and Ankylos displayed the best performances of all IACs tested with undetectable leakage after 7 days. Each of these IACs incorporated a morse-like component in their design. Speculation still exists over the impact of IAC endotoxin leakage on peri-implant tissues in vivo; hence, further investigations are required to further explore this. PMID:28127552

  9. Endotoxin Augments Myeloid Dendritic Cell Influx into the Airways in Patients with Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Schaumann, Frank; Müller, Meike; Braun, Armin; Luettig, Birgit; Peden, David B.; Hohlfeld, Jens M.; Krug, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Epidemiologic studies have shown that exacerbation of asthma is modulated by environmental endotoxin. High levels of endotoxin are associated with asthma symptoms and the current use of asthma medication. However, the underlying mechanisms by which endotoxin modulates asthma are not completely understood. Objectives: The aim of the study was to test whether endotoxin enhances the response of individuals with allergic asthma to allergen, and to determine if this interaction is associated with increased numbers of antigen-presenting cells in the airways. Methods: Seventeen subjects with mild allergic asthma underwent segmental challenge with allergen, endotoxin, and the combination of both in three different lung segments via bronchoscopy. The cellular influx including monocytes, myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), as well as the level of cytokines, were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained 24 hours after segmental challenge. Monocytes, mDCs, and pDCs were isolated and their capacity to induce T cell proliferation was determined. Measurements and Main Results: Endotoxin enhanced the cellular response to allergen. The combination of allergen and endotoxin resulted in increased numbers of total cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and mDCs, as well as increased levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, IL-1α, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor–α in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with allergen alone. Isolated mDCs but not pDCs induced a strong T cell proliferation in vitro. Conclusions: Endotoxin augments the allergic inflammation in the lungs of individuals with asthma, and induces an enhanced influx of monocytes and functionally active antigen-presenting mDCs into the respiratory tract. PMID:18388357

  10. Phosphoethanolamine addition to the Heptose I of the Lipopolysaccharide modifies the inner core structure and has an impact on the binding of Polymyxin B to the Escherichia coli outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Javier; Alarcón, Mackarenna; Huerta, Jaime; Navarro, Belén; Aguayo, Daniel

    2017-03-22

    Phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) decoration of E. coli Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provides resistance to the antimicrobial Polymyxin B (PolB). While EptA and EptB enzymes catalyze the addition of pEtN to the Lipid A and Kdo (pEtN-Kdo-Lipid A), EptC catalyzes the pEtN addition to the Heptose I (pEtN-HeptI). In this study, we investigated the contribution of pEtN-HeptI to PolB resistance using eptA/eptB and eptC deficient E. coli K12 and its wild-type parent strains. These mutations were shown to decrease the antimicrobial activity of PolB on cells grown under pEtN-addition inducing conditions. Furthermore, the 1-N-phenylnapthylamine uptake assay revealed that in vivo PolB has a reduced OM-permeabilizing activity on the ΔeptA/eptB strain compared with the ΔeptC strain. In vitro, the changes in size and zeta potential of LPS-vesicles indicate that pEtN-HeptI reduce the PolB binding, but in a minor extent than pEtN-Kdo-Lipid A. Molecular dynamics analysis revealed the structural basis of the PolB resistance promoted by pEtN-HeptI, which generate a new hydrogen-bonding networks and a denser inner core region. Altogether, the experimental and theoretical assays shown herein indicate that pEtN-HeptI addition promote an LPS conformational rearrangement, that could act as a shield by hindering the accession of PolB to inner LPS-targets moieties.

  11. Structures of the rfaB, rfaI, rfaJ, and rfaS genes of Escherichia coli K-12 and their roles in assembly of the lipopolysaccharide core.

    PubMed

    Pradel, E; Parker, C T; Schnaitman, C A

    1992-07-01

    Analysis of the sequence of a 4.1-kb rfa region downstream from rfaP revealed four genes. The first of these encodes a basic protein of 36,730 Da and does not correspond to any known rfa gene. It has been designated rfaS. The second gene was identified as rfaB on the basis of its ability to complement a Salmonella typhimurium rfaB mutant and encodes a 42,060-Da protein. The third and fourth genes encode proteins of 39,423 and 36,046 Da which are strongly homologous to the RfaI and RfaJ proteins of S. typhimurium. Escherichia coli K-12 restriction fragments carrying these genes complement an S. typhimurium rfaI mutant and, at lower efficiency, an rfaJ mutant. The difference in complementation efficiency suggests that the rfaI and rfaJ genes of E. coli K-12 have sugar and acceptor specificities different from those of S. typhimurium, as predicted from the different lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core structures of the two organisms. Defined mutations affecting all four genes were constructed in vitro and crossed onto the chromosome. The phenotypes of these mutations suggest that extension of the core may require protein-protein interactions between the enzymes involved in core completion as well as the interaction of these enzymes with their specific acceptor molecules. Mutants blocked at rfaI or genes encoding earlier steps in core biosynthesis exhibited a single predominant LPS band on gels while mutants blocked at rfaJ or genes encoding later steps produced multiple strong bands, indicating that one of the processes generating core heterogeneity requires a functional rfaI gene.

  12. Structures of the rfaB, rfaI, rfaJ, and rfaS genes of Escherichia coli K-12 and their roles in assembly of the lipopolysaccharide core.

    PubMed Central

    Pradel, E; Parker, C T; Schnaitman, C A

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the sequence of a 4.1-kb rfa region downstream from rfaP revealed four genes. The first of these encodes a basic protein of 36,730 Da and does not correspond to any known rfa gene. It has been designated rfaS. The second gene was identified as rfaB on the basis of its ability to complement a Salmonella typhimurium rfaB mutant and encodes a 42,060-Da protein. The third and fourth genes encode proteins of 39,423 and 36,046 Da which are strongly homologous to the RfaI and RfaJ proteins of S. typhimurium. Escherichia coli K-12 restriction fragments carrying these genes complement an S. typhimurium rfaI mutant and, at lower efficiency, an rfaJ mutant. The difference in complementation efficiency suggests that the rfaI and rfaJ genes of E. coli K-12 have sugar and acceptor specificities different from those of S. typhimurium, as predicted from the different lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core structures of the two organisms. Defined mutations affecting all four genes were constructed in vitro and crossed onto the chromosome. The phenotypes of these mutations suggest that extension of the core may require protein-protein interactions between the enzymes involved in core completion as well as the interaction of these enzymes with their specific acceptor molecules. Mutants blocked at rfaI or genes encoding earlier steps in core biosynthesis exhibited a single predominant LPS band on gels while mutants blocked at rfaJ or genes encoding later steps produced multiple strong bands, indicating that one of the processes generating core heterogeneity requires a functional rfaI gene. Images PMID:1624461

  13. Pathophysiological relevance of the CD14 receptor in surgical patients: biological activity of endotoxin is regulated by the CD14 receptor.

    PubMed

    Hiki, N; Mimura, Y; Ogawa, T; Kojima, J; Hatao, F; Kaminishi, M

    2001-01-01

    Endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPSs) are potent bacterial poisons, and they are always present in the intestine in considerable numbers. Stress, such that as a resulting from multiple injuries, burns, hypovolemia, hypoxia, intestinal ischemia, and surgery can lead to a breakdown of the gut barrier, allowing endotoxins to enter the systemic circulation via translocation. However, estimating the biological activity of translocated circulating endotoxins and identification of the mechanisms regulating their biological activities remain complex problems. CD14 has been found to exist as a soluble protein in the serum and as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein of myeloid lineage cells. It plays key roles in both LPS-induced activation and in LPS internalization by cells. In this article, we outline: (i) the biological activity of circulating endotoxin; and (ii) the role of membrane and/or soluble CD14 regulating the bioactivity of circulating endotoxin in a human model of postoperative endotoxemia.

  14. In silico designed nanoMIP based optical sensor for endotoxins monitoring.

    PubMed

    Abdin, M J; Altintas, Z; Tothill, I E

    2015-05-15

    Molecular modelling was used to select specific monomers suitable for the design of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with high affinity towards endotoxins. MIPs were synthesised using solid-phase photopolymerisation with endotoxins from Escherichia coli 0111:B4 as the template. This technique also allowed the endotoxin template to be reused successfully. Particle size of ~190-220 nm was achieved with low polydispersity index, which confirms the quality of the produced MIPs. For the development of the optical sensor, SPR-2 biosensor system was used by functionalising the gold sensor chip with the MIP nanoparticles using EDC/NHS coupling procedure. The affinity based-endotoxin assay can detect endotoxins in the concentration range of 15.6-500 ng mL(-1). MIP surfaces were regenerated showing stability of the method for subsequent analysis and dissociation constants were calculated as 3.24-5.24×10(-8) M. The developed SPR sensor with the novel endotoxins nanoMIP showed the potential of the technology for endotoxins capture, detection and risk management and also the importance of computational modelling to design the artificial affinity ligands.

  15. The Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay may be unsuitable for detecting endotoxin in blood of healthy female subjects.

    PubMed

    Gnauck, Anne; Lentle, Roger G; Kruger, Marlena C

    2015-01-01

    We examined the factors that may influence the outcome of the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay, when it is used for quantifying Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin, also referred to as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in samples of human blood. We found that the method recommended by the manufacturers, based on the reaction time, was inaccurate with any type of serum samples due to the slowing of the initial phase of reaction, likely by serum proteins. We describe an alternative method that is more accurate for use with heated serum samples. Further, we found that components of fresh serum irreversibly sequester endotoxin but that this action may be largely prevented by dilution and heating, but only if this occurs prior to the addition of endotoxin. The tests also indicated that a number of types of proprietary plastic vacutainers appeared to contain significant amounts of endotoxin. However, even when appropriate blood collection containers and calculation methods were used, the levels of endotoxin in serum samples detected by LAL assay were unlikely to reflect the total quantities of endotoxin in that sample and more likely to reflect the capacity of a given serum sample to sequester endotoxin.

  16. Deoxynivalenol, but not E. coli lipopolysaccharide, changes the response pattern of intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) according to its route of application.

    PubMed

    Kluess, J W; Kahlert, S; Kröber, A; Diesing, A-K; Rothkötter, H-J; Wimmers, Klaus; Dänicke, S

    2015-12-15

    The porcine intestinal epithelium is a primary target for mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Although epithelial cells are exposed to these toxins mainly from the luminal-chyme compartment an exposure from the blood side resulting from systemic absorption cannot be excluded. Thus, we investigated the effect of DON and LPS, alone or combined, on porcine intestinal epithelial cells IPEC-J2 on a transcriptional, translational and functional level when administered either from apical or basolateral. IPEC-J2 cells were cultured on 12-well inserts in complete medium at 5% CO2 and 39°C and subjected to following treatments: control (CON), 2000 ng/mL DON, 1 μg/mL LPS or DON+LPS for 72 h, either from apical or basolateral. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), protein and IL-8 content were measured and microarray analysis, qRT-PCR (IL-8, zonula occludens-1 ZO-1, β-actin), Western Blot (ZO-1, β-actin) and immunofluorescence (ZO-1) were performed. Data of at least three independent experiments were analysed with ANOVA and Dunnett's post hoc test. Basolateral DON resulted in significantly lower cell counts (p<0.05) with larger cells (p<0.01), whereas apical DON reduced total (p<0.001) and specific protein content (IL-8 content CON vs. DON: 2378 pg/3 mL vs. 991 pg/3 mL; p<0.001). Transcripts of ß-actin and ZO-1 were significantly upregulated in response to DON, irrespective of direction, whereas IL-8 mRNA remained unaffected. However, ZO-1 spatial distribution in the tight junction and its function (TEER) were detrimentally affected by basolateral DON only. In conclusion, direction of DON exposure affected IPEC-J2 differently on a translational and functional level, but was mainly inconsequential on a transcriptional level.

  17. Role of the rfaG and rfaP genes in determining the lipopolysaccharide core structure and cell surface properties of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, C T; Kloser, A W; Schnaitman, C A; Stein, M A; Gottesman, S; Gibson, B W

    1992-01-01

    Deletions which removed rfa genes involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core synthesis were constructed in vitro and inserted into the chromosome by linear transformation. The deletion delta rfa1, which removed rfaGPBI, resulted in a truncated LPS core containing two heptose residues but no hexose and a deep rought phenotype including decreased expression of major outer membrane proteins, hypersensitivity to novobiocin, and resistance to phage U3. In addition, delta rfa1 resulted in the loss of flagella and pili and a mucoid colony morphology. Measurement of the synthesis of beta-galactosidase from a cps-lacZ fusion showed that the mucoid phenotype was due to rcsC-dependent induction of colanic acid capsular polysaccharide synthesis. Complementation of delta rfa1 with rfaG+ DNA fragments resulted in a larger core and restored the synthesis of flagella and pili but did not reverse the deep rough phenotype or the induction of cps-lacZ, while complementation with a fragment carrying only rfaP+ reversed the deep rough phenotype but not the loss of flagella and pili. A longer deletion which removed rfaQGPBIJ was also constructed, and complementation studies with this deletion showed that the product of rfaQ was not required for the functions of rfaG and rfaP. Thus, the function of rfaQ remains unknown. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of LPS core oligosaccharides from complemented delta rfa1 strains indicated that rfaP+ was necessary for the addition of either phosphoryl (P) or pyrophosphorylethanolamine (PPEA) substituents to the heptose I residue, as well as for the partial branch substitution of heptose II by heptose III. The substitution of heptose II is independent of the type of P substituent present on heptose I, and this results in four different core structures. A model is presented which relates the deep rough phenotype to the loss of heptose-linked P and PPEA. Images PMID:1348243

  18. Proanthocyanidin-based Endotoxin Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-16

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 Proanthocyanidin-based Endotoxin Removal January 16, 2014 Approved for public release...17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Proanthocyanidin-based Endotoxin Removal Brandy J. White, James B. Delehanty, Baochuan Lin, and George P. Anderson Naval...Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified SAR 20 Brandy J. White (202) 404-6100 The application of proanthocyanidins (PACs) to the capture and removal of

  19. Equine platelets inhibit E. coli growth and can be activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid although superoxide anion production does not occur and platelet activation is not associated with enhanced production by neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Aktan, I; Dunkel, B; Cunningham, F M

    2013-04-15

    Activated platelets can contribute to host defense through release of products with bactericidal actions such as antimicrobial peptides and reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as by forming heterotypic aggregates with neutrophils and enhancing their antimicrobial properties. Whilst release of vasoactive mediators from equine platelets in response to stimuli including bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been documented, neither ROS production, nor the effects of activated platelets on equine neutrophil ROS production, have been reported. This study first sought evidence that activated equine platelets inhibit bacterial growth. Platelet superoxide production in response to stimuli including Escherichia coli-derived LPS and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus was then determined. The ability of LPS and LTA to up-regulate platelet P-selectin expression and induce platelet-neutrophil aggregate formation was investigated and the effect of co-incubating activated platelets with neutrophils on superoxide production measured. Growth of E. coli was inhibited in a time-dependent manner, and to a similar extent, by addition of platelet rich plasma (PRP) or platelet poor plasma (PPP) obtained by centrifugation of PRP. Activation of platelets in PRP by addition of thrombin led to a significant increase in the inhibitory action between 0.5 and 2h. Although phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) caused superoxide production by equine platelets in a protein kinase C-dependent manner, thrombin, platelet activating factor (PAF), LPS, LTA and formyl-methionyl-leucyl phenylalanine (FMLP) were without effect. LPS and LTA did induce platelet activation, measured as an increase in P-selectin expression (% positive cells: 17±3 (un-stimulated); 63±6 (1μg/ml LPS); 64±6 (1μg/ml LTA); n=5) but not platelet superoxide production or heterotypic aggregate formation. Co-incubation of activated platelets with neutrophils did not increase neutrophil superoxide production. This

  20. Effects of endotoxin induced lung injury and exercise in goats/sheep. Final report, 1 February 1992-2 June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Mundie, T.G.

    1993-06-02

    This study was designed the effects of exercise performed on animals already injured with E. coli endotoxin. This would tell us whether exercise makes the lung injury worse. It would also tell us how much exercise performance is impaired. These studies were designed to give further insights into the underlying causes of acute lung injury. Premature termination of the study prevented completion of the research project. It appeared from the limited experimentation conducted that maximal exercise was impaired by endotoxin-induced lung injury. Conclusions regarding exacerbation of endotoxin-induced lung injury cannot be made.... Acute lung injury, Maximal exercise, Endotoxin.

  1. Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay for detection and quantitation of endotoxin in a small-volume parenteral product.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, K; Steindler, K A; Harrison, S J

    1980-01-01

    A Limulus amoebocyte lysate gel-clotting method for the determination of endotoxin in a small-volume parenteral product has been described. Sample dilution with 0.1 M potassium phosphate monobasic buffer (pH 8.0) effectively eliminated assay interference, whereas dilution with water did not. The threshold pyrogenic dose for Escherichia coli EC-2 and O127:B8 endotoxins was determined to be 1.0 ng of endotoxin per kg of body weight. Not more than 1.0 ng of endotoxin (the threshold pyrogenic dose) per the highest recommended human dose or the USP pyrogen test dose per kg of body weight, whichever dose is more stringent, is a logical limit for the quantity of bacterial endotoxin in small-volume parenteral products. Excellent correlation was attained when this criterion was used to compare the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay with the USP pyrogen test. PMID:6448582

  2. Effects of flunixin meglumine on selected clinicopathologic variables, and serum testosterone concentration in stallions after endotoxin administration.

    PubMed

    Danek, J

    2006-09-01

    Four clinically normal stallions were infused intravenously with endotoxin (LPS) from Escherichia coli 055:B5 at a dose of 0.3 microg/kg b.w. and four stallions were treated with flunixin meglumine (FM) as a single intravenous injection at a dose of 1.1 mg/kg b.w., 5 min after the infusion of LPS. In response to endotoxin infusion, stallions' reaction was fever (increased rectal and scrotal skin temperature), increased heart rate (HR) and leucopenia. Administration of endotoxin also influenced the level of testosterone (decrease at 3-24 h and increase at 48-72 h after LPS administration) in the blood serum. FM treatment prevented an endotoxin-induced increase in rectal and scrotal skin temperature, HR, with no influence on the decrease of leucocytes. Administration of FM only had a significant effect on the latter changes (at 24-72 h) of serum testosterone concentration after addition of endotoxin.

  3. Comparison of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis genes rfaK, rfaL, rfaY, and rfaZ of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Klena, J D; Pradel, E; Schnaitman, C A

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the sequence of a 4.3-kb region downstream of rfaJ revealed four genes. The first two of these, which encode proteins of 27,441 and 32,890 Da, were identified as rfaY and rfaZ by homology of the derived protein sequences of their products to the products of similar genes of Salmonella typhimurium. The amino acid sequences of proteins RfaY and RfaZ showed, respectively, 70 and 72% identity. Genes 3 and 4 were identified as rfaK and rfaL on the basis of size and position, but the derived amino acid sequences of the products of these genes showed very little similarity (about 12% identity) between Escherichia coli K-12 and S. typhimurium. The next gene in the cluster, rfaC, encodes a product which also shows strong protein sequence homology between E. coli K-12 and S. typhimurium, as do the rfaF and rfaD genes which lie beyond it. Thus, the rfa gene cluster appears to consist of two blocks of genes which are conserved flanking a central region of two genes which are not conserved between these species. Although the RfaL protein sequence is not conserved, hydropathy plots of the two RfaL species are nearly identical and indicate that this is a typical integral membrane protein with 10 or more potential transmembrane domains. We noted the similarity of the structure of the rfa gene cluster to that of the rfb gene cluster, which has now been sequenced in several Salmonella serovars. The rfb cluster also contains a gene which lies within a central nonconserved region and encodes an integral membrane protein similar to protein RfaL. We speculate that protein RfaL may interact in a strain- or species-specific way with one or more Rfb proteins in the expression of surface O antigen. PMID:1624462

  4. Imaging robust microglial activation after lipopolysaccharide administration in humans with PET

    PubMed Central

    Sandiego, Christine M.; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Pittman, Brian; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Lim, Keunpoong; Lin, Shu-Fei; Matuskey, David; Lee, Jae-Yun; O’Connor, Kevin C.; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E.; Hannestad, Jonas; Cosgrove, Kelly P.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is associated with a broad spectrum of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. The core process in neuroinflammation is activation of microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain. We measured the neuroinflammatory response produced by a systemic administration of the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; also called endotoxin) in humans with the positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer [11C]PBR28, which binds to translocator protein, a molecular marker that is up-regulated by microglial activation. In addition, inflammatory cytokines in serum and sickness behavior profiles were measured before and after LPS administration to relate brain microglial activation with systemic inflammation and behavior. Eight healthy male subjects each had two 120-min [11C]PBR28 PET scans in 1 d, before and after an LPS challenge. LPS (1.0 ng/kg, i.v.) was administered 180 min before the second [11C]PBR28 scan. LPS administration significantly increased [11C]PBR28 binding 30–60%, demonstrating microglial activation throughout the brain. This increase was accompanied by an increase in blood levels of inflammatory cytokines, vital sign changes, and sickness symptoms, well-established consequences of LPS administration. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration in humans that a systemic LPS challenge induces robust increases in microglial activation in the brain. This imaging paradigm to measure brain microglial activation with [11C]PBR28 PET provides an approach to test new medications in humans for their putative antiinflammatory effects. PMID:26385967

  5. Hepatic serine and alanine metabolism during endotoxin-induced fever in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Southorn, B G; Thompson, J R

    1987-01-01

    Time course changes in plasma amino acid concentrations and the hepatic metabolism of serine and alanine were measured in six mature wethers during endotoxin-induced fever. In separate trials, the animals' responses to injections of saline and endotoxin were measured. The endotoxin was from Escherichia coli serotype 055:B5 and was injected intravenously (4 micrograms/kg body weight). Liver biopsies were obtained from the sheep at 6 h postinjection during both endotoxin and saline injection trials. Rectal temperature in the endotoxin treated animals was increased (P less than 0.05, above that in control animals from 4.25 h to 9 h postinjection, with a maximum rise of 2.43 degrees C at 5.5 h postinjection. Glucose concentration in jugular plasma decreased (P less than 0.05) by 3 h postinjection and remained depressed throughout the 24 h postinjection sampling period. Plasma serine concentration was decreased (P less than 0.05) by 3 h postinjection. Plasma alanine concentration was decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) only at 24 h postinjection. Endotoxin injection increased (P less than 0.05) hepatic oxidation of 14C-serine (162%) and the net incorporation of 14C-serine carbon into hepatic protein (173%) and glycogen (275%). The net incorporation of 14C-alanine carbon into hepatic protein (172%) and glycogen (323%) were increased (P less than 0.05) by endotoxin injection, while alanine oxidation was not affected by endotoxin treatment (P greater than 0.05). The increased hepatic use of serine may explain, in part, the dramatic decrease in plasma concentrations of this amino acid following endotoxin injection into sheep. PMID:3115552

  6. Toxicologic interactions between ozone and bacterial endotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Peavy, D.L.; Fairchild, E.J. II

    1987-02-01

    The effects of acute exposure of mice to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin of gram negative microorganisms, and ozone (O3) have been investigated. Intraperitoneal (ip) administration of 5 mg/kg LPS to CD-1 mice followed by exposure to 15 ppm O3 for 1.5 hr produced synergistic effects as measured by pulmonary edemagenesis and lethality assays. In contrast, ip administration of 0.1-1.6 mg/kg LPS to CD-1 mice over 5 consecutive days, a dose regimen resulting in LPS tolerance, protected against a lethal challenge of 20 ppm O3 for 3 hr. A statistically significant increase in catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity was measured in homogenates of lungs obtained from CD-1 mice receiving a tolerance-inducing regimen of LPS. These results demonstrate that two, distinct toxicologic interactions can occur between O3 and bacterial LPS. Synergism between these agents could explain, in part, the increased susceptibility of O3-exposed animals to respiratory infection with gram negative microorganisms. Protection resulting from LPS-induced increases in pulmonary antioxidant activity provides additional evidence that O3 and, possibly, LPS mediate their toxicity through oxidative mechanisms.

  7. The level of endotoxins in hemodialysis water and dialysate in Lithuanian hemodialysis centers.

    PubMed

    Skarupskienė, Inga; Bumblytė, Inga Arūnė; Tamošaitis, Donatas; Venterienė, Jūratė; Kuzminskis, Vytautas

    2010-01-01

    The composition and quality of the dialysis fluid play an important role in the modulation of dialysis-related complications. During hemodialysis, patient's blood has a contact with dialysate through a semipermeable membrane. Bacterial endotoxins can pass through the membrane pores into the patient's blood and cause a silent chronic microinflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the level of endotoxins in hemodialysis water and dialysate in Lithuanian hemodialysis centers. Dialysis water (n=50) and dialysate (n=50) were collected from 91% (n=50) of all hemodialysis centers. The presence of bacterial endotoxins was evaluated using a sensitive Limulus amebocyte lysate test, which detects intact lipopolysaccharides. The level of endotoxins was lower than 0.25 EU/mL in 43 (86%) dialysis water samples and in 46 (92%) dialysate samples, and complied with the recommendations of the European Pharmacopoeia and the European Best Practice Guidelines for pure dialysis fluid. The dialysate of 39 (78%) Lithuanian hemodialysis centers complied with the definition of an ultrapure dialysis fluid. The water and dialysate were of insufficient quality in 14% and in 8% of Lithuanian hemodialysis centers, respectively, and this could be improved by the establishment of routine investigation of endotoxins.

  8. Obesity Increases Sensitivity to Endotoxin Liver Injury: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Steatohepatitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shi Qi; Zhi Lin, Hui; Lane, M. Daniel; Clemens, Mark; Diehl, Anna Mae

    1997-03-01

    Genetically obese fatty/fatty rats and obese/obese mice exhibit increased sensitivity to endotoxin hepatotoxicity, quickly developing steatohepatitis after exposure to low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Among obese animals, females are more sensitive to endotoxin liver injury than males. LPS induction of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα ), the proven affecter of endotoxin liver injury, is no greater in the livers, white adipose tissues, or sera of obese animals than in those of lean controls. Indeed, the lowest serum concentrations of TNF occur in female obese rodents, which exhibit the most endotoxin-induced liver injury. Several cytokines that modulate the biological activity of TNF are regulated abnormally in the livers of obese animals. After exposure to LPS, mRNA of interferon γ , which sensitizes hepatocytes to TNF toxicity, is overexpressed, and mRNA levels of interleukin 10, a TNF inhibitor, are decreased. The phagocytic activity of liver macrophages and the hepatic expression of a gene encoding a macrophage-specific receptor are also decreased in obesity. This new animal model of obesity-associated liver disease demonstrates that hepatic macrophage dysfunction occurs in obesity and suggests that this might promote steatohepatitis by sensitizing hepatocytes to endotoxin.

  9. SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES CHRONIC AIRWAY DISEASE IN ENDOTOXIN-SENSITIVE BUT NOT ENDOTOXIN-RESISTANT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES CHRONIC AIRWAY DISEASE IN ENDOTOXIN-SENSITIVE BUT NOT ENDOTOXIN-RESISTANT MICE. D. M. Brass, J. D. Savov, *S. H. Gavett, ?C. George, D. A. Schwartz. Duke Univ Medical Center Durham, NC, *U.S. E.P.A. Research Triangle Park, NC, ?Univ of Iowa,...

  10. Lipopolysaccharide Phosphorylation by the WaaY Kinase Affects the Susceptibility of Escherichia coli to the Human Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37*

    PubMed Central

    Bociek, Karol; Ferluga, Sara; Mardirossian, Mario; Benincasa, Monica; Tossi, Alessandro; Gennaro, Renato; Scocchi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The human cathelicidin LL-37 is a multifunctional host defense peptide with immunomodulatory and antimicrobial roles. It kills bacteria primarily by altering membrane barrier properties, although the exact sequence of events leading to cell lysis has not yet been completely elucidated. Random insertion mutagenesis allowed isolation of Escherichia coli mutants with altered susceptibility to LL-37, pointing to factors potentially relevant to its activity. Among these, inactivation of the waaY gene, encoding a kinase responsible for heptose II phosphorylation in the LPS inner core, leads to a phenotype with decreased susceptibility to LL-37, stemming from a reduced amount of peptide binding to the surface of the cells, and a diminished capacity to lyse membranes. This points to a specific role of the LPS inner core in guiding LL-37 to the surface of Gram-negative bacteria. Although electrostatic interactions are clearly relevant, the susceptibility of the waaY mutant to other cationic helical cathelicidins was unaffected, indicating that particular structural features or LL-37 play a role in this interaction. PMID:26100635

  11. Endotoxin Induces Fibrosis in Vascular Endothelial Cells through a Mechanism Dependent on Transient Receptor Protein Melastatin 7 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Echeverría, Cesar; Montorfano, Ignacio; Hermosilla, Tamara; Armisén, Ricardo; Velásquez, Luis A.; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Varela, Diego; Simon, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory diseases, including endotoxemia-derived sepsis syndrome, is characterized by endothelial dysfunction. It has been demonstrated that the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the conversion of endothelial cells (ECs) into activated fibroblasts through endothelial­to­mesenchymal transition mechanism. Fibrogenesis is highly dependent on intracellular Ca2+ concentration increases through the participation of calcium channels. However, the specific molecular identity of the calcium channel that mediates the Ca2+ influx during endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis is still unknown. Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a calcium channel that is expressed in many cell types, including ECs. TRPM7 is involved in a number of crucial processes such as the conversion of fibroblasts into activated fibroblasts, or myofibroblasts, being responsible for the development of several characteristics of them. However, the role of the TRPM7 ion channel in endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis is unknown. Thus, our aim was to study whether the TRPM7 calcium channel participates in endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. Using primary cultures of ECs, we demonstrated that TRPM7 is a crucial protein involved in endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. Suppression of TRPM7 expression protected ECs from the fibrogenic process stimulated by endotoxin. Downregulation of TRPM7 prevented the endotoxin-induced endothelial markers decrease and fibrotic genes increase in ECs. In addition, TRPM7 downregulation abolished the endotoxin-induced increase in ECM proteins in ECs. Furthermore, we showed that intracellular Ca2+ levels were greatly increased upon LPS challenge in a mechanism dependent on TRPM7 expression. These results demonstrate that TRPM7 is a key protein involved in the mechanism underlying endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. PMID:24710004

  12. Endotoxin induces fibrosis in vascular endothelial cells through a mechanism dependent on transient receptor protein melastatin 7 activity.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Cesar; Montorfano, Ignacio; Hermosilla, Tamara; Armisén, Ricardo; Velásquez, Luis A; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Varela, Diego; Simon, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory diseases, including endotoxemia-derived sepsis syndrome, is characterized by endothelial dysfunction. It has been demonstrated that the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the conversion of endothelial cells (ECs) into activated fibroblasts through endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition mechanism. Fibrogenesis is highly dependent on intracellular Ca2+ concentration increases through the participation of calcium channels. However, the specific molecular identity of the calcium channel that mediates the Ca2+ influx during endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis is still unknown. Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a calcium channel that is expressed in many cell types, including ECs. TRPM7 is involved in a number of crucial processes such as the conversion of fibroblasts into activated fibroblasts, or myofibroblasts, being responsible for the development of several characteristics of them. However, the role of the TRPM7 ion channel in endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis is unknown. Thus, our aim was to study whether the TRPM7 calcium channel participates in endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. Using primary cultures of ECs, we demonstrated that TRPM7 is a crucial protein involved in endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. Suppression of TRPM7 expression protected ECs from the fibrogenic process stimulated by endotoxin. Downregulation of TRPM7 prevented the endotoxin-induced endothelial markers decrease and fibrotic genes increase in ECs. In addition, TRPM7 downregulation abolished the endotoxin-induced increase in ECM proteins in ECs. Furthermore, we showed that intracellular Ca2+ levels were greatly increased upon LPS challenge in a mechanism dependent on TRPM7 expression. These results demonstrate that TRPM7 is a key protein involved in the mechanism underlying endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis.

  13. An Endotoxin Tolerance Signature Predicts Sepsis and Organ Dysfunction at Initial Clinical Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Pena, Olga M.; Hancock, David G.; Lyle, Ngan H.; Linder, Adam; Russell, James A.; Xia, Jianguo; Fjell, Christopher D.; Boyd, John H.; Hancock, Robert E.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sepsis involves aberrant immune responses to infection, but the exact nature of this immune dysfunction remains poorly defined. Bacterial endotoxins like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are potent inducers of inflammation, which has been associated with the pathophysiology of sepsis, but repeated exposure can also induce a suppressive effect known as endotoxin tolerance or cellular reprogramming. It has been proposed that endotoxin tolerance might be associated with the immunosuppressive state that was primarily observed during late-stage sepsis. However, this relationship remains poorly characterised. Here we clarify the underlying mechanisms and timing of immune dysfunction in sepsis. Methods We defined a gene expression signature characteristic of endotoxin tolerance. Gene-set test approaches were used to correlate this signature with early sepsis, both newly and retrospectively analysing microarrays from 593 patients in 11 cohorts. Then we recruited a unique cohort of possible sepsis patients at first clinical presentation in an independent blinded controlled observational study to determine whether this signature was associated with the development of confirmed sepsis and organ dysfunction. Findings All sepsis patients presented an expression profile strongly associated with the endotoxin tolerance signature (p < 0.01; AUC 96.1%). Importantly, this signature further differentiated between suspected sepsis patients who did, or did not, go on to develop confirmed sepsis, and predicted the development of organ dysfunction. Interpretation Our data support an updated model of sepsis pathogenesis in which endotoxin tolerance-mediated immune dysfunction (cellular reprogramming) is present throughout the clinical course of disease and related to disease severity. Thus endotoxin tolerance might offer new insights guiding the development of new therapies and diagnostics for early sepsis. PMID:25685830

  14. THE MECHANISM OF ACTION OF ENDOTOXIN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Evidence from this laboratory and others indicates that endotoxin shock is a form of anaphylactic shock mediated through natural antibody and...bacteria may influence susceptibility to endotoxin by their effect on the production of both natural and acquired antibody. The immunologic factors...in the production of endotoxin shock were investigated further by the following studies: ( 1 ) A Systematic Analysis of the Reaction Between Endotoxin

  15. Performance, serum biochemical responses, and gene expression of intestinal folate transporters of young and older laying hens in response to dietary folic acid supplementation and challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Jing, M; Munyaka, P M; Tactacan, G B; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; O, K; House, J D

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary folic acid (FA) supplementation on performance, serum biochemical indices, and mRNA abundance of intestinal folate transporters in young and older laying hens after acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Two experiments were conducted separately involving 48 Shaver White young laying hens (24 wk of age) in experiment 1 and 48 Shaver White older laying hens (58 wk of age) in experiment 2. Birds were fed 2 diets in a complete randomized design. The diets were wheat-soybean meal based, with or without supplemental 4 mg of FA/kg of diet. Birds were fed for 8 wk, during which time feed consumption and egg production were monitored. At the end of each feeding experiment, 6 hens from each dietary treatment were injected intravenously with 8 mg/kg of BW of either Escherichia coli LPS or sterile saline. Four hours after injection, blood and intestinal samples were collected for further analysis. Compared with the control, dietary FA supplementation increased egg weight and egg mass and decreased serum glucose levels in the young laying hens, and reduced serum uric acid in the older laying hens (P < 0.05). Relative to saline injection, plasma homocysteine, serum calcium, and phosphorus levels were found to be lower in both young and older laying hens after LPS challenge (P < 0.05). Other serum biochemical variables and the mRNA expression of 2 folate transport genes in the small and large intestine were differentially affected by LPS challenge, and some of those responses varied with the age of the birds. Additionally, interactions between diet and LPS challenge were specifically found in the older laying hens. In summary, in addition to improving production performance, there were effects of dietary FA supplementation and its interaction with LPS challenge on biochemical constituents, and age played a role in the development of responses to diet and bacterial LPS infections.

  16. Whole body protein deposition and plasma amino acid profiles in growing and/or finishing pigs fed increasing levels of sulfur amino acids with and without Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    PubMed

    Kim, J C; Mullan, B P; Frey, B; Payne, H G; Pluske, J R

    2012-12-01

    A split plot experiment with 72 male pigs weighing 52.9 ± 0.39 kg (mean ± SEM) was conducted to examine AA partitioning and body protein deposition (PD) in response to increasing dietary sulfur amino acids (SAA) with or without immune system (IS) activation. The main plot was with and without IS activation, and 4 diets containing different amounts of standardized ileal digestible (SID) SAA (SAA to Lys ratios of 0.45, 0.55, 0.65 and 0.75) were the subplots. Activation of IS was achieved by intramuscular injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS; serotype 055:B5, Sigma; 30 μg/kg BW) every Monday and Thursday, with control pigs injected with sterile saline. Maximum body PD, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and minimum plasma urea content were achieved at SID SAA:Lys ratio of 0.55 in saline-injected pigs but were achieved at a SID SAA:Lys ratio of 0.75 in IS-activated pigs. Immune system activation increased rectal temperature (P < 0.05), plasma haptoglobin (1.1 vs. 2.0 mg/mL; P < 0.001), and the proportion of neutrophils (0.39 vs. 0.42; P < 0.05) and decreased serum albumin content (38.4 vs. 36.8 g/L; P < 0.01). Increasing dietary SAA had no effects on these variables. Immune system-activated pigs had lower levels of homocysteine (Hcy; P < 0.001) and a lower Ser content (P < 0.05). Results showed that increasing dietary SAA as DL-methionine in growing and/or finishing pigs altered plasma AA contents, and that use efficiency of the AA was improved when greater levels of SAA were supplemented in IS-activated pigs.

  17. The Lack of the Essential LptC Protein in the Trans-Envelope Lipopolysaccharide Transport Machine Is Circumvented by Suppressor Mutations in LptF, an Inner Membrane Component of the Escherichia coli Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Benedet, Mattia; Falchi, Federica A.; Puccio, Simone; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Peano, Clelia; Polissi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) transport (Lpt) system is responsible for transferring LPS from the periplasmic surface of the inner membrane (IM) to the outer leaflet of the outer membrane (OM), where it plays a crucial role in OM selective permeability. In E. coli seven essential proteins are assembled in an Lpt trans-envelope complex, which is conserved in γ-Proteobacteria. LptBFG constitute the IM ABC transporter, LptDE form the OM translocon for final LPS delivery, whereas LptC, an IM-anchored protein with a periplasmic domain, interacts with the IM ABC transporter, the periplasmic protein LptA, and LPS. Although essential, LptC can tolerate several mutations and its role in LPS transport is unclear. To get insights into the functional role of LptC in the Lpt machine we searched for viable mutants lacking LptC by applying a strong double selection for lptC deletion mutants. Genome sequencing of viable ΔlptC mutants revealed single amino acid substitutions at a unique position in the predicted large periplasmic domain of the IM component LptF (LptFSupC). In complementation tests, lptFSupC mutants suppress lethality of both ΔlptC and lptC conditional expression mutants. Our data show that mutations in a specific residue of the predicted LptF periplasmic domain can compensate the lack of the essential protein LptC, implicate such LptF domain in the formation of the periplasmic bridge between the IM and OM complexes, and suggest that LptC may have evolved to improve the performance of an ancestral six-component Lpt machine. PMID:27529623

  18. Endotoxin-like activity associated with Lyme disease Borrelia.

    PubMed

    Fumarola, D; Munno, I; Marcuccio, C; Miragliotta, G

    1986-12-01

    The newly recognized spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme Disease, has been examined for endotoxin-like activities as measured by the standard Farmacopea Ufficiale della Republica Italiana rabbit fever test and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. The suspension of heat-killed microorganism caused a febrile response at a dose of 1 X 10(8) bacteria pro kilo. Similar results were obtained in the Limulus assay where the heat-killed spirochetes stimulated formation of solid clot until the concentration of 1 X 10(5) per ml. Both in pyrogen test and in Limulus assay heat-killed Escherichia coli exhibited a higher degree of potency. These results show that LD-Borrelia possess endotoxin-like activities which could help in understanding the pathogenesis of the clinical symptomatology of the disease.

  19. Enhanced endotoxin effects in plasma fibronectin-deficient rats.

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, M C; Kilpatrick-Smith, L; Arbittier, D; Douglas, S D; Polin, R A

    1987-01-01

    Immunoreactive plasma fibronectin depletion has been associated with the presence of collagen-fibronectin complexes in patients after trauma and in animal models of traumatic and burn injuries. However, the role of plasma fibronectin in the development of sepsis after traumatic and burn injuries in patients is unknown. Treatment of patients and animals with purified human plasma fibronectin ameliorates some of the clinical and metabolic effects of systemic endotoxemia. We report that the induction of immunoreactive plasma fibronectin deficiency by gelatin infusion is associated with enhanced effects of intraperitoneal Escherichia coli endotoxin injection. We have observed a significant increase in the concentrations of ammonia in plasma of treated rats compared with those in control rats administered the same dose of endotoxin. PMID:3298066

  20. SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES PERSISTENT AIRWAY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The endotoxin component of organic dusts causes acute reversible airflow obstruction and airway inflammation. To test the hypothesis that endotoxin alone causes airway remodeling, we have compared the response of two inbred mouse strains to subchronic endotoxin ...

  1. Endotoxin Studies And Biosolids Stabilization Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation has three parts; a review of bench-scale endotoxin research, a review of observations from a field scale endotoxin release study, and discussion of biosolids stabilization and characterization by PLFA/FAME microbial community analysis. Endotoxins are part of th...

  2. Staphylococcus aureus and Lipopolysaccharide Modulate Gene Expressions of Drug Transporters in Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells Correlation to Inflammatory Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Yagdiran, Yagmur; Tallkvist, Jonas; Artursson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation in the mammary gland (mastitis) is the most common disease in dairy herds worldwide, often caused by the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Little is known about the effects of mastitis on drug transporters and the impact on transporter-mediated excretion of drugs into milk. We used murine mammary epithelial HC11 cells, after lactogenic differentiation into a secreting phenotype, and studied gene expressions of ABC- and SLC- transporters after treatment of cells with S. aureus and lipopolysaccharide, an endotoxin secreted by E. coli. The studied transporters were Bcrp, Mdr1, Mrp1, Oatp1a5, Octn1 and Oct1. In addition, Csn2, the gene encoding β-casein, was analyzed. As biomarkers of the inflammatory response, gene expressions of the cytokines Il6 and Tnfα and the chemokine Cxcl2 were determined. Our results show that S. aureus and LPS treatment of cells, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, induced an up-regulation of Mdr1 and of the inflammatory biomarkers, except that Tnfα was not affected by lipopolysaccharide. By simple regression analysis we could demonstrate statistically significant positive correlations between each of the transporters with each of the inflammatory biomarkers in cells treated with S. aureus. The coefficients of determination (R2) were 0.7–0.9 for all but one correlation. After treatment of cells with lipopolysaccharide, statistically significant correlations were only found between Mdr1 and the two parameters Cxcl2 and Il6. The expression of Csn2 was up-regulated in cells treated with S. aureus, indicating that the secretory function of the cells was not impaired. The strong correlation in gene expressions between transporters and inflammatory biomarkers may suggest a co-regulation and that the transporters have a role in the transport of cytokines and chemokines. Our results demonstrate that transporters in mammary cells can be affected by infection, which may have an impact on

  3. Endotoxin-induced maturation of monocytes in preterm fetal sheep lung.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Boris W; Joshi, Shubhada N; Moss, Timothy J M; Newnham, John P; Sindelar, Richard; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G

    2007-08-01

    The fetal lung normally contains immature monocytes and very few mature macrophages. The chorioamnionitis frequently associated with preterm birth induces monocyte influx into the fetal lung. Previous studies demonstrated that monocytes in the developing lung can mediate lung injury responses that resemble BPD in humans. We hypothesized that chorioamnionitis would induce maturation of immature monocytes in the fetal lung. Groups of three to seven time-mated ewes received saline or 10 mg of endotoxin (Escherichia coli 055:B5) in saline by intra-amniotic injection for intervals from 1 to 14 days before operative delivery at 124 days of gestational age. Monocytic cells from lung tissue were recovered using Percoll gradients. Monocytic cells consistent with macrophages were identified morphologically and by myosin heavy chain class II expression. An increase in macrophages was preceded by induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the lung and subsequent activation of the transcription factor PU.1. The production of IL-6 by monocytes/macrophages in response to endotoxin challenge in vitro increased 7 and 14 days after exposure to intra-amniotic endotoxin. Recombinant TNF-alpha induced IL-6 production by lung monocytic cells exposed to intra-amniotic endotoxin but not in control cells. Monocytic phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils also increased 7 and 14 days after exposure to intra-amniotic endotoxin. Intra-amniotic endotoxin induced lung monocytes to develop into functionally mature cells consistent with macrophages. These findings have implications for lung immune responses after exposure to chorioamnionitis.

  4. Comparison of Different Irrigants in the Removal of Endotoxins and Cultivable Microorganisms from Infected Root Canals.

    PubMed

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Cardoso, Flávia Goulart da Rosa; Chung, Adriana; Xavier, Ana Cláudia Carvalho; Figueiredo, Mariana Diehl; Martinho, Frederico Canato; Palo, Renato Miotto

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of different irrigants used to remove endotoxins and cultivable microorganisms during endodontic therapy. Forty root canals were contaminated and divided into groups according to the irrigant: 2% NaOCl + surfactant, 2% CHX, 2.5% NaOCl, and pyrogen-free saline solution (control). Samples were collected after root canal contamination (S1), after instrumentation (S2), and 7 days after instrumentation (S3). Microorganisms and endotoxins were recovered from 100% of the contaminated root canals (S1). At S2, 2% NaOCl + surfactant, 2% CHX, and 2.5% NaOCl were able to completely eliminate cultivable microorganisms. At S3, both 2% CHX and 2.5% NaOCl were effective in preventing C. albicans and E. coli regrowth, but E. faecalis was still detected. No microorganism species was recovered from root canals instrumented with 2% NaOCl + surfactant. At S2, a higher percentage value of endotoxin reduction was found for 2% NaOCl + surfactant (99.3%) compared to 2% CHX (98.9%) and 2.5% NaOCl (97.18%) (p < 0.05). Moreover, at S3, 2% NaOCl + surfactant (100%) was the most effective irrigant against endotoxins. All irrigants tested were effective in reducing microorganisms and endotoxins from root canals. Moreover, 2% NaOCl + surfactant was the most effective irrigant against endotoxins and regrowth of microorganisms.

  5. Experimental Study on Inactivation of Bacterial Endotoxin by Using Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xingmin; Li, Yaxi; Zhang, Guanjun; Ma, Yue; Shao, Xianjun

    2011-12-01

    The low-temperature plasma (LTP) generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was used to sterilize the E.coli endotoxin, which is usually difficult to kill by traditional methods. Three different concentrations of bacterial endotoxin (1 EU/mL, 0.5 EU/mL and 0.25 EU/mL) were treated by LTP for different time (20 s, 40 s and 60 s). Tachypleus amebocyte lysate (TAL) method was employed to detect the concentration variation of bacterial endotoxin before and after the plasma treatment, and endotoxic shock mice model was used to evaluate the inactivation effects of LTP on endotoxin for further study. Experimental results demonstrated that, DBD plasma can inactivate the bacterial endotoxin quickly and effectively, and when the LTP treatment time was increased, the concentrations of bacterial endotoxin decreased gradually (after 60 s plasma treatment, its inactivation effect was beyond the Chinese pharmacopoeia standard), and the average survival time of mice gradually extended. The possible inactivation mechanisms are proposed to be related to reactive oxygen species (ROSs).

  6. Structures and gene clusters of the O-specific polysaccharides of the lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli O69 and O146 containing glycolactilic acids: ether conjugates of D-GlcNAc and D-Glc with (R)- and (S)-lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Knirel, Yuriy A; Guo, Xi; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Perepelov, Andrei V; Liu, Bin; Shashkov, Alexander S

    2017-02-01

    Based on the O-specific polysaccharides of the lipopolysaccharides (O-polysaccharides, O-antigens), strains of a clonal species Escherichia coli are classified into 184 O serogroups. In this work, structures of the O-polysaccharides of E. coli O69 and O146 were elucidated and gene clusters for their biosynthesis were characterized. The O-polysaccharides were released from the lipopolysaccharides by mild acid hydrolysis and studied by sugar analysis and one- and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy before and after O-deacetylation. The O146 polysaccharide was also studied by Smith degradation. The O69 and O146 polysaccharides were found to contain ether conjugates of monosaccharides with lactic acid called glycolactilic acids: 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-4-O-[(R)-1-carboxyethyl]-D-glucose (D-GlcNAc4Rlac) and 3-O-[(S)-1-carboxyethyl]-D-glucose (D-Glc3Slac), respectively. Structures of the pentasaccharide repeats of the O-polysaccharides were established, and that of E. coli O69 was found to differ in the presence of D-GlcNAc4Rlac from the structure reported for this bacterium earlier (Erbing C, Kenne L, Lindberg B. 1977. Carbohydr Res. 56:371-376). The O-antigen gene clusters of E. coli O69 and O146 between conserved genes galF and gnd were analyzed taking into account the O-polysaccharide structures established, and functions of putative genes for synthesis of D-Glc3Slac and D-GlcNAc4Rlac and for glycosyltransferases were assigned based on homology with O-antigen biosynthesis genes of other enteric bacteria. It was found that in E. coli and Shigella spp. predicted enolpyruvate reductases of the biosynthesis pathway of glycolactilic acids, LarR and LarS, which catalyze formation of conjugates with (R)- or (S)-lactic acid, respectively, are distinguished by sequence homology and size.

  7. A non-chromatographic method for the removal of endotoxins from bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Branston, Steven D; Wright, Jason; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli

    2015-08-01

    The Ff filamentous bacteriophages show potential as a new class of therapeutics, displaying utility in materials science as well as pharmaceutical applications. These phages are produced by the infection of E. coli, a Gram-negative bacterium which unavoidably sheds endotoxins into the extracellular space during growth. Since endotoxin molecules are highly immunoreactive, separation from the phage product is of critical importance, particularly those developed for human therapeutic use. The properties of M13, one of the Ff group, present a purification challenge chiefly because the standard scalable method for endotoxin removal from proteins-anion exchange chromatography-is not applicable due to pI similarity between the particles. This article examines the potential of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-NaCl precipitation as a scalable method for the separation of endotoxins from phage M13. Precipitation of M13 by 2% (w/v) PEG 6 000, 500 mM NaCl reduced endotoxin contamination of the phage product by 88%, but additional precipitation rounds did not maintain this proportional decrease. Dynamic light scattering was subsequently used to determine the effectiveness of a detergent to disassociate endotoxin molecules from M13. As a result, PEG-NaCl precipitation was supplemented with up to 2% (v/v) Triton X-100 to improve separation. A 5.7 log10 reduction in endotoxin concentration was achieved over three rounds of precipitation whilst retaining over 97% of the phage. This method compares favorably with the well-known ATPS (Triton X-114) technique for endotoxin removal from protein solutions.

  8. Mononuclear cells in the corneal response to endotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, E.L.; Cruse, V.K.; Kwok, M.T.

    1982-04-01

    A severe keratitis can be produced after the direct injection of bacterial endotoxin, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in rabbits. Corneal inflammation can progress to scarring and vascularization within a 2 to 3 week period. Pretreatment with systemic adrenal corticosteroids (triamcinolone) prevents this response. Limbal cellular and vascular events were studied during the first 20 hr after injection of LPS in treated and nontreated rabbits. Perivascular limbal inflammatory cells were counted and limbal vascular permeability was assessed by extravasation of 131I-albumin and 125I-fibrinogen in the cornea. Corticosteroids decreased but did not prevent the early protein extravasation and profoundly altered the inflammatory cell population around blood vessels at the limbus. Mononuclear cells, particularly mononuclear phagocytes, were sharply reduced. It is proposed that these cell types play an important role in the perpetuation and amplification of the inflammatory response in this reaction.

  9. Determination of endotoxin levels and their impact on interleukin-1 generation in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Pearson, F C; Dubczak, J; Weary, M; Anderson, J

    1988-01-01

    Endotoxins represent a family of ubiquitous bacterial lipopolysaccharides found in water and raw materials. These substances have the ability to generate interleukin-1 (IL-1) and induce fever, as well as other acute phase phenomena. A study was undertaken to determine levels of background endotoxin in (1) continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis solution, (2) spent dialysate subsequent to overnight dwell, (3) hemodialysis solution, and (4) Limulus amebocyte lysate-reactive material (LAL-RM) in hemodialyzers and patient plasma. Levels of endotoxin in all of the above cases were less than thought to be required to induce biological activity, such as pyrogenicity, through IL-1 generation. Although nanogram amounts of LAL-RM are associated with some hollow-fiber membranes as well as the plasma of patients on those membranes, this material per se does not appear to produce IL-1 in vitro.

  10. Immobilization of ɛ-polylysine onto the probe surface for molecular adsorption type endotoxin detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooe, Katsutoshi; Tsuji, Akihito; Nishishita, Naoki; Hirano, Yoshiaki

    2007-04-01

    Patients with renal failure become not able to expel the waste product, and they accumulate the toxic products for themselves. They therefore must use the hemodialysis to weed out the metabolic decomposition product. Hemodialysis for chronic renal failure is the most popular treatment method with artificial organs. However, hemodialysis patients must continue the treatment throughout their life, the results of long term extracorporeal dialysis, those patients develop the various complications and diseases, for example, dialysis amyloidosis etc. Dialysis amyloidosis is one of the refractory complications, and the prevention of this complication is important. Recently, endotoxin is thought to be the most likely cause of the complication. Endotoxin is one of the major cell wall components of gram-negative bacteria, and it forms the complex with proteins and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It has various biological activities, e.g. attack of fever, when it gets mixed into human blood. In addition, it is known that large amount of endotoxin exists in living environment, and medicine is often contaminated with endotoxin. When contaminated dialyzing fluids are used to hemodialysis, above-mentioned dialysis amyloidosis is developed. Therefore, it is important that the detection and removal of endotoxin from dialyzing fluids. Until now, the measurement methods using Limulus Amebosyte Lysate (LAL) reagent were carried out as the tests for the presence of endotoxin. However, these methods include several different varieties of measurement techniques. The following are examples of them, gelatinization method, turbidimetric assay method, colorimetric assay method and fluoroscopic method. However, these techniques needed 30-60 minutes for the measurement. From these facts, they are not able to use as a "real-time endotoxin detector". The detection of endotoxin has needed to carry out immediately, for that reason, a new "real-time" detection method is desired. We focused attention to

  11. Comparative studies of endotoxin uptake by isolated rat Kupffer and peritoneal cells.

    PubMed

    Fox, E S; Thomas, P; Broitman, S A

    1987-12-01

    The process of uptake of endotoxin by cells of the reticuloendothelial system is of current interest. Rabbit peritoneal macrophages have been used to study macrophage-endotoxin interactions and have suggested a receptor-mediated process. It is generally believed that the site of in vivo endotoxin clearance is the liver and that this clearance involves the Kupffer cell population. In the current report, the uptake characteristics of iodine-125-labeled Salmonella minnesota lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were compared in both isolated rat Kupffer cells and elicited rat peritoneal cells. Both types of cells were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a semisynthetic AIN-76 5% saturated-fat diet either by peritoneal lavage for peritoneal cells or by collagenase perfusion followed by purification on a 17.5% metrizamide gradient for Kupffer cells. Hot phenol water-extracted S. minnesota LPS was labeled with iodine by the chloramine-T method following a reaction with methyl-p-hydroxybenzimidate. The in vitro uptake of [125I]LPS by Kupffer cells was unsaturable up to concentrations of 33.33 micrograms/ml, while peritoneal cells became saturated at between 16.67 and 25 micrograms of LPS per ml. Uptake by both types of cells could be inhibited by a 10-fold excess of unlabeled LPS. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that Kupffer cells were unsaturable after 60 min of incubation, while peritoneal cells were saturable after 40 min of incubation. Pretreatment with 75 mM colchicine inhibited uptake by peritoneal cells but not Kupffer cells, while pretreatment with 12 mM 2-deoxyglucose inhibited uptake by Kupffer cells but not peritoneal cells. These results are consistent with a process of receptor-mediated endocytosis for peritoneal cells, while Kupffer cells may internalize endotoxins by absorptive pinocytosis. These results suggest that studies of peritoneal cell-endotoxin interactions do not accurately describe the physiologic process within the liver, the major site for the

  12. Comparative studies of endotoxin uptake by isolated rat Kupffer and peritoneal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, E S; Thomas, P; Broitman, S A

    1987-01-01

    The process of uptake of endotoxin by cells of the reticuloendothelial system is of current interest. Rabbit peritoneal macrophages have been used to study macrophage-endotoxin interactions and have suggested a receptor-mediated process. It is generally believed that the site of in vivo endotoxin clearance is the liver and that this clearance involves the Kupffer cell population. In the current report, the uptake characteristics of iodine-125-labeled Salmonella minnesota lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were compared in both isolated rat Kupffer cells and elicited rat peritoneal cells. Both types of cells were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a semisynthetic AIN-76 5% saturated-fat diet either by peritoneal lavage for peritoneal cells or by collagenase perfusion followed by purification on a 17.5% metrizamide gradient for Kupffer cells. Hot phenol water-extracted S. minnesota LPS was labeled with iodine by the chloramine-T method following a reaction with methyl-p-hydroxybenzimidate. The in vitro uptake of [125I]LPS by Kupffer cells was unsaturable up to concentrations of 33.33 micrograms/ml, while peritoneal cells became saturated at between 16.67 and 25 micrograms of LPS per ml. Uptake by both types of cells could be inhibited by a 10-fold excess of unlabeled LPS. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that Kupffer cells were unsaturable after 60 min of incubation, while peritoneal cells were saturable after 40 min of incubation. Pretreatment with 75 mM colchicine inhibited uptake by peritoneal cells but not Kupffer cells, while pretreatment with 12 mM 2-deoxyglucose inhibited uptake by Kupffer cells but not peritoneal cells. These results are consistent with a process of receptor-mediated endocytosis for peritoneal cells, while Kupffer cells may internalize endotoxins by absorptive pinocytosis. These results suggest that studies of peritoneal cell-endotoxin interactions do not accurately describe the physiologic process within the liver, the major site for the

  13. Effects of slow-releasing colistin microspheres on endotoxin-induced sepsis.

    PubMed

    Nanjo, Yuta; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Kimura, Soichiro; Fukami, Toshiro; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Toyofumi; Tomono, Kazuo; Akasaka, Yoshikiyo; Ishii, Toshiharu; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2013-08-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major contributing factor to endotoxic shock. Colistin specifically binds to LPS. However, it has the disadvantages that adverse reactions are common and it has a short half-life. To overcome these disadvantages, we prepared slow-releasing colistin microspheres and examined the efficacy of these colistin microspheres in a mouse model of endotoxin-induced sepsis. We prepared the colistin microspheres using poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid. For acute toxicity investigations, mice were overdosed with colistin sulfate or colistin microspheres. The group administered with colistin microspheres was associated with less acute toxicity and fewer nephrotoxic changes on histopathological examination compared to the group administered with colistin sulfate alone. For pharmacokinetic analysis, mice were subcutaneously administered with colistin microspheres or colistin sulfate alone. The plasma concentration of colistin was higher in the colistin microspheres group than in the colistin sulfate group at 12 and 24 h after administration. Moreover, mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS and then immediately subcutaneously administered with blank microspheres, colistin microspheres or colistin sulfate alone. The levels of endotoxin in the sera and cytokine in the spleens were then measured. A significant reduction in the serum endotoxin level in the colistin microspheres group was observed at 24 h. The reduced endotoxin levels in the sera were correlated with the lower cytokine levels in the spleens of mice treated with colistin microspheres. Our results suggest that the use of colistin microspheres may help to maintain a higher colistin concentration in blood, reduce the levels of endotoxin and cytokines in endotoxin-induced sepsis, and lead to decreased toxicity.

  14. Hepatic interleukin-6 production is maintained during endotoxin tolerance and facilitates lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Dembek, Anna; Laggai, Stephan; Kessler, Sonja M; Czepukojc, Beate; Simon, Yvette; Kiemer, Alexandra K; Hoppstädter, Jessica

    2017-01-20

    Gut-derived bacterial endotoxins, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), contribute to the pathogenesis of steatosis and steatohepatitis by activating Kupffer cells, the resident liver macrophages. Exposure of macrophages to low doses of LPS causes hyporesponsiveness upon subsequent endotoxin challenge, a phenomenon termed endotoxin or LPS tolerance. In the present study, we aimed to examine whether LPS-induced lipid accumulation is affected by endotoxin tolerance. LPS pretreatment reduced the expression of proinflammatory mediators upon subsequent high-dose LPS treatment in murine livers. Total lipid and lipid class analysis indicated that LPS-induced lipid accumulation was not affected by endotoxin tolerance, although it was dependent on the presence of Kupffer cells. Analysis of the expression of lipogenic genes revealed that sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (Srebf1) and its target ELOVL fatty acid elongase 6 (Elovl6) were upregulated upon LPS administration in livers from LPS-tolerant and non-tolerant mice, whereas the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (Ppara), a key inducer of lipid degradation, was decreased. Neither Interleukin (IL)-6 expression nor the activation of its downstream effector signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 were suppressed in liver tissues of LPS-tolerized mice. In vitro experiments confirmed that recombinant or macrophage-derived IL-6 was a potent activator of the lipogenic factor STAT3 in hepatocytes. Accordingly, IL-6 treatment led to increased lipid levels in this cell type. In summary, our data show that endotoxin tolerance does not influence LPS-induced hepatic lipid accumulation and suggest that IL-6 drives hepatic lipid storage.

  15. Escherichia coli morphological changes and lipid A removal induced by reduced pressure nitrogen afterglow exposure.

    PubMed

    Zerrouki, Hayat; Rizzati, Virginie; Bernis, Corinne; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Sarrette, Jean Philippe; Cousty, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Lipid A is a major hydrophobic component of lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) present in the membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria, and the major responsible for the bioactivity and toxicity of the endotoxin. Previous studies have demonstrated that the late afterglow region of flowing post-discharges at reduced pressure (1-20 Torr) can be used for the sterilization of surfaces and of the reusable medical instrumentation. In the present paper, we show that the antibacterial activity of a pure nitrogen afterglow can essentially be attributed to the large concentrations of nitrogen atoms present in the treatment area and not to the UV radiation of the afterglow. In parallel, the time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial Escherichia coli (E. coli) population is correlated with morphologic changes observed on the bacteria by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for increasing afterglow exposure times. The effect of the afterglow exposure is also studied on pure lipid A and on lipid A extracted from exposed E. coli bacteria. We report that more than 60% of lipid A (pure or bacteria-extracted) are lost with the used operating conditions (nitrogen flow QN2 = 1 standard liter per minute (slpm), pressure p = 5 Torr, microwave injected power PMW = 200 W, exposure time: 40 minutes). The afterglow exposure also results in a reduction of the lipid A proinflammatory activity, assessed by the net decrease of the redox-sensitive NFκB transcription factor nuclear translocation in murine aortic endothelial cells stimulated with control vs afterglow-treated (pure and extracted) lipid A. Altogether these results point out the ability of reduced pressure nitrogen afterglows to neutralize the cytotoxic components in Gram-negative bacteria.

  16. Escherichia coli Morphological Changes and Lipid A Removal Induced by Reduced Pressure Nitrogen Afterglow Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zerrouki, Hayat; Rizzati, Virginie; Bernis, Corinne; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Sarrette, Jean Philippe; Cousty, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Lipid A is a major hydrophobic component of lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) present in the membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria, and the major responsible for the bioactivity and toxicity of the endotoxin. Previous studies have demonstrated that the late afterglow region of flowing post-discharges at reduced pressure (1-20 Torr) can be used for the sterilization of surfaces and of the reusable medical instrumentation. In the present paper, we show that the antibacterial activity of a pure nitrogen afterglow can essentially be attributed to the large concentrations of nitrogen atoms present in the treatment area and not to the UV radiation of the afterglow. In parallel, the time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial Escherichia coli (E. coli) population is correlated with morphologic changes observed on the bacteria by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for increasing afterglow exposure times. The effect of the afterglow exposure is also studied on pure lipid A and on lipid A extracted from exposed E. coli bacteria. We report that more than 60% of lipid A (pure or bacteria-extracted) are lost with the used operating conditions (nitrogen flow QN2 = 1 standard liter per minute (slpm), pressure p = 5 Torr, microwave injected power PMW = 200 W, exposure time: 40 minutes). The afterglow exposure also results in a reduction of the lipid A proinflammatory activity, assessed by the net decrease of the redox-sensitive NFκB transcription factor nuclear translocation in murine aortic endothelial cells stimulated with control vs afterglow-treated (pure and extracted) lipid A. Altogether these results point out the ability of reduced pressure nitrogen afterglows to neutralize the cytotoxic components in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25837580

  17. Changes in regional plasma extravasation in rats following endotoxin infusion

    SciTech Connect

    van Lambalgen, A.A.; van den Bos, G.C.; Thijs, L.G.

    1987-07-01

    Regional differences in plasma extravasation during endotoxin shock in rats and a possible relationship with changes in regional blood flow were studied with radioactive isotopes (/sup 125/I-HSA, 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, microspheres) in anesthetized rats (pentobarbital). Shock was induced by intravenous infusion of endotoxin (Eschericia coli; 10 mg X kg-1) for 60 min (starting at t = 0); at t = 120 min, the experiments were terminated. These rats (n = 8) were compared with time-matched control rats (n = 8). A third group (rats killed 7.5 min after injection of /sup 125/I-HSA, i.e., no extravasation; n = 8) served as baseline. The amount of plasma extravasated in 2 hr of endotoxin shock was significantly increased over control values in skin (by 67%), colon (88%), skeletal muscle (105%), stomach (230%), pancreas (300%), and diaphragm (1300%). Losses of /sup 125/I-HSA into intestinal lumen and peritoneal cavity had also increased over control values by 146 and 380%, respectively. Blood flow was compromised in most organs except heart and diaphragm. Extravasation when normalized for total plasma supply was correlated with total blood supply; the more the blood supply decreased, the higher the normalized extravasation. In the diaphragm, however, blood supply and plasma leakage increased together. Decreased blood supply and plasma extravasation may be related but they could also be simultaneously occurring independent phenomena with a common origin.

  18. Piceatannol Suppresses endotoxin-induced ocular inflammation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kalariya, Nilesh M.; Shoeb, Mohammad; Reddy, Aramati B. M.; Sawhney, Rahul; Ramana, Kota V.

    2013-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory effect of piceatannol, a naturally occurring polyphenol and a potent free radical scavenger, on ocular inflammation is not known. We examined the anti-inflammatory role of piceatannol in ocular inflammatory response due to endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. EIU was induced in Lewis rats by subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 ug/rat). Piceatannol (30 mg/kg body wt, i.p) was injected either 2 h prior to or 1 h post LPS induction. A significant increase in the number of infiltrating cells, total protein, and various cytokines and chemokines in AqH were observed in the EIU rat eyes as compared to control groups. However, pre- or post- treatment of piceatannol significantly blocked the LPS-induced changes. Further, piceatannol also suppressed the expression of Cox-2, iNOS and activation of NF-κB in the ciliary bodies as well as retina. Further, piceatannol also inhibited the expression of Cox-2, iNOS, and phosphorylation of NF-κB in primary human non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells (HNPECs) treated with LPS. Similarly, piceatannol also diminished LPS-induced level of NO and PGE2 in HNPECs. Thus our results demonstrate an anti-inflammatory role of piceatannol in suppressing ocular inflammation induced by endotoxin in rats. PMID:23892029

  19. Rapid removal of bacterial endotoxin and natural organic matter in water by dielectric barrier discharge plasma: Efficiency and toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Can; Fang, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjun; Tian, Fang; Bai, Miao

    2016-11-15

    Low-temperature plasma was used to control bacteria, endotoxins and natural organic matter (NOM) in water by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) device. Results indicate that DBD plasma has an obvious inactivation effect on various bacteria in water. The degree of inactivation from difficult to easy is as follows: Bacillus subtilis>Escherichia coli>Staphylococcus aureus. Activated ultrapure water treated using DBD plasma exhibited a sustained sterilization effect, but this sterilization effect decreased gradually after 1h. The total-endotoxin (free-endotoxin and bound-endotoxin) released by Escherichia coli during inactivation, as well as artificially simulated endotoxin in a control solution, was significantly controlled by DBD plasma. Both the metabolites that appeared after inactivation of microorganisms by plasma treatment, and the NOM in filtration effluent of a water treatment plant were well removed by DBD plasma if the treatment duration was sufficiently long. However, the acute toxicity increased significantly, and persisted for at least 2h, indicating that some long-life active substances were generated during the DBD process. Therefore, the removal of bacteria, endotoxins or NOM does not mean a safe water is produced. It is also important to eliminate the toxicity and byproducts produced during water treatment for the continuous promotion and industrial application of DBD plasma.

  20. Preparation, characterization, and immunological properties in mice of Escherichia coli O157 O-specific polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Konadu, E; Robbins, J B; Shiloach, J; Bryla, D A; Szu, S C

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157 causes severe enteritis and the extraintestinal complication of hemolytic-uremic syndrome, with their highest incidence occurring in children. We postulated that serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to the O-specific polysaccharide of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may confer protective immunity to enteric pathogens by inducing bactericidal reactions against the ingested organisms in the jejunum (J. B. Robbins, C. Chu, and R. Schneerson, Clin. Infect. Dis. 15:346-361, 1992; S. C. Szu, R. Gupta, and J. B. Robbins, p. 381-394, in I. K. Wachsmuth, P. A. Blake, and O. Olsvik, ed., Vibrio cholerae, 1994). Because polysaccharide-protein conjugates induce serum IgG antibodies in infants, we bound the O-specific polysaccharide of E. coli O157 to proteins. E. coli O157 LPS, treated with acetic acid or hydrazine, was derivatized with adipic acid dihydrazide and bound to proteins by carbodiimide-mediated condensation. Conjugates of these adipic hydrazide derivative were prepared with bovine serum albumin, formalin-treated exotoxin C of Clostridium welchii (Pig Bel toxoid), or Pseudomonas aeruginosa recombinant exoprotein A. The conjugates had low levels of endotoxin and elicited serum antibodies with bactericidal activity to the O157 LPS. The largest increase in LPS antibodies was of the IgG class. Clinical evaluation of E. coli O157-toxoid conjugates is planned. Images PMID:7927787

  1. Sufficient production of geranylgeraniol is required to maintain endotoxin tolerance in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinyong; Lee, Joon No; Ye, James; Hao, Rosy; Debose-Boyd, Russell; Ye, Jin

    2013-12-01

    Endotoxin tolerance allows macrophages to produce large quantities of proinflammatory cytokines immediately after their contact with lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), but prevents their further production after repeated exposure to LPSs. While this response is known to prevent overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines, the mechanism through which endotoxin tolerance is established has not been identified. In the current study, we demonstrate that sufficient production of geranylgeraniol (GGOH) in macrophages is required to maintain endotoxin tolerance. We show that increased synthesis of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) protein following LPS treatment is required to produce enough GGOH to inhibit expression of Malt1, a protein known to stimulate expression of proinflammatory cytokines, in macrophages repeatedly exposed to LPSs. Depletion of GGOH caused by inhibition of HMGCR led to increased Malt1 expression in macrophages subjected to repeated exposure to LPSs. Consequently, endotoxin tolerance was impaired, and production of interleukin 1-β and other proinflammatory cytokines was markedly elevated in these cells. These results suggest that insufficient production of GGOH in macrophages may cause autoinflammatory diseases.

  2. Network Topologies and Dynamics Leading to Endotoxin Tolerance and Priming in Innate Immune Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yan; Glaros, Trevor; Zhu, Meng; Wang, Ping; Wu, Zhanghan; Tyson, John; Li, Liwu; Xing, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune system, acting as the first line of host defense, senses and adapts to foreign challenges through complex intracellular and intercellular signaling networks. Endotoxin tolerance and priming elicited by macrophages are classic examples of the complex adaptation of innate immune cells. Upon repetitive exposures to different doses of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) or other stimulants, macrophages show either suppressed or augmented inflammatory responses compared to a single exposure to the stimulant. Endotoxin tolerance and priming are critically involved in both immune homeostasis and the pathogenesis of diverse inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. By means of a computational search through the parameter space of a coarse-grained three-node network with a two-stage Metropolis sampling approach, we enumerated all the network topologies that can generate priming or tolerance. We discovered three major mechanisms for priming (pathway synergy, suppressor deactivation, activator induction) and one for tolerance (inhibitor persistence). These results not only explain existing experimental observations, but also reveal intriguing test scenarios for future experimental studies to clarify mechanisms of endotoxin priming and tolerance.

  3. Escherichia coli Braun Lipoprotein (BLP) exhibits endotoxemia – like pathology in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmikanth, Chikkamenahalli Lakshminarayana; Jacob, Shancy Petsel; Kudva, Avinash Kundadka; Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Yashaswini, Puttaraju Srikanta Murthy; Sumanth, Mosale Seetharam; Goncalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano F.; Silva, Adriana R.; Singh, Sridevi Annapurna; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C.; Prabhu, Sandeep Kumble; McIntyre, Thomas M.; Marathe, Gopal Kedihithlu

    2016-01-01

    The endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) promotes sepsis, but bacterial peptides also promote inflammation leading to sepsis. We found, intraperitoneal administration of live or heat inactivated E. coli JE5505 lacking the abundant outer membrane protein, Braun lipoprotein (BLP), was less toxic than E. coli DH5α possessing BLP in Swiss albino mice. Injection of BLP free of LPS purified from E. coli DH5α induced massive infiltration of leukocytes in lungs and liver. BLP activated human polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) ex vivo to adhere to denatured collagen in serum and polymyxin B independent fashion, a property distinct from LPS. Both LPS and BLP stimulated the synthesis of platelet activating factor (PAF), a potent lipid mediator, in human PMNs. In mouse macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, while both BLP and LPS similarly upregulated TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA; BLP was more potent in inducing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and protein expression. Peritoneal macrophages from TLR2−/− mice significantly reduced the production of TNF-α in response to BLP in contrast to macrophages from wild type mice. We conclude, BLP acting through TLR2, is a potent inducer of inflammation with a response profile both common and distinct from LPS. Hence, BLP mediated pathway may also be considered as an effective target against sepsis. PMID:27698491

  4. Fucoidan extracted from Fucus evanescens prevents endotoxin-induced damage in a mouse model of endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana A; Besednova, Natalya N; Somova, Larisa M; Plekhova, Natalya G

    2014-01-31

    An important problem of treating patients with endotoxemia is to find drugs to reduce the negative effects of endotoxin on the organism. We tested fucoidan (sulfated polysaccharide) from the brown alga Fucus evanescens as a potential drug in a mouse model of endotoxemia inducted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The survival time of mice injected with LPS increased under fucoidan treatment compared with the group of mice injected with LPS only. The preventive administration of fucoidan to mice with endotoxemia resulted in inhibition of increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-6), as well as decreasing of the processes of hypercoagulability. The parenteral or per os administration of fucoidan resulted in decreasing the degree of microcirculatory disorders and secondary dystrophic-destructive changes in parenchymal organs of mice with endotoxemia. Taken together, these results demonstrate that fucoidan prevents endotoxin-induced damage in a mouse model of endotoxemia and increases the mice's resistance to LPS.

  5. Uptake and modification of 125I-lipopolysaccharide by isolated rat Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Fox, E S; Thomas, P; Broitman, S A

    1988-01-01

    While it is generally believed that hepatic clearance of lipopolysaccharide involves Kupffer cells, the mechanism involved has not been fully elucidated. This study assesses this phenomenon in terms of in vitro uptake and post-uptake modification experiments with an 125I-labeled Salmonella minnesota lipopolysaccharide. 125I-Lipopolysaccharide was added to Kupffer cells in suspension cultures under a variety of conditions. In vitro uptake of 125I-Lipopolysaccharide was not saturable up to concentrations of 33.33 micrograms per ml. Kinetics experiments performed at 16.67 micrograms per ml demonstrated that Kupffer cells were unsaturable after 60 min of incubation. The kinetics of uptake could be inhibited, however, by incubation in the presence of a 10-fold excess of unlabeled lipopolysaccharide, indicating that a component of the uptake process may be limited. Energy dependence in this process was demonstrated by incubation in the presence of 1 mM 2-deoxyglucose which inhibited 125I-lipopolysaccharide uptake by approximately 30%. Pretreatment with 7.5 x 10(-5) M colchicine had no effect on kinetics, implying no role for the cell cytoskeleton in lipopolysaccharide uptake. These results are inconsistent with a receptor-mediated process as previously suggested. Modification of internalized label has been demonstrated by changes in buoyant density in CsCl isopyknic density gradients following overnight incubation with Kupffer cells. These results indicate that Kupffer cells clear bacterial endotoxin in vitro and post-uptake degradation occurs within 20 hr of incubation.

  6. Effect of Escherichia coli infection of the bovine uterus from the whole animal to the cell.

    PubMed

    Williams, E J; Herath, S; England, G C W; Dobson, H; Bryant, C E; Sheldon, I M

    2008-08-01

    Following parturition, contamination of the uterine lumen by bacteria is ubiquitous, and uterine health is impaired in cattle because infection persists in 10% to 15% of animals as endometritis. Endometritis causes infertility for the duration of infection, and subfertility persists even after apparent successful resolution of the disease. Escherichia coli is the pathogenic bacterium most frequently isolated from the post partum uterus, and is associated with increased concentrations of peripheral plasma acute phase proteins and fetid vaginal mucus. The presence of E. coli is also associated with slower growth of the first post partum dominant follicle and perturbed oestradiol secretion. Furthermore, in animals that ovulate the first dominant follicle, the corpus luteum is smaller and secretes less progesterone. The endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is released from E.coli, can pass from the uterine lumen to the peripheral circulation and LPS concentrations are increased in cows with uterine infection. Infusion of E. coli LPS into the uterine lumen suppresses the pre-ovulatory luteinising hormone surge and disrupts ovulation in heifers. In vitro, endometrial explants produce prostaglandins in response to LPS. Addition of LPS or E. coli to stromal or epithelial cells increases cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression, and stimulates the production of prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2α . Furthermore, uterine and ovarian cells express mRNA of the molecules required for recognition of LPS, Toll-like receptor-4 and CD14. In summary, E. coli is a common cause of infertility involving the perturbation of the hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary in dairy cows.

  7. Dephosphorylation of endotoxin by alkaline phosphatase in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Poelstra, K.; Bakker, W. W.; Klok, P. A.; Kamps, J. A.; Hardonk, M. J.; Meijer, D. K.

    1997-01-01

    Natural substrates for alkaline phosphatase (AP) are at present not identified despite extensive investigations. Difficulties in imagining a possible physiological function involve its extremely high pH optimum for the usual exogenous substrates and its localization as an ecto-enzyme. As endotoxin is a substance that contains phosphate groups and is usually present in the extracellular space, we studied whether AP is able to dephosphorylate this bacterial product at physiological pH levels. We tested this in intestinal cryostat sections using histochemical methods with endotoxin from Escherichia coli and Salmonella minnesota R595 as substrate. Results show that dephosphorylation of both preparations occurs at pH 7.5 by AP activity. As phosphate residues in the lipid A moiety determine the toxicity of the molecule, we examined the effect of the AP inhibitor levamisole in vivo using a septicemia model in the rat. The results show that inhibition of endogenous AP by levamisole significantly reduces survival of rats intraperitoneally injected with E. coli bacteria, whereas this drug does not influence survival of rats receiving a sublethal dose of the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. In view of the endotoxin-dephosphorylating properties of AP demonstrated in vitro, we propose a crucial role for this enzyme in host defense. The effects of levamisole during gram-negative bacterial infections and the localization of AP as an ecto-enzyme in most organs as well as the induction of enzyme activity during inflammatory reactions and cholestasis is in accordance with such a protective role. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 PMID:9327750

  8. Lipopolysaccharide Neutralization by Cationic-Amphiphilic Polymers through Pseudoaggregate Formation.

    PubMed

    Uppu, Divakara S S M; Haldar, Jayanta

    2016-03-14

    Synthetic polymers incorporating the cationic charge and hydrophobicity to mimic the function of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been developed. These cationic-amphiphilic polymers bind to bacterial membranes that generally contain negatively charged phospholipids and cause membrane disintegration resulting in cell death; however, cationic-amphiphilic antibacterial polymers with endotoxin neutralization properties, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported. Bacterial endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) cause sepsis that is responsible for a great amount of mortality worldwide. These cationic-amphiphilic polymers can also bind to negatively charged and hydrophobic LPS and cause detoxification. Hence, we envisaged that cationic-amphiphilic polymers can have both antibacterial as well as LPS binding properties. Here we report synthetic amphiphilic polymers with both antibacterial as well as endotoxin neutralizing properties. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines in human monocytes caused by LPS stimulation were inhibited by >80% when coincubated with these polymers. These reductions were found to be dependent on concentration and, more importantly, on the side-chain chemical structure due to variations in the hydrophobicity profiles of these polymers. These cationic-amphiphilic polymers bind and cause LPS neutralization and detoxification. Investigations of polymer interaction with LPS using fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that these polymers bind but neither dissociate nor promote LPS aggregation. We show that polymer binding to LPS leads to sort of a pseudoaggregate formation resulting in LPS neutralization/detoxification. These findings provide an unusual mechanism of LPS neutralization using novel synthetic cationic-amphiphilic polymers.

  9. The isolation and characterization of lipopolysaccharides from Microcystis aeruginosa, a prominent toxic water bloom forming cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bláhová, Lucie; Adamovský, Ondřej; Kubala, Lukáš; Švihálková Šindlerová, Lenka; Zounková, Radka; Bláha, Luděk

    2013-12-15

    Massive toxic blooms of cyanobacteria represent a major threat to water supplies worldwide, yet serious gaps exist in understanding their complex toxic effects, including the role of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The present comparative study focused on the levels and biological activities of LPS isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa, which is one of the most globally distributed toxic species. Using hot phenol extraction, LPS was isolated from 3 laboratory cultures and 11 natural water blooms. It formed 0.2-0.7% of the original dry biomass of the cyanobacteria, based on gravimetry. Additional analyses by commercial anti-LPS ELISA were correlated with gravimetry but showed concentrations that were about 7-times lower, which indicated either impurities in isolated LPS or the poor cross-reactivity of the antibodies used. LPS isolates from M. aeruginosa were potent pyrogens in the traditional Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-test, but comparison with the PyroGene test demonstrated the limited selectivity of LAL with several interferences. The determined pyrogenicity (endotoxin units, EU) ranged from very low values in laboratory cultures (less than 0.003 up to 0.008-EU per 100 pg LPS) to higher values in complex bloom samples (0.01-0.078 EU per 100 pg of LPS), which suggested the role of bloom-associated bacteria in the overall effects. Potent pro-inflammatory effects of the studied LPS from both cultures and bloom samples were observed in a highly-relevant ex vivo human blood model by studying reactive oxygen species production in phagocytes as well as increased productions of interleukin 8, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor α, TNF-α. LPS from M. aeruginosa seem to modulate several pathways involved in the regulation of both innate immunity and specific responses. In comparison to the standard pathogenic bacterial LPS (World Health Organization Escherichia coli O113:10 endotoxin; activity 1 EU per 100 pg), the studied cyanobacterial samples had pyrogenicity potencies

  10. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay....

  11. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay....

  12. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay....

  13. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay....

  14. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay....

  15. Inhibition of IRAK-4 activity for rescuing endotoxin LPS-induced septic mortality in mice by lonicerae flos extract

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sun Hong; Roh, Eunmiri; Kim, Hyun Soo; Baek, Seung-Il; Choi, Nam Song; Kim, Narae; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2013-12-13

    Highlights: •Lonicerae flos extract (HS-23) is a clinical candidate, Phase I for sepsis treatment. •Here, HS-23 or its major constituents rescued LPS-induced septic mortality in mice. •As a mechanism, they directly inhibited IRAK-4-catalyzed kinase activity. •Thus, they suppressed LPS-induced expression of NF-κB/AP-1-target inflammatory genes. -- Abstract: Lonicerae flos extract (HS-23) is a clinical candidate currently undergoing Phase I trial in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected healthy human volunteers, but its molecular basis remains to be defined. Here, we investigated protective effects of HS-23 or its major constituents on Escherichia coli LPS-induced septic mortality in mice. Intravenous treatment with HS-23 rescued LPS-intoxicated C57BL/6J mice under septic conditions, and decreased the levels of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) in the blood. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and its isomers were assigned as major constituents of HS-23 in the protection against endotoxemia. As a molecular mechanism, HS-23 or CGA isomers inhibited endotoxin LPS-induced autophosphorylation of the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) in mouse peritoneal macrophages as well as the kinase activity of IRAK-4 in cell-free reactions. HS-23 consequently suppressed downstream pathways critical for LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB or activating protein 1 (AP-1) in the peritoneal macrophages. HS-23 also inhibited various toll-like receptor agonists-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and down-regulated LPS-induced expression of NF-κB/AP-1-target inflammatory genes in the cells. Taken together, HS-23 or CGA isomers exhibited anti-inflammatory therapy against LPS-induced septic mortality in mice, at least in part, mediated through the inhibition of IRAK-4.

  16. Current trends in endotoxin detection and analysis of endotoxin-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Dullah, Elvina Clarie; Ongkudon, Clarence M

    2017-03-01

    Endotoxin is a type of pyrogen that can be found in Gram-negative bacteria. Endotoxin can form a stable interaction with other biomolecules thus making its removal difficult especially during the production of biopharmaceutical drugs. The prevention of endotoxins from contaminating biopharmaceutical products is paramount as endotoxin contamination, even in small quantities, can result in fever, inflammation, sepsis, tissue damage and even lead to death. Highly sensitive and accurate detection of endotoxins are keys in the development of biopharmaceutical products derived from Gram-negative bacteria. It will facilitate the study of the intermolecular interaction of an endotoxin with other biomolecules, hence the selection of appropriate endotoxin removal strategies. Currently, most researchers rely on the conventional LAL-based endotoxin detection method. However, new methods have been and are being developed to overcome the problems associated with the LAL-based method. This review paper highlights the current research trends in endotoxin detection from conventional methods to newly developed biosensors. Additionally, it also provides an overview of the use of electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and docking programs in the endotoxin-protein analysis.

  17. Lipopolysaccharides: from Erinyes to Charites.

    PubMed

    Focà, Alfredo; Liberto, Maria Carla; Quirino, Angela; Matera, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Following the discovery of endotoxins by Richard Pfeiffer, such bacterial product was associated to many severe disorders produced by an overwhelming inflammatory response and often resulting in endotoxic shock and multiple organ failure. However, recent clinical and basic sciences investigations claimed some beneficial roles of typical as well as atypical endotoxins. The aim of this paper is to focus on recent data supporting a beneficial activity of both typical and atypical endotoxins. Such novel perspective looks promising for development of new drugs for prevention and therapy of several human diseases.

  18. Human exposure to endotoxins and fecal indicators originating from water features.

    PubMed

    de Man, H; Heederik, D D J; Leenen, E J T M; de Roda Husman, A M; Spithoven, J J G; van Knapen, F

    2014-03-15

    Exposure to contaminated aerosols and water originating from water features may pose public health risks. Endotoxins in air and water and fecal bacteria in water of water features were measured as markers for exposure to microbial cell debris and enteric pathogens, respectively. Information was collected about wind direction, wind force, distance to the water feature, the height of the water feature and the tangibility of water spray. The mean concentration of endotoxins in air nearby and in water of 31 water features was 10 endotoxin units (EU)/m(3) (Geometric Mean (GM), range 0-85.5 EU/m(3) air) and 773 EU/mL (GM, range 9-18,170 EU/mL water), respectively. Such mean concentrations may be associated with respiratory health effects. The water quality of 26 of 88 water features was poor when compared to requirements for recreational water in the Bathing Water Directive 2006/7/EC. Concentrations greater than 1000 colony forming units (cfu) Escherichia coli per 100 mL and greater than 400 cfu intestinal enterococci per 100 mL increase the probability of acquiring gastrointestinal health complaints. Regression analyses showed that the endotoxin concentration in air was significantly influenced by the concentration of endotoxin in water, the distance to the water feature and the tangibility of water spray. Exposure to air and water near water features was shown to lead to exposure to endotoxins and fecal bacteria. The potential health risks resulting from such exposure to water features may be estimated by a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), however, such QMRA would require quantitative data on pathogen concentrations, exposure volumes and dose-response relationships. The present study provides estimates for aerosolisation ratios that can be used as input for QMRA to quantify exposure and to determine infection risks from exposure to water features.

  19. Endotoxin-induced early gene expression in C3H/HeJ (Lpsd) macrophages.

    PubMed

    Manthey, C L; Perera, P Y; Henricson, B E; Hamilton, T A; Qureshi, N; Vogel, S N

    1994-09-15

    C3H/HeJ (Lpsd) macrophages have been shown to respond to certain LPSs, especially from rough mutant bacteria. C3H/OuJ (Lpsn) macrophages are induced by wild-type LPS, rough LPS, or lipid A to express many genes, including TNF-alpha, TNFR-2, IL-1 beta, IP-10, D3, and D8. C3H/HeJ macrophages failed to induce any of these genes when cultured with wild-type LPS or synthetic lipid A, even when pretreated with IFN-gamma. However, rough mutant Salmonella minnesota Ra, Rc, and Rd LPS, and Escherichia coli D31 m3 Rd LPS induced Lpsd macrophages to express a subset of genes within the gene panel. Because bioactive preparations contained trace quantities of endotoxin protein(s), a deoxycholate-modified, phenol-water method was used to repurify rough LPS into an aqueous phase, and extract endotoxin proteins into a phenol phase. Repurified LPS failed to stimulate Lpsd macrophages; however, phenol fractions were approximately 10% as potent in Lpsd macrophages as crude rough LPS. Full potency was restored in C3H/HeJ macrophages when aqueous phase LPS and phenol-phase proteins were co-precipitated, suggesting that LPS and endotoxin proteins interact synergistically. Endotoxin proteins alone induced TNF-alpha, TNFR-2, and IL-1 beta, but not IP-10, D3, and D8 genes in both Lpsd and Lpsn macrophages. Tyrosine phosphorylation of three 41- to 47-kDa proteins was induced by endotoxin proteins, but not by LPS, in Lpsd macrophages. Thus, endotoxin proteins seem to activate a signaling pathway(s) that converges (distal to the Lps gene product) with a subset of LPS-signaling pathways.

  20. Endotoxins in urban air in Stockholm, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, S.; Merritt, A. S.; Bellander, T.

    2011-01-01

    Endotoxins, i.e. components originating from the outer membrane in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, activate the human immune system, which may result in airway symptoms such as shortness of breath and airway inflammation. Endotoxins are present in the environment, both outdoors and indoors, and stay airborne for a long time. In order to investigate the levels of endotoxins in urban air and the influence of traffic and meteorological factors, particles (PM 10 and PM 2.5) were collected at five sites in Stockholm, Sweden on four occasions per site between May and September 2009. Endotoxins were extracted from the filters and analysis was conducted with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL)-assay. Endotoxins were present in urban air in Stockholm, albeit in low levels, and were similar to levels found in urban areas outside Sweden. To our knowledge, this is the northernmost location where endotoxins have been measured. The endotoxin levels found in PM 10 ranged from 0.020 to 0.107 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.050 EU m -3 and the levels found in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.005 to 0.064 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.015 EU m -3. No obvious effects of traffic or meteorological factors on endotoxin levels were observed, although a moderate correlation could be seen with soot. The small number of sampling sites is however a shortcoming of the present study. In future studies, more sites and sampling during all seasons would be preferable in order to get a better picture of the influence of different sources on endotoxin levels.

  1. Ocular Albumin Fluorophotometric Quantitation of Endotoxin-Induced Vascular Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Scott W.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Guss, Robert B.; Egbert, Peter R.

    1982-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) is known to alter systemic vascular permeability, but this effect is difficult to monitor and quantitate in vivo. The ocular vessels of the rabbit are particularly sensitive to LPS. Using a slit lamp equipped with a fluorophotometer, we have adapted a method to quantitate endotoxin-induced ocular vascular permeability by measuring the accumulation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated albumin into the anterior chamber of the eye. After intravenous administration of Salmonella typhimurim LPS, the anterior chamber fluorescence and blood fluorescence were measured at intervals of 15 min and 1 h, respectively, over 4 h. In controls, maximal fluorescence in the anterior chamber was 3.1 ± 0.8% of blood fluorescence. Doses of LPS as low as 0.25 μg/kg produced an ocular/serum fluorescence ratio of 17.6 ± 4.9. A dose of 2.5 μg of LPS per kg tended to produce a higher ratio (68.0 ± 7.1) than a larger dose of 50 μg/kg (30.5 ± 16.6). Permeability changes began within 30 min after LPS, and the rate of dye accumulation varied over time, with maximal leakage usually occurring 90 min after LPS, but occasionally occurring much later. Repeated doses produced tolerance. By conjugating albumin to rhodamine and utilizing a second filter with the slit lamp to measure accumulation of this dye, we demonstrated the persistence of marked permeability during a period when intraocular fluorescein isothiocyanate and albumin levels were relatively constant. This methodology indicates that extremely low doses of LPS induce ocular permeability changes and that neither the time course nor the dose response of this effect is linear. Ocular fluorophotometry is a sensitive, noninvasive technique to study the dynamics and pharmacology of LPS-induced permeability changes. PMID:6806194

  2. Endotoxin levels and contribution factors of endotoxins in resident, school, and office environments - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Laitinen, Sirpa; Clifford, Sam; Mikkola, Raimo; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-10-01

    As endotoxin exposure has known effects on human health, it is important to know the generally existing levels of endotoxins as well as their contributing factors. This work reviews current knowledge on the endotoxin loads in settled floor dust, concentrations of endotoxins in indoor air, and different environmental factors potentially affecting endotoxin levels. The literature review consists of peer-reviewed manuscripts located using Google and PubMed, with search terms based on individual words and combinations. References from relevant articles have also been searched. Analysis of the data showed that in residential, school, and office environments, the mean endotoxin loads in settled floor dust varied between 660 and 107,000 EU/m2, 2180 and 48,000 EU/m2, and 2700 and 12,890 EU/m2, respectively. Correspondingly, the mean endotoxin concentrations in indoor air varied between 0.04 and 1610 EU/m3 in residences, and 0.07 and 9.30 EU/m3 in schools and offices. There is strong scientific evidence indicating that age of houses (or housing unit year category), cleaning, farm or rural living, flooring materials (the presence of carpets), number of occupants, the presence of dogs or cats indoors, and relative humidity affect endotoxin loads in settled floor dust. The presence of pets (especially dogs) was extremely strongly associated with endotoxin concentrations in indoor air. However, as reviewed articles show inconsistency, additional studies on these and other possible predicting factors are needed.

  3. Synergistic effect of coumarin (1,2 benzopyrone) and endotoxin in the induction of human interleukin-1.

    PubMed Central

    Stuhlmeier, K; Theyer, G; Baumgartner, G; Zlabinger, G J

    1991-01-01

    Coumarin as well as its derivatives 7-OH coumarin and 4-OH coumarin were found to stimulate interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) release from freshly isolated human mononuclear cells (MNC) if the culture medium contained fetal calf serum. Under serum-free conditions, almost no induction of IL-1 beta release was observed and the former effect could be completely eliminated by polymyxin B. Therefore, the combined action of endotoxin and coumarin was tested on MNC IL-1 beta production. The coumarins were able to potentiate human MNC IL-1 beta production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a dose-dependent manner. That the effect was due to the presence of coumarins and not endotoxin contamination was shown by negative Limulus amebocyte lysate tests and pre-incubation of the coumarins with polymyxin B-agarose. The latter procedure was able to block endotoxin induced IL-1 beta production but the synergism between coumarin and endotoxin was not influenced by pre-incubating the coumarins with polymyxin B-agarose. Cycloheximide as well as actinomycin D eliminated the induction of IL-1 release by coumarin and LPS demonstrating that the cytokine was newly synthesized after MNC stimulation. In addition, both the total amount of MNC IL-1 beta (cell-associated + extracellular) and the extracellular portion of the cytokine were synergistically decreased if coumarin or its derivatives were added to endotoxin-stimulated cultures. Synergism of coumarin and endotoxin in the induction of interleukin-6 or tumour necrosis factor-alpha could be observed in a smaller percentage of donors. These findings demonstrate an immunomodulatory effect of coumarin on cytokine production by monocytes in vitro which might help to explain some of the biological activities attributed to the drug upon its application in tumour patients. PMID:2025958

  4. Lipopolysaccharide priming enhances expression of effectors of immune defence while decreasing expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mammary epithelia cells from cows

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Udder infections with environmental pathogens like Escherichia coli are a serious problem for the dairy industry. Reduction of incidence and severity of mastitis is desirable and mild priming of the immune system either through vaccination or with low doses of immune stimulants such as lipopolysaccharide LPS was previously found to dampen detrimental effects of a subsequent infection. Monocytes/macrophages are known to develop tolerance towards the endotoxin LPS (endotoxin tolerance, ET) as adaptation strategy to prevent exuberant inflammation. We have recently observed that infusion of 1 μg of LPS into the quarter of an udder effectively protected for several days against an experimentally elicited mastitis. We have modelled this process in primary cultures of mammary epithelial cells (MEC) from the cow. MEC are by far the most abundant cells in the healthy udder coming into contact with invading pathogens and little is known about their role in establishing ET. Results We primed primary MEC cultures for 12 h with LPS (100 ng/ml) and stimulated three cultures either 12 h or 42 h later with 107/ml particles of heat inactivated E. coli bacteria for six hours. Priming-related alterations in the global transcriptome of those cells were quantified with Affymetrix microarrays. LPS priming alone caused differential expression of 40 genes and mediated significantly different response to a subsequent E. coli challenge of 226 genes. Expression of 38 genes was enhanced while that of 188 was decreased. Higher expressed were anti-microbial factors (β-defensin LAP, SLPI), cell and tissue protecting factors (DAF, MUC1, TGM1, TGM3) as well as mediators of the sentinel function of MEC (CCL5, CXCL8). Dampened was the expression of potentially harmful pro-inflammatory master cytokines (IL1B, IL6, TNF-α) and immune effectors (NOS2, matrix metalloproteases). Functional network analysis highlighted the reduced expression of IL1B and of IRF7 as key to this modulation

  5. Upregulation of Transient Receptor Potential Canonical Channels Contributes to Endotoxin-Induced Pulmonary Arterial Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gui-Lan; Jiang, Hongni; Zou, Fangdong

    2016-01-01

    Background Septic shock is a pathologic condition caused by endotoxin-producing bacteria, and often associated with severe pulmonary hypertension. Inflammation is a major systemic response to endotoxin; however, it is unknown whether endotoxin has a direct impact on pulmonary arteries that contributes to pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. Material/Methods Rat pulmonary arteries and primary pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were cultured in vitro and treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and blockers of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels. Neointimal growth and arterial stenosis were observed on cryosections of cultured pulmonary arteries. Proliferation of PASMCs was examined by a WST-1 (water-soluble tetrazolium salt) assay. Expression of TRPC genes in pulmonary arteries and PASMCs were detected and quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Results LPS significantly induced neointimal growth and stenosis of pulmonary arteries and promoted proliferation of PASMCs. TRPC channel blockers 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and SKF-96365 inhibited LPS-induced remodeling of pulmonary arteries and PASMC proliferation. Expression of TRPC1/3/4/6 was detected in pulmonary arteries and PASMCs. LPS treatment dramatically increased the expression of TRPC3 and TRPC4 at both messenger RNA and protein levels. Conclusions LPS stimulates stenosis of pulmonary arteries through enhancement of TRPC-mediated Ca2+ entry into PASMCs, which is caused by upregulation of TRPC3 and TRPC4 channels. PMID:27471122

  6. Possible pro-carcinogenic association of endotoxin on lung cancer among Shanghai women textile workers

    PubMed Central

    Checkoway, H; Lundin, J I; Costello, S; Ray, R; Li, W; Eisen, E A; Astrakianakis, G; Seixas, N; Applebaum, K; Gao, D L; Thomas, D B

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) is a widespread contaminant in many environmental settings. Since the 1970s, there has been generally consistent evidence indicating reduced risks for lung cancer associated with occupational endotoxin exposure. Methods: We updated a case–cohort study nested within a cohort of 267 400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China. We compared exposure histories of 1456 incident lung cancers cases diagnosed during 1989–2006 with those of a reference subcohort of 3022 workers who were free of lung cancer at the end of follow-up. We applied Cox proportional hazards modelling to estimate exposure–response trends, adjusted for age and smoking, for cumulative exposures lagged by 0, 10, and 20 years, and separately for time windows of ⩽15 and >15 years since first exposure. Results: We observed no associations between cumulative exposure and lung cancer, irrespective of lag interval. In contrast, analyses by exposure time windows revealed modestly elevated, but not statistically significant relative risks (∼1.27) at the highest three exposure quintiles for exposures that occurred >15 years since first exposure. Conclusions: The findings do not support a protective effect of endotoxin, but are suggestive of possible lung cancer promotion with increasing time since first exposure. PMID:24921918

  7. Staghorn calculus endotoxin expression in sepsis.

    PubMed

    McAleer, Irene M; Kaplan, George W; Bradley, John S; Carroll, Stephen F

    2002-04-01

    Staghorn calculi are infrequent and generally are infected stones. Struvite or apatite calculi are embedded with gram-negative bacteria, which can produce endotoxin. Sepsis syndrome may occur after surgical therapy or endoscopic manipulation of infected or staghorn calculi. Sepsis, which can occur despite perioperative antibiotic use, may be due to bacteremia or endotoxemia. We present a child with an infected staghorn calculus who developed overwhelming sepsis and died after percutaneous stone manipulation. Endotoxin assay of stone fragments demonstrated an extremely high level of endotoxin despite low colony bacterial culture growth. This is the first reported case in which endotoxin was demonstrated in stone fragments from a child who died of severe sepsis syndrome after percutaneous staghorn stone manipulation.

  8. Rtp801 Suppression of Epithelial mTORC1 Augments Endotoxin-Induced Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Nadon, Aaron M.; Perez, Mario J.; Hernandez-Saavedra, Daniel; Smith, Lynelle P.; Yang, Yimu; Sanders, Linda A.; Gandjeva, Aneta; Chabon, Jacob; Koyanagi, Daniel E.; Graham, Brian B.; Tuder, Rubin M.; Schmidt, Eric P.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cellular responses to environmental stress. mTOR (and its primary complex mTORC1) is, therefore, ideally positioned to regulate lung inflammatory responses to an environmental insult, a function directly relevant to disease states such as the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Our previous work in cigarette smoke–induced emphysema identified a novel protective role of pulmonary mTORC1 signaling. However, studies of the impact of mTORC1 on the development of acute lung injury are conflicting. We hypothesized that Rtp801, an endogenous inhibitor of mTORC1, which is predominantly expressed in alveolar type II epithelial cells, is activated during endotoxin-induced lung injury and functions to suppress anti-inflammatory epithelial mTORC1 responses. We administered intratracheal lipopolysaccharide to wild-type mice and observed a significant increase in lung Rtp801 mRNA. In lipopolysaccharide-treated Rtp801−/− mice, epithelial mTORC1 activation significantly increased and was associated with an attenuation of lung inflammation. We reversed the anti-inflammatory phenotype of Rtp801−/− mice with the mTORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin, reassuring against mTORC1-independent effects of Rtp801. We confirmed the proinflammatory effects of Rtp801 by generating a transgenic Rtp801 overexpressing mouse, which displayed augmented inflammatory responses to intratracheal endotoxin. These data suggest that epithelial mTORC1 activity plays a protective role against lung injury, and its inhibition by Rtp801 exacerbates alveolar injury caused by endotoxin. PMID:25016184

  9. Effect of Zingiber officinale and propolis on microorganisms and endotoxins in root canals

    PubMed Central

    MAEKAWA, Lilian Eiko; VALERA, Marcia Carneiro; de OLIVEIRA, Luciane Dias; CARVALHO, Cláudio Antonio Talge; CAMARGO, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro; JORGE, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of glycolic propolis (PRO) and ginger (GIN) extracts, calcium hydroxide (CH), chlorhexidine (CLX) gel and their combinations as ICMs (ICMs) against Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and endotoxins in root canals. Material and Methods: After 28 days of contamination with microorganisms, the canals were instrumented and then divided according to the ICM: CH+saline; CLX, CH+CLX, PRO, PRO+CH; GIN; GIN+CH; saline. The antimicrobial activity and quantification of endotoxins by the chromogenic test of Limulus amebocyte lysate were evaluated after contamination and instrumentation at 14 days of ICM application and 7 days after ICM removal. Results and Conclusion: After analysis of results and application of the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn statistical tests at 5% significance level, it was concluded that all ICMs were able to eliminate the microorganisms in the root canals and reduce their amount of endotoxins; however, CH was more effective in neutralizing endotoxins and less effective against C. albicans and E. faecalis, requiring the use of medication combinations to obtain higher success. PMID:23559108

  10. Effect of naloxone on regional cerebral blood flow during endotoxin shock in conscious rats

    SciTech Connect

    Law, W.R.; Ferguson, J.L. )

    1987-09-01

    Maintenance of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is vital during cardiovascular shock. Since opioids have been implicated in the pathophysiology of endotoxin shock and have been shown to alter cerebral perfusion patterns, the authors determined whether opioids were responsible for any of the changes in regional CBF observed during endotoxin shock and whether the use of naloxone might impair or aid in the maintenance of CBF. When blood flow (BF) is studied with radioactively-labeled microspheres in rats, the left ventricle of the heart is often cannulated via the right carotid artery. Questions have arisen concerning the potential adverse effects of this method on CBF in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the ligated artery. They measured right and left regional CBF by use of this route of cannulation. Twenty-four hours after cannulations were performed, flow measurements were made using radiolabeled microspheres in conscious unrestrained male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-400 g) before and 10, 30, and 60 min after challenging with 10 mg/kg Escherichia coli endotoxin (etx) or saline. Naloxone (2 mg/kg) or saline was given as a treatment 25 min post-etx. They found no significant differences between right and left cortical, midbrain, or cerebellar BF at any time in any treatment group. Therefore naloxone treatment of endotoxin shock may be beneficial in preventing decreases in regional CBF.

  11. Progranulin protects against endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury by downregulating renal cell death and inflammatory responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoying; Gou, Linfeng; Zhou, Meng; Yang, Fusheng; Zhao, Yihan; Feng, Tingting; Shi, Peikun; Ghavamian, Armin; Zhao, Weiming; Yu, Yuan; Lu, Yi; Yi, Fan; Liu, Guangyi; Tang, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Progranulin (PGRN), a pluripotent secreted growth factor, is involved in various physiologic and disease processes. However, the role of PGRN in endotoxin-induced septic acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate the protective effects of PGRN on an endotoxin-induced AKI mouse model by using PGRN-deficient mice and recombinant PGRN (rPGRN) pretreatment. PGRN levels were increased in kidneys of wild-type (WT) mice at 6 and 24h after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Renal function detection, hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemical staining, ELISA and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine triphosphate nick-end labeling were used to reveal tissue injury, inflammatory cell infiltration, production of inflammatory mediators and cell death in mouse kidneys after LPS injection. PGRN deficiency resulted in severe kidney injury and increased apoptotic death, inflammatory cell infiltration, production of pro-inflammatory mediators and the expression and nucleus-to-cytoplasmic translocation of HMGB1 in the kidney. In addition, rPGRN administration before LPS treatment ameliorated the endotoxin-induced AKI in WT mice. PGRN may be a novel biologic agent with therapeutic potential for endotoxin-induced septic AKI possibly by inhibiting LPS-induced renal cell death and inflammatory responses in mice.

  12. Relation of structure to function for the US reference standard endotoxin after exposure to /sup 60/Co radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Csako, G.; Suba, E.A.; Ahlgren, A.; Tsai, C.M.; Elin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The structure and function of the highly purified US reference standard endotoxin (RSE) were studied after exposure to ionizing radiation from a /sup 60/Co source. With increasing doses of radiation, the trilaminar ribbon-like structure of untreated endotoxin exhibited focal swelling, after which only spherical particles were seen by electron microscopy. These morphological changes were paralleled by the respective loss of O-side chain repeating units and pieces of the R-core from the lipopolysaccharide molecules, as demonstrated by electrophoresis. The biologic function of the irradiated endotoxin was assessed with a variety of tests. At higher doses of radiation, a direct relation was observed between the degradation of the molecular and supramolecular structure and the loss of biologic function. At lower doses of radiation, however, there was variability among the functional assays in their rate of change with progressive irradiation of the RSE. The results suggest that the carbohydrate moiety plays an important role both in determining the supramolecular structure and in modulating certain biologic activities of bacterial endotoxins.

  13. Role of platelets in the pathogenesis of canine endotoxin shock.

    PubMed Central

    From, A H; Fong, J S; Chiu, T; Good, R A

    1976-01-01

    Endotoxin-platelet interactions are thought to be of major importance in the response of dogs and other species to bacterial endotoxin; the mechanisms postulated are: (i) the release of vasoactive substances, (ii) the formation of occlusive platelet aggregates, and (iii) induction of intravascular coagulation. The role of platelets in canine endotoxin shock was examined in animals with thrombocytopenia induced by estrogen pretreatment (less than 10,000 platelets/mm3) and in controls. After intravenously administered endotoxin, the hemodynamic responses, mortality, and gross necropsy findings were similar in both groups. These data indicate that endotoxin-platelet interactions are not determinative in the pathogenesis of canine endotoxin shock. PMID:786877

  14. Endotoxins in cotton: washing effects and size distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Olenchock, S.A.; Mull, J.C.; Jones, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    Endotoxin contamination was measured in washed and unwashed cottons from three distinct growing areas, California, Mississippi, and Texas. The data show differences in endotoxin contamination based upon the geographic source of the cotton. It is also shown that washing bulk cotton before the carding process results in lower endotoxin in the cotton dust. Washing conditions can affect the endotoxin levels, and all size fractions of the airborne dust contain quantifiable endotoxin contamination. Endotoxin analyses provide a simple and reliable method for monitoring the cleanliness of cotton or airborne cotton dusts.

  15. Binding Interactions of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide and the Cationic Amphiphilic Peptides Polymyxin B and WLBU2

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Matthew P.; Wu, Xiangming; McKelvey, GregR.; McGuire, Joseph; Schilke, Karl F.

    2014-01-01

    Passage of blood through a sorbent device for removal of bacteria and endotoxin by specific binding with immobilized, membrane-active, bactericidal peptides holds promise for treating severe blood infections. Peptide insertion in the target membrane and rapid/strong binding is desirable, while membrane disruption and release of degradation products to the circulating blood is not. Here we describe interactions between bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and the membrane-active, bactericidal peptides WLBU2 and polymyxin B (PmB). Analysis of the interfacial behavior of mixtures of LPS and peptide using air-water interfacial tensiometry and optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy strongly suggests insertion of intact LPS vesicles by the peptide WLBU2 without vesicle destabilization. In contrast, dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies show that LPS vesicles appear to undergo peptide-induced destabilization in the presence of PmB. Circular dichroism spectra further confirm that WLBU2, which shows disordered structure in aqueous solution and substantially helical structure in membrane-mimetic environments, is stably located within the LPS membrane in peptide-vesicle mixtures. We therefore expect that presentation of WLBU2 at an interface, if tethered in a fashion which preserves its mobility and solvent accessibility, will enable the capture of bacteria and endotoxin without promoting reintroduction of endotoxin to the circulating blood, thus minimizing adverse clinical outcomes. On the other hand, our results suggest no such favorable outcome of LPS interactions with polymyxin B. PMID:24905681

  16. Covalent binding of (/sup 14/C)thiourea to protein in lungs from endotoxin-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hollinger, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    Administration of thiourea to mature male rats at a dosage of 3.5 mg/kg (ip) produced marked pleural effusion by 2 hr (3-4 ml). Pretreatment with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) significantly reduced this pleural effusion (less than 0.5 ml). Despite this unequivocal effect, there was no corresponding reduction in the covalent binding of (/sup 14/C)thiourea to lung protein. These data indicate that the protective effect of endotoxin against the initial stages of thiourea pneumotoxicity does not involve a reduction in binding of the (/sup 14/C)thiourea or a metabolite to lung protein. However, alterations in low levels of binding to specific cell types or particular protein(s) relative to covalent binding cannot be ruled out.

  17. Stimulation of peritoneal cell arginase by bacterial lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J L; Yohe, W B; Morrison, D C

    1980-05-01

    The conditions under which bacterial endotoxins stimulate arginase production in mouse peritoneal macrophages have been defined. Both lipid-A and lipid-A-associated protein are potent activators. Fetal calf serum and normal mouse serum enhance macrophage arginase levels in the presence and absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS in the amount of 10(-1) microgram/ml represents a maximal stimulus for macrophage arginase production and release. Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal cells have increased arginase activity, compared with resident cells. This activity can be stimulated further by the addition of LPS. Arginase levels may alter the outcome of in vitro immunologic processes by depleting arginine and may also serve as a useful indicator of the state of activation of macrophages.

  18. Plasma concentrations of endotoxin and platelet activation in the developmental stage of oligofructose-induced laminitis.

    PubMed

    Bailey, S R; Adair, H S; Reinemeyer, C R; Morgan, S J; Brooks, A C; Longhofer, S L; Elliott, J

    2009-06-15

    The link between the fermentation of carbohydrate in the equine large intestine and the development of acute laminitis is poorly understood. Absorption of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) into the plasma has been observed in one experimental model of laminitis, but does not cause laminitis when administered alone. Thus, the potential role of endotoxin is unclear. Platelet activation has previously been demonstrated in the developmental stage of laminitis. Equine platelets are more sensitive than leukocytes to activation by endotoxin, and can be activated directly by LPS in the low pg/ml range, activating p38 MAP kinase and releasing serotonin (5-HT) and thromboxane. The objectives of this study were firstly to determine whether endotoxin and platelet activation could be measured in the plasma of horses in the developmental phase of laminitis induced with oligofructose. Secondly, the time course of events involving platelet activation and platelet-derived vasoactive mediator production was investigated. Laminitis was induced in six Standardbred horses by the administration of 10 g/kg bwt of oligofructose. Plasma samples were obtained every 4h, and platelet pellets were obtained by centrifugation. LPS was measured using a kinetic limulus amebocyte lysate assay, and platelet activation was assessed by Western blotting for the phosphorylated form of p38 MAP kinase. Plasma 5-HT was assayed by HPLC with electrochemical detection and thromboxane B(2) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Clinical signs of laminitis and histopathologic changes were observed in lamellar sections from five of the six horses. Onset of lameness was between 20 and 30 h after the administration of oligofructose. LPS increased above the limit of detection (0.6 pg/ml) to reach a peak of 2.4+/-1.0 pg/ml at 8 h. TNFalpha was also detectable in the plasma from 12 to 24 h. There was a time-dependent increase in platelet p38 MAPK phosphorylation, which peaked at approximately 12 h (3.8+/-1.3 fold

  19. Gene expression profiles in the intestine of lipopolysaccharide-challenged piglets.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dan; Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Di; Ding, Binying; Wu, Tao; Chen, Hongbo; Liu, Yulan; Kang, Ping; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    Bowel diseases are common in human and animals and are characterized by intestinal dysfunction and injury. A well-established porcine model of intestinal injury can be induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin released from the cell wall of pathogenic bacteria. LPS affects the expression of genes associated with intestinal immune response, mucosal growth, energy metabolism, absorption, mucosal barrier function, and antiviral function. Transcriptional analysis of intestinal genes reveals that the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon respond to LPS challenge in a similar pattern. Moreover, the jejunum and ileum exhibit greater responses to LPS challenge than the duodenum and colon with regard to gene expression. Additionally, over 85% of genes are co-expressed along the small and large intestines and there is a clear distinction in gene expression patterns amongst the different intestinal segments in pigs. These findings have important implications for underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for endotoxin-induced intestinal injury and dysfunction.

  20. Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide and interleukin-1beta have different effects on memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Lisa M; Sutherland, Robert J

    2005-09-30

    Sickness behaviour is an adaptive response to infection that includes lethargy, anorexia and of direct relevance to this work, learning and memory impairments. It has been suggested that proinflammatory cytokines may disrupt learning and memory by interfering with memory consolidation [C.R. Pugh, K. Kumagawa, M. Fleshner, L.R. Watkins, S.F. Maier, J.R. Rudy, Selective effects of peripheral lipopolysaccharide administration on contextual and auditory-cue fear conditioning, Brain Behav. Immun. 12 (1998) 212-229]. We tested whether systemic interleukin-1beta is sufficient to induce impairments in memory consolidation by comparing the effects of post-learning administration of interleukin-1beta with, the potent endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide; and saline, on retention of conditioned fear of a context. We administered an acute intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-1beta or saline immediately following a single conditioning episode in which rats received two tone-shock pairings. Two days following the learning episode, animals were tested for strength of conditioned responding to both the context and tone. Lipopolysaccharide-injected animals, but not interleukin-1beta-injected animals, exhibited less conditioned fear of context compared to saline-treated controls. All groups showed similar conditioned fear of tone. Our results suggest that systemic interleukin-1beta is not sufficient to disrupt memory consolidation, but rather, the synergistic actions of the proinflammatory cytokines released by lipopolysaccharide are required to disrupt memory consolidation.

  1. Profiling of 3-hydroxy fatty acids as environmental markers of endotoxin using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Silvio; Negård, Mariell; Heldal, Kari K; Straumfors, Anne; Madsø, Lene; Bakke, Berit; Eduard, Wijnand

    2016-02-19

    3-Hydroxy acids are constituents of the lipid A part of lipopolysaccharides and may potentially be used as chemical markers of endotoxin. While commercial enzymatic assays, such as the widely used Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay, commonly detect merely the water-soluble fraction of the bioactive endotoxin, the chemical approach aims to estimate the total amount of endotoxin present in a sample. Our objective was to develop a simple method for quantitative profiling of 3-hydroxy fatty acids in occupational and environmental samples based on detection with HPLC-MS/MS. We included eleven 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-hydroxyoctanoic acid to 3-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid) in the HPLC-MS/MS based method, which involved base hydrolysis of filter samples using 1M sodium hydroxide and removal of the base as well as concentration of the fatty acids using solid-phase extraction on a functionalized polystyrene-divinylbenzene polymer. Recovery trials from spiked glass fiber filters, using threo-9,10-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid as internal standard, gave an overall recovery of 54-86% for 3-hydroxy fatty acids of medium chain length (3-hydroxynonanoic to 3-hydroxypentadecanoic acid). 3-Hydroxyoctanoic acid and the longer chain fatty acids were more problematic yielding overall spike recoveries of 11-39%. While the 3-hydroxy fatty acid profile of pure lipopolysaccharides was dominated by 3-hydroxydecanoic, 3-hydroxydodecanoic and 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid the aqueous phase from drilling mud contained in addition relatively high amounts of 3-hydroxyoctanoic and 3-hydroxynonanoic acid. Endotoxin activity as measured by the LAL assay was reasonably correlated (R(2)=0.54) to the sum of 3-hydroxydecanoic acid, 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid and 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid in these samples.

  2. Possible mechanism for preterm labor associated with bacterial infection. I. Stimulation of phosphoinositide metabolism by endotoxin in endometrial fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.A.; Imai, A.; Tamaya, T. )

    1990-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests an association between intra-amniotic infection and premature initiation of parturition. We recently demonstrated that some factor(s) including endotoxin produced by the organism stimulates endogenous phospholipase A2 resulting in liberation of arachidonic acid and prostaglandin formation. The studies presented in this report were designated to evaluate the mechanism for endotoxin to stimulate phospholipase A2 using human endometrial fibroblasts. Exposure of the fibroblasts to endotoxin from Escherichia coli in the presence of ({sup 32}P) phosphate increased {sup 32}P-labeling of phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidyl-inositol (PI) in a dose-dependent and a time-dependent manners. The PA labeling occurred without a measurable lag time. These findings demonstrate that the endotoxin stimulates phosphoinositide metabolism in human endometrial fibroblasts by a receptor-mediated mechanism. Membrane phosphoinositide turnover stimulated by endotoxin results in cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} increment, liberation of arachidonic acid, which may be involved in the initiation of parturition.

  3. Resurrecting inactive antimicrobial peptides from the lipopolysaccharide trap.

    PubMed

    Mohanram, Harini; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2014-01-01

    Host defense antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a promising source of antibiotics for the treatment of multiple-drug-resistant pathogens. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, functions as a permeability barrier against a variety of molecules, including AMPs. Further, LPS or endotoxin is the causative agent of sepsis killing 100,000 people per year in the United States alone. LPS can restrict the activity of AMPs inducing aggregations at the outer membrane, as observed for frog AMPs, temporins, and also in model AMPs. Aggregated AMPs, "trapped" by the outer membrane, are unable to traverse the cell wall, causing their inactivation. In this work, we show that these inactive AMPs can overcome LPS-induced aggregations while conjugated with a short LPS binding β-boomerang peptide motif and become highly bactericidal. The generated hybrid peptides exhibit activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in high-salt conditions and detoxify endotoxin. Structural and biophysical studies establish the mechanism of action of these peptides in LPS outer membrane. Most importantly, this study provides a new concept for the development of a potent broad-spectrum antibiotic with efficient outer membrane disruption as the mode of action.

  4. The Potential Role of an Endotoxin Tolerance-Like Mechanism for the Anti-inflammatory Effect of Spirulina platensis Organic Extract in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tho X; Park, Young-Ki; Bae, Minkyung; Lee, Ji-Young

    2017-01-25

    Endotoxin tolerance is a phenomenon where exposure of innate immune cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a refractory state to subsequent endotoxin exposures. The goal of this study was to investigate if Spirulina platensis organic extract (SPE) induces an endotoxin tolerance-like state. We used splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) control or a HF/HS diet containing 0.25% (w/w) SPE for 16 weeks for ex vivo LPS stimulation and endotoxin-tolerant (ET) macrophages to evaluate the effects of SPE on endotoxin tolerance. Cells from SPE-fed mice displayed significantly less expression of proinflammatory genes than those from control mice. ET macrophages were produced in vitro by incubating RAW 264.7 macrophages with low-dose LPS to determine the energy phenotype of naive, SPE-treated, and ET macrophages. Compared to naive macrophages exposed to a high-dose LPS (100 ng/mL) for the first time, ET macrophages showed significantly less proinflammatory gene expression after LPS stimulation, which was also observed with SPE treatment. Consistently, nuclear translocation of p65 was markedly reduced in both ET- and SPE-treated macrophages on LPS stimulation with increase in nuclear protein levels of p50 and B cell lymphoma 3-encoded protein. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE is at least partly attributable to the induction of an endotoxin tolerance-like state in macrophages, which shares common characteristics of macrophage endotoxin tolerance.

  5. Lipopolysaccharide characteristics of pathogenic campylobacters.

    PubMed Central

    Perez Perez, G I; Blaser, M J

    1985-01-01

    Most Campylobacter jejuni strains are sensitive and most Campylobacter fetus strains are resistant to the bactericidal activity in normal human serum. We purified lipopolysaccharides from Campylobacter strains to determine whether their composition and structure relate to serum susceptibility. The lipopolysaccharide of two serum-sensitive strains was best isolated by the Galanos procedure, but for two serum-resistant strains a cold-ethanol extraction was optimal. For each lipopolysaccharide preparation, the ratio of 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate to protein was increased by 100 to 1,000-fold over that of whole cells. For serum-resistant strains, total carbohydrates was a high proportion of lipopolysaccharide weight; for serum-sensitive strains, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctanate was a high proportion of total carbohydrates. By polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the lipopolysaccharide of serum-sensitive strains appeared rough, but for serum-resistant strains a smooth-type ladder was seen, with a minimal core region and several high-molecular-weight complexes. Proteinase K-treated whole-cell lysates showed polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles similar to that of pure lipopolysaccharide. Proteinase K-treated whole-cell lysates from seven serum-sensitive C. jejuni strains all had rough profiles, and five serum-resistant C. fetus strains all had smooth profiles. These studies indicate that lipopolysaccharide composition may be an important determinant of serum susceptibility among Campylobacter species and that serum resistance is usually associated with a smooth-type lipopolysaccharide. Images PMID:3967920

  6. PROPERTIES OF A LYSOZYME-DISSOCIATED ENDOTOXIC FRACTION FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI.

    PubMed

    MERGENHAGEN, S E; MARTIN, G R

    1964-10-01

    Mergenhagen, Stephan E. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, Md.), and George R. Martin. Properties of a lysozyme-dissociated endotoxic fraction from Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 88:1169-1174. 1964.-Treatment of a phenol-water preparation of C(14)-labeled Escherichia coli O91-H21 endotoxin of low solubility with lysozyme at pH 5.0 or 8.0 effected a dissociation of the preparation. Such products of dissociation were equally distributed in the chloroform and water phases after extraction. beta-Glucosidase, but not beta-galactosidase, significantly dissociated this endotoxin also. Concomitant with dissociation, recoverable endotoxin after lysozyme treatment had a reduced content of bound lipid, and dissolved easily in aqueous media to yield a clear solution. Examination of lysozyme-treated endotoxin in an analytical ultracentrifuge revealed that it sedimented as a single major boundary with a sedimentation coefficient of 13.3. Lysozyme-treated endotoxin was more potent than was the conventional endotoxin as evidenced by lethal activity in rabbits and pertussis-sensitized mice. Agar-gel diffusion analysis indicated that the higher molecular weight component associated with conventional endotoxin was dissociated by lysozyme treatment. In immunoelectrophoresis, lysozyme-treated endotoxin was observed as a single sharp band of precipitation which migrated toward the cathode.

  7. PROPERTIES OF A LYSOZYME-DISSOCIATED ENDOTOXIC FRACTION FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI

    PubMed Central

    Mergenhagen, Stephan E.; Martin, George R.

    1964-01-01

    Mergenhagen, Stephan E. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, Md.), and George R. Martin. Properties of a lysozyme-dissociated endotoxic fraction from Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 88:1169–1174. 1964.—Treatment of a phenol-water preparation of C14-labeled Escherichia coli O91–H21 endotoxin of low solubility with lysozyme at pH 5.0 or 8.0 effected a dissociation of the preparation. Such products of dissociation were equally distributed in the chloroform and water phases after extraction. β-Glucosidase, but not β-galactosidase, significantly dissociated this endotoxin also. Concomitant with dissociation, recoverable endotoxin after lysozyme treatment had a reduced content of bound lipid, and dissolved easily in aqueous media to yield a clear solution. Examination of lysozyme-treated endotoxin in an analytical ultracentrifuge revealed that it sedimented as a single major boundary with a sedimentation coefficient of 13.3. Lysozyme-treated endotoxin was more potent than was the conventional endotoxin as evidenced by lethal activity in rabbits and pertussis-sensitized mice. Agar-gel diffusion analysis indicated that the higher molecular weight component associated with conventional endotoxin was dissociated by lysozyme treatment. In immunoelectrophoresis, lysozyme-treated endotoxin was observed as a single sharp band of precipitation which migrated toward the cathode. Images PMID:14219034

  8. Effects of intra-articularly administered endotoxin on clinical signs of disease and synovial fluid tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 6, and prostaglandin E2 values in horses.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, D L; MacKay, R J; Gum, G G; Colahan, P T; Meyer, J C

    1993-03-01

    In each of 4 horses, sterile synovitis was induced by intra-articular injection of 3 micrograms of Escherichia coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) into one antebrachiocarpal joint; an equal volume (2 ml) of phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBSS) was injected into the opposite, control carpus. Blood and 1.5 ml of synovial fluid were obtained at postinjection hours (PIH) 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, 42, 66, and 144. Synovial fluid sample collection was accomplished by use of an indwelling, intra-articular catheter through PIH 12, and by arthrocentesis subsequently. Joint fluid samples were analyzed for cell counts, protein concentration, cytologic variables, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) values. Tumor necrosis factor and IL-6 activities and WBC count were also measured in blood. To monitor local inflammation, skin temperature of each carpus was imaged, using a thermographic scanner prior to each sample collection time. Horses had minimal systemic effects. Mean (+/- SEM) rectal temperature increased significantly to 39.02 +/- 0.15 C only at PIH 18 after intra-articular injection of LPS. One horse had signs of mild depression from PIH 7 to 18, but its vital signs did not change appreciably. Each horse had mild signs of discomfort in the LPS-injected limb from PIH 1 to 3 until PIH 8 to 10. Mean peak surface temperature of the LPS-injected carpi was significantly higher than that of control carpi from PIH 8 to 144 (P < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Systemic administration of an anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha monoclonal antibody protects against endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Qingman; Wang, Shaocheng; Zheng, Yuezhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was to evaluate the effect of systemic injection of an anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) monoclonal antibody (mAb) on endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). Materials and Methods: Fifty-six male Wistar rats (6–8 weeks old) were randomly divided into three groups: EIU, anti-TNF-α mAb + EIU, and control. EIU was induced by injecting Escherichia coli O55:B5 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the hind footpad of the rats (150 μg/rat). The anti-TNF-α mAb (1 μg/kg) was administrated 30 min before LPS injection through one-time intravenous injection. The onset time and peak time of EIU were recorded. The serum and aqueous humor (AH) TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA at 4, 24, and 72 h post-LPS injection. Clinical manifestations of EIU and eye histopathology were scored. Results: Compared with the EIU rats, anti-TNF-α mAb + EIU rats showed significantly delayed onset of uveitis (t = 7.41, P < 0.001), lower clinical scores and histopathological grades (t = 3.18/2.22, P < 0.001), reduced levels of TNF-α (F = 15.06/59.43, P < 0.001) and IL-6 (F = 99.63/14.92, P < 0.001), and increased levels of IL-10 (F = 24.94/8.99, P < 0.001) in the serum and AH. AH TNF-α, serum IL-6, and AH IL-6 levels are positively correlated, whereas serum IL-10 levels were negatively correlated with EIU activity. Conclusion: Antagonizing TNF-α by system injection of the anti-TNF-α mAb protects against EIU in rats. Blocking TNF-α signaling could be a useful strategy for managing uveitis. PMID:28112125

  10. Human endothelial cell-based assay for endotoxin as sensitive as the conventional Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay.

    PubMed

    Unger, Ronald E; Peters, Kirsten; Sartoris, Anne; Freese, Christian; Kirkpatrick, C James

    2014-03-01

    Endotoxin, also known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced by bacteria can be present in any liquid or on any biomaterial even if the material is sterile. Endotoxin in mammals can cause fever, inflammation, cell and tissue damage and irreversible septic shock and death. In the body, endothelial cells making up the blood vasculature and endothelial cells in vitro rapidly react to minute amounts of endotoxin resulting in a rapid induction of the cell adhesion molecule E-selectin. In this study we have used immunofluorescent staining to evaluate the expression of E-selectin on human microvascular endothelial cells from the skin (HDMEC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) exposed to various concentrations of LPS. In addition, the sensitivity of detection was compared with the most widely used assay for the presence of endotoxin, the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay (LAL). The detection of E-selectin on endothelial cells in the presence of LPS for 4 h was found to be at least as sensitive in detecting the same concentration using the LAL assay. A cell adhesion molecule-enzyme immunosorbent assay was also developed and used to quantify LPS using the endothelial cell model. A comparison of LAL and the immunofluorescent staining method was carried out with solutions, nanoparticles, biomaterial extracts and endothelial cells grown directly on biomaterials. Under all conditions, the endothelial/E-selectin model system was positive for the test samples that were positive by LAL. Thus, we propose the use of this highly sensitive, rapid, reproducible assay for the routine testing of endotoxin in all steps in the manufacturing process of materials destined for use in humans. This can give a rapid feedback and localization of bacterial contamination sources with the LAL being reserved for the testing of the final product.

  11. Kinetics of plasma procalcitonin, soluble CD14, CCL2 and IL-10 after a sublethal infusion of lipopolysaccharide in horses.

    PubMed

    Bonelli, Francesca; Meucci, Valentina; Divers, Thomas J; Wagner, Bettina; Intorre, Luigi; Sgorbini, Micaela

    2017-02-01

    Endotoxemia represents a significant clinical and economic problem for the equine industry. This study assesses the kinetics of soluble CD14 (sCD14), chemokine (CC motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and plasma procalcitonin (PCT) in healthy horses after the intravenous infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The aim was to contribute to the basic understanding of the equine species-specific kinetics of these molecules in response to LPS exposure, which could support further findings in clinical studies and identify valuable inflammatory biomarkers for equine practice. Eleven healthy horses were involved in this experimental in vivo study. Horses were classified as healthy before the LPS infusion. After the pre-infusion blood collection (T0), all horses received an infusion of E. coli endotoxin (30ng/kg over 30min). Data and samples were collected 1h (T1), 2 (T2), 3 (T3) and 24h (T24) after infusion. Plasma sCD14, CCL2 and IL-10 were evaluated with a fluorescent bead-based assay, while PCT was evaluated with an equine PCT ELISA assay. A one-way ANOVA test was performed between each blood-sampling time for PCT, sCD14 and IL-10, and a Friedman test was performed for CCL2. Plasma PCT, IL-10 and CCL2 concentrations increased statistically significantly at T1, T2 and T3 compared to T0. No statistically significant differences were found between plasma IL-10 and CCL2 concentrations between T0 vs T24, although plasma PCT values remained high 24h after LPS infusion. Plasma sCD14 concentration showed no statistically significant differences for any of sampling times. Our results demonstrate that LPS injection into healthy horses results in PCT, CCL2 and IL-10 increases in plasma without an increase in sCD14. The increases in PCT, CCL2 and IL-10 are related to the inflammatory response induced by circulating lipopolysaccharide.

  12. Lipoteichoic acid from Lactobacillus plantarum inhibits the expression of platelet-activating factor receptor induced by Staphylococcus aureus lipoteichoic acid or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in human monocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hangeun; Jung, Bong Jun; Jeong, Jihye; Chun, Honam; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2014-08-01

    Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) plays an important role in bacterial infection and inflammation. We examined the effect of the bacterial cell wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Lactobacillus plantarum (pLTA) and Staphylococcus aureus (aLTA) on PAFR expression in THP-1, a monocyte-like cell line. LPS and aLTA, but not pLTA, significantly increased PAFR expression, whereas priming with pLTA inhibited LPSmediated or aLTA-mediated PAFR expression. Expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4, and CD14 increased with LPS and aLTA treatments, but was inhibited by pLTA pretreatment. Neutralizing antibodies against TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 showed that these receptors were important in LPS-mediated or aLTA-mediated PAFR expression. PAFR expression is mainly regulated by the nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway. Blocking PAF binding to PAFR using a PAFR inhibitor indicated that LPS-mediated or aLTA-mediated PAF expression affected TNF-α production. In the mouse small intestine, pLTA inhibited PAFR, TLR2, and TLR4 expression that was induced by heat-labile toxin. Our data suggested that pLTA has an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the expression of PAFR that was induced by pathogenic ligands.

  13. Immunization with lipopolysaccharide-deficient whole cells provides protective immunity in an experimental mouse model of Acinetobacter baumannii infection.

    PubMed

    García-Quintanilla, Meritxell; Pulido, Marina R; Pachón, Jerónimo; McConnell, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The increasing clinical importance of infections caused by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii warrants the development of novel approaches for prevention and treatment. In this context, vaccination of certain patient populations may contribute to reducing the morbidity and mortality caused by this pathogen. Vaccines against Gram-negative bacteria based on inactivated bacterial cells are highly immunogenic and have been shown to produce protective immunity against a number of bacterial species. However, the high endotoxin levels present in these vaccines due to the presence of lipopolysaccharide complicates their use in human vaccination. In the present study, we used a laboratory-derived strain of A. baumannii that completely lacks lipopolysaccharide due to a mutation in the lpxD gene (IB010), one of the genes involved in the first steps of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, for vaccination. We demonstrate that IB010 has greatly reduced endotoxin content (<1.0 endotoxin unit/106 cells) compared to wild type cells. Immunization with formalin inactivated IB010 produced a robust antibody response consisting of both IgG1 and IgG2c subtypes. Mice immunized with IB010 had significantly lower post-infection tissue bacterial loads and significantly lower serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 compared to control mice in a mouse model of disseminated A. baumannii infection. Importantly, immunized mice were protected from infection with the ATCC 19606 strain and an A. baumannii clinical isolate. These data suggest that immunization with inactivated A. baumannii whole cells deficient in lipopolysaccharide could serve as the basis for a vaccine for the prevention of infection caused by A. baumannii.

  14. Allantoin as a solid phase adsorbent for removing endotoxins.

    PubMed

    Vagenende, Vincent; Ching, Tim-Jang; Chua, Rui-Jing; Gagnon, Pete

    2013-10-04

    In this study we present a simple and robust method for removing endotoxins from protein solutions by using crystals of the small-molecule compound 2,5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl urea (allantoin) as a solid phase adsorbent. Allantoin crystalline powder is added to a protein solution at supersaturated concentrations, endotoxins bind and undissolved allantoin crystals with bound endotoxins are removed by filtration or centrifugation. This method removes an average of 99.98% endotoxin for 20 test proteins. The average protein recovery is ∼80%. Endotoxin binding is largely independent of pH, conductivity, reducing agent and various organic solvents. This is consistent with a hydrogen-bond based binding mechanism. Allantoin does not affect protein activity and stability, and the use of allantoin as a solid phase adsorbent provides better endotoxin removal than anion exchange, polymixin affinity and biological affinity methods for endotoxin clearance.

  15. Ambient endotoxin concentrations in PM10 from Southern California.

    PubMed Central

    Mueller-Anneling, Linda; Avol, Ed; Peters, John M; Thorne, Peter S

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of endotoxin in urban air pollution have not previously been extensively characterized. We measured 24-hr levels of PM10 (particulate matter < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter) and the associated endotoxin component once every 6 weeks for 1 year in 13 communities in Southern California. All the samples collected had detectable PM10 and endotoxin levels. The geometric mean PM10 was 34.6 microg/m3 [geometric SD (GSD), 2.1; range, 3.0-135]. By volume, the endotoxin geometric mean was 0.44 endotoxin units (EU)/m3 (GSD, 3.1; range, 0.03-5.44). Per unit material collected, the geometric mean of endotoxin collected was 13.6 EU/mg (GSD, 3.2; range, 0.7-96.8). No correlation was found between endotoxin concentrations and other ambient pollutants concurrently measured [ozone, nitrogen dioxide, total acids, or PM2.5 (particulate matter < 2.5 micro m in aerodynamic diameter]. PM10 and endotoxin concentrations were significantly correlated, most strongly in summer. Samples collected in more rural and agricultural areas had lower PM10 and mid-range endotoxin levels. The high desert and mountain communities had lower PM10 levels but endotoxin levels comparable with or higher than the rural agricultural sites. By volume, endotoxin levels were highest at sites downwind of Los Angeles, California, which were also the locations of highest PM10. Endotoxin concentrations measured in this study were all < 5.5 EU/m3, which is lower than recognized thresholds for acute adverse health effects for occupational exposures but in the same range as indoor household concentrations. This study provides the first extensive characterization of endotoxin concentration across a large metropolitan area in relation to PM10 and other pollutant monitoring, and supports the need for studies of the role of endotoxin in childhood asthma in urban settings. PMID:15064165

  16. Acute Escherichia coli endotoxaemia decreases the plasma l-arginine/asymmetrical dimethylarginine ratio in humans.

    PubMed

    Mittermayer, Friedrich; Namiranian, Khodadad; Pleiner, Johannes; Schaller, Georg; Wolzt, Michael

    2004-06-01

    Acute inflammation impairs vascular function. Based on the association between endothelial dysfunction and plasma concentrations of L-arginine and the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor ADMA (asymmetrical dimethylarginine), we hypothesized that the ratio between L-arginine and ADMA could be affected by experimental inflammation. Plasma concentrations of L-arginine, ADMA and SDMA (symmetrical dimethylarginine) were studied at baseline and 3.5 h after intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin [LPS (lipopolysaccharide), 20 units/kg of body mass; n =8] or placebo ( n =9) in healthy males. L-Arginine and dimethylarginines were quantified after solid-phase extraction by reversed-phase HPLC. Body temperature, heart rate and leucocyte count increased after LPS administration ( P <0.01 for all). LPS administration decreased plasma concentrations of L-arginine from 66 micromol/l [95% CI (confidence interval): 56, 88] at baseline to 48 micromol/l (CI: 40, 60) after 3.5 h ( P <0.02), but did not affect ADMA and SDMA concentrations. Consequently, the L-arginine/ADMA ratio declined significantly from a median of 159 (CI: 137, 193) to 135 (CI: 103, 146); a decrease of 25 (CI: -68, -13; P <0.02). L-Arginine, ADMA, SDMA and the L-arginine/ADMA ratio remained constant over time in controls. Acute inflammation reduces the L-arginine/ADMA ratio which could contribute to impaired vascular function.

  17. Enteric vascular endothelial response to bacterial endotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Koshi, R.; Mathan, V. I.; David, S.; Mathan, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    The response of enteric vasculature to endotoxin was examined at the ultrastructural level using a murine model of endotoxin-induced acute diarrhoea. Morphological changes indicative of endothelial damage were evident as early as 15 minutes following endotoxin challenge. These changes, characterized by widening of intercellular spaces, increased microvillous projections and the appearance of stress fibres, preceded the leucocytic response. Endothelial damage increased with time, being associated with progressive degenerative changes in the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and organelles, ultimately leading to desquamation. These latter changes were temporally associated with margination of neutrophils and platelet adhesion to the denuded subendothelium. The venules were the primary site of these changes while the capillaries were the least affected. The arterioles were markedly constricted with minimal endothelial damage. These changes suggest that the enteric vascular endothelium may be an important target organ, and the resultant endothelial injury may have implications in host responses to endotoxin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8292557

  18. Preventive Effects of Ethyl Pyruvate on Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kalariya, Nilesh M.; Reddy, Aramati B. M.; Ansari, Naseem H.; VanKuijk, Frederik J. G. M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Recent studies indicate that ethyl pyruvate (EP) exerts anti-inflammatory properties; however, the effect of EP on ocular inflammation is not known. The efficacy of EP in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats was investigated. Methods. EIU in Lewis rats was developed by the subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 μg). EP (30 mg/kg body weight) or its carrier was injected intraperitoneally 1 hour before or 2 hours after lipopolysaccharide injection. Animals were killed after 3 and 24 hours followed by enucleation of eyes and collection of the aqueous humor (AqH). The number of infiltrating cells and levels of proteins in the AqH were determined. The rat cytokine/chemokine multiplex method was used to determine level of cytokines and chemokines in the AqH. TNF-α and phospho-nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) expression in ocular tissues were determined immunohistochemically. Human primary nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cells (HNPECs) were used to determine the in vitro efficacy of EP on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response. Results. Compared to controls, AqH from the EIU rat eyes had a significantly higher number of infiltrating cells, total protein, and inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and the treatment of EP prevented EIU-induced increases. In addition, EP also prevented the expression of TNF-α and activation of NF-κB in the ciliary bodies and retina of the eye. Moreover, in HNPECs, EP inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of Cox-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and TNF-α. Conclusions. Our results indicate that EP prevents ocular inflammation in EIU, suggesting that the supplementation of EP could be a novel approach for the treatment of ocular inflammation, specifically uveitis. PMID:21551413

  19. Therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects of luteolin on endotoxin-induced uveitis in Lewis rats

    PubMed Central

    KANAI, Kazutaka; NAGATA, Sho; HATTA, Takuya; SUGIURA, Yuichi; SATO, Kazuaki; YAMASHITA, Yohei; KIMURA, Yuya; ITOH, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of post-inflammatory treatment with luteolin on endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. Intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg luteolin or 1 mg/kg prednisolone (Pred) at 4 hr post-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection (200 µg) was associated at 24 hr post-LPS injection with decreased clinical severity scores, number of inflammatory cells, protein levels and levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) E2 in the aqueous humor (AqH) and degrees of histological ocular tissue injury. The anti-inflammatory potency of luteolin was comparable to that of Pred. Luteolin exhibited robust efficacy in the treatment of EIU in rats, indicating its potential clinical utility in treating uveitis. PMID:27170432

  20. Endotoxins in Environmental and Clinical Samples Assessed by GC-Tandem MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szponar, Bogumila

    Bacteria appeared on the Earth millions years before us and human evolution was triggered by the constant presence of pathogenic and symbiotic microorganisms in our surroundings. Interplay occurred between higher organism and microbial consortia residing in the host organs and on the epithelial surfaces; another natural space of bacteria-human interaction is the indoor environment where we spend the majority of our lifetime. Indoor microbial exposure affects our well-being and can result in respiratory symptoms, such as allergies and asthma, since both dead and live microorganisms and their cell constituents, including lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxins), interact with our immune system. Thus, there is a demand for robust tools for qualitative and quantitative determination of the microbial communities that we are exposed to.

  1. Relative potency of tyrosol in the treatment of endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    SATO, Kazuaki; MIHARA, Yuko; KANAI, Kazutaka; YAMASHITA, Yohei; KIMURA, Yuya; ITOH, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosol (Tyr) is a natural phenolic antioxidant with diverse biological activities. We compared the anti-inflammatory effects of intravenously administered Tyr versus prednisolone (PSL) in an endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) rat model. Intravenous administration of 100 mg/kg Tyr was performed 2 hr before, simultaneously and 2 hr after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Tyr treatment was associated with decreased inflammatory cell number, protein concentration, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, PGE2 and NO levels in AqH and improvements in histopathologic evidence of EIU in ocular tissue at 24 hr after LPS injection. 100 mg/kg Tyr and 1 mg/kg PSL (administered on the same schedule as Tyr) had comparable anti-inflammatory effects. Taken together, Tyr may represent a promising therapeutic agent for the management of intraocular inflammatory diseases. PMID:27350009

  2. Exposure to bacterial endotoxin generates a distinct strain of α-synuclein fibril

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Changyoun; Lv, Guohua; Lee, Jun Sung; Jung, Byung Chul; Masuda-Suzukake, Masami; Hong, Chul-Suk; Valera, Elvira; Lee, He-Jin; Paik, Seung R.; Hasegawa, Masato; Masliah, Eliezer; Eliezer, David; Lee, Seung-Jae

    2016-01-01

    A single amyloidogenic protein is implicated in multiple neurological diseases and capable of generating a number of aggregate “strains” with distinct structures. Among the amyloidogenic proteins, α-synuclein generates multiple patterns of proteinopathies in a group of diseases, such as Parkinson disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). However, the link between specific conformations and distinct pathologies, the key concept of the strain hypothesis, remains elusive. Here we show that in the presence of bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), α-synuclein generated a self-renewable, structurally distinct fibril strain that consistently induced specific patterns of synucleinopathies in mice. These results suggest that amyloid fibrils with self-renewable structures cause distinct types of proteinopathies despite the identical primary structure and that exposure to exogenous pathogens may contribute to the diversity of synucleinopathies. PMID:27488222

  3. E. Coli

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC E.coli (Escherichia coli) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Brand SoyNut Butter Read the Latest E. coli (Escherichia coli) General Information Protect Yourself Learn about E. coli ...

  4. Modification of the chemical composition and structure of the US Reference Standard Endotoxin (RSE) by /sup 60/Co radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Csako, G.; Tsai, C.M.; Slomiany, B.L.; Herp, A.; Elin, R.J.

    1986-03-01

    A highly purified bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparation was exposed in water to megadoses of ionizing radiation from a /sup 60/Co source. As evidenced by electrophoresis, the radiation treatment progressively degraded the lipopolysaccharide molecules by removing first the O-side chain units and then components of the R-core. Chemical analysis of the irradiated (LPS) preparations showed that, in accord with the structural changes, the most profound effects of ionizing radiation occurred in the hydrophilic oligo/polysaccharide moieties (R-core and O-side chain). Progressively higher doses of radiation degraded the simple sugars in decreasing order of galactose, galactosamine, glucosamine, glucose, and heptose. The R-core component 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate was the most resistant sugar derivative to ionizing radiation. Due to its central position in the LPS aggregates in water, even at comparatively high doses of radiation the hydrophobic lipid A moiety of endotoxin was less affected than the sugar components. Of the fatty acids of lipid A, however, either partial conversion of beta-hydroxymyristic acid into myristic acid or selective loss of the former occurred. The observed structural and chemical changes of LPS are consistent with the effect of active oxygen radicals of radiolysis. In addition, the extensive physicochemical changes explain the altered biological reactivity of radiation-treated endotoxins.

  5. Solution NMR studies provide structural basis for endotoxin pattern recognition by the innate immune receptor CD14

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, Seth; Chen Bin; Holbrook, Kristen; Jain, Nitin U.

    2008-04-04

    CD14 functions as a key pattern recognition receptor for a diverse array of Gram-negative and Gram-positive cell-wall components in the host innate immune response by binding to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) at partially overlapping binding site(s). To determine the potential contribution of CD14 residues in this pattern recognition, we have examined using solution NMR spectroscopy, the binding of three different endotoxin ligands, lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, and a PGN-derived compound, muramyl dipeptide to a {sup 15}N isotopically labeled 152-residue N-terminal fragment of sCD14 expressed in Pichia pastoris. Mapping of NMR spectral changes upon addition of ligands revealed that the pattern of residues affected by binding of each ligand is partially similar and partially different. This first direct structural observation of the ability of specific residue combinations of CD14 to differentially affect endotoxin binding may help explain the broad specificity of CD14 in ligand recognition and provide a structural basis for pattern recognition. Another interesting finding from the observed spectral changes is that the mode of binding may be dynamically modulated and could provide a mechanism for binding endotoxins with structural diversity through a common binding site.

  6. Airborne endotoxin in fine particulate matter in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Tianjia; Yao, Maosheng; Wang, Junxia; Fang, Yanhua; Hu, Songhe; Wang, Yan; Dutta, Anindita; Yang, Junnan; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2014-11-01

    Endotoxin is an important biological component of particulate matter (PM) which, upon inhalation, can induce adverse health effects, and also possibly complicate the diseases in combination with other pollutants. From 1 March 2012 to 27 February 2013 we collected air samples using quartz filters daily for the quantification of airborne endotoxin and also fine PM (PM2.5) in Beijing, China. The geometric means for endotoxin concentration and the fraction of endotoxin in PM were 0.65 EU/m3 (range: 0.10-75.02) and 10.25 EU/mg PM2.5 (range: 0.38-1627.29), respectively. The endotoxin concentrations were shown to vary greatly with seasons, typically with high values in the spring and winter seasons. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were found to be significantly correlated with airborne endotoxin concentrations (p < 0.05). Additionally, positive correlations were also detected between endotoxin concentrations and natural sources of Na+, K+, Mg2+, and F-, while negative correlations were observed between endotoxin concentrations and anthropogenic sources of P, Co, Zn, As, and Tl. Oxidative potential analysis revealed that endotoxin concentrations were positively correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not dithiothreitol (DTT) of PM. This study provided the first continuous time series of airborne endotoxin concentrations in Beijing, and identifies its potential associations with atmospheric factors. The information developed here can assist in the assessment of health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  7. Lipopolysaccharides in diazotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Serrato, Rodrigo V

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a process in which the atmospheric nitrogen (N2) is transformed into ammonia (NH3) by a select group of nitrogen-fixing organisms, or diazotrophic bacteria. In order to furnish the biologically useful nitrogen to plants, these bacteria must be in constant molecular communication with their host plants. Some of these molecular plant-microbe interactions are very specific, resulting in a symbiotic relationship between the diazotroph and the host. Others are found between associative diazotrophs and plants, resulting in plant infection and colonization of internal tissues. Independent of the type of ecological interaction, glycans, and glycoconjugates produced by these bacteria play an important role in the molecular communication prior and during colonization. Even though exopolysaccharides (EPS) and lipochitooligosaccharides (LCO) produced by diazotrophic bacteria and released onto the environment have their importance in the microbe-plant interaction, it is the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), anchored on the external membrane of these bacteria, that mediates the direct contact of the diazotroph with the host cells. These molecules are extremely variable among the several species of nitrogen fixing-bacteria, and there are evidences of the mechanisms of infection being closely related to their structure.

  8. Influence of prenatal stress on behavioral, endocrine, and cytokine responses to adulthood bacterial endotoxin exposure.

    PubMed

    Kohman, Rachel A; Tarr, Andrew J; Day, Cameron E; McLinden, Kristina A; Boehm, Gary W

    2008-11-21

    Prior research suggests that prenatal stress, among other effects, can lead to hyper-reactivity of the offspring's hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and alterations in immune function. These stress-induced changes have been linked to a greater propensity to develop depression or anxiety disorders. Furthermore, prenatally stressed offspring may be more susceptible to certain diseases. The immune alterations induced by prenatal stress exposure may disrupt the normal communication between the immune system, endocrine system, and central nervous system, potentially making prenatally stressed individuals more vulnerable to the negative aspects of immune activation, including cytokine-induced cognitive deficits and anxiety. The present study investigated whether prenatal stress would exaggerate these detrimental effects of peripheral immune activation. We hypothesized that prenatally stressed subjects would be hypersensitive to endotoxin administration and would therefore show exaggerated learning deficits, increased anxiety-like behavior, and increased peripheral and central interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) levels. The observed results only partially supported our hypotheses, as prenatally stressed subjects showed evidence, albeit modest, of increased anxiety-like behavior following endotoxin administration relative to non-stressed controls. While prenatal stress exposure or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration independently impaired learning, the data failed to support the hypothesis that prenatally stressed subjects would show exaggerated cognitive deficits, engendered via enhanced peripheral and central IL-1beta levels, following immune activation. Collectively, the data suggest that although prenatal stress exposure led to increases in anxiety-like behavior following endotoxin exposure, it did not appear to increase susceptibility to LPS-induced cognitive decline or elevations in proinflammatory cytokine production.

  9. Interactions of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides with Gold Nanorod Surfaces Investigated by Refractometric Sensing.

    PubMed

    Abadeer, Nardine S; Fülöp, Gergő; Chen, Si; Käll, Mikael; Murphy, Catherine J

    2015-11-11

    The interface between nanoparticles and bacterial surfaces is of great interest for applications in nanomedicine and food safety. Here, we demonstrate that interactions between gold nanorods and bacterial surface molecules are governed by the nanoparticle surface coating. Polymer-coated gold nanorod substrates are exposed to lipopolysaccharides extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, and attachment is monitored using localized surface plasmon resonance refractometric sensing. The number of lipopolysaccharide molecules attached per nanorod is calculated from the shift in the plasmon maximum, which results from the change in refractive index after analyte binding. Colloidal gold nanorods in water are also incubated with lipopolysaccharides to demonstrate the effect of lipopolysaccharide concentration on plasmon shift, ζ-potential, and association constant. Both gold nanorod surface charge and surface chemistry affect gold nanorod-lipopolysaccharide interactions. In general, anionic lipopolysaccharides was found to attach more effectively to cationic gold nanorods than to neutral or anionic gold nanorods. Some variation in lipopolysaccharide attachment is also observed between the three strains studied, demonstrating the potential complexity of bacteria-nanoparticle interactions.

  10. Hydrogen sulfide is a novel mediator of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Bhatia, Madhav; Zhu, Yi Zhun; Zhu, Yi Chun; Ramnath, Raina Devi; Wang, Zhong Jing; Anuar, Farhana Binte Mohammed; Whiteman, Matthew; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Moore, Philip K

    2005-07-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is synthesized in the body from L-cysteine by several enzymes including cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE). To date, there is little information about the potential role of H2S in inflammation. We have now investigated the part played by H2S in endotoxin-induced inflammation in the mouse. E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration produced a dose (10 and 20 mg/kg ip)- and time (6 and 24 h)-dependent increase in plasma H2S concentration. LPS (10 mg/kg ip, 6 h) increased plasma H2S concentration from 34.1 +/- 0.7 microM to 40.9 +/- 0.6 microM (n=6, P<0.05) while H2S formation from added L-cysteine was increased in both liver and kidney. CSE gene expression was also increased in both liver (94.2+/-2.7%, n=6, P<0.05) and kidney (77.5+/-3.2%, n=6, P<0.05). LPS injection also elevated lung (148.2+/-2.6%, n=6, P<0.05) and kidney (78.8+/-8.2%, n=6, P<0.05) myeloperoxidase (MPO, a marker of tissue neutrophil infiltration) activity alongside histological evidence of lung, liver, and kidney tissue inflammatory damage. Plasma nitrate/nitrite (NOx) concentration was additionally elevated in a time- and dose-dependent manner in LPS-injected animals. To examine directly the possible proinflammatory effect of H2S, mice were administered sodium hydrosulfide (H2S donor drug, 14 micromol/kg ip) that resulted in marked histological signs of lung inflammation, increased lung and liver MPO activity, and raised plasma TNF-alpha concentration (4.6+/-1.4 ng/ml, n=6). In contrast, DL-propargylglycine (CSE inhibitor, 50 mg/kg ip), exhibited marked anti-inflammatory activity as evidenced by reduced lung and liver MPO activity, and ameliorated lung and liver tissue damage. In separate experiments, we also detected significantly higher (150.5+/-43.7 microM c.f. 43.8+/-5.1 microM, n=5, P<0.05) plasma H2S levels in humans with septic shock. These findings suggest that H2S exhibits proinflammatory activity in endotoxic shock and suggest a new approach to the development of

  11. Analusis by 252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry of Bordetella pertussis endotoxin after nitrous deamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deprun, C.; Karibian, D.; Caroff, M.

    1993-07-01

    Endotoxic lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are the major components of Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane. Like many amphipathic molecules, they pose problems of heterogeneity, purity, solubility, and aggregation. Nevertheless, PDMS has recently have been applied to unmodified endotoxins composed of LPS having uip to five sugar units in their saccharide chain. The B. Pertussis LPSs, most of which have a dodecasaccharide domain, ahve been analysed by classical methods and the masses of the separate lipid and saccharide domains determined after rupture of the bond linking them. However, the acid treatment employed for these and most chemical analyses can also modify structures in the vicinity of the bond. In order to investigate this biologically-important region, the endotoxin was treated to nitrous deamination, which shortens the saccharide chain to five sugars, but preserves the acid-labile region of the LPS. The PDM spectrum of this derivative, which required new conditions for its desorption, confirmed the structure analysis and demonstrated the presence of at least four molecular species.

  12. Endotoxin down-modulates granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (CD114) on human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hollenstein, U; Homoncik, M; Stohlawetz, P J; Marsik, C; Sieder, A; Eichler, H G; Jilma, B

    2000-07-01

    During infection, the development of nonresponsiveness to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may be influenced by the down-modulation of G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) by cytokines. This down-modulation was studied during experimental human endotoxemia. Healthy volunteers received either 2 ng/kg endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS], n=20) or placebo (n=10) in a randomized, controlled trial. Endotoxin infusion increased the mean fluorescence intensity of the neutrophil activation marker CD11b >300% after 1 h (P<.001 vs. placebo). LPS infusion down-modulated G-CSFR expression in as early as 60 min (-17%; P=.001 vs. placebo). Down-modulation was almost maximal at 90 min and persisted for 6 h (-50% from baseline; P<.0001 vs. placebo). Plasma levels of G-CSF started to increase only after G-CSFR down-modulation had occurred and peaked 37-fold above baseline at 4 h (P<.0001 vs. placebo). In conclusion, LPS down-modulates G-CSFR expression in humans, which may render neutrophils less responsive to the effects of G-CSF and, thereby, compromise host defense mechanisms.

  13. Dehydroepiandrosterone protects mice from endotoxin toxicity and reduces tumor necrosis factor production.

    PubMed Central

    Danenberg, H D; Alpert, G; Lustig, S; Ben-Nathan, D

    1992-01-01

    Recent reports have demonstrated an immunomodulating activity of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) different from that described for glucocorticoids. The present study was designed to test DHEA's activity in endotoxic shock and to investigate its effect on endotoxin-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Mortality of CD-1 mice exposed to a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 800 micrograms per mouse) was reduced from 95 to 24% by treatment with a single dose of DHEA, given 5 min before LPS. LPS administration resulted in high levels of TNF, a response that was significantly blocked by DHEA, both in vivo and in vitro. DHEA treatment also reduced LPS-induced increments in serum corticosterone levels, a parameter considered not to be mediated by TNF. In another experimental model, mice sensitized with D-galactosamine, followed by administration of recombinant human TNF, were subjected to 89% mortality rate, which was reduced to 55% in DHEA-treated mice. These data show that DHEA protects mice from endotoxin lethality. The protective effect is probably mediated by reduction of TNF production as well as by effecting both TNF-induced and non-TNF-induced phenomena. PMID:1444309

  14. Inflammatory responses and potencies of various lipopolysaccharides from bacteria and cyanobacteria in aquatic environments and water supply systems.

    PubMed

    Ohkouchi, Yumiko; Tajima, Satoshi; Nomura, Masahiro; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2015-04-01

    Inflammatory substances derived from indigenous bacteria in aquatic environments or water systems are of great concern. Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), one of the major inflammatory substances in water, are usually identified using Limurus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay on the basis of their endotoxic activity, but endotoxin levels do not accurately represent their inflammatory potency in humans. In this investigation, the cellular endotoxin contents of pure-cultured bacteria/cyanobacteria, which are frequently detected in water sources and distribution systems, and of indigenous bacteria in a river and in biologically activated carbon (BAC) effluent, were investigated. The indigenous bacteria showed the highest endotoxin contents exceeding 10(-3)EU/cell. The LPSs were then purified from those samples, and their inflammatory potencies were examined using a human monocytic cell line. The LPSs from Acinetobacter lwoffii culture, the river water, and the BAC effluent sample revealed a unique cytokine secretion pattern; they induced both IL-8 and TNF-α more strongly than the other tested bacterial LPSs. These results suggest that natural bacterial/cyanobacterial flora in aquatic environments and water distribution systems have the potential to induce relatively strong inflammatory responses in humans; therefore, further accumulation of data on water quality from the perspective of not just endotoxins but inflammatory potency is needed.

  15. Role for circulating lipoproteins in protection from endotoxin toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Feingold, K R; Funk, J L; Moser, A H; Shigenaga, J K; Rapp, J H; Grunfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS])-induced death can be prevented by preincubating LPS with lipoproteins in vitro or by infusing large quantities of lipids into animals prior to LPS administration. In the present study we determined whether physiological levels of lipids also provide protection. Serum lipid levels were decreased by two different mechanisms: administration of 4-aminopyrolo-(3,4-D)pyrimide, which prevents the hepatic secretion of lipoproteins, and administration of pharmacological doses of estradiol, which increases the number of hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptors, leading to increased lipoprotein clearance. In both hypolipidemic models, LPS-induced mortality is markedly increased compared with that of controls with normal serum lipid levels. In both hypolipidemic models, administration of exogenous lipoproteins, which increase levels of serum lipids into the physiological range, reduces the increased mortality to levels similar to that seen in normal animals. In normal lipidemic animals, 63% of 125I-LPS in plasma is associated with lipoproteins, where it would not be capable of stimulating cytokine production. In contrast, in hypolipidemic animals, very little LPS (12 to 17%) is associated with lipoproteins. Rather, more LPS is in the lipoprotein-free plasma compartment, where it could exert biological effects. In both hypolipidemic models, LPS produces a greater increase in serum tumor necrosis factor levels than it does in controls (three- to fivefold increase), and administration of exogenous lipoproteins prevents this increase. Cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor, are responsible for most of the toxic effects of LPS. These data provide evidence that physiological levels of serum lipids protect animals from LPS toxicity. Thus, lipoproteins, in addition to playing a role in lipid transport, may have protective functions. Moreover, as part of the immune response, cytokine-induced increases in

  16. Luteolin attenuates endotoxin-induced uveitis in Lewis rats

    PubMed Central

    KANAI, Kazutaka; HATTA, Takuya; NAGATA, Sho; SUGIURA, Yuichi; SATO, Kazuaki; YAMASHITA, Yohei; KIMURA, Yuya; ITOH, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of luteolin on endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. EIU was induced in Lewis rats by subcutaneous injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). One hr before the LPS injection, 0.1, 1 or 10 mg/kg luteolin or 1 mg/kg prednisolone was intraperitoneally injected. We investigated its effect upon clinical scores, cellular infiltration and protein leakage, as well as on the level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) E2 in the aqueous humor (AqH). Histologic examination and immunohistochemical analysis in the iris-ciliary body (ICB) were performed to determine the expressions of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and then the activated nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65, I kappa B (IκB)-α degradation, phosphorylated (p)-IκB kinase (IKK) α/β and activator protein (AP)-1 c-Jun. Luteolin suppressed, in a dose-dependent manner, the clinical scores, number of inflammatory cells, the protein concentration, and the TNF-α, NO and PGE2 levels in the AqH and improved the histiologic status of the ocular tissue. Luteolin suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2 and the activated NF-κB p65, IκB-α degradation, p-IKKα/β and AP-1 p-c-Jun in the ICB. The anti-inflammatory potency of 10 mg/kg luteolin was as strong as that observed with 1 mg/kg prednisolone. These results demonstrate that luteolin attenuates ocular inflammation by inhibiting expression and release of inflammatory markers, along with the inhibition of the activated NF-κB pathway and at least partly AP-1 activity in the ICB. PMID:27098110

  17. Antidiabetic Drug Metformin Suppresses Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kalariya, Nilesh M.; Shoeb, Mohammad; Ansari, Naseem H.; Srivastava, Satish K.; Ramana, Kota V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the therapeutic effects of metformin, a commonly used antidiabetic drug, in preventing endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. Methods. EIU in Lewis rats was developed by subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 μg). Metformin (300 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) or its carrier was injected either 12 hours before or 2 hours after LPS induction. Three and 24 hours after EIU, eyes were enucleated and aqueous humor (AqH) was collected. The MILLIPLEX-MAG Rat cytokine-chemokine magnetic bead array was used to determine inflammatory cytokines. The expression of Cox-2, phosphorylation of AMPK, and NF-κB (p65) were determined immunohistochemically. Primary human nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cells (HNPECs) were used to determine the in vitro efficacy of metformin. Results. Compared with controls, the EIU rat AqH had significantly increased number of infiltrating cells and increased levels of various cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-1β, MIP-1α, IL-6, Leptin, and IL-18) and metformin significantly prevented the increase. Metformin also prevented the expression of Cox-2 and phosphorylation of p65, and increased the activation of AMPK in the ciliary bodies and retinal tissues. Moreover, metformin prevented the expression of Cox-2, iNOS, and activation of NF-kB in the HNPECs and decreased the levels of NO and PGE2 in cell culture media. Conclusions. Our results for the first time demonstrate a novel role of the antidiabetic drug, metformin, in suppressing uveitis in rats and suggest that this drug could be developed to prevent uveitis complications. PMID:22562515

  18. Applicability of bacterial endotoxins test to various blood products by the use of endotoxin-specific lysates.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaki; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Naito, Seishiro; Maeyama, Jun-Ichi; Masumi, Atsuko; Hamaguchi, Isao; Horiuchi, Yoshinobu; Yamaguchi, Kazunari

    2010-11-01

    Endotoxin contamination is a serious threat to the safety of parenteral drugs, and the rabbit pyrogen test has played a crucial role in controlling this contamination. Although the highly sensitive endotoxin test has replaced the pyrogen test for various pharmaceuticals, the pyrogen test is still implemented as the control test for most blood products in Japan. We examined the applicability of the endotoxin test to blood products for reliable detection and quantification of endotoxin. Nineteen types of blood products were tested for interfering factors based on spike/recovery of endotoxin by using 2 types of endotoxin-specific lysate reagents for photometric techniques. Interfering effects on the endotoxin test by the products could be eliminated by diluting from 1/2 to 1/16, with the exception of antithrombin III. However, conventional lysate reagents that also react with non-pyrogenic substances, such as (1-3)-β-D-glucan, produced results that were not relevant to endotoxin content or pyrogenicity. Our results showed that the endotoxin test would be applicable to most blood products if used with appropriate endotoxin-specific lysate reagents.

  19. Effect of Sodium Butyrate on Growth Performance and Response to Lipopolysaccharide in Weanling Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance and response to E. coli. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in weanling pigs. In the first 28 d experiment, 180 pigs (initial BW 6.3 kg) were fed 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4% sodium butyrate, or 110 mg/kg d...

  20. The Role of Uncoupling Protein 2 During Myocardial Dysfunction in a Canine Model of Endotoxin Shock.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoting; Liu, Dawei; Chai, Wenzhao; Long, Yun; Su, Longxiang; Yang, Rongli

    2015-03-01

    To explore the role of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) during myocardial dysfunction in a canine model of endotoxin shock, 26 mongrel canines were randomly divided into the following four groups: A (control group; n = 6), B2 (shock after 2 h; n = 7), B4 (shock after 4 h; n = 7), and B6 (shock after 6 h; n = 6). Escherichia coli endotoxin was injected into the canines via the central vein, and hemodynamics were monitored. Energy metabolism, UCP2 mRNA and protein expression, and UCP2 localization were analyzed, and the correlation between energy metabolism changes, and UCP2 expression was determined. After the canine endotoxin shock model was successfully established, the expression of UCP2 mRNA and protein was found to increase, with later time points showing significant increases (P < 0.05). Immunofluorescence assays of UCP2 in heart tissue showed that UCP2 was localized in the cytoplasm, and its expression pattern was the same as that found in the mRNA and protein analyses. The energy metabolism results revealed that the ADP levels increased, but the ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) levels and ATP/ADP and PCr/ATP ratios decreased in the model. In particular, the PCr/ATP ratio was significantly different from that of the control group 6 h after shock (P < 0.05). Furthermore, correlation analysis showed that the UCP2 protein and mRNA levels were negatively correlated with myocardial energy levels. In summary, decreased energy synthesis can occur in the myocardium during endotoxin shock, and UCP2 may play an important role in this process. The negative correlation between UCP2 expression and energy metabolism requires further study, as the results might contribute to the treatment of sepsis with heart failure.

  1. Effect of vasopressors on organ blood flow during endotoxin shock in pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Breslow, M.J.; Miller, C.F.; Parker, S.D.; Walman, A.T.; Traystman, R.J.

    1987-02-01

    A volume-resuscitated porcine endotoxin shock model was used to evaluate the effect on organ blood flow of increasing systemic arterial blood pressure with vasopressors. Administration of 0.05-0.2 mg/kg of Escherichia coli endotoxin (E) reduced mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) to 50 mmHg, decreased systemic vascular resistance to 50% of control, and did not change cardiac output or heart rate. Blood flow measured with radiolabeled microspheres to brain, kidney, spleen, and skeletal muscle was reduced during endotoxin shock, but blood flow to left ventricle, small and large intestine, and stomach remained at pre-endotoxin levels throughout the study period. Four groups of animals were used to evaluate the effect of vasopressor therapy. Vasopressors were administered starting 60 min after E exposure, and the dose of each was titrated to increase MAP to 75 mmHg. Despite the increase in MAP, brain blood flow did not increase in any group. Norepinephrine alone increased blood flow to the left ventricle. The dose of norepinephrine required to increase MAP by 20-25 mmHg during E shock was 30 times the does required for a similar increase in MAP in animals not receiving E. The authors conclude 1) that hypotension in the fluid resuscitated porcine E shock model is primarily the result of peripheral vasodilatation, 2) that the vascular response to vasoconstrictors in this model is markedly attenuated following E administration, 3) that blood pressure elevation with norepinephrine, dopamine, and phenylephrine neither decreases blood flow to any organs nor increases blood flow to organs with reduced flow, and 4) that norepinephrine, dopamine, and phenylephrine affect regional blood flow similarly in this model.

  2. Endotoxin contamination of Agaricus blazei Murrill extract enhances murine immunologic responses and inhibits the growth of sarcoma 180 implants in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Masumoto, Junya

    2010-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill, a native mushroom of Brazil, has been reported to be an immunoreactant with anti-tumor effect. There are many reports on the anti-tumor effect of Agaricus blazei Murrill; however, the precise mechanism of its effect is not fully understood. In this study, we tried to confirm the anti-tumor effect of Agaricus blazei Murrill against Sarcoma 180 cells in a mouse model and found that an inhibitory effect on tumor growth was induced by peritoneal injection of a freeze-dried, hot water extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill (FAG). We noted that there were differences among each sample in terms of anti-tumor activity. We hypothesized that this was because some contaminants of FAG were affecting the anti-tumor activity. We evaluated cytokine secretion from mouse peritoneal cells incubated with FAG. While high interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α secretions were observed in response to crude FAG, they were dramatically decreased by the removal of endotoxin from the FAG using an endotoxin-specific polymyxin B-conjugated affinity column. The reductions were synergistically recovered by adding an amount of lipopolysaccharide equivalent to the amount of contaminated endotoxin. Thus, these data suggest that the contaminated endotoxin of Agaricus blazei Murrill may act as an immunomodulator of anti-tumor activity.

  3. Relation of structure to function for the US reference standard endotoxin after exposure to /sup 60/Co radiation, Interim report, September 1984-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Suba, E.A.; Elin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The structure and function of the highly purified U.S. reference standard endotoxin (RSE) were studied after exposure to ionizing radiation from a /sup 60/Co source. With increasing doses of radiation, the trilaminar ribbon-like structure of untreated endotoxin exhibited focal swelling, after which only spherical particles were seen by electron microscopy. These morphological changes were paralleled by the respective loss of O-side chain-repeating units and pieces of the R-core from the lipopolysaccharide molecules, as demonstrated by electrophoresis. The biologic function of the irradiated endotoxin was assessed with a variety of tests. At higher doses of radiation, a direct relation was observed between the degradation of the molecular and supramolecular structure and the loss of biologic function. At lower doses of radiation, however, there was variability among the functional assays in their rate of change with progressive irradiation of the RSE. The results suggest that the carbohydrate moiety plays an important role both in determining the supramolecular structure and in modulating certain biologic activities of bacterial endotoxins.

  4. Role of endotoxemia in cardiovascular dysfunction and mortality. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus challenges in a canine model of human septic shock.

    PubMed Central

    Natanson, C; Danner, R L; Elin, R J; Hosseini, J M; Peart, K W; Banks, S M; MacVittie, T J; Walker, R I; Parrillo, J E

    1989-01-01

    Using different types of bacteria and a canine model simulating human septic shock, we investigated the role of endotoxin in cardiovascular dysfunction and mortality. Either Escherichia coli (a microorganism with endotoxin) or Staphylococcus aureus (a microorganism without endotoxin) were placed in an intraperitoneal clot in doses of viable or formalin-killed bacteria. Cardiovascular function of conscious animals was studied using simultaneous radionuclide heart scans and thermodilution cardiac outputs. Serial plasma endotoxin levels were measured. S. aureus produced a pattern of reversible cardiovascular dysfunction over 7-10 d that was concordant (P less than 0.01) with that of E. coli. Although this cardiovascular pattern was not altered by formalin killing (S. aureus and E. coli), formalin-killed organisms produced a lower mortality and less myocardial depression (P less than 0.01). S. aureus, compared to E. coli, produced higher postmortem concentrations of microorganisms and higher mortality (P less than 0.025). E. coli produced significant endotoxemia (P less than 0.01), though viable organisms (versus nonviable) resulted in higher endotoxin blood concentrations (P less than 0.05). Significant endotoxemia did not occur with S. aureus. Thus, in the absence of endotoxemia, S. aureus induced the same cardiovascular abnormalities of septic shock as E. coli. These findings indicate that structurally and functionally distinct microorganisms, with or without endotoxin, can activate a common pathway resulting in similar cardiovascular injury and mortality. PMID:2642920

  5. Predictors of Endotoxin Levels in U.S. Housing

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Peter S.; Cohn, Richard D.; Mav, Deepak; Arbes, Samuel J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2009-01-01

    Background The relationship of domestic endotoxin exposure to allergy and asthma has been widely investigated. However, few studies have evaluated predictors of household endotoxin, and none have done so for multiple locations within homes and on a national scale. Objectives We assayed 2,552 house dust samples in a nationwide study to understand the predictors of household endotoxin in bedroom floors, family room floors, beds, kitchen floors, and family room sofas. Methods Reservoir house dust from five locations within homes was assayed for endotoxin and demographic and housing information was assessed through questionnaire and onsite evaluation of 2,456 residents of 831 homes selected to represent national demographics. We performed repeated-measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) for 37 candidate variables to identify independent predictors of endotoxin. Meteorologic data were obtained for each primary sampling unit and tested as predictors of indoor endotoxin to determine if wetter or warmer microclimates were associated with higher endotoxin levels. Results Weighted geometric mean endotoxin concentration ranged from 18.7 to 80.5 endotoxin units (EU)/mg for the five sampling locations, and endotoxin load ranged from 4,160 to 19,500 EU/m2. Bivariate analyses and rANOVA demonstrated that major predictors of endotoxin concentration were sampling location in the home, census division, educational attainment, presence of children, current dog ownership, resident-described problems with cockroaches, food debris, cockroach stains, and evidence of smoking observed by field staff. Low household income entered the model if educational attainment was removed. Conclusion Increased endotoxin in household reservoir dust is principally associated with poverty, people, pets, household cleanliness, and geography. PMID:19479019

  6. Effects of endotoxin on monoamine metabolism in the rat.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorecky, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Taam, D.; Fine, J.

    1972-01-01

    Examination of effects of administered endotoxin on catecholamine metabolism in the rat brain, sympathetic neurons, and adrenal medulla. It is found that endotoxin, administered intraperitoneally, lowers the norepinephrine content in peripheral sympathetic neurons and the brain, and the catecholamine content in the adrenal medulla. It also accelerates the disappearance of H3-norepinephrine from all these tissues. It is therefore suggested that the effects of endotoxin on body temperature may be mediated in part by central non-adrenergic neurons.

  7. Are Cockroaches an Important Source of Indoor Endotoxins?

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ka Man

    2017-01-01

    Endotoxins are common indoor biocontaminants. Their levels have been shown to link to many sources and factors. One of them is cockroach infestation but the role of cockroaches and contamination mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that not only is cockroach infestation a sign of poor hygiene, but it also contributes to indoor endotoxins via fecal contamination. In this study, different cockroach species were caught in homes. The endotoxin and allergen levels and their ratios in cockroach feces were determined. To estimate the amount of indoor endotoxins that originated from cockroaches, a new approach of using these new cockroach endotoxin and allergen ratios to compare with environmental data was employed. We found that Supella (S.) longipalpa, Periplaneta (P.) australasiae, and Blattella (B.) germanica were dominant in homes. On average, P. australasiae feces had a higher level but greater variation of endotoxins. B. germanica feces had the highest levels of allergens measured. Depending on environmental bacterial load and the type of cockroaches present, cockroach endotoxins in the environment may vary greatly. Cockroaches directly contribute to indoor endotoxins rather than just being a sign of poor hygiene. The type and extent of cockroach infestation should be taken into consideration when assessing and remediating indoor endotoxin contamination. PMID:28106812

  8. Fluorescent nanodiamonds as highly stable biomarker for endotoxin verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Thorsten; Burg, Jan Michael; Lilholt, Maria; Maeder, Ulf; Beer, Sebastian; Salzig, Denise; Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Czermak, Peter; Fiebich, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds (ND) provide advantageous properties as a fluorescent biomarker for in vitro and in vivo studies. The maximum fluorescence occurs around 700 nm, they do not show photobleaching or blinking and seem to be nontoxic. After a pretreatment with strong acid fluorescent ND can be functionalized and coupled to endotoxin. Endotoxin is a decay product of bacteria and causes strong immune reactions. Therefore endotoxin has to be removed for most applications. An effective removal procedure is membrane filtration. The endotoxin, coupled to fluorescent ND can be visualized by using confocal microscopy which allows the investigation of the separation mechanisms of the filtration process within the membranes.

  9. Are Cockroaches an Important Source of Indoor Endotoxins?

    PubMed

    Lai, Ka Man

    2017-01-18

    Endotoxins are common indoor biocontaminants. Their levels have been shown to link to many sources and factors. One of them is cockroach infestation but the role of cockroaches and contamination mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that not only is cockroach infestation a sign of poor hygiene, but it also contributes to indoor endotoxins via fecal contamination. In this study, different cockroach species were caught in homes. The endotoxin and allergen levels and their ratios in cockroach feces were determined. To estimate the amount of indoor endotoxins that originated from cockroaches, a new approach of using these new cockroach endotoxin and allergen ratios to compare with environmental data was employed. We found that Supella (S.) longipalpa, Periplaneta (P.) australasiae, and Blattella (B.) germanica were dominant in homes. On average, P. australasiae feces had a higher level but greater variation of endotoxins. B. germanica feces had the highest levels of allergens measured. Depending on environmental bacterial load and the type of cockroaches present, cockroach endotoxins in the environment may vary greatly. Cockroaches directly contribute to indoor endotoxins rather than just being a sign of poor hygiene. The type and extent of cockroach infestation should be taken into consideration when assessing and remediating indoor endotoxin contamination.

  10. Pathogenesis of hemorrhage-induced bacteria/endotoxin translocation in rats. Effects of recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein.

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Y M; Bahrami, S; Leichtfried, G; Redl, H; Schlag, G

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to determine the role of gut-derived bacteria/endotoxin in the pathogenesis of the multiple-organ damage and mortality, the possible beneficial effect of recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPl21), and whether neutralizing endotoxemia by rBPl21 treatment influences tumor necrosis factor (TNF) formation in rats after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Hypovolemic shock might be associated with bacterial or endotoxin translocation as well as systemic sepsis. Similar to bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPl) protein, rBPl21 has been found to bind endotoxin and inhibit TNF production. METHODS: A rat model of prolonged hemorrhagic shock (30 to 35 mm Hg for 180 min) followed by adequate resuscitation was employed. Recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein was administered at 5 mg/kg intravenously. The control group was treated similarly to the BPl group, but received thaumatin as a protein-control preparation in the same dose as rBPl21. RESULTS: Immediately after resuscitation (230 min), plasma endotoxin levels in the control group (61.0 +/- 16.3 pg/mL) were almost neutralized by rBPl21 treatment (13.8 +/- 4.8 pg/mL, p < 0.05). Plasma TNF levels were not significantly influenced by rBPl21 treatment. The 48-hour survival rate was 68.8% in the treatment group versus 37.5% in the control group (p = 0.08). Microscopic histopathologic examination revealed relatively minor damage to various organs in the treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that hemorrhagic shock may lead to bacterial/endotoxin translocation with concomitant TNF formation, endogenous endotoxemia may play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple-organ failure after shock and trauma, TNF formation at an early stage might be related mainly to mechanisms other than Kupffer's cells activation via lipopolysaccharide, and rBPl21 might be a useful therapeutic agent against endogenous bacteria/endotoxin

  11. Environmental heat stress modulates thyroid status and its response to repeated endotoxin challenge in steers.

    PubMed

    Kahl, S; Elsasser, T H; Rhoads, R P; Collier, R J; Baumgard, L H

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in cattle, the effects of acute exposure to a heat stress (HS) environment on the status of the pituitary (thyrotropin, TSH)-thyroid (thyroxine, T4)-peripheral tissue T4 deiodination (type 1 5'-deiodinase [D1]; triiodothyronine [T3]; reverse-triiodothyronine [rT3]) axis, and the further response of this pituitary-thyroid-peripheral tissue axis (PTTA) to perturbation caused by the induction of the proinflammatory innate immune state provoked by the administration of gram-negative bacteria endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). Ten steers (318 ± 49 kg body weight) housed in controlled environment chambers were subjected to either a thermoneutral (TN: constant 19°C) or HS temperature conditions (cyclical daily temperatures: 32.2°C-40.0°C) for a total period of 9 d. To minimize the effects of altered plane of nutrition due to HS, steers in TN were pair-fed to animals in HS conditions. Steers received 2 LPS challenges 3 d apart (LPS1 and LPS2; 0.2 μg/kg body weight, intravenously, Escherichia coli 055:B5) with the first challenge administered on day 4 relative to the start of the environmental conditioning. Jugular blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, and 24 h relative to the start of each LPS challenge. Plasma TSH, T4, T3, and rT3 were measured by radioimmunoassay. Liver D1 activity was measured in biopsy samples collected before the LPS1 (0 h) and 24 h after LPS2. Before the start of LPS1, HS decreased (P < 0.01 vs TN) plasma TSH (40%), T4 (45.4%), and T3 (25.9%), but did not affect rT3 concentrations. In TN steers, the LPS1 challenge decreased (P < 0.01 vs 0 h) plasma concentrations of TSH between 1 and 7 h and T4 and T3 at 7 and 24 h. In HS steers, plasma TSH concentrations were decreased at 2 h only (P < 0.05), whereas plasma T3 was decreased at 7 and 24 h (P < 0.01). Whereas plasma T4 concentrations were already depressed in HS steers at 0 h, LPS1 did not further affect the levels. Plasma rT3 concentrations

  12. Milk Thistle Extract and Silymarin Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide Induced Lamellar Separation of Hoof Explants in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Nicole; Schaumberger, Simone; Nagl, Veronika; Hessenberger, Sabine; Schatzmayr, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of laminitis is not completely identified and the role of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) in this process remains unclear. Phytogenic substances, like milk thistle (MT) and silymarin, are known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and might therefore have the potential to counteract endotoxin induced effects on the hoof lamellar tissue. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of endotoxins on lamellar tissue integrity and to test if MT and silymarin are capable of inhibiting LPS-induced effects in an in vitro/ex vivo model. In preliminary tests, LPS neutralization efficiency of these phytogenics was determined in an in vitro neutralization assay. Furthermore, tissue explants gained from hooves of slaughter horses were tested for lamellar separation after incubation with different concentrations of LPS. By combined incubation of explants with LPS and either Polymyxin B (PMB; positive control), MT or silymarin, the influence of these substances on LPS-induced effects was assessed. In the in vitro neutralization assay, MT and silymarin reduced LPS concentrations by 64% and 75%, respectively, in comparison PMB reduced 98% of the LPS concentration. In hoof explants, LPS led to a concentration dependent separation. Accordantly, separation force was significantly decreased by 10 µg/mL LPS. PMB, MT and silymarin could significantly improve tissue integrity of explants incubated with 10 µg/mL LPS. This study showed that LPS had a negative influence on the structure of hoof explants in vitro. MT and silymarin reduced endotoxin activity and inhibited LPS-induced effects on the lamellar tissue. Hence, MT and silymarin might be used to support the prevention of laminitis and should be further evaluated for this application. PMID:25290524

  13. Gut Endotoxin Leading to a Decline IN Gonadal function (GELDING) - a novel theory for the development of late onset hypogonadism in obese men.

    PubMed

    Tremellen, Kelton

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing public health problem, with two-thirds of the adult population in many Western countries now being either overweight or obese. Male obesity is associated with late onset hypogonadism, a condition characterised by decreased serum testosterone, sperm quality plus diminished fertility and quality of life. In this paper we propose a novel theory underlying the development of obesity related hypogonadism- the GELDING theory (Gut Endotoxin Leading to a Decline IN Gonadal function). Several observational studies have previously reported an association between obesity related hypogonadism (low testosterone) and systemic inflammation. However, for the first time we postulate that the trans-mucosal passage of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the gut lumen into the circulation is a key inflammatory trigger underlying male hypogonadism. Obesity and a high fat/high calorie diet are both reported to result in changes to gut bacteria and intestinal wall permeability, leading to the passage of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide- LPS) from within the gut lumen into the circulation (metabolic endotoxaemia), where it initiates systemic inflammation. Endotoxin is known to reduce testosterone production by the testis, both by direct inhibition of Leydig cell steroidogenic pathways and indirectly by reducing pituitary LH drive, thereby also leading to a decline in sperm production. In this paper we also highlight the novel evolutionary benefits of the GELDING theory. Testosterone is known to be a powerful immune-suppressive, decreasing a man's ability to fight infection. Therefore we postulate that the male reproductive axis has evolved the capacity to lower testosterone production during times of infection and resulting endotoxin exposure, decreasing the immunosuppressive influence of testosterone, in turn enhancing the ability to fight infection. While this response is adaptive in times of sepsis, it becomes maladaptive in the setting of "non

  14. Regional blood flow during continuous low-dose endotoxin infusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, R.E.; Lang, C.H.; Spitzer, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Escherichia coli endotoxin (ET) was administered to adult rats by continuous IV infusion from a subcutaneously implanted osmotic pump (Alzet). Cardiac output and regional blood flow were determined by the radiolabeled microsphere method after 6 and 30 hr of ET or saline infusion. Cardiac output (CO) of ET rats was not different from time-matched controls, whereas arterial pressure was 13% lower after 30 hr of infusion. After both 6 and 30 hr of ET, pancreatic blood flow and percentage of cardiac output were lower than in controls. Estimated portal venous flow was decreased at each time point, and an increased hepatic arterial flow (significant after 30 hr) resulted in an unchanged total hepatic blood flow. Blood flow to most other tissues, including epididymal fat, muscle, kidneys, adrenals, and gastrointestinal tract, was similar between treatments. Maintenance of blood flow to metabolically important tissues indicates that the previously reported alterations in in vitro cellular metabolism are not due to tissue hypoperfusion. Earlier observations of in vitro myocardial dysfunction, coexistent with the significant impairment in pancreatic flow, raise the possibility that release of a myocardial depressant factor occurs not only in profound shock but also under less severe conditions of sepsis and endotoxemia.

  15. Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress by capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Abdel-Rahman, Rehab Fawzy; Sleem, Amany A; Farrag, Abdel Razik

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of capsaicin (the active principle of hot red pepper and a sensory excitotoxin) on oxidative stress after systemic administration of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (100 μg/kg, i.p.) in rats. Capsaicin (15, 150 or 1,500 μg/kg; 10, 100 or 400 μg/mL) was given via intragastric (i.g.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes at time of endotoxin administration. Rats were killed 4 h later. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured in brain, liver, and lungs. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), nitric oxide, and glucose were measured in serum. In addition, histopathological examination of liver tissue was performed. In LPS-treated rats, hepatic GSH increased significantly by 40.8% after i.p. capsaicin at 1,500 μg/kg. Liver MDA increased significantly by 32.9% after the administration of i.g. capsaicin at 1,500 μg/kg and by 27.8 and 37.6% after the administration of i.p. capsaicin at 150 and 1,500 μg/kg, respectively. In lung tissue, both MDA and GSH were decreased by capsaicin administration. MDA decreased by 19-20.8% after i.g. capsaicin and by 17.5-23.2% after i.p. capsaicin (150-1,500 μg/kg), respectively. GSH decreased by 39.3-64.3% and by 35.7-41.1% after i.g. or i.p. capsaicin (150-1,500 μg/kg), respectively. Brain GSH increased significantly after the highest dose of i.g. or i.p. capsaicin (by 20.6 and 15.9%, respectively). The increase in serum ALT and ALP after endotoxin administration was decreased by oral or i.p. capsaicin. Serum nitric oxide showed marked increase after LPS injection, but was markedly decreased after capsaicin (1,500 μg/kg, i.p.). Serum glucose increased markedly after the administration of LPS, and was normalized by capsaicin treatment. It is suggested that in the presence of mild systemic inflammation, acute capsaicin administration might alter oxidative status in some tissues and exert an anti-inflammatory effect

  16. Endotoxin-induced cytokine and chemokine expression in the HIV-1 transgenic rat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Repeated exposure to a low dose of a bacterial endotoxin such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes immune cells to become refractory to a subsequent endotoxin challenge, a phenomenon known as endotoxin tolerance (ET). During ET, there is an imbalance in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, leading to a dysregulated immune response. HIV-1 viral proteins are known to have an adverse effect on the immune system. However, the effects of HIV-1 viral proteins during ET have not been investigated. Methods In this study, HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rats and control F344 rats (n = 12 ea) were randomly treated with 2 non-pyrogenic doses of LPS (LL) to induce ET, or saline (SS), followed by a high challenge dose of LPS (LL+L, SS+L) or saline (LL+S, SS+S). The gene expression of 84 cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors in the brain and spleen was examined by relative quantitative PCR using a PCR array, and protein levels in the brain, spleen, and serum of 7 of these 84 genes was determined using an electrochemiluminescent assay. Results In the spleen, there was an increase in key pro-inflammatory (IL1α, IL-1β, IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines, and inflammatory chemokines (Ccl2, Ccl7, and Ccl9,) in response to LPS in the SS+L and LL+L (ET) groups of both the HIV-1Tg and F344 rats, but was greater in the HIV-1Tg rats than in the F344. In the ET HIV-1Tg and F344 (LL+L) rats in the spleen, the LPS-induced increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines was diminished and that of the anti-inflammatory cytokine was enhanced compared to the SS+L group rats. In the brain, IL-1β, as well as the Ccl2, Ccl3, and Ccl7 chemokines were increased to a greater extent in the HIV-1Tg rats compared to the F344; whereas Cxcl1, Cxcl10, and Cxcl11 were increased to a greater extent in the F344 rats compared to the HIV-1Tg rats in the LL+L and SS+L groups. Conclusion Our data indicate that the continuous presence of HIV-1 viral proteins can have tissue

  17. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) processing by Kupffer cells releases a modified LPS with increased hepatocyte binding and decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulatory capacity.

    PubMed

    Treon, S P; Thomas, P; Broitman, S A

    1993-02-01

    Normal physiological clearance of gut-derived endotoxin lipopolysaccharide [LPS] has been described previously; initially, there is uptake by Kupffer cells (KC), then release of modified LPS, followed by hepatocyte uptake. Previous work in our laboratories indicated that LPS is structurally modified with loss of carbohydrate prior to its release by KC. In this study, we functionally characterize KC modified LPS. KC-modified 125I-LPS was prepared from primary rat KC. Escherichia coli 0127:B8 native 125I-LPS or KC-modified 125I-LPS (40 ng) was incubated for 1 hr with 1 x 10E6 primary hepatocytes. The binding of KC-modified LPS was 4.33-fold higher than native LPS (P = 0.0024). Binding analysis studies were conducted to determine the region of KC-modified LPS responsible for enhanced hepatocyte binding. KC-modified Salmonella minnesota LPS was competed with 100-fold excess native or mutant (Ra, Rc, Rd, or Re) strains of LPS or Lipid A with no decrease to hepatocyte binding. S. minnesota-native 125I-LPS was compared with KC-modified 125I-LPS in a study to assess induction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-gamma by rat peritoneal macrophages. Native or KC-modified 125I-LPS (100 ng) was presented to 1 x 10E7 peritoneal macrophages for 6 hr. TNF-alpha was measured in supernatants using the WEHI-164 cytotoxicity assay. Native LPS induced 5.7-fold higher TNF-alpha levels than KC-modified LPS (P < 0.0001). The above data suggest that structural alterations in KC-modified LPS are accompanied by functional alterations resulting in enhanced hepatocyte binding and decreased TNF-alpha release. The latter result implies that an early step in LPS detoxification occurs in the KC in which LPS is modified to prevent elicitation of biologically active cytokines.

  18. Expression of low endotoxin 3-O-sulfotransferase in Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenya; Englaender, Jacob A; Xu, Peng; Mehta, Krunal K; Suwan, Jiraporn; Dordick, Jonathan S; Zhang, Fuming; Yuan, Qipeng; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos

    2013-10-01

    A key enzyme for the biosynthesis and bioengineering of heparin, 3-O-sulfotransferase-1 (3-OST-1), was expressed and purified in Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium. Western blotting, protein sequence analysis, and enzyme activity measurement confirmed the expression. The enzymatic activity of 3-OST-1 expressed in Bacillus species were found to be similar to those found when expressed in Escherichia coli. The endotoxin level in 3-OST-1 from B. subtilis and B. megaterium were 10(4)-10(5)-fold lower than that of the E. coli-expressed 3-OST-1, which makes the Bacillus expression system of particular interest for the generation of pharmaceutical grade raw heparin from nonanimal sources.

  19. In vitro toxicity and interactions of environmental contaminants (Arochlor 1254 and mercury) and immunomodulatory agents (lipopolysaccharide and cortisol) on thymocytes from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Gregory G.; Sweet, Leonard I.; Adams, Jean V.; Omann, Geneva M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Meier, Peter G.

    2002-01-01

    The immunotoxicity of chemical combinations commonly encountered by the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) immune system was the focus of this study. It was hypothesised that combinations of an environmental contaminant (mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254) and an immunomodulatory agent (bacterial endotoxin or cortisol) might interact to produce a greater toxicity than that of the environmental contaminant alone at concentrations typically encountered in piscine blood and other tissues. Thus lake trout thymocytes were isolated and treated with mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254 in the presence and absence of cortisol or lipopolysaccharide. Incubations were performed for 6 or 20 h at 4° C or 10° C. Lipopolysaccharide did not affect the toxicity of either contaminant. In contrast, cortisol enhanced the toxicity of both environmental contaminants. Hence, stressors that lead to increased cortisol production, but not lipopolysaccharide directly, may increase the toxicity of mercury and Aroclor 1254 to lake trout thymocytes.

  20. Airborne endotoxin in different background environments and seasons.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Anne Mette

    2006-01-01

    Endotoxin is a cell wall component from Gram-negative bacteria, and inhaled endotoxin contributes significantly to the induction of airway inflammation and dysfunction. Background levels of endotoxin have not yet been extensively described. In this study, airborne endotoxin was measured with a standardized protocol in 5 types of background environment (169 samples) in Denmark from October to May. Endotoxin levels in a greenhouse (median = 13.2 EU/m3) were significantly higher than in the other environments. The air from biofuel plants (median = 5.3 EU/m3), the air on congested streets (median = 4.4 EU/m3) and on an agricultural field (median = 2.9 EU/m3) had higher endotoxin contents than the air in industrial areas (median = 1.3 EU/m3) or in towns (median = 0.33 EU/m3). Levels in industrial areas were significantly higher than in towns. A literature study revealed background levels of endotoxin on different continents between 0.063-410 EU/m3, with median or mean values between 0.063-3.6 EU/m3. Endotoxin concentrations in towns and industrial areas were higher in April and May than in autumn and winter, and were higher in October than in winter. These data of exposure in background environments and of seasonal variation are helpful for public health practitioners, epidemiologists and industrial hygienists.

  1. EFFECTS OF LIME (CAO) ON THE ENDOTOXIN LEVELS OF BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lime addition is a common practice for treating biosolids in order to meet EPA 503 requirements for land application. Since this treatment kills the majority of microorganisms, will it increase the level of endotoxins present in biosolids? And, if endotoxin levels are increased, ...

  2. General effect of endotoxin on glucocorticoid receptors in mammalian tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Stith, R.D.; McCallum, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Considering the ubiquitous nature of glucocorticoid actions and the fact that endotoxin inhibits glucocorticoid action in the liver, we proposed to examine whether endotoxin affected extrahepatic actions of glucocorticoids. Fasted C57BL/6J mice were injected intraperitoneally with endotoxin (LD50) at 0800 and were killed 6 h later. Control mice were injected with an equal volume of saline. /sup 3/H-dexamethasone binding, measured by a new cytosol exchange assay utilizing molybdate plus dithiothreitol, in liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, spleen, lung, and heart tissue was significantly lower in treated than in control mice. The equilibrium dissociation constants were not significantly different, but the number of available binding sites in each tissue was reduced by endotoxin treatment. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity was significantly reduced in liver but not in kidney. Endotoxin treatment lowered glycogen content in liver but not in skeletal muscle. The reduction observed in the a form of liver glycogen synthase due to endotoxin was not seen in skeletal muscle glycogen synthase a. These data support the proposal that endotoxin or a mediator of its action inhibits systemic glucocorticoid action. The results also emphasize the central role of the liver in the metabolic disturbances of the endotoxin-treated mouse.

  3. Neurons and astroglia govern microglial endotoxin tolerance through macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor-mediated ERK1/2 signals

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Shijun; Li, Chia-Ling; Chen, Shih-Heng; Hu, Chih-Fen; Chung, Yi-Lun; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Wang, Qingshan; Lu, Ru-Band; Gao, Hui-Ming; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2016-01-01

    Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is a reduced responsiveness of innate immune cells like macrophages/monocytes to an endotoxin challenge following a previous encounter with the endotoxin. Although ET in peripheral systems has been well studied, little is known about ET in the brain. The present study showed that brain immune cells, microglia, being different from peripheral macrophages, displayed non-cell autonomous mechanisms in ET formation. Specifically, neurons and astroglia were indispensable for microglial ET. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) secreted from these non-immune cells was essential for governing microglial ET. Neutralization of M-CSF deprived the neuron-glia conditioned medium of its ability to enable microglia to form ET when microglia encountered two lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatments. Recombinant M-CSF protein rendered enriched microglia refractory to the second LPS challenge leading to microglial ET. Activation of microglial M-CSF receptor (M-CSFR; also known as CSF1R) and the downstream ERK1/2 signals was responsible for M-CSF-mediated microglial ET. Endotoxin-tolerant microglia in neuron-glia cultures displayed M2-like polarized phenotypes, as shown by upregulation of M2 marker Arg-1, elevated production of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10, and decreased secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor α, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 1β). Endotoxin-tolerant microglia protected neurons against LPS-elicited inflammatory insults, as shown by reduced neuronal damages in LPS pre-treatment group compared with the group without LPS pre-treatment. Moreover, while neurons and astroglia became injured during chronic neuroinflammation, microglia failed to form ET. Thus, this study identified a distinct non-cell autonomous mechanism of microglial ET. Interactions of M-CSF secreted by neurons and astroglia with microglial M-CSFR programed microglial ET. Loss of microglial ET could be an important

  4. Endotoxin Exposure Is a Risk Factor for Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Peter S.; Kulhánková, Katarina; Yin, Ming; Cohn, Richard; Arbes, Samuel J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Although research has shown that early life exposure to household endotoxin protects against development of allergies, studies are less clear on the relationship between household endotoxin exposure and prevalence of wheezing and asthma. We as- sayed 2,552 house dust samples in a representative nationwide sam- ple to explore relationships between endotoxin exposures and risk factors for asthma, asthma symptoms, and medication use. Methods: House dust was vacuum-sampled from five locations within homes and assayed for endotoxin. Health, demographic, and housing information was assessed through questionnaire and on-site evaluation of 2,456 residents of 831 homes selected to represent the demographics of the United States. Results: Endotoxin concentration (EU/mg) and load (EU/m2) were highly correlated (r = 0.73–0.79). Geometric mean endotoxin concentrations were as follows (in EU/mg): bedroom floors, 35.3 (5th–95th percentile, 5.0–260); bedding, 18.7 (2.0–142); family room floors, 63.9 (11.5–331); sofas, 44.8 (6.4–240); and kitchen floors, 80.5 (9.8–512). Multivariate analysis demonstrated significant relationships between increasing endotoxin levels and diagnosed asthma, asthma symptoms in the past year, current use of asthma medications, and wheezing among residents of the homes. These relationships were strongest for bedroom floor and bedding dust and were observed in adults only. Modeling the joint effect of bedding and bedroom floor endotoxin on recent asthma symptoms yielded an adjusted odds ratio of 2.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.01–7.87). When stratified by allergy status, allergic subjects with higher endotoxin exposure were no more likely to have diagnosed asthma or asthma symptoms than nonallergic subjects. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that household endotoxin exposure is a significant risk factor for increased asthma prevalence. PMID:16141442

  5. Endotoxins in tobacco smoke: shifting tobacco industry positions.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Richard L; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-10-01

    In the 1980s, the tobacco industry started a campaign to divert attention away from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) as a major source of indoor air pollution in workplaces by highlighting the roles of other indoor air pollutants. The industry, working through "third parties," highlighted endotoxins, naturally occurring substances that cause numerous inflammatory reactions in humans, as an alternative explanation to SHS as causing indoor air problems. In 1995, Hasday and colleagues were the first to present findings that cigarette smoke contains significant quantities of endotoxins. This discovery surprised tobacco industry scientists. The 1999 publication of the full Hasday et al. findings received only limited media attention but got the full attention of Philip Morris scientists concerned about a new public health issue and a new basis for regulation of workplace smoking by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which already regulated workplace endotoxin exposures from other sources. Philip Morris undertook an internal endotoxin research project to test the Hasday et al. findings and to determine if endotoxin-free cigarettes were possible. Although experiments were conducted to remove endotoxin from the tobacco, there is no evidence that they were successful. Following confirmation of SHS as an important source of endotoxins, the scientist promoting endotoxins as an important indoor air pollutant for the tobacco industry softened his position on the role of endotoxins as indoor pollutants. The presence of endotoxins in SHS provides an additional mechanism for the adverse effects of SHS that should be researched further, and the risk of exposure should be assessed.

  6. Cloning and expression of the lepidopteran toxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis var Sotto in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rady, M H

    1991-01-01

    During sporulation, Bacillus thuringiensis var. Sotto produces a parasporal crystalline protein which is toxic for the silk-worm, Bombyx mori and the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis. The gene coding this crystal protein is present in a single plasmid. The plasmid DNA was isolated, purified and physically mapped using restriction endonuclease enzymes (R.E.). The gene coding the delta-endotoxin was inserted into Escherichia coli-Jm103, using cloning vector pUC8. Transformed E. coli cells were found to synthesize the delta-endotoxin as demonstrated by the pathogenicity of the transformed cells against 4th instar larvae of S. littoralis.

  7. Visualization and analysis of lipopolysaccharide distribution in binary phospholipid bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, Maria Florencia; Sanchez, Susana; Bakas, Laura

    2009-05-22

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin released from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria during infections. It have been reported that LPS may play a role in the outer membrane of bacteria similar to that of cholesterol in eukaryotic plasma membranes. In this article we compare the effect of introducing LPS or cholesterol in liposomes made of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine on the solubilization process by Triton X-100. The results show that liposomes containing LPS or cholesterol are more resistant to solubilization by Triton X-100 than the binary phospholipid mixtures at 4 {sup o}C. The LPS distribution was analyzed on GUVs of DPPC:DOPC using FITC-LPS. Solid and liquid-crystalline domains were visualized labeling the GUVs with LAURDAN and GP images were acquired using a two-photon microscope. The images show a selective distribution of LPS in gel domains. Our results support the hypothesis that LPS could aggregate and concentrate selectively in biological membranes providing a mechanism to bring together several components of the LPS-sensing machinery.

  8. Chemical, biological, and immunochemical properties of the Chlamydia psittaci lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Brade, L; Schramek, S; Schade, U; Brade, H

    1986-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Chlamydia psittaci was extracted from yolk sac-grown elementary bodies, purified, and characterized chemically, immunochemically, and biologically. The LPS contained D-galactosamine, D-glucosamine, phosphorus, long-chain fatty acids, and 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid in the molar ratio of approximately 1:2:2:6:5. The antigenic properties of the isolated LPS were compared with those of the LPS from Chlamydia trachomatis and Salmonella minnesota Re by the passive hemolysis and passive hemolysis inhibition tests, absorption, hydrolysis kinetics, and Western blot analysis with rabbit polyclonal antisera against chlamydiae and with a mouse monoclonal antibody recognizing a genus-specific epitope of chlamydial LPS. Two antigenic determinants were identified, one of which was chlamydia specific and the other of which was cross-reactive with Re LPS. Both determinants were destroyed during acid hydrolysis, whereby a third antigen specificity was exposed which was indistinguishable from the lipid A antigenicity. In rabbit polyclonal antisera prepared against Formalin-killed elementary bodies or detergent-solubilized membranes, two antibody specificities were differentiated. One of these was chlamydia specific, and the other was cross-reactive with Re LPS. The LPS of C. psittaci was inactive within typical endotoxin parameters (lethal toxicity, pyrogenicity, local Shwartzman reactivity); it was, however, active in some in vitro assays, such as those testing for mouse B-cell mitogenicity and the induction of prostaglandin E2 in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Images PMID:3770953

  9. Innate immune defenses exhibit circadian rhythmicity and differential temporal sensitivity to a bacterial endotoxin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Lazado, Carlo C; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated the daily dynamics of humoral immune defenses and the temporal influence in the sensitivity of these responses to a bacterial endotoxin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The first experiment subjected the fish to two photoperiod conditions, 12L:12D (LD) and 0L:24D (DD), for 20 days to characterize the rhythms of humoral immunity. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lysozyme (LYZ), peroxidase (PER) and protease (PRO) exhibited significant rhythmicity under LD but not in DD. No significant rhythms were observed in esterase (ESA) and anti-protease (ANTI) in both photoperiod conditions. Fish reared under LD were subsequently subjected to DD while the group previously under DD was exposed to LD, and this carried on for 3 days before another set of samples was collected. Results revealed that the rhythms of LYZ, PER and PRO but not ALP persisted when photoperiod was changed from LD to DD. Nonetheless, immune parameters remained arrhythmic in the group subjected from DD to LD. Cluster analysis of the humoral immune responses under various light conditions revealed that each photic environment had distinct daily immunological profile. In the second experiment, fish were injected with bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) either at ZT3 (day) or at ZT15 (night) to evaluate the temporal sensitivity of humoral immunity to a pathogen-associated molecular pattern. The results demonstrated that responses to LPS were gated by the time of day. LPS significantly modulated serum ALP and ANTI activities but only when the endotoxin was administered at ZT3. Serum LYZ and PER were stimulated at both injection times but with differing response profiles. Modulated LYZ activity was persistent when injected at ZT3 but transient when LPS was applied at ZT15. The magnitude of LPS-induced PER activity was higher when the endotoxin was delivered at ZT3 versus ZT15. It was further shown that plasma cortisol was significantly elevated but only when LPS

  10. Intestinal radiation syndrome: sepsis and endotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1985-03-01

    Rats were whole-body irradiated with 8-MeV cyclotron-produced neutrons and /sup 137/Cs ..gamma.. rays to study the role of enteric bacteria and endotoxin in the intestinal radiation syndrome. Decrease in intestinal weight was used as an index of radiation-induced breakdown of the mucosa. Neutron and ..gamma..-ray doses that were sublethal for intestinal death resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in intestinal weight, reaching minimal values 2 to 3 days after exposure, followed by recovery within 5 days after irradiation. Neutron and photon doses that caused intestinal death resulted in greater mucosal breakdown with little or no evidence of mucosal recovery. The presence of fluid in the intestine and diarrhea, but not bacteremia or endotoxemia, were related to mucosal breakdown and recovery. Neither sepsis nor endotoxin could be detected in liver samples taken at autopsy from animals which died a short time earlier from intestinal injury. These results suggest that overt sepsis and endotoxemia do not play a significant role in the intestinal radiation syndrome.

  11. Endotoxin Elimination in Patients with Septic Shock: An Observation Study.

    PubMed

    Adamik, Barbara; Zielinski, Stanislaw; Smiechowicz, Jakub; Kübler, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of endotoxin elimination with an adsorption column in patients with septic shock and endotoxemia. The elimination therapy was guided by a new bedside method of measuring endotoxin activity (EA). Intensive care unit (ICU) patients with septic shock and suspected Gram-negative infection were consecutively added to the study group within the first 24 h. Endotoxin elimination was performed using hemoperfusion with the Alteco LPS Adsorber. The primary endpoint was improvement in organ function within the first 24 h of treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the usefulness of a new method of measuring EA to help guide endotoxin elimination therapy. Out of 64 patients 18 had a high baseline EA [0.70 EA units (0.66-0.77)]. Those patients had endotoxin elimination treatment in addition to conventional medical therapy. At 24 h after endotoxin elimination, the EA had decreased to 0.56 EA units (0.43-0.77), (p = 0.005); MAP increased from 69 (62-80) to 80 mm Hg (68-88), (p = 0.002), and noradrenaline use decreased from 0.28 (0.15-0.80) to 0.1 μg/kg/min (0.00-0.70) at the same time (p = 0.04). The SOFA score had decreased from 11 (9-15) to 9 (7-14) points 24 h after endotoxin elimination (p = 0.01) with a median delta SOFA -2 points. Endotoxin elimination did not have a significant effect on the ICU length of stay or ICU mortality. Effective endotoxin elimination resulted in a significant improvement in hemodynamic parameters and of organ function. The application of the EA assay was useful for the bedside monitoring of endotoxemia in critically ill ICU patients.

  12. Interferon gamma immunoreactivity in iris nerve fibres during endotoxin induced uveitis in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Yang, P.; de Vos, A. F; Kijlstra, A.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—Previous studies have implied that interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is involved in the pathogenesis of endotoxin induced uveitis (EIU) in the rat. This study investigated the source of IFN-γ in the iris during EIU.
METHODS—Whole mounts of iris were isolated from Lewis rats before and at different times (from 4 hours to 14 days) after foot pad injection of 200 µg Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Immunohistological analysis was performed using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to rat IFN-γ (DB12 and DB13). mAbs specific to monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells and MHC class II were used to asses the inflammatory response in the eye (ED-1, ED-2, and OX-6). An antibody specific to neurofilaments (2H3) was used to stain nerve fibres in the normal iris.
RESULTS—LPS administration induced acute intraocular inflammation, characterised by a massive infiltration of monocytes/macrophages and increased numbers of MHC class II positive cells in the iris. IFN-γ immunoreactive cells were not detected in iris whole mounts of control rats. Strikingly, IFN-γ immunoreactivity was found in fibres from 4 hours until 10 days after LPS injection, with the most intense staining at 48-72 hours. Other DB12 or DB13 positive cells were not detected in the iris. The pattern of DB12 and DB13 staining in the inflamed iris was similar to the 2H3 staining of neurons in the iris of control rats.
CONCLUSION—These results show that systemic LPS administration induces IFN-γ immunoreactivity in iris fibres and suggest that iris nerve fibres may be a source of IFN-γ during EIU. The IFN-γ immunoreactive material in the iris nerve fibres may be identical to neuronal IFN-γ.

 Keywords: endotoxin induced uveitis; cytokines; interferon gamma; rat PMID:9797675

  13. Central role of the melanocortin-4 receptors in appetite regulation after endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Sartin, J L; Marks, D L; McMahon, C D; Daniel, J A; Levasseur, P; Wagner, C G; Whitlock, B K; Steele, B P

    2008-10-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4R) are key factors in the depression of appetite during disease. This study was designed to determine the role of agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the effect of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on appetite. Sheep received an intracerebroventricular injection of either saline or AgRP (0.5 nmol/kg of BW) 1 h before intravenous injection of either saline or LPS (0.6 microg/kg of BW) at time 0 and again at 4 h. Agouti-related protein prevented the reduction in feed intake due to LPS (P < 0.05). In a second experiment, AgRP gene expression was unaffected at 3 h and increased (P < 0.01) at 6 h after LPS. Immunohistochemical evidence indicated that there was an increase in the percentage of AgRP neurons with c-Fos immunoreactive nuclei 6 h after sheep were injected with LPS (P < 0.04) and a corresponding decrease in a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone neurons coexpressing c-Fos (P < 0.001). In situ hybridization provided evidence for an increase in AgRP gene expression and a decrease in proopiomelanocortin gene expression 6 h after LPS (P < 0.05). In a final experiment, physiological elevation of orexigenic agents by short-term fasting kept feed intake at the same level as controls, in spite of the presence of LPS, similar to the effects of AgRP in Exp. 1. The AgRP inhibition of the MC4R prevents appetite inhibition in response to LPS and well after LPS inhibition of feed intake, both AgRP and a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone may change in a pattern that favors appetite increases. These studies support the notion of the MC4R as a critical component of the mechanism for appetite suppression due to endotoxin.

  14. Comparative personal exposures to organic dusts and endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J C; Niven, R M; Pickering, C A; Oldham, L A; Fletcher, A M; Francis, H C

    1999-02-01

    The aims of the study were to provide valid comparative data for personal exposures to dust and endotoxins for different occupations and to calculate comparative data for the contamination of organic dusts with endotoxin. Nine different occupational settings were studied, drawn from the textile, agricultural and animal handling industries. Samples were collected by personal sampling techniques, using the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampling head, glass fibre filters and rechargeable sampling pumps. The dust exposures were calculated by gravimetric analysis and using the calculated volume of air sampled were expressed as mg/m3. Endotoxin exposures were measured using a simple water extraction from the collected dusts, followed by a quantitative turbidimetric assay. Results were expressed as ng/m3, using the calculated volume of air sampled. In addition, the levels of the contamination of dusts with endotoxin for individual industries were expressed as ng/mg of collected dust. Two hundred and fifty-nine samples, collected from 9 different industries and across 36 different sites were analysed. This represented a sampling rate of 25% for the total work force. The average sampling time was 4.62 h. For all the dusts collected, a significant correlation between the collected dust and endotoxin was seen (r = 0.7 and p < 0.001). The highest dust exposures occurred during cleaning activities (grain handling: 72.5 mg/m3). The individuals exposed to the highest median level of dust and endotoxin were the animal handlers (poultry handlers, dust: 11.53 mg/m3, endotoxin: 71,995 ng/m3). Weaving and mushroom cultivation had the lowest exposures for dust and endotoxins. The mostly highly contaminated dusts (median values expressed as ng of endotoxin per mg of collected dust) were found in the animal handling (poultry: 1,030 ng/mg, swine: 152 ng/mg) and cotton spinning (522 ng/mg) industries. Processing of cotton and wool fibres was found to reduce the levels of

  15. Role of capsaicin-sensitive afferents and sensory neuropeptides in endotoxin-induced airway inflammation and consequent bronchial hyperreactivity in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Elekes, Krisztián; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Németh, József; Sándor, Katalin; Pozsgai, Gábor; Kereskai, László; Börzsei, Rita; Pintér, Erika; Szabó, Arpád; Szolcsányi, János

    2007-06-07

    Substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) released from capsaicin-sensitive afferents induce neurogenic inflammation via NK(1), NK(2) and CGRP1 receptor activation. This study examines the role of capsaicin-sensitive fibres and sensory neuropeptides in endotoxin-induced airway inflammation and consequent bronchial hyperreactivity with functional, morphological and biochemical techniques in mice. Carbachol-induced bronchoconstriction was measured with whole body plethysmography 24 h after intranasal lipopolysaccharide administration. SP and CGRP were determined with radioimmunoassay, myeloperoxidase activity with spectrophotometry, interleukin-1beta with ELISA and histopathological changes with semiquantitative scoring from lung samples. Treatments with resiniferatoxin for selective destruction of capsaicin-sensitive afferents, NK(1) antagonist SR 140333, NK(2) antagonist SR 48968, their combination, or CGRP1 receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37) were performed. Lipopolysaccharide significantly increased lung SP and CGRP concentrations, which was prevented by resiniferatoxin pretreatment. Resiniferatoxin-desensitization markedly enhanced inflammation, but decreased bronchoconstriction. CGRP(8-37) or combination of SR 140333 and SR 48968 diminished neutrophil accumulation, MPO levels and IL-1beta production, airway hyperresponsiveness was inhibited only by SR 48968. This is the first evidence that capsaicin-sensitive afferents exert a protective role in endotoxin-induced airway inflammation, but contribute to increased bronchoconstriction. Activation of CGRP1 receptors or NK(1)+NK(2) receptors participate in granulocyte accumulation, but NK(2) receptors play predominant role in enhanced airway resistance.

  16. Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines but Not Endotoxin-Related Parameters Associate with Disease Severity in Patients with NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    du Plessis, Johannie; Korf, Hannelie; van Pelt, Jos; Windmolders, Petra; Vander Elst, Ingrid; Verrijken, An; Hubens, Guy; Van Gaal, Luc; Cassiman, David; Nevens, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and elevated lipopolysaccharides (LPS) levels have been implicated in the development of obesity, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In order to determine if LPS levels are elevated in patients with NASH compared to patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and, if elevated LPS levels correlated with histological severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) we compared LPS, markers of LPS bioactivity and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. At the time of surgery a liver biopsy was taken allowing the stratification into well-delineated subgroups including: No NAFL/NAFL; NASH; NASH with fibrosis and NASH cirrhotics, using the NAFLD Activity Score (NAS). Anthropometric data and plasma were collected for assessment of LPS, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), intestinal-type fatty acid binding protein (iFABP), Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2, 4) and a panel of cytokines/chemokines. Similar analysis was performed on plasma from a cohort of healthy controls. Our data indicate elevated levels of LPS, LBP, sCD14, iFABP and TLR2,4 in obese patients compared to healthy controls, however, these parameters remained unaltered within patients with limited liver disease (NAFL) compared to NASH/NASH with fibrosis subgroups. Hierarchic cluster analysis using endotoxin-related parameters failed to discriminate between lean controls, NAFLD. While similar cluster analysis implementing inflammation-related parameters clearly distinguished lean controls, NALFD subgroups and NASH cirrhotics. In addition, LPS levels was not associated with disease severity while TNFα, IL8, and CCL3 featured a clear correlation with transaminase levels and the histological severity of NALFD. In conclusion our data indicate a stronger correlation for circulating inflammatory- rather than endotoxin-related parameters in progression of NAFLD and highlights the need for

  17. Loss of the autophagy protein Atg16L1 enhances endotoxin-induced IL-1beta production.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Tatsuya; Fujita, Naonobu; Jang, Myoung Ho; Uematsu, Satoshi; Yang, Bo-Gie; Satoh, Takashi; Omori, Hiroko; Noda, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Komatsu, Masaaki; Tanaka, Keiji; Kawai, Taro; Tsujimura, Tohru; Takeuchi, Osamu; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Akira, Shizuo

    2008-11-13

    Systems for protein degradation are essential for tight control of the inflammatory immune response. Autophagy, a bulk degradation system that delivers cytoplasmic constituents into autolysosomes, controls degradation of long-lived proteins, insoluble protein aggregates and invading microbes, and is suggested to be involved in the regulation of inflammation. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of inflammatory response by autophagy is poorly understood. Here we show that Atg16L1 (autophagy-related 16-like 1), which is implicated in Crohn's disease, regulates endotoxin-induced inflammasome activation in mice. Atg16L1-deficiency disrupts the recruitment of the Atg12-Atg5 conjugate to the isolation membrane, resulting in a loss of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) conjugation to phosphatidylethanolamine. Consequently, both autophagosome formation and degradation of long-lived proteins are severely impaired in Atg16L1-deficient cells. Following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, a ligand for Toll-like receptor 4 (refs 8, 9), Atg16L1-deficient macrophages produce high amounts of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-18. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, Atg16L1-deficiency causes Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)-dependent activation of caspase-1, leading to increased production of IL-1beta. Mice lacking Atg16L1 in haematopoietic cells are highly susceptible to dextran sulphate sodium-induced acute colitis, which is alleviated by injection of anti-IL-1beta and IL-18 antibodies, indicating the importance of Atg16L1 in the suppression of intestinal inflammation. These results demonstrate that Atg16L1 is an essential component of the autophagic machinery responsible for control of the endotoxin-induced inflammatory immune response.

  18. Lipopolysaccharide can induce errors in anatomical measures of neuronal plasticity by increasing tracing efficacy.

    PubMed

    Weishaupt, Nina; Krajacic, Aleksandra; Fouad, Karim

    2013-11-27

    Evidence suggests that activating certain components of the immune system may increase regeneration and plasticity in the injured central nervous system. Investigating the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent endotoxin and immune activator, on neuronal plasticity in rat models of spinal cord injury, we discovered that systemic administration of LPS can increase the number of descending motor axons that transport neuronal tracers anterogradely to the spinal cord. This effect of LPS was not observed across all motor tracts traced in two different experiments, but was significant for two different tracers administered to corticospinal tract neurons. Densitometry measurement of traced corticospinal axons within the cervical gray matter revealed that normalization to the number of traced axons is crucial to avoid false-positive reports of increased plasticity following LPS injection. These findings indicate that assessments of neuronal growth based on neuronal tracing techniques should be normalized when inflammation or immune activation is an experimental variable.

  19. Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Detoxifies Lipopolysaccharide and Prevents Inflammation in Response to the Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Jennifer M.; Akerlund, Janie; Mittge, Erika; Guillemin, Karen

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Vertebrates harbor abundant lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxin in their gut microbiota. Here we demonstrate that the brush border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (Iap), which dephosphorylates LPS, is induced during establishment of the microbiota and plays a crucial role in promoting mucosal tolerance to gut bacteria in zebrafish. We demonstrate that Iap deficient animals are hypersensitive to LPS toxicity through a mechanism mediated by Myd88 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor (Tnfr). We further show that the endogenous microbiota establish the normal homeostatic level of neutrophils in the intestine through a process involving Myd88 and Tnfr. Iap deficient animals exhibit excessive intestinal neutrophil influx, similar to wild type animals exposed to LPS. When reared germ-free, however, the intestines of Iap deficient animals are devoid of neutrophils, demonstrating that Iap functions to prevent inflammatory responses to resident gut bacteria. PMID:18078689

  20. The role of bacterial lipopolysaccharides as immune modulator in vaccine and drug development.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Jesús

    2012-09-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) is the major constituent of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS can cause a variety of immune- and cellular disorders that lead to lethal effects and clinical manifestations of infectious diseases. Several molecular and cellular in vitro techniques, besides synthesis of analogous molecules of the LPS active region, have provided insight in the molecular mechanisms of LPS bioactivity in cellular systems. These advances have facilitated the application of diverse LPS-based molecules in relevant areas such as vaccine technology, allergen immunotherapy, treatment of immune-related diseases/disorders, LPS-related inflammatory processes and sepsis. The purpose of this review is to examine the progress in the generation of new LPS-based molecules and their therapeutic potential.

  1. Neutrophil adherence induced by lipopolysaccharide in vitro. Role of plasma component interaction with lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Worthen, G S; Avdi, N; Vukajlovich, S; Tobias, P S

    1992-01-01

    Endotoxemia results in neutrophil localization within a number of microcirculatory beds, reflecting in part an adhesive interaction between neutrophils and the vascular endothelial cell. In previous studies, endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of rabbits resulted in neutrophil sequestration at LPS concentrations well below those effective at increasing neutrophil adherence in vitro. We hypothesized that LPS-induced neutrophil adherence involved a plasma component. In the absence of plasma, high concentrations of LPS (10 micrograms/ml) were required to increase human neutrophil adherence to endothelial cells in vitro. With the inclusion of as little as 1% plasma or serum, however, the LPS dose-response curve was markedly shifted, resulting in increments in adherence at 10 ng/ml, and the time course of enhanced adherence was accelerated. Pretreatment studies suggested that the effect of LPS was on the neutrophil rather than the endothelial cell. Immunoprecipitation of 0111:B4 LPS paralleled the loss of functional activity, suggesting that LPS was an integral part of the active complex, rather than altering a plasma component to make it active. The incubation of plasma with LPS decreased the apparent molecular mass of LPS from 500-1,000 kD to approximately 100 kD. The disaggregated 0111:B4 LPS eluted in the range of albumin and was able to increase adherence in the absence of additional plasma. Plasma depleted of lipoproteins or heat treated retained activity, suggesting that the interaction of LPS with HDL or complement did not account for the observed findings. An LPS-binding protein isolated from rabbit serum enhanced the adherence-inducing effects of both 0111:B4 and Re595 LPS. Furthermore, the activity of rabbit serum was abolished after incubation with an antibody directed against this LPS-binding protein (LBP). An antibody directed against CD14, the putative receptor of the LPS-LBP complex, prevented the adhesive response to LPS. These data suggest

  2. The transhepatic endotoxin gradient is present despite liver cirrhosis and is attenuated after transjugular portosystemic shunt (TIPS).

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Translocation of gut-derived bacterial products such as endotoxin is a major problem in liver cirrhosis. Methods To assess the hepatic clearance of bacterial products in individuals with cirrhosis, we tested concentrations of Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS-binding protein (LBP), and the precursor of nitric oxide (NO), L-arginine, in a cohort of 8 stable patients with liver cirrhosis before and after elective transjugular portosystemic shunt (TIPS) implantation, including central venous, hepatic venous, and portal venous measurements. Results Using an adapted LPS assay, we detected high portal venous LPS concentrations (mean 1743 ± 819 pg/mL). High concentrations of LPS were detectable in the central venous blood (931 ± 551 pg/mL), as expected in persons with cirrhosis. The transhepatic LPS gradient was found to be 438 ± 287 pg/mL, and 25 ± 12% of portal LPS was cleared by the cirrhotic liver. After TIPS, central venous LPS concentrations increased in the hepatic and central veins, indicating shunting of LPS with the portal blood through the stent. This paralleled a systemic increase of L-arginine, whereas the NO synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) remained unchanged, suggesting that bacterial translocation may contribute to the pathogenesis of circulatory dysfunction post-TIPS. Conclusions This study provides quantitative estimates of the role of the liver in the pathophysiology of bacterial translocation. The data indicate that the cirrhotic liver retains the capacity for clearance of bacterial endotoxin from the portal venous blood and that TIPS implantation attenuates this clearance. Thus, increased endotoxin concentrations in the systemic circulation provide a possible link to the increased encephalopathy in TIPS patients. PMID:21978390

  3. Modulation of anti-endotoxin property of Temporin L by minor amino acid substitution in identified phenylalanine zipper sequence.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Saurabh; Kumar, Amit; Tripathi, Amit Kumar; Tandon, Anshika; Ghosh, Jimut Kanti

    2016-11-01

    A 13-residue frog antimicrobial peptide Temporin L (TempL) possesses versatile antimicrobial activities and is considered a lead molecule for the development of new antimicrobial agents. To find out the amino acid sequences that influence the anti-microbial property of TempL, a phenylalanine zipper-like sequence was identified in it which was not reported earlier. Several alanine-substituted analogs and a scrambled peptide having the same composition of TempL were designed for evaluating the role of this motif. To investigate whether leucine residues instead of phenylalanine residues at 'a' and/or 'd' position(s) of the heptad repeat sequence could alter its antimicrobial property, several TempL analogs were synthesized after replacing these phenylalanine residues with leucine residues. Replacing phenylalanine residues with alanine residues in the phenylalanine zipper sequence significantly compromised the anti-endotoxin property of TempL. This is evident from the higher production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rat bone-marrow-derived macrophage cells in the presence of its alanine-substituted analogs than TempL itself. However, replacement of these phenylalanine residues with leucine residues significantly augmented anti-endotoxin property of TempL. A single alanine-substituted TempL analog (F8A-TempL) showed significantly reduced cytotoxicity but retained the antibacterial activity of TempL, while the two single leucine-substituted analogs (F5L-TempL and F8L-TempL), although exhibiting lower cytotoxicity, were able to retain the antibacterial activity of the parent peptide. The results demonstrate how minor amino acid substitutions in the identified phenylalanine zipper sequence in TempL could yield analogs with better antibacterial and/or anti-endotoxin properties with their plausible mechanism of action.

  4. Dexamethasone and indomethacin modify endotoxin-induced respiratory failure in pigs.

    PubMed

    Olson, N C; Brown, T T; Anderson, D L

    1985-01-01

    We studied the porcine pulmonary response to endotoxemia before and after administration of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID, i.e., indomethacin or flunixin meglumine) or dexamethasone (DEX). Escherichia coli endotoxin was infused intravenously into anesthetized 10- to 12-wk old pigs for 4.5 h. In endotoxemic pigs, the phase 1 (i.e., 0-2 h) increases in pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and alveolar-arterial O2 gradient and the decreases in cardiac index (CI) and lung dynamic compliance (Cdyn) were blocked by NSAID. Thus phase 1 changes were cyclooxygenase dependent. Furthermore, these effects were blocked or greatly attenuated by DEX. During phase 2 of endotoxemia (i.e., 2-4.5 h), the increased PVR and decreased CI and Cdyn were not blocked by NSAID but were attenuated by DEX, suggesting the presence of cyclooxygenase-independent metabolites. Both NSAID and DEX blocked the endotoxin-induced increases in lung water, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophil, and BAL albumin content. The fall in plasma proteins persisted in NSAID but not DEX-treated pigs. We conclude that endotoxemia in the pig causes severe acute respiratory failure largely mediated by cyclooxygenase and possibly lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid metabolism.

  5. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 down-regulates inflammatory responses and protects against endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiao; Shetty, Sreerama; Zhang, Ping; Gao, Rong; Hu, Yuxin; Wang, Shuxia; Li, Zhenyu; Fu, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The presence of endotoxin in blood can lead to acute kidney injury (AKI) and septic shock. Resolvins, the endogenous lipid mediators derived from docosahexaenoic acid, have been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory action. Using a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI, we investigated the effects of aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) on inflammatory kidney injury. Administration of AT-RvD1 1 h after LPS challenge protected the mice from kidney injury as indicated by the measurements of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and morphological alterations associated with tubular damage. The protective effects were evidenced by decreased neutrophil infiltration in the kidney indicating reduction in inflammation. AT-RvD1 treatment restored kidney cell junction protein claudin-4 expression, which was otherwise reduced after LPS challenge. AT-RvD1 treatment inhibited endotoxin-induced NF-κB activation and suppressed LPS-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in the kidney. Moreover, AT-RvD1 treatment markedly decreased LPS-induced IL-6 level in the kidney and blocked IL-6-mediated signaling including STAT3 and ERK phosphorylation. Our findings demonstrate that AT-RvD1 is a potent anti-inflammatory mediator in LPS-induced kidney injury, and AT-RvD1 has therapeutic potential against AKI during endotoxemia.

  6. Pellino-3 promotes endotoxin tolerance and acts as a negative regulator of TLR2 and TLR4 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Michael B.; Xiong, Yanbao; Pattabiraman, Goutham; Manavalan, Tissa T.; Qiu, Fu; Medvedev, Andrei E.

    2015-01-01

    Development of endotoxin tolerance in macrophages during sepsis reprograms Toll-like receptor 4 signaling to inhibit proinflammatory cytokines without suppressing anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial mediators and protects the host from excessive inflammation and tissue damage. However, endotoxin tolerance renders septic patients immunocompromised and unable to control secondary infections. Although previous studies have revealed the importance of several negative regulators of Toll-like receptor signaling in endotoxin tolerance, the role of Pellino proteins has not been addressed. The present report shows that the induction of endotoxin tolerance in vivo in mice and in vitro in human monocytes and THP-1 and MonoMac-6 macrophages increases the expression of Pellino-3. Overexpression of Pellino-3 in human embryonic kidney 293/Toll-like receptor 2 or 293/Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor-2 cells inhibited Toll-like receptor 2/4-mediated activation of nuclear factor-κB and induction of CXCL-8 mRNA, and Pellino-3 ablation increased these responses. Pellino-3-deficient THP-1 cells had elevated Toll-like receptor 2/4-driven tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 mRNA, and Toll-like receptor 4-driven CCL5 gene expression in response to Toll-like receptor agonists and heat-killed Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, cytokines controlled by the MyD88 and Toll-interleukin-1R domain-containing protein inducing interferon-β-mediated pathways, respectively. In addition, deficiency in Pellino-3 slightly increased phagocytosis of heat-killed bacteria. Transfected Pellino-3 inhibited nuclear factor-κB activation driven by overexpression of MyD88, TIR domain-containing adapter inducing interferon-β, interleukin-1R-associated kinase-1, and tumor necrosis factor receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB-binding kinase-1, TGF-β-activated kinase 1, and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6, and inhibited interleukin-1R-associated kinase 1

  7. Induction of hyperreactivity to endotoxin in mice by Coxiella burnetii.

    PubMed Central

    Schramek, S; Kazar, J; Sekeyova, Z; Freudenberg, M A; Galanos, C

    1984-01-01

    Intraperitoneal inoculation of mice with live or killed Coxiella burnetii phase I or phase II cells induced a marked hyperreactivity to the lethal effect of bacterial endotoxin and was accompanied by a marked hepatosplenomegaly. The degree and duration of hyperreactivity depended on the dose of C. burnetii administered and were higher with phase I than with phase II cells. Sensitization to the lethal effects of endotoxin and induction of splenomegaly by phase I C. burnetii cells also proceeded in the endotoxin-resistant C3H/HeJ strain of mice. Preincubation of C. burnetii cells with the corresponding immune serum significantly diminished the ability of phase I but not phase II cells to induce hyperreactivity to endotoxin. PMID:6469358

  8. Endotoxin-Induced Structural Transformations in Liquid Crystalline Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, I.-Hsin; Miller, Daniel S.; Bertics, Paul J.; Murphy, Christopher J.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2011-06-01

    The ordering of liquid crystals (LCs) is known to be influenced by surfaces and contaminants. Here, we report that picogram per milliliter concentrations of endotoxin in water trigger ordering transitions in micrometer-size LC droplets. The ordering transitions, which occur at surface concentrations of endotoxin that are less than 10-5 Langmuir, are not due to adsorbate-induced changes in the interfacial energy of the LC. The sensitivity of the LC to endotoxin was measured to change by six orders of magnitude with the geometry of the LC (droplet versus slab), supporting the hypothesis that interactions of endotoxin with topological defects in the LC mediate the response of the droplets. The LC ordering transitions depend strongly on glycophospholipid structure and provide new designs for responsive soft matter.

  9. Citric Acid Effects on Brain and Liver Oxidative Stress in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Youness, Eman R.; Mohammed, Nadia A.; Morsy, Safaa M. Youssef; Omara, Enayat A.; Sleem, Amany A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in the greatest amounts in citrus fruits. This study examined the effect of citric acid on endotoxin-induced oxidative stress of the brain and liver. Mice were challenged with a single intraperitoneal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 200 μg/kg). Citric acid was given orally at 1, 2, or 4 g/kg at time of endotoxin injection and mice were euthanized 4 h later. LPS induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver tissue, resulting in marked increase in lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]) and nitrite, while significantly decreasing reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) showed a pronounced increase in brain tissue after endotoxin injection. The administration of citric acid (1–2 g/kg) attenuated LPS-induced elevations in brain MDA, nitrite, TNF-α, GPx, and PON1 activity. In the liver, nitrite was decreased by 1 g/kg citric acid. GPx activity was increased, while PON1 activity was decreased by citric acid. The LPS-induced liver injury, DNA fragmentation, serum transaminase elevations, caspase-3, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression were attenuated by 1–2 g/kg citric acid. DNA fragmentation, however, increased after 4 g/kg citric acid. Thus in this model of systemic inflammation, citric acid (1–2 g/kg) decreased brain lipid peroxidation and inflammation, liver damage, and DNA fragmentation. PMID:24433072

  10. Protective effect of sodium cromoglycate on lipopolysaccharide-induced bronchial obstruction in asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Michel, O; Ginanni, R; Sergysels, R

    1995-11-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS, the major part of endotoxins) are bacterial proinflammatory substances which can induce in asthmatic patients after inhalation a bronchial obstruction with an increase in both histamine bronchial hyperresponsiveness and blood inflammatory markers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether an acute inhalation of sodium cromoglycate, an anti-inflammatory and membrane-stabilizating agent, can block the LPS-induced lung function response. Using a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover method, 7 asthmatic subjects were submitted, at 4 days' interval, to a bronchial challenge test with either solvent solution or LPS (20 micrograms) preceded by inhalation of sodium cromoglycate (10 mg) or placebo. Compared to the solvent reaction, LPS induced a significant bronchial obstruction [measured by both the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and the airway resistances] beginning at the 60th minute and lasting more than 300 min (p < 0.01, 2-way ANOVA). On the other hand, acute pretreatment with sodium cromoglycate significantly inhibited the LPS-induced bronchial obstruction. The total lung capacity did not change significantly after LPS inhalation. Thus, this study showed that in asthmatics the LPS-induced FEV1 response is blocked by acute treatment with sodium cromoglycate. Sodium cromoglycate could be an active treatment in asthmatics exposed to house dust containing endotoxin.

  11. Abnormal lipopolysaccharide binding protein as marker of gastrointestinal inflammation in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Gian D.; Shaikh, Maliha; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Ouyang, Bichun; Keshavarzian, Ali; Shannon, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: An inflammation-driven model of PD has been proposed based on the endotoxin lipopolysaccaride (LPS), a potential source of inflammation in the gastrointestinal system linked to neurotoxicity. Systemic exposure to bacterial endotoxin (LPS) can be determined by measuring plasma LPS binding protein (LBP). We aimed to evaluate whether lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) can be used to distinguish PD subjects from control subjects and to assess whether LBP levels correlate with PD disease severity. Methods: We measured plasma LBP (ng/ml) using an ELISA kit in 94 PD subjects of various stages and 97 control subjects. Disease severity was assessed using the UPDRS and Hoehn and Yahr staging. The LBP level between the PD and control groups was compared using analysis of covariance. Spearman correlation was used to explore the relationship between LBP level and disease severity. Results: The mean LBP level in PD subjects (n = 94) was significantly different from control subjects (n = 95, p = 0.018). In PD subjects, we did not find a correlation between mean LBP level and disease severity. Conclusions: Our data suggests that LBP is one GI biomarker related to LPS induced neurotoxicity. However, there was significant variability in LBP levels within the PD and control groups, limiting its utility as a stand-alone biomarker. This study supports the role of LPS induced neurotoxicity in PD and further exploration of this pathway may be useful in developing sensitive and specific biomarkers for PD. PMID:26388718

  12. Lipopolysaccharide Inhibits the Channel Activity of the P2X7 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Leiva-Salcedo, Elias; Coddou, Claudio; Rodríguez, Felipe E.; Penna, Antonello; Lopez, Ximena; Neira, Tanya; Fernández, Ricardo; Imarai, Mónica; Rios, Miguel; Escobar, Jorge; Montoya, Margarita; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo; Escobar, Alejandro; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays an important role during the immune response, participating in several events such as cytokine release, apoptosis, and necrosis. The bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the strongest stimuli of the immune response, and it has been shown that P2X7R activation can modulate LPS-induced responses. Moreover, a C-terminal binding site for LPS has been proposed. In order to evaluate if LPS can directly modulate the activity of the P2X7R, we tested several signaling pathways associated with P2X7R activation in HEK293 cells that do not express the TLR-4 receptor. We found that LPS alone was unable to induce any P2X7R-related activity, suggesting that the P2X7R is not directly activated by the endotoxin. On the other hand, preapplication of LPS inhibited ATP-induced currents, intracellular calcium increase, and ethidium bromide uptake and had no effect on ERK activation in HEK293 cells. In splenocytes-derived T-regulatory cells, in which ATP-induced apoptosis is driven by the P2X7R, LPS inhibited ATP-induced apoptosis. Altogether, these results demonstrate that LPS modulates the activity of the P2X7R and suggest that this effect could be of physiological relevance. PMID:21941410

  13. Gustatory-mediated avoidance of bacterial lipopolysaccharides via TRPA1 activation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Soldano, Alessia; Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Boonen, Brett; Franco, Luis; López-Requena, Alejandro; Liu, Guangda; Mora, Natalia; Yaksi, Emre; Voets, Thomas; Vennekens, Rudi; Hassan, Bassem A; Talavera, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Detecting pathogens and mounting immune responses upon infection is crucial for animal health. However, these responses come at a high metabolic price (McKean and Lazzaro, 2011, Kominsky et al., 2010), and avoiding pathogens before infection may be advantageous. The bacterial endotoxins lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are important immune system infection cues (Abbas et al., 2014), but it remains unknown whether animals possess sensory mechanisms to detect them prior to infection. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster display strong aversive responses to LPS and that gustatory neurons expressing Gr66a bitter receptors mediate avoidance of LPS in feeding and egg laying assays. We found the expression of the chemosensory cation channel dTRPA1 in these cells to be necessary and sufficient for LPS avoidance. Furthermore, LPS stimulates Drosophila neurons in a TRPA1-dependent manner and activates exogenous dTRPA1 channels in human cells. Our findings demonstrate that flies detect bacterial endotoxins via a gustatory pathway through TRPA1 activation as conserved molecular mechanism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13133.001 PMID:27296646

  14. Gustatory-mediated avoidance of bacterial lipopolysaccharides via TRPA1 activation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Soldano, Alessia; Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Boonen, Brett; Franco, Luis; López-Requena, Alejandro; Liu, Guangda; Mora, Natalia; Yaksi, Emre; Voets, Thomas; Vennekens, Rudi; Hassan, Bassem A; Talavera, Karel

    2016-06-14

    Detecting pathogens and mounting immune responses upon infection is crucial for animal health. However, these responses come at a high metabolic price (McKean and Lazzaro, 2011, Kominsky et al., 2010), and avoiding pathogens before infection may be advantageous. The bacterial endotoxins lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are important immune system infection cues (Abbas et al., 2014), but it remains unknown whether animals possess sensory mechanisms to detect them prior to infection. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster display strong aversive responses to LPS and that gustatory neurons expressing Gr66a bitter receptors mediate avoidance of LPS in feeding and egg laying assays. We found the expression of the chemosensory cation channel dTRPA1 in these cells to be necessary and sufficient for LPS avoidance. Furthermore, LPS stimulates Drosophila neurons in a TRPA1-dependent manner and activates exogenous dTRPA1 channels in human cells. Our findings demonstrate that flies detect bacterial endotoxins via a gustatory pathway through TRPA1 activation as conserved molecular mechanism.

  15. Interactions of a designed peptide with lipopolysaccharide: Bound conformation and anti-endotoxic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bhunia, Anirban; Chua, Geok Lin; Domadia, Prerna N.; Warshakoon, Hemamali; Cromer, Jens R.; David, Sunil A.; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2008-05-09

    Designed peptides that would selectively interact with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxin and fold into specific conformations could serve as important scaffolds toward the development of antisepsis compounds. Here, we describe solution structure of a designed amphipathic peptide, H{sub 2}N-YVKLWRMIKFIR-CONH{sub 2} (YW12D) in complex with endotoxin as determined by transferred nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy. The conformation of the isolated peptide is highly flexible, but undergoes a dramatic structural stabilization in the presence of LPS. Structure calculations reveal that the peptide presents two amphipathic surfaces in its bound state to LPS whereby each surface is characterized by two positive charges and a number of aromatic and/or aliphatic residues. ITC data suggests that peptide interacts with two molecules of lipid A. In activity assays, YW12D exhibits neutralization of LPS toxicity with very little hemolysis of red blood cells. Structural and functional properties of YW12D would be applicable in designing low molecular weight non-toxic antisepsis molecules.

  16. An in-vitro study of carbapenem-induced morphological changes and endotoxin release in clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Horii, T; Kobayashi, M; Sato, K; Ichiyama, S; Ohta, M

    1998-04-01

    One hundred clinical isolates, including Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis, were exposed to carbapenems (imipenem, panipenem, meropenem and biapenem) at 0.5 x MIC for 3 h, then their morphology was examined and endotoxin release determined. Ceftazidime, which induces filament formation, was used as a control. Scanning electron microscopy showed that these carbapenems induced formation of spherical or ovoid cells, except for P. aeruginosa treated with meropenem and biapenem; these latter cells had a 'bulge' midway along them and we have termed them 'oval-centred'. There was a relationship between morphology and the amount of endotoxin released following exposure to carbapenems or ceftazidime. Of all the species investigated, P. aeruginosa showed the most variable morphological changes. P. aeruginosa exposed to biapenem were longer oval-centred in shape, and released significantly more endotoxin than those exposed to imipenem, panipenem (spherical) or meropenem (shorter oval-centred cells) (P=0.030, 0.017 and 0.002, respectively). In all strains except P. aeruginosa, carbapenems induced significantly less endotoxin release than ceftazidime (P < 0.05).

  17. Endotoxins-the invisible companion in biomaterials research.

    PubMed

    Lieder, Ramona; Petersen, Pétur Henry; Sigurjónsson, Ólafur Eysteinn

    2013-10-01

    Metal implants and polymeric devices for the application in the clinical treatment of orthopedic tissue injuries are increasingly coated with bioactive biomaterials derived from natural substances to induce desirable biological effects. Many metals and polymers used in biomaterials research show high affinity for endotoxins, which are abundant in the environment. Endotoxin contamination is indicated in the pathology of periodontitis and aseptic implant loosening, but may also affect the evaluation of a biomaterial's bioactivity by inducing strong inflammatory reactions. In this review, we discuss the high affinity of three commonly used implant biomaterials for endotoxins and how the contamination can affect the outcome of the orthopedic fixation. The chemical nature of bacterial endotoxins and some of the clinical health implications are described, as this knowledge is critically important to tackle the issues associated with the measurement and removal of endotoxins from medical devices. Commonly used methods for endotoxin testing and removal from natural substances are examined and the lack of standard guidelines for the in vitro evaluation of biomaterials is discussed.

  18. Systemic endotoxin levels in chronic indolent periodontal infections

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, J. L.; Stevens, J.; Steffen, M. J.; Dawson, D.; Novak, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Periodontal disease has been linked with an increased risk of various systemic diseases. A plausible biologic explanation for this link includes the opportunity for oral pathogens to translocate to the circulation as a result of breakdown in integrity of the oral epithelium. This study refined a methodology used to detect endotoxin activity in the serum of subjects with indolent periodontal infections. Material and Methods: The QCL® Kinetic Chromogenic Assay (Cambrex) is a kinetic measure of endotoxin activity. Sera from 211 pregnant women with periodontitis enrolled in the Obstetrics and Periodontal Therapy Trial were used to develop the assay further and to evaluate the detection of endotoxin activity that might accompany a low-level bacteremia in chronic periodontitis. Results: We optimized the system to increase the sensitivity and reproducibility of the assay. The refined system was able to detect endotoxin activity in serum at > 0.0125 EU/mL. At baseline (13–16 wk of gestation), 35.5% of the women were positive for endotoxin activity (1.62 ± 2.21; range: 0.38–15 EU/mL). Conclusion: This report describes a sensitive measure of endotoxin activity in serum. The procedure allowed us to document levels of this microbial virulence factor in serum of individuals with indolent infections such as periodontal disease. PMID:20465752

  19. E. Coli

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? E. Coli KidsHealth > For Kids > E. Coli A A A What's in this article? What ... Doctor Do? What Can Kids Do? en español E. coli What Is It? E. coli is a common ...

  20. Inhibitory effect of BMAP-28 on Leptospiral Lipopolysaccharide-Induced TLR2-Dependent Immune Response in Bovine Cells

    PubMed Central

    GUO, Yijie; Ding, Cuiping; Zhang, Bo; XU, Jun; XUN, Meng; XU, Jiru

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease, leading to serious economic losses in animal production and causing potential hazards to human health. Leptospiral lipopolysaccharide (L-LPS) plays an important role in leptospirosis pathogenicity. Objectives With respect to L-LPS endotoxin-like activity, we examined bovine immune response to L-LPS and the inhibitory ability of bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide-28 (BMAP-28) against L-LPS-induced immune activation in bovine cells. Materials and Methods In this study, L-LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in bovine cells was quantitatively measured with real-time PCR and ELISA, and we determined which cell membrane receptors (toll-like receptor [TLR]2 and TLR4) played a major role. In addition, the ability of BMAP-28 to inhibit L-LPS-induced endotoxin-like immune activation in bovine cells was determined by the decrease in cytokine secretion. Results L-LPS showed the ability to induce cytokine production in bovine cells, and its induction was TLR2-dependent. BMAP-28 was used to inhibit L-LPS-induced endotoxin-like activity. The function of BMAP-28 was to inhibit LPS-induced TLR2 expression and cytokine production. Conclusions In this study, the L-LPS immune response of bovine cells was significant, indicating that TLR2 is the predominant receptor for L-LPS. Due to L-LPS endotoxin-like activity, we found a strategy through using BMAP-28 to prevent L-LPS-induced TLR2-dependent immune activation in bovine cells. PMID:27635213

  1. An Anti-Interleukin-2 Receptor Drug Attenuates T- Helper 1 Lymphocytes-Mediated Inflammation in an Acute Model of Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Navea, Amparo; Almansa, Inmaculada; Muriach, María; Bosch-Morell, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of Daclizumab, an anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug, in an experimental uveitis model upon a subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide into Lewis rats, a valuable model for ocular acute inflammatory processes. The integrity of the blood-aqueous barrier was assessed 24 h after endotoxin-induced uveitis by evaluating two parameters: cell count and protein concentration in aqueous humors. The histopathology of all the ocular structures (cornea, lens, sclera, choroid, retina, uvea, and anterior and posterior chambers) was also considered. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the aqueous humor samples were performed to quantify the levels of the different chemokine and cytokine proteins. Similarly, a biochemical analysis of oxidative stress-related markers was also assessed. The inflammation observed in the anterior chamber of the eyes when Daclizumab was administered with endotoxin was largely prevented since the aqueous humor protein concentration substantially lowered concomitantly with a significant reduction in the uveal and vitreous histopathological grading. Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon-γ, also significantly reduced with related anti-oxidant systems recovery. Daclizumab treatment in endotoxin-induced uveitis reduced Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon gamma, by about 60–70% and presented a preventive role in endotoxin-induced oxidative stress. This antioxidant protective effect of Daclizumab may be related to several of the observed Daclizumab effects in our study, including IL-6 cytokine regulatory properties and a substantial concomitant drop in INFγ. Concurrently, Daclizumab treatment triggered a significant reduction in both the uveal histopathological grading and protein concentration in aqueous humors, but not in cellular infiltration. PMID:24595020

  2. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away. PMID:25138294

  3. Endotoxin contamination of apolipoprotein A-I: effect on macrophage proliferation--a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xueting; Xu, Qing; Champion, Keith; Kruth, Howard S

    2015-05-01

    This technical report addresses the problem of endotoxin contamination of apolipoprotein reagents. Using a bromodeoxyuridine incorporation cell proliferation assay, we observed that human plasma ApoA-I as low as 1 μg/ml resulted in a >90% inhibition in macrophage proliferation. However, not all ApoA-I from different sources showed this effect. We considered the possibility that endotoxin contamination of the apolipoproteins contributed to the differential inhibition of macrophage cell proliferation. Endotoxin alone very potently inhibited macrophage proliferation (0.1 ng/ml inhibited macrophage proliferation>90%). Measurement of endotoxin levels in the apolipoprotein products, including an analysis of free versus total endotoxin, the latter which included endotoxin that was masked due to binding to protein, suggested that free endotoxin mediated inhibition of macrophage proliferation. Despite the use of an advanced endotoxin removal procedure and agents commonly used to inhibit endotoxin action, the potency of endotoxin precluded successful elimination of endotoxin effect. Our findings show that endotoxin contamination can significantly influence apparent apolipoprotein-mediated cell effects (or effects of any other biological products), especially when these products are tested on highly endotoxin-sensitive cells, such as macrophages.

  4. Determination of water quality variables, endotoxin concentration, and Enterobacteriaceae concentration and identification in southern High Plains dairy lagoons.

    PubMed

    Purdy, C W; Clark, R N; Straus, D C

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration of endotoxin, determine 20 water quality variables, and identify and enumerate fungal and bacterial pathogens from United States southern High Plains dairy lagoons and control lakes during summer and winter. Water samples were collected in triplicate from the north, south, east, and west quadrants of each body of water. The mean (+/- SEM) winter dairy lagoon endotoxin concentration was significantly higher (9,678+/-1,834 ng/mL) than the summer concentration (3,220+/-810 ng/mL). The mean endotoxin concentration of the 2 control lakes (summer: 58.1+/-8.8 ng/mL; winter: 38.6+/-4.2 ng/mL) was significantly less than that of the dairy lagoons. Two hundred-one Salmonella enterica spp. isolates were identified, 7 serovars were recovered from the dairy lagoons, and 259 Salmonella ssp. were identified from 5 other dairy locations (milk barn, ditch effluent, settling basin, feed alley pad flush, and center pivots). Twenty-eight Salmonella spp. were identified from center pivot water. Escherichia coli O157:H7 pathogens were isolated from other dairy locations but not from lagoons. Neither Salmonella spp. nor E. coli O157:H7 were identified from control lakes. Enterobacteriaceae opportunistic pathogens were isolated from both dairies and control lakes. Important mesophilic and thermophilic catabolic (to manure biosolids) fungal isolates were identified from dairy effluent locations, but no thermophilic fungal isolates were cultured from the control lakes. Adequate curing of green forage following center pivot irrigation is important to kill lagoon water enteric pathogens, even though the lagoon water is mixed with fresh water. Recirculating lagoon water to flush the feed alley pad, where cows stand while eating, to remove manure and using lagoon water to abate dairy dust in loafing pens and unimproved dairy roads is inconsistent with good environmental practice management.

  5. MMP-3 Deficiency Alleviates Endotoxin-Induced Acute Inflammation in the Posterior Eye Segment

    PubMed Central

    Van Hove, Inge; Lefevere, Evy; De Groef, Lies; Sergeys, Jurgen; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Libert, Claude; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn; Moons, Lieve

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) is known to mediate neuroinflammatory processes by activating microglia, disrupting blood–central nervous system barriers and supporting neutrophil influx into the brain. In addition, the posterior part of the eye, more specifically the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the blood–retinal barrier, is affected upon neuroinflammation, but a role for MMP-3 during ocular inflammation remains elusive. We investigated whether MMP-3 contributes to acute inflammation in the eye using the endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) model. Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide induced an increase in MMP-3 mRNA and protein expression level in the posterior part of the eye. MMP-3 deficiency or knockdown suppressed retinal leukocyte adhesion and leukocyte infiltration into the vitreous cavity in mice subjected to EIU. Moreover, retinal and RPE mRNA levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (Icam1), interleukin 6 (Il6), cytokine-inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (Nos2) and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα), which are key molecules involved in EIU, were clearly reduced in MMP-3 deficient mice. In addition, loss of MMP-3 repressed the upregulation of the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1). These findings suggest a contribution of MMP-3 during EIU, and its potential use as a therapeutic drug target in reducing ocular inflammation. PMID:27809288

  6. Limulus amebocyte lysate assay for endotoxins by an adsorption method with polycation-immobilized cellulose beads.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Masayo; Inoue, Tomofumi; Todokoro, Masami; Kunitake, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    To assay lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in solutions containing Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-inhibiting or LAL-enhancing compounds, we developed a selective endotoxin (LPS) assay using poly(epsilon-lysine)-immobilized cellulose beads (PL-Cellufine) and LAL. The PL-Cellufine can adsorb LPSs in a solution containing certain compounds (NaCl, proteins and amino acids) at an ionic strength of mu = 0.05-0.4 at neutral pH. The LPSs adsorbed on the PL-Cellufine were separated from the compounds by centrifugation and then the PL-Cellufine was suspended in LPS-free water. The LPS activities of the suspension are directly assayed by a turbidimetric time assay with the LAL reagent. The accuracy of the adsorption method was high compared with those of common solution methods. As for the common method, the apparent recovery of LPS from the compounds was 40-95%. This suggests that these compounds inhibit the LAL procedure. By contrast, the adsorption method showed good LPS recovery (88-120%) in all cases, without being inhibited or enhanced by the compounds.

  7. Impact of endotoxin exposure after exhausting exercise on the immune system in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Königsrainer, Ingmar; Löffler, Markus; Bühler, Sarah; Walter, Michael; Schafbuch, Luana; Beckert, Stefan; Glatzle, Jörg; Horvath, Philipp; Northoff, Hinnak; Nadalin, Silvio; Königsrainer, Alfred; Zieker, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Subsequent to prolonged exhausting exercise a transient immunosuppression is often observed in athletes. This so-called "open window" results in a reduced resistance of the athletes to viral and bacterial infections after an exhaustive exercise bout. Concerning the effect of bacterial endotoxin contact after exhausting exercise in transplant recipients, who are innately immunosuppressed by their medication, no data exists at present. After performing 81 km cycling, including ascending more than 1800 m in altitude, peripheral blood from 10 male kidney transplant recipients and from 10 healthy controls matched for age and gender was obtained. Simulating contact of the athletes with a pathogen post-exercise, the blood samples were incubated with Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Thereafter microarray analysis was performed. Microarray analysis revealed a markedly oppositional pattern of gene expression in transplant recipients compared with their controls after LPS incubation. Especially immune response genes were significantly over-represented in controls immediately after the exhaustive exercise bout with LPS stimulation, whereas numerous apoptotic genes were over-represented in transplant recipients. Merging our previous data with these recent findings it should be discussed if transplant recipients need to reduce their immunosuppressive medication before performing exhaustive exercise.

  8. The aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor pathway exerts anti-inflammatory effects in endotoxin-induced uveitis.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Elodie; Zhao, Min; Ly, André; Leroux Les Jardins, Guillaume; Goldenberg, Brigitte; Naud, Marie-Christine; Jonet, Laurent; Besson-Lescure, Bernadette; Jaisser, Frederic; Farman, Nicolette; De Kozak, Yvonne; Behar-Cohen, Francine

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that the eye is a mineralocorticoid-sensitive organ and we now question the role of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in ocular inflammation. The endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU), a rat model of human intraocular inflammation, was induced by systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Evaluations were made 6 and 24 hours after intraocular injection of aldosterone (simultaneous to LPS injection). Three hours after onset of EIU, the MR and the glucocorticoid metabolizing enzyme 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) expression were down-regulated in iris/ciliary body and the corticosterone concentration was increased in aqueous humor, altering the normal MR/glucocorticoid receptor (GR) balance. At 24 hours, the GR expression was also decreased. In EIU, aldosterone reduced the intensity of clinical inflammation in a dose-dependent manner. The clinical benefit of aldosterone was abrogated in the presence of the MR antagonist (RU26752) and only partially with the GR antagonist (RU38486). Aldosterone reduced the release of inflammatory mediators (6 and 24 hours: TNF-α, IFN-γ, MIP-1α) in aqueous humor and the number of activated microglia/macrophages. Aldosterone partly prevented the uveitis-induced MR down-regulation. These results suggest that MR expression and activation in iris/ciliary body could protect the ocular structures against damages induced by EIU.

  9. Niacinamide abrogates the organ dysfunction and acute lung injury caused by endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Kao, Shang-Jyh; Liu, Demeral David; Su, Chain-Fa; Chen, Hsing I

    2007-09-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) synthabse (PARS) or polymerase (PARP) is a cytotoxic enzyme causing cellular damage. Niacinamide inhibits PARS or PARP. The present experiment tests the effects of niacinamide (NCA) on organ dysfunction and acute lung injury (ALI) following lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS was administered to anesthetized rats and to isolated rat lungs. In anesthetized rats, LPS caused systemic hypotension and increased biochemical factors, nitrate/nitrite (NOx), methyl guanidine (MG), tumor necrosis factoralpha (TNFalpha), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). In isolated lungs, LPS increased lung weight (LW) to body weight ratio, LW gain, protein and dye tracer leakage, and capillary permeability. The insult also increased NOx, MG, TNFalpha, and IL-1beta in lung perfusate, while decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content with an increase in PARP activity in lung tissue. Pathological examination revealed pulmonary edema with inflammatory cell infiltration. These changes were abrogated by posttreatment (30 min after LPS) with NCA. Following LPS, the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression was increased. NCA reduced the iNOS expression. Niacinamide exerts protective effects on the organ dysfunction and ALI caused by endotoxin. The mechanisms may be mediated through the inhibition on the PARP activity, iNOS expression and the subsequent suppression of NO, free radicals, and proinflammatory cytokines with restoration of ATP.

  10. Endotoxin promotes neutrophil hierarchical chemotaxis via the p38-membrane receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Qin, Weiting; Zhang, Yisen; Zhang, Huafeng; Sun, Bingwei

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in peripheral blood and play critical a role in bacterial infection, tumor immunity and wound repair. Clarifying the process of neutrophil chemotaxis to target sites of immune activity has been a focus of increased interest within the past decade. In bacterial infectious foci, neutrophils migrate toward the bacterial-derived chemoattractant N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) and ignore other intermediary chemoattractants to arrive at the area of infection. Using an under agarose chemotaxis assay, we observed that the bacterial fMLP-induced neutrophil chemotaxis signal overrode interleukin 8 (IL-8)- and leukotriene B4 (LTB4)-induced chemotaxis signals. Moreover, in the presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the fMLP-induced hierarchical chemotaxis signal was enhanced. Further studies revealed that LPS increased the membrane expression of the fMLP receptor, formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1). However, expression levels of the membrane receptors for IL-8 and LTB4 were decreased by LPS administration. A human Phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) proteome array showed that the p38 pathway was significantly activated by LPS stimulation. Moreover, p38 was responsible for the altered expression of neutrophil membrane chemoattractant receptors. Inhibition of neutrophil p38 restored LPS-improved hierarchical chemotaxis. Taken together, these data indicate that endotoxin promotes neutrophil hierarchical chemotaxis via the p38-membrane receptor pathway. PMID:27655676

  11. Hepatic prolactin binding is rapidly altered by endotoxin in lactating mice

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, J.K.; Keefer, L.M.; Cohen, J.C.

    1987-09-21

    Endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, produces profound physiologic changes in most mammals. The effects of LPS on ovine prolactin (oPRL) binding by hepatic membranes of lactating mice is explored in this report. Specific /sup 125/I-oPRL binding by liver membranes from LPS-responder C3HfB/HeN mice increased two-fold within fifteen minutes of the injection of LPS, while no change was observed in the non-responder C3H/HeJ mice. Specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding did not change. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium binding of oPRL to C3HfB/HeN liver membranes indicated that within fifteen minutes of LPS injection, a receptor of differing binding affinity appears and then disappears by one hour post-injection. The authors propose that these rapid alterations in the specific binding of oPRL by liver membranes from LPS-injected, lactating C3HfB/HeN mice are due to the transient creation or unmasking of a novel class of PRL receptor. 32 references, 6 figures.

  12. [Effect of bacterial endotoxin on migration of gonadotropin-releasing, hormone producing neurons in rat embryogenesis].

    PubMed

    Sharova, V S; Izvol'skaia, M S; Voronova, S N; Zakharova, L A

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS), immune system activator, on differentiation and migration of gonadotropin-releasing, hormone producing neurons in rat embryogenesis has been studied. Intraperitoneal introduction of LPS (18 jg/kg) to pregnant rats on the 12th day of pregnancy led to 50% decrease in total number of GRH-neurons in the forebrain of 17-day-old embryos and 17% decrease in 19-day-old embryos. At the same time, the number of GRH-neurons in the nasal area of the head of 17- and 19-day-old embryos increased by 40 and 50%, respectively, whereas it increased by 20% in olfactory bulbs of 17-day-old embryos and did not changed in olfactory bulbs of 19-day-old embryos. Neither the total number of neurons nor their distribution patterns were affected by the introduction of LPS into pregnant rats on the 15th day of pregnancy. Singular localization of GRH-neurons in embryo forebrain was observed after LPS administration, whereas the neurons were located by groups of 3-4 cells in rostral areas. Therefore, at the early stages of pregnancy, LPS was shown to suppress initial stages of differentiation and migration of GRH producing neurons. The effects observed in our study may be mediated by LPS-induced, proinflammatory cytokines.

  13. Expression Profile of Cationic Amino Acid Transporters in Rats with Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shu-Wen; Lee, Yi-An; Kao, Tzu-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The transcellular arginine transportation via cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) is the rate-limiting step in nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, which is crucial in intraocular inflammation. In this study, CAT isoforms and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was investigated in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). Methods. EIU was induced in Lewis rats by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. In the treatment group, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib before EIU induction. After 24 hours, leukocyte quantification, NO measurement of the aqueous humor, and histopathological examination were evaluated. The expression of CAT isoforms and iNOS was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) binding activity was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 was used to validate the in vivo findings. Results. LPS significantly stimulated iNOS, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B mRNA and protein expression but did not affect CAT-1 in EIU rats and RAW 264.7 cells. Bortezomib attenuated inflammation and inhibited iNOS, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B expression through NF-κB inhibition. Conclusions. CAT-2 and iNOS, but not CAT-1, are specifically involved in EIU. NF-κB is essential in the induction of CAT-2 and iNOS in EIU. PMID:27413255

  14. Endotoxin increases pulmonary vascular protein permeability in the dog

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, C.H.; Dauber, I.M.; Weil, J.V.

    1986-10-01

    Endotoxin increases pulmonary vascular permeability consistently in some species but fails to reliably cause injury in the dog. We wondered whether this phenomenon depended on the method of injury assessment, as others have relied on edema measurement; we quantified injury by monitoring the rate of extravascular protein accumulation. /sup 113m/In-labeled protein and /sup 99m/Tc-labeled erythrocytes were injected into anesthetized dogs and monitored by an externally placed lung probe. A protein leak index, the rate of extravascular protein accumulation, was derived from the rate of increase in lung protein counts corrected for changes in intravascular protein activity. After administration of Salmonella enteriditis endotoxin (4 micrograms/kg), the protein leak index was elevated 2.5-fold (41.1 +/- 4.6 X 10(-4) min-1) compared with control (16.0 +/- 2.8 X 10(-4) min-1). In contrast, wet-to-dry weight ratios failed to increase after endotoxin (4.6 +/- 0.8 vs. control values of 4.2 +/- 0.5 g/g dry bloodless lung). However, we observed that endotoxin increased lung dry weight (per unit body weight), which may have attenuated the change in wet-to-dry weight ratios. To determine whether low microvascular pressures following endotoxin attenuated edema formation, we increased pulmonary arterial wedge pressures in five dogs by saline infusion, which caused an increase in wet-to-dry weight ratios following endotoxin but no change in the five controls. We conclude that low dose endotoxin causes pulmonary vascular protein leak in the dog while edema formation is minimal or absent.

  15. Deciphering the dual effect of lipopolysaccharides from plant pathogenic Pectobacterium.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Kettani-Halabi; Daniel, Tran; Aurélien, Dauphin; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Rafik, Errakhi; Arbelet-Bonnin, Delphine; Biligui, Bernadette; Florence, Val; Mustapha, Ennaji Moulay; François, Bouteau

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are a component of the outer cell surface of almost all Gram-negative bacteria and play an essential role for bacterial growth and survival. Lipopolysaccharides represent typical microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecules and have been reported to induce defense-related responses, including the expression of defense genes and the suppression of the hypersensitive response in plants. However, depending on their origin and the challenged plant, LPS were shown to have complex and different roles. In this study we showed that LPS from plant pathogens Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum induce common and different responses in A. thaliana cells when compared to those induced by LPS from non-phytopathogens Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among common responses to both types of LPS are the transcription of defense genes and their ability to limit of cell death induced by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp carotovorum. However, the differential kinetics and amplitude in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation seemed to regulate defense gene transcription and be determinant to induce programmed cell death in response to LPS from the plant pathogenic Pectobacterium. These data suggest that different signaling pathways could be activated by LPS in A. thaliana cells.

  16. LOW-DOSE AIRBORNE ENDOTOXIN EXPOSURE ENHANCES BRONCHIAL RESPONSIVENESS TO INHALED ALLERGEN IN ATOPIC ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endotoxin exposure has been associated with both protection against development of TH2-immune responses during childhood and exacerbation of asthma in persons who already have allergic airway inflammation.1 Occupational and experimental inhalation exposures to endotoxin have been...

  17. Histological analysis of the association between formocresol and endotoxin in the subcutaneous tissue of mice.

    PubMed

    Sant'anna, Ana Teresa; Spolidório, Luis Carlos; Ramalho, Lizeti Toledo Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    This study performed a histological analysis of the effect of formocresol associated to endotoxin (LPS) in the subcutaneous connective tissue of mice. Ninety mice were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=30). Each animal received one plastic tube implant containing endotoxin solution (10 mg/mL), formocresol (original formula) or a mixture of endotoxin and formocresol. The endotoxin and formocresol groups served as controls. The periods of analysis were 7, 15 and 30 days. At each experimental period, tissue samples were collected and submitted to routine processing for histological analysis. Endotoxin and formocresol produced necrosis and chronic inflammation at 7 and 15 days. At 30 days, the endotoxin group showed no necrosis, while in the formocresol group necrosis persisted. The formocresol-endotoxin association produced necrosis and chronic inflammation in the same way as observed with formocresol at all experimental periods. In conclusion, formocresol seems not to be able to inactive the toxic effects of endotoxin in connective tissues.

  18. Male adolescent rats display blunted cytokine responses in the CNS after acute ethanol or lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    PubMed

    Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Gano, Anny; Paniccia, Jacqueline E; Deak, Terrence

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol induces widespread changes in cytokine expression, with recent data from our laboratory having demonstrated that, during acute ethanol intoxication, adult rats exhibit consistent increases in interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA expression in several brain regions, while showing reductions in IL-1 and TNFα expression. Given evidence indicating that adolescence may be an ontogenetic period in which some neuroimmune processes and cells may not yet have fully matured, the purpose of the current experiments was to examine potential age differences in the central cytokine response of adolescent (P31-33days of age) and adult (69-71days of age) rats to either an acute immune (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) or non-immune challenge (ethanol). In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of either sterile saline, LPS (250μg/kg), or ethanol (4-g/kg), and then trunk blood and brain tissue were collected 3h later for measurement of blood ethanol concentrations (BECs), plasma endotoxin, and central mRNA expression of several immune-related gene targets. In Experiment 2, the response to intragastrically (i.g.) administered ethanol was examined and compared to animals given tap water (i.g.). Results showed that LPS stimulated robust increases in expression of IL-1, IL-6, TNFα, and IκBα in the hippocampus, PVN, and amygdala, and that these increases were generally less pronounced in adolescents relative to adults. Following an i.p. ethanol challenge, IL-6 and IκBα expression was significantly increased in both ages in the PVN and amygdala, and adults exhibited even greater increases in IκBα than adolescents. I.g. administration of ethanol also increased IL-6 and IκBα expression in all three brain regions, with hippocampal IL-6 elevated even more so in adults compared to adolescents. Furthermore, assessment of plasma endotoxin concentrations revealed (i) whereas robust increases in plasma endotoxin were observed in adults injected with LPS

  19. Exposure to airborne endotoxins among sewer workers: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Duquenne, Philippe; Ambroise, Denis; Görner, Pierre; Clerc, Frédéric; Greff-Mirguet, Guylaine

    2014-04-01

    Exploratory bioaerosol sampling was performed in order to assess exposure to airborne endotoxins during sewer work. Personal samples were collected in underground sewer pipes using 37-mm closed-face cassettes containing fibreglass filters (CFC-FG method) or polycarbonate filters (CFC-PC method). Endotoxins were quantified using the limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Concentrations of airborne endotoxins at sewer workplaces (16-420 EU m(-3)) were higher than those measured outside the sewer network (0.6-122 EU m(-3)). Sewer worker exposure to airborne endotoxins depended on the workplace and on the tasks. Exposure levels were the highest for tasks involving agitation of water and matter, especially for 'chamber cleanup' and 'pipes cleanup' with a high-pressure water jet. Airborne endotoxin levels at the workplace tended to be higher when CFC-FG was used as the sampling method rather than CFC-PC. The adjusted mean of the measured concentrations for CFC-PC represents 57% of the mean observed with CFC-FG. The number of samples collected in the descriptive study was too low for drawing definitive conclusions and further exposure investigations are needed. Therefore, our exploratory study provides new exposure data for the insufficiently documented sewer working environment and it would be useful for designing larger exposures studies.

  20. Evolution of endotoxin contamination during production of a therapeutic serum.

    PubMed

    Massaldi, Hugo; Morais, Victor

    2007-01-01

    A comparative bench-scale study of endotoxin contamination is presented for two common processes of immunoglobulin purification from equine plasma: ammonium sulphate fractionation of F(ab')2 fragments and caprylic acid precipitation of non-IgG proteins. To this end, both processes were carried out under normal sterile conditions, using sanitized material and equipment and optimal water quality in a clean but open environment. Stream samples, taken at different stages from each process, were analyzed for endotoxin content by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test. It was found that exogenous contamination preferentially came from endotoxins already present in reagents and/or raw materials, whereas contamination from the environment was minimal. Endogenous endotoxin accumulation, concomitant with the concentration of proteins during processing, was found to be an important factor. With classic technology, blood extraction and sterilizing filtration are critical points for both processes. It is concluded that sterility is not a sufficient condition to obtain an endotoxin-free product. Only with proper sanitization of material, and by applying the caprylic acid purification process with a starting plasma below 4-5 EU/mL, would it be possible to achieve a final product within the norm.

  1. Prevention of cardiac damage induced by formyl-leurosine, a potent cytostatic agent, by radio-detoxified endotoxin (Tolerin) in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Bertok, L.; Juhasz-Nagy, A.; Sotonyi, P.

    1984-08-01

    Radio-detoxified endotoxin (Tolerin), produced by /sup 60/Co-gamma irradiation of Escherichia coli 089 endotoxin, can protect dogs against the acute cardiotoxic side-effects of formyl-leurosine, a semi-synthetic Vinca derivative with promising antineoplastic potency. Formyl-leurosine induces a rapid decrease in arterial blood pressure and diminishes the contractile force of the myocardium in the anaesthetized dog. These responses indicate a direct pharmacologic relaxant effect of the drug on the heart and vasculature smooth muscle. The early cardiovascular depression is of short duration and is unaffected by Tolerin. Tolerin can prevent, however, the secondary, more dangerous phase of circulatory depression that is associated with the severe cardiotoxic manifestations of the drug, as demonstrated by hemodynamic and morphologic (light and electronmicroscopic) patterns.

  2. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus... From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus... From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus... From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus... From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin...

  6. The effect of bacterial endotoxin of phagocytosis of Tetrahymena and serotonin induced imprinting.

    PubMed

    Kovács, G; Nagy, S U; Csaba, G

    1986-01-01

    Endotoxin inhibited the phagocytosis of Tetrahymena pyriformis after a short exposure and, to a lesser degree, after repeated treatments during one week (about 35 generations). Endotoxin also prevented the development of serotonin imprinting. Detoxified endotoxin (Tolerin) affected the phagocytosis of Tetrahymena much less, indicating that the lipid-A part of the molecule may account for the membrane-toxic effect.

  7. Biosynthesis and export of bacterial lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Chris; Trent, M Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide molecules represent a unique family of glycolipids based on a highly conserved lipid moiety known as lipid A. These molecules are produced by most gram-negative bacteria, in which they play important roles in the integrity of the outer-membrane permeability barrier and participate extensively in host-pathogen interplay. Few bacteria contain lipopolysaccharide molecules composed only of lipid A. In most forms, lipid A is glycosylated by addition of the core oligosaccharide that, in some bacteria, provides an attachment site for a long-chain O-antigenic polysaccharide. The complexity of lipopolysaccharide structures is reflected in the processes used for their biosynthesis and export. Rapid growth and cell division depend on the bacterial cell's capacity to synthesize and export lipopolysaccharide efficiently and in large amounts. We review recent advances in those processes, emphasizing the reactions that are essential for viability.

  8. Personal endotoxin exposure in a panel study of school children with asthma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Endotoxin exposure has been associated with asthma exacerbations and increased asthma prevalence. However, there is little data regarding personal exposure to endotoxin in children at risk, or the relation of personal endotoxin exposure to residential or ambient airborne endotoxin. The relation between personal endotoxin and personal air pollution exposures is also unknown. Methods We characterized personal endotoxin exposures in 45 school children with asthma ages 9-18 years using 376 repeated measurements from a PM2.5 active personal exposure monitor. We also assayed endotoxin in PM2.5 samples collected from ambient regional sites (N = 97 days) and from a subset of 12 indoor and outdoor subject home sites (N = 109 and 111 days, respectively) in Riverside and Whittier, California. Endotoxin was measured using the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate kinetic chromogenic assay. At the same time, we measured personal, home and ambient exposure to PM2.5 mass, elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC). To assess exposure relations we used both rank correlations and mixed linear regression models, adjusted for personal temperature and relative humidity. Results We found small positive correlations of personal endotoxin with personal PM2.5 EC and OC, but not personal PM2.5 mass or stationary site air pollutant measurements. Outdoor home, indoor home and ambient endotoxin were moderately to strongly correlated with each other. However, in mixed models, personal endotoxin was not associated with indoor home or outdoor home endotoxin, but was associated with ambient endotoxin. Dog and cat ownership were significantly associated with increased personal but not indoor endotoxin. Conclusions Daily fixed site measurements of endotoxin in the home environment may not predict daily personal exposure, although a larger sample size may be needed to assess this. This conclusion is relevant to short-term exposures involved in the acute exacerbation of asthma. PMID:21810249

  9. Antibiotic-induced release of endotoxin in chronically bacteriuric patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, J C; Louis, W J; Tosolini, F A; Carlin, J B

    1991-01-01

    A novel in vivo model for the study of antibiotic-induced release of endotoxin from gram-negative bacteria is described. The model uses the chronically colonized urinary tracts of patients whose spinal cords have been injured. At baseline, the organisms were present in the range of 1 x 10(3) to 2 x 10(7) CFU/ml, and the concentration of endotoxin ranged from 2 x 10(-1) to 1 x 10(3) ng/ml in 44 studies. In 10 control studies, the concentration of endotoxin and the numbers of viable gram-negative bacteria over time changed by an average of less than 0.15 log10 units from the baseline values. At 2 h after antibiotic administration, the average decrease in CFU was 0.93 log10 units, and because antibiotics cause the release of endotoxin, an average increase in endotoxin concentration of 0.59 log10 units was noted in 21 studies with susceptible bacteria. Similar changes in response to antibiotic exposure were seen in studies with susceptible Pseudomonas bacteria in comparison with those seen in studies with susceptible members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. These results provide evidence that this novel model may be useful for comparing the effects of antibiotics with different modes of action, both as single agents and in combination, on the concentration of endotoxin in relation to changes in the numbers of bacteria, under conditions of bacterial replication and antibiotic exposure more closely resembling those found in vivo than is possible in other models. PMID:1804012

  10. Evaluation of quantification methods of occupational endotoxin exposure.

    PubMed

    Liebers, V; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Linsel, G; Goldscheid, N; Düser, M; Stubel, H; Brüning, Th

    2007-11-01

    Endotoxin has been identified as important component of organic-dust exposure and is suspected as main cause of work-related adverse health effects in dusty areas. Although the determination of endotoxin levels by using the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay is internationally accepted, reliability and variation of values measured with this test remain a point of discussion. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine the influence of different parameters on endotoxin activity measured in airborne samples. This study thus analyzed: (a) dust filter extraction procedures, (b) storage of samples, (c) usage of different commercially available LAL assays, and (d) results of the whole blood assay (WBA) compared to the LAL test. Using a parallel sampler, 120 filters were loaded with dust at 4 different occupational settings and extracted in 2 labs using a standardized protocol. Parameters like Tween in the extraction medium, extraction volume, centrifugation speed, and material of tubes used for extraction were tested. The LAL test and the WBA were able to determine the differences in dust load of filters obtained from the settings investigated. In addition, results varied significantly with modifications in extraction procedures. Using Tween for filter extraction mainly influenced the resulting endotoxin activity. In addition, LAL test differences according to manufacturer of LAL test, extraction volume, and whether the samples are freshly processed or frozen also resulted in significant variations in the endotoxin levels. In conclusion, a reliable assessment of exposure to endotoxin activity is only possible if standard operation procedures (SOPs) for sampling and determination are established.

  11. Occurrence of endotoxin in dialysis fluid from 39 dialysis units.

    PubMed

    Kulander, L; Nisbeth, U; Danielsson, B G; Eriksson, O

    1993-05-01

    Endotoxin exposure during haemodialysis may cause acute and chronic adverse reactions. In order to estimate the risk to the patient, samples of dialysis fluid from 39 of the 45 dialysis units in Sweden were analysed by the chromogenic Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Higher levels were obtained after the usual weekend shutdowns. The length of the tubing delivering the reverse osmosis water seemed to influence the extent of contamination. Fifty-nine percent of the units showed low mean endotoxin levels (i.e. mean concentration below the recommended limit in Sweden: < 25 ng l-1), while 18% of units had high levels (mean concentration > 100 ng l-1).

  12. Effect of endotoxin and radio-detoxified endotoxin on the serum T4 level of rats and response of their thyroid gland to exogenous TSH

    SciTech Connect

    Bertok, L.; Nagy, S.U.

    1984-12-01

    Experiments were performed to demonstrate that, while the shock-inducing dose of parent (toxic) endotoxin significantly decreases the serum T4 level of rats and inhibits the T4 response given to exogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), the radio-detoxified (/sup 60/Co-gamma, 150 kGy) endotoxin preparation does not inhibit the response to exogenous TSH. It also decreases serum T4 level to a lesser extent than untreated endotoxin.

  13. Biosynthesis of mycobacterial methylglucose lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Vitor; Maranha, Ana; Alarico, Susana; Empadinhas, Nuno

    2012-08-01

    Mycobacterial pathogenesis is closely associated with a unique cell envelope rich in complex carbohydrates and unique lipids, among which are the mycolic acids. Mycobacteria also synthesize unique intracellular polymethylated polysaccharides (PMPSs), namely methylglucose lipopolysaccharides (MGLPs), which are acylated with short-chain fatty acids, and methylmannose polysaccharides (MMPs). Since PMPSs modulate the synthesis of long-chain fatty acids in vitro, the possibility of a similar role in vivo and the regulation of mycolic acids assembly have been anticipated. Unlike MGLPs, MMPs have been identified in M. smegmatis and other fast-growing mycobacteria but not in M. tuberculosis, implying an essential role for MGLPs in this pathogen and turning the biosynthetic enzymes into attractive drug targets. The genome of M. tuberculosis was decoded 14 years ago but only recently has the identity of the genes involved in MGLPs biosynthesis been investigated. Two gene clusters (Rv1208-Rv1213 and Rv3030-Rv3037c) containing a few genes considered to be essential for M. tuberculosis growth, have initially been proposed to coordinate MGLPs biosynthesis. Among these genes, only the product of Rv1208 for the first step in the MGLPs pathway has, so far, been crystallized and its three-dimensional structure been determined. However, recent results indicate that at least three additional clusters may be involved in this pathway. The functional assignment of authentic roles to some of these M. tuberculosis H37Rv genes sheds new light on the intricacy of MGLPs biogenesis and renewed interest on their biological role.

  14. Airborne endotoxin concentrations in indoor and outdoor particulate matter and their predictors in an urban city.

    PubMed

    Yoda, Y; Tamura, K; Shima, M

    2017-02-04

    Endotoxins are an important biological component of particulate matter and have been associated with adverse effects on human health. There have been some recent studies on airborne endotoxin concentrations. We collected fine (PM2.5 ) and coarse (PM10-2.5 ) particulate matter twice on weekdays and weekends each for 48 hour, inside and outside 55 homes in an urban city in Japan. Endotoxin concentrations in both fractions were measured using the kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay. The relationships between endotoxin concentrations and household characteristics were evaluated for each fraction. Both indoor and outdoor endotoxin concentrations were higher in PM2.5 than in PM10-2.5 . In both PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 , indoor endotoxin concentrations were higher than outdoor concentrations, and the indoor endotoxin concentrations significantly correlated with outdoor concentrations in each fraction (R(2) =0.458 and 0.198, respectively). Indoor endotoxin concentrations in PM2.5 were significantly higher in homes with tatami or carpet flooring and in homes with pets, and lower in homes that used air purifiers. Indoor endotoxin concentrations in PM10-2.5 were significantly higher in homes with two or more children and homes with tatami or carpet flooring. These results showed that the indoor endotoxin concentrations were associated with the household characteristics in addition to outdoor endotoxin concentrations.

  15. Endotoxin levels in settled airborne dust in European schools: the HITEA school study.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J H; Krop, E J M; Borras-Santos, A; Zock, J-P; Taubel, M; Hyvarinnen, A; Pekkanen, J; Doekes, G; Heederik, D J J

    2014-04-01

    Indoor exposure to microbial agents is known to influence respiratory health. Besides home exposure, exposure in schools can affect respiratory health. In this study, we measured endotoxin in settled dust in primary schools in three European countries from three different geographical regions with different climates. Our aim was to characterize endotoxin levels in primary schools and evaluate associations with potential determinants. Endotoxin levels were repeatedly assessed in 23 schools in Spain (n = 7), the Netherlands (n = 10), and Finland (n = 6) using electrostatic dustfall collectors. In total, 645 measurements were taken in 237 classrooms. Endotoxin levels differed significantly between countries; Dutch schools had the highest levels, while Finnish schools showed the lowest levels. In each country, differences in endotoxin levels were observed between schools and over the sampling periods. Estimates improved after adjustment for sampling period. Factors affecting endotoxin levels in a school differed per country. In general, endotoxin levels were higher in lower grades and in classrooms with higher occupancy. School endotoxin levels may contribute significantly to total endotoxin exposure in children and teachers. As the correlation between the repeated measurements is reasonable, single endotoxin measurements form a reasonable basis for estimating annual endotoxin levels in schools.

  16. A Cytophaga species endotoxin as a putative agent of occupation-related lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, D K; Deck, F H; Hood, M A; Liebert, C; Singleton, F; Winzenburger, P; Bishop, K; Smith, L R; Bynum, L M; Witmer, W B

    1984-01-01

    A previous study suggested that a biologically active bacterial endotoxin was a putative agent of lung disease in a textile-producing facility. The endotoxin was isolated from the biomass growing in a chilled-water spray air humidification system. The bacterial flora of the air humidification system were isolated and taxonomically identified to the genus level. By using indirect immunofluorescence assays, a serologically reactive Cytophaga species was identified. A serologically reactive, biologically active (Limulus assay) endotoxin was purified from phenol extracts of the Cytophaga species. The endotoxin contained sugars, hexosamines, and lipids identical to those found in the humidifier biomass endotoxin. All subjects with biopsy-proven and suspected lung disease had antibodies directed toward the purified Cytophaga endotoxin. The data suggest that the Cytophaga endotoxin is the putative agent of lung disease in the textile facility. PMID:6360896

  17. Novel Bacillus thuringiensis δ-Endotoxin Active against Locusta migratoria manilensis ▿

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan; Lei, Cheng-Feng; Yi, Dan; Liu, Peng-Ming; Gao, Mei-Ying

    2011-01-01

    A novel δ-endotoxin gene was cloned from a Bacillus thuringiensis strain with activity against Locusta migratoria manilensis by PCR-based genome walking. The sequence of the cry gene was 3,432 bp long, and it encoded a Cry protein of 1,144 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 129,196.5 kDa, which exhibited 62% homology with Cry7Ba1 in the amino acid sequence. The δ-endotoxin with five conserved sequence blocks in the amino-terminal region was designated Cry7Ca1 (GenBank accession no. EF486523). Protein structure analysis suggested that the activated toxin of Cry7Ca1 has three domains: 227 residues forming 7 α-helices (domain I); 213 residues forming three antiparallel β-sheets (domain II); and 134 residues forming a β-sandwich (domain III). The three domains, respectively, exhibited 47, 44, and 34% sequence identity with corresponding domains of known Cry toxins. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis showed that Cry7Ca1, encoded by the full-length open reading frame of the cry gene, the activated toxin 1, which included three domains but without the N-terminal 54 amino acid residues and the C terminus, and the activated toxin 2, which included three domains and N-terminal 54 amino acid residues but without the C terminus, could be expressed in Escherichia coli. Bioassay results indicated that the expressed proteins of Cry7Ca1 and the activated toxins (toxins 1 and 2) showed significant activity against 2nd instar locusts, and after 7 days of infection, the estimated 50% lethal concentrations (LC50s) were 8.98 μg/ml for the expressed Cry7Ca1, 0.87 μg/ml for the activated toxin 1, and 4.43 μg/ml for the activated toxin 2. The δ-endotoxin also induced histopathological changes in midgut epithelial cells of adult L. migratoria manilensis. PMID:21441319

  18. Endotoxin contamination and control in surface water sources and a drinking water treatment plant in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Can, Zhang; Wenjun, Liu; Wen, Sun; Minglu, Zhang; Lingjia, Qian; Cuiping, Li; Fang, Tian

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, endotoxin contamination was determined in treated water following each unit of a drinking water treatment plant (WTP) in Beijing, China and its source water (SW) from a long water diversion channel (Shijiazhuang-Beijing) originating from four reservoirs in Hebei province, China. The total-endotoxin activities in SW ranged from 21 to 41 EU/ml at five selected cross sections of the diversion channel. The total-endotoxin in raw water of the WTP ranged from 11 to 16 EU/ml due to dilution and pretreatment during water transportation from Tuancheng Lake to the WTP, and finished water of the WTP ranged from 4 to 10 EU/ml, showing a 49% decrease following the full-scale treatment process at the WTP. Compared with the 31% removal of free-endotoxin, the WTP removed up to 71% of bound-endotoxin in raw water. The traditional treatment processes (coagulation, sedimentation and filtration) in the WTP removed substantial amounts of total-endotoxin (up to 63%), while endotoxin activities increased after granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption and chlorination. The total-endotoxin in the actual water was composed of free-endotoxin and bound-endotoxin (endotoxin aggregates, bacteria-bound endotoxins and particle-attached endotoxins). The endotoxin aggregates, bacteria-bound endotoxins and particle-attached endotoxins co-exist as suspended particles in water, and only the bacteria-bound endotoxins were correlated with bacterial cells suspended in water. The particle distribution of endotoxin aggregates in ultrapure water was also tested and the results showed that the majority (64-89%) of endotoxin aggregates had diameters <2 μm. The endotoxin contamination and control in treated water following each unit of the WTP processes and its SW from reservoirs are discussed and compared with regard to bacterial cell counts and particle characteristics, which were dependent, to a certain extent, on different flow rates and turbulence of the water environments.

  19. Effect of lipopolysaccharide structure on reactivity of antiporin monoclonal antibodies with the bacterial cell surface.

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, A T; Klebba, P E

    1988-01-01

    We studied the reactivity of 66 anti-Escherichia coli B/r porin monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with several E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium strains. Western immunoblots showed complete immunological cross-reactivity between E. coli B/r and K-12; among 34 MAbs which recognized porin in immunoblots of denatured outer membranes of E. coli B/r, all reacted with OmpF in denatured outer membranes of E. coli K-12. Extensive reactivity, although less than that for strain B/r (31 of 34 MAbs), occurred for porin from a wild-type isolate, E. coli O8:K27. Only one of the MAbs reacted with porin in denatured outer membranes of S. typhimurium. Even with immunochemical amplification of the Western immunoblot technique, only six MAbs recognized S. typhimurium porin (OmpD), demonstrating that there is significant immunological divergence between the porins of these species. Antibody binding to the bacterial surface, which was analyzed by cytofluorimetry, was strongly influenced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure. An intact O antigen, as in E. coli O8:K27, blocked adsorption of all 20 MAbs in the test panel. rfa+ E. coli K-12, without an O antigen but with an intact LPS core, bound seven MAbs. When assayed against a series of rfa E. coli K-12 mutants, the number of MAbs that recognized porin surface epitopes increased sequentially as the LPS core became shorter. A total of 17 MAbs bound porin in a deep rough rfaD strain. Similar results were obtained with S. typhimurium. None of the anti-E. coli B/r porin MAbs adsorbed to a smooth strain, but three antibodies recognized porin on deep rough (rfaF, rfaE) mutants. These data define six distinct porin surface epitopes that are shielded by LPS from reaction with antibodies. Images PMID:2830227

  20. Endotoxin-induced abortion in early pregnant gilts and its prevention by flunixin meglumine.

    PubMed

    Cort, N; Kindahl, H

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effect of endotoxin on early pregnancy in gilts and to test the potential of flunixin meglumine (FM), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, to counteract abortifacient action of the endotoxin. Ten gilts at 30 days gestation were used in the experiment. Eight were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Salmonella typhimurium, while 2 were treated with 500 micrograms cloprostenol (CP). Six of the LPS-injected gilts were treated with a total of 4 mg/kg body weight FM in 2 different dose regimens. Clinical observations were recorded and plasma levels of 15-keto-13, 14-dihydro-PGF2 alpha, progesterone and estrone sulfate (ES) were determined with radioimmunoassay. LPS induced typical signs of endotoxemia and a monophasic fever in all LPS-treated gilts. No antipyretic effect of FM was observed. The CP-treated gilts aborted within 34 h as did the gilts treated by LPS only. Of the 6 LPS + FM-treated gilts, 1 aborted within 34 h, while 5 maintained gestation. These were aborted about a week later by CP and the aborted fetuses anatomically examined. Two of the litters were lost (devoured by the dams), 2 showed no signs of earlier death and 1 showed extensive fetal death. The PGF2 alpha metabolite concentrations increased at least 10 fold immediately after the LPS injection. Progesterone plasma concentration decreased rapidly. A 5-10 fold increase in the plasma metabolite levels accompanied all abortions. CP caused no immediate change in the PGF2 alpha metabolite levels, but the abortion-related response was similar to that in LPS-injected gilts. In the FM-treated gilts, the LPS-induced PGF2 alpha metabolite response was rudimentary and the progesterone decrease temporary in nonaborting gilts. The elevated concentrations of ES decreased within 48 h in gilts aborting at 30 days gestation, while in nonaborting gilts a slow, graduate decrease of ES occurred within 3-5 days of the LPS injection. These results indicate that FM apparently

  1. Integrating Murine Gene Expression Studies to Understand Obstructive Lung Disease Due to Chronic Inhaled Endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Peggy S.; Hofmann, Oliver; Baron, Rebecca M.; Cernadas, Manuela; Meng, Quanxin Ryan; Bresler, Herbert S.; Brass, David M.; Yang, Ivana V.; Schwartz, David A.; Christiani, David C.; Hide, Winston

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Endotoxin is a near ubiquitous environmental exposure that that has been associated with both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These obstructive lung diseases have a complex pathophysiology, making them difficult to study comprehensively in the context of endotoxin. Genome-wide gene expression studies have been used to identify a molecular snapshot of the response to environmental exposures. Identification of differentially expressed genes shared across all published murine models of chronic inhaled endotoxin will provide insight into the biology underlying endotoxin-associated lung disease. Methods We identified three published murine models with gene expression profiling after repeated low-dose inhaled endotoxin. All array data from these experiments were re-analyzed, annotated consistently, and tested for shared genes found to be differentially expressed. Additional functional comparison was conducted by testing for significant enrichment of differentially expressed genes in known pathways. The importance of this gene signature in smoking-related lung disease was assessed using hierarchical clustering in an independent experiment where mice were exposed to endotoxin, smoke, and endotoxin plus smoke. Results A 101-gene signature was detected in three murine models, more than expected by chance. The three model systems exhibit additional similarity beyond shared genes when compared at the pathway level, with increasing enrichment of inflammatory pathways associated with longer duration of endotoxin exposure. Genes and pathways important in both asthma and COPD were shared across all endotoxin models. Mice exposed to endotoxin, smoke, and smoke plus endotoxin were accurately classified with the endotoxin gene signature. Conclusions Despite the differences in laboratory, duration of exposure, and strain of mouse used in three experimental models of chronic inhaled endotoxin, surprising similarities in gene expression were observed

  2. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part II--Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens--focus on grain dust, other agricultural dusts and wood dust.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Skórska, Czesława; Góra-Florek, Anna; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans, a Gram-negative bacterium developing in a variety of plants as epiphyte or endophyte is particularly common in grain and grain dust, and has been identified by an interdisciplinary group from Lublin, eastern Poland, as a causative agent of work-related diseases associated with exposure to grain dust and other agricultural dusts. The concentration of P. agglomerans in grain as well as in the settled grain and flour dust was found to be high, ranging from 10(4)-10(8) CFU/g, while in the air polluted with grain or flour dust it ranged from 10(3)-10(5) CFU/m(3) and formed 73.2-96% of the total airborne Gram-negative bacteria. The concentration of P. agglomerans was also relatively high in the air of the facilities processing herbs and other plant materials, while it was lower in animal farms and in wood processing facilities. Pantoea agglomerans produces a biologically-potent endotoxin (cell wall lipopolysaccharide, LPS). The significant part of this endotoxin occurs in dusts in the form of virus-sized globular nanoparticles measuring 10-50 nm that could be described as the 'endotoxin super-macromolecules'. A highly significant relationship was found (R=0.804, P=0.000927) between the concentration of the viable P. agglomerans in the air of various agricultural and wood industry settings and the concentration of bacterial endotoxin in the air, as assessed by the Limulus test. Although this result may be interfered by the presence of endotoxin produced by other Gram-negative species, it unequivocally suggests the primary role of the P. agglomerans endotoxin as an adverse agent in the agricultural working environment, causing toxic pneumonitis (ODTS). Numerous experiments by the inhalation exposure of animals to various extracts of P. agglomerans strains isolated from grain dust, including endotoxin isolated with trichloroacetic acid (LPS-TCA), endotoxin nanoparticles isolated in sucrose gradient (VECN), and mixture of proteins and endotoxin obtained

  3. Streptomycetes in house dust: associations with housing characteristics and endotoxin

    EPA Science Inventory

    In addition to mold, indoor bioaerosols also contain bacterial components that may have implications for human health. Endotoxin is a cell wall component in Gram-negative bacteria present at varying levels indoors that has been found to have respiratory health implications. Stre...

  4. Fighting the stranger-antioxidant protection against endotoxin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cadenas, Susana; Cadenas, Ana M

    2002-10-30

    Septic shock is a serious problem in critically ill and surgical patients throughout the world. It is a systemic inflammatory response caused by excessive secretion of proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, mainly induced by endotoxin, a major component of the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane. Experimental evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be important mediators of cellular injury during endotoxemia, either as a result of macromolecular damage or by interfering with extracellular and intracellular regulatory processes. In addition, nitric oxide is thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. This review begins with a brief overview of the toxic effects of endotoxin at organism level, paying particular attention to cardiovascular damage. It continues by analysing the mechanism by which endotoxin is recognized by specific cells of the immune system, which then respond to bacterial infection and the pathway leading to nuclear factor-kappaB activation and proinflammatory gene transcription. With regard to this process, the review focuses on the involvement of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Lastly, the protective role of antioxidants against endotoxin toxicity and their potential clinical use is discussed.

  5. Endotoxin-induced mortality in rats is reduced by nitrones

    SciTech Connect

    Hamburger, S.A.; McCay, P.B. )

    1989-12-01

    The goal of these investigations was to determine if nitrone spin-trapping agents can alter mortality associated with endotoxemia in the rat. Reactive free radicals attack nitrone spin-trapping agents forming relatively reactive, persistent free radical spin adducts. We administered 85 mM (10 ml/kg) of alpha-phenyl N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN), alpha-4-pyridyl-N-oxide N-tert-butyl nitrone (4-POBN), 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), or vehicle (saline i.p.) 30 min before endotoxin (25 mg/kg i.p.) or vehicle to Sprague-Dawley (SD) or Holtzman virus-free (HVF) rats (n = 10-17/group). All vehicle-treated rats receiving endotoxin were dead by 1 day. At 7 days, 83% of PBN-treated SD, 42% of PBN- or POBN-treated HVF, and 25% of DMPO-treated HVF rats were alive. The difference in survival of PBN-treated animals between strains may reflect the higher susceptibility of HVF rats to endotoxin. The observed reduction in mortality may be related to the well-established capacity of spin-trapping agents to capture reactive free radicals that may be generated in target tissues in response to endotoxin, and that would otherwise react with cell components and produce tissue injury.

  6. Identification of tumor necrosis factor as a transcriptional regulator of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene following endotoxin treatment of mice.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, M R; McCallum, R E

    1992-01-01

    The decreased synthesis of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), the rate-limiting enzyme of gluconeogenesis, that occurs during endotoxemia was shown previously in rats to occur at the transcriptional level. In the current study, the exogenous administration of human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a proximal mediator of endotoxic shock, reduced the PEPCK transcription rate, mRNAPEPCK levels, and PEPCK enzyme activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner in CD-1 mice. Comparable amounts of circulating TNF were measured in mice 2 h after injection of human recombinant TNF (10(5) U) or a 50% lethal dose of Escherichia coli endotoxin (20 mg/kg). Direct action of TNF to decrease the PEPCK transcription rate was confirmed in vitro with H-4-II-E Reuber hepatoma cells, in which a dose-dependent inhibition of PEPCK transcription was observed with 1 to 100 U of TNF per ml. A role for TNF-elicited changes in PEPCK gene expression during endotoxemia was confirmed by the protective effect of rabbit polyclonal antibodies to recombinant murine TNF. C57BL/6 mice passively immunized with anti-TNF 4 h prior to endotoxin challenge exhibited normal PEPCK enzyme activity. Neutralization of circulating TNF with anti-TNF failed, however, to prevent the hypoglycemia commonly observed during endotoxemia, suggesting the participation of other mediators. Anti-TNF treatment reduced circulating interleukins 1 and 6 at 3 and 6 h after endotoxin treatment, respectively. These results suggest that during endotoxemia, the development of hypoglycemia is multifaceted and that several cytokines are most likely involved. The findings from the Reuber hepatoma cell model afford an opportunity in future work to map putative cytokine response elements in the PEPCK promoter responsible for perturbed hormonal regulation of the gene during endotoxemia. PMID:1398916

  7. [Characterization of Pantoea agglomerans lipopolysaccharides].

    PubMed

    Varbanets, L D; Brovarskaya, O S; Bulygina, T N; Garkavaya, E G; Zhitkevich, N V

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from seven Pantoea agglomerans strains isolated from various plants were purified and chemically identified. LPS of the studied P. agglomerans strains were heterogeneous in monosaccharide composition. Thus, the LPS of P. agglomerans 8606 differed considerably from the LPSs of other strains, containing mannose as the predominant monosaccharide (69.8%), as well as ribose (15.1%) and xylose (12.6%), while the content of rhamnose, one of the predominant monosaccharides in other LPS samples, was 2.5%. Analysis of the fatty acid composition revealed the presence of C12-C16 acids. In lipids A of all the studied strains, 3-OH-C14:0 was the predominant acid (31.7 to 39.1%, depending on the strain). C12:0 (8.2 to 31.5%), C14:0 (12.9 to 30.8%), and C16:0 acids (3.4 to 16.9%) were also revealed. The studied P. agglomerans strains fell into three groups according to their fatty acid composition. The differences stemmed from the presence or absence of two fatty acids, 2-OH-C14:0 and C16:1. Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion in agar revealed that all the LPS under study exhibited antigenic activity in homologous systems. The results of serological cross reactions indicated immunochemical heterogeneity of the species P. agglomerans. Comparative investigation of the complex of parameters of peripheral blood cells from a healthy donor before and after treatment with LPS solutions showed that the values of no parameters exceeded the normal range.

  8. Protective phenotypes of club cells and alveolar macrophages are favored as part of endotoxin-mediated prevention of asthma

    PubMed Central

    García, Luciana N; Leimgruber, Carolina; Uribe Echevarría, Elisa M; Acosta, Patricio L; Brahamian, Jorge M; Polack, Fernando P; Miró, María S; Quintar, Amado A; Sotomayor, Claudia E

    2014-01-01

    Atopic asthma is a chronic allergic disease that involves T-helper type 2 (Th2)-inflammation and airway remodeling. Bronchiolar club cells (CC) and alveolar macrophages (AM) are sentinel cells of airway barrier against inhaled injuries, where allergy induces mucous metaplasia of CC and the alternative activation of AM, which compromise host defense mechanisms and amplify Th2-inflammation. As there is evidence that high levels of environmental endotoxin modulates asthma, the goal of this study was to evaluate if the activation of local host defenses by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) previous to allergy development can contribute to preserving CC and AM protective phenotypes. Endotoxin stimulus before allergen exposition reduced hallmarks of allergic inflammation including eosinophil influx, Interleukin-4 and airway hyperreactivity, while the T-helper type 1 related cytokines IL-12 and Interferon-γ were enhanced. This response was accompanied by the preservation of the normal CC phenotype and the anti-allergic proteins Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP) and Surfactant-D, thereby leading to lower levels of CC metaplasia and preventing the increase of the pro-Th2 cytokine Thymic stromal lymphopoietin. In addition, classically activated alveolar macrophages expressing nitric oxide were promoted over the alternatively activated ones that expressed arginase-1. We verified that LPS induced a long-term overexpression of CCSP and the innate immune markers Toll-like receptor 4, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, changes that were preserved in spite of the allergen challenge. These results demonstrate that LPS pre-exposition modifies the local bronchioalveolar microenvironment by inducing natural anti-allergic mechanisms while reducing local factors that drive Th2 type responses, thus modulating allergic inflammation. PMID:25504013

  9. Protective phenotypes of club cells and alveolar macrophages are favored as part of endotoxin-mediated prevention of asthma.

    PubMed

    García, Luciana N; Leimgruber, Carolina; Uribe Echevarría, Elisa M; Acosta, Patricio L; Brahamian, Jorge M; Polack, Fernando P; Miró, María S; Quintar, Amado A; Sotomayor, Claudia E; Maldonado, Cristina A

    2015-07-01

    Atopic asthma is a chronic allergic disease that involves T-helper type 2 (Th2)-inflammation and airway remodeling. Bronchiolar club cells (CC) and alveolar macrophages (AM) are sentinel cells of airway barrier against inhaled injuries, where allergy induces mucous metaplasia of CC and the alternative activation of AM, which compromise host defense mechanisms and amplify Th2-inflammation. As there is evidence that high levels of environmental endotoxin modulates asthma, the goal of this study was to evaluate if the activation of local host defenses by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) previous to allergy development can contribute to preserving CC and AM protective phenotypes. Endotoxin stimulus before allergen exposition reduced hallmarks of allergic inflammation including eosinophil influx, Interleukin-4 and airway hyperreactivity, while the T-helper type 1 related cytokines IL-12 and Interferon-γ were enhanced. This response was accompanied by the preservation of the normal CC phenotype and the anti-allergic proteins Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP) and Surfactant-D, thereby leading to lower levels of CC metaplasia and preventing the increase of the pro-Th2 cytokine Thymic stromal lymphopoietin. In addition, classically activated alveolar macrophages expressing nitric oxide were promoted over the alternatively activated ones that expressed arginase-1. We verified that LPS induced a long-term overexpression of CCSP and the innate immune markers Toll-like receptor 4, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, changes that were preserved in spite of the allergen challenge. These results demonstrate that LPS pre-exposition modifies the local bronchioalveolar microenvironment by inducing natural anti-allergic mechanisms while reducing local factors that drive Th2 type responses, thus modulating allergic inflammation.

  10. Endotoxin suppresses expression of apoprotein E by mouse macrophages in vivo and in culture: a biochemical and genetic study

    SciTech Connect

    Werb, Z.; Chin, J.R.

    1983-09-10

    The synthesis and secretion of apo-E, a component of plasma lipoproteins, are suppressed in mouse macrophages exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) in culture or in vivo. Control mouse macrophages contained intracellular immunofluorescent apo-E, and apo-E represented about 10% of secreted protein. After intraperitoneal injection of LPS, freshly lavaged macrophages neither contained intracellular apo-E nor secreted apo-E. The suppressive effects of LPS and apo-E synthesis in culture were selective, and secretion of many other major macrophage proteins was not affected. When then LPS-elicited macrosphages were cultured for 24-72 h in the absence of LPS, synthesis of apo-E was initiated. Treatment of bone marrow-derived or peritoneal macrophages in culture with less than 1 ng of LPS/ml inhibited apo-E synthesis and secretion by 18 h of treatment. Although LPS stimulates prostaglandin E/sub 2/ synthesis, prostaglandin E/sub 2/ itself did not suppress apo-E synthesis. Macrophages from C3H/HeJ (Lps/sup d//Lps/sup d/) mice, which are resistant to LPS, were neither primed for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production nor suppressed for apo-E synthesis in response to LPS in vivo (30 ..mu..g/mouse) or in culture (1..mu../ml), whereas macrophages from the co-isogenic C3H/HeN (Lps/sup n//Lps/sup n/) strain were induced for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ secretion and had suppressed synthesis of apo-E. Because apo-E serves as a recognition determinant for the receptor-mediated clearance of lipoproteins, the decreased synthesis of apo-E after LPS treatment may in part explain the hyperlipoproteinemia associated with endotoxins in vivo.

  11. Cloning and characterization of two Serratia marcescens genes involved in core lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Guasch, J F; Piqué, N; Climent, N; Ferrer, S; Merino, S; Rubires, X; Tomas, J M; Regué, M

    1996-01-01

    Bacteriocin 28b from Serratia marcescens binds to Escherichia coli outer membrane proteins OmpA and OmpF and to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core (J. Enfedaque, S. Ferrer, J. F. Guasch, J. Tomás, and M. Requé, Can. J. Microbiol. 42:19-26, 1996). A cosmid-based genomic library of S. marcescens was introduced into E. coli NM554, and clones were screened for bacteriocin 28b resistance phenotype. One clone conferring resistance to bacteriocin 28b and showing an altered LPS core mobility in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was found. Southern blot experiments using DNA fragments containing E. coli rfa genes as probes suggested that the recombinant cosmid contained S. marcescens genes involved in LPS core biosynthesis. Subcloning, isolation of subclones and Tn5tac1 insertion mutants, and sequencing allowed identification of two apparently cotranscribed genes. The deduced amino acid sequence from the upstream gene showed 80% amino acid identity to the KdtA protein from E. coli, suggesting that this gene codes for the 3-deoxy-manno-octulosonic acid transferase of S. marcescens. The downstream gene (kdtX) codes for a protein showing 20% amino acid identity to the Haemophilus influenzae kdtB gene product. The S. marcescens KdtX protein is unrelated to the KdtB protein of E. coli K-12. Expression of the kdtX gene from S. marcescens in E. coli confers resistance to bacteriocin 28b. PMID:8824620

  12. Septin: a factor in plasma that opsonizes lipopolysaccharide-bearing particles for recognition by CD14 on phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We have previously reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding protein (LBP) opsonizes endotoxin (LPS) for recognition by CD14 on phagocytes. Here we show that normal human plasma contains high titers of an activity that also binds LPS (Re, 595) and mediates recognition by CD14. Opsonization of LPS-coated particles with plasma enables the particles to be bound by phagocytes. Further, opsonization with plasma also enables subnanogram-per-milliliter concentrations of LPS to induce dramatic alterations in the function of leukocyte integrins on polymorphonuclear leukocytes and to induce secretion of tumor necrosis factor by monocytes, suggesting that opsonization by factors in plasma may be important in responses of cells to endotoxin. The opsonic activity in plasma appears distinct from LBP since it is not blocked by neutralizing antibodies against LBP. Surprisingly, the opsonic activity of plasma is not present in a single protein species, but at least two species must be combined to observe activity. Further, the opsonic activity of plasma for LPS is blocked by addition of protease inhibitors, suggesting that proteolytic activity or activities are required for opsonization. These properties are suggestive of the action of a protease cascade, but opsonic activity of plasma is not affected by blockade or depletion of either the complement or clotting cascades. We propose the name "septin" to describe this novel LPS- opsonizing activity in plasma. PMID:1380975

  13. Isolation of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli from a South American Camelid (Lama guanicoe) with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, E. C.; Rodríguez, S. M.; Elizondo, A. M.; Marcoppido, G.; Parreño, V.

    2004-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli belonging to serotype O26:H11 was isolated from a 2-month-old guanaco with severe watery diarrhea. E. coli colonies carried the stx1 and eae genes, showed localized adherence to HEp-2 cells, and produced enterohemolysin. A serological response to lipopolysaccharide O26 was observed at the onset of diarrhea. PMID:15472347

  14. Lipopolysaccharide preconditioning facilitates M2 activation of resident microglia after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kentaro; Okazaki, Rentaro; Morioka, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Kozo; Tanaka, Sakae; Ogata, Toru

    2014-12-01

    The inflammatory response following spinal cord injury (SCI) has both harmful and beneficial effects; however, it can be modulated for therapeutic benefit. Endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning, a well-established method for modifying the immune reaction, has been shown to attenuate damage induced by stroke and brain trauma in rodent models. Although such effects likely are conveyed by tissue-repairing functions of the inflammatory response, the mechanisms that control the effects have not yet been elucidated. The present study preconditioned C57BL6/J mice with 0.05 mg/kg of LPS 48 hr before inducing contusion SCI to investigate the effect of LPS preconditioning on the activation of macrophages/microglia. We found that LPS preconditioning promotes the polarization of M1/M2 macrophages/microglia toward an M2 phenotype in the injured spinal cord on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemical analyses. Flow cytometric analyses reveal that LPS preconditioning facilitates M2 activation in resident microglia but not in infiltrating macrophages. Augmented M2 activation was accompanied by vascularization around the injured lesion, resulting in improvement in both tissue reorganization and functional recovery. Furthermore, we found that M2 activation induced by LPS preconditioning is regulated by interleukin-10 gene expression, which was preceded by the transcriptional activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3, as demonstrated by Western blotting and an IRF-3 binding assay. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that LPS preconditioning has a therapeutic effect on SCI through the modulation of M1/M2 polarization of resident microglia. The present study suggests that controlling M1/M2 polarization through endotoxin signal transduction could become a promising therapeutic strategy for various central nervous system diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Restriction map of the 125-kilobase plasmid of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis carrying the genes that encode delta-endotoxins active against mosquito larvae.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Dov, E; Einav, M; Peleg, N; Boussiba, S; Zaritsky, A

    1996-01-01

    A large plasmid containing all delta-endotoxin genes was isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis; restricted by BamHI, EcoRI, HindIII, KpnI, PstI, SacI, and SalI; and cloned as appropriate libraries in Escherichia coli. The libraries were screened for inserts containing recognition sites for BamHI, SacI, and SalI. Each was labeled with 32P and hybridized to Southern blots of gels with fragments generated by cleaving the plasmid with several restriction endonucleases, to align at least two fragments of the relevant enzymes. All nine BamHI fragments and all eight SacI fragments were mapped in two overlapping linkage groups (with total sizes of about 76 and 56 kb, respectively). The homology observed between some fragments is apparently a consequence of the presence of transposons and repeated insertion sequences. Four delta-endotoxin genes (cryIVB-D and cytA) and two genes for regulatory polypeptides (of 19 and 20 kDa) were localized on a 21-kb stretch of the plasmid; without cytA, they are placed on a single BamHI fragment. This convergence enables subcloning of delta-endotoxin genes (excluding cryIVA, localized on the other linkage group) as an intact natural fragment. PMID:8795201

  16. Rapid detection of bacterial endotoxins in drinking water and renovated wastewater.

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, J H; Lee, J C; Pahren, H R

    1976-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using the Limulus endotoxin assay to detect endotoxins in potable waters and from reclaimed advanced waste treatment (AWT) plant effluents. Water samples were tested using both Limulus lysates prepared in our laboratory and a commercial product, Difco Pyrotest. The Limulus assay procedure was easily adapted to the testing of water samples for endotoxin. Measured endotoxin concentrations varied from 0.78 ng/ml to 1,250 ng/ml. Levels of endotoxin were not predictable based on whether the water was drinking water or AWT water, i.e., some AWT water samples had less endotoxin activity than some samples of drinking water, and some AWT waters had greater endotoxin activity than drinking water. Only three of the water samples tested were free of any detectable endotoxin. Breakpoint chlorination procedures seemed to reduce measurable endotoxin content, whereas passage through activated carbon columns was associated with greater final endotoxin concentrations in test waters. PMID:791115

  17. Endotoxins in indoor air and settled dust in primary schools in a subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-09-03

    Endotoxins can significantly affect the air quality in school environments. However, there is currently no reliable method for the measurement of endotoxins, and there is a lack of reference values for endotoxin concentrations to aid in the interpretation of measurement results in school settings. We benchmarked the "baseline" range of endotoxin concentration in indoor air, together with endotoxin load in floor dust, and evaluated the correlation between endotoxin levels in indoor air and settled dust, as well as the effects of temperature and humidity on these levels in subtropical school settings. Bayesian hierarchical modeling indicated that the concentration in indoor air and the load in floor dust were generally (<95th percentile) <13 EU/m(3) and <24,570 EU/m(2), respectively. Exceeding these levels would indicate abnormal sources of endotoxins in the school environment and the need for further investigation. Metaregression indicated no relationship between endotoxin concentration and load, which points to the necessity for measuring endotoxin levels in both the air and settled dust. Temperature increases were associated with lower concentrations in indoor air and higher loads in floor dust. Higher levels of humidity may be associated with lower airborne endotoxin concentrations.

  18. Endotoxin depletion of recombinant protein preparations through their preferential binding to histidine tags.

    PubMed

    Mack, Laura; Brill, Boris; Delis, Natalia; Groner, Bernd

    2014-12-01

    The presence of endotoxins in preparations of recombinantly produced therapeutic proteins poses serious problems for patients. Endotoxins can cause fever, respiratory distress syndromes, intravascular coagulation, or endotoxic shock. A number of methods have been devised to remove endotoxins from protein preparations using separation procedures based on molecular mass or charge properties. Most of the methods are limited in their endotoxin removal capacities and lack general applicability. We are describing a biotechnological approach for endotoxin removal. This strategy exploits the observation that endotoxins form micelles that expose negative charges on their surface, leading to preferential binding of endotoxins to cationic surfaces, allowing the separation from their resident protein. Endotoxins exhibit high affinity to stretches of histidines, which are widely used tools to facilitate the purification of recombinant proteins. They bind to nickel ions and are the basis for protein purification from cellular extracts by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. We show that the thrombin-mediated cleavage of two histidine tags from the purified recombinant protein and the adsorption of these histidine tags and their associated endotoxins to a nickel affinity column result in an appreciable depletion of the endotoxins in the purified protein fraction.

  19. Endotoxin-induced skeletal muscle wasting is prevented by angiotensin-(1-7) through a p38 MAPK-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Morales, María Gabriela; Olguín, Hugo; Di Capua, Gabriella; Brandan, Enrique; Simon, Felipe; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy induced during sepsis syndrome produced by endotoxin in the form of LPS (lipopolysaccharide), is a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass, an increase in MHC (myosin heavy chain) degradation, and an increase in the expression of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 (muscle-specific RING-finger protein 1), two ubiquitin E3 ligases belonging to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Ang-(1-7) [Angiotensin-(1-7)], through its Mas receptor, has beneficial effects in skeletal muscle. We evaluated in vivo the role of Ang-(1-7) and Mas receptor on the muscle wasting induced by LPS injection into C57BL/10J mice. In vitro studies were performed in murine C2C12 myotubes and isolated myofibres from EDL (extensor digitorum longus) muscle. In addition, the participation of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) in the Ang-(1-7) effect on the LPS-induced muscle atrophy was evaluated. Our results show that Ang-(1-7) prevents the decrease in the diameter of myofibres and myotubes, the decrease in muscle strength, the diminution in MHC levels and the induction of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expression, all of which are induced by LPS. These effects were reversed by using A779, a Mas antagonist. Ang-(1-7) exerts these anti-atrophic effects at least in part by inhibiting the LPS-dependent activation of p38 MAPK both in vitro and in vivo. We have demonstrated for the first time that Ang-(1-7) counteracts the skeletal muscle atrophy induced by endotoxin through a mechanism dependent on the Mas receptor that involves a decrease in p38 MAPK phosphorylation. The present study indicates that Ang-(1-7) is a novel molecule with a potential therapeutic use to improve muscle wasting during endotoxin-induced sepsis syndrome.

  20. A pilot investigation of the relative toxicity of indoor and outdoor fine particles: in vitro effects of endotoxin and other particulate properties.

    PubMed Central

    Long, C M; Suh, H H; Kobzik, L; Catalano, P J; Ning, Y Y; Koutrakis, P

    2001-01-01

    In this study we assessed the in vitro toxicity of 14 paired indoor and outdoor PM(2.5) samples (particulate matter < or =2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) collected in 9 Boston-area homes. Samples were collected as part of a large indoor particle characterization study that included the simultaneous measurement of indoor and outdoor PM(2.5), particle size distributions, and compositional data (e.g., elemental/organic carbon, endotoxin, etc.). Bioassays were conducted using rat alveolar macrophages (AMs), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was measured to assess particle-induced proinflammatory responses. Additional experiments were also conducted in which AMs were primed with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to simulate preexisting pulmonary inflammation such as that which might exist in sick and elderly individuals. Significant TNF production above that of negative controls was observed for AMs exposed to either indoor or outdoor PM(2.5). TNF releases were further amplified for primed AMs, suggesting that preexisting inflammation can potentially exacerbate the toxicity of not only outdoor PM(2.5) (as shown by previous studies) but also indoor PM(2.5). In addition, indoor particle TNF production was found to be significantly higher than outdoor particle TNF production in unprimed AMs, both before and after normalization for endotoxin concentrations. Our results suggest that indoor-generated particles may be more bioactive than ambient particles. Endotoxin was demonstrated to mediate proinflammatory responses for both indoor and outdoor PM(2.5), but study findings suggest the presence of other proinflammatory components of fine particles, particularly for indoor-generated particles. Given these study findings and the fact that people spend 85-90% of their time indoors, future studies are needed to address the toxicity of indoor particles. PMID:11689347

  1. Endotoxins associated with cyanobacteria and their removal during drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Rapala, Jarkko; Lahti, Kirsti; Räsänen, Leena A; Esala, Anna-Liisa; Niemelä, Seppo I; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate endotoxin concentrations in cyanobacterial water blooms and strains, and to assess the removal of endotoxins during drinking water treatment. Endotoxin concentrations were measured from 151 hepatotoxic, neurotoxic and non-toxic cyanobacterial water blooms by using Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay, and the results were compared to bacterial data. Endotoxin activities ranged from 20 to 3.8 x 10(4) endotoxin units (EU) per ml. Endotoxicity of the samples correlated with phycobiliprotein concentration that was used to assess cyanobacterial abundance, heterotrophic plate count, and Aeromonas spp. but it did not correlate with the number of coliforms or streptococci. The high endotoxin concentrations occasionally detected in the water bloom samples were probably due to Gram negative bacteria that existed together with cyanobacteria since the 26 axenic cyanobacterial strains from different genera that were studied showed very low endotoxin activity. No differences in endotoxin activity were detected between hepatotoxic, neurotoxic and non-toxic strains. Removal of endotoxins during drinking water treatment was studied at nine waterworks that previously had been associated with high numbers of cyanobacteria and that used different processes for water purification. Endotoxin concentration in raw waters ranged from 18 to 356 EU ml(-1). The treatment processes reduced 59-97% of the endotoxin activity; in the treated water the concentration ranged from 3 to 15 EU ml(-1). The most significant reduction occurred at the early stages of water treatment, during coagulation, settling and sand filtration. Activated carbon filtration either increased or had no effect on endotoxin concentration. Ozonation and chlorination had little effect on the endotoxin concentrations.

  2. Endotoxin inactivation via steam-heat treatment in dilute simethicone emulsions used in biopharmaceutical processes.

    PubMed

    Britt, Keith A; Galvin, Jeffrey; Gammell, Patrick; Nti-Gyabaah, Joseph; Boras, George; Kolwyck, David; Ramirez, José G; Presente, Esther; Naugle, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Simethicone emulsion is used to regulate foaming in cell culture operations in biopharmaceutical processes. It is also a potential source of endotoxin contamination. The inactivation of endotoxins in dilute simethicone emulsions was assessed as a function of time at different steam temperatures using a Limulus amebocyte lysate kinetic chromogenic technique. Endotoxin inactivation from steam-heat treatment was fit to a four-parameter double exponential decay model, which indicated that endotoxin inactivation was biphasic, consisting of fast and slow regimes. In the fast regime, temperature-related effects were dominant. Transitioning into the slow regime, the observed temperature dependence diminished, and concentration-related effects became increasingly significant. The change in the Gibbs free energy moving through the transition state indicated that a large energy barrier must be overcome for endotoxin inactivation to occur. The corresponding Arrhenius pre-exponential factor was >10(12) s(-1) suggesting that endotoxins in aqueous solution exist as aggregates. The disorder associated with the endotoxin inactivation reaction pathway was assessed via the change in entropy moving through the transition state. This quantity was positive indicating that endotoxin inactivation may result from hydrolysis of individual endotoxin molecules, which perturbs the conformation of endotoxin aggregates, thereby modulating the biological activity observed. Steam-heat treatment decreased endotoxin levels by 1-2 logarithm (log) reduction (LRV), which may be practically relevant depending on incoming raw material endotoxin levels. Antifoam efficiency and cell culture performance were negligibly impacted following steam-heat treatment. The results from this study show that steam-heat treatment is a viable endotoxin control strategy that can be implemented to support large-scale biopharmaceutical manufacturing.

  3. In vivo quantitation of the rat liver's ability to eliminate endotoxin from portal vein blood

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamaguchi, K.; Babb, J.L.; Gans, H.

    1982-12-01

    The in vivo uptake of endotoxin by the liver from portal vein blood was assessed during a single passage through the liver. /sup 51/Cr labeled and unlabeled endotoxin were infused in different amounts into the femoral vein of three groups of lead-sensitized rats: a nonoperated, a sham-operated, and a surgically created reversed Eck fistula (REF) group. Whereas in the former two the infused endotoxin encounters the lung as the first filter organ, the liver performs this function in the latter experimental model. The mortality rates observed in control and sham-operated, lead-sensitized rats were found to correlate closely and reproducibly to the degree of endotoxemia. This assay was then applied to determine the amount of endotoxin eliminated by the liver by establishing, in the REF rat, the amounts of endotoxin that escaped hepatic clearance. The capacity of the liver to eliminate endotoxin from portal vein blood during a single passage increases as the portal vein endotoxin level rises; it approaches a maximum, suggesting that endotoxin's interaction with the Kupffer cells conforms to classical saturation kinetics. A Lineweaver-Burk plot prepared from these data indicates that the maximal in vivo capacity of the liver to remove endotoxin from portal vein blood approximates 1.5 micrograms/gm liver/hr. Data obtained with the use of radiolabeled endotoxin corroborate the information obtained with the bioassay technique. Endotoxin eliminated by the Kupffer cells in these quantities is slowly disintegrated; 4 hr after termination of the endotoxin infusion, less than 4% of the radiolabel is found in the urine and none in the bile. These observations indicate that the Kupffer cell's functional capacity to sequester and detoxify endotoxin is extensive and far exceeds the requirements imposed by physiological and most pathological conditions.

  4. IgM-Enriched Immunoglobulin Attenuates Systemic Endotoxin Activity in Early Severe Sepsis: A Before-After Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kirbach, Christin; Warszawska, Joanna; Meybohm, Patrick; Zacharowski, Kai; Koch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sepsis remains associated with a high mortality rate. Endotoxin has been shown to influence viscoelastic coagulation parameters, thus suggesting a link between endotoxin levels and the altered coagulation phenotype in septic patients. This study evaluated the effects of systemic polyspecific IgM-enriched immunoglobulin (IgM-IVIg) (Pentaglobin® [Biotest, Dreieich, Germany]) on endotoxin activity (EA), inflammatory markers, viscoelastic and conventional coagulation parameters. Methods Patients with severe sepsis were identified by daily screening in a tertiary, academic, surgical ICU. After the inclusion of 15 patients, the application of IgM-IVIg (5 mg/kg/d over three days) was integrated into the unit’s standard operation procedure (SOP) to treat patients with severe sepsis, thereby generating “control” and “IgM-IVIg” groups. EA assays, thrombelastometry (ROTEM®) and impedance aggregometry (Multiplate®) were performed on whole blood. Furthermore, routine laboratory parameters were determined according to unit’s standards. Results Data from 26 patients were included. On day 1, EA was significantly decreased in the IgM-IVIg group following 6 and 12 hours of treatment (0.51 ±0.06 vs. 0.26 ±0.07, p<0.05 and 0.51 ±0.06 vs. 0.25 ±0.04, p<0.05) and differed significantly compared with the control group following 6 hours of treatment (0.26 ±0.07 vs. 0.43 ±0.07, p<0.05). The platelet count was significantly higher in the IgM-IVIg group following four days of IgM-IVIg treatment (200/nl ±43 vs. 87/nl ±20, p<0.05). The fibrinogen concentration was significantly lower in the control group on day 2 (311 mg/dl ±37 vs. 475 mg/dl ±47 (p = 0.015)) and day 4 (307 mg/dl ±35 vs. 420 mg/dl ±16 (p = 0.017)). No differences in thrombelastometric or aggregometric measurements, or inflammatory markers (interleukin-6 (IL-6), leukocyte, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP)) were observed. Conclusion Treatment with IgM-enriched immunoglobulin

  5. E. Coli

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Your Teeth El cuidado de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray E. Coli KidsHealth > For Kids > E. Coli Print A A A What's in ... recalls affecting contaminated vegetables or other products. But kids can ... inside. Don't swallow lake, ocean, or pool water. If the water contains ...

  6. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone on rat septic shock with intraabdominal infection by E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Wang, Shu-Ren; Yi, Cheng; Ying, Ming-Ying; Lin, Ying; Zhi, Mao-Hui

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on rat septic shock with intraabdominal infection by E. coli and its possible mechanism. METHODS: 76 SD rats were divided into 3 groups randomly: control group (group C, n = 16) without any special treatment, septic shock group (group S, n = 30) received bolus injection of E.coli (1 × 1010 cfu·L-1,15 mL·kg-1, ip), treated group (group T, n = 30) received bolus injection of E.coli, and then followed by rhGH injection (2.25 U·kg-1·d-1, im). Group S and group T were further divided into 1d and 3d subgroups, respectively (n = 15 each). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), levels of plasma TNFα and endotoxin and leukocyte count were determined on 1st day and 3rd day after E.coli injection. Another 39 SD rats were divided into groups C, S and T (n = 13 each) just for observing survival rate within 1 week. RESULTS: (1) On 1st and 3rd day, MAP in group S decreased markedly, and MAP on 1st day lowered more than that of 3rd day (P < 0.01), while MAP in group T just decreased slightly. The survival rate within 1 week was much higher in group T (84.6%) than in group S (46.2%) (P < 0.01). (2)On 1st day, plasma TNFα and endotoxin elevated significantly in group S and group T (P < 0.05), and endotoxin in group S had more increase (P < 0.01). On 3rd day, TNFα in group S returned to the level of group C (P > 0.05),while TNFα in group T went down below the level of group C(P < 0.01). On 3rd day, endotoxin in group S declined, but was still higher than that of group C (P < 0.01), endotoxin in group T returned to the level of group C (P > 0.05). (3) On 1st day, neutrophil ratio in total leukocyte count in both group S and group T increased significantly (P < 0.05 vs group C). CONCLUSION: rhGH showed beneficial effects on rat septic shock. The possible mechanisms may involve the attenuation of bacteria/endotoxin translocation and decreased systemic endotoxin level; inhibition of the production and

  7. Role of endotoxemia in cardiovascular dysfunction and lethality: virulent and nonvirulent Escherichia coli challenges in a canine model of septic shock.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, W D; Danner, R L; Quezado, Z M; Banks, S M; Elin, R J; Hosseini, J M; Natanson, C

    1996-01-01

    We investigated whether the severity of septic shock is determined by virulence factors associated with or the levels of endotoxemia produced by two Escherichia coli strains. Canines were challenged intraperitoneally with an E. coli strain (O6:H1:K2) that has virulence factors associated with human disease or with an equal dose of a nonvirulent strain (O86:H8) that lacks these factors. Both strains were administered in viable, heat-killed, and purified endotoxin forms. Median survival times with the virulent strain compared with the nonvirulent strain were shorter with viable bacteria (5 x 10(10) CFU/kg) (144 h versus > 672 h; Wilcoxon, P = 0.03), longer with heat-killed bacteria (5 x 10(9) CFU/kg) ( > 676 h versus 26 h; P = 0.03), and similar with purified endotoxin (15 mg/kg) (28 h versus 48 h; P = 0.71). However, whether the challenge contained viable bacteria, heat-killed bacteria, or purified endotoxin, the virulent strain produced less endotoxemia (P = 0.001). Hence, the changing outcomes with differing forms of the two strains cannot be attributed solely to endotoxin levels. The viable virulent strain caused less endotoxemia but more harm, and this does not appear to be explained by a more potent endotoxin or other heat-stable component. This study suggests that circulating endotoxin levels per se are less important in the outcome of septic shock than virulence factors associated with E. coli strains. Furthermore, the data call into question the significance of the endotoxin concentration in the blood in predicting the severity of shock and the lethality of gram-negative infections. PMID:8550184

  8. Protective effects of erythropoietin on endotoxin-related organ injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-jiang; Zhang, Guo-xing; Sun, Ni; Sun, Yu; Yang, Li-zhi; Du, Yu-jun

    2013-10-01

    The protective effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on tissues following ischemia and reperfusion injuries remains poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the effect of EPO in preventing endotoxin-induced organ damage. Rat model of multiple organ failure (MOF) was established by tail vein injection of 10 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Recombinant human EPO treatment (5000 U/kg) was administered by tail vein injection at 30 min after LPS challenge. Twenty-four h after EPO treatment, changes in serum enzyme levels, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr), were evaluated by biochemical analysis. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined by using immunoradiometric assay. Histological examination of tissue sections was carried out by hematoxylin and eosin staining, while ultrastructure evaluation of organ tissues was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Protein expression levels were detected by using Western blotting. EPO treatment showed a modest effect in preventing LPS-induced elevation of AST, ALT, BUN, Cr, and TNF-α levels, and in protecting against LPS-induced tissue degeneration and injured ultrastructure in the lung, liver, and kidney. Moreover, LPS promoted phosphorylation of alanine aminotransferase (AKT) and increased nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in the lung, liver, and kidney (P<0.05 vs. control). However, EPO treatment significantly decreased the LPS-induced pAKT up-regulation in these tissues (P<0.05 vs. LPS treatment alone). The present study demonstrates that EPO may play a protective role against LPS-induced MOF by reducing the inflammatory response and tissue degeneration, possibly via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT and NF-κB signaling pathways.

  9. Bacterial Endotoxin Activity in Human Serum Is Associated With Dyslipidemia, Insulin Resistance, Obesity, and Chronic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lassenius, Mariann I.; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Kaartinen, Kati; Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Syrjänen, Jaana; Forsblom, Carol; Pörsti, Ilkka; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko; Mustonen, Jukka; Groop, Per-Henrik; Lehto, Markku

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activity in human serum is associated with the components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in type 1 diabetic patients with various degrees of kidney disease and patients with IgA glomerulonephritis (IgAGN). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Serum LPS activity was determined with the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate chromogenic end point assay in type 1 diabetic patients with a normal albumin excretion rate (n = 587), microalbuminuria (n = 144), macroalbuminuria (n = 173); patients with IgAGN (n = 98); and in nondiabetic control subjects (n = 345). The relationships of the LPS/HDL ratio and MetS-associated variables were evaluated with Pearson correlation. RESULTS The MetS was more prevalent in type 1 diabetic patients (48%) than in patients with IgAGN (15%). Diabetic patients with macroalbuminuria had a significantly higher serum LPS/HDL ratio than patients with IgAGN. In the normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic group, patients in the highest LPS/HDL quartile were diagnosed as having the MetS three times more frequently than patients in the lowest quartile (69 vs. 22%; P < 0.001). High LPS activity was associated with higher serum triglyceride concentration, earlier onset of diabetes, increased diastolic blood pressure, and elevated urinary excretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. CONCLUSIONS High serum LPS activity is strongly associated with the components of the MetS. Diabetic patients with kidney disease seem to be more susceptible to metabolic endotoxemia than patients with IgAGN. Bacterial endotoxins may thus play an important role in the development of the metabolic and vascular abnormalities commonly seen in obesity and diabetes-related diseases. PMID:21636801

  10. Endotoxin has acute and chronic effects on the cerebral circulation of fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Feng, Susan Y S; Phillips, David J; Stockx, Elaine M; Yu, Victor Y H; Walker, Adrian M

    2009-03-01

    We studied the impact of endotoxemia on cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral vascular resistance (CVR), and cerebral oxygen transport (O(2) transport) in fetal sheep. We hypothesized that endotoxemia impairs CBF regulation and O(2) transport, exposing the brain to hypoxic-ischemic injury. Responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 microg/kg iv on 3 consecutive days, n = 9) or normal saline (n = 5) were studied. Of LPS-treated fetuses, five survived and four died; in surviving fetuses, transient cerebral vasoconstriction at 0.5 h (DeltaCVR approximately +50%) was followed by vasodilatation maximal at 5-6 h (DeltaCVR approximately -50%) when CBF had increased (approximately +60%) despite reduced ABP (approximately -20%). Decreased CVR and increased CBF persisted 24 h post-LPS and the two subsequent LPS infusions. Cerebral O(2) transport was sustained, although arterial O(2) saturation was reduced (P < 0.05). Histological evidence of neuronal injury was found in all surviving LPS-treated fetuses; one experienced grade IV intracranial hemorrhage. Bradykinin-induced cerebral vasodilatation (DeltaCVR approximately -20%, P < 0.05) was abolished after LPS. Fetuses that died post-LPS (n = 4) differed from survivors in three respects: CVR did not fall, CBF did not rise, and O(2) transport fell progressively. In conclusion, endotoxin disrupts the cerebral circulation in two phases: 1) acute vasoconstriction (1 h) and 2) prolonged vasodilatation despite impaired endothelial dilatation (24 h). In surviving fetuses, LPS causes brain injury despite cerebral O(2) transport being maintained by elevated cerebral perfusion; thus sustained O(2) transport does not prevent brain injury in endotoxemia. In contrast, cerebral hypoperfusion and reduced O(2) transport occur in fetuses destined to die, emphasizing the importance of sustaining O(2) transport for survival.

  11. Effect of resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound, on platelet activation induced by endotoxin or thrombin.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Zieliński, Tomasz

    2002-08-15

    Resveratrol (3, 4', 5-trihydroxystilbene), a natural polyphenol, is found in some plants that are used in human nutrition. Grapes are a major source for resveratrol, and a significant amount can also be found in red wine. Several experimental studies have demonstrated biological properties of resveratrol, especially its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-platelet and antitumor effects. In the present study, we investigated the first step of platelet activation-platelet adhesion stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Proteus mirabilis (weak stimulator) and thrombin (strong activator) in the presence of resveratrol. Our studies show that endotoxin (0.3 microg/10(8) platelets), like thrombin (0.2 U/10(8) platelets), induced the adhesion of platelets (expressed as absorbance of cell attached proteins) to collagen and fibrinogen. Preincubation of washed platelets with resveratrol at physiological plasma concentrations (25-100 microg/ml, 30 min, 37 degrees C) had an inhibitory effect on adhesion of platelets to collagen after activation by LPS alone or LPS with thrombin. The strongest effect on this process was caused by resveratrol at the concentration of 100 microg/ml. Pretreatment of platelets with resveratrol (25-100 microg/ml, 30 min, 37 degrees C) had also inhibitory effects on adhesion of platelets to fibrinogen after stimulation of these cells by LPS alone or by LPS with thrombin at the same concentration. In conclusion, we suggest that resveratrol present in human diet may be an important compound responsible for the reduction of platelet adhesion and changed reactivity of blood platelets in inflammatory process.

  12. The anti-inflammatory effects of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) on endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Impellizzeri, Daniela; Ahmad, Akbar; Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Di Paola, Rosanna; Crupi, Rosalia; Paterniti, Irene; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous fatty acid amide belonging to the family of the N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), in rats subjected to endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). EIU was induced in male rats by a single footpad injection of 200μg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). PEA was administered intraperitoneally at 1h before and 7h after injection of LPS. Another group of animals was treated with vehicle. Dexamethasone (DEX) was administered as a positive control. Rats were sacrificed 16h after injection and the eyes tissues were collected for histology, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. The histological evaluation of the iris-ciliary body showed an increase of neutrophilic infiltration and nuclear modification of vessel of endothelial cells. PEA treatment decreased the inflammatory cell infiltration and improved histological damage of eye tissues. In addition, PEA treatment reduced pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) levels, protein extravasion and lipid peroxidation. Immunohistochemical analysis for intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and nitrotyrosine showed a positive staining from LPS-injected rats. The degree of staining for ICAM-1 and nitrotyrosine was significantly reduced in eye sections from LPS-injected rats treated with PEA. In addition, an increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor (NF-κB) was also evaluated in inflammed ocular tissues by western blot. PEA strongly inhibited iNOS expression and nuclear NF-κB translocation. Thus, in this study we demonstrated that PEA reduces the degree of ocular inflammation in a rat model of EIU.

  13. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress

    PubMed Central

    Makkar, S. K.; Rath, N. C.; Packialakshmi, B.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Huff, G. R.; Donoghue, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM) as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase resistance of

  14. Alkaline phosphatases contribute to uterine receptivity, implantation, decidualization and defense against bacterial endotoxin in hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wei; Nguyen, Heidi; Brown, Naoko; Ni, Hua; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Reese, Jeff; Millán, José Luis; Paria, Bibhash C.

    2013-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity has been demonstrated in the uterus of several species, but its importance in the uterus, in general and during pregnancy, is yet to be revealed. In this study, we focused on identifying AP isozyme types, and their hormonal regulation, cell-type and event-specific expression and possible functions in the hamster uterus during the cycle and early pregnancy. Our RT-PCR and in situ hybridization studies demonstrated that among the known Akp2, Akp3, Akp5 and Akp6 murine AP isozyme genes, hamster uteri express only Akp2 and Akp6; and both genes are co-expressed in luminal epithelial cells. Studies in cyclic and ovariectomized hamsters established that while progesterone is the major uterine Akp2 inducer, both progesterone and estrogen are strong Akp6 regulators. Studies in preimplantation uteri showed induction of both genes and the activity of their encoded isozymes in luminal epithelial cells during uterine receptivity. However, at the beginning of implantation, Akp2 showed reduced expression in luminal epithelial cells surrounding the implanted embryo. In contrast, expression of Akp6 and its isozyme was maintained in luminal epithelial cells adjacent to, but not away from, the implanted embryo. Following implantation, stromal transformation to decidua was associated with induced expressions of only Akp2 and its isozyme. We next demonstrated that uterine APs dephosphorylate and detoxify endotoxin lipopolysaccharide at their sites of production and activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that uterine APs contribute to uterine receptivity, implantation, and decidualization in addition to their role in protection of the uterus and pregnancy against bacterial infection. PMID:23929901

  15. Mast cells modulate the inflammatory process in endotoxin-induced uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Sebastião da Silva, Pierre; Girol, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the role of mast cells and annexin-A1 (Anxa1) in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). Methods EIU was induced by injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the paws of rats, which were then sacrificed after 24 and 48 h. To assess EIU in the absence of mast cells, groups of animals were pretreated with compound 48/80 (c48/80) and sacrificed after 24 h after no treatment or EIU induction. The eyes were used for histological studies and the aqueous humor (AqH) pool was used for the analysis of transmigrated cells and Anxa1 levels. In inflammatory cells, Anxa1 expression was monitored by immunohistochemistry. Results After 24 h, rats with EIU exhibited degranulated mast cells, associated with elevated numbers of infiltrating leukocytes and the high expression of Anxa1 in the AqH and the neutrophils. After 48 h of EIU, the mast cells were intact, indicating granule re-synthesis, and there was a reduction of neutrophil transmigration and an increase in the number of mononuclear phagocytic cells in ocular tissues. Anxa1 expression was decreased in neutrophils but increased in mononuclear phagocytic cells. In the animals pretreated with c48/80 and subjected to EIU, mast cells responded to this secretagogue by degranulating and few transmigrated neutrophils were observed. Conclustions We report that mast cells are a potential source of pharmacological mediators that are strongly linked to the pathophysiology of EIU, and the endogenous protein Anxa1 is a mediator in the homeostasis of the inflammatory process with anti-migratory effects on leukocytes, which supports further studies of this protein as an innovative therapy for uveitis. PMID:21633711

  16. Prevention of Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis in Rats by Plant Sterol Guggulsterone

    PubMed Central

    Kalariya, Nilesh M.; Shoeb, Mohammad; Reddy, Aramati B. M.; Zhang, Min; van Kuijk, Frederik J. G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of guggulsterone, an antioxidant and antitumor agent, in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism or mechanisms related to ocular inflammation. Methods. EIU was induced by subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 μg) into Lewis rats treated with guggulsterone (30 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) or its carrier. After 24 hours the rats were killed, eyes were enucleated, and aqueous humor (AqH) was collected. Numbers of infiltrating cells and levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined in AqH by specific ELISAs. An antibody array was used to measure the expression of various inflammatory cytokines in AqH. The expression of MMP-2, iNOS, Cox-2, phospho-IκB, and phospho-NF-κB was determined immunohistochemically. Human primary nonpigment ciliary epithelial cells (HNPECs) were used to determine the in vitro efficacy of guggulsterone on the LPS-induced inflammatory response. Results. Compared with control, the EIU rat eye AqH had a significantly higher number of infiltrating cells, total protein, and inflammatory markers, such as MMP-2, NO, and PGE2, and the treatment of guggulsterone prevented EIU-induced increases. Guggulsterone also prevented the expression of MMP-2, iNOS, and Cox-2 proteins and of IκB and NF-κB in various eye tissues. Moreover, in cultured HNPECs, guggulsterone inhibited LPS-induced expression of inflammatory proteins. Conclusions. These results for the first time demonstrate that the plant sterol guggulsterone suppresses ocular inflammation in EIU, suggesting that the supplementation of guggulsterone could be a novel approach for the treatment of ocular inflammation. PMID:20435582

  17. Dose-Dependent Effects of Endotoxin on Neurobehavioral Functions in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Grigoleit, Jan-Sebastian; Kullmann, Jennifer S.; Wolf, Oliver T.; Hammes, Florian; Wegner, Alexander; Jablonowski, Stephanie; Engler, Harald; Gizewski, Elke; Oberbeck, Reiner; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence document that inflammation and increased peripheral cytokine levels are associated with depression-like symptoms and neuropsychological disturbances in humans. However, it remains unclear whether and to what extent cognitive functions like memory and attention are affected by and related to the dose of the inflammatory stimulus. Thus, in a cross-over, double-blind, experimental approach, healthy male volunteers were administered with either placebo or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at doses of 0.4 (n = 18) or 0.8 ng/kg of body weight (n = 16). Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, norephinephrine and cortisol concentrations were analyzed before and 1, 1.75, 3, 4, 6, and 24 h after injection. In addition, changes in mood and anxiety levels were determined together with working memory (n-back task) and long term memory performance (recall of emotional and neutral pictures of the International Affective Picture System). Endotoxin administration caused a profound transient physiological response with dose-related elevations in body temperature and heart rate, increases in plasma interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), salivary and plasma cortisol, and plasma norepinephrine. These changes were accompanied by dose-related decreased mood and increased anxiety levels. LPS administration did not affect accuracy in working memory performance but improved reaction time in the high-dose LPS condition compared to the control conditon. In contrast, long-term memory performance was impaired selectively for emotional stimuli after administration of the lower but not of the higher dose of LPS. These data suggest the existence of at least two counter-acting mechanisms, one promoting and one inhibiting cognitive performance during acute systemic inflammation. PMID:22164271

  18. Exercise pretraining attenuates endotoxin-induced hemodynamic alteration in type I diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ching-Hsia; Chen, Yu-Wen; Shao, Dong-Zi; Chang, Che-Ning; Tsai, Yung-Yuh; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2008-10-01

    Higher expression of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) reduces the mortality rate and organ damage in septic shock and prevents cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction due to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our hypot