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Sample records for coli nusb-s10 transcription

  1. Widespread Antisense Transcription in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Dornenburg, James E.; DeVita, Anne M.; Palumbo, Michael J.; Wade, Joseph T.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT The vast majority of annotated transcripts in bacteria are mRNAs. Here we identify ~1,000 antisense transcripts in the model bacterium Escherichia coli. We propose that these transcripts are generated by promiscuous transcription initiation within genes and that many of them regulate expression of the overlapping gene. PMID:20689751

  2. Transcription of foreign DNA in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Warren, René L; Freeman, John D; Levesque, Roger C; Smailus, Duane E; Flibotte, Stephane; Holt, Robert A

    2008-11-01

    Propagation of heterologous DNA in E. coli host cells is central to molecular biology. DNA constructs are often engineered for expression of recombinant protein in E. coli, but the extent of incidental transcription arising from natural regulatory sequences in cloned DNA remains underexplored. Here, we have used programmable microarrays and RT-PCR to measure, comprehensively, the transcription of H. influenzae, P. aeruginosa, and human DNA propagating in E. coli as bacterial artificial chromosomes. We find evidence that at least half of all H. influenzae genes are transcribed in E. coli. Highly transcribed genes are principally involved in energy metabolism, and their proximal promoter regions are significantly enriched with E. coli sigma(70) (also known as RpoD) binding sites. H. influenzae genes acquired from an ancient bacteriophage Mu insertion are also highly transcribed. Compared with H. influenzae, a smaller proportion of P. aeruginosa genes are transcribed in E. coli, and in E. coli there is punctuated transcription of human DNA. The presence of foreign DNA in E. coli disturbs the host transcriptional profile, with expression of the E. coli phage shock protein operon and the flagellar gene cluster being particularly strongly up-regulated. While cross-species transcriptional activation is expected to be enabling for horizontal gene transfer in bacteria, incidental expression of toxic genes can be problematic for DNA cloning. Ongoing characterization of cross-expression will help inform the design of biosynthetic gene clusters and synthetic microbial genomes.

  3. rRNA transcription rate in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Gotta, S L; Miller, O L; French, S L

    1991-01-01

    The rate of in vivo transcription elongation for Escherichia coli rRNA operons was determined by electron microscopy following addition of rifampin to log-phase cultures. Direct observation of RNA polymerase positions along rRNA operons 30, 40, and 70 s after inhibition of transcription initiation yielded a transcription elongation rate of 42 nucleotides per s. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1717439

  4. A comprehensive library of fluorescent transcriptional reporters for Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zaslaver, Alon; Bren, Anat; Ronen, Michal; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Kikoin, Ilya; Shavit, Seagull; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Surette, Michael G; Alon, Uri

    2006-08-01

    E. coli is widely used for systems biology research; there exists a need, however, for tools that can be used to accurately and comprehensively measure expression dynamics in individual living cells. To address this we present a library of transcriptional fusions of gfp to each of about 2,000 different promoters in E. coli K12, covering the great majority of the promoters in the organism. Each promoter fusion is expressed from a low-copy plasmid. We demonstrate that this library can be used to obtain highly accurate dynamic measurements of promoter activity on a genomic scale, in a glucose-lactose diauxic shift experiment. The library allowed detection of about 80 previously uncharacterized transcription units in E. coli, including putative internal promoters within previously known operons, such as the lac operon. This library can serve as a tool for accurate, high-resolution analysis of transcription networks in living E. coli cells.

  5. The Transcription Unit Architecture of the Escherichia Coli Genome

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Byung-Kwan; Zengler, Karsten; Qiu, Yu; Park, Young S.; Knight, Eric M.; Barrett, Christian; Gao, Yuan; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2009-11-01

    Under EMSL User Proposal 25660, the authors reported that bacterial genomes are organized by structural and functional elements, including promoters, transcription start and termination sites, open reading frames, regulatory noncoding regions, untranslated regions and transcription units. Here, we iteratively integrate high-throughput, genome-wide measurements of RNA polymerase binding locations and mRNA transcript abundance, 5' sequences and translation into proteins to determine the organizational structure of the Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 genome. Integration of the organizational elements provides an experimentally annotated transcription unit architecture, including alternative transcription start sites, 5' untranslated region, boundaries and open reading frames of each transcription unit. A total of 4,661 transcription units were identified, representing an increase of >530% over current knowledge. This comprehensive transcription unit architecture allows for the elucidation of condition-specific uses of alternative sigma factors at the genome scale. Furthermore, the transcription unit architecture provides a foundation on which to construct genome-scale transcriptional and translational regulatory networks.

  6. [Antisense transcription within the hns locus of Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Tututkina, M N; Shavkunov, K S; Masulis, I S; Ozolin', O N

    2010-01-01

    Scanning the entire genome of E. coli by means of pattern-recognition software PlatProm spotted out more than a thousand of potential start points for antisense transcription. Taking into account possible role of antisense RNAs in the cell regulatory networks, our top-priority interest was focused on the promoter-like sites found within genes of transcription regulators. One of them (hns) encodes a major nucleoid protein affecting expression pattern of many genomic loci. Several potential start points for antisense transcription were found within its coding sequence. Gel-retardation assays, potassium permanganate and DNAse I foot-printings confirmed the ability of the intragenic promoter located approximately 280 bp downstream of ATG to bind RNA polymerase. Primer extension revealed the cDNA of the expected size while Northern blot hybridization assumes the presence of aRNA among cellular RNAs. Relative abundance of antisense RNA and hns-mRNA in vivo exhibited dependence on growth conditions thus assuming existence of regulatory pathways keeping cellular concentration of these two transcripts at the optimal level.

  7. Dissecting the stochastic transcription initiation process in live Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Price, Jason; Startceva, Sofia; Kandavalli, Vinodh; Chandraseelan, Jerome G; Goncalves, Nadia; Oliveira, Samuel M D; Häkkinen, Antti; Ribeiro, Andre S

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that, in Escherichia coli, while the concentration of RNA polymerases differs in different growth conditions, the fraction of RNA polymerases free for transcription remains approximately constant within a certain range of these conditions. After establishing this, we apply a standard model-fitting procedure to fully characterize the in vivo kinetics of the rate-limiting steps in transcription initiation of the Plac/ara-1 promoter from distributions of intervals between transcription events in cells with different RNA polymerase concentrations. We find that, under full induction, the closed complex lasts ∼788 s while subsequent steps last ∼193 s, on average. We then establish that the closed complex formation usually occurs multiple times prior to each successful initiation event. Furthermore, the promoter intermittently switches to an inactive state that, on average, lasts ∼87 s. This is shown to arise from the intermittent repression of the promoter by LacI. The methods employed here should be of use to resolve the rate-limiting steps governing the in vivo dynamics of initiation of prokaryotic promoters, similar to established steady-state assays to resolve the in vitro dynamics. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  8. Dissecting the stochastic transcription initiation process in live Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd-Price, Jason; Startceva, Sofia; Kandavalli, Vinodh; Chandraseelan, Jerome G.; Goncalves, Nadia; Oliveira, Samuel M. D.; Häkkinen, Antti; Ribeiro, Andre S.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that, in Escherichia coli, while the concentration of RNA polymerases differs in different growth conditions, the fraction of RNA polymerases free for transcription remains approximately constant within a certain range of these conditions. After establishing this, we apply a standard model-fitting procedure to fully characterize the in vivo kinetics of the rate-limiting steps in transcription initiation of the Plac/ara-1 promoter from distributions of intervals between transcription events in cells with different RNA polymerase concentrations. We find that, under full induction, the closed complex lasts ∼788 s while subsequent steps last ∼193 s, on average. We then establish that the closed complex formation usually occurs multiple times prior to each successful initiation event. Furthermore, the promoter intermittently switches to an inactive state that, on average, lasts ∼87 s. This is shown to arise from the intermittent repression of the promoter by LacI. The methods employed here should be of use to resolve the rate-limiting steps governing the in vivo dynamics of initiation of prokaryotic promoters, similar to established steady-state assays to resolve the in vitro dynamics. PMID:27026687

  9. Transcriptional Response of Escherichia coli to External Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Ishihama, Akira

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptional response of Escherichia coli to extracellular zinc was studied using DNA microarray and S1 mapping assays. Addition of external zinc induced the expression of zinc exporter ZntA and inhibited the expression of zinc importer ZnuC. In the continuous presence of zinc, ZnuC repression took place at lower zinc concentrations than ZntA induction. The microarray assay indicated that the addition of excess external zinc induces the expression of many genes that are organized in the regulon for cysteine biosynthesis, implying that cysteine plays a role in transient trapping of free zinc for maintenance of zinc homeostasis. Besides the RpoE regulon, other genes were also induced by zinc, suggesting that periplasmic proteins denatured by zinc induce the genes for protein repair. The microarray data of the newly identified zinc-responsive promoters were confirmed by S1 mapping. PMID:16159766

  10. Control of rRNA transcription in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Condon, C; Squires, C; Squires, C L

    1995-01-01

    The control of rRNA synthesis in response to both extra- and intracellular signals has been a subject of interest to microbial physiologists for nearly four decades, beginning with the observations that Salmonella typhimurium cells grown on rich medium are larger and contain more RNA than those grown on poor medium. This was followed shortly by the discovery of the stringent response in Escherichia coli, which has continued to be the organism of choice for the study of rRNA synthesis. In this review, we summarize four general areas of E. coli rRNA transcription control: stringent control, growth rate regulation, upstream activation, and anti-termination. We also cite similar mechanisms in other bacteria and eukaryotes. The separation of growth rate-dependent control of rRNA synthesis from stringent control continues to be a subject of controversy. One model holds that the nucleotide ppGpp is the key effector for both mechanisms, while another school holds that it is unlikely that ppGpp or any other single effector is solely responsible for growth rate-dependent control. Recent studies on activation of rRNA synthesis by cis-acting upstream sequences has led to the discovery of a new class of promoters that make contact with RNA polymerase at a third position, called the UP element, in addition to the well-known -10 and -35 regions. Lastly, clues as to the role of antitermination in rRNA operons have begun to appear. Transcription complexes modified at the antiterminator site appear to elongate faster and are resistant to the inhibitory effects of ppGpp during the stringent response. PMID:8531889

  11. Transcriptional Regulation of Membrane Lipid Homeostasis in Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kun; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Rock, Charles O.

    2009-01-01

    The biophysical properties of membrane phospholipids are controlled by the composition of their constituent fatty acids and are tightly regulated in Escherichia coli. The FabR (fatty acid biosynthesis repressor) transcriptional repressor controls the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in the membrane by regulating the expression of the fabB (β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase I) and fabA (β-hydroxydecanoyl-ACP dehydratase/isomerase) genes. FabR binding to a DNA palindrome located within the promoters of the fabB and fabA genes required the presence of an unsaturated acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) or acyl-CoA and was antagonized by saturated acyl-ACP or acyl-CoA. The FabR-dependent repression of fabB and fabA by exogenous unsaturated fatty acids confirmed the role for FabR in responding to the acyl-CoA pool composition, and the perturbation of the unsaturated:saturated acyl-ACP ratio using a specific inhibitor of lipid A formation verified FabR-dependent regulation of fabB by the acyl-ACP composition in vivo. Thus, FabR plays a key role in controlling the membrane biophysical properties by regulating gene expression in response to the composition of the long-chain acyl-thioester pool. This mechanism ensures that a balanced composition of fatty acids is available for incorporation into the membrane via the PlsB/PlsC acyltransferases. PMID:19854834

  12. Transcription profile of Escherichia coli: genomic SELEX search for regulatory targets of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Ishihama, Akira; Shimada, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Yukiko

    2016-03-18

    Bacterial genomes are transcribed by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP), which achieves gene selectivity through interaction with sigma factors that recognize promoters, and transcription factors (TFs) that control the activity and specificity of RNAP holoenzyme. To understand the molecular mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, the identification of regulatory targets is needed for all these factors. We then performed genomic SELEX screenings of targets under the control of each sigma factor and each TF. Here we describe the assembly of 156 SELEX patterns of a total of 116 TFs performed in the presence and absence of effector ligands. The results reveal several novel concepts: (i) each TF regulates more targets than hitherto recognized; (ii) each promoter is regulated by more TFs than hitherto recognized; and (iii) the binding sites of some TFs are located within operons and even inside open reading frames. The binding sites of a set of global regulators, including cAMP receptor protein, LeuO and Lrp, overlap with those of the silencer H-NS, suggesting that certain global regulators play an anti-silencing role. To facilitate sharing of these accumulated SELEX datasets with the research community, we compiled a database, 'Transcription Profile of Escherichia coli' (www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/ecoli/tec/). © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. The transcriptional response of Escherichia coli to recombinant protein insolubility.

    PubMed

    Smith, Harold E

    2007-03-01

    Bacterial production of recombinant proteins offers several advantages over alternative expression methods and remains the system of choice for many structural genomics projects. However, a large percentage of targets accumulate as insoluble inclusion bodies rather than soluble protein, creating a significant bottleneck in the protein production pipeline. Numerous strategies have been reported that can improve in vivo protein solubility, but most do not scale easily for high-throughput expression screening. To understand better the host cell response to the accumulation of insoluble protein, we determined genome-wide changes in bacterial gene expression upon induction of either soluble or insoluble target proteins. By comparing transcriptional profiles for multiple examples from the soluble or insoluble class, we identified a pattern of gene expression that correlates strongly with protein solubility. Direct targets of the sigma32 heat shock sigma factor, which includes genes involved in protein folding and degradation, were highly expressed in response to induction of insoluble protein. This same group of genes was also upregulated by insoluble protein accumulation under a different growth regime, indicating that sigma32-mediated gene expression is a general response to protein insolubility. This knowledge provides a starting point for the rational design of growth parameters and host strains with improved protein solubility characteristics. Summary Problems with protein solubility are frequently encountered when recombinant proteins are expressed in E. coli. The bacterial host responds to this problem by increasing expression of the protein folding machinery via the heat shock sigma factor sigma32. Manipulation of the sigma32 regulon might provide a general mechanism for improving recombinant protein solubility.

  14. Alternatively spliced adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene transcripts that delete exons mutated in attenuated APC.

    PubMed

    Samowitz, W S; Thliveris, A; Spirio, L N; White, R

    1995-09-01

    Reverse transcription-PCR combined with either (a) restriction enzyme digestion and repeat PCR or (b) ligase chain reaction has identified two new alternatively spliced transcripts of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. In one of these transcripts exons 1-4 and the first 16 bases of exon 5 are deleted; in the other exons 2-4 and the first 16 bases of 5 are deleted. Both transcripts use an intraexonic splice acceptor in exon 5. These transcripts delete exons mutated in attenuated APC (3 and 4) and could account for the reduction in severity of this variant.

  15. Meta-Analysis of Transcriptional Responses to Mastitis-Causing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Younis, Sidra; Javed, Qamar; Blumenberg, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a widespread disease in dairy cows, and is often caused by bacterial mammary gland infection. Mastitis causes reduced milk production and leads to excessive use of antibiotics. We present meta-analysis of transcriptional profiles of bovine mastitis from 10 studies and 307 microarrays, allowing identification of much larger sets of affected genes than any individual study. Combining multiple studies provides insight into the molecular effects of Escherichia coli infection in vivo and uncovers differences between the consequences of E. coli vs. Staphylococcus aureus infection of primary mammary epithelial cells (PMECs). In udders, live E. coli elicits inflammatory and immune defenses through numerous cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, E. coli infection causes downregulation of genes encoding lipid biosynthesis enzymes that are involved in milk production. Additionally, host metabolism is generally suppressed. Finally, defensins and bacteria-recognition genes are upregulated, while the expression of the extracellular matrix protein transcripts is silenced. In PMECs, heat-inactivated E. coli elicits expression of ribosomal, cytoskeletal and angiogenic signaling genes, and causes suppression of the cell cycle and energy production genes. We hypothesize that heat-inactivated E. coli may have prophylactic effects against mastitis. Heat-inactivated S. aureus promotes stronger inflammatory and immune defenses than E. coli. Lipopolysaccharide by itself induces MHC antigen presentation components, an effect not seen in response to E. coli bacteria. These results provide the basis for strategies to prevent and treat mastitis and may lead to the reduction in the use of antibiotics.

  16. Meta-Analysis of Transcriptional Responses to Mastitis-Causing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Younis, Sidra; Javed, Qamar; Blumenberg, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a widespread disease in dairy cows, and is often caused by bacterial mammary gland infection. Mastitis causes reduced milk production and leads to excessive use of antibiotics. We present meta-analysis of transcriptional profiles of bovine mastitis from 10 studies and 307 microarrays, allowing identification of much larger sets of affected genes than any individual study. Combining multiple studies provides insight into the molecular effects of Escherichia coli infection in vivo and uncovers differences between the consequences of E. coli vs. Staphylococcus aureus infection of primary mammary epithelial cells (PMECs). In udders, live E. coli elicits inflammatory and immune defenses through numerous cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, E. coli infection causes downregulation of genes encoding lipid biosynthesis enzymes that are involved in milk production. Additionally, host metabolism is generally suppressed. Finally, defensins and bacteria-recognition genes are upregulated, while the expression of the extracellular matrix protein transcripts is silenced. In PMECs, heat-inactivated E. coli elicits expression of ribosomal, cytoskeletal and angiogenic signaling genes, and causes suppression of the cell cycle and energy production genes. We hypothesize that heat-inactivated E. coli may have prophylactic effects against mastitis. Heat-inactivated S. aureus promotes stronger inflammatory and immune defenses than E. coli. Lipopolysaccharide by itself induces MHC antigen presentation components, an effect not seen in response to E. coli bacteria. These results provide the basis for strategies to prevent and treat mastitis and may lead to the reduction in the use of antibiotics. PMID:26933871

  17. Transcriptional start and MetR binding sites on the Escherichia coli metH gene.

    PubMed

    Marconi, R; Wigboldus, J; Weissbach, H; Brot, N

    1991-03-29

    The 5' upstream region of the Escherichia coli metH gene has been sequenced. Primer extension analysis revealed a transcription start site at 324 bases upstream of the initiator codon. An 8 base sequence homologous to the MetR binding region on the E. coli metE gene is present 217 bp downstream of the transcription start site. Gel retardation experiments showed that purified MetR protein could bind to a 30 base oligonucleotide containing the putative MetR binding region. No "met box" was present which explains the relative lack of regulation of the expression of the metH gene by methionine.

  18. RegulonDB: a database on transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Huerta, A M; Salgado, H; Thieffry, D; Collado-Vides, J

    1998-01-01

    RegulonDB is a DataBase that integrates biological knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate the transcription initiation in Escherichia coli , as well as knowledge on the organization of the genes and regulatory signals into operons in the chromosome. The operon is the basic structure used in RegulonDB to describe the elements and properties of transcriptional regulation. The current version contains information around some 500 regulation mechanisms, essentially for sigma 70 promoters. PMID:9399800

  19. Transcription termination controls prophage maintenance in Escherichia coli genomes.

    PubMed

    Menouni, Rachid; Champ, Stéphanie; Espinosa, Leon; Boudvillain, Marc; Ansaldi, Mireille

    2013-08-27

    Prophages represent a large fraction of prokaryotic genomes and often provide new functions to their hosts, in particular virulence and fitness. How prokaryotic cells maintain such gene providers is central for understanding bacterial genome evolution by horizontal transfer. Prophage excision occurs through site-specific recombination mediated by a prophage-encoded integrase. In addition, a recombination directionality factor (or excisionase) directs the reaction toward excision and prevents the phage genome from being reintegrated. In this work, we describe the role of the transcription termination factor Rho in prophage maintenance through control of the synthesis of transcripts that mediate recombination directionality factor expression and, thus, excisive recombination. We show that Rho inhibition by bicyclomycin allows for the expression of prophage genes that lead to excisive recombination. Thus, besides its role in the silencing of horizontally acquired genes, Rho also maintains lysogeny of defective and functional prophages.

  20. Where to begin? Mapping transcription start sites genome-wide in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wade, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    Recent genome-wide studies of bacterial transcription have revealed large numbers of promoters located inside genes. In this issue of the Journal of Bacteriology, Thomason and colleagues (J. Bacteriol. 197:18-28, 2015, doi:10.1128/JB.02096-14) map transcription start sites in Escherichia coli on an unprecedented scale. This work provides important insights into the regulation of transcripts that initiate inside genes and sources of variability between studies aimed at identifying these RNAs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Deciphering Fur transcriptional regulatory network highlights its complex role beyond iron metabolism in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sang Woo; Kim, Donghyuk; Latif, Haythem; O'Brien, Edward J; Szubin, Richard; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2014-09-15

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) plays a critical role in the transcriptional regulation of iron metabolism. However, the full regulatory potential of Fur remains undefined. Here we comprehensively reconstruct the Fur transcriptional regulatory network in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 in response to iron availability using genome-wide measurements. Integrative data analysis reveals that a total of 81 genes in 42 transcription units are directly regulated by three different modes of Fur regulation, including apo- and holo-Fur activation and holo-Fur repression. We show that Fur connects iron transport and utilization enzymes with negative-feedback loop pairs for iron homeostasis. In addition, direct involvement of Fur in the regulation of DNA synthesis, energy metabolism and biofilm development is found. These results show how Fur exhibits a comprehensive regulatory role affecting many fundamental cellular processes linked to iron metabolism in order to coordinate the overall response of E. coli to iron availability.

  2. Genome-wide identification of transcription start sites, promoters and transcription factor binding sites in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Vargas, Alfredo; Olvera, Leticia; Olvera, Maricela; Grande, Ricardo; Vega-Alvarado, Leticia; Taboada, Blanca; Jimenez-Jacinto, Verónica; Salgado, Heladia; Juárez, Katy; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Huerta, Araceli M; Collado-Vides, Julio; Morett, Enrique

    2009-10-19

    Despite almost 40 years of molecular genetics research in Escherichia coli a major fraction of its Transcription Start Sites (TSSs) are still unknown, limiting therefore our understanding of the regulatory circuits that control gene expression in this model organism. RegulonDB (http://regulondb.ccg.unam.mx/) is aimed at integrating the genetic regulatory network of E. coli K12 as an entirely bioinformatic project up till now. In this work, we extended its aims by generating experimental data at a genome scale on TSSs, promoters and regulatory regions. We implemented a modified 5' RACE protocol and an unbiased High Throughput Pyrosequencing Strategy (HTPS) that allowed us to map more than 1700 TSSs with high precision. From this collection, about 230 corresponded to previously reported TSSs, which helped us to benchmark both our methodologies and the accuracy of the previous mapping experiments. The other ca 1500 TSSs mapped belong to about 1000 different genes, many of them with no assigned function. We identified promoter sequences and type of sigma factors that control the expression of about 80% of these genes. As expected, the housekeeping sigma(70) was the most common type of promoter, followed by sigma(38). The majority of the putative TSSs were located between 20 to 40 nucleotides from the translational start site. Putative regulatory binding sites for transcription factors were detected upstream of many TSSs. For a few transcripts, riboswitches and small RNAs were found. Several genes also had additional TSSs within the coding region. Unexpectedly, the HTPS experiments revealed extensive antisense transcription, probably for regulatory functions. The new information in RegulonDB, now with more than 2400 experimentally determined TSSs, strengthens the accuracy of promoter prediction, operon structure, and regulatory networks and provides valuable new information that will facilitate the understanding from a global perspective the complex and intricate

  3. Genome-Wide Identification of Transcription Start Sites, Promoters and Transcription Factor Binding Sites in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Vargas, Alfredo; Olvera, Leticia; Olvera, Maricela; Grande, Ricardo; Vega-Alvarado, Leticia; Taboada, Blanca; Jimenez-Jacinto, Verónica; Salgado, Heladia; Juárez, Katy; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Huerta, Araceli M.; Collado-Vides, Julio; Morett, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Despite almost 40 years of molecular genetics research in Escherichia coli a major fraction of its Transcription Start Sites (TSSs) are still unknown, limiting therefore our understanding of the regulatory circuits that control gene expression in this model organism. RegulonDB (http://regulondb.ccg.unam.mx/) is aimed at integrating the genetic regulatory network of E. coli K12 as an entirely bioinformatic project up till now. In this work, we extended its aims by generating experimental data at a genome scale on TSSs, promoters and regulatory regions. We implemented a modified 5′ RACE protocol and an unbiased High Throughput Pyrosequencing Strategy (HTPS) that allowed us to map more than 1700 TSSs with high precision. From this collection, about 230 corresponded to previously reported TSSs, which helped us to benchmark both our methodologies and the accuracy of the previous mapping experiments. The other ca 1500 TSSs mapped belong to about 1000 different genes, many of them with no assigned function. We identified promoter sequences and type of σ factors that control the expression of about 80% of these genes. As expected, the housekeeping σ70 was the most common type of promoter, followed by σ38. The majority of the putative TSSs were located between 20 to 40 nucleotides from the translational start site. Putative regulatory binding sites for transcription factors were detected upstream of many TSSs. For a few transcripts, riboswitches and small RNAs were found. Several genes also had additional TSSs within the coding region. Unexpectedly, the HTPS experiments revealed extensive antisense transcription, probably for regulatory functions. The new information in RegulonDB, now with more than 2400 experimentally determined TSSs, strengthens the accuracy of promoter prediction, operon structure, and regulatory networks and provides valuable new information that will facilitate the understanding from a global perspective the complex and intricate regulatory

  4. Short-Patch Reverse Transcription in Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, D. S.; Tombline, G.; Zahn, K.

    1995-01-01

    Chimeras of RNA and DNA have distinctive physical and biological properties. Chimeric oligonucleotides that contained one, two or three ribonucleotides whose phosphodiester backbone was covalently continuous with DNA were synthesized. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to assess genetic information transfer from the ribonucleotide positions. Transfer was scored by the formation or reversion of an ochre site that also corresponded to a restriction cleavage site. This allowed physical as well as genetic assay of mutational events. Bases attached to the ribonucleotides were able to accurately direct the synthesis of progeny DNA. The results suggest that in vivo DNA polymerases utilize a ``running start'' on a DNA backbone to continue across a covalent backbone junction into a region of ribonucleotides and then back again onto a normal DNA backbone. The phenomenon is designated short-patch reverse transcription (SPRT) by analogy to short-patch mismatch correction and reverse transcription as the term is generally used. The possibility is considered that SPRT contributes to an unrecognized pathway of mutagenesis. PMID:7545627

  5. Conservation of transcriptional sensing systems in prokaryotes: A perspective from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Heladia; Martínez-Antonio, Agustino; Janga, Sarath Chandra

    2007-01-01

    The activity of transcription factors is usually governed by allosteric physicochemical signals or metabolites, which are in turn produced in the cell or obtained from the environment by the activity of the products of effector genes. Previously we identified a collection of more than 110 transcription factors and their corresponding effector genes in Escherichia coli K-12. Here we introduce the notion of “triferog”, which relates to the identification of orthologous transcription factors and effector genes across genomes and show that transcriptional sensing systems known in E. coli are poorly conserved beyond Salmonella. We also find that enzymes that act as effector genes for the production of endogenous effector metabolites are more conserved than their corresponding effector genes encoding for transport and two-component systems for sensing exogenous signals. Finally we observe that on an evolutionary scale enzymes are more conserved than their respective TFs, suggesting a homogenous cellular metabolism across genomes and the conservation of transcriptional control of critical cellular processes like DNA replication by a common endogenous signal. We hypothesize that extensive variation in the domain architecture of TFs and changes in endogenous conditions at large phylogenetic distances could be the major contributing factors for the observed differential conservation of TFs and their corresponding effector genes encoding for enzymes, causing variations in transcriptional responses across organisms. PMID:17617412

  6. Conservation of transcriptional sensing systems in prokaryotes: a perspective from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Heladia; Martínez-Antonio, Agustino; Janga, Sarath Chandra

    2007-07-24

    The activity of transcription factors is usually governed by allosteric physicochemical signals or metabolites, which are in turn produced in the cell or obtained from the environment by the activity of the products of effector genes. Previously, we identified a collection of more than 110 transcription factors and their corresponding effector genes in Escherichia coli K-12. Here, we introduce the notion of "triferog", which relates to the identification of orthologous transcription factors and effector genes across genomes and show that transcriptional sensing systems known in E. coli are poorly conserved beyond Salmonella. We also find that enzymes that act as effector genes for the production of endogenous effector metabolites are more conserved than their corresponding effector genes encoding for transport and two-component systems for sensing exogenous signals. Finally, we observe that on an evolutionary scale enzymes are more conserved than their respective TFs, suggesting a homogenous cellular metabolism across genomes and the conservation of transcriptional control of critical cellular processes like DNA replication by a common endogenous signal. We hypothesize that extensive variation in the domain architecture of TFs and changes in endogenous conditions at large phylogenetic distances could be the major contributing factors for the observed differential conservation of TFs and their corresponding effector genes encoding for enzymes, causing variations in transcriptional responses across organisms.

  7. Firefly luciferase as the reporter for transcriptional response to the environment in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ryo, Masashi; Oshikoshi, Yuta; Doi, Shosei; Motoki, Shogo; Niimi, Atsuko; Aoki, Setsuyuki

    2013-12-15

    We demonstrate that firefly luciferase is a good reporter in Escherichia coli for transcription dynamics in response to the environment. E. coli strains, carrying a fusion of the promoter of the ycgZ gene and the coding region of the luciferase gene, showed transient bioluminescence on receiving blue light. This response was compromised in mutants lacking known regulators in manners consistent with each regulator's function. We also show that relA, a gene encoding a (p)ppGpp synthetase, affects ycgZ dynamics when nullified. Moreover, two unstable luciferase variants showed improved response dynamics and should be useful to study quick changes of gene expression.

  8. Crystal Structures of the E. coli Transcription Initiation Complexes with a Complete Bubble

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Yuhong; Steitz, Thomas A.

    2015-05-01

    During transcription initiation, RNA polymerase binds to promoter DNA to form an initiation complex containing a DNA bubble and enters into abortive cycles of RNA synthesis before escaping the promoter to transit into the elongation phase for processive RNA synthesis. Here we present the crystal structures of E. coli transcription initiation complexes containing a complete transcription bubble and de novo synthesized RNA oligonucleotides at about 6-Å resolution. The structures show how RNA polymerase recognizes DNA promoters that contain spacers of different lengths and reveal a bridging interaction between the 5'-triphosphate of the nascent RNA and the σ factor that may function to stabilize the short RNA-DNA hybrids during the early stage of transcription initiation. The conformation of the RNA oligonucleotides and the paths of the DNA strands in the complete initiation complexes provide insights into the mechanism that controls both the abortive and productive RNA synthesis.

  9. Mechanistic basis for transcriptional bursting of ribosomal genes in E. coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choubey, Sandeep; Sanchez, Alvaro; Kondev, Jane

    2012-02-01

    Upon adding more ribosomal genes to the E. coli cell, it adjusts the overall transcription of these genes by reducing the average transcription rate per gene, so as to keep constant the level of ribosomal RNA in the cell. It was observed that this reduction in the average transcription level per gene is accompanied by the generation of transcriptional bursts. The biophysical mechanism responsible for this type of transcriptional control is not yet known. We consider three possible mechanisms suggested in the literature: proximal pausing by RNA polymerase, cooperative recruitment of RNA polymerase by DNA supercoiling, and competition between RNA polymerase and a transcription factor for binding to regulatory DNA. We compute the expected statistical properties of transcription initiation for each one of these models,and compare our predictions with published distributions of distances between the polymerases transcribing the ribosomal genes, obtained from electron micrographs.We use this data to estimate the rates of transcription initiation, which are found to be in good agreement with independent measurements. We also show that the three mechanisms considered here can be discriminated by comparing their predictions for the mean and the variance of interpolymerase distances.

  10. Inactivation of Transcriptional Regulators during Within-Household Evolution of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kisiela, Dagmara I; Radey, Matthew; Paul, Sandip; Porter, Stephen; Polukhina, Kseniya; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Shevchenko, Sofiya; Chan, Diana; Aziz, Maliha; Johnson, Timothy J; Price, Lance B; Johnson, James R; Sokurenko, Evgeni V

    2017-07-01

    We analyzed the within-household evolution of two household-associated Escherichia coli strains from pandemic clonal group ST131-H30, using isolates recovered from five individuals within two families, each of which had a distinct strain. Family 1's strain was represented by a urine isolate from the index patient (older sister) with recurrent cystitis and a blood isolate from her younger sister with fatal urosepsis. Family 2's strain was represented by a urine isolate from the index patient (father) with pyelonephritis and renal abscesses, blood and kidney drainage isolates from the daughter with emphysematous pyelonephritis, and urine and fecal isolates from the mother with cystitis. Collectively, the several variants of each family's strain had accumulated a total of 8 (family 1) and 39 (family 2) point mutations; no two isolates were identical. Of the 47 total mutations, 36 resulted in amino acid changes or truncation of coded proteins. Fourteen such mutations (39%) targeted genes encoding transcriptional regulators, and 9 (25%) involved DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs), which significantly exceeded the relative contribution of TF genes to the isolates' genomes (∼6%). At least one-half of the transcriptional regulator mutations were inactivating, based on phenotypic and/or transcriptional analysis. In particular, inactivating mutations in the global regulator LrhA (repressor of type 1 fimbriae and flagella) occurred in the blood isolates from both households and increased the virulence of E. coli strains in a murine sepsis model. The results indicate that E. coli undergoes adaptive evolution between and/or within hosts, generating subpopulations with distinctive phenotypes and virulence potential.IMPORTANCE The clonal evolution of bacterial strains associated with interhost transmission is poorly understood. We characterized the genome sequences of clonal descendants of two Escherichia coli strains, recovered at different time points from multiple

  11. Organization and transcription of the dnaA and dnaN genes of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Y; Tsukano, H; Sako, T

    1981-01-01

    The locations of the linked dnaA and dnaN genes of Escherichia coli in a specialized transducing lambda phage genome have been determined by electron microscopic heteroduplex analysis, using phages with deletions or insertions in the dnaA or dnaN gene. The transcription initiation sites for the dna genes were also localized by electron microscopic analysis of DNA-RBA heteroduplex molecules formed between the E. coli DNA fragment of the phage genome and the in vitro transcription products of the fragment. The dnaN gene was found to be transcribed in the same direction as the dnaA gene, and predominantly from the promoter of the dnaA gene.

  12. Regulation of nitrate reductase at the transcriptional and translational levels in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Herrera, J; Salas-Vargas, I

    1976-04-02

    Nitrate reductase from Escherichia coli is induced by nitrate and derepressed by oxygen removal after a lag phase. Elimination of inducer, shift to aerobic conditions and addition of actinomycin D causes the decline in the rate of its synthesis, which eventually may stop. Kinetic analysis of the sensitivity of the biosynthetic process to oxygen, chloramphenicol, actinomycin D and rifampicin gave results which we interprete as evidence that oxygen (and possibly nitrate) affect simultaneously both the transcriptional and translational processes.

  13. A Transcriptional “Scream” Early Response of E. coli Prey to Predatory Invasion by Bdellovibrio

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Carey; Ivanov, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    We have transcriptionally profiled the genes differentially expressed in E. coli prey cells when predatorily attacked by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus just prior to prey cell killing. This is a brief, approximately 20–25 min period when the prey cell is still alive but contains a Bdellovibrio cell in its periplasm or attached to and penetrating its outer membrane. Total RNA was harvested and labelled 15 min after initiating a semi-synchronous infection with an excess of Bdellovibrio preying upon E. coli and hybridised to a macroarray spotted with all predicted ORFs of E. coli. SAM analysis and t-tests were performed on the resulting data and 126 E. coli genes were found to be significantly differentially regulated by the prey upon attack by Bdellovibrio. The results were confirmed by QRT-PCR. Amongst the prey genes upregulated were a variety of general stress response genes, potentially “selfish” genes within or near prophages and transposable elements, and genes responding to damage in the periplasm and osmotic stress. Essentially, the presence of the invading Bdellovibrio and the resulting damage to the prey cell elicited a small “transcriptional scream”, but seemingly no specific defensive mechanism with which to counter the Bdellovibrio attack. This supports other studies which do not find Bdellovibrio resistance responses in prey, and bodes well for its use as a “living antibiotic”. PMID:20024656

  14. A transcriptional "Scream" early response of E. coli prey to predatory invasion by Bdellovibrio.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Carey; Ivanov, Pavel; Sockett, Renee Elizabeth

    2010-06-01

    We have transcriptionally profiled the genes differentially expressed in E. coli prey cells when predatorily attacked by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus just prior to prey cell killing. This is a brief, approximately 20-25 min period when the prey cell is still alive but contains a Bdellovibrio cell in its periplasm or attached to and penetrating its outer membrane. Total RNA was harvested and labelled 15 min after initiating a semi-synchronous infection with an excess of Bdellovibrio preying upon E. coli and hybridised to a macroarray spotted with all predicted ORFs of E. coli. SAM analysis and t-tests were performed on the resulting data and 126 E. coli genes were found to be significantly differentially regulated by the prey upon attack by Bdellovibrio. The results were confirmed by QRT-PCR. Amongst the prey genes upregulated were a variety of general stress response genes, potentially "selfish" genes within or near prophages and transposable elements, and genes responding to damage in the periplasm and osmotic stress. Essentially, the presence of the invading Bdellovibrio and the resulting damage to the prey cell elicited a small "transcriptional scream", but seemingly no specific defensive mechanism with which to counter the Bdellovibrio attack. This supports other studies which do not find Bdellovibrio resistance responses in prey, and bodes well for its use as a "living antibiotic".

  15. Transcription of the Escherichia coli fliC gene is regulated by metal ions

    SciTech Connect

    Guzzo, A.; Diorio, C.; DuBow, M.S. )

    1991-08-01

    luxAB gene fusions in the Escherichia coli genome were used to screen for clones displaying transcriptional changes in the presence of aluminum. One clone was found that contained a luciferase gene fusion in which transcription was increased in the presence of aluminum and which was subsequently shown to be induced by copper, iron, and nickel. Cloning of the metal-regulated gene, hybridization to the ordered phage {lambda} bank of the E. coli chromosome, and sequencing of DNA adjacent to the luxAB fusion revealed that the insertion occurred within the fliC (hag) gene of E. coli. This gene encodes flagellin the filament subunit of the bacterial motility organ, and is under the control of several regulatory cascades. These results suggest that environmental metals may play a role in the regulation of the motility potential of E. coli and that this bioluminescent gene fusion clone (or derivatives thereof) may be used to prepare a biosensor for the rapid detection of metal contamination in water samples.

  16. Transcriptional Responses of Escherichia coli K-12 and O157:H7 Associated with Lettuce Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Ryan C.; Black, Elaine P.; Hou, Zhe; Sugawara, Masayuki; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of outbreaks of gastroenteritis recently caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 have been linked to the consumption of leafy green vegetables. Although it is known that E. coli survives and grows in the phyllosphere of lettuce plants, the molecular mechanisms by which this bacterium associates with plants are largely unknown. The goal of this study was to identify E. coli genes relevant to its interaction, survival, or attachment to lettuce leaf surfaces, comparing E. coli K-12, a model system, and E. coli O157:H7, a pathogen associated with a large number of outbreaks. Using microarrays, we found that upon interaction with intact leaves, 10.1% and 8.7% of the 3,798 shared genes were differentially expressed in K-12 and O157:H7, respectively, whereas 3.1% changed transcript levels in both. The largest group of genes downregulated consisted of those involved in energy metabolism, including tnaA (33-fold change), encoding a tryptophanase that converts tryptophan into indole. Genes involved in biofilm modulation (bhsA and ybiM) and curli production (csgA and csgB) were significantly upregulated in E. coli K-12 and O157:H7. Both csgA and bhsA (ycfR) mutants were impaired in the long-term colonization of the leaf surface, but only csgA mutants had diminished ability in short-term attachment experiments. Our data suggested that the interaction of E. coli K-12 and O157:H7 with undamaged lettuce leaves likely is initiated via attachment to the leaf surface using curli fibers, a downward shift in their metabolism, and the suppression of biofilm formation. PMID:22247152

  17. Transcriptional responses of Escherichia coli K-12 and O157:H7 associated with lettuce leaves.

    PubMed

    Fink, Ryan C; Black, Elaine P; Hou, Zhe; Sugawara, Masayuki; Sadowsky, Michael J; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    An increasing number of outbreaks of gastroenteritis recently caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 have been linked to the consumption of leafy green vegetables. Although it is known that E. coli survives and grows in the phyllosphere of lettuce plants, the molecular mechanisms by which this bacterium associates with plants are largely unknown. The goal of this study was to identify E. coli genes relevant to its interaction, survival, or attachment to lettuce leaf surfaces, comparing E. coli K-12, a model system, and E. coli O157:H7, a pathogen associated with a large number of outbreaks. Using microarrays, we found that upon interaction with intact leaves, 10.1% and 8.7% of the 3,798 shared genes were differentially expressed in K-12 and O157:H7, respectively, whereas 3.1% changed transcript levels in both. The largest group of genes downregulated consisted of those involved in energy metabolism, including tnaA (33-fold change), encoding a tryptophanase that converts tryptophan into indole. Genes involved in biofilm modulation (bhsA and ybiM) and curli production (csgA and csgB) were significantly upregulated in E. coli K-12 and O157:H7. Both csgA and bhsA (ycfR) mutants were impaired in the long-term colonization of the leaf surface, but only csgA mutants had diminished ability in short-term attachment experiments. Our data suggested that the interaction of E. coli K-12 and O157:H7 with undamaged lettuce leaves likely is initiated via attachment to the leaf surface using curli fibers, a downward shift in their metabolism, and the suppression of biofilm formation.

  18. Comparative analysis of the transcription-factor gene regulatory networks of E. coli and S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Vargas, Lev; Santillán, Moisés

    2008-01-01

    Background The regulatory interactions between transcription factors (TF) and regulated genes (RG) in a species genome can be lumped together in a single directed graph. The TF's and RG's conform the nodes of this graph, while links are drawn whenever a transcription factor regulates a gene's expression. Projections onto TF nodes can be constructed by linking every two nodes regulating a common gene. Similarly, projections onto RG nodes can be made by linking every two regulated genes sharing at least one common regulator. Recent studies of the connectivity pattern in the transcription-factor regulatory network of many organisms have revealed some interesting properties. However, the differences between TF and RG nodes have not been widely explored. Results After analysing the RG and TF projections of the transcription-factor gene regulatory networks of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found several common characteristic as well as some noticeable differences. To better understand these differences, we compared the properties of the E. coli and S. cerevisiae RG- and TF-projected networks with those of the corresponding projections built from randomized versions of the original bipartite networks. These last results indicate that the observed differences are mostly due to the very different ratios of TF to RG counts of the E. coli and S. cerevisiae bipartite networks, rather than to their having different connectivity patterns. Conclusion Since E. coli is a prokaryotic organism while S. cerevisiae is eukaryotic, there are important differences between them concerning processing of mRNA before translation, DNA packing, amount of junk DNA, and gene regulation. From the results in this paper we conclude that the most important effect such differences have had on the development of the corresponding transcription-factor gene regulatory networks is their very different ratios of TF to RG numbers. This ratio is more than three times larger in S

  19. Environmental conditions and transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli: a physiological integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Antonio, Agustino; Salgado, Heladia; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Gutiérrez-Ríos, Rosa María; Jiménez-Jacinto, Verónica; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2003-12-30

    Bacteria develop a number of devices for sensing, responding, and adapting to different environmental conditions. Understanding within a genomic perspective how the transcriptional machinery of bacteria is modulated, as a response for changing conditions, is a major challenge for biologists. Knowledge of which genes are turned on or turned off under specific conditions is essential for our understanding of cell behavior. In this study we describe how the information pertaining to gene expression and associated growth conditions (even with very little knowledge of the associated regulatory mechanisms) is gathered from the literature and incorporated into RegulonDB, a database on transcriptional regulation and operon organization in E. coli. The link between growth conditions, signal transduction, and transcriptional regulation is modeled in the database in a simple format that highlights biological relevant information. As far as we know, there is no other database that explicitly clarifies the effect of environmental conditions on gene transcription. We discuss how this knowledge constitutes a benchmark that will impact future research aimed at integration of regulatory responses in the cell; for instance, analysis of microarrays, predicting culture behavior in biotechnological processes, and comprehension of dynamics of regulatory networks. This integrated knowledge will contribute to the future goal of modeling the behavior of E. coli as an entire cell. The RegulonDB database can be accessed on the web at the URL: http://www.cifn.unam.mx/Computational_Biology/regulondb/. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Functional characterization of alternate optimal solutions of Escherichia coli's transcriptional and translational machinery.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Ines; Fleming, Ronan M T; Bordbar, Aarash; Schellenberger, Jan; Palsson, Bernhard Ø

    2010-05-19

    The constraint-based reconstruction and analysis approach has recently been extended to describe Escherichia coli's transcriptional and translational machinery. Here, we introduce the concept of reaction coupling to represent the dependency between protein synthesis and utilization. These coupling constraints lead to a significant contraction of the feasible set of steady-state fluxes. The subset of alternate optimal solutions (AOS) consistent with maximal ribosome production was calculated. The majority of transcriptional and translational reactions were active for all of these AOS, showing that the network has a low degree of redundancy. Furthermore, all calculated AOS contained the qualitative expression of at least 92% of the known essential genes. Principal component analysis of AOS demonstrated that energy currencies (ATP, GTP, and phosphate) dominate the network's capability to produce ribosomes. Additionally, we identified regulatory control points of the network, which include the transcription reactions of sigma70 (RpoD) as well as that of a degradosome component (Rne) and of tRNA charging (ValS). These reactions contribute significant variance among AOS. These results show that constraint-based modeling can be applied to gain insight into the systemic properties of E. coli's transcriptional and translational machinery. Copyright 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional Characterization of Alternate Optimal Solutions of Escherichia coli's Transcriptional and Translational Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Ines; Fleming, Ronan M.T.; Bordbar, Aarash; Schellenberger, Jan; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The constraint-based reconstruction and analysis approach has recently been extended to describe Escherichia coli's transcriptional and translational machinery. Here, we introduce the concept of reaction coupling to represent the dependency between protein synthesis and utilization. These coupling constraints lead to a significant contraction of the feasible set of steady-state fluxes. The subset of alternate optimal solutions (AOS) consistent with maximal ribosome production was calculated. The majority of transcriptional and translational reactions were active for all of these AOS, showing that the network has a low degree of redundancy. Furthermore, all calculated AOS contained the qualitative expression of at least 92% of the known essential genes. Principal component analysis of AOS demonstrated that energy currencies (ATP, GTP, and phosphate) dominate the network's capability to produce ribosomes. Additionally, we identified regulatory control points of the network, which include the transcription reactions of σ70 (RpoD) as well as that of a degradosome component (Rne) and of tRNA charging (ValS). These reactions contribute significant variance among AOS. These results show that constraint-based modeling can be applied to gain insight into the systemic properties of E. coli's transcriptional and translational machinery. PMID:20483314

  2. Prediction of transcriptional regulatory sites in the complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Thieffry, D; Salgado, H; Huerta, A M; Collado-Vides, J

    1998-06-01

    As one of the best-characterized free-living organisms, Escherichia coli and its recently completed genomic sequence offer a special opportunity to exploit systematically the variety of regulatory data available in the literature in order to make a comprehensive set of regulatory predictions in the whole genome. The complete genome sequence of E.coli was analyzed for the binding of transcriptional regulators upstream of coding sequences. The biological information contained in RegulonDB (Huerta, A.M. et al., Nucleic Acids Res.,26,55-60, 1998) for 56 different transcriptional proteins was the support to implement a stringent strategy combining string search and weight matrices. We estimate that our search included representatives of 15-25% of the total number of regulatory binding proteins in E.coli. This search was performed on the set of 4288 putative regulatory regions, each 450 bp long. Within the regions with predicted sites, 89% are regulated by one protein and 81% involve only one site. These numbers are reasonably consistent with the distribution of experimental regulatory sites. Regulatory sites are found in 603 regions corresponding to 16% of operon regions and 10% of intra-operonic regions. Additional evidence gives stronger support to some of these predictions, including the position of the site, biological consistency with the function of the downstream gene, as well as genetic evidence for the regulatory interaction. The predictions described here were incorporated into the map presented in the paper describing the complete E.coli genome (Blattner,F.R. et al., Science, 277, 1453-1461, 1997). The complete set of predictions in GenBank format is available at the url: http://www. cifn.unam.mx/Computational_Biology/E.coli-predictions ecoli-reg@cifn.unam.mx, collado@cifn.unam.mx

  3. Transcription profile of Escherichia coli: genomic SELEX search for regulatory targets of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Ishihama, Akira; Shimada, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial genomes are transcribed by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP), which achieves gene selectivity through interaction with sigma factors that recognize promoters, and transcription factors (TFs) that control the activity and specificity of RNAP holoenzyme. To understand the molecular mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, the identification of regulatory targets is needed for all these factors. We then performed genomic SELEX screenings of targets under the control of each sigma factor and each TF. Here we describe the assembly of 156 SELEX patterns of a total of 116 TFs performed in the presence and absence of effector ligands. The results reveal several novel concepts: (i) each TF regulates more targets than hitherto recognized; (ii) each promoter is regulated by more TFs than hitherto recognized; and (iii) the binding sites of some TFs are located within operons and even inside open reading frames. The binding sites of a set of global regulators, including cAMP receptor protein, LeuO and Lrp, overlap with those of the silencer H-NS, suggesting that certain global regulators play an anti-silencing role. To facilitate sharing of these accumulated SELEX datasets with the research community, we compiled a database, ‘Transcription Profile of Escherichia coli’ (www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/ecoli/tec/). PMID:26843427

  4. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Regulation and Chromosome Structural Arrangement by GalR in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Zhong; Trostel, Andrei; Lewis, Dale E. A.; Lee, Sang Jun; He, Ximiao; Stringer, Anne M.; Wade, Joseph T.; Schneider, Thomas D.; Durfee, Tim; Adhya, Sankar

    2016-01-01

    The regulatory protein, GalR, is known for controlling transcription of genes related to D-galactose metabolism in Escherichia coli. Here, using a combination of experimental and bioinformatic approaches, we identify novel GalR binding sites upstream of several genes whose function is not directly related to D-galactose metabolism. Moreover, we do not observe regulation of these genes by GalR under standard growth conditions. Thus, our data indicate a broader regulatory role for GalR, and suggest that regulation by GalR is modulated by other factors. Surprisingly, we detect regulation of 158 transcripts by GalR, with few regulated genes being associated with a nearby GalR binding site. Based on our earlier observation of long-range interactions between distally bound GalR dimers, we propose that GalR indirectly regulates the transcription of many genes by inducing large-scale restructuring of the chromosome. PMID:27900321

  5. The Escherichia coli transcriptional regulator MarA directly represses transcription of purA and hdeA.

    PubMed

    Schneiders, Thamarai; Barbosa, Teresa M; McMurry, Laura M; Levy, Stuart B

    2004-03-05

    The Escherichia coli MarA protein mediates a response to multiple environmental stresses through the activation or repression in vivo of a large number of chromosomal genes. Transcriptional activation for a number of these genes has been shown to occur via direct interaction of MarA with a 20-bp degenerate asymmetric "marbox" sequence. It was not known whether repression by MarA was also direct. We found that purified MarA was sufficient in vitro to repress transcription of both purA and hdeA. Transcription and electrophoretic mobility shift experiments in vitro using mutant promoters suggested that the marbox involved in the repression overlapped the -35 promoter motif and was in the "backward" orientation. This organization contrasts with that of the class II promoters activated by MarA, in which the marbox also overlaps the -35 motif but is in the "forward" orientation. We conclude that MarA, a member of the AraC/XylS family, can act directly as a repressor or an activator, depending on the position and orientation of the marbox within a promoter.

  6. Model of transcriptional activation by MarA in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wall, Michael E; Markowitz, David A; Rosner, Judah L; Martin, Robert G

    2009-12-01

    The AraC family transcription factor MarA activates approximately 40 genes (the marA/soxS/rob regulon) of the Escherichia coli chromosome resulting in different levels of resistance to a wide array of antibiotics and to superoxides. Activation of marA/soxS/rob regulon promoters occurs in a well-defined order with respect to the level of MarA; however, the order of activation does not parallel the strength of MarA binding to promoter sequences. To understand this lack of correspondence, we developed a computational model of transcriptional activation in which a transcription factor either increases or decreases RNA polymerase binding, and either accelerates or retards post-binding events associated with transcription initiation. We used the model to analyze data characterizing MarA regulation of promoter activity. The model clearly explains the lack of correspondence between the order of activation and the MarA-DNA affinity and indicates that the order of activation can only be predicted using information about the strength of the full MarA-polymerase-DNA interaction. The analysis further suggests that MarA can activate without increasing polymerase binding and that activation can even involve a decrease in polymerase binding, which is opposite to the textbook model of activation by recruitment. These findings are consistent with published chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of interactions between polymerase and the E. coli chromosome. We find that activation involving decreased polymerase binding yields lower latency in gene regulation and therefore might confer a competitive advantage to cells. Our model yields insights into requirements for predicting the order of activation of a regulon and enables us to suggest that activation might involve a decrease in polymerase binding which we expect to be an important theme of gene regulation in E. coli and beyond.

  7. Model of transcriptional activation by MarA in escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Michael E; Rosner, Judah L; Martin, Robert G

    2009-01-01

    The AraC family transcription factor MarA activates approximately 40 genes (the marA/soxS/rob regulon) of the Escherichia coli chromosome resulting in different levels of resistance to a wide array of antibiotics and to superoxides. Activation of marA/soxS/rob regulon promoters occurs in a well-defined order with respect to the level of MarA; however, the order of activation does not parallel the strength of MarA binding to promoter sequences. To understand this lack of correspondence, we developed a computational model of transcriptional activation in which a transcription factor either increases or decreases RNA polymerase binding, and either accelerates or retards post-binding events associated with transcription initiation. We used the model to analyze data characterizing MarA regulation of promoter activity. The model clearly explains the lack of correspondence between the order of activation and the MarA-DNA affinity and indicates that the order of activation can only be predicted using information about the strength of the full MarA-polymerase-DNA interaction. The analysis further suggests that MarA can activate without increasing polymerase binding and that activation can even involve a decrease in polymerase binding, which is opposite to the textbook model of activation by recruitment. These findings are consistent with published chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of interactions between polymerase and the E. coli chromosome. We find that activation involving decreased polymerase binding yields lower latency in gene regulation and therefore might confer a competitive advantage to cells. Our model yields insights into requirements for predicting the order of activation of a regulon and enables us to suggest that activation might involve a decrease in polymerase binding which we expect to be an important theme of gene regulation in E. coli and beyond.

  8. Environmental temperature regulates transcription of a virulence pili operon in E. coli.

    PubMed Central

    Göransson, M; Uhlin, B E

    1984-01-01

    The expression in Escherichia coli K-12 of a pilus-adhesion determinant, obtained through molecular cloning from a pyelonephritic E. coli isolate, was studied at different temperatures. Strain HB101 carrying the recombinant plasmid pRHU845 agglutinated human erythrocytes after growth at 37 degrees C but not after growth at 22 degrees C. Quantitation of pilus subunit protein by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for pilus antigen showed that synthesis of the pilus subunits was reduced at least 20-fold at 22 degrees C as compared with 37 degrees C. The 5' end of the pilus subunit structural gene, papA, was fused to the lacZ gene such that expression could be monitored at both translational and transcriptional levels. Measurements of beta-galactosidase production by the papA-lacZ hybrids provided evidence for thermoregulation of papA gene transcription. A regulatory determinant was localized to a 2-kb EcoRI-HindIII fragment encoding the papB gene and part of papA although none of the presently known pap gene products seem to be directly involved in a thermoregulatory mechanism. Comparison with other thermoregulatory systems in E. coli suggests that pap gene expression is regulated by a novel mechanism. PMID:6151898

  9. Transcriptional analysis of different stress response genes in Escherichia coli strains subjected to sodium chloride and lactic acid stress.

    PubMed

    Peng, Silvio; Stephan, Roger; Hummerjohann, Jörg; Tasara, Taurai

    2014-12-01

    Survival of Escherichia coli in food depends on its ability to adapt against encountered stress typically involving induction of stress response genes. In this study, the transcriptional induction of selected acid (cadA, speF) and salt (kdpA, proP, proW, otsA, betA) stress response genes was investigated among five E. coli strains, including three Shiga toxin-producing strains, exposed to sodium chloride or lactic acid stress. Transcriptional induction upon lactic acid stress exposure was similar in all but one E. coli strain, which lacked the lysine decarboxylase gene cadA. In response to sodium chloride stress exposure, proW and otsA were similarly induced, while significant differences were observed between the E. coli strains in induction of kdpA, proP and betA. The kdpA and betA genes were significantly induced in four and three strains, respectively, whereas one strain did not induce these genes. The proP gene was only induced in two E. coli strains. Interestingly, transcriptional induction differences in response to sodium chloride stress exposure were associated with survival phenotypes observed for the E. coli strains in cheese as the E. coli strain lacking significant induction in three salt stress response genes investigated also survived poorly compared to the other E. coli strains in cheese.

  10. RegulonDB (version 2.0): a database on transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, H; Santos, A; Garza-Ramos, U; van Helden, J; Díaz, E; Collado-Vides, J

    1999-01-01

    RegulonDB version 2.0, a database on transcriptional regulation and operon organization in Escherichia coli, is now available on the web at the following URL: http://www.cifn.unam. mx/Computational_Biology/regulondb/. In this paper we describe the main computational changes to the database, which include migrating the database to Sybase, providing graphical descriptions of the internal organization of operons and regulons, and direct links to MEDLINE references. The web interface offers searching either by mechanisms of regulation or by operon organization. The results of a search (operon organization, or site collection) are displayed as hypertext, and can also be displayed graphically. In terms of its contents, RegulonDB contains a large number of operons, as well as the absolute position in the completed genome sequence of sites, promoters, and individual genes of E.coli. PMID:9847141

  11. RegulonDB (version 2.0): a database on transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Salgado, H; Santos, A; Garza-Ramos, U; van Helden, J; Díaz, E; Collado-Vides, J

    1999-01-01

    RegulonDB version 2.0, a database on transcriptional regulation and operon organization in Escherichia coli, is now available on the web at the following URL: http://www.cifn.unam. mx/Computational_Biology/regulondb/. In this paper we describe the main computational changes to the database, which include migrating the database to Sybase, providing graphical descriptions of the internal organization of operons and regulons, and direct links to MEDLINE references. The web interface offers searching either by mechanisms of regulation or by operon organization. The results of a search (operon organization, or site collection) are displayed as hypertext, and can also be displayed graphically. In terms of its contents, RegulonDB contains a large number of operons, as well as the absolute position in the completed genome sequence of sites, promoters, and individual genes of E.coli.

  12. The repertoire of DNA-binding transcriptional regulators in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rueda, E; Collado-Vides, J

    2000-04-15

    Using a combination of several approaches we estimated and characterized a total of 314 regulatory DNA-binding proteins in Escherichia coli, which might represent its minimal set of transcription factors. The collection is comprised of 35% activators, 43% repressors and 22% dual regulators. Within many regulatory protein families, the members are homogeneous in their regulatory roles, physiology of regulated genes, regulatory function, length and genome position, showing that these families have evolved homogeneously in prokaryotes, particularly in E.coli. This work describes a full characterization of the repertoire of regulatory interactions in a whole living cell. This repertoire should contribute to the interpretation of global gene expression profiles in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

  13. The spatial biology of transcription and translation in rapidly growing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Somenath; Choi, Heejun; Weisshaar, James C

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence provides high resolution spatial distributions of ribosomes and RNA polymerase (RNAP) in live, rapidly growing Escherichia coli. Ribosomes are more strongly segregated from the nucleoids (chromosomal DNA) than previous widefield fluorescence studies suggested. While most transcription may be co-translational, the evidence indicates that most translation occurs on free mRNA copies that have diffused from the nucleoids to a ribosome-rich region. Analysis of time-resolved images of the nucleoid spatial distribution after treatment with the transcription-halting drug rifampicin and the translation-halting drug chloramphenicol shows that both drugs cause nucleoid contraction on the 0-3 min timescale. This is consistent with the transertion hypothesis. We suggest that the longer-term (20-30 min) nucleoid expansion after Rif treatment arises from conversion of 70S-polysomes to 30S and 50S subunits, which readily penetrate the nucleoids. Monte Carlo simulations of a polymer bead model built to mimic the chromosomal DNA and ribosomes (either 70S-polysomes or 30S and 50S subunits) explain spatial segregation or mixing of ribosomes and nucleoids in terms of excluded volume and entropic effects alone. A comprehensive model of the transcription-translation-transertion system incorporates this new information about the spatial organization of the E. coli cytoplasm. We propose that transertion, which radially expands the nucleoids, is essential for recycling of 30S and 50S subunits from ribosome-rich regions back into the nucleoids. There they initiate co-transcriptional translation, which is an important mechanism for maintaining RNAP forward progress and protecting the nascent mRNA chain. Segregation of 70S-polysomes from the nucleoid may facilitate rapid growth by shortening the search time for ribosomes to find free mRNA concentrated outside the nucleoid and the search time for RNAP concentrated within the nucleoid to find transcription initiation

  14. Agent-based modeling of oxygen-responsive transcription factors in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hao; Rolfe, Matthew D; Jia, Wenjing; Coakley, Simon; Poole, Robert K; Green, Jeffrey; Holcombe, Mike

    2014-04-01

    In the presence of oxygen (O2) the model bacterium Escherichia coli is able to conserve energy by aerobic respiration. Two major terminal oxidases are involved in this process - Cyo has a relatively low affinity for O2 but is able to pump protons and hence is energetically efficient; Cyd has a high affinity for O2 but does not pump protons. When E. coli encounters environments with different O2 availabilities, the expression of the genes encoding the alternative terminal oxidases, the cydAB and cyoABCDE operons, are regulated by two O2-responsive transcription factors, ArcA (an indirect O2 sensor) and FNR (a direct O2 sensor). It has been suggested that O2-consumption by the terminal oxidases located at the cytoplasmic membrane significantly affects the activities of ArcA and FNR in the bacterial nucleoid. In this study, an agent-based modeling approach has been taken to spatially simulate the uptake and consumption of O2 by E. coli and the consequent modulation of ArcA and FNR activities based on experimental data obtained from highly controlled chemostat cultures. The molecules of O2, transcription factors and terminal oxidases are treated as individual agents and their behaviors and interactions are imitated in a simulated 3-D E. coli cell. The model implies that there are two barriers that dampen the response of FNR to O2, i.e. consumption of O2 at the membrane by the terminal oxidases and reaction of O2 with cytoplasmic FNR. Analysis of FNR variants suggested that the monomer-dimer transition is the key step in FNR-mediated repression of gene expression.

  15. Rho and NusG suppress pervasive antisense transcription in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Jason M.; Mooney, Rachel A.; Grass, Jeffrey A.; Jessen, Erik D.; Tran, Frances; Landick, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of antisense transcripts in bacterial transcriptomes, little is known about how their synthesis is controlled. We report that a major function of the Escherichia coli termination factor Rho and its cofactor, NusG, is suppression of ubiquitous antisense transcription genome-wide. Rho binds C-rich unstructured nascent RNA (high C/G ratio) prior to its ATP-dependent dissociation of transcription complexes. NusG is required for efficient termination at minority subsets (∼20%) of both antisense and sense Rho-dependent terminators with lower C/G ratio sequences. In contrast, a widely studied nusA deletion proposed to compromise Rho-dependent termination had no effect on antisense or sense Rho-dependent terminators in vivo. Global colocalization of the histone-like nucleoid-structuring protein (H-NS) with Rho-dependent terminators and genetic interactions between hns and rho suggest that H-NS aids Rho in suppression of antisense transcription. The combined actions of Rho, NusG, and H-NS appear to be analogous to the Sen1–Nrd1–Nab3 and nucleosome systems that suppress antisense transcription in eukaryotes. PMID:23207917

  16. Tandem transcription termination sites in the dnaN gene of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Armengod, M E; García-Sogo, M; Pérez-Roger, I; Macián, F; Navarro-Aviñó, J P

    1991-10-15

    The dnaN gene of Escherichia coli encodes the beta-subunit of DNA polymerase III and maps between the dnaA and recF genes. We demonstrated previously that dnaN and recF constitute a transcriptional unit under control of the dnaN promoters. However, the recF gene has its own promoter region located in the middle of the dnaN structural gene. In this report, we use S1 mapping of mRNAs, transcriptional and translational fusions to the galK and lacZ genes, and in vitro mutagenesis to identify and characterize three tandem transcription termination sites responsible for transcriptional polarity in the dnaN-recF operon. These sites are located in the dnaN gene, downstream from the recF promoter region. Cumulatively, they terminate about 80% of the untranslated transcripts started at the recF promoters. As expected, they do not reduce transcription coming from the dnaN promoters unless dnaN translation was prematurely disrupted by the presence of a nonsense codon. The particular arrangement of regulatory elements (promoters and terminators) in the dnaN-recF region provides an exceptional in vivo system to confirm the latent termination site model of transcriptional polarity. In addition, our results contribute to the understanding of the complex regulation of the dnaA, dnaN, and recF genes. We propose that these three genes constitute an operon and that the terminators described in this work could be used to reduce expression of the distal genes of the operon under circumstances in which the dnaN translation happens to be slowed down.

  17. A Premature Termination of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transcription in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Elloumi-Mseddi, Jihene; Jellali, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Our success in producing an active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase in Escherichia coli encouraged us to express the full-length receptor in the same host. Despite its large size, we were successful at producing the full-length EGFR protein fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST) that was detected by Western blot analysis. Moreover, we obtained a majoritarian truncated GST-EGFR form detectable by gel electrophoresis and Western blot. This truncated protein was purified and confirmed by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis to belong to the N-terminal extracellular region of the EGFR fused to GST. Northern blot analysis showed two transcripts suggesting the occurrence of a transcriptional arrest. PMID:25389535

  18. Trigger loop folding determines transcription rate of Escherichia coli's RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Yara X; Nudler, Evgeny; Bustamante, Carlos

    2015-01-20

    Two components of the RNA polymerase (RNAP) catalytic center, the bridge helix and the trigger loop (TL), have been linked with changes in elongation rate and pausing. Here, single molecule experiments with the WT and two TL-tip mutants of the Escherichia coli enzyme reveal that tip mutations modulate RNAP's pause-free velocity, identifying TL conformational changes as one of two rate-determining steps in elongation. Consistent with this observation, we find a direct correlation between helix propensity of the modified amino acid and pause-free velocity. Moreover, nucleotide analogs affect transcription rate, suggesting that their binding energy also influences TL folding. A kinetic model in which elongation occurs in two steps, TL folding on nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding followed by NTP incorporation/pyrophosphate release, quantitatively accounts for these results. The TL plays no role in pause recovery remaining unfolded during a pause. This model suggests a finely tuned mechanism that balances transcription speed and fidelity.

  19. Escherichia coli dihydroxyacetone kinase controls gene expression by binding to transcription factor DhaR

    PubMed Central

    Bächler, Christoph; Schneider, Philipp; Bähler, Priska; Lustig, Ariel; Erni, Bernhard

    2005-01-01

    Dihydroxyacetone (Dha) kinases are a sequence-conserved family of enzymes, which utilize either ATP (in animals, plants, bacteria) or the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) as a source of high-energy phosphate. The PTS-dependent kinase of Escherichia coli consists of three subunits: DhaK contains the Dha binding site, DhaL contains ADP as cofactor for the double displacement of phosphate from DhaM to Dha, and DhaM provides a phospho-histidine relay between the PTS and DhaL∷ADP. DhaR is a transcription activator belonging to the AAA+ family of enhancer binding proteins. It stimulates transcription of the dhaKLM operon from a sigma70 promoter and autorepresses dhaR transcription. Genetic and biochemical studies indicate that the enzyme subunits DhaL and DhaK act antagonistically as coactivator and corepressor of the transcription activator by mutually exclusive binding to the sensing domain of DhaR. In the presence of Dha, DhaL is dephosphorylated and DhaL∷ADP displaces DhaK and stimulates DhaR activity. In the absence of Dha, DhaL∷ADP is converted by the PTS to DhaL∷ATP, which does not bind to DhaR. PMID:15616579

  20. Escherichia coli dihydroxyacetone kinase controls gene expression by binding to transcription factor DhaR.

    PubMed

    Bächler, Christoph; Schneider, Philipp; Bähler, Priska; Lustig, Ariel; Erni, Bernhard

    2005-01-26

    Dihydroxyacetone (Dha) kinases are a sequence-conserved family of enzymes, which utilize either ATP (in animals, plants, bacteria) or the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) as a source of high-energy phosphate. The PTS-dependent kinase of Escherichia coli consists of three subunits: DhaK contains the Dha binding site, DhaL contains ADP as cofactor for the double displacement of phosphate from DhaM to Dha, and DhaM provides a phospho-histidine relay between the PTS and DhaL::ADP. DhaR is a transcription activator belonging to the AAA+ family of enhancer binding proteins. It stimulates transcription of the dhaKLM operon from a sigma70 promoter and autorepresses dhaR transcription. Genetic and biochemical studies indicate that the enzyme subunits DhaL and DhaK act antagonistically as coactivator and corepressor of the transcription activator by mutually exclusive binding to the sensing domain of DhaR. In the presence of Dha, DhaL is dephosphorylated and DhaL::ADP displaces DhaK and stimulates DhaR activity. In the absence of Dha, DhaL::ADP is converted by the PTS to DhaL::ATP, which does not bind to DhaR.

  1. Regulation of transcription of cell division genes in the Escherichia coli dcw cluster.

    PubMed

    Vicente, M; Gomez, M J; Ayala, J A

    1998-04-01

    The Escherichia coli dcw cluster contains cell division genes, such as the phylogenetically ubiquitous ftsZ, and genes involved in peptidoglycan synthesis. Transcription in the cluster proceeds in the same direction as the progress of the replication fork along the chromosome. Regulation is exerted at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The absence of transcriptional termination signals may, in principle, allow extension of the transcripts initiated at the up-stream promoter (mraZ1p) even to the furthest down-stream gene (envA). Complementation tests suggest that they extend into ftsW in the central part of the cluster. In addition, the cluster contains other promoters individually regulated by cis- and trans-acting signals. Dissociation of the expression of the ftsZ gene, located after ftsQ and A near the 3' end of the cluster, from its natural regulatory signals leads to an alteration in the physiology of cell division. The complexities observed in the regulation of gene expression in the cluster may then have an important biological role. Among them, LexA-binding SOS boxes have been found at the 5' end of the cluster, preceding promoters which direct the expression of ftsI (coding for PBP3, the penicillin-binding protein involved in septum formation). A gearbox promoter, ftsQ1p, forms part of the signals regulating the transcription of ftsQ, A and Z. It is an inversely growth-dependent mechanism driven by RNA polymerase containing sigma s, the factor involved in the expression of stationary phase-specific genes. Although the dcw cluster is conserved to a different extent in a variety of bacteria, the regulation of gene expression, the presence or absence of individual genes, and even the essentiality of some of them, show variations in the phylogenetic scale which may reflect adaptation to specific life cycles.

  2. Involvement of multiple transcription factors for metal-induced spy gene expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Ogasawara, Hiroshi; Ishihama, Akira

    2008-01-20

    Bacteria are directly exposed to metals in environment. To maintain the intracellular metal homeostasis, Escherichia coli contain a number of gene regulation systems, each for response to a specific metal. A periplasmic protein Spy of E. coli was found to be induced upon short-exposure to copper ion in CpxAR-dependent manner. Transcription of the spy gene was also induced by long-exposure to zinc ion. This induction, however, depended on another two-component system BaeSR. Using DNase-I footprinting assay, we identified two BaeR-binding regions on the spy promoter with a direct repeat of the BaeR-box sequence, TCTNCANAA. The zinc-responsive BaeR-binding sites were separated from copper-responsive CpxR-binding site, implying that the spy promoter responds to two species of metal independently through different using sensor-response regulator systems. Since BaeSR-dependent zinc response requires longer time, the induction of spy gene transcription by external zinc may include multiple steps such as through sensing the zinc-induced envelope disorder by BaeSR.

  3. Genomic transcriptional response to loss of chromosomal supercoiling in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Brian J; Arsuaga, Javier; Breier, Adam M; Khodursky, Arkady B; Brown, Patrick O; Cozzarelli, Nicholas R

    2004-01-01

    Background The chromosome of Escherichia coli is maintained in a negatively supercoiled state, and supercoiling levels are affected by growth phase and a variety of environmental stimuli. In turn, supercoiling influences local DNA structure and can affect gene expression. We used microarrays representing nearly the entire genome of Escherichia coli MG1655 to examine the dynamics of chromosome structure. Results We measured the transcriptional response to a loss of supercoiling caused either by genetic impairment of a topoisomerase or addition of specific topoisomerase inhibitors during log-phase growth and identified genes whose changes are statistically significant. Transcription of 7% of the genome (306 genes) was rapidly and reproducibly affected by changes in the level of supercoiling; the expression of 106 genes increased upon chromosome relaxation and the expression of 200 decreased. These changes are most likely to be direct effects, as the kinetics of their induction or repression closely follow the kinetics of DNA relaxation in the cells. Unexpectedly, the genes induced by relaxation have a significantly enriched AT content in both upstream and coding regions. Conclusions The 306 supercoiling-sensitive genes are functionally diverse and widely dispersed throughout the chromosome. We propose that supercoiling acts as a second messenger that transmits information about the environment to many regulatory networks in the cell. PMID:15535863

  4. Influence of the sequence-dependent flexure of DNA on transcription in E. coli.

    PubMed Central

    Collis, C M; Molloy, P L; Both, G W; Drew, H R

    1989-01-01

    In order to study the effects of DNA structure on cellular processes such as transcription, we have made a series of plasmids that locate several different kinds of DNA structure (stiff, flexible or curved) near the sites of cleavage by commonly-used restriction enzymes. One can use these plasmids to place any DNA region of interest (e.g., promoter, operator or enhancer) close to certain kinds of DNA structure that may influence its ability to work in a living cell. In the present example, we have placed a promoter from T7 virus next to the special DNA structures; the T7 promoter is then linked to a gene for a marker protein (chloramphenicol acetyl transferase). When plasmids bearing the T7 promoter are grown in cells of E. coli that contain T7 RNA polymerase, the special DNA structures seem to have little or no influence over the activity of the T7 promoter, contrary to our expectations. Yet when the same plasmids are grown in cells of E. coli that do not contain T7 RNA polymerase, some of the DNA structures show a surprising promoter activity of their own. In particular, the favourable flexibility or curvature of DNA, in the close vicinity of potential -35 and -10 promoter regions, seems to be a significant factor in determining where E. coli RNA polymerase starts RNA chains. We show directly, in one example, that loss of curvature between -35 and -10 regions is associated with a nearly-complete loss of promoter activity. These results, and others of their kind, show that the structural and/or vibrational properties of DNA play a much more important role in determining E. coli promoter activity than has previously been supposed. Images PMID:2685760

  5. PromEC: An updated database of Escherichia coli mRNA promoters with experimentally identified transcriptional start sites

    PubMed Central

    Hershberg, Ruti; Bejerano, Gill; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Margalit, Hanah

    2001-01-01

    PromEC is an updated compilation of Escherichia coli mRNA promoter sequences. It includes documentation on the location of experimentally identified mRNA transcriptional start sites on the E.coli chromosome, as well as the actual sequences in the promoter region. The database was updated as of July 2000 and includes 472 entries. PromEC is accessible at http://bioinfo.md.huji.ac.il/marg/promec PMID:11125111

  6. Global RNA Half-Life Analysis in Escherichia coli Reveals Positional Patterns of Transcript Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Selinger, Douglas W.; Saxena, Rini Mukherjee; Cheung, Kevin J.; Church, George M.; Rosenow, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    Subgenic-resolution oligonucleotide microarrays were used to study global RNA degradation in wild-type Escherichia coli MG1655. RNA chemical half-lives were measured for 1036 open reading frames (ORFs) and for 329 known and predicted operons. The half-life of total mRNA was 6.8 min under the conditions tested. We also observed significant relationships between gene functional assignments and transcript stability. Unexpectedly, transcription of a single operon (tdcABCDEFG) was relatively rifampicin-insensitive and showed significant increases 2.5 min after rifampicin addition. This supports a novel mechanism of transcription for the tdc operon, whose promoter lacks any recognizable ς binding sites. Probe by probe analysis of all known and predicted operons showed that the 5′ ends of operons degrade, on average, more quickly than the rest of the transcript, with stability increasing in a 3′ direction, supporting and further generalizing the current model of a net 5′ to 3′ directionality of degradation. Hierarchical clustering analysis of operon degradation patterns revealed that this pattern predominates but is not exclusive. We found a weak but highly significant correlation between the degradation of adjacent operon regions, suggesting that stability is determined by a combination of local and operon-wide stability determinants. The 16 ORF dcw gene cluster, which has a complex promoter structure and a partially characterized degradation pattern, was studied at high resolution, allowing a detailed and integrated description of its abundance and degradation. We discuss the application of subgenic resolution DNA microarray analysis to study global mechanisms of RNA transcription and processing. PMID:12566399

  7. Organization and transcriptional regulation of the Escherichia coli K-12 D-serine tolerance locus.

    PubMed Central

    Nørregaard-Madsen, M; McFall, E; Valentin-Hansen, P

    1995-01-01

    We have reinvestigated the genetic organization and the transcription regulation of the dsd operon of Escherichia coli. By combining genetic and biochemical studies, it is demonstrated that the regulatory region of the operon and the gene encoding the specific regulator of D-serine tolerance (dsdC) had been misplaced in previous work on the dsd system. Also, the previous erroneous DNA sequence of the dsdC gene has been corrected. It turned out that an additional gene (dsdX) is present immediately upstream of dsdA (encoding D-serine deaminase) and that dsdC is located adjacent to dsdX. The dsdXA genes are cotranscribed from a common promoter region present in the dsdX-dsdC intercistronic region. The DsdC activator belongs to the LysR-type of transcriptional regulators and is absolutely required for dsdA expression. Additionally, the activity of the dsdXA promoter depends on the cyclic AMP receptor protein, and the two activators act in concert to synergistically activate transcription. PMID:7592420

  8. Organization and transcriptional regulation of the Escherichia coli K-12 D-serine tolerance locus.

    PubMed

    Nørregaard-Madsen, M; McFall, E; Valentin-Hansen, P

    1995-11-01

    We have reinvestigated the genetic organization and the transcription regulation of the dsd operon of Escherichia coli. By combining genetic and biochemical studies, it is demonstrated that the regulatory region of the operon and the gene encoding the specific regulator of D-serine tolerance (dsdC) had been misplaced in previous work on the dsd system. Also, the previous erroneous DNA sequence of the dsdC gene has been corrected. It turned out that an additional gene (dsdX) is present immediately upstream of dsdA (encoding D-serine deaminase) and that dsdC is located adjacent to dsdX. The dsdXA genes are cotranscribed from a common promoter region present in the dsdX-dsdC intercistronic region. The DsdC activator belongs to the LysR-type of transcriptional regulators and is absolutely required for dsdA expression. Additionally, the activity of the dsdXA promoter depends on the cyclic AMP receptor protein, and the two activators act in concert to synergistically activate transcription.

  9. Effects of post-transcriptional regulation on phenotypic noise in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Arbel-Goren, Rinat; Tal, Asaf; Friedlander, Tamar; Meshner, Shiri; Costantino, Nina; Court, Donald L.; Stavans, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell variations in protein abundance, called noise, give rise to phenotypic variability between isogenic cells. Studies of noise have focused on stochasticity introduced at transcription, yet the effects of post-transcriptional regulatory processes on noise remain unknown. We study the effects of RyhB, a small-RNA of Escherichia coli produced on iron stress, on the phenotypic variability of two of its downregulated target proteins, using dual chromosomal fusions to fluorescent reporters and measurements in live individual cells. The total noise of each of the target proteins is remarkably constant over a wide range of RyhB production rates despite cells being in stress. In fact, coordinate downregulation of the two target proteins by RyhB reduces the correlation between their levels. Hence, an increase in phenotypic variability under stress is achieved by decoupling the expression of different target proteins in the same cell, rather than by an increase in the total noise of each. Extrinsic noise provides the dominant contribution to the total protein noise over the total range of RyhB production rates. Stochastic simulations reproduce qualitatively key features of our observations and show that a feed-forward loop formed by transcriptional extrinsic noise, an sRNA and its target genes exhibits strong noise filtration capabilities. PMID:23519613

  10. Rho-dependent Termination of ssrS (6S RNA) Transcription in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Huiseok; Han, Kook; Kim, Kwang-sun; Park, Hongmarn; Lee, Jungmin; Lee, Younghoon

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that 6S RNA, a global regulatory noncoding RNA that modulates gene expression in response to the cellular stresses in Escherichia coli, is generated by processing from primary ssrS (6S RNA) transcripts derived from two different promoters. The 5′ processing of 6S RNA from primary transcripts has been well studied; however, it remains unclear how the 3′-end of this RNA is generated although previous studies have suggested that exoribonucleolytic trimming is necessary for 3′ processing. Here, we describe several Rho-dependent termination sites located ∼90 bases downstream of the mature 3′-end of 6S RNA. Our data suggest that the 3′-end of 6S RNA is generated via exoribonucleolytic trimming, rather than endoribonucleolytic cleavage, following the transcription termination events. The termination sites identified in this study are within the open reading frame of the downstream ygfA (putative 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate cyclo-ligase) gene, a part of the highly conserved bacterial operon ssrS-ygfA, which is up-regulated during the biofilm formation. Our findings reveal that ygfA expression, which also aids the formation of multidrug-tolerant persister cells, could be regulated by Rho-dependent termination activity in the cell. PMID:21036909

  11. DNA supercoiling-dependent transcriptional coupling between the divergently transcribed promoters of the ilvYC operon of Escherichia coli is proportional to promoter strengths and transcript lengths.

    PubMed

    Opel, M L; Hatfield, G W

    2001-01-01

    The twin-domain model of Liu and Wang suggested that high levels of DNA supercoiling generated in the region between closely spaced divergently transcribed promoters could serve to couple the activities of these promoters transcriptionally. In this report, we use topoisomer sets of defined superhelical densities as DNA templates in a purified in vitro transcription system to demonstrate transcriptional coupling between the divergently transcribed ilvY and ilvC promoters of the ilvYC operon of Escherichia coli. Current evidence for this type of DNA supercoiling-dependent transcriptional coupling, based largely on the in vivo activities of promoters contained in engineered DNA constructs, suggests that the transcription complex must be physically hindered to generate DNA supercoils and to prevent their diffusion throughout the DNA duplex. However, the in vitro results presented here demonstrate that (i) transcriptional coupling is observed between the divergent promoters of the ilvYC operon in the absence of transcript anchoring; (ii) the magnitude of the negative DNA supercoiling generated in the divergent promoter region is proportional to the sum of the global and transcription-induced superhelicity; and (iii) the magnitude of this transcription-induced superhelicity is proportional to promoter strengths and transcript lengths.

  12. Transcription promotes guanine to thymine mutations in the non-transcribed strand of an Escherichia coli gene.

    PubMed

    Klapacz, Joanna; Bhagwat, Ashok S

    2005-07-12

    Transcription of DNA opens the chromatin, causes topological changes in DNA and transiently exposes the two strands to different biochemical environments. Consequently, it has long been argued that transcription may promote damage to DNA and there are data in Escherichia coli and yeast supporting a correlation between high transcription and mutations. We examined the transcription-dependence of the reversion of a nonsense codon (TGA) in E. coli and found that there was a strong dependence of mutations on transcription in strains defective in the repair of 8-oxoguanine in DNA. Under conditions of high transcription there was a three to five-fold increase in mutations that changed TGA in the non-transcribed strand to a sense codon. Furthermore, in both mutY and mutM mutY backgrounds the mutations were overwhelmingly G:C to T:A. In contrast, when the TGA was in the transcribed strand in relation with the inducible promoter, high transcription decreased the rate of reversion. Similar results were obtained in a strain defective in the transcription-repair coupling factor, Mfd, suggesting that transcription dependent increase in base substitutions does not require transcription-dependent DNA repair. However, Mfd does modulate the magnitude of the mutagenic effect of transcription. These data are consistent with a model in which the non-transcribed strand is more susceptible to oxidative damage during transcription than the transcribed strand. These results suggest that the magnitudes of individual base substitutions and their relative numbers in other studies of mutational spectra may also be affected by transcription.

  13. ppGpp couples transcription to DNA repair in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Kamarthapu, Venu; Epshtein, Vitaly; Benjamin, Bradley; Proshkin, Sergey; Mironov, Alexander; Cashel, Michael; Nudler, Evgeny

    2016-05-20

    The small molecule alarmone (p)ppGpp mediates bacterial adaptation to nutrient deprivation by altering the initiation properties of RNA polymerase (RNAP). ppGpp is generated in Escherichia coli by two related enzymes, RelA and SpoT. We show that ppGpp is robustly, but transiently, induced in response to DNA damage and is required for efficient nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER). This explains why relA-spoT-deficient cells are sensitive to diverse genotoxic agents and ultraviolet radiation, whereas ppGpp induction renders them more resistant to such challenges. The mechanism of DNA protection by ppGpp involves promotion of UvrD-mediated RNAP backtracking. By rendering RNAP backtracking-prone, ppGpp couples transcription to DNA repair and prompts transitions between repair and recovery states.

  14. Growth of Escherichia coli MG1655 on LB medium: determining metabolic strategy with transcriptional microarrays.

    PubMed

    Baev, Mark V; Baev, Dmitry; Radek, Agnes Jancso; Campbell, John W

    2006-07-01

    Expression profiles of genes related to stress responses, substrate assimilation, acetate metabolism, and biosynthesis were obtained by monitoring growth of Escherichia coli MG1655 in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium with transcriptional microarrays. Superimposing gene expression profiles on a plot of specific growth rate demonstrates that the cells pass through four distinct physiological states during fermentation before entering stationary phase. Each of these states can be characterized by specific patterns of substrate utilization and cellular biosynthesis corresponding to the nutrient status of the medium. These data allow the growth phases of the classical microbial growth curve to be redefined in terms of the physiological states and environmental changes commonly occurring during bacterial growth in batch culture on LB medium.

  15. Engineering global transcription factor cyclic AMP receptor protein of Escherichia coli for improved 1-butanol tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongfang; Chong, Huiqing; Ching, Chi Bun; Song, Hao; Jiang, Rongrong

    2012-05-01

    One major challenge in biofuel production, including biobutanol production, is the low tolerance of the microbial host towards increasing biofuel concentration during fermentation. Here, we have demonstrated that Escherichia coli 1-butanol tolerance can be greatly enhanced through random mutagenesis of global transcription factor cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP). Four mutants (MT1-MT4) with elevated 1-butanol tolerance were isolated from error-prone PCR libraries through an enrichment screening. A DNA shuffling library was then constructed using MT1-MT4 as templates and one mutant (MT5) that exhibited the best tolerance ability among all variants was selected. In the presence of 0.8 % (v/v, 6.5 g/l) 1-butanol, the growth rate of MT5 was found to be 0.28 h(-1) while that of wild type was 0.20 h(-1). When 1-butanol concentration increased to 1.2 % (9.7 g/l), the growth rate of MT5 (0.18 h(-1)) became twice that of the wild type (0.09 h(-1)). Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon test showed that cell surface of MT5 was less hydrophobic and its cell length became significantly longer in the presence of 1-butanol, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis revealed that several CRP regulated, 1-butanol stress response related genes (rpoH, ompF, sodA, manX, male, and marA) demonstrated differential expression in MT5 in the presence or absence of 1-butanol. In conclusion, direct manipulation of the transcript profile through engineering global transcription factor CRP can provide a useful tool in strain engineering.

  16. Identification of Candidate Adherent-Invasive E. coli Signature Transcripts by Genomic/Transcriptomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanhao; Rowehl, Leahana; Krumsiek, Julia M; Orner, Erika P; Shaikh, Nurmohammad; Tarr, Phillip I; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M; Boedeker, Edgar C; Xiong, Xuejian; Parkinson, John; Frank, Daniel N; Li, Ellen; Gathungu, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) strains are detected more frequently within mucosal lesions of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). The AIEC phenotype consists of adherence and invasion of intestinal epithelial cells and survival within macrophages of these bacteria in vitro. Our aim was to identify candidate transcripts that distinguish AIEC from non-invasive E. coli (NIEC) strains and might be useful for rapid and accurate identification of AIEC by culture-independent technology. We performed comparative RNA-Sequence (RNASeq) analysis using AIEC strain LF82 and NIEC strain HS during exponential and stationary growth. Differential expression analysis of coding sequences (CDS) homologous to both strains demonstrated 224 and 241 genes with increased and decreased expression, respectively, in LF82 relative to HS. Transition metal transport and siderophore metabolism related pathway genes were up-regulated, while glycogen metabolic and oxidation-reduction related pathway genes were down-regulated, in LF82. Chemotaxis related transcripts were up-regulated in LF82 during the exponential phase, but flagellum-dependent motility pathway genes were down-regulated in LF82 during the stationary phase. CDS that mapped only to the LF82 genome accounted for 747 genes. We applied an in silico subtractive genomics approach to identify CDS specific to AIEC by incorporating the genomes of 10 other previously phenotyped NIEC. From this analysis, 166 CDS mapped to the LF82 genome and lacked homology to any of the 11 human NIEC strains. We compared these CDS across 13 AIEC, but none were homologous in each. Four LF82 gene loci belonging to clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats region (CRISPR)--CRISPR-associated (Cas) genes were identified in 4 to 6 AIEC and absent from all non-pathogenic bacteria. As previously reported, AIEC strains were enriched for pdu operon genes. One CDS, encoding an excisionase, was shared by 9 AIEC strains. Reverse transcription

  17. Identification of Candidate Adherent-Invasive E. coli Signature Transcripts by Genomic/Transcriptomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanhao; Rowehl, Leahana; Krumsiek, Julia M.; Orner, Erika P.; Shaikh, Nurmohammad; Tarr, Phillip I.; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Boedeker, Edgar C.; Xiong, Xuejian; Parkinson, John; Frank, Daniel N.; Li, Ellen; Gathungu, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) strains are detected more frequently within mucosal lesions of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). The AIEC phenotype consists of adherence and invasion of intestinal epithelial cells and survival within macrophages of these bacteria in vitro. Our aim was to identify candidate transcripts that distinguish AIEC from non-invasive E. coli (NIEC) strains and might be useful for rapid and accurate identification of AIEC by culture-independent technology. We performed comparative RNA-Sequence (RNASeq) analysis using AIEC strain LF82 and NIEC strain HS during exponential and stationary growth. Differential expression analysis of coding sequences (CDS) homologous to both strains demonstrated 224 and 241 genes with increased and decreased expression, respectively, in LF82 relative to HS. Transition metal transport and siderophore metabolism related pathway genes were up-regulated, while glycogen metabolic and oxidation-reduction related pathway genes were down-regulated, in LF82. Chemotaxis related transcripts were up-regulated in LF82 during the exponential phase, but flagellum-dependent motility pathway genes were down-regulated in LF82 during the stationary phase. CDS that mapped only to the LF82 genome accounted for 747 genes. We applied an in silico subtractive genomics approach to identify CDS specific to AIEC by incorporating the genomes of 10 other previously phenotyped NIEC. From this analysis, 166 CDS mapped to the LF82 genome and lacked homology to any of the 11 human NIEC strains. We compared these CDS across 13 AIEC, but none were homologous in each. Four LF82 gene loci belonging to clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats region (CRISPR)—CRISPR-associated (Cas) genes were identified in 4 to 6 AIEC and absent from all non-pathogenic bacteria. As previously reported, AIEC strains were enriched for pdu operon genes. One CDS, encoding an excisionase, was shared by 9 AIEC strains. Reverse transcription

  18. Dependence of transcription-coupled DNA supercoiling on promoter strength in Escherichia coli topoisomerase I deficient strains.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Xiaoduo; Leng, Fenfei

    2013-02-10

    Transcription by RNA polymerase can induce the formation of hypernegatively supercoiled DNA in vitro and in vivo. This phenomenon has been nicely explained by a "twin-supercoiled-domain" model of transcription where a positively supercoiled domain is generated ahead of the RNA polymerase and a negatively supercoiled domain behind it. In Escherichia coli topA strains, DNA gyrase selectively converts the positively supercoiled domain into negative supercoils to produce hypernegatively supercoiled DNA. In this article, in order to examine whether promoter strength affects transcription-coupled DNA supercoiling (TCDS), we developed a two-plasmid system in which a linear, non-supercoiled plasmid was used to express lac repressor constitutively while a circular plasmid was used to gage TCDS in E. coli cells. Using this two-plasmid system, we found that TCDS in topA strains is dependent on promoter strength. We also demonstrated that transcription-coupled hypernegative supercoiling of plasmid DNA did not need the expression of a membrane-insertion protein for strong promoters; however, it might require co-transcriptional synthesis of a polypeptide. Furthermore, we found that for weak promoters the expression of a membrane-insertion tet gene was not sufficient for the production of hypernegatively supercoiled DNA. Our results can be explained by the "twin-supercoiled-domain" model of transcription where the friction force applied to E. coli RNA polymerase plays a critical role in the generation of hypernegatively supercoiled DNA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bismuth-dithiol inhibition of the Escherichia coli rho transcription termination factor.

    PubMed

    Brogan, Andrew P; Verghese, Jacob; Widger, William R; Kohn, Harold

    2005-03-01

    Bismuth-dithiol mixtures are proven antimicrobial agents with unknown mechanism(s) of action. We show that select bismuth-dithiol solutions inhibit the Escherichia coli rho transcription termination factor. Rho is an essential enzyme in most Gram-negative prokaryotes and without rho function the cells are not viable. Bismuth complexes with 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol (BiBAL) (3:1 solutions) functioned as a noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to ATP in the rho poly(C)-dependent ATPase assay (I50=60 microM) and as a competitive inhibitor with respect to ribo(C)10 in the poly(dC)-ribo(C)10-dependent ATPase assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of bacterial growth for BiBAL (3:1) in the liquid culture assay using E. coli W3350 was 16 microM. Using the tnaA/lacZ fusion reporter assay we showed that sublethal amounts (3 microM) of BiBAL (3:1 solution) led to a small increase (37%) in in vivo beta-galactosidase activity in E. coli SVS1144, which corresponds to antitermination of the tna operon as a result of rho inhibition. We concluded that BiBAL was a potent in vitro rho inhibitor but its effect on in vivo rho processes was modest indicating that other mechanisms contributed to the antibacterial activity of BiBAL. Our study suggests that structural changes in the dithiol unit that provide greater bismuth binding may improve rho specificity, a macromolecular target not previously recognized for bismuth therapy.

  20. The Highly Conserved Escherichia coli Transcription Factor YhaJ Regulates Aromatic Compound Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Palevsky, Noa; Shemer, Benjamin; Connolly, James P. R.; Belkin, Shimshon

    2016-01-01

    The aromatic compound 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), a common impurity in 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) production, has been suggested as a tracer for the presence of TNT-based landmines due to its stability and high volatility. We have previously described an Escherichia coli bioreporter capable of detecting the presence of DNT vapors, harboring a fusion of the yqjF gene promoter to a reporter element. However, the DNT metabolite which is the direct inducer of yqjF, has not yet been identified, nor has the regulatory mechanism of the induction been clarified. We demonstrate here that the YhaJ protein, a member of the LysR type family, acts as a transcriptional regulator of yqjF activation, as well as of a panel of additional E. coli genes. This group of genes share a common sequence motif in their promoters, which is suggested here as a putative YhaJ-box. In addition, we have linked YhaJ to the regulation of quinol-like compound degradation in the cell, and identified yhaK as playing a role in the degradation of DNT. PMID:27713734

  1. The oxygen-responsive transcriptional regulator FNR of Escherichia coli: the search for signals and reactions.

    PubMed

    Unden, G; Schirawski, J

    1997-07-01

    The FNR (fumarate and nitrate reductase regulation) protein of Escherichia coli is an oxygen-responsive transcriptional regulator required for the switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. In the absence of oxygen, FNR changes from the inactive to the active state. The sensory and the regulatory functions reside in separate domains of FNR. The sensory domain contains a Fe-S cluster, which is of the [4Fe-4S]2+ type under anaerobic conditions. It is suggested that oxygen is supplied to the cytoplasmic FNR by diffusion and inactivates FNR by direct interaction. Reactivation under anoxic conditions requires cellular reductants. In vitro, the Fe-S cluster is converted to a [3Fe-4S]+ or a [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster by oxygen, resulting in FNR inactivation. After prolonged incubation with oxygen, the Fe-S cluster is destroyed. Reassembly of the [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster might require cellular proteins, such as the NifS-like protein of E. coli. In this review, the rationale for regulation of alternative metabolic pathways by FNR and other oxygen-dependent regulators is discussed. Only the terminal reductases of respiration, and not the dehydrogenases, are regulated in such a way as to achieve maximal H+/e- ratios and ATP yields.

  2. Rho-dependent transcription termination is essential to prevent excessive genome-wide R-loops in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Leela, J Krishna; Syeda, Aisha H; Anupama, K; Gowrishankar, J

    2013-01-02

    Two pathways of transcription termination, factor-independent and -dependent, exist in bacteria. The latter pathway operates on nascent transcripts that are not simultaneously translated and requires factors Rho, NusG, and NusA, each of which is essential for viability of WT Escherichia coli. NusG and NusA are also involved in antitermination of transcription at the ribosomal RNA operons, as well as in regulating the rates of transcription elongation of all genes. We have used a bisulfite-sensitivity assay to demonstrate genome-wide increase in the occurrence of RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops), including from antisense and read-through transcripts, in a nusG missense mutant defective for Rho-dependent termination. Lethality associated with complete deficiency of Rho and NusG (but not NusA) was rescued by ectopic expression of an R-loop-helicase UvsW, especially so on defined growth media. Our results suggest that factor-dependent transcription termination subserves a surveillance function to prevent translation-uncoupled transcription from generating R-loops, which would block replication fork progression and therefore be lethal, and that NusA performs additional essential functions as well in E. coli. Prevention of R-loop-mediated transcription-replication conflicts by cotranscriptional protein engagement of nascent RNA is emerging as a unifying theme among both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

  3. Protein engineering of the transcriptional activator FhlA To enhance hydrogen production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Torres, Viviana; Maeda, Toshinari; Wood, Thomas K

    2009-09-01

    Escherichia coli produces H(2) from formate via the formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex during mixed acid fermentation; the FHL complex consists of formate dehydrogenase H (encoded by fdhF) for forming 2H(+), 2e(-), and CO(2) from formate and hydrogenase 3 (encoded by hycGE) for synthesizing H(2) from 2H(+) and 2e(-). FHL protein production is activated by the sigma(54) transcriptional activator FhlA, which activates transcription of fdhF and the hyc, hyp, and hydN-hypF operons. Here, through random mutagenesis using error-prone PCR over the whole gene, as well as over the fhlA region encoding the first 388 amino acids of the 692-amino-acid protein, we evolved FhlA to increase H(2) production. The amino acid replacements in FhlA133 (Q11H, L14V, Y177F, K245R, M288K, and I342F) increased hydrogen production ninefold, and the replacements in FhlA1157 (M6T, S35T, L113P, S146C, and E363K) increased hydrogen production fourfold. Saturation mutagenesis at the codons corresponding to the amino acid replacements in FhlA133 and at position E363 identified the importance of position L14 and of E363 for the increased activity; FhlA with replacements L14G and E363G increased hydrogen production (fourfold and sixfold, respectively) compared to FhlA. Whole-transcriptome and promoter reporter constructs revealed that the mechanism by which the FhlA133 changes increase hydrogen production is by increasing transcription of all of the genes activated by FhlA (the FHL complex). With FhlA133, transcription of P(fdhF) and P(hyc) is less sensitive to formate regulation, and with FhlA363 (E363G), P(hyc) transcription increases but P(hyp) transcription decreases and hydrogen production is less affected by the repressor HycA.

  4. RegulonDB (version 3.0): transcriptional regulation and operon organization in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Salgado, H; Santos-Zavaleta, A; Gama-Castro, S; Millán-Zárate, D; Blattner, F R; Collado-Vides, J

    2000-01-01

    RegulonDB is a database on transcription regulation and operon organization in Escherichia coli. The current version describes regulatory signals of transcription initiation, promoters, regulatory binding sites of specific regulators, ribosome binding sites and terminators, as well as information on genes clustered in operons. These specific annotations have been gathered from a constant search in the literature, as well as based on computational sequence predictions. The genomic coordinates of all these objects in the E.coli K-12 chromosome are clearly indicated. Every known object has a link to at least one MEDLINE reference. We have also added direct links to recent expression data of E.coli K-12. The version presented here has important modifications both in the structure of the database, as well as in the amount and type of information encoded in the database. RegulonDB can be accessed on the web at URL: http://www.cifn.unam. mx/Computational_Biology/regulondb/

  5. RegulonDB (version 3.0): transcriptional regulation and operon organization in Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Heladia; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Millán-Zárate, Dulce; Blattner, Frederick R.; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2000-01-01

    RegulonDB is a database on transcription regulation and operon organization in Escherichia coli. The current version describes regulatory signals of transcription initiation, promoters, regulatory binding sites of specific regulators, ribosome binding sites and terminators, as well as information on genes clustered in operons. These specific annotations have been gathered from a constant search in the literature, as well as based on computational sequence predictions. The genomic coordinates of all these objects in the E.coli K-12 chromosome are clearly indicated. Every known object has a link to at least one MEDLINE reference. We have also added direct links to recent expression data of E.coli K-12. The version presented here has important modifications both in the structure of the database, as well as in the amount and type of information encoded in the database. RegulonDB can be accessed on the web at URL: http://www.cifn.unam.mx/Computational_Biology/regulondb/ PMID:10592182

  6. Transcript degradation and noise of small RNA-controlled genes in a switch activated network in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Arbel-Goren, Rinat; Tal, Asaf; Parasar, Bibudha; Dym, Alvah; Costantino, Nina; Muñoz-García, Javier; Court, Donald L; Stavans, Joel

    2016-08-19

    Post-transcriptional regulatory processes may change transcript levels and affect cell-to-cell variability or noise. We study small-RNA downregulation to elucidate its effects on noise in the iron homeostasis network of Escherichia coli In this network, the small-RNA RyhB undergoes stoichiometric degradation with the transcripts of target genes in response to iron stress. Using single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization, we measured transcript numbers of the RyhB-regulated genes sodB and fumA in individual cells as a function of iron deprivation. We observed a monotonic increase of noise with iron stress but no evidence of theoretically predicted, enhanced stoichiometric fluctuations in transcript numbers, nor of bistable behavior in transcript distributions. Direct detection of RyhB in individual cells shows that its noise is much smaller than that of these two targets, when RyhB production is significant. A generalized two-state model of bursty transcription that neglects RyhB fluctuations describes quantitatively the dependence of noise and transcript distributions on iron deprivation, enabling extraction of in vivo RyhB-mediated transcript degradation rates. The transcripts' threshold-linear behavior indicates that the effective in vivo interaction strength between RyhB and its two target transcripts is comparable. Strikingly, the bacterial cell response exhibits Fur-dependent, switch-like activation instead of a graded response to iron deprivation.

  7. The Escherichia coli RNA polymerase alpha subunit and transcriptional activation by bacteriophage lambda CII protein.

    PubMed

    Gabig, M; Obuchowski, M; Ciesielska, A; Latała, B; Wegrzyn, A; Thomas, M S; Wegrzyn, G

    1998-01-01

    Bacteriophage lambda is not able to lysogenise the Escherichia coli rpoA341 mutant. This mutation causes a single amino acid substitution Lys271Glu in the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit (alphaCTD). Our previous studies indicated that the impaired lysogenisation of the rpoA341 host is due to a defect in transcriptional activation by the phage CII protein and suggested a role for alphaCTD in this process. Here we used a series of truncation and point mutants in the rpoA gene placed on a plasmid to investigate the process of transcriptional activation by the cII gene product. Our results indicate that amino-acid residues 265, 268 and 271 in the a subunit may play an important role in the CII-mediated activation of the pE promoter (most probably residue 271) or may be involved in putative interactions between alphaCTD and an UP-like element near pE (most probably residues 265 and 268). Measurement of the activity of pE-lacZ, pI-lacZ and p(aQ)-lacZ fusions in the rpoA+ and rpoA341 hosts demonstrated that the mechanism of activation of these CII-dependent promoters may be in each case different.

  8. Concurrent Growth Rate and Transcript Analyses Reveal Essential Gene Stringency in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Shan; Boberek, Jaroslaw M.; Nakashima, Nobutaka; Stach, Jem; Good, Liam

    2009-01-01

    Background Genes essential for bacterial growth are of particular scientific interest. Many putative essential genes have been identified or predicted in several species, however, little is known about gene expression requirement stringency, which may be an important aspect of bacterial physiology and likely a determining factor in drug target development. Methodology/Principal Findings Working from the premise that essential genes differ in absolute requirement for growth, we describe silencing of putative essential genes in E. coli to obtain a titration of declining growth rates and transcript levels by using antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNA) and expressed antisense RNA. The relationship between mRNA decline and growth rate decline reflects the degree of essentiality, or stringency, of an essential gene, which is here defined by the minimum transcript level for a 50% reduction in growth rate (MTL50). When applied to four growth essential genes, both RNA silencing methods resulted in MTL50 values that reveal acpP as the most stringently required of the four genes examined, with ftsZ the next most stringently required. The established antibacterial targets murA and fabI were less stringently required. Conclusions RNA silencing can reveal stringent requirements for gene expression with respect to growth. This method may be used to validate existing essential genes and to quantify drug target requirement. PMID:19557168

  9. Transcription of ftsZ oscillates during the cell cycle of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Garrido, T; Sánchez, M; Palacios, P; Aldea, M; Vicente, M

    1993-10-01

    The FtsZ protein is a key element controlling cell division in Escherichia coli. A powerful transcription titration assay was used to quantify the ftsZ mRNA present in synchronously dividing cells. The ftsZ mRNA levels oscillate during the cell cycle reaching a maximum at about the time DNA replication initiates. This cell cycle dependency is specifically due to the two proximal ftsZ promoters. A strain was constructed in which expression of ftsZ could be modulated by an exogenous inducer. In this strain cell size and cell division frequency were sensitive to the cellular FtsZ contents, demonstrating the rate-limiting role of this protein in cell division. Transcriptional activity of the ftsZ promoters was found to be independent of DnaA, indicating that DNA replication and cell division may be independently controlled at the time when new rounds of DNA replication are initiated. This suggests a parallelism between the prokaryotic cell cycle signals and the START point of eukaryotic cell cycles.

  10. Transcription of ftsZ oscillates during the cell cycle of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, T; Sánchez, M; Palacios, P; Aldea, M; Vicente, M

    1993-01-01

    The FtsZ protein is a key element controlling cell division in Escherichia coli. A powerful transcription titration assay was used to quantify the ftsZ mRNA present in synchronously dividing cells. The ftsZ mRNA levels oscillate during the cell cycle reaching a maximum at about the time DNA replication initiates. This cell cycle dependency is specifically due to the two proximal ftsZ promoters. A strain was constructed in which expression of ftsZ could be modulated by an exogenous inducer. In this strain cell size and cell division frequency were sensitive to the cellular FtsZ contents, demonstrating the rate-limiting role of this protein in cell division. Transcriptional activity of the ftsZ promoters was found to be independent of DnaA, indicating that DNA replication and cell division may be independently controlled at the time when new rounds of DNA replication are initiated. This suggests a parallelism between the prokaryotic cell cycle signals and the START point of eukaryotic cell cycles. Images PMID:8404863

  11. E. coli 6S RNA: a universal transcriptional regulator within the centre of growth adaptation.

    PubMed

    Geissen, René; Steuten, Benedikt; Polen, Tino; Wagner, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial 6S RNA has been shown to bind with high affinity to σ(70)-containing RNA polymerase, suppressing σ(70)-dependent transcription during stationary phase, when 6S RNA concentrations are highest. We recently reported a genome-wide transcriptional comparison of wild-type and 6S RNA deficient E. coli strains. Contrary to the expected σ(70)- and stationary phase-specific regulatory effect of 6S RNA it turned out that mRNA levels derived from many alternative sigma factors, including σ(38) or σ(32), were affected during exponential and stationary growth. Among the most noticeably down-regulated genes at stationary growth are ribosomal proteins and factors involved in translation. In addition, a striking number of mRNA levels coding for enzymes involved in the purine metabolism, for transporters and stress regulators are altered both during log- and stationary phase. During the study we discovered a link between 6S RNA and the general stress alarmone ppGpp, which has a higher basal level in cells deficient in 6S RNA. This finding points to a functional interrelation of 6S RNA and the global network of stress and growth adaptation.

  12. What Determines the Assembly of Transcriptional Network Motifs in Escherichia coli?

    PubMed Central

    Camas, Francisco M.; Poyatos, Juan F.

    2008-01-01

    Transcriptional networks are constituted by a collection of building blocks known as network motifs. Why do motifs appear? An adaptive model of motif emergence was recently questioned in favor of neutralist scenarios. Here, we provide a new picture of motif assembly in Escherichia coli which partially clarifies these contrasting explanations. This is based on characterizing the linkage between motifs and sensing or response specificity of their constituent transcriptional factors (TFs). We find that sensing specificity influences the distribution of autoregulation, while the tendency of a TF to establish feed-forward loops (FFLs) depends on response specificity, i.e., regulon size. Analysis of the latter pattern reveals that coregulation between large regulon-size TFs is common under a network neutral model, leading to the assembly of a great number of FFLs and bifans. In addition, neutral exclusive regulation also leads to a collection of single input modules -the fourth basic motif. On the whole, and even under the conservative neutralist scenario considered, a substantial group of regulatory structures revealed adaptive. These structures visibly function as fully-fledged working units. PMID:18987754

  13. Direct observation of one-dimensional diffusion and transcription by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Guthold, M; Zhu, X; Rivetti, C; Yang, G; Thomson, N H; Kasas, S; Hansma, H G; Smith, B; Hansma, P K; Bustamante, C

    1999-10-01

    The dynamics of nonspecific and specific Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAP)-DNA complexes have been directly observed using scanning force microscopy operating in buffer. To this end, imaging conditions had to be found in which DNA molecules were adsorbed onto mica strongly enough to be imaged, but loosely enough to be able to diffuse on the surface. In sequential images of nonspecific complexes, RNAP was seen to slide along DNA, performing a one-dimensional random walk. Heparin, a substance known to disrupt nonspecific RNAP-DNA interactions, prevented sliding. These observations suggest that diffusion of RNAP along DNA constitutes a mechanism for accelerated promoter location. Sequential images of single, transcribing RNAP molecules were also investigated. Upon addition of 5 microM nucleoside triphosphates to stalled elongation complexes in the liquid chamber, RNAP molecules were seen to processively thread their template at rates of 1.5 nucleotide/s in a direction consistent with the promoter orientation. Transcription assays, performed with radiolabeled, mica-bound transcription complexes, confirmed this rate, which was about three times smaller than the rate of complexes in solution. This assay also showed that the pattern of pause sites and the termination site were affected by the surface. By using the Einstein-Sutherland friction-diffusion relation the loading force experienced by RNAP due to DNA-surface friction is estimated and discussed.

  14. The RclR protein is a reactive chlorine-specific transcription factor in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Parker, Benjamin W; Schwessinger, Emily A; Jakob, Ursula; Gray, Michael J

    2013-11-08

    Reactive chlorine species (RCS) such as hypochlorous acid are powerful antimicrobial oxidants. Used extensively for disinfection in household and industrial settings (i.e. as bleach), RCS are also naturally generated in high quantities during the innate immune response. Bacterial responses to RCS are complex and differ substantially from the well characterized responses to other physiologically relevant oxidants, like peroxide or superoxide. Several RCS-sensitive transcription factors have been identified in bacteria, but most of them respond to multiple stressors whose damaging effects overlap with those of RCS, including reactive oxygen species and electrophiles. We have now used in vivo genetic and in vitro biochemical methods to identify and demonstrate that Escherichia coli RclR (formerly YkgD) is a redox-regulated transcriptional activator of the AraC family, whose highly conserved cysteine residues are specifically sensitive to oxidation by RCS. Oxidation of these cysteines leads to strong, highly specific activation of expression of genes required for survival of RCS stress. These results demonstrate the existence of a widely conserved bacterial regulon devoted specifically to RCS resistance.

  15. Rapid Sampling of Escherichia coli After Changing Oxygen Conditions Reveals Transcriptional Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    von Wulffen, Joachim; Ulmer, Andreas; Jäger, Günter; Sawodny, Oliver; Feuer, Ronny

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli is able to shift between anaerobic and aerobic metabolism by adapting its gene expression, e.g., of metabolic genes, to the new environment. The dynamics of gene expression that result from environmental shifts are limited, amongst others, by the time needed for regulation and transcription elongation. In this study, we examined gene expression dynamics after an anaerobic-to-aerobic shift on a short time scale (0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 10 min) by RNA sequencing with emphasis on delay times and transcriptional elongation rates (TER). Transient expression patterns and timing of differential expression, characterized by delay and elongation, were identified as key features of the dataset. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed early upregulation of respiratory and iron-related gene sets. We inferred specific TERs of 89 operons with a mean TER of 42.0 nt/s and mean delay time of 22.4 s. TERs correlate with sequence features, such as codon bias, whereas delay times correlate with the involvement of regulators. The presented data illustrate that at very short times after a shift in oxygenation, extensional changes of the transcriptome, such as temporary responses, can be observed. Besides regulation, TERs contribute to the dynamics of gene expression. PMID:28264512

  16. Transcriptional responses of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to increased environmental osmolality caused by salt or urea.

    PubMed

    Withman, Benjamin; Gunasekera, Thusitha S; Beesetty, Pavani; Agans, Richard; Paliy, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the most common causative agent of urinary tract infections in humans. The majority of urinary infections develop via ascending route through the urethra, where bacterial cells come in contact with human urine prior to reaching the bladder or kidneys. Since urine contains significant amounts of inorganic ions and urea, it imposes osmotic and denaturing stresses on bacterial cells. In this study, we determined the transcriptional adaptive responses of UPEC strain CFT073 to the presence of 0.3 M NaCl or 0.6 M urea in the growth medium. The cell responses to these two osmolytes were drastically different. Although most of the genes of the osmotically inducible regulon were overexpressed in medium with salt, urea failed to stimulate osmotic stress response. At the same time, UPEC colonization genes encoding type 1 and F1C fimbriae and capsule biosynthesis were transcriptionally induced in the presence of urea but did not respond to increased salt concentration. We speculate that urea can potentially be sensed by uropathogenic bacteria to initiate infection program. In addition, several molecular chaperone genes were overexpressed in the presence of urea, whereas adding NaCl to the medium led to an upregulation of a number of anaerobic metabolism pathways.

  17. Transcriptional Responses of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli to Increased Environmental Osmolality Caused by Salt or Urea

    PubMed Central

    Withman, Benjamin; Gunasekera, Thusitha S.; Beesetty, Pavani; Agans, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the most common causative agent of urinary tract infections in humans. The majority of urinary infections develop via ascending route through the urethra, where bacterial cells come in contact with human urine prior to reaching the bladder or kidneys. Since urine contains significant amounts of inorganic ions and urea, it imposes osmotic and denaturing stresses on bacterial cells. In this study, we determined the transcriptional adaptive responses of UPEC strain CFT073 to the presence of 0.3 M NaCl or 0.6 M urea in the growth medium. The cell responses to these two osmolytes were drastically different. Although most of the genes of the osmotically inducible regulon were overexpressed in medium with salt, urea failed to stimulate osmotic stress response. At the same time, UPEC colonization genes encoding type 1 and F1C fimbriae and capsule biosynthesis were transcriptionally induced in the presence of urea but did not respond to increased salt concentration. We speculate that urea can potentially be sensed by uropathogenic bacteria to initiate infection program. In addition, several molecular chaperone genes were overexpressed in the presence of urea, whereas adding NaCl to the medium led to an upregulation of a number of anaerobic metabolism pathways. PMID:23090957

  18. A transcription terminator in the groEx gene of symbiotic X-bacteria expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Eun; Choi, Sung Han; Ahn, Tae In

    2002-02-28

    The over-expressing groEx gene of symbiotic X-bacteria in Amoeba proteus has unique nucleotide motifs (Tx), containing two hairpins and a C-rich region at its 3'-end. To investigate the role of Tx as a transcription terminator, we mutated Tx and analyzed the effects on the expression of an upstream-located lacZ in E. coli. The level of beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) production in Tx deletion mutants was reduced to 23% of the control level. Site-directed mutation of the hairpin-1, C-rich region, and hairpin-2 reduced the beta-gal production to 28-64%, 33, and 20% of wild-type Tx, respectively. The amount of lacZ transcripts that were detected in RNA blots was proportional to the level of beta-gal. The Tx sequence had 97% termination efficiency in vivo, and the mutations in Tx resulted in read-through transcripts with significantly shortened half-life. In rho- E. coli, the level of the beta-gal production by Tx was reduced to 15% of that in rho+ E. coli. These results suggest that Tx is a Rho-dependent transcription terminator. Also, hairpin-2 is the most effective component among the three motifs of Tx for proper termination of the transcription and stability of mRNAs.

  19. Interaction of the RcsB Response Regulator with Auxiliary Transcription Regulators in Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Pannen, Derk; Fabisch, Maria; Gausling, Lisa; Schnetz, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The Rcs phosphorelay is a two-component signal transduction system that is induced by cell envelope stress. RcsB, the response regulator of this signaling system, is a pleiotropic transcription regulator, which is involved in the control of various stress responses, cell division, motility, and biofilm formation. RcsB regulates transcription either as a homodimer or together with auxiliary regulators, such as RcsA, BglJ, and GadE in Escherichia coli. In this study, we show that RcsB in addition forms heterodimers with MatA (also known as EcpR) and with DctR. Our data suggest that the MatA-dependent transcription regulation is mediated by the MatA-RcsB heterodimer and is independent of RcsB phosphorylation. Furthermore, we analyzed the relevance of amino acid residues of the active quintet of conserved residues, and of surface-exposed residues for activity of RcsB. The data suggest that the activity of the phosphorylation-dependent dimers, such as RcsA-RcsB and RcsB-RcsB, is affected by mutation of residues in the vicinity of the phosphorylation site, suggesting that a phosphorylation-induced structural change modulates their activity. In contrast, the phosphorylation-independent heterodimers BglJ-RcsB and MatA-RcsB are affected by only very few mutations. Heterodimerization of RcsB with various auxiliary regulators and their differential dependence on phosphorylation add an additional level of control to the Rcs system that is operating at the output level. PMID:26635367

  20. Transcription of the ftsZ gene and cell division in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Robin, A; Joseleau-Petit, D; D'Ari, R

    1990-01-01

    The ftsZ gene of Escherichia coli, which lies in a cluster of cell division genes at 2 min on the genetic map, codes for a protein which is thought to play a key role in triggering cell division. Using an ftsZ::lacZ operon fusion, we have studied the transcription of the ftsZ gene under conditions in which cell division was either inhibited or synchronized in the bacterial population. In ftsZ, ftsA, ftsQ, and ftsI (or pbpB) mutants, there was no change in the differential rate of expression of the ftsZ gene in nonpermissive conditions, when cell division was completely blocked. Although the FtsZ protein is thought to be limiting for cell division, in synchronized cultures the ftsZ gene was expressed not only at the moment of septation initiation but throughout the cell cycle. Its expression, however, was not exponential but linear, with a rapid doubling in rate at a specific cell age; this age, about 20 min after division in a 60-min cycle, was different from the age at which the ftsZ::lacZ operon was duplicated. However, it was close to the age at which replication initiated and at which the rate of phospholipid synthesis doubled. During the transient division inhibition after a nutritional shift-up, ftsZ transcription again became linear, with two doublings in rate at intervals equal to the mass doubling time in the rich medium; it adopted the exponential rate typical of rich medium about 60 min after the shift-up, just before the bacterial population resumed cell division. The doubling in the rate of ftsZ transcription once per cycle in synchronized cultures and once per mass doubling time during the transition period after a nutritional shift-up reflects a new cell cycle event. PMID:2106510

  1. Transcript degradation and noise of small RNA-controlled genes in a switch activated network in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Arbel-Goren, Rinat; Tal, Asaf; Parasar, Bibudha; Dym, Alvah; Costantino, Nina; Muñoz-García, Javier; Court, Donald L.; Stavans, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulatory processes may change transcript levels and affect cell-to-cell variability or noise. We study small-RNA downregulation to elucidate its effects on noise in the iron homeostasis network of Escherichia coli. In this network, the small-RNA RyhB undergoes stoichiometric degradation with the transcripts of target genes in response to iron stress. Using single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization, we measured transcript numbers of the RyhB-regulated genes sodB and fumA in individual cells as a function of iron deprivation. We observed a monotonic increase of noise with iron stress but no evidence of theoretically predicted, enhanced stoichiometric fluctuations in transcript numbers, nor of bistable behavior in transcript distributions. Direct detection of RyhB in individual cells shows that its noise is much smaller than that of these two targets, when RyhB production is significant. A generalized two-state model of bursty transcription that neglects RyhB fluctuations describes quantitatively the dependence of noise and transcript distributions on iron deprivation, enabling extraction of in vivo RyhB-mediated transcript degradation rates. The transcripts’ threshold-linear behavior indicates that the effective in vivo interaction strength between RyhB and its two target transcripts is comparable. Strikingly, the bacterial cell response exhibits Fur-dependent, switch-like activation instead of a graded response to iron deprivation. PMID:27085802

  2. The metal core structures in the recombinant Escherichia coli transcriptional factor SoxR.

    PubMed

    Lo, Feng-Chun; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Liaw, Wen-Feng; Hsu, I-Jui; Tsai, Yi-Fang; Chan, Sunney I; Yu, Steve S-F

    2012-02-27

    X-ray absorption, circular dichroism, and EPR spectroscopy were employed to investigate the metal-core structures in the Escherichia coli transcriptional factor SoxR under reduced, oxidized, and nitrosylated conditions. The spectroscopic data revealed that the coordination environments of the metal active centers varied only very slightly between the reduced and oxidized states, similar to most other proteins containing iron-sulfur clusters. Upon nitrosylation of oxidized SoxR, however, we observed a low-temperature EPR spectrum characteristic of a protein dinitrosyl iron complex (DNIC), with an intensity corresponding to about two DNICs per iron sulfur cluster in the protein, according to spin quantification relative to a low-molecular-weight DNIC standard. In addition, there was no evidence for dichroic spectral features in the responsive region of the nitrosyl iron complexes, as well as for Fe-Fe back-scattering in the fitting of the Fe extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectrum. Instead the Fe EXAFS spectrum of the nitrosylated SoxR core exhibited the same first- and second-shell coordination environments characteristic of modeled small molecular DNICs, indicating that each of the [2 Fe-2 S] cores in the homodimeric SoxR was dissociated into two individual DNICs. Similar nitrosylation of the reduced mixed-valence SoxR for 1 min led to degradation of the iron-sulfur clusters to give several iron species, including one with EPR signals characteristic of a reduced Roussin's red ester (rRRE), a diamagnetic species, presumably Roussin's red ester (RRE), and a small amount of DNIC. We also undertook in vivo time-course studies of E. coli cells containing recombinant SoxR after rapid purging of the cells with exogenous NO gas. Rapid freeze-quenched EPR experiments demonstrated rapid formation of the SoxR rRRE species, followed by fast breakup of this precursor intermediate to form the stable protein-bound DNIC species. Accordingly, under nitrosative

  3. The Csr system regulates genome-wide mRNA stability and transcription and thus gene expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Esquerré, Thomas; Bouvier, Marie; Turlan, Catherine; Carpousis, Agamemnon J; Girbal, Laurence; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel

    2016-04-26

    Bacterial adaptation requires large-scale regulation of gene expression. We have performed a genome-wide analysis of the Csr system, which regulates many important cellular functions. The Csr system is involved in post-transcriptional regulation, but a role in transcriptional regulation has also been suggested. Two proteins, an RNA-binding protein CsrA and an atypical signaling protein CsrD, participate in the Csr system. Genome-wide transcript stabilities and levels were compared in wildtype E. coli (MG1655) and isogenic mutant strains deficient in CsrA or CsrD activity demonstrating for the first time that CsrA and CsrD are global negative and positive regulators of transcription, respectively. The role of CsrA in transcription regulation may be indirect due to the 4.6-fold increase in csrD mRNA concentration in the CsrA deficient strain. Transcriptional action of CsrA and CsrD on a few genes was validated by transcriptional fusions. In addition to an effect on transcription, CsrA stabilizes thousands of mRNAs. This is the first demonstration that CsrA is a global positive regulator of mRNA stability. For one hundred genes, we predict that direct control of mRNA stability by CsrA might contribute to metabolic adaptation by regulating expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism and transport independently of transcriptional regulation.

  4. The Csr system regulates genome-wide mRNA stability and transcription and thus gene expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Esquerré, Thomas; Bouvier, Marie; Turlan, Catherine; Carpousis, Agamemnon J.; Girbal, Laurence; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial adaptation requires large-scale regulation of gene expression. We have performed a genome-wide analysis of the Csr system, which regulates many important cellular functions. The Csr system is involved in post-transcriptional regulation, but a role in transcriptional regulation has also been suggested. Two proteins, an RNA-binding protein CsrA and an atypical signaling protein CsrD, participate in the Csr system. Genome-wide transcript stabilities and levels were compared in wildtype E. coli (MG1655) and isogenic mutant strains deficient in CsrA or CsrD activity demonstrating for the first time that CsrA and CsrD are global negative and positive regulators of transcription, respectively. The role of CsrA in transcription regulation may be indirect due to the 4.6-fold increase in csrD mRNA concentration in the CsrA deficient strain. Transcriptional action of CsrA and CsrD on a few genes was validated by transcriptional fusions. In addition to an effect on transcription, CsrA stabilizes thousands of mRNAs. This is the first demonstration that CsrA is a global positive regulator of mRNA stability. For one hundred genes, we predict that direct control of mRNA stability by CsrA might contribute to metabolic adaptation by regulating expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism and transport independently of transcriptional regulation. PMID:27112822

  5. Hierarchical structure and modules in the Escherichia coli transcriptional regulatory network revealed by a new top-down approach.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong-Wu; Buer, Jan; Zeng, An-Ping

    2004-12-16

    Cellular functions are coordinately carried out by groups of genes forming functional modules. Identifying such modules in the transcriptional regulatory network (TRN) of organisms is important for understanding the structure and function of these fundamental cellular networks and essential for the emerging modular biology. So far, the global connectivity structure of TRN has not been well studied and consequently not applied for the identification of functional modules. Moreover, network motifs such as feed forward loop are recently proposed to be basic building blocks of TRN. However, their relationship to functional modules is not clear. In this work we proposed a top-down approach to identify modules in the TRN of E. coli. By studying the global connectivity structure of the regulatory network, we first revealed a five-layer hierarchical structure in which all the regulatory relationships are downward. Based on this regulatory hierarchy, we developed a new method to decompose the regulatory network into functional modules and to identify global regulators governing multiple modules. As a result, 10 global regulators and 39 modules were identified and shown to have well defined functions. We then investigated the distribution and composition of the two basic network motifs (feed forward loop and bi-fan motif) in the hierarchical structure of TRN. We found that most of these network motifs include global regulators, indicating that these motifs are not basic building blocks of modules since modules should not contain global regulators. The transcriptional regulatory network of E. coli possesses a multi-layer hierarchical modular structure without feedback regulation at transcription level. This hierarchical structure builds the basis for a new and simple decomposition method which is suitable for the identification of functional modules and global regulators in the transcriptional regulatory network of E. coli. Analysis of the distribution of feed forward loops

  6. Region 4 of Rhizobium etli Primary Sigma Factor (SigA) Confers Transcriptional Laxity in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Santillán, Orlando; Ramírez-Romero, Miguel A.; Lozano, Luis; Checa, Alberto; Encarnación, Sergio M.; Dávila, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Sigma factors are RNA polymerase subunits engaged in promoter recognition and DNA strand separation during transcription initiation in bacteria. Primary sigma factors are responsible for the expression of housekeeping genes and are essential for survival. RpoD, the primary sigma factor of Escherichia coli, a γ-proteobacteria, recognizes consensus promoter sequences highly similar to those of some α-proteobacteria species. Despite this resemblance, RpoD is unable to sustain transcription from most of the α-proteobacterial promoters tested so far. In contrast, we have found that SigA, the primary sigma factor of Rhizobium etli, an α-proteobacteria, is able to transcribe E. coli promoters, although it exhibits only 48% identity (98% coverage) to RpoD. We have called this the transcriptional laxity phenomenon. Here, we show that SigA partially complements the thermo-sensitive deficiency of RpoD285 from E. coli strain UQ285 and that the SigA region σ4 is responsible for this phenotype. Sixteen out of 74 residues (21.6%) within region σ4 are variable between RpoD and SigA. Mutating these residues significantly improves SigA ability to complement E. coli UQ285. Only six of these residues fall into positions already known to interact with promoter DNA and to comprise a helix-turn-helix motif. The remaining variable positions are located on previously unexplored sites inside region σ4, specifically into the first two α-helices of the region. Neither of the variable positions confined to these helices seem to interact directly with promoter sequence; instead, we adduce that these residues participate allosterically by contributing to correct region folding and/or positioning of the HTH motif. We propose that transcriptional laxity is a mechanism for ensuring transcription in spite of naturally occurring mutations from endogenous promoters and/or horizontally transferred DNA sequences, allowing survival and fast environmental adaptation of α-proteobacteria. PMID

  7. Region 4 of Rhizobium etli Primary Sigma Factor (SigA) Confers Transcriptional Laxity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Santillán, Orlando; Ramírez-Romero, Miguel A; Lozano, Luis; Checa, Alberto; Encarnación, Sergio M; Dávila, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Sigma factors are RNA polymerase subunits engaged in promoter recognition and DNA strand separation during transcription initiation in bacteria. Primary sigma factors are responsible for the expression of housekeeping genes and are essential for survival. RpoD, the primary sigma factor of Escherichia coli, a γ-proteobacteria, recognizes consensus promoter sequences highly similar to those of some α-proteobacteria species. Despite this resemblance, RpoD is unable to sustain transcription from most of the α-proteobacterial promoters tested so far. In contrast, we have found that SigA, the primary sigma factor of Rhizobium etli, an α-proteobacteria, is able to transcribe E. coli promoters, although it exhibits only 48% identity (98% coverage) to RpoD. We have called this the transcriptional laxity phenomenon. Here, we show that SigA partially complements the thermo-sensitive deficiency of RpoD285 from E. coli strain UQ285 and that the SigA region σ4 is responsible for this phenotype. Sixteen out of 74 residues (21.6%) within region σ4 are variable between RpoD and SigA. Mutating these residues significantly improves SigA ability to complement E. coli UQ285. Only six of these residues fall into positions already known to interact with promoter DNA and to comprise a helix-turn-helix motif. The remaining variable positions are located on previously unexplored sites inside region σ4, specifically into the first two α-helices of the region. Neither of the variable positions confined to these helices seem to interact directly with promoter sequence; instead, we adduce that these residues participate allosterically by contributing to correct region folding and/or positioning of the HTH motif. We propose that transcriptional laxity is a mechanism for ensuring transcription in spite of naturally occurring mutations from endogenous promoters and/or horizontally transferred DNA sequences, allowing survival and fast environmental adaptation of α-proteobacteria.

  8. Key Roles of the Downstream Mobile Jaw of Escherichia coli RNA Polymerase in Transcription Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Drennan, Amanda; Kraemer, Mark; Capp, Michael; Gries, Theodore; Ruff, Emily; Sheppard, Carol; Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh; Artsimovitch, Irina; Record, M. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Differences in kinetics of transcription initiation by RNA polymerase (RNAP) at different promoters tailor the pattern of gene expression to cellular needs. After initial binding, large conformational changes occur in promoter DNA and RNAP to form initiation-capable complexes. To understand the mechanism and regulation of transcription initiation, the nature and sequence of these conformational changes must be determined. Escherichia coli RNAP uses binding free energy to unwind and separate 13 base pairs of λPR promoter DNA to form the unstable open intermediate I2, which rapidly converts to much more stable open complexes (I3, RPo). Conversion of I2 to RPo involves folding/assembly of several mobile RNAP domains on downstream duplex DNA. Here, we investigate effects of a 42-residue deletion in the mobile β’ jaw (ΔJAW) and truncation of promoter DNA beyond +12 (DT+12) on the steps of initiation. We find that in stable ΔJAW open complexes the downstream boundary of hydroxyl radical protection shortens by 5–10 base pairs, as compared to wild-type (WT) complexes. Dissociation kinetics of open complexes formed with ΔJAW RNAP and/or DT+12 DNA resemble those deduced for the structurally-uncharacterized intermediate I3. Overall rate constants (ka) for promoter binding and DNA opening by ΔJAW RNAP are much smaller than for WT RNAP. Values of ka for WT RNAP with DT+12 and full-length λPR are similar, though contributions of binding and isomerization steps differ. Hence, the jaw plays major roles both early and late in RPo formation, while downstream DNA functions primarily as the assembly platform after DNA opening. PMID:23116321

  9. Mechanism of transcription initiation and promoter escape by E. coli RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Kate L; Felth, Lindsey C; Molzahn, Cristen M; Shkel, Irina; Wang, Si; Chhabra, Munish; Ruff, Emily F; Bieter, Lauren; Kraft, Joseph E; Record, M Thomas

    2017-04-11

    To investigate roles of the discriminator and open complex (OC) lifetime in transcription initiation by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAP; α2ββ'ωσ(70)), we compare productive and abortive initiation rates, short RNA distributions, and OC lifetime for the λPR and T7A1 promoters and variants with exchanged discriminators, all with the same transcribed region. The discriminator determines the OC lifetime of these promoters. Permanganate reactivity of thymines reveals that strand backbones in open regions of long-lived λPR-discriminator OCs are much more tightly held than for shorter-lived T7A1-discriminator OCs. Initiation from these OCs exhibits two kinetic phases and at least two subpopulations of ternary complexes. Long RNA synthesis (constrained to be single round) occurs only in the initial phase (<10 s), at similar rates for all promoters. Less than half of OCs synthesize a full-length RNA; the majority stall after synthesizing a short RNA. Most abortive cycling occurs in the slower phase (>10 s), when stalled complexes release their short RNA and make another without escaping. In both kinetic phases, significant amounts of 8-nt and 10-nt transcripts are produced by longer-lived, λPR-discriminator OCs, whereas no RNA longer than 7 nt is produced by shorter-lived T7A1-discriminator OCs. These observations and the lack of abortive RNA in initiation from short-lived ribosomal promoter OCs are well described by a quantitative model in which ∼1.0 kcal/mol of scrunching free energy is generated per translocation step of RNA synthesis to overcome OC stability and drive escape. The different length-distributions of abortive RNAs released from OCs with different lifetimes likely play regulatory roles.

  10. PafR, a Novel Transcription Regulator, Is Important for Pathogenesis in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Mordechai; Watad, Mobarak; Smith, Sara N.; Alteri, Christopher J.; Gordon, Noa; Rosenshine, Ilan; Mobley, Harry L.

    2014-01-01

    The metV genomic island in the chromosome of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) encodes a putative transcription factor and a sugar permease of the phosphotransferase system (PTS), which are predicted to compose a Bgl-like sensory system. The presence of these two genes, hereby termed pafR and pafP, respectively, has been previously shown to correlate with isolates causing clinical syndromes. We show here that deletion of both genes impairs the ability of the resulting mutant to infect the CBA/J mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection compared to that of the parent strain, CFT073. Expressing the two genes in trans in the two-gene knockout mutant complemented full virulence. Deletion of either gene individually generated the same phenotype as the double knockout, indicating that both pafR and pafP are important to pathogenesis. We screened numerous environmental conditions but failed to detect expression from the promoter that precedes the paf genes in vitro, suggesting that they are in vivo induced (ivi). Although PafR is shown here to be capable of functioning as a transcriptional antiterminator, its targets in the UPEC genome are not known. Using microarray analysis, we have shown that expression of PafR from a heterologous promoter in CFT073 affects expression of genes related to bacterial virulence, biofilm formation, and metabolism. Expression of PafR also inhibits biofilm formation and motility. Taken together, our results suggest that the paf genes are implicated in pathogenesis and that PafR controls virulence genes, in particular biofilm formation genes. PMID:25069986

  11. Visualizing the phage T4 activated transcription complex of DNA and E. coli RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    James, Tamara D.; Cardozo, Timothy; Abell, Lauren E.; Hsieh, Meng-Lun; Jenkins, Lisa M. Miller; Jha, Saheli S.; Hinton, Deborah M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of RNA polymerase (RNAP) to select the right promoter sequence at the right time is fundamental to the control of gene expression in all organisms. However, there is only one crystallized structure of a complete activator/RNAP/DNA complex. In a process called σ appropriation, bacteriophage T4 activates a class of phage promoters using an activator (MotA) and a co-activator (AsiA), which function through interactions with the σ70 subunit of RNAP. We have developed a holistic, structure-based model for σ appropriation using multiple experimentally determined 3D structures (Escherichia coli RNAP, the Thermus aquaticus RNAP/DNA complex, AsiA /σ70 Region 4, the N-terminal domain of MotA [MotANTD], and the C-terminal domain of MotA [MotACTD]), molecular modeling, and extensive biochemical observations indicating the position of the proteins relative to each other and to the DNA. Our results visualize how AsiA/MotA redirects σ, and therefore RNAP activity, to T4 promoter DNA, and demonstrate at a molecular level how the tactful interaction of transcriptional factors with even small segments of RNAP can alter promoter specificity. Furthermore, our model provides a rational basis for understanding how a mutation within the β subunit of RNAP (G1249D), which is far removed from AsiA or MotA, impairs σ appropriation. PMID:27458207

  12. Visualizing the phage T4 activated transcription complex of DNA and E. coli RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    James, Tamara D; Cardozo, Timothy; Abell, Lauren E; Hsieh, Meng-Lun; Jenkins, Lisa M Miller; Jha, Saheli S; Hinton, Deborah M

    2016-09-19

    The ability of RNA polymerase (RNAP) to select the right promoter sequence at the right time is fundamental to the control of gene expression in all organisms. However, there is only one crystallized structure of a complete activator/RNAP/DNA complex. In a process called σ appropriation, bacteriophage T4 activates a class of phage promoters using an activator (MotA) and a co-activator (AsiA), which function through interactions with the σ(70) subunit of RNAP. We have developed a holistic, structure-based model for σ appropriation using multiple experimentally determined 3D structures (Escherichia coli RNAP, the Thermus aquaticus RNAP/DNA complex, AsiA /σ(70) Region 4, the N-terminal domain of MotA [MotA(NTD)], and the C-terminal domain of MotA [MotA(CTD)]), molecular modeling, and extensive biochemical observations indicating the position of the proteins relative to each other and to the DNA. Our results visualize how AsiA/MotA redirects σ, and therefore RNAP activity, to T4 promoter DNA, and demonstrate at a molecular level how the tactful interaction of transcriptional factors with even small segments of RNAP can alter promoter specificity. Furthermore, our model provides a rational basis for understanding how a mutation within the β subunit of RNAP (G1249D), which is far removed from AsiA or MotA, impairs σ appropriation.

  13. Transcriptional Modulation of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Virulence Genes in Response to Epithelial Cell Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, Rita; Rasko, David A.; Sahl, Jason W.; Munson, George P.; Roy, Koushik; Luo, Qingwei; Sheikh, Alaullah; Kuhne, Kurt J.

    2013-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality due to diarrheal illness in developing countries. There is currently no effective vaccine against these important pathogens. Because genes modulated by pathogen-host interactions potentially encode putative vaccine targets, we investigated changes in gene expression and surface morphology of ETEC upon interaction with intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Pan-genome microarrays, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR), and transcriptional reporter fusions of selected promoters were used to study changes in ETEC transcriptomes. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate alterations in surface antigen expression and morphology following pathogen-host interactions. Following host cell contact, genes for motility, adhesion, toxin production, immunodominant peptides, and key regulatory molecules, including cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) and c-di-GMP, were substantially modulated. These changes were accompanied by visible changes in both ETEC architecture and the expression of surface antigens, including a novel highly conserved adhesin molecule, EaeH. The studies reported here suggest that pathogen-host interactions are finely orchestrated by ETEC and are characterized by coordinated responses involving the sequential deployment of multiple virulence molecules. Elucidation of the molecular details of these interactions could highlight novel strategies for development of vaccines for these important pathogens. PMID:23115039

  14. Characterization of hybrid plasmids carrying individual ribosomal ribonucleic acid transcription units of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kenerley, M E; Morgan, E A; Post, L; Lindahl, L; Nomura, M

    1977-01-01

    We have screened the strains with ColE1 hybrid plasmids constructed by Clarke and Carbon (Cell 9:91-99, 1976) for the presence of ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) genes on the plasmids and identified 16 strains whose plasmids carry rRNA genes. The structures of these 16 plasmids were compared by heteroduplex analysis, and the plasmids were classified into six groups on the basis of their chromosomal origins. Homology with known transducing-phage deoxyribonucleic acids and genetic mapping have assigned locations on the Escherichia coli chromosome to three of the six groups. These are rrnB near rif at 88 min, rrnC near ilvE at 83 min, and rrnD near aroE at 71 min. A fourth group is probably rrnA at 85 min (T. Ikemura and M. Nomura, Cell, 11:779-793, 1977). We conclude that the minimum number of rRNA transcription units per haploid chromosomes is seven, that is, the six groups identified in this work plus a known operon (rrnE near metA at 89 min) that we failed to find among the hybrid plasmids. This heteroduplex analysis also suggests that there are only two kinds of rRNA operons with respect to their spacer region; three of the six rRNA operon groups studied here have one kind, whereas the remaining three have the other kind. Images PMID:336613

  15. Genome-wide transcription-coupled repair in Escherichia coli is mediated by the Mfd translocase

    PubMed Central

    Adebali, Ogun; Chiou, Yi-Ying; Hu, Jinchuan; Sancar, Aziz; Selby, Christopher P.

    2017-01-01

    We used high-throughput sequencing of short, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer-containing ssDNA oligos generated during repair of UV-induced damage to study that process at both mechanistic and systemic levels in Escherichia coli. Numerous important insights on DNA repair were obtained, bringing clarity to the respective roles of UvrD helicase and Mfd translocase in repair of UV-induced damage. Mechanistically, experiments showed that the predominant role of UvrD in vivo is to unwind the excised 13-mer from dsDNA and that mutation of uvrD results in remarkable protection of that oligo from exonuclease activity as it remains hybridized to the dsDNA. Genome-wide analysis of the transcribed strand/nontranscribed strand (TS/NTS) repair ratio demonstrated that deletion of mfd globally shifts the distribution of TS/NTS ratios downward by a factor of about 2 on average for the most highly transcribed genes. Even for the least transcribed genes, Mfd played a role in preferential repair of the transcribed strand. On the other hand, mutation of uvrD, if anything, slightly pushed the distribution of TS/NTS ratios to higher ratios. These results indicate that Mfd is the transcription repair-coupling factor whereas UvrD plays a role in excision repair by aiding the catalytic turnover of excision repair proteins. PMID:28167766

  16. The highly conserved MraZ protein is a transcriptional regulator in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Eraso, Jesus M.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Taylor, Ronald C.; Orr, Galya; Margolin, William

    2014-05-05

    The mraZ and mraW genes are highly conserved in bacteria, both in sequence and location at the head of the division and cell wall (dcw) gene cluster. Although MraZ has structural similarity to the AbrB transition state regulator and the MazE antitoxin, and MraW is known to methylate ribosomal RNA, mraZ and mraW null mutants have no detectable growth phenotype in any species tested to date, hampering progress in understanding their physiological role. Here we show that overproduction of Escherichia coli MraZ perturbs cell division and the cell envelope, is more lethal at high levels or in minimal growth medium, and that MraW antagonizes these effects. MraZGFP localizes to the nucleoid, suggesting that it binds DNA. Indeed, purified MraZ directly binds a region upstream from its own promoter containing three direct repeats to regulate its own expression and that of downstream cell division and cell wall genes. MraZ-LacZ fusions are repressed by excess MraZ but not when DNA binding by MraZ is inhibited. RNAseq analysis indicates that MraZ is a global transcriptional regulator with numerous targets in addition to dcw genes. One of these targets, mioC, is directly bound by MraZ in a region with three direct repeats.

  17. Simple enzymatic assays for the in vitro motor activity of transcription termination factor Rho from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Boudvillain, Marc; Walmacq, Céline; Schwartz, Annie; Jacquinot, Frédérique

    2010-01-01

    The transcription termination factor Rho from Escherichia coli is a ring-shaped homo-hexameric protein that preferentially interacts with naked cytosine-rich Rut (Rho utilization) regions of nascent RNA transcripts. Once bound to the RNA chain, Rho uses ATP as an energy source to produce mechanical work and disruptive forces that ultimately lead to the dissociation of the ternary transcription complex. Although transcription termination assays have been useful to study Rho activity in various experimental contexts, they do not report directly on Rho mechanisms and kinetics. Here, we describe complementary ATP-dependent RNA-DNA helicase and streptavidin displacement assays that can be used to monitor in vitro Rho's motor activity in a more direct and quantitative manner.

  18. Transcription analysis of the lexA gene of Escherichia coli: attenuation and cotranscription with the neighboring region.

    PubMed Central

    Miki, T; Shirabe, K; Ebina, Y; Nakazawa, A

    1984-01-01

    The lexA gene of Escherichia coli encodes a repressor of the genes whose expression is induced by the agents that result in DNA damage. In vivo transcripts of the lexA gene consisted of two species; mRNA-1 of 673 bases and mRNA-2 of approximately 3,000 bases. The transcription in vivo started at a site which was two-base pairs downstream from the in vitro initiation site reported previously. The majority of the transcription stopped at a series of T residues preceeded by a dyad symmetry located immediately after the lexA gene. A small fraction of the transcription passed through the termination site to form the mRNA of downstream gene(s) which would be related to the "SOS functions". Images PMID:6320118

  19. Relaxation of transcription-induced negative supercoiling is an essential function of Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I.

    PubMed

    Massé, E; Drolet, M

    1999-06-04

    It has been suggested that the essential function of DNA topoisomerase I in Escherichia coli is to prevent chromosomal DNA from reaching an unacceptably high level of global negative supercoiling. However, other in vivo studies have shown that DNA topoisomerase I is very effective in removing local negative supercoiling generated during transcription elongation. To determine whether topoisomerase I is essential for controlling global or local DNA supercoiling, we have prepared a set of topA null mutant strains in combination with different plasmid DNAs. Although we found a correlation between the severity of the growth defect with both transcription-induced and global supercoiling, near to complete growth inhibition correlated only with transcription-induced supercoiling. This result strongly suggests that the major function of DNA topoisomerase I is to relax local negative supercoiling generated during transcription elongation.

  20. Relative activities of the transcriptional regulatory sites in the rplKAJLrpoBC gene cluster of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Ralling, G; Linn, T

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of transcription of the rplKAJLrpoBC gene cluster of Escherichia coli appears to be complex. At least four different promoters and a transcriptional attenuator have been identified. To compare the relative effect of each of the putative promoters and the attenuator on transcription of these genes, we fused these regulatory sites to lacZ. These transcriptional fusions were constructed on lambda transducing phages so a single copy of each could be stably integrated into the chromosome. The level of beta-galactosidase in a lysogen of each phage reflects the activity of the transcriptional regulatory site. We find that the promoters preceding rplK (rplKp) and rplJ (rplJp) are indeed the major promoters of this gene cluster. The minor promoter before rplL (rplLp) is much weaker and contributes little to the transcription of the downstream genes. Under these conditions, we find no evidence of a promoter (rpoBp) in the rplL-rpoB intercistronic region. The attenuator (atn) terminates ca. 70% of the transcripts initiated at the promoters preceding it. Although we cannot rule out that some transcripts from rplKp may read through into rplJLrpoBC, we find that rplJp alone is sufficient for high-level expression of these genes. PMID:6325390

  1. Within-species lateral genetic transfer and the evolution of transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli and Shigella

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Changes in transcriptional regulation underlie many of the phenotypic differences observed within and between species of bacteria. Lateral genetic transfer (LGT) can significantly impact the transcription factor (TF) genes which drive these transcriptional changes. Although much emphasis has been placed on LGT of intact genes, the units of transfer and recombination do not necessarily correspond to regions delineated by exact gene boundaries. Here we apply phylogenetic and network-based methods to investigate the relationship between units of lateral transfer and recombination within the Escherichia coli - Shigella clade and the topological properties of genes in the E. coli transcriptional regulatory network (TRN). Results We carried out a systematic phylogenetic study of genetic transfer among 5282 sets of putatively orthologous genes from 27 strains belonging to the E. coli - Shigella clade. We then used these results to examine the evolutionary histories of TF genes, as well as the transcriptional regulation of lateral genes. We found evidence of LGT in 2655 (50.3%) gene sets: 678 (12.8%) show evidence of recombination breakpoints within the gene boundaries. Thus, within- and whole- gene lateral transfer is widespread among strains of E. coli and Shigella. We found that unlike global regulators, which have mostly evolved vertically, neighbour regulators (genes which regulate adjacent genes on the chromosome) have frequently been subject to transfer within the E. coli - Shigella clade. At least 56 (62%) of the 90 neighbour regulator gene sets examined show evidence of LGT, 19 (34%) of which have internal recombination breakpoints. Neighbour regulators show no evidence of co-transfer with their nearby target genes. Rather, the frequency of recombination breakpoints, and conflicting evolutionary histories among neighbour regulators and their target genes, suggest that the genomic regions encoding these genes have been constructed through successive

  2. Transcriptional organization and regulation of the Escherichia coli K30 group 1 capsule biosynthesis (cps) gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Rahn, Andrea; Whitfield, Chris

    2003-02-01

    Escherichia coli group 1 capsules are important virulence determinants, yet little is known about the transcriptional organization or regulation of their biosynthetic (cps) operons. Transcription of the prototype serotype K30 cluster is modulated by the JUMPStart-RfaH antitermination mechanism, with the cps promoter being localized to a region immediately upstream of the JUMPStart sequence. A putative stem-loop structure located within the K30 cps cluster separates conserved genes with products that are required for surface expression of capsule from serotype-specific genes encoding enzymes for polymer repeat-unit synthesis and polymerization. This putative stem-loop structure significantly reduces transcription in a termination-probe vector and may contribute to differential expression of the cps genes. Previous work indicated that increased amounts of group 1 capsular polysaccharide synthesis resulted from the overexpression of the Rcs (regulator of capsule synthesis) proteins. However, neither overexpression of the transcriptional activator RcsB nor an rcsB::aadA chromosomal insertion altered the level of transcription measured by cps::lacZ fusions. In the group 1 strains examined, an RcsAB box was found immediately upstream of galF, a gene involved in the production of sugar nucleotide precursors. Overexpression of RcsB was found to result in a threefold increase in transcription of a galF::lacZ chromosomal fusion. Moreover, overexpression of GalF gave rise to a two- to threefold increase in cell-free as well as cell-associated capsule, without affecting cps::lacZ activity. These results indicate that transcription of the E. coli group 1 capsule cluster itself is not regulated by the Rcs system and may, in fact, be constitutive. However, the Rcs system can potentially influence levels of capsular polysaccharide production by increasing galF transcription and influencing the available pool of biosynthetic precursors.

  3. Mechanism for Regulation of the Putrescine Utilization Pathway by the Transcription Factor PuuR in Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Nemoto, Naoki; Kurihara, Shin; Kitahara, Yuzuru; Asada, Kei; Kato, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, putrescine is metabolized to succinate for use as a carbon and nitrogen source by the putrescine utilization pathway (Puu pathway). One gene in the puu gene cluster encodes a transcription factor, PuuR, which has a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif. DNA microarray analysis of an E. coli puuR mutant, in which three amino acid residues in the helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif of PuuR were mutated to alanine to eliminate DNA binding of PuuR, suggested that PuuR is a negative regulator of puu genes. Results of gel shift and DNase I footprint analyses suggested that PuuR binds to the promoter regions of puuA and puuD. The binding of wild-type PuuR to a DNA probe containing PuuR recognition sites was diminished with increasing putrescine concentrations in vitro. These results suggest that PuuR regulates the intracellular putrescine concentration by the transcriptional regulation of genes in the Puu pathway, including puuR itself. The puu gene cluster is found in E. coli and closely related enterobacteria, but this gene cluster is uncommon in other bacterial groups. E. coli and related enterobacteria may have gained the Puu pathway as an adaptation for survival in the mammalian intestine, an environment in which polyamines exist at relatively high concentrations. PMID:22522900

  4. Mechanism for regulation of the putrescine utilization pathway by the transcription factor PuuR in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Naoki; Kurihara, Shin; Kitahara, Yuzuru; Asada, Kei; Kato, Kenji; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2012-07-01

    In Escherichia coli, putrescine is metabolized to succinate for use as a carbon and nitrogen source by the putrescine utilization pathway (Puu pathway). One gene in the puu gene cluster encodes a transcription factor, PuuR, which has a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif. DNA microarray analysis of an E. coli puuR mutant, in which three amino acid residues in the helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif of PuuR were mutated to alanine to eliminate DNA binding of PuuR, suggested that PuuR is a negative regulator of puu genes. Results of gel shift and DNase I footprint analyses suggested that PuuR binds to the promoter regions of puuA and puuD. The binding of wild-type PuuR to a DNA probe containing PuuR recognition sites was diminished with increasing putrescine concentrations in vitro. These results suggest that PuuR regulates the intracellular putrescine concentration by the transcriptional regulation of genes in the Puu pathway, including puuR itself. The puu gene cluster is found in E. coli and closely related enterobacteria, but this gene cluster is uncommon in other bacterial groups. E. coli and related enterobacteria may have gained the Puu pathway as an adaptation for survival in the mammalian intestine, an environment in which polyamines exist at relatively high concentrations.

  5. Escherichia coli under Ionic Silver Stress: An Integrative Approach to Explore Transcriptional, Physiological and Biochemical Responses

    PubMed Central

    Saulou-Bérion, Claire; Gonzalez, Ignacio; Enjalbert, Brice; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Fourquaux, Isabelle; Jamme, Frédéric; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel; Mercier-Bonin, Muriel; Girbal, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    For a better understanding of the systemic effect of sub-lethal micromolar concentrations of ionic silver on Escherichia coli, we performed a multi-level characterization of cells under Ag+-mediated stress using an integrative biology approach combining physiological, biochemical and transcriptomic data. Physiological parameters, namely bacterial growth and survival after Ag+ exposure, were first quantified and related to the accumulation of intracellular silver, probed for the first time by nano secondary ion mass spectroscopy at sub-micrometer lateral resolution. Modifications in E. coli biochemical composition were evaluated under Ag+-mediated stress by in situ synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and a comprehensive transcriptome response was also determined. Using multivariate statistics, correlations between the physiological parameters, the extracellular concentration of AgNO3 and the intracellular silver content, gene expression profiles and micro-spectroscopic data were investigated. We identified Ag+-dependent regulation of gene expression required for growth (e.g. transporter genes, transcriptional regulators, ribosomal proteins), for ionic silver transport and detoxification (e.g. copA, cueO, mgtA, nhaR) and for coping with various types of stress (dnaK, pspA, metA,R, oxidoreductase genes). The silver-induced shortening of the acyl chain of fatty acids, mostly encountered in cell membrane, was highlighted by microspectroscopy and correlated with the down-regulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport (fadL) and synthesis/modification of lipid A (lpxA and arnA). The increase in the disordered secondary structure of proteins in the presence of Ag+ was assessed through the conformational shift shown for amides I and II, and further correlated with the up-regulated expression of peptidase (hfq) and chaperone (dnaJ), and regulation of transpeptidase expression (ycfS and ycbB). Interestingly, as these transpeptidases act on

  6. Genome-scale Analysis of Escherichia coli FNR Reveals Complex Features of Transcription Factor Binding

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kevin S.; Yan, Huihuang; Ong, Irene M.; Chung, Dongjun; Liang, Kun; Tran, Frances; Keleş, Sündüz; Landick, Robert; Kiley, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    FNR is a well-studied global regulator of anaerobiosis, which is widely conserved across bacteria. Despite the importance of FNR and anaerobiosis in microbial lifestyles, the factors that influence its function on a genome-wide scale are poorly understood. Here, we report a functional genomic analysis of FNR action. We find that FNR occupancy at many target sites is strongly influenced by nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) that restrict access to many FNR binding sites. At a genome-wide level, only a subset of predicted FNR binding sites were bound under anaerobic fermentative conditions and many appeared to be masked by the NAPs H-NS, IHF and Fis. Similar assays in cells lacking H-NS and its paralog StpA showed increased FNR occupancy at sites bound by H-NS in WT strains, indicating that large regions of the genome are not readily accessible for FNR binding. Genome accessibility may also explain our finding that genome-wide FNR occupancy did not correlate with the match to consensus at binding sites, suggesting that significant variation in ChIP signal was attributable to cross-linking or immunoprecipitation efficiency rather than differences in binding affinities for FNR sites. Correlation of FNR ChIP-seq peaks with transcriptomic data showed that less than half of the FNR-regulated operons could be attributed to direct FNR binding. Conversely, FNR bound some promoters without regulating expression presumably requiring changes in activity of condition-specific transcription factors. Such combinatorial regulation may allow Escherichia coli to respond rapidly to environmental changes and confer an ecological advantage in the anaerobic but nutrient-fluctuating environment of the mammalian gut. PMID:23818864

  7. The Highly Conserved MraZ Protein Is a Transcriptional Regulator in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Eraso, Jesus M.; Markillie, Lye M.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Taylor, Ronald C.; Orr, Galya

    2014-01-01

    The mraZ and mraW genes are highly conserved in bacteria, both in sequence and in their position at the head of the division and cell wall (dcw) gene cluster. Located directly upstream of the mraZ gene, the Pmra promoter drives the transcription of mraZ and mraW, as well as many essential cell division and cell wall genes, but no regulator of Pmra has been found to date. Although MraZ has structural similarity to the AbrB transition state regulator and the MazE antitoxin and MraW is known to methylate the 16S rRNA, mraZ and mraW null mutants have no detectable phenotypes. Here we show that overproduction of Escherichia coli MraZ inhibited cell division and was lethal in rich medium at high induction levels and in minimal medium at low induction levels. Co-overproduction of MraW suppressed MraZ toxicity, and loss of MraW enhanced MraZ toxicity, suggesting that MraZ and MraW have antagonistic functions. MraZ-green fluorescent protein localized to the nucleoid, suggesting that it binds DNA. Consistent with this idea, purified MraZ directly bound a region of DNA containing three direct repeats between Pmra and the mraZ gene. Excess MraZ reduced the expression of an mraZ-lacZ reporter, suggesting that MraZ acts as a repressor of Pmra, whereas a DNA-binding mutant form of MraZ failed to repress expression. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis suggested that MraZ also regulates the expression of genes outside the dcw cluster. In support of this, purified MraZ could directly bind to a putative operator site upstream of mioC, one of the repressed genes identified by RNA-seq. PMID:24659771

  8. Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I inhibits R-loop formation by relaxing transcription-induced negative supercoiling.

    PubMed

    Massé, E; Drolet, M

    1999-06-04

    It has recently been shown that RNase H overproduction can partially compensate for the growth defect due to the absence of DNA topoisomerase I in Escherichia coli (Drolet, M., Phoenix, P., Menzel, R., Massé, E., Liu, L. F., and Crouch, R. J. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 92, 3526-3530). This result has suggested a model in which inhibitory R-loops occur during transcription in topA mutants. Results presented in this report further support this notion and demonstrate that transcription-induced supercoiling is involved in R-loop formation. First, we show that stable R-loop formation during in vitro transcription with E. coli RNA polymerase only occurs in the presence of DNA gyrase. Second, extensive R-loop formation in vivo, revealed by the production of RNase H-sensitive hypernegatively supercoiled plasmid DNAs, is observed under conditions where topA mutants fail to grow. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the coupling of transcription and translation in bacteria is an efficient way of preventing R-loop formation.

  9. Tuning of Recombinant Protein Expression in Escherichia coli by Manipulating Transcription, Translation Initiation Rates, and Incorporation of Noncanonical Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Orr; Chemla, Yonatan; Heltberg, Mathias; Ozer, Eden; Marshall, Ryan; Noireaux, Vincent; Jensen, Mogens Høgh; Alfonta, Lital

    2017-06-16

    Protein synthesis in cells has been thoroughly investigated and characterized over the past 60 years. However, some fundamental issues remain unresolved, including the reasons for genetic code redundancy and codon bias. In this study, we changed the kinetics of the Eschrichia coli transcription and translation processes by mutating the promoter and ribosome binding domains and by using genetic code expansion. The results expose a counterintuitive phenomenon, whereby an increase in the initiation rates of transcription and translation lead to a decrease in protein expression. This effect can be rescued by introducing slow translating codons into the beginning of the gene, by shortening gene length or by reducing initiation rates. On the basis of the results, we developed a biophysical model, which suggests that the density of co-transcriptional-translation plays a role in bacterial protein synthesis. These findings indicate how cells use codon bias to tune translation speed and protein synthesis.

  10. Examination of the genome-wide transcriptional response of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to cinnamaldehyde exposure.

    PubMed

    Visvalingam, Jeyachchandran; Hernandez-Doria, Juan David; Holley, Richard A

    2013-02-01

    Cinnamaldehyde is a natural antimicrobial that has been found to be effective against many food-borne pathogens, including Escherichia coli O157:H7. Although its antimicrobial effects have been well investigated, limited information is available on its effects at the molecular level. Sublethal treatment at 200 mg/liter cinnamaldehyde inhibited growth of E. coli O157:H7 at 37°C and for ≤2 h caused cell elongation, but from 2 to 4 h growth resumed and cells reverted to normal length. To understand this transient behavior, genome-wide transcriptional analysis of E. coli O157:H7 was performed at 2 and 4 h of exposure to cinnamaldehyde in conjunction with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis for cinnamaldehyde and other cinnamic compounds. Drastically different gene expression profiles were obtained at 2 and 4 h. RP-HPLC analysis showed that cinnamaldehyde was structurally stable for at least 2 h. At 2 h of exposure, cinnamaldehyde induced expression of many oxidative stress-related genes and repressed expression of DNA, protein, O-antigen, and fimbrial synthetic genes. At 4 h, many cinnamaldehyde-induced repressive effects on E. coli O157:H7 gene expression were reversed, and cells became more motile and grew at a slightly higher rate. Data indicated that by 4 h, E. coli O157:H7 was able to convert cinnamaldehyde into the less toxic cinnamic alcohol using dehydrogenase/reductase enzymes (YqhD and DkgA). This is the first study to characterize the ability of E. coli O157:H7 to convert cinnamaldehyde into cinnamic alcohol which, in turn, showed that the antimicrobial activity of cinnamaldehyde is mainly attributable to its carbonyl aldehyde group.

  11. Examination of the Genome-Wide Transcriptional Response of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to Cinnamaldehyde Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Visvalingam, Jeyachchandran; Hernandez-Doria, Juan David

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde is a natural antimicrobial that has been found to be effective against many food-borne pathogens, including Escherichia coli O157:H7. Although its antimicrobial effects have been well investigated, limited information is available on its effects at the molecular level. Sublethal treatment at 200 mg/liter cinnamaldehyde inhibited growth of E. coli O157:H7 at 37°C and for ≤2 h caused cell elongation, but from 2 to 4 h growth resumed and cells reverted to normal length. To understand this transient behavior, genome-wide transcriptional analysis of E. coli O157:H7 was performed at 2 and 4 h of exposure to cinnamaldehyde in conjunction with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis for cinnamaldehyde and other cinnamic compounds. Drastically different gene expression profiles were obtained at 2 and 4 h. RP-HPLC analysis showed that cinnamaldehyde was structurally stable for at least 2 h. At 2 h of exposure, cinnamaldehyde induced expression of many oxidative stress-related genes and repressed expression of DNA, protein, O-antigen, and fimbrial synthetic genes. At 4 h, many cinnamaldehyde-induced repressive effects on E. coli O157:H7 gene expression were reversed, and cells became more motile and grew at a slightly higher rate. Data indicated that by 4 h, E. coli O157:H7 was able to convert cinnamaldehyde into the less toxic cinnamic alcohol using dehydrogenase/reductase enzymes (YqhD and DkgA). This is the first study to characterize the ability of E. coli O157:H7 to convert cinnamaldehyde into cinnamic alcohol which, in turn, showed that the antimicrobial activity of cinnamaldehyde is mainly attributable to its carbonyl aldehyde group. PMID:23183978

  12. Genome-wide screening of transcription factor deletion targets in Escherichia coli for enhanced production of lactate-based polyesters.

    PubMed

    Kadoya, Ryosuke; Kodama, Yu; Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Ooi, Toshihiko; Taguchi, Seiichi

    2017-05-01

    Engineered Escherichia coli is a useful platform for production of lactate (LA)-based polyester poly[LA-co-3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB)] from renewable sugars. Here we screened all non-lethal transcription factor deletions of E. coli for efficient production of the polymer. This approach aimed at drawing out the latent potential of the host for efficient polymer production via indirect positive effects. Among 252 mutants from Keio Collection tested, eight mutants (ΔpdhR, ΔcspG, ΔyneJ, ΔchbR, ΔyiaU, ΔcreB, ΔygfI and ΔnanK) accumulated greater amount of polymer (6.2-10.1 g/L) compared to the parent strain E. coli BW25113 (5.1 g/L). The mutants increased polymer production per cell (1.1-1.5-fold) without significant change in cell density. The yield of the polymer from glucose was also higher for the selected mutants (0.34-0.38 g/g) than the parent strain (0.27 g/g). Therefore, the deletions of transcription factors should channel the carbon flux towards polymer production. It should be noted that the screening employed in this study identified beneficial mutants without analyzing causal relationship between the mutation and the enhanced polymer production. This approach, therefore, should be applicable to broad range of fermentation productions.

  13. Hierarchical structure and modules in the Escherichia coli transcriptional regulatory network revealed by a new top-down approach

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hong-Wu; Buer, Jan; Zeng, An-Ping

    2004-01-01

    Background Cellular functions are coordinately carried out by groups of genes forming functional modules. Identifying such modules in the transcriptional regulatory network (TRN) of organisms is important for understanding the structure and function of these fundamental cellular networks and essential for the emerging modular biology. So far, the global connectivity structure of TRN has not been well studied and consequently not applied for the identification of functional modules. Moreover, network motifs such as feed forward loop are recently proposed to be basic building blocks of TRN. However, their relationship to functional modules is not clear. Results In this work we proposed a top-down approach to identify modules in the TRN of E. coli. By studying the global connectivity structure of the regulatory network, we first revealed a five-layer hierarchical structure in which all the regulatory relationships are downward. Based on this regulatory hierarchy, we developed a new method to decompose the regulatory network into functional modules and to identify global regulators governing multiple modules. As a result, 10 global regulators and 39 modules were identified and shown to have well defined functions. We then investigated the distribution and composition of the two basic network motifs (feed forward loop and bi-fan motif) in the hierarchical structure of TRN. We found that most of these network motifs include global regulators, indicating that these motifs are not basic building blocks of modules since modules should not contain global regulators. Conclusion The transcriptional regulatory network of E. coli possesses a multi-layer hierarchical modular structure without feedback regulation at transcription level. This hierarchical structure builds the basis for a new and simple decomposition method which is suitable for the identification of functional modules and global regulators in the transcriptional regulatory network of E. coli. Analysis of the

  14. Escherichia coli- and Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis differentially modulate transcriptional responses in neighbouring uninfected bovine mammary gland quarters.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kirsty; Günther, Juliane; Talbot, Richard; Petzl, Wolfram; Zerbe, Holm; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Seyfert, Hans-Martin; Glass, Elizabeth J

    2013-01-16

    The most important disease of dairy cattle is mastitis, caused by the infection of the mammary gland by various micro-organisms. Although the transcriptional response of bovine mammary gland cells to in vitro infection has been studied, the interplay and consequences of these responses in the in vivo environment of the mammary gland are less clear. Previously mammary gland quarters were considered to be unaffected by events occurring in neighbouring quarters. More recently infection of individual quarters with mastitis causing pathogens, especially Escherichia coli, has been shown to influence the physiology of neighbouring uninfected quarters. Therefore, the transcriptional responses of uninfected mammary gland quarters adjacent to quarters infected with two major mastitis causing pathogens, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus, were compared. The bacteriologically sterile, within-animal control quarters exhibited a transcriptional response to the infection of neighbouring quarters. The greatest response was associated with E. coli infection, while a weaker, yet significant, response occurred during S. aureus infection. The transcriptional responses of these uninfected quarters included the enhanced expression of many genes previously associated with mammary gland infections. Comparison of the transcriptional response of uninfected quarters to S. aureus and E. coli infection identified 187 differentially expressed genes, which were particularly associated with cellular responses, e.g. response to stress. The most affected network identified by Ingenuity Pathway analysis has the immunosuppressor transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) at its hub and largely consists of genes more highly expressed in control quarters from S. aureus infected cows. Uninfected mammary gland quarters reacted to the infection of neighbouring quarters and the responses were dependent on pathogen type. Therefore, bovine udder quarters exhibit interdependence and should not be considered as

  15. Construction and characterization of E. coli K12 strains in which the transcription of selected genes is desynchronized from translation.

    PubMed

    Proux, Florence; Dreyfus, Marc

    2008-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, synthesis and translation of individual mRNAs are usually synchronous, so that no long ribosome-free mRNA stretch exists between the RNA polymerase and the leading ribosome. By comparing situations in which the same mRNA (the lacZ mRNA) is synthesized either by the genuine E. coli RNA polymerase or the faster T7 RNA polymerase, we have previously shown that the outpacing of ribosomes by RNA polymerase destabilizes mRNAs, and more so as outpacing becomes larger. This destabilization requires the noncatalytic C-terminal region of RNase E; more generally, there is circumstantial evidence that this region is specifically involved in the fast decay of various untranslated mRNAs. The genetic system designed for desynchronizing transcription and translation with T7 RNA polymerase was originally designed in the E. coli B strain BL21(DE3). Here, we describe procedures for transferring this system to the more common E. coli K12 background. We also show that it can be used as a screen for identifying factors involved in the instability of untranslated mRNA. Protocols in use in this laboratory for RNA extraction, Northern blotting, and beta-galactosidase assay are described and critically discussed.

  16. Tailoring of global transcription sigma D factor by random mutagenesis to improve Escherichia coli tolerance towards low-pHs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xi; Jiang, Ling; Zhu, Liying; Xu, Qing; Xu, Xian; Huang, He

    2016-04-20

    Bioconversion processes of organic acid or acid hydrolysis of raw material for microbial metabolism often suffer limitations as a result of microbial sensitivity in low-pH conditions. We adopted a three-step method called RAndom Insertional-deletional Strand Exchange mutagenesis (RAISE) to engineer the components of global regulator Sigma D factor (RpoD) of Escherichia coli to improve its acid tolerance. The best strain Mutant VII was identified from random mutagenesis libraries based on the growth performance, which exhibited much higher growth rate than the control (0.22h(-1) vs. 0.15h(-1)) at pH as low as 3.17. Combined transcriptome and phenome analysis of E. coli was carried out to better understand the global effects of RpoD on the regulatory networks. Our analysis showed that 95 (2.1%) of all E. coli genes were induced and 178 (4.0%) genes were repressed, including those for trehalose biosynthesis, nucleotides biosynthesis, carbon metabolism, amino acid utilization, except for acid resistance. Also regulated were the master regulators (ArcA, EvgA, H-NS and RpoS) and gene/operon-specific transcription factors (GadX, GadW, AppY, YdeO, KdgR). These results demonstrated that RpoD acts as global regulator in the growth phase of E. coli and consequently improves acid tolerances.

  17. Transcriptional and functional responses of Escherichia coli O157:H7 growing in the lettuce rhizoplane.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhe; Fink, Ryan C; Sugawara, Masayuki; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    Lettuce and spinach are increasingly implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks due to contamination by Escherichia coli O157:H7. While this bacterium has been shown to colonize and survive on lettuce leaf surfaces, little is known about its interaction with the roots of growing lettuce plants. In these studies, a microarray analyses, mutant construction and confocal microscopy were used to gain an understanding of structure and function of bacterial genes involved in the colonization and growth of E. coli O157:H7 on lettuce roots. After three days of interaction with lettuce roots, 94 and 109 E. coli O157:H7 genes were significantly up- and down-regulated at least 1.5 fold, respectively. While genes involved in biofilm modulation (ycfR and ybiM) were significantly up-regulated, 40 of 109 (37%) of genes involved in protein synthesis were significantly repressed. E. coli O157:H7 was 2 logs less efficient in lettuce root colonization than was E. coli K12. We also unambiguously showed that a ΔycfR mutant of E. coli O157:H7 was unable to attach to or colonize lettuce roots. Taken together these results indicate that bacterial genes involved in attachment and biofilm formation are likely important for contamination of lettuce plants with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Regulatory Elements between Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae by Genome-Wide Transcription Start Site Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yu; Nagarajan, Harish; Seo, Joo-Hyun; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide transcription start site (TSS) profiles of the enterobacteria Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were experimentally determined through modified 5′ RACE followed by deep sequencing of intact primary mRNA. This identified 3,746 and 3,143 TSSs for E. coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively. Experimentally determined TSSs were then used to define promoter regions and 5′ UTRs upstream of coding genes. Comparative analysis of these regulatory elements revealed the use of multiple TSSs, identical sequence motifs of promoter and Shine-Dalgarno sequence, reflecting conserved gene expression apparatuses between the two species. In both species, over 70% of primary transcripts were expressed from operons having orthologous genes during exponential growth. However, expressed orthologous genes in E. coli and K. pneumoniae showed a strikingly different organization of upstream regulatory regions with only 20% identical promoters with TSSs in both species. Over 40% of promoters had TSSs identified in only one species, despite conserved promoter sequences existing in the other species. 662 conserved promoters having TSSs in both species resulted in the same number of comparable 5′ UTR pairs, and that regulatory element was found to be the most variant region in sequence among promoter, 5′ UTR, and ORF. In K. pneumoniae, 48 sRNAs were predicted and 36 of them were expressed during exponential growth. Among them, 34 orthologous sRNAs between two species were analyzed in depth, and the analysis showed that many sRNAs of K. pneumoniae, including pleiotropic sRNAs such as rprA, arcZ, and sgrS, may work in the same way as in E. coli. These results reveal a new dimension of comparative genomics such that a comparison of two genomes needs to be comprehensive over all levels of genome organization. PMID:22912590

  19. Transcriptional regulation of drug efflux genes by EvgAS, a two-component system in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Yoko; Oshima, Taku; Mori, Hirotada; Aono, Rikizo; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Ishihama, Akira; Utsumi, Ryutaro

    2003-10-01

    A constitutively active mutant of histidine kinase sensor EvgS was found to confer multi-drug resistance (MDR) to an acrA-deficient Escherichia coli, indicating the relationship between the two-component system EvgAS and the expression of the MDR system. The observed MDR also depended on an outer-membrane channel, TolC. Microarray and S1 mapping assays indicated that, in the presence of this constitutive mutant EvgS, the level of transcription increased for some MDR genes, including the drug efflux genes emrKY, yhiUV, acrAB, mdfA and tolC. Transcription in vitro of emrK increased by the addition of phosphorylated EvgA. Transcription activation of tolC by the activated EvgS was, however, dependent on both EvgAS and PhoPQ (Mg(2+)-responsive two-component system), in agreement with the presence of the binding site (PhoP box) for the regulator PhoP in the tolC promoter region. Transcription in vitro of yhiUV also appears to require an as-yet-unidentified additional transcriptional factor besides EvgA. Taken together we propose that the expression of the MDR system is under a complex regulatory network, including the phosphorylated EvgA serving as the master regulator.

  20. In vitro transcription of the Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29 DNA by Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli RNA polymerases.

    PubMed Central

    Sogo, J M; Lozano, M; Salas, M

    1984-01-01

    The Escherichia coli RNA polymerase bound to phage phi 29 DNA has been visualized by electron microscopy. Thirteen specific binding sites have been observed at 1.7,2.6,5.5,10.4,13.7,25.2,25.7,26.3,33.5,59.5,69.2,91.7 and 99.6 DNA length units and they have been named A1,A1I,A1II,A1III,A1IV,A2,A2I, A3, A4,B1,B1I,C1 and C2, respectively. The binding sites A1,A2,A3,B1,C1 and C2 coincide with those found with Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase. The transcription of phage phi 29 DNA with B. subtilis or E. coli RNA polymerases has been studied. With the B. subtilis RNA polymerase eight transcripts were found, starting at positions corresponding to the binding sites A1, A1III, A2,A3,B1I,B2,C1 and C2, respectively. With the E. coli RNA polymerase the same transcripts were found and a new one starting at position corresponding to the A4 binding site. The RNAs starting at binding sites A1,A1III,A2,B1I, B2,C1 and C2 are transcribed from right to left, as expected for early RNA. The RNAs which initiate at positions A3 and A4 are transcribed from left to right and probably correspond to late RNAs. Images PMID:6322128

  1. Global transcriptional response of Escherichia coli MG1655 cells exposed to the oxygenated monoterpenes citral and carvacrol.

    PubMed

    Chueca, Beatriz; Pérez-Sáez, Elisa; Pagán, Rafael; García-Gonzalo, Diego

    2017-09-18

    DNA microarrays were used to study the mechanism of bacterial inactivation by carvacrol and citral. After 10-min treatments of Escherichia coli MG1655 cells with 100 and 50ppm of carvacrol and citral, 76 and 156 genes demonstrated significant transcriptional differences (p≤0.05), respectively. Among the up-regulated genes after carvacrol treatment, we found gene coding for multidrug efflux pumps (acrA, mdtM), genes related to phage shock response (pspA, pspB, pspC, pspD, pspF and pspG), biosynthesis of arginine (argC, argG, artJ), and purine nucleotides (purC, purM). In citral-treated cells, transcription of purH and pyrB and pyrI was 2 times higher. Deletion of several differentially expressed genes confirmed the role of ygaV, yjbO, pspC, sdhA, yejG and ygaV in the mechanisms of E. coli inactivation by carvacrol and citral. These results would indicate that citral and carvacrol treatments cause membrane damage and activate metabolism through the production of nucleotides required for DNA and RNA synthesis and metabolic processes. Comparative transcriptomics of the response of E. coli to a heat treatment, which caused a significant change of the transcription of 1422 genes, revealed a much weaker response to both individual constituents of essential oils (ICs).·Thus, inactivation by citral or carvacrol was not multitarget in nature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcription of the Escherichia coli dcw cluster: evidence for distal upstream transcripts being involved in the expression of the downstream ftsZ gene.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, A; Palacios, P; Vicente, M

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains VIP596 and VIP597 have been constructed to compare the amount of transcription of the ftsZ gene derived from proximal promoters in the ddlB-ftsZ region with that originating in the upstream regions of the dcw cluster. Both strains have in common a beta-galactosidase reporter fusion located at the ddlB locus, but differ in that VIP597 has a transcription terminator Omega interposon located downstream from lacZ. In addition, these strains have the ddlB, ftsQ, ftsA and ftsZ genes under the control of the IPTG-inducible promoter P(tac), allowing to control artificially ftsZ expression for normal cell division to take place. When beta-galactosidase activity was measured in VIP596 and VIP597 and compared to the levels measured in strain VIP407, in which the lacZ reporter fusion is located in the ftsZ gene, they were found to account for nearly 66% of the total transcription entering into ftsZ. This result indicates that the reduction in ftsZ transcription observed when the promoters in the ddlB-ftsA region are disconnected from the upstream sequences of the dcw cluster (as observed by Flärdh et al., Mol. Microbiol. 30 (1998) 305-316) in strain VIP490) is the direct consequence of the interruption in the transcription originated upstream and not due to the effect of such sequences on the promoters proximal to ftsZ.

  3. H-NS-mediated repression of CRISPR-based immunity in Escherichia coli K12 can be relieved by the transcription activator LeuO.

    PubMed

    Westra, Edze R; Pul, Umit; Heidrich, Nadja; Jore, Matthijs M; Lundgren, Magnus; Stratmann, Thomas; Wurm, Reinhild; Raine, Amanda; Mescher, Melina; Van Heereveld, Luc; Mastop, Marieke; Wagner, E Gerhart H; Schnetz, Karin; Van Der Oost, John; Wagner, Rolf; Brouns, Stan J J

    2010-09-01

    The recently discovered prokaryotic CRISPR/Cas defence system provides immunity against viral infections and plasmid conjugation. It has been demonstrated that in Escherichia coli transcription of the Cascade genes (casABCDE) and to some extent the CRISPR array is repressed by heat-stable nucleoid-structuring (H-NS) protein, a global transcriptional repressor. Here we elaborate on the control of the E. coli CRISPR/Cas system, and study the effect on CRISPR-based anti-viral immunity. Transformation of wild-type E. coli K12 with CRISPR spacers that are complementary to phage Lambda does not lead to detectable protection against Lambda infection. However, when an H-NS mutant of E. coli K12 is transformed with the same anti-Lambda CRISPR, this does result in reduced sensitivity to phage infection. In addition, it is demonstrated that LeuO, a LysR-type transcription factor, binds to two sites flanking the casA promoter and the H-NS nucleation site, resulting in derepression of casABCDE12 transcription. Overexpression of LeuO in E. coli K12 containing an anti-Lambda CRISPR leads to an enhanced protection against phage infection. This study demonstrates that in E. coli H-NS and LeuO are antagonistic regulators of CRISPR-based immunity.

  4. Transcription-Factor-Mediated DNA Looping Probed by High-Resolution, Single-Molecule Imaging in Live E. coli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Zach; Xiao, Jie

    2013-01-01

    DNA looping mediated by transcription factors plays critical roles in prokaryotic gene regulation. The “genetic switch” of bacteriophage λ determines whether a prophage stays incorporated in the E. coli chromosome or enters the lytic cycle of phage propagation and cell lysis. Past studies have shown that long-range DNA interactions between the operator sequences OR and OL (separated by 2.3 kb), mediated by the λ repressor CI (accession number P03034), play key roles in regulating the λ switch. In vitro, it was demonstrated that DNA segments harboring the operator sequences formed loops in the presence of CI, but CI-mediated DNA looping has not been directly visualized in vivo, hindering a deep understanding of the corresponding dynamics in realistic cellular environments. We report a high-resolution, single-molecule imaging method to probe CI-mediated DNA looping in live E. coli cells. We labeled two DNA loci with differently colored fluorescent fusion proteins and tracked their separations in real time with ∼40 nm accuracy, enabling the first direct analysis of transcription-factor-mediated DNA looping in live cells. Combining looping measurements with measurements of CI expression levels in different operator mutants, we show quantitatively that DNA looping activates transcription and enhances repression. Further, we estimated the upper bound of the rate of conformational change from the unlooped to the looped state, and discuss how chromosome compaction may impact looping kinetics. Our results provide insights into transcription-factor-mediated DNA looping in a variety of operator and CI mutant backgrounds in vivo, and our methodology can be applied to a broad range of questions regarding chromosome conformations in prokaryotes and higher organisms. PMID:23853547

  5. Transcription-factor-mediated DNA looping probed by high-resolution, single-molecule imaging in live E. coli cells.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Zach; Weng, Xiaoli; Lagda, Arvin Cesar; Xiao, Jie

    2013-01-01

    DNA looping mediated by transcription factors plays critical roles in prokaryotic gene regulation. The "genetic switch" of bacteriophage λ determines whether a prophage stays incorporated in the E. coli chromosome or enters the lytic cycle of phage propagation and cell lysis. Past studies have shown that long-range DNA interactions between the operator sequences O(R) and O(L) (separated by 2.3 kb), mediated by the λ repressor CI (accession number P03034), play key roles in regulating the λ switch. In vitro, it was demonstrated that DNA segments harboring the operator sequences formed loops in the presence of CI, but CI-mediated DNA looping has not been directly visualized in vivo, hindering a deep understanding of the corresponding dynamics in realistic cellular environments. We report a high-resolution, single-molecule imaging method to probe CI-mediated DNA looping in live E. coli cells. We labeled two DNA loci with differently colored fluorescent fusion proteins and tracked their separations in real time with ∼40 nm accuracy, enabling the first direct analysis of transcription-factor-mediated DNA looping in live cells. Combining looping measurements with measurements of CI expression levels in different operator mutants, we show quantitatively that DNA looping activates transcription and enhances repression. Further, we estimated the upper bound of the rate of conformational change from the unlooped to the looped state, and discuss how chromosome compaction may impact looping kinetics. Our results provide insights into transcription-factor-mediated DNA looping in a variety of operator and CI mutant backgrounds in vivo, and our methodology can be applied to a broad range of questions regarding chromosome conformations in prokaryotes and higher organisms.

  6. DNA topoisomerases regulate R-loop formation during transcription of the rrnB operon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Massé, E; Phoenix, P; Drolet, M

    1997-05-09

    Recent in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested an important role for DNA topoisomerases in regulating R-loop formation during transcription in Escherichia coli. In the present report we present genetic and biochemical evidence strongly suggesting that R-loop formation can occur during transcription of a portion of the rrnB operon and that it is regulated by DNA topoisomerase activity. We found that a multicopy plasmid (pBR322) carrying an heavily transcribed portion of the rrnB operon cannot be transformed in topA mutants unless RNase H is overproduced. Transcription of the 567-base pair HindIII fragment from the rrnB operon allows the extraction of large amount of R-looped plasmid DNAs from a topA mutant, in a manner that depends on the intracellular level of RNase H activity. When DNA gyrase is sufficiently active, hypernegatively supercoiled plasmid DNA is produced if the same DNA fragment is transcribed in a topA mutant. The formation of such topoisomers most likely reflect the presence of extensive R-loops since it is sensitive to the intracellular level of RNase H activity. Finally, the formation of R-looped plasmid DNAs in an in vitro transcription system using phage RNA polymerases is also detected when the 567-base pair HindIII fragment is transcribed on a negatively supercoiled DNA template.

  7. Dynamics of transcription driven by the tetA promoter, one event at a time, in live Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Muthukrishnan, Anantha-Barathi; Kandhavelu, Meenakshisundaram; Lloyd-Price, Jason; Kudasov, Fedor; Chowdhury, Sharif; Yli-Harja, Olli; Ribeiro, Andre S

    2012-09-01

    In Escherichia coli, tetracycline prevents translation. When subject to tetracycline, E. coli express TetA to pump it out by a mechanism that is sensitive, while fairly independent of cellular metabolism. We constructed a target gene, PtetA-mRFP1-96BS, with a 96 MS2-GFP binding site array in a single-copy BAC vector, whose expression is controlled by the tetA promoter. We measured the in vivo kinetics of production of individual RNA molecules of the target gene as a function of inducer concentration and temperature. From the distributions of intervals between transcription events, we find that RNA production by PtetA is a sub-Poissonian process. Next, we infer the number and duration of the prominent sequential steps in transcription initiation by maximum likelihood estimation. Under full induction and at optimal temperature, we observe three major steps. We find that the kinetics of RNA production under the control of PtetA, including number and duration of the steps, varies with induction strength and temperature. The results are supported by a set of logical pairwise Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. We conclude that the expression of TetA is controlled by a sequential mechanism that is robust, whereas sensitive to external signals.

  8. RNomics in Escherichia coli detects new sRNA species and indicates parallel transcriptional output in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Jörg; Bartels, Verena; Tang, Thean Hock; Churakov, Gennady; Slagter-Jäger, Jacoba G.; Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Wagner, E. Gerhart H.

    2003-01-01

    Recent bioinformatics-aided searches have identified many new small RNAs (sRNAs) in the intergenic regions of the bacterium Escherichia coli. Here, a shot-gun cloning approach (RNomics) was used to generate cDNA libraries of small sized RNAs. Besides many of the known sRNAs, we found new species that were not predicted previously. The present work brings the number of sRNAs in E.coli to 62. Experimental transcription start site mapping showed that some sRNAs were encoded from independent genes, while others were processed from mRNA leaders or trailers, indicative of a parallel transcriptional output generating sRNAs co-expressed with mRNAs. Two of these RNAs (SroA and SroG) consist of known (THI and RFN) riboswitch elements. We also show that two recently identified sRNAs (RyeB and SraC/RyeA) interact, resulting in RNase III-dependent cleavage. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first case of two non-coding RNAs interacting by a putative antisense mechanism. In addition, intracellular metabolic stabilities of sRNAs were determined, including ones from previous screens. The wide range of half-lives (<2 to >32 min) indicates that sRNAs cannot generally be assumed to be metabolically stable. The experimental characterization of sRNAs analyzed here suggests that the definition of an sRNA is more complex than previously assumed. PMID:14602901

  9. Enhancing succinic acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli by engineering its global transcription factor, catabolite repressor/activator (Cra)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li-Wen; Xia, Shi-Tao; Wei, Li-Na; Li, Hong-Mei; Yuan, Zhan-Peng; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study was initiated to improve E. coli succinate production by engineering the E. coli global transcription factor, Cra (catabolite repressor/activator). Random mutagenesis libraries were generated through error-prone PCR of cra. After re-screening and mutation site integration, the best mutant strain was Tang1541, which provided a final succinate concentration of 79.8 ± 3.1 g/L: i.e., 22.8% greater than that obtained using an empty vector control. The genes and enzymes involved in phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylation and the glyoxylate pathway were activated, either directly or indirectly, through the mutation of Cra. The parameters for interaction of Cra and DNA indicated that the Cra mutant was bound to aceBAK, thereby activating the genes involved in glyoxylate pathway and further improving succinate production even in the presence of its effector fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP). It suggested that some of the negative effect of FBP on Cra might have been counteracted through the enhanced binding affinity of the Cra mutant for FBP or the change of Cra structure. This work provides useful information about understanding the transcriptional regulation of succinate biosynthesis. PMID:27811970

  10. RNomics in Escherichia coli detects new sRNA species and indicates parallel transcriptional output in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Jörg; Bartels, Verena; Tang, Thean Hock; Churakov, Gennady; Slagter-Jäger, Jacoba G; Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Wagner, E Gerhart H

    2003-11-15

    Recent bioinformatics-aided searches have identified many new small RNAs (sRNAs) in the intergenic regions of the bacterium Escherichia coli. Here, a shot-gun cloning approach (RNomics) was used to generate cDNA libraries of small sized RNAs. Besides many of the known sRNAs, we found new species that were not predicted previously. The present work brings the number of sRNAs in E.coli to 62. Experimental transcription start site mapping showed that some sRNAs were encoded from independent genes, while others were processed from mRNA leaders or trailers, indicative of a parallel transcriptional output generating sRNAs co-expressed with mRNAs. Two of these RNAs (SroA and SroG) consist of known (THI and RFN) riboswitch elements. We also show that two recently identified sRNAs (RyeB and SraC/RyeA) interact, resulting in RNase III-dependent cleavage. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first case of two non-coding RNAs interacting by a putative antisense mechanism. In addition, intracellular metabolic stabilities of sRNAs were determined, including ones from previous screens. The wide range of half-lives (<2 to >32 min) indicates that sRNAs cannot generally be assumed to be metabolically stable. The experimental characterization of sRNAs analyzed here suggests that the definition of an sRNA is more complex than previously assumed.

  11. AutA and AutR, Two Novel Global Transcriptional Regulators, Facilitate Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhuge, Xiangkai; Tang, Fang; Zhu, Hongfei; Mao, Xiang; Wang, Shaohui; Wu, Zongfu; Lu, Chengping; Dai, Jianjun; Fan, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria can change its lifestyle during inhabiting in host niches where they survive and replicate by rapidly altering gene expression pattern to accommodate the new environment. In this study, two novel regulators in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) were identified and designated as AutA and AutR. RT-PCR and β-galactosidase assay results showed that AutA and AutR co-regulated the expression of adhesin UpaB in APEC strain DE205B. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that AutA and AutR could directly bind the upaB promoter DNA. In vitro transcription assay indicated that AutA could activate the upaB transcription, while AutR inhibited the upaB transcription due to directly suppressing the activating effect of AutA on UpaB expression. Transcriptome analysis showed that AutA and AutR coherently affected the expression of hundreds of genes. Our study confirmed that AutA and AutR co-regulated the expression of DE205B K1 capsule and acid resistance systems in E. coli acid fitness island (AFI). Moreover, phenotypic heterogeneity in expression of K1 capsule and acid resistance systems in AFI during host–pathogen interaction was associated with the regulation of AutA and AutR. Collectively speaking, our studies presented that AutA and AutR are involved in APEC adaptive lifestyle change to facilitate its infection. PMID:27113849

  12. Role of hha and ler in transcriptional regulation of the esp operon of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vijay K; Zuerner, Richard L

    2004-11-01

    The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), which includes five major operons (LEE1 through LEE4 and tir), enables enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 to produce attaching and effacing lesions on host cells. Expression of LEE2, LEE3, and tir is positively regulated by ler, a gene located in LEE1. Transcriptional regulation of the esp operon (LEE4), however, is not well defined. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify transcriptional regulators of the esp operon by screening for mutants with increased beta-galactosidase activity in an EHEC O157:H7 strain harboring an esp::lac transcriptional fusion. All mutants with significant increases in beta-galactosidase activity had transposon insertions in hha (hha::Tn). Specific complementation of the hha::Tn mutation with a plasmid-encoded copy of hha reduced beta-galactosidase activity to the level expressed in the parental esp::lac strain. Purified Hha, however, bound poorly to the esp promoter, suggesting that Hha might repress the transcription of a positive regulator of esp. Transposon mutagenesis of a Deltahha esp::lac strain expressing elevated levels of beta-galactosidase resulted in ler mutants with reduced beta-galactosidase activity. Purified Hha bound to the ler promoter with a higher affinity, and complementation of a Deltahha mutation in a Deltahha ler::lac strain repressed beta-galactosidase activity to the level expressed in a ler::lac strain. A positive regulatory role of ler in esp expression was demonstrated by specific binding of Ler to the esp promoter, reduced expression of beta-galactosidase in Deltaler esp::lac strains with and without hha, and severalfold-increased transcription of ler and espA in strains lacking hha. These results indicate that hha-mediated repression of ler causes reduced expression of the esp operon.

  13. Regulatory interactions of Csr components: the RNA binding protein CsrA activates csrB transcription in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gudapaty, S; Suzuki, K; Wang, X; Babitzke, P; Romeo, T

    2001-10-01

    The global regulator CsrA (carbon storage regulator) of Escherichia coli is a small RNA binding protein that represses various metabolic pathways and processes that are induced in the stationary phase of growth, while it activates certain exponential phase functions. Both repression and activation by CsrA involve posttranscriptional mechanisms, in which CsrA binding to mRNA leads to decreased or increased transcript stability, respectively. CsrA also binds to a small untranslated RNA, CsrB, forming a ribonucleoprotein complex, which antagonizes CsrA activity. We have further examined the regulatory interactions of CsrA and CsrB RNA. The 5' end of the CsrB transcript was mapped, and a csrB::cam null mutant was constructed. CsrA protein and CsrB RNA levels were estimated throughout the growth curves of wild-type and isogenic csrA, csrB, rpoS, or csrA rpoS mutant strains. CsrA levels exhibited modest or negligible effects of these mutations. The intracellular concentration of CsrA exceeded the total CsrA-binding capacity of intracellular CsrB RNA. In contrast, CsrB levels were drastically decreased (~10-fold) in the csrA mutants. CsrB transcript stability was unaffected by csrA. The expression of a csrB-lacZ transcriptional fusion containing the region from -242 to +4 bp of the csrB gene was decreased ~20-fold by a csrA::kanR mutation in vivo but was unaffected by CsrA protein in vitro. These results reveal a significant, though most likely indirect, role for CsrA in regulating csrB transcription. Furthermore, our findings suggest that CsrA mediates an intriguing form of autoregulation, whereby its activity, but not its levels, is modulated through effects on an RNA antagonist, CsrB.

  14. The primary σ factor in Escherichia coli can access the transcription elongation complex from solution in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Seth R; Nair, Nikhil U; Wells, Christopher D; Nickels, Bryce E; Hochschild, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The σ subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) confers on the enzyme the ability to initiate promoter-specific transcription. Although σ factors are generally classified as initiation factors, σ can also remain associated with, and modulate the behavior of, RNAP during elongation. Here we establish that the primary σ factor in Escherichia coli, σ70, can function as an elongation factor in vivo by loading directly onto the transcription elongation complex (TEC) in trans. We demonstrate that σ70 can bind in trans to TECs that emanate from either a σ70-dependent promoter or a promoter that is controlled by an alternative σ factor. We further demonstrate that binding of σ70 to the TEC in trans can have a particularly large impact on the dynamics of transcription elongation during stationary phase. Our findings establish a mechanism whereby the primary σ factor can exert direct effects on the composition of the entire transcriptome, not just that portion that is produced under the control of σ70-dependent promoters. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10514.001 PMID:26371553

  15. The post-transcriptional regulatory system CSR controls the balance of metabolic pools in upper glycolysis of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Morin, Manon; Ropers, Delphine; Letisse, Fabien; Laguerre, Sandrine; Portais, Jean-Charles; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel; Enjalbert, Brice

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic control in Escherichia coli is a complex process involving multilevel regulatory systems but the involvement of post-transcriptional regulation is uncertain. The post-transcriptional factor CsrA is stated as being the only regulator essential for the use of glycolytic substrates. A dozen enzymes in the central carbon metabolism (CCM) have been reported as potentially controlled by CsrA, but its impact on the CCM functioning has not been demonstrated. Here, a multiscale analysis was performed in a wild-type strain and its isogenic mutant attenuated for CsrA (including growth parameters, gene expression levels, metabolite pools, abundance of enzymes and fluxes). Data integration and regulation analysis showed a coordinated control of the expression of glycolytic enzymes. This also revealed the imbalance of metabolite pools in the csrA mutant upper glycolysis, before the phosphofructokinase PfkA step. This imbalance is associated with a glucose-phosphate stress. Restoring PfkA activity in the csrA mutant strain suppressed this stress and increased the mutant growth rate on glucose. Thus, the carbon storage regulator system is essential for the effective functioning of the upper glycolysis mainly through its control of PfkA. This work demonstrates the pivotal role of post-transcriptional regulation to shape the carbon metabolism.

  16. Transcriptional Organization and In Vivo Role of the Escherichia coli rsd Gene, Encoding the Regulator of RNA Polymerase Sigma D

    PubMed Central

    Jishage, Miki; Ishihama, Akira

    1999-01-01

    The regulator of sigma D (Rsd) was identified as an RNA polymerase ς70-associated protein in stationary-phase Escherichia coli with the inhibitory activity of ς70-dependent transcription in vitro (M. Jishage and A. Ishihama, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:4953–4958, 1998). Primer extension analysis of rsd mRNA indicated the presence of two promoters, ςS-dependent P1 and ς70-dependent P2 with the gearbox sequence. To get insight into the in vivo role of Rsd, the expression of a reporter gene fused to either the ς70- or ςS-dependent promoter was analyzed in the absence of Rsd or the presence of overexpressed Rsd. In the rsd null mutant, the ς70- and ςS-dependent gene expression was increased or decreased, respectively. On the other hand, the ς70- or ςS-dependent transcription was reduced or enhanced, respectively, after overexpression of Rsd. The repression of the ςS-dependent transcription in the rsd mutant is overcome by increased production of the ςS subunit. Together these observations support the prediction that Rsd is involved in replacement of the RNA polymerase ς subunit from ς70 to ςS during the transition from exponential growth to the stationary phase. PMID:10368152

  17. Alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in the regulation of a new adenomatous polyposis coli transcript.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Marina; Morelli, Gemma; Cesaro, Elena; Duraturo, Francesca; Turano, Mimmo; Rossi, Giovanni B; Delrio, Paolo; Izzo, Paola

    2007-06-15

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a rare precancerous condition caused by mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (apc) gene. Alternative splicing mechanisms involving non-coding and coding exons result in multiple protein variants whose molecular weight ranges between 90 and 300 kDa. We examined the apc 5' coding region and identified nine new transcripts generated from alternative and/or aberrant splicing. Three of these preserve the reading frame and the corresponding proteins include the catalytic domains and the sequences required for beta-catenin regulation. The other six transcripts create a frameshift that produces a premature stop codon; one of these has an additional 77-nucleotide-long exon (1A) between exons 1 and 2 that leads to a frameshift and a premature stop codon in exon 2. Quantitative PCR analysis suggests that the expression of this transcript is regulated during colorectal cancer tumorigenesis and differentiation. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic mRNA surveillance mechanism that detects and degrades mRNAs that have premature termination codons (PTCs). Expression of splicing variants containing PTCs and their subsequent degradation via NMD seems to be a general mechanism of gene regulation. Incubation of Caco2 cell lines with cycloheximide, a chemical inhibitor of translation that is known to inhibit also NMD, indicates that the apc mRNA isoform that includes exon 1A is degraded by NMD, thereby suggesting that regulated unproductive splicing and NMD degradation could modulate APC protein expression.

  18. Temperature-Dependent Model of Multi-step Transcription Initiation in Escherichia coli Based on Live Single-Cell Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd-Price, Jason; Tran, Huy; Ribeiro, Andre S.

    2016-01-01

    Transcription kinetics is limited by its initiation steps, which differ between promoters and with intra- and extracellular conditions. Regulation of these steps allows tuning both the rate and stochasticity of RNA production. We used time-lapse, single-RNA microscopy measurements in live Escherichia coli to study how the rate-limiting steps in initiation of the Plac/ara-1 promoter change with temperature and induction scheme. For this, we compared detailed stochastic models fit to the empirical data in maximum likelihood sense using statistical methods. Using this analysis, we found that temperature affects the rate limiting steps unequally, as nonlinear changes in the closed complex formation suffice to explain the differences in transcription dynamics between conditions. Meanwhile, a similar analysis of the PtetA promoter revealed that it has a different rate limiting step configuration, with temperature regulating different steps. Finally, we used the derived models to explore a possible cause for why the identified steps are preferred as the main cause for behavior modifications with temperature: we find that transcription dynamics is either insensitive or responds reciprocally to changes in the other steps. Our results suggests that different promoters employ different rate limiting step patterns that control not only their rate and variability, but also their sensitivity to environmental changes. PMID:27792724

  19. Reconstructing genome-wide regulatory network of E. coli using transcriptome data and predicted transcription factor activities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gene regulatory networks play essential roles in living organisms to control growth, keep internal metabolism running and respond to external environmental changes. Understanding the connections and the activity levels of regulators is important for the research of gene regulatory networks. While relevance score based algorithms that reconstruct gene regulatory networks from transcriptome data can infer genome-wide gene regulatory networks, they are unfortunately prone to false positive results. Transcription factor activities (TFAs) quantitatively reflect the ability of the transcription factor to regulate target genes. However, classic relevance score based gene regulatory network reconstruction algorithms use models do not include the TFA layer, thus missing a key regulatory element. Results This work integrates TFA prediction algorithms with relevance score based network reconstruction algorithms to reconstruct gene regulatory networks with improved accuracy over classic relevance score based algorithms. This method is called Gene expression and Transcription factor activity based Relevance Network (GTRNetwork). Different combinations of TFA prediction algorithms and relevance score functions have been applied to find the most efficient combination. When the integrated GTRNetwork method was applied to E. coli data, the reconstructed genome-wide gene regulatory network predicted 381 new regulatory links. This reconstructed gene regulatory network including the predicted new regulatory links show promising biological significances. Many of the new links are verified by known TF binding site information, and many other links can be verified from the literature and databases such as EcoCyc. The reconstructed gene regulatory network is applied to a recent transcriptome analysis of E. coli during isobutanol stress. In addition to the 16 significantly changed TFAs detected in the original paper, another 7 significantly changed TFAs have been detected by

  20. Transcriptional Analysis of Essential Genes of the Escherichia coli Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Gene Cluster by Functional Replacement with the Analogous Salmonella typhimurium Gene Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Cronan, John E.

    1998-01-01

    The genes encoding several key fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes (called the fab cluster) are clustered in the order plsX-fabH-fabD-fabG-acpP-fabF at min 24 of the Escherichia coli chromosome. A difficulty in analysis of the fab cluster by the polar allele duplication approach (Y. Zhang and J. E. Cronan, Jr., J. Bacteriol. 178:3614–3620, 1996) is that several of these genes are essential for the growth of E. coli. We overcame this complication by use of the fab gene cluster of Salmonella typhimurium, a close relative of E. coli, to provide functions necessary for growth. The S. typhimurium fab cluster was isolated by complementation of an E. coli fabD mutant and was found to encode proteins with >94% homology to those of E. coli. However, the S. typhimurium sequences cannot recombine with the E. coli sequences required to direct polar allele duplication via homologous recombination. Using this approach, we found that although approximately 60% of the plsX transcripts initiate at promoters located far upstream and include the upstream rpmF ribosomal protein gene, a promoter located upstream of the plsX coding sequence (probably within the upstream gene, rpmF) is sufficient for normal growth. We have also found that the fabG gene is obligatorily cotranscribed with upstream genes. Insertion of a transcription terminator cassette (Ω-Cm cassette) between the fabD and fabG genes of the E. coli chromosome abolished fabG transcription and blocked cell growth, thus providing the first indication that fabG is an essential gene. Insertion of the Ω-Cm cassette between fabH and fabD caused greatly decreased transcription of the fabD and fabG genes and slower cellular growth, indicating that fabD has only a weak promoter(s). PMID:9642179

  1. sRNA-Mediated Control of Transcription Termination in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Sedlyarova, Nadezda; Shamovsky, Ilya; Bharati, Binod K; Epshtein, Vitaly; Chen, Jiandong; Gottesman, Susan; Schroeder, Renée; Nudler, Evgeny

    2016-09-22

    Bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) have been implicated in various aspects of post-transcriptional gene regulation. Here, we demonstrate that sRNAs also act at the level of transcription termination. We use the rpoS gene, which encodes a general stress sigma factor σ(S), as a model system, and show that sRNAs DsrA, ArcZ, and RprA bind the rpoS 5'UTR to suppress premature Rho-dependent transcription termination, both in vitro and in vivo. sRNA-mediated antitermination markedly stimulates transcription of rpoS during the transition to the stationary phase of growth, thereby facilitating a rapid adjustment of bacteria to global metabolic changes. Next generation RNA sequencing and bioinformatic analysis indicate that Rho functions as a global "attenuator" of transcription, acting at the 5'UTR of hundreds of bacterial genes, and that its suppression by sRNAs is a widespread mode of bacterial gene regulation.

  2. The role of the lid element in transcription by E. coli RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Toulokhonov, Innokenti; Landick, Robert

    2006-08-25

    The recently described crystal structures of multi-subunit RNA polymerases (RNAPs) reveal a conserved loop-like feature called the lid. The lid projects from the clamp domain and contacts the flap, thereby enclosing the RNA transcript in RNAP's RNA-exit channel and forming the junction between the exit channel and the main channel, which holds the RNA:DNA hybrid. In the initiating form of bacterial RNAP (holoenzyme containing sigma), the lid interacts with sigma region 3 and encloses an extended linker between sigma region 3 and sigma region 4 in place of the RNA in the exit channel. During initiation, the lid may be important for holding open the transcription bubble and may help displace the RNA from the template DNA strand. To test these ideas, we constructed and characterized a mutant RNAP from which the lid element was deleted. Deltalid RNAP exhibited dramatically reduced activity during initiation from -35-dependent and -35-independent promoters, verifying that the lid is important for stabilizing the open promoter complex during initiation. However, transcript elongation, RNA displacement, and, surprisingly, transcriptional termination all occurred normally in Deltalid RNAP. Importantly, Deltalid RNAP behaved differently from wild-type RNAP when transcribing single-stranded DNA templates where it synthesized long, persistent RNA:DNA hybrids, in contrast to efficient transcriptional arrest by wild-type RNAP.

  3. The PspA Protein of Escherichia coli Is a Negative Regulator of ς54-Dependent Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Jonathan; Jovanovic, Goran; Model, Peter

    2000-01-01

    In Eubacteria, expression of genes transcribed by an RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing the alternate sigma factor ς54 is positively regulated by proteins belonging to the family of enhancer-binding proteins (EBPs). These proteins bind to upstream activation sequences and are required for the initiation of transcription at the ς54-dependent promoters. They are typically inactive until modified in their N-terminal regulatory domain either by specific phosphorylation or by the binding of a small effector molecule. EBPs lacking this domain, such as the PspF activator of the ς54-dependent pspA promoter, are constitutively active. We describe here the in vivo and in vitro properties of the PspA protein of Escherichia coli, which negatively regulates expression of the pspA promoter without binding DNA directly. PMID:10629175

  4. Analysis of the human intestinal epithelial cell transcriptional response to Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Bifidobacterium lactis and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Putaala, H; Barrangou, R; Leyer, G J; Ouwehand, A C; Hansen, E Bech; Romero, D A; Rautonen, N

    2010-09-01

    The complex microbial population residing in the human gastrointestinal tract consists of commensal, potential pathogenic and beneficial species, which are probably perceived differently by the host and consequently could be expected to trigger specific transcriptional responses. Here, we provide a comparative analysis of the global in vitro transcriptional response of human intestinal epithelial cells to Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM™, Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis 420, and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC). Interestingly, L. salivarius Ls-33 DCE-induced changes were overall more similar to those of B. lactis 420 than to L. acidophilus NCFM™, which is consistent with previously observed in vivo immunomodulation properties. In the gene ontology and pathway analyses both specific and unspecific changes were observed. Common to all was the regulation of apoptosis and adipogenesis, and lipid-metabolism related regulation by the probiotics. Specific changes such as regulation of cell-cell adhesion by B. lactis 420, superoxide metabolism by L. salivarius Ls-33, and regulation of MAPK pathway by L. acidophilus NCFM™ were noted. Furthermore, fundamental differences were observed between the pathogenic and probiotic treatments in the Toll-like receptor pathway, especially for adapter molecules with a lowered level of transcriptional activation of MyD88, TRIF, IRAK1 and TRAF6 by probiotics compared to EHEC. The results in this study provide insights into the relationship between probiotics and human intestinal epithelial cells, notably with regard to strain-specific responses, and highlight the differences between transcriptional responses to pathogenic and probiotic bacteria.

  5. Identification of regulatory network topological units coordinating the genome-wide transcriptional response to glucose in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Ríos, Rosa María; Freyre-Gonzalez, Julio A; Resendis, Osbaldo; Collado-Vides, Julio; Saier, Milton; Gosset, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Background Glucose is the preferred carbon and energy source for Escherichia coli. A complex regulatory network coordinates gene expression, transport and enzyme activities in response to the presence of this sugar. To determine the extent of the cellular response to glucose, we applied an approach combining global transcriptome and regulatory network analyses. Results Transcriptome data from isogenic wild type and crp- strains grown in Luria-Bertani medium (LB) or LB + 4 g/L glucose (LB+G) were analyzed to identify differentially transcribed genes. We detected 180 and 200 genes displaying increased and reduced relative transcript levels in the presence of glucose, respectively. The observed expression pattern in LB was consistent with a gluconeogenic metabolic state including active transport and interconversion of small molecules and macromolecules, induction of protease-encoding genes and a partial heat shock response. In LB+G, catabolic repression was detected for transport and metabolic interconversion activities. We also detected an increased capacity for de novo synthesis of nucleotides, amino acids and proteins. Cluster analysis of a subset of genes revealed that CRP mediates catabolite repression for most of the genes displaying reduced transcript levels in LB+G, whereas Fis participates in the upregulation of genes under this condition. An analysis of the regulatory network, in terms of topological functional units, revealed 8 interconnected modules which again exposed the importance of Fis and CRP as directly responsible for the coordinated response of the cell. This effect was also seen with other not extensively connected transcription factors such as FruR and PdhR, which showed a consistent response considering media composition. Conclusion This work allowed the identification of eight interconnected regulatory network modules that includes CRP, Fis and other transcriptional factors that respond directly or indirectly to the presence of glucose. In

  6. Co-expression of a heat shock transcription factor to improve conformational quality of recombinant protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shao-Yen; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Li, Shu-Jyuan; Lee, Wen-Chien

    2014-09-01

    A co-expression system was established in Escherichia coli for enhancing the cellular expression of heat shock transcription factor, sigma 32 (σ(32)). A Shine-Dalgarno sequence and the rpoH gene of E. coli, which encodes σ(32), were cloned into a bacterial plasmid containing a gene fusion encoding a doubly tagged N-acetyl-d-neuraminic acid aldolase (GST-Neu5Ac aldolase-5R). After the IPTG induction, a substantially higher level of sigma 32 was observed up to 3 h in the co-expression cells, but an enhancement in the solubility of target protein was manifest only in the first hour. Nevertheless, the co-expression of sigma 32 led to higher level of Neu5Ac aldolase enzymatic activity in both the soluble and insoluble (inclusion body) fractions. The Neu5Ac aldolase activity of the supernatant from the lysate of cells co-expressing GST-Neu5Ac aldolase-5R and recombinant σ(32) was 3.4-fold higher at 3 h postinduction than that in cells overexpressing GST-Neu5Ac aldolase-5R in the absence of recombinantly expressed σ(32). The results of acrylamide quenching indicated that the conformational quality of the fusion protein was improved by the co-expression of recombinant σ(32). Thus, the increased level of intracellular σ(32) might have created favorable conditions for the proper folding of recombinant proteins through the cooperative effects of chaperones/heat shock proteins expressed by the E. coli host, which resulted in smaller inclusion bodies, improved conformational quality and a higher specific activity of the overexpressed GST-Neu5Ac aldolase-5R protein. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancing E. coli isobutanol tolerance through engineering its global transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP).

    PubMed

    Chong, Huiqing; Geng, Hefang; Zhang, Hongfang; Song, Hao; Huang, Lei; Jiang, Rongrong

    2014-04-01

    The limited isobutanol tolerance of Escherichia coli is a major drawback during fermentative isobutanol production. Different from classical strain engineering approaches, this work was initiated to improve E. coli isobutanol tolerance from its transcriptional level by engineering its global transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP). Random mutagenesis libraries were generated by error-prone PCR of crp, and the libraries were subjected to isobutanol stress for selection. Variant IB2 (S179P, H199R) was isolated and exhibited much better growth (0.18 h(-1) ) than the control (0.05 h(-1) ) in 1.2% (v/v) isobutanol (9.6 g/L). Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis revealed that 58 and 308 genes in IB2 had differential expression (>2-fold, p < 0.05) in the absence and presence of 1% (v/v) isobutanol, respectively. When challenged with isobutanol, genes related to acid resistance (gadABCE, hdeABD), nitrate reduction (narUZYWV), flagella and fimbrial activity (lfhA, yehB, ycgR, fimCDF), and sulfate reduction and transportation (cysIJH, cysC, cysN) were the major functional groups that were up-regulated, whereas most of the down-regulated genes were enzyme (tnaA) and transporters (proVWX, manXYZ). As demonstrated by single-gene knockout experiments, gadX, nirB, rhaS, hdeB, and ybaS were found associated with strain isobutanol resistance. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in IB2 was only half of that of the control when facing stress, indicating that IB2 can withstand toxic isobutanol much better than the control. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Resistance to topoisomerase cleavage complex induced lethality in Escherichia coli via titration of transcription regulators PurR and FNR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Accumulation of gyrase cleavage complex in Escherichia coli from the action of quinolone antibiotics induces an oxidative damage cell death pathway. The oxidative cell death pathway has also been shown to be involved in the lethality following accumulation of cleavage complex formed by bacterial topoisomerase I with mutations that result in defective DNA religation. Methods A high copy number plasmid clone spanning the upp-purMN region was isolated from screening of an E. coli genomic library and analyzed for conferring increased survival rates following accumulation of mutant topoisomerase I proteins as well as treatment with the gyrase inhibitor norfloxacin. Results Analysis of the intergenic region upstream of purM demonstrated a novel mechanism of resistance to the covalent protein-DNA cleavage complex through titration of the cellular transcription regulators FNR and PurR responsible for oxygen sensing and repression of purine nucleotide synthesis respectively. Addition of adenine to defined growth medium had similar protective effect for survival following accumulation of topoisomerase cleavage complex, suggesting that increase in purine level can protect against cell death. Conclusions Perturbation of the global regulator FNR and PurR functions as well as increase in purine nucleotide availability could affect the oxidative damage cell death pathway initiated by topoisomerase cleavage complex. PMID:22152010

  9. Preparation and testing of E. coli S30 in vitro transcription translation extracts.

    PubMed

    Zawada, James F

    2012-01-01

    Crude cell-free extracts are useful tools for investigating biochemical phenomena and exploiting complex enzymatic processes such as protein synthesis. Extracts derived from E. coli have been used for over 50 years to study the mechanism of protein synthesis. In addition, these S30 extracts are commonly used as a laboratory tool for protein production. The preparation of S30 extract has been streamlined over the years and now it is a relatively simple process. The procedure described here includes some suggestions for extracts to be used for ribosome display.

  10. Rho-independent transcription terminators inhibit RNase P processing of the secG leuU and metT tRNA polycistronic transcripts in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Bijoy K.; Kushner, Sidney R.

    2008-01-01

    The widely accepted model for the processing of tRNAs in Escherichia coli involves essential initial cleavages by RNase E within polycistronic transcripts to generate pre-tRNAs that subsequently become substrates for RNase P. However, recently we identified two polycistronic tRNA transcripts whose endonucleolytic processing was solely dependent on RNase P. Here we show that the processing of the secG leuU and metT leuW glnU glnW metU glnV glnX polycistronic transcripts takes place through a different type of maturation pathway. Specifically, RNase P separates the tRNA units within each operon following the endonucleolytic removal of the distal Rho-independent transcription terminator, primarily by RNase E. Failure to remove the Rho-independent transcription terminator inhibits RNase P processing of both transcripts leading to a decrease in mature tRNA levels and dramatically increased levels of full-length transcripts in an RNase E deletion strain. Furthermore, we show for the first time that RNase G also removes the Rho-independent transcription terminator associated with the secG leuU operon. Our data also demonstrate that the Rne-1 protein retains significant activity on tRNA substrates at the non-permissive temperature. Taken together it is clear that there are multiple pathways involved in the maturation of tRNAs in E. coli. PMID:18033800

  11. Transcriptional regulation by BglJ–RcsB, a pleiotropic heteromeric activator in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Salscheider, Silja Lucia; Jahn, Andreas; Schnetz, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial Rcs phosphorelay signals perturbations of the bacterial cell envelope to its response regulator RcsB, which regulates transcription of multiple loci related to motility, biofilm formation and various stress responses. RcsB is unique, as its set of target loci is modulated by interaction with auxiliary regulators including BglJ. The BglJ–RcsB heteromer is known to activate the HNS repressed leuO and bgl loci independent of RcsB phosphorylation. Here, we show that BglJ–RcsB activates the promoters of 10 additional loci (chiA, molR, sfsB, yecT, yqhG, ygiZ, yidL, ykiA, ynbA and ynjI). Furthermore, we mapped the BglJ–RcsB binding site at seven loci and propose a consensus sequence motif. The data suggest that activation by BglJ–RcsB is DNA phasing dependent at some loci, a feature reminiscent of canonical transcriptional activators, while at other loci BglJ–RcsB activation may be indirect by inhibition of HNS-mediated repression. In addition, we show that BglJ–RcsB activates transcription of bgl synergistically with CRP where it shifts the transcription start by 20 bp from a position typical for class I CRP-dependent promoters to a position typical for class II CRP-dependent promoters. Thus, BglJ–RcsB is a pleiotropic transcriptional activator that coordinates regulation with global regulators including CRP, LeuO and HNS. PMID:24335284

  12. Quorum sensing transcriptional regulator QseA is essential for the expression of multiple virulence regulons of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction and Objectives: QseA is one of several transcriptional regulators that regulates the virulence gene expression in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 through quorum sensing. QseA has been shown to regulate the expression of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), non-LEE...

  13. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 requires quorum sensing transcriptional regulators QseA and SdiA for colonization and persistence in the bovine intestinal tract

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    QseA and SdiA are two of several transcriptional regulators that regulate virulence gene expression of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 via quorum sensing (QS). QseA regulates the expression of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). LEE encodes for a type III secretion (T3S) sys...

  14. Quorum sensing transcriptional regulator QseA is essential for the expression of multiple virulence regulons of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction and Objectives: QseA is one of several transcriptional regulators that regulates the virulence gene expression in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 through quorum sensing. QseA has been shown to regulate the expression of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), non-LEE...

  15. The MazF-regulon: a toolbox for the post-transcriptional stress response in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sauert, Martina; Wolfinger, Michael T; Vesper, Oliver; Müller, Christian; Byrgazov, Konstantin; Moll, Isabella

    2016-08-19

    Flexible adaptation to environmental stress is vital for bacteria. An energy-efficient post-transcriptional stress response mechanism in Escherichia coli is governed by the toxin MazF. After stress-induced activation the endoribonuclease MazF processes a distinct subset of transcripts as well as the 16S ribosomal RNA in the context of mature ribosomes. As these 'stress-ribosomes' are specific for the MazF-processed mRNAs, the translational program is changed. To identify this 'MazF-regulon' we employed Poly-seq (polysome fractionation coupled with RNA-seq analysis) and analyzed alterations introduced into the transcriptome and translatome after mazF overexpression. Unexpectedly, our results reveal that the corresponding protein products are involved in all cellular processes and do not particularly contribute to the general stress response. Moreover, our findings suggest that translational reprogramming serves as a fast-track reaction to harsh stress and highlight the so far underestimated significance of selective translation as a global regulatory mechanism in gene expression. Considering the reported implication of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems in persistence, our results indicate that MazF acts as a prime effector during harsh stress that potentially introduces translational heterogeneity within a bacterial population thereby stimulating persister cell formation. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. The MazF-regulon: a toolbox for the post-transcriptional stress response in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sauert, Martina; Wolfinger, Michael T.; Vesper, Oliver; Müller, Christian; Byrgazov, Konstantin; Moll, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Flexible adaptation to environmental stress is vital for bacteria. An energy-efficient post-transcriptional stress response mechanism in Escherichia coli is governed by the toxin MazF. After stress-induced activation the endoribonuclease MazF processes a distinct subset of transcripts as well as the 16S ribosomal RNA in the context of mature ribosomes. As these ‘stress-ribosomes’ are specific for the MazF-processed mRNAs, the translational program is changed. To identify this ‘MazF-regulon’ we employed Poly-seq (polysome fractionation coupled with RNA-seq analysis) and analyzed alterations introduced into the transcriptome and translatome after mazF overexpression. Unexpectedly, our results reveal that the corresponding protein products are involved in all cellular processes and do not particularly contribute to the general stress response. Moreover, our findings suggest that translational reprogramming serves as a fast-track reaction to harsh stress and highlight the so far underestimated significance of selective translation as a global regulatory mechanism in gene expression. Considering the reported implication of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems in persistence, our results indicate that MazF acts as a prime effector during harsh stress that potentially introduces translational heterogeneity within a bacterial population thereby stimulating persister cell formation. PMID:26908653

  17. The ATP hydrolyzing transcription activator phage shock protein F of Escherichia coli: identifying a surface that binds sigma 54.

    PubMed

    Bordes, Patricia; Wigneshweraraj, Siva R; Schumacher, Jörg; Zhang, Xiaodong; Chaney, Matthew; Buck, Martin

    2003-03-04

    Members of the protein family called ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA(+)) play a crucial role in transforming chemical energy into biological events. AAA(+) proteins are complex molecular machines and typically form ring-shaped oligomeric complexes that are crucial for ATPase activity and mechanism of action. The Escherichia coli transcription activator phage shock protein F (PspF) is an AAA(+) mechanochemical enzyme that functions to sense and relay the energy derived from nucleoside triphosphate hydrolysis to catalyze transcription by the sigma(54)-RNA polymerase. Closed promoter complexes formed by the sigma(54)-RNA polymerase are substrates for the action of PspF. By using a protein fragmentation approach, we identify here at least one sigma(54)-binding surface in the PspF AAA(+) domain. Results suggest that ATP hydrolysis by PspF is coupled to the exposure of at least one sigma(54)-binding surface. This nucleotide hydrolysis-dependent presentation of a substrate binding surface can explain why complexes that form between sigma(54) and PspF are transient and could be part of a mechanism used generally by other AAA(+) proteins to regulate activity.

  18. RegulonDB (version 3.2): transcriptional regulation and operon organization in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Salgado, H; Santos-Zavaleta, A; Gama-Castro, S; Millán-Zárate, D; Díaz-Peredo, E; Sánchez-Solano, F; Pérez-Rueda, E; Bonavides-Martínez, C; Collado-Vides, J

    2001-01-01

    RegulonDB is a database on mechanisms of transcription regulation and operon organization in Escherichia coli K-12. The current version has considerably increased numbers of regulatory elements such as promoters, binding sites and terminators. The complete repertoire of known and predicted DNA-binding transcriptional regulators can be considered to be included in this version. The database now distinguishes different allosteric conformations of regulatory proteins indicating the one active in binding and regulating the different promoters. A new set of operon predictions has been incorporated. The relational design has been modified accordingly. Furthermore, a major improvement is a graphic display enabling browsing of the database with a Java-based graphic user interface with three zoom-levels connected to properties of each chromosomal element. The purpose of these modifications is to make RegulonDB a useful tool and control set for transcriptome experiments. RegulonDB can be accessed on the web at the URL: http://www.cifn.unam.mx/Computational_Biology/++ +regulondb/

  19. Global transcriptional regulation by H-NS and its biological influence on the virulence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wan, Baoshan; Zhang, Qiufen; Tao, Jing; Zhou, Aiping; Yao, Yu-Feng; Ni, Jinjing

    2016-08-22

    As a global transcriptional regulator, H-NS, the histone-like nucleoid-associated DNA-binding and bridging protein, plays a wide range of biological roles in bacteria. In order to determine the role of H-NS in regulating gene transcription and further find out the biological significance of this protein in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), we conducted transcriptome analysis of hns mutant by RNA sequencing. A total of 983 genes were identified to be regulated by H-NS in EHEC. 213 and 770 genes were down-regulated and up-regulated in the deletion mutant of hns, respectively. Interestingly, 34 of 97 genes on virulence plasmid pO157 were down-regulated by H-NS. Although the deletion mutant of hns showed a decreased survival rate in macrophage compared with the wild type strain, it exhibited the higher ability to colonize mice gut and became more virulent to BALB/c mice. The BALB/c mice infected with the deletion mutant of hns showed a lower survival rate, and a higher bacterial burden in the gut, compared with those infected with wild type strain, especially when the gut microbiota was not disturbed by antibiotic administration. These findings suggest that H-NS plays an important role in virulence of EHEC by interacting with host gut microbiota.

  20. Insights into the Mechanism of Initial Transcription in Escherichia coli RNA Polymerase*

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Satamita; Martin, Craig T.

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that during initial transcription of the first 8–10 bases of RNA, complexes are relatively unstable, leading to the release of short abortive RNA transcripts. An early “stressed intermediate” model led to a more specific mechanistic model proposing “scrunching” stress as the basis for the instability. Recent studies in the single subunit T7 RNA polymerase have argued against scrunching as the energetic driving force and instead argue for a model in which pushing of the RNA-DNA hybrid against a protein element associated with promoter binding, while likely driving promoter release, reciprocally leads to instability of the hybrid. In this study, we test these models in the structurally unrelated multisubunit bacterial RNA polymerase. Via the targeted introduction of mismatches and nicks in the DNA, we demonstrate that neither downstream bubble collapse nor compaction/scrunching of either the single-stranded template or nontemplate strands is a major force driving abortive instability (although collapse from the downstream end of the bubble does contribute significantly to the instability of artificially halted complexes). In contrast, pushing of the hybrid against a mobile protein element (σ3.2 in the bacterial enzyme) results in substantially increased abortive instability and is likely the primary energetic contributor to abortive cycling. The results suggest that abortive instability is a by-product of the mechanistic need to couple the energy of nucleotide addition (RNA chain growth) to driving the timed release of promoter contacts during initial transcription. PMID:24047893

  1. Transcriptional Control of Dual Transporters Involved in α-Ketoglutarate Utilization Reveals Their Distinct Roles in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wentong; Cai, Xuwang; Yang, Yongwu; Yan, Shigan; Zhang, Haibin

    2017-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are the primary causative agents of urinary tract infections. Some UPEC isolates are able to infect renal proximal tubule cells, and can potentially cause pyelonephritis. We have previously shown that to fulfill their physiological roles renal proximal tubule cells accumulate high concentrations of α-ketoglutarate (KG) and that gene cluster c5032–c5039 contribute to anaerobic utilization of KG by UPEC str. CFT073, thereby promoting its in vivo fitness. Given the importance of utilizing KG for UPEC, this study is designed to investigate the roles of two transporters KgtP and C5038 in KG utilization, their transcriptional regulation, and their contributions to UPEC fitness in vivo. Our phylogenetic analyses support that kgtP is a widely conserved locus in commensal and pathogenic E. coli, while UPEC-associated c5038 was acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Global anaerobic transcriptional regulators Fumarate and nitrate reduction (FNR) and ArcA induced c5038 expression in anaerobiosis, and C5038 played a major role in anaerobic growth on KG. KgtP was required for aerobic growth on KG, and its expression was repressed by FNR and ArcA under anaerobic conditions. Analyses of FNR and ArcA binding sites and results of EMS assays suggest that FNR and ArcA likely inhibit kgtP expression through binding to the –35 region of kgtP promoter and occluding the occupancy of RNA polymerases. Gene c5038 can be specifically induced by KG, whereas the expression of kgtP does not respond to KG, yet can be stimulated during growth on glycerol. In addition, c5038 and kgtP expression were further shown to be controlled by different alternative sigma factors RpoN and RpoS, respectively. Furthermore, dual-strain competition assays in a murine model showed that c5038 mutant but not kgtP mutant was outcompeted by the wild-type strain during the colonization of murine bladders and kidneys, highlighting the importance of C5038 under in vivo

  2. Metabolic transcription analysis of engineered Escherichia coli strains that overproduce L-phenylalanine

    PubMed Central

    Báez-Viveros, José Luis; Flores, Noemí; Juárez, Katy; Castillo-España, Patricia; Bolivar, Francisco; Gosset, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Background The rational design of L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) overproducing microorganisms has been successfully achieved by combining different genetic strategies such as inactivation of the phosphoenolpyruvate: phosphotransferase transport system (PTS) and overexpression of key genes (DAHP synthase, transketolase and chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase), reaching yields of 0.33 (g-Phe/g-Glc), which correspond to 60% of theoretical maximum. Although genetic modifications introduced into the cell for the generation of overproducing organisms are specifically targeted to a particular pathway, these can trigger unexpected transcriptional responses of several genes. In the current work, metabolic transcription analysis (MTA) of both L-Phe overproducing and non-engineered strains using Real-Time PCR was performed, allowing the detection of transcriptional responses to PTS deletion and plasmid presence of genes related to central carbon metabolism. This MTA included 86 genes encoding enzymes of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentoses phosphate, tricarboxylic acid cycle, fermentative and aromatic amino acid pathways. In addition, 30 genes encoding regulatory proteins and transporters for aromatic compounds and carbohydrates were also analyzed. Results MTA revealed that a set of genes encoding carbohydrate transporters (galP, mglB), gluconeogenic (ppsA, pckA) and fermentative enzymes (ldhA) were significantly induced, while some others were down-regulated such as ppc, pflB, pta and ackA, as a consequence of PTS inactivation. One of the most relevant findings was the coordinated up-regulation of several genes that are exclusively gluconeogenic (fbp, ppsA, pckA, maeB, sfcA, and glyoxylate shunt) in the best PTS- L-Phe overproducing strain (PB12-ev2). Furthermore, it was noticeable that most of the TCA genes showed a strong up-regulation in the presence of multicopy plasmids by an unknown mechanism. A group of genes exhibited transcriptional responses to both PTS inactivation

  3. Evidence that rifampicin can stimulate readthrough of transcriptional terminators in Escherichia coli, including the attenuator of the rpoBC operon.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, A J; Ma, J C; Howe, K M; Garner, I; Hayward, R S

    1982-01-01

    The genes encoding the beta and beta' subunits of RNA polymerase in E.coli, rpoB and rpoC, lie downstream of at least two ribosomal protein genes, rplJ (encoding L10) and rplL (L7/12), in a common operon. All four genes are served by promoter PL10, and an attenuator (partial terminator) of transcription, t1, lies between rplJL and rpoBC. Treatment of E.coli with rifampicin, under conditions producing partial inhibition of general RNA synthesis, can stimulate transcription of rpoBC. We have investigated the locus of this effect by fusing PL10 and t1 separately to galK, in suitable plasmids. Our studies of these fusions, and similar fusions involving transcriptional terminators derived from coliphage T7, indicate that low concentrations of rifampicin cause increased readthrough of several different transcriptional terminators in E.coli in vivo, including rpo t1. We discuss whether or not this unspecific mechanism is solely responsible for the observed stimulatory effects of the drug on rpoBC transcription. PMID:6296775

  4. Activation of the Escherichia coli marA/soxS/rob regulon in response to transcriptional activator concentration.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robert G; Bartlett, Emily S; Rosner, Judah L; Wall, Michael E

    2008-07-04

    The paralogous transcriptional activators MarA, SoxS, and Rob activate a common set of promoters, the marA/soxS/rob regulon of Escherichia coli, by binding a cognate site (marbox) upstream of each promoter. The extent of activation varies from one promoter to another and is only poorly correlated with the in vitro affinity of the activator for the specific marbox. Here, we examine the dependence of promoter activation on the level of activator in vivo by manipulating the steady-state concentrations of MarA and SoxS in Lon protease mutants and by measuring promoter activation using lacZ transcriptional fusions. We found that: (i) the MarA concentrations needed for half-maximal stimulation varied by at least 19-fold among the 10 promoters tested; (ii) most marboxes were not saturated when there were 24,000 molecules of MarA per cell; (iii) the correlation between the MarA concentration needed for half-maximal promoter activity in vivo and marbox binding affinity in vitro was poor; and (iv) the two activators differed in their promoter activation profiles. The marRAB and sodA promoters could both be saturated by MarA and SoxS in vivo. However, saturation by MarA resulted in greater marRAB and lesser sodA transcription than did saturation by SoxS, implying that the two activators interact with RNA polymerase in different ways at the different promoters. Thus, the concentration and nature of activator determine which regulon promoters are activated, as well as the extent of their activation.

  5. Transcriptional organization of the dnaN and recF genes of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Armengod, M E; García-Sogo, M; Lambíes, E

    1988-08-25

    The dnaN gene of Escherichia coli determines the beta subunit of DNA polymerase III, a multisubunit enzyme responsible for most of the replicative DNA synthesis. The dnaN gene maps between the dnaA and recF genes. We have characterized the regulatory region of the dnaN gene by screening DNA restriction fragments for promoter activity, S1 mapping of mRNAs, deletion analysis, and in vivo dnaN complementation tests. There are at least three dnaN promoters located in the second half of the dnaA coding region. The one closest to the dnaN structural gene is the weakest, but it provides sufficient dnaN expression for complementation when the gene is present on a multicopy plasmid. Deletion of sequences needed for initiation of dnaN translation or introduction of nonsense codons into dnaN causes reduction of recF expression. However, a deletion inactivating dnaN without changing the reading frame of the gene does not affect expression of the recF gene. These results indicate that the dnaN and recF genes are organized in an operon. We have previously shown the presence of termination signals within the dnaN coding region (Armengod, M.E., and Lambíes, E. (1986) Gene (Amst.) 43, 183-196). Therefore, we propose that the polarity produced by nonsense mutations in dnaN is primarily transcriptional. The uncoupling of transcription and translation of the dnaN gene (when translation is interrupted by premature nonsense codons or by other mechanisms) probably results in transcription termination at termination signals in dnaN.

  6. Regulatory Interactions of Csr Components: the RNA Binding Protein CsrA Activates csrB Transcription in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gudapaty, Seshagirirao; Suzuki, Kazushi; Wang, Xin; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2001-01-01

    The global regulator CsrA (carbon storage regulator) of Escherichia coli is a small RNA binding protein that represses various metabolic pathways and processes that are induced in the stationary phase of growth, while it activates certain exponential phase functions. Both repression and activation by CsrA involve posttranscriptional mechanisms, in which CsrA binding to mRNA leads to decreased or increased transcript stability, respectively. CsrA also binds to a small untranslated RNA, CsrB, forming a ribonucleoprotein complex, which antagonizes CsrA activity. We have further examined the regulatory interactions of CsrA and CsrB RNA. The 5′ end of the CsrB transcript was mapped, and a csrB::cam null mutant was constructed. CsrA protein and CsrB RNA levels were estimated throughout the growth curves of wild-type and isogenic csrA, csrB, rpoS, or csrA rpoS mutant strains. CsrA levels exhibited modest or negligible effects of these mutations. The intracellular concentration of CsrA exceeded the total CsrA-binding capacity of intracellular CsrB RNA. In contrast, CsrB levels were drastically decreased (∼10-fold) in the csrA mutants. CsrB transcript stability was unaffected by csrA. The expression of a csrB-lacZ transcriptional fusion containing the region from −242 to +4 bp of the csrB gene was decreased ∼20-fold by a csrA::kanR mutation in vivo but was unaffected by CsrA protein in vitro. These results reveal a significant, though most likely indirect, role for CsrA in regulating csrB transcription. Furthermore, our findings suggest that CsrA mediates an intriguing form of autoregulation, whereby its activity, but not its levels, is modulated through effects on an RNA antagonist, CsrB. PMID:11567002

  7. Stimulation of the lambda pR promoter by Escherichia coli SeqA protein requires downstream GATC sequences and involves late stages of transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Łyzeń, Robert; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz; Wegrzyn, Alicja; Szalewska-Pałasz, Agnieszka

    2006-10-01

    Escherichia coli SeqA protein is a major negative regulator of chromosomal DNA replication acting by sequestration, and thus inactivation, of newly formed oriC regions. However, other activities of this protein have been discovered recently, one of which is regulation of transcription. SeqA has been demonstrated to be a specific transcription factor acting at bacteriophage lambda promoters p(I), p(aQ) and p(R). While SeqA-mediated stimulation of p(I) and p(aQ) occurs by facilitating functions of another transcription activator protein, cII, a mechanism for stimulation of p(R) remains largely unknown. Here, it has been demonstrated that two GATC sequences, located 82 and 105 bp downstream of the p(R) transcription start site, are necessary for this stimulation both in vivo and in vitro. SeqA-mediated activation of p(R) was as effective on a linear DNA template as on a supercoiled one, indicating that alterations in DNA topology are not likely to facilitate the SeqA effect. In vitro transcription analysis demonstrated that the most important regulatory effect of SeqA in p(R) transcription occurs after open complex formation, namely during promoter clearance. SeqA did not influence the appearance and level of abortive transcripts or the pausing during transcription elongation. Interestingly, SeqA is one of few known prokaryotic transcription factors which bind downstream of the regulated promoter and still act as transcription activators.

  8. Hierarchical Post-transcriptional Regulation of Colicin E2 Expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Opitz, Madeleine; Frey, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression plays a crucial role in many bacterial pathways. In particular, the translation of mRNA can be regulated by trans-acting, small, non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) or mRNA-binding proteins, each of which has been successfully treated theoretically using two-component models. An important system that includes a combination of these modes of post-transcriptional regulation is the Colicin E2 system. DNA damage, by triggering the SOS response, leads to the heterogeneous expression of the Colicin E2 operon including the cea gene encoding the toxin colicin E2, and the cel gene that codes for the induction of cell lysis and release of colicin. Although previous studies have uncovered the system’s basic regulatory interactions, its dynamical behavior is still unknown. Here, we develop a simple, yet comprehensive, mathematical model of the colicin E2 regulatory network, and study its dynamics. Its post-transcriptional regulation can be reduced to three hierarchically ordered components: the mRNA including the cel gene, the mRNA-binding protein CsrA, and an effective sRNA that regulates CsrA. We demonstrate that the stationary state of this system exhibits a pronounced threshold in the abundance of free mRNA. As post-transcriptional regulation is known to be noisy, we performed a detailed stochastic analysis, and found fluctuations to be largest at production rates close to the threshold. The magnitude of fluctuations can be tuned by the rate of production of the sRNA. To study the dynamics in response to an SOS signal, we incorporated the LexA-RecA SOS response network into our model. We found that CsrA regulation filtered out short-lived activation peaks and caused a delay in lysis gene expression for prolonged SOS signals, which is also seen in experiments. Moreover, we showed that a stochastic SOS signal creates a broad lysis time distribution. Our model thus theoretically describes Colicin E2 expression dynamics in detail and

  9. Internal promoter in the ilvGEDA transcription unit of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, D H; Wallen, J W; Traub, L; Gray, J E; Kung, H F

    1985-01-01

    Segments of the ilvGEDA transcription unit have been cloned into the promoter tester plasmid pMC81. This vector contains cloning sites situated upstream of the lacZ gene coding for beta-galactosidase. Using this method we have quantitatively evaluated in vivo (i) the activity of previously described promoter, pG, preceding ilvG; (ii) the relative activity of pE promoter, previously postulated to be located between ilvG and ilvE; and (iii) the effect of the frameshift site present in the wild-type ilvG gene by comparison with mutant derivatives lacking this frameshift site. Isogenic derivatives of strain MC1000 were constructed by transduction with phage P1 grown on rho-120, delta(ilvGEDA), delta(ilvED), and ilvA538 hosts. The potential effects of these alleles that were previously postulated to affect ilvGEDA expression were assessed in vivo by monitoring beta-galactosidase production directed by ilv DNA fragments. Cloned ilv segments were also tested for activity in vitro with a DNA-directed coupled transcription and translation system. The production in vitro of ilv-directed ilv gene expression and beta-galactosidase expression with ara-ilv-lac fusions paralleled the in vivo activity. Images PMID:3917997

  10. Timing of Gene Transcription in the Galactose Utilization System of Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Péter; Hunziker, Alexander; Erdőssy, János; Krishna, Sandeep; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2010-01-01

    In the natural environment, bacterial cells have to adjust their metabolism to alterations in the availability of food sources. The order and timing of gene expression are crucial in these situations to produce an appropriate response. We used the galactose regulation in Escherichia coli as a model system for understanding how cells integrate information about food availability and cAMP levels to adjust the timing and intensity of gene expression. We simulated the feast-famine cycle of bacterial growth by diluting stationary phase cells in fresh medium containing galactose as the sole carbon source. We followed the activities of six promoters of the galactose system as cells grew on and ran out of galactose. We found that the cell responds to a decreasing external galactose level by increasing the internal galactose level, which is achieved by limiting galactose metabolism and increasing the expression of transporters. We show that the cell alters gene expression based primarily on the current state of the cell and not on monitoring the level of extracellular galactose in real time. Some decisions have longer term effects; therefore, the current state does subtly encode the history of food availability. In summary, our measurements of timing of gene expression in the galactose system suggest that the system has evolved to respond to environments where future galactose levels are unpredictable rather than regular feast and famine cycles. PMID:20923764

  11. Genome-wide transcriptional responses of Escherichia coli K-12 to continuous osmotic and heat stresses.

    PubMed

    Gunasekera, Thusitha S; Csonka, Laszlo N; Paliy, Oleg

    2008-05-01

    Osmotic stress is known to increase the thermotolerance and oxidative-stress resistance of bacteria by a mechanism that is not adequately understood. We probed the cross-regulation of continuous osmotic and heat stress responses by characterizing the effects of external osmolarity (0.3 M versus 0.0 M NaCl) and temperature (43 degrees C versus 30 degrees C) on the transcriptome of Escherichia coli K-12. Our most important discovery was that a number of genes in the SoxRS and OxyR oxidative-stress regulons were up-regulated by high osmolarity, high temperature, or a combination of both stresses. This result can explain the previously noted cross-protection of osmotic stress against oxidative and heat stresses. Most of the genes shown in previous studies to be induced during the early phase of adaptation to hyperosmotic shock were found to be also overexpressed under continuous osmotic stress. However, there was a poorer overlap between the heat shock genes that are induced transiently after high temperature shifts and the genes that we found to be chronically up-regulated at 43 degrees C. Supplementation of the high-osmolarity medium with the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, which reduces the cytoplasmic K(+) pool, did not lead to a universal reduction in the expression of osmotically induced genes. This finding does not support the hypothesis that K(+) is the central osmoregulatory signal in Enterobacteriaceae.

  12. Molybdenum-sensitive transcriptional regulation of the chlD locus of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.B.; Scott, D.J.; Amy, N.K.

    1987-05-01

    The chlD gene in Escherichia coli is required for the incorporation and utilization of molybdenum when the cells are grown with low concentrations of molybdate. The authors constructed chlD-lac operon fusions and measured expressions of the fusion, Mo cofactor, and nitrate reductase activities under a variety of growth conditions. The chlD-lac fusion was highly expressed when cells were grown with less than 10 nm molybdate. Increasing concentrations of molybdate caused loss of activity, with less than 5% of the activity remaining at 500 nM molybdate; when tungstate replaced molybdate, it had an identical affect on chlD expression. Expression of chlD-lac was increased in cells grown with nitrate. Strains with chlD-lac plus an additional mutation in a chl or nar gene were constructed to test whether the regulation of chlD-lac required the concerted action of gene products involved with Mo cofactor or nitrate reductase synthesis. Mutations in narL prevented the increase in activity in response to nitrate; mutations in chlB, narC, or narI resulted in partial constitutive expression of the chlD-lac fusion: the fusion was regulated by molybdate, but it no longer required the presence of nitrate for maximal activity. Mutations in chlA, chlE, or chlG which affect Mo cofactor metabolism, did not affect the expression of chlD-lac.

  13. Effects of select histidine to cysteine mutations on transcriptional regulation by Escherichia coli RcnR.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Khadine A; Hu, Heidi Q; Chivers, Peter T; Maroney, Michael J

    2013-01-08

    The RcnR metalloregulator represses the transcription of the Co(II) and Ni(II) exporter, RcnAB. Previous studies have shown that Co(II) and Ni(II) bind to RcnR in six-coordinate sites, resulting in derepression. Here, the roles of His60, His64, and His67 in specific metal recognition are examined. His60 and His64 correspond to ligands that are important for Cu(I) binding in the homologous Cu(I)-responsive metalloregulator, CsoR. These residues are known to be functionally important in RcnR transcriptional regulation. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to examine the structure of bound cognate and noncognate metal ions, and lacZ reporter assays were used to assess the transcription of rcnA in response to metal binding in the three His → Cys mutations, H60C, H64C, and H67C. These studies confirm that both Ni(II) and Co(II) use His64 as a ligand. H64C-RcnR is also the only known mutant that retains a Co(II) response while eliminating the response to Ni(II) binding. XAS data indicate that His60 and His67 are potential Co(II) ligands. The effects of the mutations of His60, His64, and His67 on the structures of the noncognate metal ions [Zn(II) and Cu(I)] reveal that these residues have distinctive roles in binding noncognate metals. None of the His → Cys mutants in RcnR confer any response to Cu(I) binding, including H64C-RcnR, where the ligands involved in Cu(I) binding in CsoR are present. These data indicate that while the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of CsoR and RcnR are quite similar, small changes in primary sequence reveal that the specific mechanisms involved in metal recognition are quite different.

  14. In vitro base modification of Escherichia coli glutamate 2 transfer-RNA and phenylalanine transfer-RNA gene transcripts

    SciTech Connect

    Shahan, M.N.

    1989-01-01

    Plasmids were constructed that contain an E. Coli tRNA{sub 2}{sup Glu} or tRNA{sup Phe} gene in a system transcribable by T7 or SP6 RNA polymerase. Selectively {sup 32}P-labeled transcripts of these plasmids were used to study tRNA base modification in vitro in crude extracts by nearest neighbor analysis. The synthesis of 5-methyl-aminomethyl-2-thiouridine (mnm{sup 5}s{sup 2}U) was studied. Complete synthesis of mnm{sup 5}s{sup 2}2U is not observed. Instead, 2-thiouridine (s{sup 2}U) is synthesized. Synthesis requires ATP, cysteine, Mg{sup +}, and monovalent cation concentrations below 50 mM. The reaction has a pH optimum above 7.0. Sulfide ion will substitute for cysteine in the reaction but sulfate, sulfite, methionine, homocysteine, and {beta}-mercaptopyruvate will not. Extracts from E. coli strains carrying either the asuE or asuF mutations have reduced s{sup 2}U synthetic activity which supports in vivo evidence that the wild type genes are involved in 2-thiolation of uridine. The enzyme is shown to be unstable both upon storage at -80{degree}C and during the modification reaction. A method was developed to study the synthesis of any one of four pseudouridines {psi} found at different positions of the tRNA cloverleaf. Synthesis of {psi} is observed at three of the four positions-positions 32, 39, and 55. The asuC mutation is shown to affect {psi} synthesis only at position 39 confirming that it is an allele of hisT and that the hisT mutations do not affect {psi} synthesis at position 32 in E. coli. Synthesis of {psi}32, {psi}39, and {psi}55 does not require any prior modification. Synthesis of dihydrouridine, 7-methylguanosine, and 3(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)uridine is also observed. Synthesis of 2-methyladenosine and {psi} 13 is not seen. Removal of part of the aminoacyl stem reduces synthesis of all modifications examined by 3{prime} fold or more.

  15. Defective antitermination of rRNA transcription and derepression of rRNA and tRNA synthesis in the nusB5 mutant of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Sharrock, R A; Gourse, R L; Nomura, M

    1985-01-01

    The nusB5 mutant of Escherichia coli was originally selected for reduced ability to support the antitermination of transcription that is mediated by the gene N product of bacteriophage lambda. By analyzing pulse-labeled RNA with an RNA.DNA filter hybridization technique, we have shown that, in the nusB5 mutant, the ratio of promoter-proximal rRNA transcripts to promoter-distal transcripts is increased at least by a factor of 1.6; that is, in the absence of the functional nusB gene product, premature transcription termination takes place within rRNA operons. These results demonstrate that rRNA transcription in E. coli utilizes an antitermination mechanism that has at least one factor in common with the phage lambda system, the nusB gene product. We have also observed that the transcription initiation frequency at rRNA promoters is increased in the nusB5 strain and that this strain accumulates 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits at approximately the same rate as the parent. Thus, it appears that E. coli compensates for premature termination of rRNA transcription by derepressing rRNA operon expression. The increase in rRNA promoter activity in the nusB5 mutant is accompanied by a parallel derepression of synthesis of tRNAs that are not encoded by rRNA operons. These results are consistent with a model for negative feedback regulation of rRNA and tRNA synthesis by products of rRNA operons. PMID:3161080

  16. Transcription of AAT•ATT Triplet Repeats in Escherichia coli Is Silenced by H-NS and IS1E Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xuefeng; Liao, Lingni; Yang, Li; Li, Hongquan

    2010-01-01

    Background The trinucleotide repeats AAT•ATT are simple DNA sequences that potentially form different types of non-B DNA secondary structures and cause genomic instabilities in vivo. Methodology and Principal Findings The molecular mechanism underlying the maintenance of a 24-triplet AAT•ATT repeat was examined in E.coli by cloning the repeats into the EcoRI site in plasmid pUC18 and into the attB site on the E.coli genome. Either the AAT or the ATT strand acted as lagging strand template in a replication fork. Propagations of the repeats in either orientation on plasmids did not affect colony morphology when triplet repeat transcription using the lacZ promoter was repressed either by supplementing LacIQ in trans or by adding glucose into the medium. In contrast, transparent colonies were formed by inducing transcription of the repeats, suggesting that transcription of AAT•ATT repeats was toxic to cell growth. Meanwhile, significant IS1E transposition events were observed both into the triplet repeats region proximal to the promoter side, the promoter region of the lacZ gene, and into the AAT•ATT region itself. Transposition reversed the transparent colony phenotype back into healthy, convex colonies. In contrast, transcription of an 8-triplet AAT•ATT repeat in either orientation on plasmids did not produce significant changes in cell morphology and did not promote IS1E transposition events. We further found that a role of IS1E transposition into plasmids was to inhibit transcription through the repeats, which was influenced by the presence of the H-NS protein, but not of its paralogue StpA. Conclusions and Significance Our findings thus suggest that the longer AAT•ATT triplet repeats in E.coli become vulnerable after transcription. H-NS and its facilitated IS1E transposition can silence long triplet repeats transcription and preserve cell growth and survival. PMID:21151567

  17. Global transcriptional response of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to growth transitions in glucose minimal medium

    PubMed Central

    Bergholz, Teresa M; Wick, Lukas M; Qi, Weihong; Riordan, James T; Ouellette, Lindsey M; Whittam, Thomas S

    2007-01-01

    Background: Global patterns of gene expression of Escherichia coli K-12 during growth transitions have been deeply investigated, however, comparable studies of E. coli O157:H7 have not been explored, particularly with respect to factors regulating virulence genes and genomic islands specific to this pathogen. To examine the impact of growth phase on the dynamics of the transcriptome, O157:H7 Sakai strain was cultured in MOPS minimal media (0.1% glucose), RNA harvested at 10 time points from early exponential to full stationary phase, and relative gene expression was measured by co-hybridization on high-density DNA microarrays. Expression levels of 14 genes, including those encoding Shiga toxins and other virulence factors associated with the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), were confirmed by Q-PCR. Results: Analysis of variance (R/MAANOVA, Fs test) identified 442 (36%) of 1239 O157-specific ORFs and 2110 (59%) of 3647 backbone ORFs that changed in expression significantly over time. QT cluster analysis placed 2468 of the 2552 significant ORFs into 12 groups; each group representing a distinct expression pattern. ORFs from the largest cluster (n = 1078) decreased in expression from late exponential to early stationary phase: most of these ORFs are involved in functions associated with steady state growth. Also represented in this cluster are ORFs of the TAI island, encoding tellurite resistance and urease activity, which decreased ~4-fold. Most ORFs of the LEE pathogenicity island also decreased ~2-fold by early stationary phase. The ORFs encoding proteins secreted via the LEE encoded type III secretion system, such as tccP and espJ, also decreased in expression from exponential to stationary phase. Three of the clusters (n = 154) comprised genes that are transiently upregulated at the transition into stationary phase and included genes involved in nutrient scavenging. Upregulated genes with an increase in mRNA levels from late exponential to early stationary

  18. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Response of Chemostat-Cultured Escherichia coli to Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lucy J.; Barrett, Jason A.; Poole, Robert K.

    2005-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace metal ion for growth, but an excess of Zn is toxic and microorganisms express diverse resistance mechanisms. To understand global bacterial responses to excess Zn, we conducted transcriptome profiling experiments comparing Escherichia coli MG1655 grown under control conditions and cells grown with a toxic, sublethal ZnSO4 concentration (0.2 mM). Cultures were grown in a defined medium lacking inorganic phosphate, permitting maximum Zn bioavailability, and in glycerol-limited chemostats at a constant growth rate and pH. Sixty-four genes were significantly up-regulated by Zn stress, including genes known to be involved in Zn tolerance, particularly zntA, zraP, and hydG. Microarray transcriptome profiling was confirmed by real-time PCR determinations of cusF (involved in Ag and Cu efflux), ais (an Al-inducible gene), asr (encoding an acid shock-inducible periplasmic protein), cpxP (a periplasmic chaperone gene), and basR. Five up-regulated genes, basR and basS [encoding a sensor-regulator implicated in Salmonella in Fe(III) sensing and antibiotic resistance], fliM (flagellar synthesis), and ycdM and yibD (both with unknown functions), are important for growth resistance to zinc, since mutants with mutations in these genes exhibited zinc sensitivity in liquid media and on metal gradient plates. Fifty-eight genes were significantly down-regulated by Zn stress; notably, several of these genes were involved in protection against acid stress. Since the mdt operon (encoding a multidrug resistance pump) was also up-regulated, these findings have important implications for understanding not only Zn homeostasis but also how bacterial antibiotic resistance is modulated by metal ions. PMID:15659689

  19. Environmental pH affects transcriptional responses to cadmium toxicity in Escherichia coli K-12 (MG1655).

    PubMed

    Worden, Craig R; Kovac, William K; Dorn, Lisa A; Sandrin, Todd R

    2009-04-01

    It has been widely reported that pH mediates cadmium toxicity to bacteria. We used a tripartite approach to investigate mechanisms by which pH affects cadmium toxicity that included analyses of: (1) growth kinetics, (2) global gene expression, and (3) cadmium speciation. Cadmium extended the lag phase at pH 7, but not at pH 5. DNA microarray analysis revealed that stress response genes including hdeA, otsA, and yjbJ were more highly expressed at pH 5 than at pH 7 after only 5 min of exposure to cadmium, suggesting that acidic pH more rapidly induced genes that confer cadmium resistance. In addition, genes involved in transport and many hypothetical genes were more highly expressed at pH 5 than at pH 7 in the presence of cadmium. Concentrations of two cadmium species, including one previously implicated in the mechanism by which pH mediates cadmium toxicity (CdOH+), increased with pH. Our data demonstrate that transcriptional responses of Escherichia coli to cadmium are substantially affected by pH and suggest that several stress response, transport, and hypothetical genes play roles in the mechanism by which pH mediates cadmium toxicity.

  20. Characterization of FNR* mutant proteins indicates two distinct mechanisms for altering oxygen regulation of the Escherichia coli transcription factor FNR.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, D M; Lazazzera, B A; Kiley, P J

    1995-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the mechanism by which the Escherichia coli transcription factor FNR* is activated in response to anaerobiosis, we have analyzed FNR mutant proteins which, unlike the wild-type protein, stimulate gene expression in the presence of oxygen in vivo. Cell extracts containing seven different FNR* mutant proteins were tested in vitro for the ability to bind to the FNR consensus DNA site in a gel retardation assay under aerobic conditions. At the concentration of protein tested, only extracts which contained FNR* mutant proteins with amino acid substitutions at position 154 showed significant DNA binding. The three position-154 FNR* mutant proteins could be further distinguished from the other mutant proteins by analysis of the in vivo phenotypes of FNR* proteins containing amino acid substitutions at either of two essential cysteine residues. In the presence of oxygen, FNR* mutant proteins with amino acid substitutions at position 154 were the least affected when either Cys-23 or Cys-122 was substituted for Ser. On the basis of these in vivo and in vitro analyses, FNR* mutant proteins appear to segregate into at least two classes. Thus, it appears that each class of FNR* substitutions alters the normal pathway of FNR activation in response to oxygen deprivation by a different mechanism. PMID:7608069

  1. The transcription elongation factor NusA is required for stress-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Susan E; Walker, Graham C

    2010-01-12

    Stress-induced mutagenesis describes the accumulation of mutations that occur in nongrowing cells, in contrast to mutagenesis that occurs in actively dividing populations, and has been referred to as stationary-phase or adaptive mutagenesis. The most widely studied system for stress-induced mutagenesis involves monitoring the appearance of Lac(+) revertants of the strain FC40 under starvation conditions in Escherichia coli. The SOS-inducible translesion DNA polymerase DinB plays an important role in this phenomenon. Loss of DinB (DNA pol IV) function results in a severe reduction of Lac(+) revertants. We previously reported that NusA, an essential component of elongating RNA polymerases, interacts with DinB. Here we report our unexpected observation that wild-type NusA function is required for stress-induced mutagenesis. We present evidence that this effect is unlikely to be due to defects in transcription of lac genes but rather is due to an inability to adapt and mutate in response to environmental stress. Furthermore, we extended our analysis to the formation of stress-induced mutants in response to antibiotic treatment, observing the same striking abolition of mutagenesis under entirely different conditions. Our results are the first to implicate NusA as a crucial participant in the phenomenon of stress-induced mutagenesis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mfd is required for rapid recovery of transcription following UV-induced DNA damage but not oxidative DNA damage in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Schalow, Brandy J; Courcelle, Charmain T; Courcelle, Justin

    2012-05-01

    Transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is a cellular process by which some forms of DNA damage are repaired more rapidly from transcribed strands of active genes than from nontranscribed strands or the overall genome. In humans, the TCR coupling factor, CSB, plays a critical role in restoring transcription following both UV-induced and oxidative DNA damage. It also contributes indirectly to the global repair of some forms of oxidative DNA damage. The Escherichia coli homolog, Mfd, is similarly required for TCR of UV-induced lesions. However, its contribution to the restoration of transcription and to global repair of oxidative damage has not been examined. Here, we report the first direct study of transcriptional recovery following UV-induced and oxidative DNA damage in E. coli. We observed that mutations in mfd or uvrA reduced the rate that transcription recovered following UV-induced damage. In contrast, no difference was detected in the rate of transcription recovery in mfd, uvrA, fpg, nth, or polB dinB umuDC mutants relative to wild-type cells following oxidative damage. mfd mutants were also fully resistant to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and removed oxidative lesions from the genome at rates comparable to wild-type cells. The results demonstrate that Mfd promotes the rapid recovery of gene expression following UV-induced damage in E. coli. In addition, these findings imply that Mfd may be functionally distinct from its human CSB homolog in that it does not detectably contribute to the recovery of gene expression or global repair following oxidative damage.

  3. Transcriptional Expression of Escherichia coli Glutamate-Dependent Acid Resistance Genes gadA and gadBC in an hns rpoS Mutant†

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Scott R.; Small, P. L. C.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to being killed by acidic environments with pH values lower than 3 is an important feature of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic Escherichia coli. The most potent E. coli acid resistance system utilizes two isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase encoded by gadA and gadB and a putative glutamate:γ-aminobutyric acid antiporter encoded by gadC. The gad system is controlled by two repressors (H-NS and CRP), one activator (GadX), one repressor-activator (GadW), and two sigma factors (σS and σ70). In contrast to results of previous reports, we demonstrate that gad transcription can be detected in an hns rpoS mutant strain of E. coli K-12, indicating that gad promoters can be initiated by σ70 in the absence of H-NS. PMID:12867478

  4. Transcriptional expression of Escherichia coli glutamate-dependent acid resistance genes gadA and gadBC in an hns rpoS mutant.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Scott R; Small, P L C

    2003-08-01

    Resistance to being killed by acidic environments with pH values lower than 3 is an important feature of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic Escherichia coli. The most potent E. coli acid resistance system utilizes two isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase encoded by gadA and gadB and a putative glutamate:gamma-aminobutyric acid antiporter encoded by gadC. The gad system is controlled by two repressors (H-NS and CRP), one activator (GadX), one repressor-activator (GadW), and two sigma factors (sigma(S) and sigma(70)). In contrast to results of previous reports, we demonstrate that gad transcription can be detected in an hns rpoS mutant strain of E. coli K-12, indicating that gad promoters can be initiated by sigma(70) in the absence of H-NS.

  5. Transcription coupled nucleotide excision repair in Escherichia coli can be affected by changing the arginine at position 529 of the β subunit of RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Ann K.; Smith, Abigail J.; Savery, Nigel J.; Zamos, Portia; Hanawalt, Philip C.

    2008-01-01

    The proposed mechanism for transcription coupled nucleotide excision repair (TCR) invokes RNA polymerase (RNAP) blocked at a DNA lesion as a signal to initiate repair. In Escherichia coli, TCR requires the interaction of RNAP with a transcription-repair coupling factor encoded by the mfd gene. The interaction between RNAP and Mfd depends upon amino acids 117, 118, and 119 of the β subunit of RNAP; changing any one of these to alanine diminishes the interaction [1]. Using direct assays for TCR, and the lac operon of Escherichia coli containing UV induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) as substrate, we have found that a change from arginine to cysteine at amino acid 529 of the β subunit of the RNAP inactivates TCR, but does not prevent the interaction of RNAP with Mfd. Our results suggest that this interaction may be necessary but not sufficient to facilitate TCR. PMID:17532270

  6. Physiological and Transcriptional Characterization of Escherichia Coli Strains Lacking Interconversion of Phosphoenolpyruvate and Pyruvate When Glucose and Acetate are Coutilized

    PubMed Central

    Sabido, Andrea; Sigala, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Chávez, Georgina; Flores, Noemí; Gosset, Guillermo; Bolívar, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is a precursor involved in the biosynthesis of aromatics and other valuable compounds in Escherichia coli. The PEP:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) is the major glucose transport system and the largest PEP consumer. To increase intracellular PEP availability for aromatics production purposes, mutant strains of E. coli JM101 devoid of the ptsHIcrr operon (PB11 strain) have been previously generated. In this derivative, transport and growth rate on glucose decreased significantly. A laboratory evolved strain derived from PB11 that partially recovered its growth capacity on glucose was named PB12. In the present study, we blocked carbon skeletons interchange between PEP and pyruvate (PYR) in these ptsHIcrr− strains by deleting the pykA, pykF, and ppsA genes. The PB11 pykAF− ppsA− strain exhibited no growth on glucose or acetate alone, but it was viable when both substrates were consumed simultaneously. In contrast, the PB12 pykAF− ppsA− strain displayed a low growth rate on glucose or acetate alone, but in the mixture, growth was significantly improved. RT-qPCR expression analysis of PB11 pykAF− ppsA− growing with both carbon sources showed a downregulation of all central metabolic pathways compared with its parental PB11 strain. Under the same conditions, transcription of most of the genes in PB12 pykAF− ppsA− did not change, and few like aceBAK, sfcA, and poxB were overexpressed compared with PB12. We explored the aromatics production capabilities of both ptsHIcrr− pykAF− ppsA− strains and the engineered PB12 pykAF− ppsA− tyrR− pheAev2+/pJLBaroGfbrtktA enhanced the yield of aromatic compounds when coutilizing glucose and acetate compared with the control strain PB12 tyrR− pheAev2+/pJLBaroGfbrtktA. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 1150–1160. © 2013 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24375081

  7. Transcriptional coupling between the divergent promoters of a prototypic LysR-type regulatory system, the ilvYC operon of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Kyu Y.; Opel, Michael; Ito, Elaine; Hung, She-pin; Arfin, Stuart M.; Hatfield, G. Wesley

    1999-01-01

    The twin-domain model [Liu, L. F. & Wang, J. C. (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 7024–7027] suggests that closely spaced, divergent, superhelically sensitive promoters can affect the transcriptional activity of one another by transcriptionally induced negative DNA supercoiling generated in the divergent promoter region. This gene arrangement is observed for many LysR-type-regulated operons in bacteria. We have examined the effects of divergent transcription in the prototypic LysR-type system, the ilvYC operon of Escherichia coli. Double-reporter constructs with the lacZ gene under transcriptional control of the ilvC promoter and the galK gene under control of the divergent ilvY promoter were used to demonstrate that a down-promoter mutation in the ilvY promoter severely decreases in vivo transcription from the ilvC promoter. However, a down-promoter mutation in the ilvC promoter only slightly affects transcription from the ilvY promoter. In vitro transcription assays with DNA topoisomers showed that transcription from the ilvC promoter increases over the entire range of physiological superhelical densities, whereas transcription initiation from the ilvY promoter exhibits a broad optimum at a midphysiological superhelical density. Evidence that this promoter coupling is DNA supercoiling-dependent is provided by the observation that a novobiocin-induced decrease in global negative superhelicity results in an increase in ilvY promoter activity and a decrease in ilvC promoter activity predicted by the in vitro data. We suggest that this transcriptional coupling is important for coordinating basal level expression of the ilvYC operon with the nutritional and environmental conditions of cell growth. PMID:10588699

  8. Transcriptional coupling between the divergent promoters of a prototypic LysR-type regulatory system, the ilvYC operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rhee, K Y; Opel, M; Ito, E; Hung, S p; Arfin, S M; Hatfield, G W

    1999-12-07

    The twin-domain model [Liu, L. F. & Wang, J. C. (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 7024-7027] suggests that closely spaced, divergent, superhelically sensitive promoters can affect the transcriptional activity of one another by transcriptionally induced negative DNA supercoiling generated in the divergent promoter region. This gene arrangement is observed for many LysR-type-regulated operons in bacteria. We have examined the effects of divergent transcription in the prototypic LysR-type system, the ilvYC operon of Escherichia coli. Double-reporter constructs with the lacZ gene under transcriptional control of the ilvC promoter and the galK gene under control of the divergent ilvY promoter were used to demonstrate that a down-promoter mutation in the ilvY promoter severely decreases in vivo transcription from the ilvC promoter. However, a down-promoter mutation in the ilvC promoter only slightly affects transcription from the ilvY promoter. In vitro transcription assays with DNA topoisomers showed that transcription from the ilvC promoter increases over the entire range of physiological superhelical densities, whereas transcription initiation from the ilvY promoter exhibits a broad optimum at a midphysiological superhelical density. Evidence that this promoter coupling is DNA supercoiling-dependent is provided by the observation that a novobiocin-induced decrease in global negative superhelicity results in an increase in ilvY promoter activity and a decrease in ilvC promoter activity predicted by the in vitro data. We suggest that this transcriptional coupling is important for coordinating basal level expression of the ilvYC operon with the nutritional and environmental conditions of cell growth.

  9. Characterization of the [2Fe-2S] cluster of the Escherichia coli transcription factor IscR†

    PubMed Central

    Fleischhacker, Angela S.; Stubna, Audria; Hsueh, Kuang-Lung; Guo, Yisong; Teter, Sarah J.; Rose, Justin C.; Brunold, Thomas C.; Markley, John L.; Münck, Eckard; Kiley, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    IscR is a Fe-S cluster-containing transcription factor involved in a homeostatic mechanism that controls Fe-S cluster biogenesis in Escherichia coli. Although IscR has been proposed to act as a sensor of the cellular demands for Fe-S cluster biogenesis, the mechanism by which IscR performs this function is not known. In this study, we investigated the biochemical properties of the Fe-S cluster of IscR to gain insight into the proposed sensing activity. Mössbauer studies revealed that IscR contains predominantly a reduced [2Fe-2S]1+ cluster in vivo. However, upon anaerobic isolation of IscR some clusters became oxidized to the [2Fe-2S]2+ form. Cluster oxidation did not, however, alter the affinity of IscR for its binding site within the iscR promoter in vitro, indicating that cluster oxidation state is not important for regulation of DNA binding. Furthermore, characterization of anaerobically isolated IscR using resonance Raman, Mössbauer, and NMR spectroscopies leads to the proposal that the [2Fe-2S] cluster does not have full cysteinyl ligation. Mutagenesis studies indicate that, in addition to the three previously identified cysteine residues (Cys92, Cys98, and Cys104), the highly conserved residue His107 is essential for cluster ligation. Thus, these data suggest that IscR binds the cluster with an atypical ligation scheme of three cysteines and one histidine, a feature that may be relevant to the proposed function of IscR as a sensor of cellular Fe-S cluster status. PMID:22583201

  10. Characterization of the LysR-type transcriptional regulator YcjZ-like from Xylella fastidiosa overexpressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Santiago, André S; Santos, Clelton A; Mendes, Juliano S; Toledo, Marcelo A S; Beloti, Lilian L; Souza, Alessandra A; Souza, Anete P

    2015-09-01

    The Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c strain is a xylem-limited phytopathogen that is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC). This bacterium is able to form a biofilm and occlude the xylem vessels of susceptible plants, which leads to significant agricultural and economic losses. Biofilms are associated with bacterial pathogenicity because they are very resistant to antibiotics and other metal-based chemicals that are used in agriculture. The X. fastidiosa YcjZ-like (XfYcjZ-like) protein belongs to the LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) family and is involved in various cellular functions that range from quorum sensing to bacterial survival. In the present study, we report the cloning, expression and purification of XfYcjZ-like, which was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The secondary folding of the recombinant and purified protein was assessed by circular dichroism, which revealed that XfYcjZ-like contains a typical α/β fold. An initial hydrodynamic characterization showed that XfYcjZ-like is a globular tetramer in solution. In addition, using a polyclonal antibody against XfYcjZ-like, we assessed the expression profile of this protein during the different developmental phases of X. fastidiosa in in vitro cultivated biofilm cells and demonstrated that XfYcjZ-like is upregulated in planktonic cells in response to a copper shock treatment. Finally, the ability of XfYcjZ-like to interact with its own predicted promoter was confirmed in vitro, which is a typical feature of LysR. Taken together, our findings indicated that the XfYcjZ-like protein is involved in both the organization of the architecture and the maturation of the bacterial biofilm and that it is responsive to oxidative stress.

  11. DNA microarray-mediated transcriptional profiling of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli O2 strain E058 during its infection of chicken.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qingqing; Xia, Le; Liu, Juanhua; Wang, Xiaobo; Gao, Song; Liu, Xiufan

    2016-11-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) cause typical extraintestinal infections in poultry, including acute fatal septicemia, subacute pericarditis, and airsacculitis. These bacteria most often infect chickens, turkeys, ducks, and other avian species, and therefore pose a significant economic burden on the poultry industry worldwide. Few studies have analyzed the genome-wide transcriptional profile of APEC during infection in vivo. In this study, we examined the genome-wide transcriptional response of APEC O2 strain E058 in an in vivo chicken infection model to better understand the factors necessary for APEC colonization, growth, and survival in vivo. An Affymetrix multigenome DNA microarray, which contains most of the genomic open reading frames of E. coli K-12 strain MG1655, uropathogenic E. coli strain CFT073, and E. coli O157:H7 strain EDL 933, was used to profile the gene expression in APEC E058. We identified the in vivo transcriptional response of APEC E058 bacteria collected directly from the blood of infected chickens. Significant differences in expression levels were detected between the in vivo expression profile and the in vitro expression profile in LB medium. The genes highly expressed during infection were involved in metabolism, iron acquisition or transport, virulence, response to stress, and biological regulation. The reliability of the microarray data was confirmed by performing quantitative real-time PCR on 12 representative genes. Moreover, several significantly upregulated genes, including yjiY, sodA, phoB and spy, were selected to study their role in APEC pathogenesis. The data will help to better understand the mechanisms of APEC pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcriptional Regulation of the Outer Membrane Porin Gene ompW Reveals its Physiological Role during the Transition from the Aerobic to the Anaerobic Lifestyle of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Minfeng; Lai, Yong; Sun, Jian; Chen, Guanhua; Yan, Aixin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding bacterial physiology relies on elucidating the regulatory mechanisms and cellular functions of those differentially expressed genes in response to environmental changes. A widespread Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane protein OmpW has been implicated in the adaptation to stresses in various species. It is recently found to be present in the regulon of the global anaerobic transcription factor FNR and ArcA in Escherichia coli. However, little is known about the physiological implications of this regulatory disposition. In this study, we demonstrate that transcription of ompW is indeed mediated by a series of global regulators involved in the anaerobiosis of E. coli. We show that FNR can both activate and repress the expression of ompW through its direct binding to two distinctive sites, -81.5 and -126.5 bp respectively, on ompW promoter. ArcA also participates in repression of ompW under anaerobic condition, but in an FNR dependent manner. Additionally, ompW is also subject to the regulation by CRP and NarL which senses the availability and types of carbon sources and respiration electron acceptors in the environment respectively, implying a role of OmpW in the carbon and energy metabolism of E. coli during its anaerobic adaptation. Molecular docking reveals that OmpW can bind fumarate, an alternative electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration, with sufficient affinity. Moreover, supplement of fumarate or succinate which belongs to the C4-dicarboxylates family of metabolite, to E. coli culture rescues OmpW-mediated colicin S4 killing. Taken together, we propose that OmpW is involved in anaerobic carbon and energy metabolism to mediate the transition from aerobic to anaerobic lifestyle in E. coli.

  13. Transcriptional Regulation of the Outer Membrane Porin Gene ompW Reveals its Physiological Role during the Transition from the Aerobic to the Anaerobic Lifestyle of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Minfeng; Lai, Yong; Sun, Jian; Chen, Guanhua; Yan, Aixin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding bacterial physiology relies on elucidating the regulatory mechanisms and cellular functions of those differentially expressed genes in response to environmental changes. A widespread Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane protein OmpW has been implicated in the adaptation to stresses in various species. It is recently found to be present in the regulon of the global anaerobic transcription factor FNR and ArcA in Escherichia coli. However, little is known about the physiological implications of this regulatory disposition. In this study, we demonstrate that transcription of ompW is indeed mediated by a series of global regulators involved in the anaerobiosis of E. coli. We show that FNR can both activate and repress the expression of ompW through its direct binding to two distinctive sites, -81.5 and -126.5 bp respectively, on ompW promoter. ArcA also participates in repression of ompW under anaerobic condition, but in an FNR dependent manner. Additionally, ompW is also subject to the regulation by CRP and NarL which senses the availability and types of carbon sources and respiration electron acceptors in the environment respectively, implying a role of OmpW in the carbon and energy metabolism of E. coli during its anaerobic adaptation. Molecular docking reveals that OmpW can bind fumarate, an alternative electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration, with sufficient affinity. Moreover, supplement of fumarate or succinate which belongs to the C4-dicarboxylates family of metabolite, to E. coli culture rescues OmpW-mediated colicin S4 killing. Taken together, we propose that OmpW is involved in anaerobic carbon and energy metabolism to mediate the transition from aerobic to anaerobic lifestyle in E. coli. PMID:27303386

  14. Contribution of individual promoters in the ddlB-ftsZ region to the transcription of the essential cell-division gene ftsZ in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Flärdh, K; Garrido, T; Vicente, M

    1997-06-01

    The essential cell-division gene ftsZ is transcribed in Escherichia coli from at least six promoters found within the coding regions of the upstream ddlB, ftsQ, and ftsA genes. The contribution of each one to the final yield of ftsZ transcription has been estimated using transcriptional lacZ fusions. The most proximal promoter, ftsZ2p, contributes less than 5% of the total transcription from the region that reaches ftsZ. The ftsZ4p and ftsZ3p promoters, both located inside ftsA, produce almost 37% of the transcription. An ftsAp promoter within the ftsQ gene yields nearly 12% of total transcription from the region. A large proportion of transcription (approximately 46%) derives from promoters ftsQ2p and ftsQ1p, which are located inside the upstream ddlB gene. Thus, the ftsQAZ genes are to a large extent transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA. However, we find that the ftsZ proximal region is necessary for full expression, which is in agreement with a recent report that mRNA cleavage by RNase E at the end of the ftsA cistron has a significant role in the contol of ftsZ expression.

  15. Systematic mutagenesis of the thymidine tract of the pyrBI attenuator and its effects on intrinsic transcription termination in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Katalin; Szigeti, Réka; Dong, Xiuzhu; Turnbough, Charles L

    2007-10-01

    The pyrBI attenuator of Escherichia coli is an intrinsic transcription terminator composed of DNA with a hyphenated dyad symmetry and an adjacent 8 bp T:A tract (T-tract). These elements specify a G+C-rich terminator hairpin followed by a run of eight uridine residues (U-tract) in the RNA transcript. In this study, we examined the effects on in vivo transcription termination of systematic base substitutions in the T/U-tract of the pyrBI attenuator. We found that these substitutions diminished transcription termination efficiency to varying extents, depending on the nature and position of the substitution. In general, substitutions closer to the dyad symmetry/terminator hairpin exhibited the most significant effects. Additionally, we examined the effects on in vivo transcription termination of mutations that insert from 1 to 4 bases between the terminator hairpin and U-tract specified by the pyrBI attenuator. Our results show an inverse relationship between termination efficiency and the number of bases inserted. The effects of the substitution and insertion mutations on termination efficiency at the pyrBI attenuator were also measured in vitro, which corroborated the in vivo results. Our results are discussed in terms of the current models for intrinsic transcription termination and estimating termination efficiencies at intrinsic terminators of other bacteria.

  16. Control of cell division in Escherichia coli: regulation of transcription of ftsQA involves both rpoS and SdiA-mediated autoinduction.

    PubMed

    Sitnikov, D M; Schineller, J B; Baldwin, T O

    1996-01-09

    The conditioning of culture medium by the production of growth-regulatory substances is a well-established phenomenon with eukaryotic cells. It has recently been shown that many prokaryotes are also capable of modulating growth, and in some cases sensing cell density, by production of extracellular signaling molecules, thereby allowing single celled prokaryotes to function in some respects as multicellular organisms. As Escherichia coli shifts from exponential growth to stationary growth, many changes occur, including cell division leading to formation of short minicells and expression of numerous genes not expressed in exponential phase. An understanding of the coordination between the morphological changes associated with cell division and the physiological and metabolic changes is of fundamental importance to understanding regulation of the prokaryotic cell cycle. The ftsQA genes, which encode functions required for cell division in E. coli, are regulated by promoters P1 and P2, located upstream of the ftsQ gene. The P1 promoter is rpoS-stimulated and the second, P2, is regulated by a member of the LuxR subfamily of transcriptional activators, SdiA, exhibiting features characteristic of an autoinduction (quorum sensing) mechanism. The activity of SdiA is potentiated by N-acyl-homoserine lactones, which are the autoinducers of luciferase synthesis in luminous marine bacteria as well as of pathogenesis functions in several pathogenic bacteria. A compound(s) produced by E. coli itself during growth in Luria Broth stimulates transcription from P2 in an SdiA-dependent process. Another substance(s) enhances transcription of rpoS and (perhaps indirectly) of ftsQA via promoter P1. It appears that this bimodal control mechanism may comprise a fail-safe system, such that transcription of the ftsQA genes may be properly regulated under a variety of different environmental and physiological conditions.

  17. Repurposing Synechocystis PCC6803 UirS-UirR as a UV-Violet/Green Photoreversible Transcriptional Regulatory Tool in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Prabha; Tabor, Jeffrey J

    2016-07-15

    We have previously engineered green/red and red/far red photoreversible E. coli phytochrome and cyanobacteriochrome (CBCR) two-component systems (TCSs) and utilized them to program tailor-made gene expression signals for gene circuit characterization. Here, we transport the UV-violet/green photoreversible CBCR TCS UirS-UirR from Synechocystis PCC6803 to E. coli. We demonstrate that the promoter of the small RNA csiR1, previously shown to be activated by inorganic carbon stress, is a UirS-UirR output. Additionally, in contrast to a recently proposed sequestration model, we show that the sensor histidine kinase UirS phosphorylates the response regulator UirR to activate PcsiR1 transcription in response to UV-violet light. Finally, we measure changes in UirS-UirR output minutes after a change in light input and exploit these rapid dynamics to program a challenging gene expression signal with high predictability. UirS-UirR is the first engineered transcriptional regulatory tool activated exclusively by UV-violet light, and the most blue shifted photoreversible transcriptional regulatory tool.

  18. Revealing genome-scale transcriptional regulatory landscape of OmpR highlights its expanded regulatory roles under osmotic stress in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sang Woo; Gao, Ye; Kim, Donghyuk; Szubin, Richard; Yang, Jina; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2017-05-19

    A transcription factor (TF), OmpR, plays a critical role in transcriptional regulation of the osmotic stress response in bacteria. Here, we reveal a genome-scale OmpR regulon in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655. Integrative data analysis reveals that a total of 37 genes in 24 transcription units (TUs) belong to OmpR regulon. Among them, 26 genes show more than two-fold changes in expression level in an OmpR knock-out strain. Specifically, we find that: 1) OmpR regulates mostly membrane-located gene products involved in diverse fundamental biological processes, such as narU (encoding nitrate/nitrite transporter), ompX (encoding outer membrane protein X), and nuoN (encoding NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase); 2) by investigating co-regulation of entire sets of genes regulated by other stress-response TFs, stresses are surprisingly independently regulated among each other; and, 3) a detailed investigation of the physiological roles of the newly discovered OmpR regulon genes reveals that activation of narU represents a novel strategy to significantly improve osmotic stress tolerance of E. coli. Thus, the genome-scale approach to elucidating regulons comprehensively identifies regulated genes and leads to fundamental discoveries related to stress responses.

  19. CD14 and Complement Crosstalk and Largely Mediate the Transcriptional Response to Escherichia coli in Human Whole Blood as Revealed by DNA Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Corinna; Nygård, Ståle; Fure, Hilde; Olstad, Ole Kristoffer; Holden, Marit; Lappegård, Knut Tore; Brekke, Ole-Lars; Espevik, Terje; Hovig, Eivind; Mollnes, Tom Eirik

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammation like in sepsis is still lacking specific diagnostic markers and effective therapeutics. The first line of defense against intruding pathogens and endogenous damage signals is pattern recognition by e.g., complement and Toll-like receptors (TLR). Combined inhibition of a key complement component (C3 and C5) and TLR-co-receptor CD14 has been shown to attenuate certain systemic inflammatory responses. Using DNA microarray and gene annotation analyses, we aimed to decipher the effect of combined inhibition of C3 and CD14 on the transcriptional response to bacterial challenge in human whole blood. Importantly, combined inhibition reversed the transcriptional changes of 70% of the 2335 genes which significantly responded to heat-inactivated Escherichia coli by on average 80%. Single inhibition was less efficient (p<0.001) but revealed a suppressive effect of C3 on 21% of the responding genes which was partially counteracted by CD14. Furthermore, CD14 dependency of the Escherichia coli-induced response was increased in C5-deficient compared to C5-sufficient blood. The observed crucial distinct and synergistic roles for complement and CD14 on the transcriptional level correspond to their broad impact on the inflammatory response in human blood, and their combined inhibition may become inevitable in the early treatment of acute systemic inflammation. PMID:25706641

  20. Differential transcription profiles of long non-coding RNAs in primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells in response to meningitic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ruicheng; Huang, Fei; Fu, Jiyang; Dou, Beibei; Xu, Bojie; Miao, Ling; Liu, Wentong; Yang, Xiaopei; Tan, Chen; Chen, Huanchun; Wang, Xiangru

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating studies have indicated the influence of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) on various biological processes as well as disease development and progression. However, the lncRNAs involved in bacterial meningitis and their regulatory effects are largely unknown. By RNA-sequencing, the transcriptional profiles of host lncRNAs in primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs) in response to meningitic Escherichia coli were demonstrated. Here, 25,257 lncRNAs were identified, including 24,645 annotated lncRNAs and 612 newly found ones. A total of 895 lncRNAs exhibited significant differences upon infection, among which 382 were upregulated and 513 were downregulated (≥2-fold, p < 0.05). Via bioinformatic analysis, the features of these lncRNAs, their possible functions, and the potential regulatory relationships between lncRNAs and mRNAs were predicted. Moreover, we compared the transcriptional specificity of these differential lncRNAs among hBMECs, human astrocyte cell U251, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and demonstrated the novel regulatory effects of proinflammatory cytokines on these differential lncRNAs. To our knowledge, this is the first time the transcriptional profiles of host lncRNAs involved in E. coli-induced meningitis have been reported, which shall provide novel insight into the regulatory mechanisms behind bacterial meningitis involving lncRNAs, and contribute to better prevention and therapy of CNS infection. PMID:27958323

  1. A purified truncated form of yeast Gal4 expressed in Escherichia coli and used to functionalize poly(lactic acid) nanoparticle surface is transcriptionally active in cellulo.

    PubMed

    Legaz, Sophie; Exposito, Jean-Yves; Borel, Agnès; Candusso, Marie-Pierre; Megy, Simon; Montserret, Roland; Lahaye, Vincent; Terzian, Christophe; Verrier, Bernard

    2015-09-01

    Gal4/UAS system is a powerful tool for the analysis of numerous biological processes. Gal4 is a large yeast transcription factor that activates genes including UAS sequences in their promoter. Here, we have synthesized a minimal form of Gal4 DNA sequence coding for the binding and dimerization regions, but also part of the transcriptional activation domain. This truncated Gal4 protein was expressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. A structured and active form of this recombinant protein was purified and used to cover poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. In cellulo, these Gal4-vehicles were able to activate the expression of a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) gene under the control of UAS sequences, demonstrating that the decorated Gal4 variant can be delivery into cells where it still retains its transcription factor capacities. Thus, we have produced in E. coli and purified a short active form of Gal4 that retains its functions at the surface of PLA-nanoparticles in cellular assay. These decorated Gal4-nanoparticles will be useful to decipher their tissue distribution and their potential after ingestion or injection in UAS-GFP recombinant animal models.

  2. Studies on the function of the riboregulator 6S RNA from E. coli: RNA polymerase binding, inhibition of in vitro transcription and synthesis of RNA-directed de novo transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Gildehaus, Nina; Neußer, Thomas; Wurm, Reinhild; Wagner, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli 6S RNA represents a non-coding RNA (ncRNA), which, based on the conserved secondary structure and previous functional studies, had been suggested to interfere with transcription. Selective inhibition of sigma-70 holoenzymes, preferentially at extended −10 promoters, but not stationary-phase-specific transcription was described, suggesting a direct role of 6S RNA in the transition from exponential to stationary phase. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we have analysed 6S RNA interactions with different forms of RNA polymerase by gel retardation and crosslinking. Preferred binding of 6S RNA to Eσ70 was confirmed, however weaker binding to Eσ38 was also observed. The crosslinking analysis revealed direct contact between a central 6S RNA sequence element and the β/β′ and σ subunits. Promoter complex formation and in vitro transcription analysis with exponential- and stationary-phase-specific promoters and the corresponding holoenzymes demonstrated that 6S RNA interferes with transcription initiation but does not generally distinguish between exponential- and stationary-phase-specific promoters. Moreover, we show for the first time that 6S RNA acts as a template for the transcription of defined RNA molecules in the absence of DNA. In conclusion, this study reveals new aspects of 6S RNA function. PMID:17332013

  3. A triplex-mediated knot between separated polypurine-polypyrimidine tracts in circular DNA blocks transcription by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Ashley, C; Lee, J S

    2000-04-01

    Polypurine-polypyrimidine tracts are overrepresented in eukaryotes and many have the potential to form triplex DNA. Transmolecular triplexes form between separated but complementary polypurine-polypyrimidine tracts in duplex DNA. Transmolecular triplexes (T-loops) were studied previously using a circular plasmid containing a pair of separated polypurine-polypyrimidine tracts designed to able to form a triplex with each other. T-Loops formed when the nicked plasmid was incubated at low pH in the presence of spermine. When the pH was raised to 8, the T-loops were constrained by a hydrogen-bonded knot composed of multistranded and single-stranded regions. The present experiments used T-loops as a model system to investigate the influence of transmolecular triplex formation on transcription. T-Loops and control open circular, linear, and supercoiled plasmid forms were isolated from bands on agarose gels. Transcription assays were carried out with the isolated plasmid forms and Escherichia coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme and the core enzyme, which lacked sigma70. Transcription was significantly inhibited in T-loop forms compared with control plasmid forms. There was no evidence that the single-stranded regions of T-loops facilitated nonspecific initiation of transcription. Instead, the multistranded component of the hydrogen-bonded knot at the root of the T-loop structure inhibited transcription.

  4. Transcriptional Responses of Escherichia coli to a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of LolCDE, an Essential Component of the Lipoprotein Transport Pathway.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Christian; Dougherty, Thomas J; Lory, Stephen

    2016-12-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, a dedicated machinery consisting of LolABCDE components targets lipoproteins to the outer membrane. We used a previously identified small-molecule inhibitor of the LolCDE complex of Escherichia coli to assess the global transcriptional consequences of interference with lipoprotein transport. Exposure of E. coli to the LolCDE inhibitor at concentrations leading to minimal and significant growth inhibition, followed by transcriptome sequencing, identified a small group of genes whose transcript levels were decreased and a larger group whose mRNA levels increased 10- to 100-fold compared to those of untreated cells. The majority of the genes whose mRNA concentrations were reduced were part of the flagellar assembly pathway, which contains an essential lipoprotein component. Most of the genes whose transcript levels were elevated encode proteins involved in selected cell stress pathways. Many of these genes are involved with envelope stress responses induced by the mislocalization of outer membrane lipoproteins. Although several of the genes whose RNAs were induced have previously been shown to be associated with the general perturbation of the cell envelope by antibiotics, a small subset was affected only by LolCDE inhibition. Findings from this work suggest that the efficiency of the Lol system function may be coupled to a specific monitoring system, which could be exploited in the development of reporter constructs suitable for use for screening for additional inhibitors of lipoprotein trafficking. Inhibition of the lipoprotein transport pathway leads to E. coli death and subsequent lysis. Early significant changes in the levels of RNA for a subset of genes identified to be associated with some periplasmic and envelope stress responses were observed. Together these findings suggest that disruption of this key pathway can have a severe impact on balanced outer membrane synthesis sufficient to affect viability. Copyright © 2016 Lorenz et al.

  5. Transcriptional Responses of Escherichia coli to a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of LolCDE, an Essential Component of the Lipoprotein Transport Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Christian; Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Gram-negative bacteria, a dedicated machinery consisting of LolABCDE components targets lipoproteins to the outer membrane. We used a previously identified small-molecule inhibitor of the LolCDE complex of Escherichia coli to assess the global transcriptional consequences of interference with lipoprotein transport. Exposure of E. coli to the LolCDE inhibitor at concentrations leading to minimal and significant growth inhibition, followed by transcriptome sequencing, identified a small group of genes whose transcript levels were decreased and a larger group whose mRNA levels increased 10- to 100-fold compared to those of untreated cells. The majority of the genes whose mRNA concentrations were reduced were part of the flagellar assembly pathway, which contains an essential lipoprotein component. Most of the genes whose transcript levels were elevated encode proteins involved in selected cell stress pathways. Many of these genes are involved with envelope stress responses induced by the mislocalization of outer membrane lipoproteins. Although several of the genes whose RNAs were induced have previously been shown to be associated with the general perturbation of the cell envelope by antibiotics, a small subset was affected only by LolCDE inhibition. Findings from this work suggest that the efficiency of the Lol system function may be coupled to a specific monitoring system, which could be exploited in the development of reporter constructs suitable for use for screening for additional inhibitors of lipoprotein trafficking. IMPORTANCE Inhibition of the lipoprotein transport pathway leads to E. coli death and subsequent lysis. Early significant changes in the levels of RNA for a subset of genes identified to be associated with some periplasmic and envelope stress responses were observed. Together these findings suggest that disruption of this key pathway can have a severe impact on balanced outer membrane synthesis sufficient to affect viability. PMID

  6. RegulonDB version 7.0: transcriptional regulation of Escherichia coli K-12 integrated within genetic sensory response units (Gensor Units)

    PubMed Central

    Gama-Castro, Socorro; Salgado, Heladia; Peralta-Gil, Martin; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Muñiz-Rascado, Luis; Solano-Lira, Hilda; Jimenez-Jacinto, Verónica; Weiss, Verena; García-Sotelo, Jair S.; López-Fuentes, Alejandra; Porrón-Sotelo, Liliana; Alquicira-Hernández, Shirley; Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Martínez-Flores, Irma; Alquicira-Hernández, Kevin; Martínez-Adame, Ruth; Bonavides-Martínez, César; Miranda-Ríos, Juan; Huerta, Araceli M.; Mendoza-Vargas, Alfredo; Collado-Torres, Leonardo; Taboada, Blanca; Vega-Alvarado, Leticia; Olvera, Maricela; Olvera, Leticia; Grande, Ricardo; Morett, Enrique; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2011-01-01

    RegulonDB (http://regulondb.ccg.unam.mx/) is the primary reference database of the best-known regulatory network of any free-living organism, that of Escherichia coli K-12. The major conceptual change since 3 years ago is an expanded biological context so that transcriptional regulation is now part of a unit that initiates with the signal and continues with the signal transduction to the core of regulation, modifying expression of the affected target genes responsible for the response. We call these genetic sensory response units, or Gensor Units. We have initiated their high-level curation, with graphic maps and superreactions with links to other databases. Additional connectivity uses expandable submaps. RegulonDB has summaries for every transcription factor (TF) and TF-binding sites with internal symmetry. Several DNA-binding motifs and their sizes have been redefined and relocated. In addition to data from the literature, we have incorporated our own information on transcription start sites (TSSs) and transcriptional units (TUs), obtained by using high-throughput whole-genome sequencing technologies. A new portable drawing tool for genomic features is also now available, as well as new ways to download the data, including web services, files for several relational database manager systems and text files including BioPAX format. PMID:21051347

  7. Time-dependent Effects of Transcription- and Translation-halting Drugs on the Spatial Distributions of the E. coli Chromosome and Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Somenath; Choi, Heejun; Mondal, Jagannath; Weisshaar, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Previously observed effects of rifampicin and chloramphenicol indicate that transcription and translation activity strongly affect the coarse spatial organization of the bacterial cytoplasm. Single-cell, time-resolved, quantitative imaging of chromosome and ribosome spatial distributions and ribosome diffusion in live E. coli provides insight into the underlying mechanisms. Monte Carlo simulations of model DNA-ribosome mixtures support a novel nucleoid-ribosome mixing hypothesis. In normal conditions, 70S-polysomes and the chromosomal DNA segregate, while 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits are able to penetrate the nucleoids. Growth conditions and drug treatments determine the partitioning of ribosomes into 70S-polysomes vs free 30S and 50S subunits. Entropic and excluded volume effects then dictate the resulting chromosome and ribosome spatial distributions. Direct observation of radial contraction of the nucleoids 0-5 min after treatment with either transcription- or translation-halting drugs supports the hypothesis that simultaneous transcription, translation, and insertion of proteins into the membrane (“transertion”) exerts an expanding force on the chromosomal DNA. Breaking of the DNA-RNA polymerase-mRNA-ribosome-membrane chain in either of two ways causes similar nucleoid contraction on a similar timescale. We suggest that chromosomal expansion due to transertion enables co-transcriptional translation throughout the nucleoids. PMID:25250841

  8. Transcription reporters that shuttle cloned DNA between high-copy Escherichia coli plasmids and low-copy broad-host-range plasmids.

    PubMed

    Ouimet, M C; Marczynski, G T

    2000-09-01

    We describe and apply lacZ transcription reporter plasmids designed for both biochemical analyses requiring high DNA yield and physiological studies requiring low gene dosage. Standard DNA ligations are performed at seven unique restriction sites 5' to the lacZ gene on high-copy ColE1 plasmids suitable for double- or single-strand DNA sequencing. A divergent gusA transcription reporter is included and serves as an internal control. Rec(+) Escherichia coli cells readily shuttle DNA placed between gusA and lacZ by allelic exchange with pRK290-based plasmids that subsequently conjugate and replicate in most gram-negative bacteria. We applied this system to study Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle promoters directed by the CtrA response-regulator protein. Synthetic oligonucleotides were ligated to create altered CtrA binding sites and corresponding promoters with varied transcription strength. We also document the phenomenon of long-range promoter interference. A strong promoter can repress up to twofold the transcription from a divergent promoter located 100 bp away. However, the cell cycle timing of both promoters is not changed. Additional applications of our system and theoretical aspects of promoter organization are discussed. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  9. Separate contributions of UhpA and CAP to activation of transcription of the uhpT promoter of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Olekhnovich, I N; Dahl, J L; Kadner, R J

    1999-10-08

    Activation of promoters by multiple transcription factors might occur through favorable contacts of the activators with themselves or RNA polymerase, or by changes in DNA geometry that enhance formation of the transcription complex. Transcription of the Escherichia coli uhpT gene, encoding the organophosphate transporter, requires the response regulator UhpA and is stimulated by the global regulator protein CAP. CAP binds to the uhpT promoter at a single site, centered at -103.5 bp relative to the start of transcription, and UhpA binds to multiple sites between positions -80 and -32. Overexpression of UhpA did not reduce the degree of CAP stimulation of uhpT-lacZ expression, showing that CAP action is more complex than enhancement of the binding of UhpA. Footprinting experiments demonstrated that UhpA and CAP modestly stimulated each other's binding to the uhpT promoter, but did not affect the positioning of the binding sites. An in vitro transcription system was used to examine the contribution of each transcription factor at the uhpT promoter. Action of UhpA and CAP proteins was not affected by template supercoiling. Kinetic analyses of productive and abortive initiation showed that CAP acted both to stabilize by fivefold the open promoter complexes formed in the presence of UhpA and to enhance by twofold the rate of their formation. These results indicate that open complex formation requires UhpA and that CAP stabilizes the open complex. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  10. Expanded roles of leucine-responsive regulatory protein in transcription regulation of the Escherichia coli genome: Genomic SELEX screening of the regulation targets

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Natsumi; Maeda, Michihisa; Tanaka, Kan; Ishihama, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) is a transcriptional regulator for the genes involved in transport, biosynthesis and catabolism of amino acids in Escherichia coli. In order to identify the whole set of genes under the direct control of Lrp, we performed Genomic SELEX screening and identified a total of 314 Lrp-binding sites on the E. coli genome. As a result, the regulation target of Lrp was predicted to expand from the hitherto identified genes for amino acid metabolism to a set of novel target genes for utilization of amino acids for protein synthesis, including tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthases and rRNAs. Northern blot analysis indicated alteration of mRNA levels for at least some novel targets, including the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes. Phenotype MicroArray of the lrp mutant indicated significant alteration in utilization of amino acids and peptides, whilst metabolome analysis showed variations in the concentration of amino acids in the lrp mutant. From these two datasets we realized a reverse correlation between amino acid levels and cell growth rate: fast-growing cells contain low-level amino acids, whilst a high level of amino acids exists in slow-growing cells. Taken together, we propose that Lrp is a global regulator of transcription of a large number of the genes involved in not only amino acid transport and metabolism, but also amino acid utilization. PMID:28348809

  11. Transcription analysis of stx1, marA, and eaeA genes in Escherichia coli O157:H7 treated with sodium benzoate.

    PubMed

    Critzer, Faith J; Dsouza, Doris H; Golden, David A

    2008-07-01

    Expression of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operon causes increased antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens. The activator of this operon, MarA, can alter expression of >60 genes in Escherichia coli K-12. However, data on the expression of virulence and resistance genes when foodborne pathogens are exposed to antimicrobial agents are lacking. This study was conducted to determine transcription of marA (mar activator), stx1 (Shiga toxin 1), and eaeA (intimin) genes of E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 as affected by sodium benzoate. E. coli O157:H7 was grown in Luria-Bertani broth containing 0 (control) and 1% sodium benzoate at 37 degrees C for 24 h, and total RNA was extracted. Primers were designed for hemX (209 bp; housekeeping gene), marA (261 bp), and eaeA (223 bp) genes; previously reported primers were used for stx1. Tenfold dilutions of RNA were used in a real-time one-step reverse transcriptase PCR to determine transcription levels. All experiments were conducted in triplicate, and product detection was validated by gel electrophoresis. For marA and stx1, real-time one-step reverse transcriptase PCR products were detected at a 1-log-greater dilution in sodium benzoate-treated cells than in control cells, although cell numbers for each were similar (7.28 and 7.57 log CFU/ml, respectively). This indicates a greater (albeit slight) level of their transcription in treated cells than in control cells. No difference in expression of eaeA was observed. HemX is a putative uroporphyrinogen III methylase. The hemX gene was expressed at the same level in control and treated cells, validating hemX as an appropriate housekeeping marker. These data indicate that stx1 and marA genes could play a role in pathogen virulence and survival when treated with sodium benzoate, whereas eaeA expression is not altered. Understanding adaptations of E. coli O157:H7 during antimicrobial exposure is essential to better understand and implement methods to inhibit or control

  12. Transcriptional Regulation of the ecp Operon by EcpR, IHF, and H-NS in Attaching and Effacing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Santos, Verónica I.; Medrano-López, Abraham; Saldaña, Zeus; Girón, Jorge A.

    2012-01-01

    Enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli are clinically important diarrheagenic pathogens that adhere to the intestinal epithelial surface. The E. coli common pili (ECP), or meningitis-associated and temperature-regulated (MAT) fimbriae, are ubiquitous among both commensal and pathogenic E. coli strains and play a role as colonization factors by promoting the interaction between bacteria and host epithelial cells and favoring interbacterial interactions in biofilm communities. The first gene of the ecp operon encodes EcpR (also known as MatA), a proposed regulatory protein containing a LuxR-like C-terminal helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA-binding motif. In this work, we analyzed the transcriptional regulation of the ecp genes and the role of EcpR as a transcriptional regulator. EHEC and EPEC ecpR mutants produce less ECP, while plasmids expressing EcpR increase considerably the expression of EcpA and production of ECP. The ecp genes are transcribed as an operon from a promoter located 121 bp upstream of the start codon of ecpR. EcpR positively regulates this promoter by binding to two TTCCT boxes distantly located upstream of the ecp promoter, thus enhancing expression of downstream ecp genes, leading to ECP production. EcpR mutants in the putative HTH DNA-binding domain are no longer able to activate ecp expression or bind to the TTCCT boxes. EcpR-mediated activation is aided by integration host factor (IHF), which is essential for counteracting the repression exerted by histone-like nucleoid-structuring protein (H-NS) on the ecp promoter. This work demonstrates evidence about the interplay between a novel member of a diverse family of regulatory proteins and global regulators in the regulation of a fimbrial operon. PMID:22797761

  13. Transcriptional regulation of the ecp operon by EcpR, IHF, and H-NS in attaching and effacing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Santos, Verónica I; Medrano-López, Abraham; Saldaña, Zeus; Girón, Jorge A; Puente, José L

    2012-09-01

    Enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli are clinically important diarrheagenic pathogens that adhere to the intestinal epithelial surface. The E. coli common pili (ECP), or meningitis-associated and temperature-regulated (MAT) fimbriae, are ubiquitous among both commensal and pathogenic E. coli strains and play a role as colonization factors by promoting the interaction between bacteria and host epithelial cells and favoring interbacterial interactions in biofilm communities. The first gene of the ecp operon encodes EcpR (also known as MatA), a proposed regulatory protein containing a LuxR-like C-terminal helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA-binding motif. In this work, we analyzed the transcriptional regulation of the ecp genes and the role of EcpR as a transcriptional regulator. EHEC and EPEC ecpR mutants produce less ECP, while plasmids expressing EcpR increase considerably the expression of EcpA and production of ECP. The ecp genes are transcribed as an operon from a promoter located 121 bp upstream of the start codon of ecpR. EcpR positively regulates this promoter by binding to two TTCCT boxes distantly located upstream of the ecp promoter, thus enhancing expression of downstream ecp genes, leading to ECP production. EcpR mutants in the putative HTH DNA-binding domain are no longer able to activate ecp expression or bind to the TTCCT boxes. EcpR-mediated activation is aided by integration host factor (IHF), which is essential for counteracting the repression exerted by histone-like nucleoid-structuring protein (H-NS) on the ecp promoter. This work demonstrates evidence about the interplay between a novel member of a diverse family of regulatory proteins and global regulators in the regulation of a fimbrial operon.

  14. Genetic regulation of glycogen biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: in vitro effects of cyclic AMP and guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate and analysis of in vivo transcripts.

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, T; Preiss, J

    1989-01-01

    Glycogen accumulation in Escherichia coli is inversely related to the growth rate and occurs most actively when cells enter the stationary phase. The levels of the three biosynthetic enzymes undergo corresponding changes under these conditions, suggesting that genetic control of enzyme biosynthesis may account for at least part of the regulation (J. Preiss, Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 38:419-458, 1984). We have begun to explore the molecular basis of this control by identifying factors which affect the expression of the glycogen genes and by determining the 5'-flanking regions required to mediate the regulatory effects. The in vitro coupled transcription-translation of two of the biosynthetic genes, glgC (ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase) and glgA (glycogen synthase), was enhanced up to 26- and 10-fold, respectively, by cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP receptor protein (CRP). Guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate stimulated the expression of these genes 3.6- and 1.8-fold, respectively. The expression of glgB (glycogen branching enzyme) was affected weakly or negligibly by the above-mentioned compounds. Assays which measured the in vitro formation of the first dipeptide of glgC showed that a restriction fragment which contained 0.5 kilobases of DNA upstream from the initiation codon supported cAMP-CRP-activated expression. Sequence-specific binding of cAMP-CRP to a 243-base-pair restriction fragment from the region upstream from glgC was observed by virtue of the altered electrophoretic mobility of the bound DNA. S1 nuclease protection analysis identified 5' termini of four in vivo transcripts within 0.5 kilobases of the glgC coding region. The relative concentrations of transcripts were higher in the early stationary phase than in the exponential phase. Two mutants which overproduced the biosynthesis enzymes accumulated elevated levels of specific transcripts. The 5' termini of three of the transcripts were mapped to a high resolution. Their upstream sequences showed weak

  15. The action of actinomycin D on the transcription of T7 coliphage DNA by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Flamée, P A

    1985-09-01

    An actinomycin D molecule bound to DNA sometimes stops the synthesis of RNA by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. However, quite often, the bound antibiotic is released before the RNA polymerase detaches from the template DNA, so that the enzyme can resume, without interruption, the synthesis of the RNA chain.

  16. Effects of base changes at the transcription start site on stringent control of rnpB in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun-Sook; Park, Jeong Won; Hong, Soon Kang; Lee, Kangseok; Lee, Younghoon

    2008-08-31

    The GC-rich discriminator sequence between the -10 region and the transcription start site of the rnpB promoter is responsible for stringent control of M1 RNA synthesis. The rnpB promoter also contains a G nucleotide at the previously identified transcription start site. In this study, we examined by mutagenesis of G to A whether this +1G nucleotide is involved in the stringent response. We found that the change did not alter the stringent response. Since the +1 mutation might alter transcription initiation, we compared the transcription start sites of the wt and mutant promoters by primer extension analysis. Surprisingly, we found that wild type rnpB transcription starts at both the +1G position (70%) and the -1C position (30%), and that the +1A mutation led to transcription initiation exclusively at the -1C position. We also generated two transversion mutations at the -1 position, both of which led to transcription starting exclusively at that position. The -1G mutant promoter gave a stringent signal similar to the wild-type, whereas the -1A mutant generated a significantly less stringent signal. Base on these results, we propose that a short sequence, up to 7 bp downstream of the -10 region, is involved in the stringent response of the rnpB promoter.

  17. High yields and soluble expression of superoxide dismutases in Escherichia coli due to the HIV-1 Tat peptide via increases in mRNA transcription

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yangdong; Ye, Qiao; Wu, Min; Wu, Yonghong; Zhang, Chenggang; Yan, Weiqun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to validate the high yield and soluble expression of proteins carrying the transactivator of transcription (Tat) peptide tag, and further explored the potential mechanism by which the Tat tag increases expression. Escherichia coli superoxide dismutase (SOD) proteins, including SodA, SodB and SodC, were selected for analysis. As expected, the yields and the solubility of Tat-tagged proteins were higher than those of Tat-free proteins, and similar results were observed for the total SOD enzyme activity. Bacterial cells that overexpressed Tat-tagged proteins exhibited increased anti-paraquat activity compared with those expressing Tat-free proteins that manifested as SodA>SodC>SodB. When compared with an MG1655 wild-type strain, the growth of a ΔSodA mutant strain was found to be inhibited after paraquat treatment; the growth of ΔSodB and ΔSodC mutant strains was also slightly inhibited. The mRNA transcript level of genes encoding Tat-tagged proteins was higher than that of genes encoding Tat-free proteins. Furthermore, the α-helix and turn of Tat-tagged proteins were higher than those of Tat-free proteins, but the β-sheet and random coil content was lower. These results indicated that the incorporation of the Tat core peptide as a significant basic membrane transduction peptide in fusion proteins could increase mRNA transcripts and promote the high yield and soluble expression of heterologous proteins in E. coli. PMID:27741225

  18. Escherichia coli unsaturated fatty acid synthesis: complex transcription of the fabA gene and in vivo identification of the essential reaction catalyzed by FabB.

    PubMed

    Feng, Youjun; Cronan, John E

    2009-10-23

    Although the unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) synthetic pathway of Escherichia coli is the prototype of such pathways, several unresolved issues have accumulated over the years. The key players are the fabA and fabB genes. Earlier studies of fabA transcription showed that the gene was transcribed from two promoters, with one being positively regulated by the FadR protein. The other weaker promoter (which could not be mapped with the technology then available) was considered constitutive because its function was independent of FadR. However, the FabR negative regulator was recently shown to represses fabA transcription. We report that the weak promoter overlaps the FadR-dependent promoter and is regulated by FabR. This promoter is strictly conserved in all E. coli and Salmonella enterica genomes sequenced to date and is thought to provide insurance against inappropriate regulation of fabA transcription by exogenous saturated fatty acids. Also, the fabAup promoter, a mutant promoter previously isolated by selection for increased FabA activity, was shown to be a promoter created de novo by a four-base deletion within the gene located immediately upstream of fabA. Demonstration of the key UFA synthetic reaction catalyzed by FabB has been elusive, although it was known to catalyze an elongation reaction. Strains lacking FabB are UFA auxotrophs indicating that the enzyme catalyzes an essential step in UFA synthesis. Using thioesterases specific for hydrolysis of short chain acyl-ACPs, the intermediates of the UFA synthetic pathway have been followed in vivo for the first time. These experiments showed that a fabB mutant strain accumulated less cis-5-dodecenoic acid than the parental wild-type strain. These data indicate that the key reaction in UFA synthesis catalyzed by FabB is elongation of the cis-3-decenoyl-ACP produced by FabA.

  19. Structural basis for phosphorylated autoinducer-2 modulation of the oligomerization state of the global transcription regulator LsrR from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minhao; Tao, Yue; Liu, Xiaotian; Zang, Jianye

    2013-05-31

    Quorum-sensing systems are widely used by bacteria to control behavior in response to fluctuations in cell density. Several small diffusible molecules called autoinducers act as signaling molecules in quorum-sensing processes through interplay with sensors. Autoinducers modulate vital physiological functions such as nutrient acquisition, gene transcription, and virulence factor production. In Escherichia coli, LsrR serves as a global transcription regulator that responds to autoinducer-2 to regulate the expression of a variety of genes, including the lsr operon and the lsrR gene. Here, we report the crystal structure of full-length LsrR from E. coli, which has an N-terminal DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal ligand-binding domain connected by a β-strand. Although only two molecules are found in one asymmetric unit, two neighboring dimers pack to form a tetramer that is consistent with the oligomerization state of LsrR in solution. Mutagenesis experiments and gel shift assays indicated that Gln-33 and Tyr-26 might be involved in interactions between LsrR and DNA. The LsrR-binding site for phosphorylated autoinducer-2 was predicted by structural comparisons of LsrR with CggR and SorC. Cross-linking, size exclusion chromatography, and gel shift assays determined that phosphorylated autoinducer-2 triggered the disassembly of the LsrR tetramer into dimers and reduced the DNA binding ability of LsrR. Our findings reveal a mechanism for the change in the oligomerization state of LsrR in the presence of phosphorylated autoinducer-2. Based on these observations, we propose that phosphorylated autoinducer-2 triggers the disassembly of the LsrR tetramer to activate the transcription of its target genes.

  20. Genome-wide transcriptional profile of Escherichia coli in response to high levels of the second messenger 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Ortiz, M Marcela; Hyodo, Mamoru; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Membrillo-Hernández, Jorge

    2006-03-24

    Cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP; cGpGp) is a global second messenger controlling motility and adhesion in bacterial cells. Intracellular concentrations of c-di-GMP depend on two opposite activities: diguanylate cyclase, recently assigned to the widespread GGDEF domain, and c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterase, associated with proteins harboring the EAL domain. To date, little is known about the targets of c-di-GMP in the cell or if it affects transcriptional regulation of certain genes. In order to expand our knowledge of the effect of this molecule on the bacterial metabolism, here we report on the Escherichia coli transcriptional profile under high levels of c-di-GMP. We show that an important number of genes encoding cell surface and membrane-bound proteins are altered in their transcriptional activity. On the other hand, genes encoding several transcriptional factors, such as Fur, RcsA, SoxS, and ZraR, are up-regulated, and others, such as GadE, GadX, GcvA, and MetR, are down-regulated. Transcription of motility and cell division genes were altered, and consistent with this was the physiological analysis of cells overexpressing yddV, a diguanylate cyclase; these cells displayed an abnormal cell division process when high levels of c-di-GMP were present. We also show evidence that the diguanylate cyclase gene yddV is co-transcribed with dos, a heme base oxygen sensor with c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterase activity. A delta dos::kan mutation rendered the cells unable to divide properly, suggesting that dos and yddV may be part of a fine-tuning mechanism for regulating the intracellular levels of c-di-GMP.

  1. Cloning and characterization of bfpTVW, genes required for the transcriptional activation of bfpA in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tobe, T; Schoolnik, G K; Sohel, I; Bustamante, V H; Puente, J L

    1996-09-01

    Expression of the bundle-forming pilus (BFP) of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is regulated at the transcriptional level by growth phase, temperature, calcium and ammonium. Genes required for the transcriptional activation of bfpA were localized to a 1.8 kb fragment of the enteroadherent factor (EAF) plasmid of EPEC that is separated from the bfp operon by 6 kb. Within this fragment three identically oriented and closely spaced open reading frames (ORFs) were identified and designated bfpT, bfpV and bfpW. bfpT is predicted to encode a 31.8 kDa protein that shares homology with the AraC family of transcriptional regulators, including the presence of a conserved C-terminal DNA-binding helix-turn-helix motif. Insertional inactivation of bfpT led to the loss of bfpA transcription, BfpA protein production and the localized adherence (LA) phenotype; this mutant phenotype could be complemented by introduction of bfpTVW and, on separate plasmids, bfpT + bfpW. However, introduction of bfpT + bfpV, bfpV alone, bfpW alone, or bfpV + bfpW did not enable recovery of the wild-type phenotype. Maximal efficiency of bfpA transcription required all three genes, but bfpV and bfpW each enhanced transcription providing bfpT was also present. A series of deletions of the bfpA upstream promoter region was prepared; with respect to the bfpA transcription start site, sequence between nucleotides -94 and -55 was found to bind bfpT. BfpT also bound a DNA fragment containing the eaeA promoter region on the EPEC chromosome. From these results we conclude that bfpTV W causes transcriptional activation of bfpA, and possibly eaeA, by a trans-acting mechanism that may co-ordinately regulate the expression of EPEC virulence determinants.

  2. Mechanism of action of the Escherichia coli phage shock protein PspA in repression of the AAA family transcription factor PspF.

    PubMed

    Elderkin, Sarah; Jones, Susan; Schumacher, Jörg; Studholme, David; Buck, Martin

    2002-06-28

    The PspA protein, a negative regulator of the Escherichia coli phage shock psp operon, is produced when virulence factors are exported through secretins in many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria and its homologue in plants, VIPP1, plays a critical role in thylakoid biogenesis, essential for photosynthesis. Activation of transcription by the enhancer-dependent bacterial sigma(54) containing RNA polymerase occurs through ATP hydrolysis-driven protein conformational changes enabled by activator proteins that belong to the large AAA(+) mechanochemical protein family. We show that PspA directly and specifically acts upon and binds to the AAA(+) domain of the PspF transcription activator. Interactions involving PspF and nucleotide are changed by the action of PspA. These changes and the complexes that form between PspF and PspA can explain how PspA exerts its negative effects upon transcription activated by PspF, and are of significance when considering how activities of other AAA(+) proteins might be controlled.

  3. The impact of oregano (Origanum heracleoticum) essential oil and carvacrol on virulence gene transcription by Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Mith, Hasika; Clinquart, Antoine; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Delcenserie, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine, via reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis, the effect of oregano essential oil (Origanum heracleoticum) and carvacrol, its major component, on the expression of virulence-associated genes in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 ATCC strain 35150. Both oregano oil and carvacrol demonstrated their efficacy firstly, by inhibiting the transcription of the ler gene involved in upregulation of the LEE2, LEE3 and LEE4 promoters and of attaching and effacing lesions and secondly by decreasing both Shiga toxin and fliC genes expression. In addition, a decrease in luxS gene transcription involved in quorum sensing was observed. These results were dose dependent and showed a specific effect of O. heracleoticum and carvacrol in downregulating the expression of virulence genes in EHEC O157:H7. These findings suggest that oregano oil and carvacrol have the potential to mitigate the adverse health effects caused by virulence gene expression in EHEC O157:H7, through the use of these substances as natural antibacterial additives in foods or as an alternative to antibiotics.

  4. An Interplay among FIS, H-NS, and Guanosine Tetraphosphate Modulates Transcription of the Escherichia coli cspA Gene under Physiological Growth Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Brandi, Anna; Giangrossi, Mara; Giuliodori, Anna M.; Falconi, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    CspA, the most characterized member of the csp gene family of Escherichia coli, is highly expressed not only in response to cold stress, but also during the early phase of growth at 37°C. Here, we investigate at molecular level the antagonistic role played by the nucleoid proteins FIS and H-NS in the regulation of cspA expression under non-stress conditions. By means of both probing experiments and immunological detection, we demonstrate in vitro the existence of binding sites for these proteins on the cspA regulatory region, in which FIS and H-NS bind simultaneously to form composite DNA-protein complexes. While the in vitro promoter activity of cspA is stimulated by FIS and repressed by H-NS, a compensatory effect is observed when both proteins are added in the transcription assay. Consistently with these findings, inactivation of fis and hns genes reversely affect the in vivo amount of cspA mRNA. In addition, by means of strains expressing a high level of the alarmone guanosine tetraphosphate ((p)ppGpp) and in vitro transcription assays, we show that the cspA promoter is sensitive to (p)ppGpp inhibition. The (p)ppGpp-mediated expression of fis and hns genes is also analyzed, thus clarifying some aspects of the regulatory loop governing cspA transcription. PMID:27252944

  5. Investigations of Escherichia coli promoter sequences with artificial neural networks: New signals discovered upstream of the transcriptional startpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, A.G.; Engelbrecht, J.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper we present a novel method for using the learning ability of a neural network as a measure of information in local regions of input data. Using the method to analyze Escherichia coli promoters, we discover all previously described signals, and furthermore find new signals that are regularly spaced along the promoter region. The spacing of all signals correspond to the helical periodicity of DNA, meaning that the signals are all present on the same face of the DNA helix in the promoter region. This is consistent with a model where the RNA polymerase contacts the promoter on one side of the DNA, and suggests that the regions important for promoter recognition may include more positions on the DNA than usually assumed. We furthermore analyze the E.coli promoters by calculating the Kullback Leibler distance, and by constructing sequence logos.

  6. Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein and RhaR Synergistically Activate Transcription from the l-Rhamnose-Responsive rhaSR Promoter in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wickstrum, Jason R.; Santangelo, Thomas J.; Egan, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    The Escherichia coli rhaSR operon encodes two AraC family transcription activator proteins, RhaS and RhaR, which regulate expression of the l-rhamnose catabolic regulon in response to l-rhamnose availability. RhaR positively regulates rhaSR in response to l-rhamnose, and RhaR activation can be enhanced by the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) protein. CRP is a well-studied global transcription regulator that binds to DNA as a dimer and activates transcription in the presence of cAMP. We investigated the mechanism of CRP activation at rhaSR both alone and in combination with RhaR in vivo and in vitro. Base pair substitutions at potential CRP binding sites in the rhaSR-rhaBAD intergenic region demonstrate that CRP site 3, centered at position −111.5 relative to the rhaSR transcription start site, is required for the majority of the CRP-dependent activation of rhaSR. DNase I footprinting confirms that CRP binds to site 3; CRP binding to the other potential CRP sites at rhaSR was not detected. We show that, at least in vitro, CRP is capable of both RhaR-dependent and RhaR-independent activation of rhaSR from a total of three transcription start sites. In vitro transcription assays indicate that the carboxy-terminal domain of the alpha subunit (α-CTD) of RNA polymerase is at least partially dispensable for RhaR-dependent activation but that the α-CTD is required for CRP activation of rhaSR. Although CRP requires the presence of RhaR for efficient in vivo activation of rhaSR, DNase I footprinting assays indicated that cooperative binding between RhaR and CRP does not make a significant contribution to the mechanism of CRP activation at rhaSR. It therefore appears that CRP activates transcription from rhaSR as it would at simple class I promoters, albeit from a relatively distant position. PMID:16166533

  7. Transcription of emrKY is regulated by the EvgA-EvgS two-component system in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Kato, A; Ohnishi, H; Yamamoto, K; Furuta, E; Tanabe, H; Utsumi, R

    2000-06-01

    Spontaneous mutations have been isolated in Escherichia coli that result in the constitutive expression of an emrKY promoter. These mutations were found to be single-nucleotide substitutions within the linker region of the sensor protein EvgS, which is part of a two-component regulatory system along with EvgA. In the linker mutants (evgSI and evgS4), emrKY expression became constitutive and MIC against sodium deoxycholate was 20 mg/ml, eight-fold higher than in the wild type. Furthermore, the start site of transcription from the promoter of emrKY was identified; EvgA was shown to bind at the -52 to -84 region by the footprinting experiment.

  8. Characterization of TetD as a transcriptional activator of a subset of genes of the Escherichia coli SoxS/MarA/Rob regulon.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Kevin L; Becker, Stephen M; Wolf, Richard E

    2005-05-01

    In Escherichia coli, SoxS, MarA and Rob form a closely related subset of the AraC/XylS family of positive regulators, sharing approximately 42% amino acid sequence identity over the length of SoxS and the ability to activate transcription of a common set of target genes that provide resistance to redox-cycling compounds and antibiotics. On the basis of its approximately 43% amino acid sequence identity with SoxS, MarA and Rob, TetD, encoded by transposon Tn10, appears to be a fourth member of the subset. However, although its expression has been shown to be negatively regulated by TetC and not inducible by tetracycline, the physiological function of TetD is unknown. Accordingly, in the work presented here, we initiate a molecular characterization of TetD. We show that expression of TetD activates transcription of a subset of the SoxS/MarA/Rob regulon genes and confers resistance to redox-cycling compounds and antibiotics. We show that mutations in the putative TetD binding site of a TetD-activatable promoter and a mutation in the protein's N-terminal DNA recognition helix interfere with transcription activation, thereby indicating that TetD directly activates target gene transcription. Finally, we show that TetD, like SoxS and MarA, is intrinsically unstable; however, unlike SoxS and MarA, TetD is not degraded by Lon or any of the cell's known cytoplasmic ATP-dependent proteases. Thus, we conclude that TetD is a bona fide member of the SoxS/MarA/Rob subfamily of positive regulators.

  9. Transcription factor CecR (YbiH) regulates a set of genes affecting the sensitivity of Escherichia coli against cefoperazone and chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Yuki; Shimada, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Ishihama, Akira

    2016-07-01

    Genomic SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) screening was performed for identification of the binding site of YbiH, an as yet uncharacterized TetR-family transcription factor, on the Escherichia coli genome. YbiH was found to be a unique single-target regulator that binds in vitro within the intergenic spacer located between the divergently transcribed ybiH-ybhGFSR and rhlE operons. YbhG is an inner membrane protein and YbhFSR forms a membrane-associated ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter while RhlE is a ribosome-associated RNA helicase. Gel shift assay and DNase footprinting analyses indicated one clear binding site of YbiH, including a complete palindromic sequence of AATTAGTT-AACTAATT. An in vivo reporter assay indicated repression of the ybiH operon and activation of the rhlE operon by YbiH. After phenotype microarray screening, YbiH was indicated to confer resistance to chloramphenicol and cefazoline (a first-generation cephalosporin). A systematic survey of the participation of each of the predicted YbiH-regulated genes in the antibiotic sensitivity indicated involvement of the YbhFSR ABC-type transporter in the sensitivity to cefoperazone (a third-generation cephalosporin) and of the membrane protein YbhG in the control of sensitivity to chloramphenicol. Taken together with the growth test in the presence of these two antibiotics and in vitro transcription assay, it was concluded that the hitherto uncharacterized YbiH regulates transcription of both the bidirectional transcription units, the ybiH-ybhGFSR operon and the rhlE gene, which altogether are involved in the control of sensitivity to cefoperazone and chloramphenicol. We thus propose to rename YbiH as CecR (regulator of cefoperazone and chloramphenicol sensitivity).

  10. Correlation of Antagonistic Regulation of leuO Transcription with the Cellular Levels of BglJ-RcsB and LeuO in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Breddermann, Hannes; Schnetz, Karin

    2016-01-01

    LeuO is a conserved and pleiotropic transcription regulator, antagonist of the nucleoid-associated silencer protein H-NS, and important for pathogenicity and multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. Regulation of transcription of the leuO gene is complex. It is silenced by H-NS and its paralog StpA, and it is autoregulated. In addition, in Escherichia coli leuO is antagonistically regulated by the heterodimeric transcription regulator BglJ-RcsB and by LeuO. BglJ-RcsB activates leuO, while LeuO inhibits activation by BglJ-RcsB. Furthermore, LeuO activates expression of bglJ, which is likewise H-NS repressed. Mutual activation of leuO and bglJ resembles a double-positive feedback network, which theoretically can result in bi-stability and heterogeneity, or be maintained in a stable OFF or ON states by an additional signal. Here we performed quantitative and single-cell expression analyses to address the antagonistic regulation and feedback control of leuO transcription by BglJ-RcsB and LeuO using a leuO promoter mVenus reporter fusion and finely tunable bglJ and leuO expression plasmids. The data revealed uniform regulation of leuO expression in the population that correlates with the relative cellular concentration of BglJ and LeuO. The data are in agreement with a straightforward model of antagonistic regulation of leuO expression by the two regulators, LeuO and BglJ-RcsB, by independent mechanisms. Further, the data suggest that at standard laboratory growth conditions feedback regulation of leuO is of minor relevance and that silencing of leuO and bglJ by H-NS (and StpA) keeps these loci in the OFF state. PMID:27695690

  11. Correlation of Antagonistic Regulation of leuO Transcription with the Cellular Levels of BglJ-RcsB and LeuO in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Breddermann, Hannes; Schnetz, Karin

    2016-01-01

    LeuO is a conserved and pleiotropic transcription regulator, antagonist of the nucleoid-associated silencer protein H-NS, and important for pathogenicity and multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. Regulation of transcription of the leuO gene is complex. It is silenced by H-NS and its paralog StpA, and it is autoregulated. In addition, in Escherichia coli leuO is antagonistically regulated by the heterodimeric transcription regulator BglJ-RcsB and by LeuO. BglJ-RcsB activates leuO, while LeuO inhibits activation by BglJ-RcsB. Furthermore, LeuO activates expression of bglJ, which is likewise H-NS repressed. Mutual activation of leuO and bglJ resembles a double-positive feedback network, which theoretically can result in bi-stability and heterogeneity, or be maintained in a stable OFF or ON states by an additional signal. Here we performed quantitative and single-cell expression analyses to address the antagonistic regulation and feedback control of leuO transcription by BglJ-RcsB and LeuO using a leuO promoter mVenus reporter fusion and finely tunable bglJ and leuO expression plasmids. The data revealed uniform regulation of leuO expression in the population that correlates with the relative cellular concentration of BglJ and LeuO. The data are in agreement with a straightforward model of antagonistic regulation of leuO expression by the two regulators, LeuO and BglJ-RcsB, by independent mechanisms. Further, the data suggest that at standard laboratory growth conditions feedback regulation of leuO is of minor relevance and that silencing of leuO and bglJ by H-NS (and StpA) keeps these loci in the OFF state.

  12. Rho-Dependent Transcription Termination in the tna Operon of Escherichia coli: Roles of the boxA Sequence and the rut Site

    PubMed Central

    Konan, Kouacou Vincent; Yanofsky, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Expression of the tryptophanase (tna) operon of Escherichia coli is regulated by catabolite repression and by tryptophan-induced transcription antitermination. Tryptophan induction prevents Rho-dependent transcription termination in the leader region of the operon. Induction requires translation of a 24-residue leader peptide-coding region, tnaC, containing a single, crucial Trp codon. Studies with a lacZ reporter construct lacking the tnaC-tnaA spacer region suggest that, in the presence of excess tryptophan, the TnaC leader peptide acts in cis on the ribosome translating tnaC to inhibit its release. The stalled ribosome is thought to block Rho's access to the transcript. In this paper we examine the roles of the boxA sequence and the rut site in Rho-dependent termination. Deleting six nucleotides (CGC CCT) of boxA or introducing specific point mutations in boxA results in high-level constitutive expression. Some constitutive changes introduced in boxA do not change the TnaC peptide sequence. We confirm that deletion of the rut site results in constitutive expression. We also demonstrate that, in each constitutive construct, replacement of the tnaC start codon by a UAG stop codon reduces expression significantly, suggesting that constitutive expression requires translation of the tnaC coding sequence. Addition of bicyclomycin, an inhibitor of Rho, to these UAG constructs increases expression, demonstrating that reduced expression is due to Rho action. Combining a boxA point mutation with rut site deletion results in constitutive expression comparable to that of a maximally induced operon. These results support the hypothesis that in the presence of tryptophan the ribosome translating tnaC blocks Rho's access to the boxA and rut sites, thereby preventing transcription termination. PMID:10869076

  13. Syn, anti, and finally both conformations of cyclic AMP are involved in the CRP-dependent transcription initiation mechanism in E. coli lac operon.

    PubMed

    Tutar, Yusuf

    2008-06-01

    The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) of Escherichia coli regulates the activity of more than 150 genes. Allosteric changes in CRP structure accompanied by cAMP binding, initiate transcription through protein binding to specific DNA sequences. Initially, researchers proposed a two-site cAMP-binding model for CRP-dependent transcription activation since biophysical methods showed two transitions during titration experiments. Three conformational states were considered; apo-CRP, CRP:(cAMP)(1) and CRP:(cAMP)(2), and CRP:(cAMP)(1) was proposed as the active form in this initial model. X-ray data indicated an anti conformation and in contrast NMR experiments suggested a syn conformation for bound cAMPs. For years this paradigm about ligand conformation has been ambiguous. When CRP was crystallized with four bound cAMP in the last decade, two cAMPs were assigned to syn and the other two to anti conformations. Again three conformational states were suggested; apo-CRP, CRP:(cAMP)(2), and CRP:(cAMP)(4). This new structure changed the view of CRP allosteric activation from a two-site model to a four-site model in the literature and the new model has been supported by biochemical and genetic data so far. According to the accepted model, binding of the first two cAMP molecules displays positive cooperativity, however, binding of the last two cAMP molecules shows negative cooperativity. This resolved the conflict between dynamic and static experimental observations. However, this new model cannot explain the initiation mechanism as previously proposed because functionally active CRP has only one cAMP equivalent. Gene regulation and transcription factors are involved in regulating both prokaryotic and eukaryotic metabolism. Although gene regulation and expression are much more complex in eukaryotes, CRP-mediated transcription initiation is a model of general interest to life sciences and medicine. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize recent works and developments on

  14. Growth phase-dependent transcription of emrKY, a homolog of multidrug efflux emrAB genes of Escherichia coli, is induced by tetracycline.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Hiroyuki; Yamasak, Katsuhide; Furue, Motoki; Yamamoto, Kanehisa; Katoh, Akinori; Yamamoto, Mayu; Yoshioka, Sachiko; Tagami, Hideaki; Aiba, Hiroji Aiba; Utsumi, Ryutaro

    1997-10-01

    The genes emrK and emrY were found between genes dsdA and evgA at 51 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome and form an operon. EmrK and EmrY are 50.4 and 63.3% identical in amino acid sequences to EmrA and EmrB, respectively, which together make up a multidrug resistant pump. To show that the emrKY operon can be expressed, we cloned the promoter with pMC1403 and constructed an emrK-lacZ' protein fusion plasmid, pMKD1. In E. coli MC4100 containing pMKD1, its expression was increased in the presence of a subinhibitory concentration of tetracycline, chloramphenicol or salicylate, but not by carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, nalidixic acid or kanamycin. Furthermore, we have shown that emrKY transcription dependent on the growth phase is actually induced by tetracycline using a S1 nuclease protection assay.

  15. CRISPathBrick: Modular Combinatorial Assembly of Type II-A CRISPR Arrays for dCas9-Mediated Multiplex Transcriptional Repression in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Cress, Brady F; Toparlak, Ö Duhan; Guleria, Sanjay; Lebovich, Matthew; Stieglitz, Jessica T; Englaender, Jacob A; Jones, J Andrew; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos A G

    2015-09-18

    Programmable control over an addressable global regulator would enable simultaneous repression of multiple genes and would have tremendous impact on the field of synthetic biology. It has recently been established that CRISPR/Cas systems can be engineered to repress gene transcription at nearly any desired location in a sequence-specific manner, but there remain only a handful of applications described to date. In this work, we report development of a vector possessing a CRISPathBrick feature, enabling rapid modular assembly of natural type II-A CRISPR arrays capable of simultaneously repressing multiple target genes in Escherichia coli. Iterative incorporation of spacers into this CRISPathBrick feature facilitates the combinatorial construction of arrays, from a small number of DNA parts, which can be utilized to generate a suite of complex phenotypes corresponding to an encoded genetic program. We show that CRISPathBrick can be used to tune expression of plasmid-based genes and repress chromosomal targets in probiotic, virulent, and commonly engineered E. coli strains. Furthermore, we describe development of pCRISPReporter, a fluorescent reporter plasmid utilized to quantify dCas9-mediated repression from endogenous promoters. Finally, we demonstrate that dCas9-mediated repression can be harnessed to assess the effect of downregulating both novel and computationally predicted metabolic engineering targets, improving the yield of a heterologous phytochemical through repression of endogenous genes. These tools provide a platform for rapid evaluation of multiplex metabolic engineering interventions.

  16. Translation of a minigene in the 5' leader sequence of the enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli LEE1 transcription unit affects expression of the neighbouring downstream gene.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Shaw, Robert K; Frankel, Gad; Pallen, Mark J; Busby, Stephen J W

    2012-01-01

    The 5' end of the major RNA transcript of the LEE1 operon of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli contains ~170 bases before the AUG translation start codon of the first recognized gene, ler. This unusually long leader sequence carries three potential alternative AUG start codons. Using a lac fusion expression vector, we confirmed that the ler gene AUG is functional for translation initiation, and we checked for translation initiation at the three alternative AUG codons. Whereas two of the alternative AUG codons appear incompetent for translation initiation, we detected strong initiation at the third AUG, which is followed by one AAA codon and a UAG stop codon. The location of this very short two-codon open reading frame with respect to the ler translation start appears to be critical. Hence mutations that destroy the UAG stop codon, or short deletions between the UAG stop codon and the ler translation initiation region, result in big effects on ler expression. In the context of the full-length LEE1 operon leader sequence, translation of this very short two-codon open reading frame is necessary for optimal expression of the ler gene and for the subsequent interactions of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli with host target cells.

  17. Transcription Analysis of Central Metabolism Genes in Escherichia coli. Possible Roles of σ38 in Their Expression, as a Response to Carbon Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Noemí; Olvera, Maricela; Sigala, Juan Carlos; Gosset, Guillermo; Morett, Enrique; Bolívar, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate transferase system (PTS) transports glucose in Escherichia coli. Previous work demonstrated that strains lacking PTS, such as PB11, grow slow on glucose. PB11 has a reduced expression of glycolytic, and upregulates poxB and acs genes as compared to the parental strain JM101, when growing on glucose. The products of the latter genes are involved in the production of AcetylCoA. Inactivation of rpoS that codes for the RNA polymerase σ38 subunit, reduces further (50%) growth of PB11, indicating that σ38 plays a central role in the expression of central metabolism genes in slowly growing cells. In fact, transcription levels of glycolytic genes is reduced in strain PB11rpoS− as compared to PB11. In this report we studied the role of σ70 and σ38 in the expression of the complete glycolytic pathway and poxB and acs genes in certain PTS− strains and their rpoS− derivatives. We determined the transcription start sites (TSSs) and the corresponding promoters, in strains JM101, PB11, its derivative PB12 that recovered its growth capacity, and in their rpoS− derivatives, by 5′RACE and pyrosequencing. In all these genes the presence of sequences resembling σ38 recognition sites allowed the proposition that they could be transcribed by both sigma factors, from overlapping putative promoters that initiate transcription at the same site. Fourteen new TSSs were identified in seventeen genes. Besides, more than 30 putative promoters were proposed and we confirmed ten previously reported. In vitro transcription experiments support the functionality of putative dual promoters. Alternatives that could also explain lower transcription levels of the rpoS− derivatives are discussed. We propose that the presence if real, of both σ70 and σ38 dependent promoters in all glycolytic genes and operons could allow a differential transcription of these central metabolism genes by both sigma subunits as an adaptation response to carbon

  18. Transcription Elongation Factor NusA Is a General Antagonist of Rho-dependent Termination in Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Qayyum, M. Zuhaib; Dey, Debashish; Sen, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    NusA is an essential protein that binds to RNA polymerase and also to the nascent RNA and influences transcription by inducing pausing and facilitating the process of transcription termination/antitermination. Its participation in Rho-dependent transcription termination has been perceived, but the molecular nature of this involvement is not known. We hypothesized that, because both Rho and NusA are RNA-binding proteins and have the potential to target the same RNA, the latter is likely to influence the global pattern of the Rho-dependent termination. Analyses of the nascent RNA binding properties and consequent effects on the Rho-dependent termination functions of specific NusA-RNA binding domain mutants revealed an existence of Rho-NusA direct competition for the overlapping nut (NusA-binding site) and rut (Rho-binding site) sites on the RNA. This leads to delayed entry of Rho at the rut site that inhibits the latter's RNA release process. High density tiling microarray profiles of these NusA mutants revealed that a significant number of genes, together with transcripts from intergenic regions, are up-regulated. Interestingly, the majority of these genes were also up-regulated when the Rho function was compromised. These results provide strong evidence for the existence of NusA-binding sites in different operons that are also the targets of Rho-dependent terminations. Our data strongly argue in favor of a direct competition between NusA and Rho for the access of specific sites on the nascent transcripts in different parts of the genome. We propose that this competition enables NusA to function as a global antagonist of the Rho function, which is unlike its role as a facilitator of hairpin-dependent termination. PMID:26872975

  19. Transcription Elongation Factor NusA Is a General Antagonist of Rho-dependent Termination in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Qayyum, M Zuhaib; Dey, Debashish; Sen, Ranjan

    2016-04-08

    NusA is an essential protein that binds to RNA polymerase and also to the nascent RNA and influences transcription by inducing pausing and facilitating the process of transcription termination/antitermination. Its participation in Rho-dependent transcription termination has been perceived, but the molecular nature of this involvement is not known. We hypothesized that, because both Rho and NusA are RNA-binding proteins and have the potential to target the same RNA, the latter is likely to influence the global pattern of the Rho-dependent termination. Analyses of the nascent RNA binding properties and consequent effects on the Rho-dependent termination functions of specific NusA-RNA binding domain mutants revealed an existence of Rho-NusA direct competition for the overlappingnut(NusA-binding site) andrut(Rho-binding site) sites on the RNA. This leads to delayed entry of Rho at therutsite that inhibits the latter's RNA release process. High density tiling microarray profiles of these NusA mutants revealed that a significant number of genes, together with transcripts from intergenic regions, are up-regulated. Interestingly, the majority of these genes were also up-regulated when the Rho function was compromised. These results provide strong evidence for the existence of NusA-binding sites in different operons that are also the targets of Rho-dependent terminations. Our data strongly argue in favor of a direct competition between NusA and Rho for the access of specific sites on the nascent transcripts in different parts of the genome. We propose that this competition enables NusA to function as a global antagonist of the Rho function, which is unlike its role as a facilitator of hairpin-dependent termination.

  20. Evaluation of the impact of quorum sensing transcriptional regulator SdiA on long-term persistence and fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in weaned calves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quorum sensing transcriptional regulator SdiA has been shown to enhance the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) in the acidic compartment of bovine rumen in response to N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by the rumen bacteria. Bacteria that survive the rumen environment subsequentl...

  1. Growth of Escherichia coli MG1655 on LB medium: monitoring utilization of sugars, alcohols, and organic acids with transcriptional microarrays.

    PubMed

    Baev, Mark V; Baev, Dmitry; Radek, Agnes Jancso; Campbell, John W

    2006-07-01

    Microorganisms respond to environmental changes by reprogramming their metabolism primarily through altered patterns of gene expression. DNA microarrays provide a tool for exploiting microorganisms as living sensors of their environment. The potential of DNA microarrays to reflect availability of nutrient components during fermentations on complex media was examined by monitoring global gene expression throughout batch cultivation of Escherichia coli MG1655 on Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. Gene expression profiles group into pathways that clearly demonstrate the metabolic changes occurring in the course of fermentation. Functional analysis of the gene expression related to metabolism of sugars, alcohols, and organic acids revealed that E. coli growing on LB medium switches from a sequential mode of substrate utilization to the simultaneous one in the course of the growth. Maltose and maltodextrins are the first of these substrates to support growth. Utilization of these nutrients associated with the highest growth rate of the culture was followed by simultaneous induction of enzymes involved in assimilation of a large group of other carbon sources including D-mannose, melibiose, D-galactose, L-fucose, L-rhamnose, D-mannitol, amino sugars, trehalose, L-arabinose, glycerol, and lactate. Availability of these nutrients to the cells was monitored by induction of corresponding transport and/or catabolic systems specific for each of the compounds.

  2. Structures of Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) in complex with a non-GATC sequence: Potential implications for methylation-independent transcriptional repression

    DOE PAGES

    Horton, John R.; Zhang, Xing; Blumenthal, Robert M.; ...

    2015-04-06

    DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) is widespread and conserved among the γ-proteobacteria. Methylation of the Ade in GATC sequences regulates diverse bacterial cell functions, including gene expression, mismatch repair and chromosome replication. Dam also controls virulence in many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. An unexplained and perplexing observation about Escherichia coli Dam (EcoDam) is that there is no obvious relationship between the genes that are transcriptionally responsive to Dam and the promoter-proximal presence of GATC sequences. Here, we demonstrate that EcoDam interacts with a 5-base pair non-cognate sequence distinct from GATC. The crystal structure of a non-cognate complex allowed us to identify amore » DNA binding element, GTYTA/TARAC (where Y = C/T and R = A/G). This element immediately flanks GATC sites in some Dam-regulated promoters, including the Pap operon which specifies pyelonephritis-associated pili. In addition, Dam interacts with near-cognate GATC sequences (i.e. 3/4-site ATC and GAT). All together, these results imply that Dam, in addition to being responsible for GATC methylation, could also function as a methylation-independent transcriptional repressor.« less

  3. Structures of Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) in complex with a non-GATC sequence: Potential implications for methylation-independent transcriptional repression

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, John R.; Zhang, Xing; Blumenthal, Robert M.; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2015-04-06

    DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) is widespread and conserved among the γ-proteobacteria. Methylation of the Ade in GATC sequences regulates diverse bacterial cell functions, including gene expression, mismatch repair and chromosome replication. Dam also controls virulence in many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. An unexplained and perplexing observation about Escherichia coli Dam (EcoDam) is that there is no obvious relationship between the genes that are transcriptionally responsive to Dam and the promoter-proximal presence of GATC sequences. Here, we demonstrate that EcoDam interacts with a 5-base pair non-cognate sequence distinct from GATC. The crystal structure of a non-cognate complex allowed us to identify a DNA binding element, GTYTA/TARAC (where Y = C/T and R = A/G). This element immediately flanks GATC sites in some Dam-regulated promoters, including the Pap operon which specifies pyelonephritis-associated pili. In addition, Dam interacts with near-cognate GATC sequences (i.e. 3/4-site ATC and GAT). All together, these results imply that Dam, in addition to being responsible for GATC methylation, could also function as a methylation-independent transcriptional repressor.

  4. Structures of Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) in complex with a non-GATC sequence: potential implications for methylation-independent transcriptional repression.

    PubMed

    Horton, John R; Zhang, Xing; Blumenthal, Robert M; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2015-04-30

    DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) is widespread and conserved among the γ-proteobacteria. Methylation of the Ade in GATC sequences regulates diverse bacterial cell functions, including gene expression, mismatch repair and chromosome replication. Dam also controls virulence in many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. An unexplained and perplexing observation about Escherichia coli Dam (EcoDam) is that there is no obvious relationship between the genes that are transcriptionally responsive to Dam and the promoter-proximal presence of GATC sequences. Here, we demonstrate that EcoDam interacts with a 5-base pair non-cognate sequence distinct from GATC. The crystal structure of a non-cognate complex allowed us to identify a DNA binding element, GTYTA/TARAC (where Y = C/T and R = A/G). This element immediately flanks GATC sites in some Dam-regulated promoters, including the Pap operon which specifies pyelonephritis-associated pili. In addition, Dam interacts with near-cognate GATC sequences (i.e. 3/4-site ATC and GAT). Taken together, these results imply that Dam, in addition to being responsible for GATC methylation, could also function as a methylation-independent transcriptional repressor.

  5. Activation of Bacteriophage Mu mom Transcription by C Protein Does Not Require Specific Interaction with the Carboxyl-Terminal Region of the α or ς70 Subunit of Escherichia coli RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weiyong; Hattman, Stanley; Fujita, Noboyuki; Ishihama, Akira

    1998-01-01

    Late in its growth cycle, transcription of the phage Mu mom promoter (Pmom) is activated by the phage gene product, C, a site-specific DNA binding protein. In vitro transcription analyses showed that this activation does not require specific contacts between C and the carboxyl-terminal region of the α or ς70 subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. Unexpectedly, these results are in contrast to those known for another Mu-encoded transcriptional activator, Mor, which has a high degree of sequence identity with C and appears to interact with the carboxyl termini of both α and ς70. PMID:9620983

  6. Cloning and functional expression in E. coli of a polyphenol oxidase transcript from Coreopsis grandiflora involved in aurone formation.

    PubMed

    Kaintz, Cornelia; Molitor, Christian; Thill, Jana; Kampatsikas, Ioannis; Michael, Claudia; Halbwirth, Heidi; Rompel, Annette

    2014-09-17

    Polyphenol oxidases are involved in aurone biosynthesis but the gene responsible for 4-deoxyaurone formation in Asteraceae was so far unknown. Three novel full-length cDNA sequences were isolated from Coreopsis grandiflora with sizes of 1.80kb (cgAUS1) and 1.85kb (cgAUS2a, 2b), encoding for proteins of 68-69kDa, respectively. cgAUS1 is preferably expressed in young petals indicating a specific role in pigment formation. The 58.9kDa AUS1 holoproenzyme, was recombinantly expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. The enzyme shows only diphenolase activity, catalyzing the conversion of chalcones to aurones and was characterized by SDS-PAGE and shot-gun type nanoUHPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

  7. Growth of Escherichia coli MG1655 on LB medium: monitoring utilization of amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides with transcriptional microarrays.

    PubMed

    Baev, Mark V; Baev, Dmitry; Radek, Agnes Jansco; Campbell, John W

    2006-07-01

    Analysis of gene expression data related to assimilation and biosynthesis of nitrogen-containing compounds amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides was used to monitor availability of these nutrients to Escherichia coli MG1655 growing on Luria-Bertani medium. The data indicate that free amino acids and nucleotides only transiently support the nitrogen requirement for growth and are no longer available by 3.5 h of fermentation. The resulting shortage of available nitrogen sources induces the Ntr response, which involves induction of the glnALG, glnK-amtB, dppABCDF, and oppABCDF operons as well as the genes coding for outer membrane proteins, porins OmpA and OmpC, and proteases OmpP and OmpT. The increased uptake of peptides facilitated by the products of dppABCDF, oppABCDF, ompA, ompC, ompP, and ompT alleviates nitrogen limitation of the growth.

  8. Structural basis of transcription arrest by coliphage HK022 nun in an Escherichia coli RNA polymerase elongation complex.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin Young; Olinares, Paul Dominic B; Chen, James; Campbell, Elizabeth A; Mustaev, Arkady; Chait, Brian T; Gottesman, Max E; Darst, Seth A

    2017-03-20

    Coliphage HK022 Nun blocks superinfection by coliphage λ by stalling RNA polymerase (RNAP) translocation specifically on λΔNA.To provide a structural framework to understand how Nun blocks RNAP translocation, we determined structures of Escherichia coli RNAP ternary elongation complexes (TECs) with and without Nun by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. Nun fits tightly into the TEC by taking advantage of gaps between the RNAP and the nucleic acids. The C-terminal segment of Nun interacts with the RNAP β and β' subunits inside the RNAP active site cleft as well as with nearly every element of the nucleic-acid scaffold, essentially crosslinking the RNAP and the nucleic acids to prevent translocation, a mechanism supported by the effects of Nun amino acid substitutions. The nature of Nun interactions inside the RNAP active site cleft suggests that RNAP clamp opening is required for Nun to establish its interactions, explaining why Nun acts on paused TECs.

  9. CydDC-mediated reductant export in Escherichia coli controls the transcriptional wiring of energy metabolism and combats nitrosative stress

    PubMed Central

    Holyoake, Louise V.; Hunt, Stuart; Sanguinetti, Guido; Cook, Gregory M.; Howard, Mark J.; Rowe, Michelle L.; Poole, Robert K.; Shepherd, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The glutathione/cysteine exporter CydDC maintains redox balance in Escherichia coli. A cydD mutant strain was used to probe the influence of CydDC upon reduced thiol export, gene expression, metabolic perturbations, intracellular pH homoeostasis and tolerance to nitric oxide (NO). Loss of CydDC was found to decrease extracytoplasmic thiol levels, whereas overexpression diminished the cytoplasmic thiol content. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a dramatic up-regulation of protein chaperones, protein degradation (via phenylpropionate/phenylacetate catabolism), β-oxidation of fatty acids and genes involved in nitrate/nitrite reduction. 1H NMR metabolomics revealed elevated methionine and betaine and diminished acetate and NAD+ in cydD cells, which was consistent with the transcriptomics-based metabolic model. The growth rate and ΔpH, however, were unaffected, although the cydD strain did exhibit sensitivity to the NO-releasing compound NOC-12. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the loss of CydDC-mediated reductant export promotes protein misfolding, adaptations to energy metabolism and sensitivity to NO. The addition of both glutathione and cysteine to the medium was found to complement the loss of bd-type cytochrome synthesis in a cydD strain (a key component of the pleiotropic cydDC phenotype), providing the first direct evidence that CydDC substrates are able to restore the correct assembly of this respiratory oxidase. These data provide an insight into the metabolic flexibility of E. coli, highlight the importance of bacterial redox homoeostasis during nitrosative stress, and report for the first time the ability of periplasmic low molecular weight thiols to restore haem incorporation into a cytochrome complex. PMID:26699904

  10. Non-Invasive Analysis of Recombinant mRNA Stability in Escherichia coli by a Combination of Transcriptional Inducer Wash-Out and qRT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kucharova, Veronika; Strand, Trine Aakvik; Almaas, Eivind; Naas, Adrian E.; Brautaset, Trygve; Valla, Svein

    2013-01-01

    mRNA stability is one among many parameters that can potentially affect the level of recombinant gene expression in bacteria. Blocking of the entire prokaryotic transcription machinery by addition of rifampicin is commonly used in protocols for analysis of mRNA stability. Here we show that such treatment can be effectively replaced by a simple, non-invasive method based on removal of the relevant transcriptional inducers and that the mRNA decay can then be followed by qRT-PCR. To establish the methodology we first used the m-toluate-inducible XylS/Pm expression cassette as a model system and analyzed several examples of DNA modifications causing gene expression stimulation in Escherichia coli. The new method allowed us to clearly discriminate whether an improvement in mRNA stability contributes to observed increases in transcript amounts for each individual case. To support the experimental data a simple mathematical fitting model was developed to calculate relative decay rates. We extended the relevance of the method by demonstrating its application also for an IPTG-inducible expression cassette (LacI/Ptac) and by analyzing features of the bacteriophage T7-based expression system. The results suggest that the methodology is useful in elucidating factors controlling mRNA stability as well as other specific features of inducible expression systems. Moreover, as expression systems based on diffusible inducers are almost universally available, the concept can be most likely used to measure mRNA decay for any gene in any cell type that is heavily used in molecular biology research. PMID:23840466

  11. Sigma54-dependent transcription activator phage shock protein F of Escherichia coli: a fragmentation approach to identify sequences that contribute to self-association.

    PubMed

    Bordes, Patricia; Wigneshweraraj, Siva R; Zhang, Xiaodong; Buck, Martin

    2004-03-15

    Proteins that belong to the AAA (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) superfamily of mechanochemical enzymes are versatile and control a wide array of cellular functions. Many AAA proteins share the common property of self-association into oligomeric structures and use nucleotide binding and hydrolysis to regulate their biological output. The Escherichia coli transcription activator PspF (phage shock protein F) is a member of the sigma54-dependent transcriptional activators that belong to the AAA protein family. Nucleotide interactions condition the functional state of PspF, enabling it to self-associate and interact with its target, the sigma54-RNAP (RNA polymerase) closed complex. The self-association determinants within the AAA domain of sigma54-dependent activators remain poorly characterized. In the present study, we have used a fragment of the AAA domain of PspF as a probe to study the nucleotide-conditioned self-association of PspF. Results show that the PspF fragment acts in trans to inhibit specifically self-association of PspF. The PspF fragment prevented efficient binding of nucleotides to PspF, consistent with the observation that the site for nucleotide interactions within an oligomer of AAA proteins is created between two protomers. Using proximity-based footprinting and cross-linking techniques, we demonstrate that the sequences represented in this fragment are close to one protomer-protomer interface within a PspF oligomer. As the sequences represented in this PspF fragment also contain a highly conserved motif that interacts with the sigma54-RNAP closed complex, we suggest that PspF may be organized to link nucleotide interactions and self-association to sigma54-RNAP binding and transcription activation.

  12. Sigma54-dependent transcription activator phage shock protein F of Escherichia coli: a fragmentation approach to identify sequences that contribute to self-association.

    PubMed Central

    Bordes, Patricia; Wigneshweraraj, Siva R; Zhang, Xiaodong; Buck, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Proteins that belong to the AAA (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) superfamily of mechanochemical enzymes are versatile and control a wide array of cellular functions. Many AAA proteins share the common property of self-association into oligomeric structures and use nucleotide binding and hydrolysis to regulate their biological output. The Escherichia coli transcription activator PspF (phage shock protein F) is a member of the sigma54-dependent transcriptional activators that belong to the AAA protein family. Nucleotide interactions condition the functional state of PspF, enabling it to self-associate and interact with its target, the sigma54-RNAP (RNA polymerase) closed complex. The self-association determinants within the AAA domain of sigma54-dependent activators remain poorly characterized. In the present study, we have used a fragment of the AAA domain of PspF as a probe to study the nucleotide-conditioned self-association of PspF. Results show that the PspF fragment acts in trans to inhibit specifically self-association of PspF. The PspF fragment prevented efficient binding of nucleotides to PspF, consistent with the observation that the site for nucleotide interactions within an oligomer of AAA proteins is created between two protomers. Using proximity-based footprinting and cross-linking techniques, we demonstrate that the sequences represented in this fragment are close to one protomer-protomer interface within a PspF oligomer. As the sequences represented in this PspF fragment also contain a highly conserved motif that interacts with the sigma54-RNAP closed complex, we suggest that PspF may be organized to link nucleotide interactions and self-association to sigma54-RNAP binding and transcription activation. PMID:14659000

  13. CsrA post-transcriptionally represses pgaABCD, responsible for synthesis of a biofilm polysaccharide adhesin of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Dubey, Ashok K; Suzuki, Kazushi; Baker, Carol S; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2005-06-01

    The RNA-binding protein CsrA represses biofilm formation, while the non-coding RNAs CsrB and CsrC activate this process by sequestering CsrA. We now provide evidence that the pgaABCD transcript, required for the synthesis of the polysaccharide adhesin PGA (poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine) of Escherichia coli, is the key target of biofilm regulation by CsrA. csrA disruption causes an approximately threefold increase in PGA production and an approximately sevenfold increase in expression of a pgaA'-'lacZ translational fusion. A DeltacsrBDeltacsrC mutant exhibits a modest decrease in pgaA'-'lacZ expression, while the response regulator UvrY, a transcriptional activator of csrB and csrC, stimulates this expression. Biofilm formation is not regulated by csrA, csrB or uvrY in a DeltapgaC mutant, which cannot synthesize PGA. Gel mobility shift and toeprint analyses demonstrate that CsrA binds cooperatively to pgaA mRNA and competes with 30S ribosome subunit for binding. CsrA destabilizes the pgaA transcript in vivo. RNA footprinting and boundary analyses identify six apparent CsrA binding sites in the pgaA mRNA leader, the most extensive arrangement of such sites in any mRNA examined to date. Substitution mutations in CsrA binding sites overlapping the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and initiation codon partially relieve repression by CsrA. These studies define the crucial mechanisms, though not the only means, by which the Csr system influences biofilm formation.

  14. The effect of the DNA conformation on the rate of NtrC activated transcription of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase.sigma(54) holoenzyme.

    PubMed

    Schulz, A; Langowski, J; Rippe, K

    2000-07-21

    The transcription activator protein NtrC (nitrogen regulatory protein C) can catalyze the transition of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase complexed with the sigma 54 factor (RNAP.sigma(54)) from the closed complex (RNAP.sigma(54) bound at the promoter) to the open complex (melting of the promoter DNA). This process involves phosphorylation of NtrC (NtrC-P), assembly of an octameric NtrC-P complex at the enhancer sequence, interaction of this complex with promoter-bound RNAP.sigma(54) via DNA looping, and hydrolysis of ATP. We have used this system to study the influence of the DNA conformation on the transcription activation rate in single-round transcription experiments with superhelical plasmids as well as linearized templates. Most of the templates had an intrinsically curved DNA sequence between the enhancer and the promoter and differed with respect to the location of the curvature and the distance between the two DNA sites. The following results were obtained: (i) a ten- to 60-fold higher activation rate was observed with the superhelical templates as compared to the linearized conformation; (ii) the presence of an intrinsically curved DNA sequence increased the activation rate of linear templates about five times; (iii) no systematic effect for the presence and/or location of the inserted curved sequence was observed for the superhelical templates. However, the transcription activation rate varied up to a factor of 10 between some of the constructs. (iv) Differences in the distance between enhancer and promoter had little effect for the superhelical templates studied. The results were compared with theoretical calculations for the dependence of the contact probability between enhancer and promoter expressed as the molar local concentration j(M). A correlation of j(M) with the transcription activation rate was observed for values of 10(-8) M

  15. Occurrence of bla DHA-1 mediated cephalosporin resistance in Escherichia coli and their transcriptional response against cephalosporin stress: a report from India.

    PubMed

    Ingti, Birson; Paul, Deepjyoti; Maurya, Anand Prakash; Bora, Debajyoti; Chanda, Debadatta Dhar; Chakravarty, Atanu; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha

    2017-03-21

    Treatment alternatives for DHA-1 harboring strains are challenging as it confers resistance to broad spectrum cephalosporins and may further limit treatment option when expressed at higher levels. Therefore, this study was designed to know the prevalence of DHA genes and analyse the transcription level of DHA-1 against different β-lactam stress. Screening of AmpC β-lactamase phenotypically by modified three dimensional extract method followed by Antimicrobial Susceptibility and MIC determination. Genotyping screening of β-lactamase genes was performed by PCR assay followed by their sequencing. The bla DHA-1 transcriptional response was evaluated under different cephalosporin stress by RT PCR. Transferability of bla DHA gene was performed by transformation and conjugation and plasmid incompatibility typing, DNA fingerprinting by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences PCR. 16 DHA-1 genes were screened positive from 176 Escherichia coli isolates and primer extension analysis showed a significant increase in DHA-1 mRNA transcription in response to cefotaxime at 8 µg/ml (6.99 × 10(2) fold), ceftriaxone at 2 µg/ml (2.63 × 10(3) fold), ceftazidime at 8 µg/ml (7.06 × 10(3) fold) and cefoxitin at 4 µg/ml (3.60 × 10(4) fold) when compared with untreated strain. These transcription data were found significant when analyzed statistically using one way ANOVA. Four different ESBL genes were detected in 10 isolates which include CTX-M (n = 6), SHV (n = 4), TEM (n = 3) and OXA-10 (n = 1), whereas, carbapenemase gene (NDM) was detected only in one isolate. Other plasmid mediated AmpC β-lactamases CIT (n = 9), EBC (n = 2) were detected in nine isolates. All DHA-1 genes detected were encoded in plasmid and incompatibility typing from the transformants indicated that the plasmid encoding bla DHA-1 was carried mostly by the FIA and L/M Inc group. This study demonstrates the prevalence of DHA-1 gene in this region and highlights

  16. Spontaneous cleavage of RNA in ternary complexes of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and its significance for the mechanism of transcription.

    PubMed

    Surratt, C K; Milan, S C; Chamberlin, M J

    1991-09-15

    Ternary complexes of RNA polymerase, bearing the nascent RNA transcript, are intermediates in the synthesis of all RNAs and are regulatory targets of factors that control RNA chain elongation and termination. To study the catalytic and regulatory properties of RNA polymerases during elongation, we have developed methods for the preparation of these intermediates halted at defined positions along a DNA template. To our surprise, some of these halted complexes undergo a reaction in which the RNA transcript is cleaved up to 10 nucleotides from its 3'-terminal growing point. The 5'-terminal fragment, bearing a free 3'-OH residue, remains bound to the RNA polymerase-DNA complex and can resume elongation, whereas the 3'-terminal oligonucleotide of 2-10 nucleotides, bearing a 5'-phosphate, is released. RNA cleavage occurs only in the ternary complex and requires a divalent metal ion such as Mg2+. Since RNA polymerases are believed to have a single catalytic site for nucleotide addition, this reaction is unlikely to be due to hydrolysis catalyzed by this site comparable to the 3'----5' exonuclease activity associated with the catalytic center found for some DNA polymerases. Nor is this reaction easily explained by models for transcription elongation that postulate a 12-base-pair DNA.RNA hybrid as intermediate. Instead, we suggest that this is an unusual kind of protein-facilitated reaction in which tight binding of the RNA product to the enzyme strains the RNA phosphodiester linkage, resulting in cleavage of the RNA well away from the catalytic center. By this model, the nascent RNA enters a product binding site beginning 3 or 4 nucleotides from the growing point at the 3' terminus. This RNA binding site extends for up to 16 nucleotides along the protein surface. The stress brought about by this binding appears to vary considerably for different ternary complexes and may play a role in driving the translocation of the RNA polymerase along the DNA.

  17. In vitro transcription of the Escherichia coli K-12 argA, argE, and argCBH operons.

    PubMed Central

    Sens, D; Natter, W; James, E

    1977-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid isolated from argA and argECBH transducing phages was utilized to study the in vitro synthesis of argA, argE, and argCBH messenger ribonucleic acid. The specific regulation of these operons by the arginine holorepressor was demonstrated, providing evidence that the majority, if not all, of the control of these operons is exercised at the transcriptional level. Data are presented which indicate that the arginine holorepressor functions by binding to the operator region and concomitantly prevents the binding of ribonucleic acid polymerase to the corresponding promoter region. PMID:400784

  18. Transcription initiation sites within an IS2 insertion in a Gal-constitutive mutant of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, D M; Musso, R E

    1982-01-01

    Insertion of the insertion sequence Is2(I) directly before the galE gene of the galactose operon results in a Gal minus phenotype (1, 2). The Gal-constitutive allele galc200 (and its deletion derivative galc200 delta 31) arise from such a Gal minus mutant by the insertion of LS2(II) DNA within the LS2(I) sequence (3). We have transcribed in vitro a DNA template representing the IS2-galE region of galc200 delta 31. Gal-directed transcription initiates at two sites within the IS2(I) sequence, 51 and 52 bp from the IS2-galE junction. The promoter for these transcripts, Pgal200 delta 31, is composed of a novel joint between a -10 region from the IS2(I) DNA and a -35 region contributed by the IS2(II) insertion. No promoters intrinsic to the 121 bp of the IS2(II) sequence also present on the template were detected. The relevance of Pgal200 delta 31 to the Galc phenotype of galc200 and to general mechanisms for the constitutive expression of genes adjacent to IS2 is discussed. Images PMID:6291000

  19. Structural basis of transcription arrest by coliphage HK022 Nun in an Escherichia coli RNA polymerase elongation complex

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin Young; Olinares, Paul Dominic B; Chen, James; Campbell, Elizabeth A; Mustaev, Arkady; Chait, Brian T; Gottesman, Max E; Darst, Seth A

    2017-01-01

    Coliphage HK022 Nun blocks superinfection by coliphage λ by stalling RNA polymerase (RNAP) translocation specifically on λ DNA. To provide a structural framework to understand how Nun blocks RNAP translocation, we determined structures of Escherichia coli RNAP ternary elongation complexes (TECs) with and without Nun by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. Nun fits tightly into the TEC by taking advantage of gaps between the RNAP and the nucleic acids. The C-terminal segment of Nun interacts with the RNAP β and β’ subunits inside the RNAP active site cleft as well as with nearly every element of the nucleic acid scaffold, essentially crosslinking the RNAP and the nucleic acids to prevent translocation, a mechanism supported by the effects of Nun amino acid substitutions. The nature of Nun interactions inside the RNAP active site cleft suggests that RNAP clamp opening is required for Nun to establish its interactions, explaining why Nun acts on paused TECs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25478.001 PMID:28318486

  20. RegulonDB (version 5.0): Escherichia coli K-12 transcriptional regulatory network, operon organization, and growth conditions

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Heladia; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Peralta-Gil, Martín; Díaz-Peredo, Edgar; Sánchez-Solano, Fabiola; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Martínez-Flores, Irma; Jiménez-Jacinto, Verónica; Bonavides-Martínez, César; Segura-Salazar, Juan; Martínez-Antonio, Agustino; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2006-01-01

    RegulonDB is the internationally recognized reference database of Escherichia coli K-12 offering curated knowledge of the regulatory network and operon organization. It is currently the largest electronically-encoded database of the regulatory network of any free-living organism. We present here the recently launched RegulonDB version 5.0 radically different in content, interface design and capabilities. Continuous curation of original scientific literature provides the evidence behind every single object and feature. This knowledge is complemented with comprehensive computational predictions across the complete genome. Literature-based and predicted data are clearly distinguished in the database. Starting with this version, RegulonDB public releases are synchronized with those of EcoCyc since our curation supports both databases. The complex biology of regulation is simplified in a navigation scheme based on three major streams: genes, operons and regulons. Regulatory knowledge is directly available in every navigation step. Displays combine graphic and textual information and are organized allowing different levels of detail and biological context. This knowledge is the backbone of an integrated system for the graphic display of the network, graphic and tabular microarray comparisons with curated and predicted objects, as well as predictions across bacterial genomes, and predicted networks of functionally related gene products. Access RegulonDB at . PMID:16381895

  1. The Effects of Select Histidine to Cysteine Mutations on Transcriptional Regulation by E. coli RcnR‡

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Khadine A.; Hu, Heidi Q.; Chivers, Peter T.; Maroney, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The RcnR metalloregulator represses the transcription of the Co(II) and Ni(II) exporter, RcnAB. Previous studies have shown that Co(II) and Ni(II) bind to RcnR in six-coordinate sites, resulting in de-repression. Here, the roles of His60, His64, and His67 in specific metal recognition are examined. His60 and His64 correspond to ligands that are important for Cu(I) binding in the homologous Cu(I)-responsive metalloregulator, CsoR. These residues are known to be functionally important in RcnR transcriptional regulation. XAS was used to examine the structure of bound cognate and non-cognate metal ions, and lacZ reporter assays were used to assess the transcription of rcnA in response to metal binding in the three His → Cys mutations, H60C, H64C and H67C. These studies confirm that both Ni(II) and Co(II) use His64 as a ligand. H64C-RcnR is also the only known mutation that retains a Co(II) response while eliminating the response to Ni(II) binding. XAS data indicate that His60 and His67 are potential Co(II) ligands. The effects of the mutations of His60, His64, and His67 residues on the structures of the non-cognate metal ions (Zn(II) and Cu(I)) reveals that these residues have distinctive roles in binding non-cognate metals. None of the His → Cys mutants in RcnR confer any response to Cu(I) binding, including H64C-RcnR, where the ligands involved in Cu(I) binding in CsoR are present. These data indicate that while the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of CsoR and RcnR are quite similar, small changes in primary sequence reveal that the specific mechanisms involved in metal recognition are quite different. PMID:23215580

  2. Differential Regulation of rRNA and tRNA Transcription from the rRNA-tRNA Composite Operon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Takada, Hiraku; Shimada, Tomohiro; Dey, Debashish; Quyyum, M Zuhaib; Nakano, Masahiro; Ishiguro, Akira; Yoshida, Hideji; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Sen, Ranjan; Ishihama, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli contains seven rRNA operons, each consisting of the genes for three rRNAs (16S, 23S and 5S rRNA in this order) and one or two tRNA genes in the spacer between 16S and 23S rRNA genes and one or two tRNA genes in the 3' proximal region. All of these rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from two promoters, P1 and P2, into single large precursors that are afterward processed to individual rRNAs and tRNAs by a set of RNases. In the course of Genomic SELEX screening of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme containing RpoD sigma, a strong binding site was identified within 16S rRNA gene in each of all seven rRNA operons. The binding in vitro of RNAP RpoD holoenzyme to an internal promoter, referred to the promoter of riRNA (an internal RNA of the rRNA operon), within each 16S rRNA gene was confirmed by gel shift assay and AFM observation. Using this riRNA promoter within the rrnD operon as a representative, transcription in vitro was detected with use of the purified RpoD holoenzyme, confirming the presence of a constitutive promoter in this region. LacZ reporter assay indicated that this riRNA promoter is functional in vivo. The location of riRNA promoter in vivo as identified using a set of reporter plasmids agrees well with that identified in vitro. Based on transcription profile in vitro and Northern blot analysis in vivo, the majority of transcript initiated from this riRNA promoter was estimated to terminate near the beginning of 23S rRNA gene, indicating that riRNA leads to produce the spacer-coded tRNA. Under starved conditions, transcription of the rRNA operon is markedly repressed to reduce the intracellular level of ribosomes, but the levels of both riRNA and its processed tRNAGlu stayed unaffected, implying that riRNA plays a role in the continued steady-state synthesis of tRNAs from the spacers of rRNA operons. We then propose that the tRNA genes organized within the spacers of rRNA-tRNA composite operons are expressed

  3. Differential Regulation of rRNA and tRNA Transcription from the rRNA-tRNA Composite Operon in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Hiraku; Shimada, Tomohiro; Dey, Debashish; Quyyum, M. Zuhaib; Nakano, Masahiro; Ishiguro, Akira; Yoshida, Hideji; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Sen, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli contains seven rRNA operons, each consisting of the genes for three rRNAs (16S, 23S and 5S rRNA in this order) and one or two tRNA genes in the spacer between 16S and 23S rRNA genes and one or two tRNA genes in the 3’ proximal region. All of these rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from two promoters, P1 and P2, into single large precursors that are afterward processed to individual rRNAs and tRNAs by a set of RNases. In the course of Genomic SELEX screening of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme containing RpoD sigma, a strong binding site was identified within 16S rRNA gene in each of all seven rRNA operons. The binding in vitro of RNAP RpoD holoenzyme to an internal promoter, referred to the promoter of riRNA (an internal RNA of the rRNA operon), within each 16S rRNA gene was confirmed by gel shift assay and AFM observation. Using this riRNA promoter within the rrnD operon as a representative, transcription in vitro was detected with use of the purified RpoD holoenzyme, confirming the presence of a constitutive promoter in this region. LacZ reporter assay indicated that this riRNA promoter is functional in vivo. The location of riRNA promoter in vivo as identified using a set of reporter plasmids agrees well with that identified in vitro. Based on transcription profile in vitro and Northern blot analysis in vivo, the majority of transcript initiated from this riRNA promoter was estimated to terminate near the beginning of 23S rRNA gene, indicating that riRNA leads to produce the spacer-coded tRNA. Under starved conditions, transcription of the rRNA operon is markedly repressed to reduce the intracellular level of ribosomes, but the levels of both riRNA and its processed tRNAGlu stayed unaffected, implying that riRNA plays a role in the continued steady-state synthesis of tRNAs from the spacers of rRNA operons. We then propose that the tRNA genes organized within the spacers of rRNA-tRNA composite operons are expressed

  4. Two mechanisms for putrescine-dependent transcriptional expression of the putrescine aminotransferase gene, ygjG, in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Sik; Shin, Hyun-Chul; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2014-09-01

    In this study, on evaluating the physiological function and mechanism of putrescine, we found that putrescine supplementation (1 mM) increases transcription of the putrescine aminotransferase gene, ygjG. Putrescine-dependent expression was confirmed by measuring β-galactosidase activity and with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. To understand the role of putrescine in ygjG expression, we genetically characterized and found that a knockout mutation in an alternative sigma factor, rpoS, abolished putrescine-dependent ygjG-lacZ expression. In the rpoS mutant, RpoS overexpression complemented the mutant phenotype. However, RpoS overexpression induced ygjG-lacZ expression with putrescine supplementation but not without supplementation. We also found that the loss of putrescine-dependent ygjG-lacZ expression induced by rpoS was completely restored under nitrogen-starvation conditions. The putrescine-dependent expression of ygjG-lacZ under this condition was clearly dependent on another alternative sigma factor, rpoN, and its cognate activator ntrC. These results show that rpoS is required for putrescine-dependent ygjG-lacZ expression, but the effect of putrescine on this expression is not caused by simple modulation of RpoS synthesis. Putrescine-dependent expression of ygjG-lacZ was controlled by at least two sigma factors: rpoS under excess nitrogen conditions and rpoN under nitrogen-starvation conditions. These results suggest that putrescine plays an important role in the nitrogen regulation system.

  5. A comparison of key aspects of gene regulation in Streptomyces coelicolor and Escherichia coli using nucleotide-resolution transcription maps produced in parallel by global and differential RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Romero, David A; Hasan, Ayad H; Lin, Yu-fei; Kime, Louise; Ruiz-Larrabeiti, Olatz; Urem, Mia; Bucca, Giselda; Mamanova, Lira; Laing, Emma E; van Wezel, Gilles P; Smith, Colin P; Kaberdin, Vladimir R; McDowall, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor is a model for studying bacteria renowned as the foremost source of natural products used clinically. Post-genomic studies have revealed complex patterns of gene expression and links to growth, morphological development and individual genes. However, the underlying regulation remains largely obscure, but undoubtedly involves steps after transcription initiation. Here we identify sites involved in RNA processing and degradation as well as transcription within a nucleotide-resolution map of the transcriptional landscape. This was achieved by combining RNA-sequencing approaches suited to the analysis of GC-rich organisms. Escherichia coli was analysed in parallel to validate the methodology and allow comparison. Previously, sites of RNA processing and degradation had not been mapped on a transcriptome-wide scale for E. coli. Through examples, we show the value of our approach and data sets. This includes the identification of new layers of transcriptional complexity associated with several key regulators of secondary metabolism and morphological development in S. coelicolor and the identification of host-encoded leaderless mRNA and rRNA processing associated with the generation of specialized ribosomes in E. coli. New regulatory small RNAs were identified for both organisms. Overall the results illustrate the diversity in mechanisms used by different bacterial groups to facilitate and regulate gene expression. PMID:25266672

  6. Testing the conservation of the translational machinery over evolution in diverse environments: assaying Thermus thermophilus ribosomes and initiation factors in a coupled transcription-translation system from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jill; Dahlberg, Albert E

    2004-01-01

    Ribosomes from the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus are capable of translation in a coupled transcription-translation system derived from Escherichia coli. At 45 degrees C, T.thermophilus ribosomes translate at approximately 25-30% of the maximal rate of E.coli ribosomes, and synthesize full-length protein. T.thermophilus and E.coli subunits can be combined to effect translation, with the spectrum of proteins produced depending upon the source of the 30S subunit. In this system, T.thermophilus ribosomes function in concert with E.coli translational factors and tRNAs, with elongation and release factors being supplied from the E.coli extract, and purified initiation factors (IFs) being added exogenously. Cloned and purified T.thermophilus IF1, IF2 and IF3 supported the synthesis of the same products in vitro as the E.coli factors, although the relative levels of some polypeptides were factor dependent. We conclude that, at least between these two phylogenetically distant species, translational factor function and subunit-subunit interactions are conserved. This functional compatibility is remarkable given the extreme and highly divergent environments to which these species have adapted.

  7. High-Yield Expression in E. coli and Refolding of the bZIP Domain of Activating Transcription Factor 5

    PubMed Central

    Ciaccio, Natalie A.; Moreno, Matthew L.; Bauer, Rachel L.; Laurence, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    Activating Transcription Factor 5 (ATF5) recently has been demonstrated to play a critical role in promoting the survival of human glioblastoma cells. Interference with the function of ATF5 in an in vivo rat model caused glioma cell death in primary tumors but did not affect the status of normal cells surrounding the tumor, suggesting ATF5 may prove an ideal target for anti-cancer therapy. In order to examine ATF5 as a pharmaceutical target, the protein must be produced and purified to sufficient quantity to begin analyses. Here, a procedure for expressing and refolding the bZIP domain of ATF5 in sufficient yield and final concentration to permit assay development and structural characterization of this target using solution NMR is reported. Two-dimensional NMR and circular dichrosim analyses indicate the protein exists in the partially α-helical, monomeric x-form conformation with only a small fraction of ATF5 participating in formation of higher-order structure, presumably coiled-coil homodimerization. Despite the persistence of monomers in solution even at high concentration, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that ATF5 is able to bind to the cAMP response element (CRE) DNA motif. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to confirm that ATF5 can participate in homodimer formation and that this dimerization is mediated by disulfide bond formation. PMID:18718539

  8. Functions of the Hha and YdgT Proteins in Transcriptional Silencing by the Nucleoid Proteins, H-NS and StpA, in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Takeshi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Uyar, Ebru; Ishikawa, Shu; Ogasawara, Naotake; Oshima, Taku

    2013-01-01

    The Hha and YdgT proteins are suggested to modulate the expression of horizontally acquired genes by interacting with H-NS and StpA, which play central roles in the transcriptional silencing of such genes. However, it is also possible that Hha/YdgT repress gene expression independently of H-NS/StpA, as we have not fully understood the molecular mechanism through which Hha/YdgT modulate H-NS/StpA activity. To gain further insight into the basic functions of Hha/YdgT, we analysed the impact of hha/ydgT double inactivation on the transcriptome profile of Escherichia coli K-12, and compared the effects with that of hns/stpA double inactivation. In addition, we examined the effects of hha/ydgT inactivation on the chromosomal binding of H-NS, and conversely the effects of hns/stpA inactivation on the chromosomal binding of Hha. Our results demonstrated that the chromosomal binding of Hha requires H-NS/StpA, and is necessary for the repression of a subset of genes in the H-NS/StpA regulon. Furthermore, the distribution of H-NS binding around Hha/YdgT-dependent and -independent genes suggests that Hha/YdgT proteins modulate formation of the H-NS/StpA-DNA complex. PMID:23543115

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the transcriptional repressor PaaX, the main regulator of the phenylacetic acid degradation pathway in Escherichia coli W

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Altuve, Alzoray; Carrasco-López, César; Hernández-Rocamora, Víctor M.; Sanz, Jesús M.; Hermoso, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    PaaX is the main regulator of the phenylacetic acid aerobic degradation pathway in bacteria and acts as a transcriptional repressor in the absence of its inducer phenylacetyl-coenzyme A. The natural presence and the recent accumulation of a variety of highly toxic aromatic compounds owing to human pollution has created considerable interest in the study of degradation pathways in bacteria, the most important microorganisms capable of recycling these compounds, in order to design and apply novel bioremediation strategies. PaaX from Escherichia coli W was cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 K. Crystals grew from a mixture of 0.9 M Li2SO4 and 0.5 M sodium citrate pH 5.8. These crystals, which belonged to the monoclinic space group C2 with unit-cell parameters a = 167.88, b = 106.23, c = 85.87 Å, β = 108.33°, allowed the collection of an X-ray data set to 2.3 Å resolution. PMID:22102047

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the transcriptional repressor PaaX, the main regulator of the phenylacetic acid degradation pathway in Escherichia coli W.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Altuve, Alzoray; Carrasco-López, César; Hernández-Rocamora, Víctor M; Sanz, Jesús M; Hermoso, Juan A

    2011-10-01

    PaaX is the main regulator of the phenylacetic acid aerobic degradation pathway in bacteria and acts as a transcriptional repressor in the absence of its inducer phenylacetyl-coenzyme A. The natural presence and the recent accumulation of a variety of highly toxic aromatic compounds owing to human pollution has created considerable interest in the study of degradation pathways in bacteria, the most important microorganisms capable of recycling these compounds, in order to design and apply novel bioremediation strategies. PaaX from Escherichia coli W was cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 K. Crystals grew from a mixture of 0.9 M Li(2)SO(4) and 0.5 M sodium citrate pH 5.8. These crystals, which belonged to the monoclinic space group C2 with unit-cell parameters a = 167.88, b = 106.23, c = 85.87 Å, β = 108.33°, allowed the collection of an X-ray data set to 2.3 Å resolution.

  11. Changes in Gene Transcription Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment of Verotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Non-O157 Serotypes on Romaine Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Gui-Ying; Tang, Joshua; Bach, Susan; Kostrzynska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Disease outbreaks of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes associated with leafy green vegetables are becoming a growing concern. A better understanding of the behavior of VTEC, particularly non-O157 serotypes, on lettuce under stress conditions is necessary for designing more effective control strategies. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can be used as a sanitizer to reduce the microbial load in leafy green vegetables, particularly in fresh produce destined for the organic market. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that H2O2 treatment of contaminated lettuce affects in the same manner transcription of stress-associated and virulence genes in VTEC strains representing O157 and non-O157 serotypes. Six VTEC isolates representing serotypes O26:H11, O103:H2, O104:H4, O111:NM, O145:NM, and O157:H7 were included in this study. The results indicate that 50 mM H2O2 caused a population reduction of 2.4–2.8 log10 (compared to non-treated control samples) in all six VTEC strains present on romaine lettuce. Following the treatment, the transcription of genes related to oxidative stress (oxyR and sodA), general stress (uspA and rpoS), starvation (phoA), acid stress (gadA, gadB, and gadW), and virulence (stx1A, stx2A, and fliC) were dramatically downregulated in all six VTEC serotypes (P ≤ 0.05) compared to not treated control samples. Therefore, VTEC O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes on lettuce showed similar survival rates and gene transcription profiles in response to 50 mM H2O2 treatment. Thus, the results derived from this study provide a basic understanding of the influence of H2O2 treatment on the survival and virulence of VTEC O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes on lettuce. PMID:28377761

  12. CsrA regulates translation of the Escherichia coli carbon starvation gene, cstA, by blocking ribosome access to the cstA transcript.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Ashok K; Baker, Carol S; Suzuki, Kazushi; Jones, A Daniel; Pandit, Pallavi; Romeo, Tony; Babitzke, Paul

    2003-08-01

    CsrA is a global regulator that binds to two sites in the glgCAP leader transcript, thereby blocking ribosome access to the glgC Shine-Dalgarno sequence. The upstream CsrA binding site (GCACACGGAU) was used to search the Escherichia coli genomic sequence for other genes that might be regulated by CsrA. cstA contained an exact match that overlapped its Shine-Dalgarno sequence. cstA was previously shown to be induced by carbon starvation and to encode a peptide transporter. Expression of a cstA'-'lacZ translational fusion in wild-type and csrA mutant strains was examined. Expression levels in the csrA mutant were approximately twofold higher when cells were grown in Luria broth (LB) and 5- to 10-fold higher when LB was supplemented with glucose. It was previously shown that cstA is regulated by the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein complex and transcribed by Esigma(70). We investigated the influence of sigma(S) on cstA expression and found that a sigma(S) deficiency resulted in a threefold increase in cstA expression in wild-type and csrA mutant strains; however, CsrA-dependent regulation was retained. The mechanism of CsrA-mediated cstA regulation was also examined in vitro. Cross-linking studies demonstrated that CsrA is a homodimer. Gel mobility shift results showed that CsrA binds specifically to cstA RNA, while coupled-transcription-translation and toeprint studies demonstrated that CsrA regulates CstA synthesis by inhibiting ribosome binding to cstA transcripts. RNA footprint and boundary analyses revealed three or four CsrA binding sites, one of which overlaps the cstA Shine-Dalgarno sequence, as predicted. These results establish that CsrA regulates translation of cstA by sterically interfering with ribosome binding.

  13. The effect of heating rate on Escherichia coli metabolism, physiological stress, transcriptional response, and production of temperature-induced recombinant protein: a scale-down study.

    PubMed

    Caspeta, Luis; Flores, Noemí; Pérez, Néstor O; Bolívar, Francisco; Ramírez, Octavio T

    2009-02-01

    At the laboratory scale, sudden step increases from 30 to 42 degrees C can be readily accomplished when expressing heterologous proteins in heat-inducible systems. However, for large scale-cultures only slow ramp-type increases in temperature are possible due to heat transfer limitations, where the heating rate decreases as the scale increases. In this work, the transcriptional and metabolic responses of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain to temperature-induced synthesis of pre-proinsulin in high cell density cultures were examined at different heating rates. Heating rates of 6, 1.7, 0.8, and 0.4 degrees C/min were tested in a scale-down approach to mimic fermentors of 0.1, 5, 20, and 100 m(3), respectively. The highest yield and concentration of recombinant protein was obtained for the slowest heating rate. As the heating rate increased, the yield and maximum recombinant protein concentration decreased, whereas a larger fraction of carbon skeletons was lost as acetate, lactate, and formate. Compared to 30 degrees C, the mRNA levels of selected heat-shock genes at 38 and 42 degrees C, as quantified by qRT-PCR, increased between 2- to over 42-fold when cultures were induced at 6, 1.7, and 0.8 degrees C/min, but no increase was observed at 0.4 degrees C/min. Only small increases (between 1.5- and 4-fold) in the expression of the stress genes spoT and relA were observed at 42 degrees C for cultures induced at 1.7 and 6 degrees C/min, suggesting that cells subjected to slow temperature increases can adapt to stress. mRNA levels of genes from the transcription-translation machinery (tufB, rpoA, and tig) decreased between 40% and 80% at 6, 1.7 and 0.8 degrees C/min, whereas a transient increase occurred for 0.4 degrees C/min at 42 degrees C. mRNA levels of the gene coding for pre-proinsulin showed a similar profile to transcripts of heat-shock genes, reflecting a probable analogous induction mechanism. Altogether, the results obtained indicate that slow heating rates

  14. CsrA Regulates Translation of the Escherichia coli Carbon Starvation Gene, cstA, by Blocking Ribosome Access to the cstA Transcript

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Ashok K.; Baker, Carol S.; Suzuki, Kazushi; Jones, A. Daniel; Pandit, Pallavi; Romeo, Tony; Babitzke, Paul

    2003-01-01

    CsrA is a global regulator that binds to two sites in the glgCAP leader transcript, thereby blocking ribosome access to the glgC Shine-Dalgarno sequence. The upstream CsrA binding site (GCACACGGAU) was used to search the Escherichia coli genomic sequence for other genes that might be regulated by CsrA. cstA contained an exact match that overlapped its Shine-Dalgarno sequence. cstA was previously shown to be induced by carbon starvation and to encode a peptide transporter. Expression of a cstA′-′lacZ translational fusion in wild-type and csrA mutant strains was examined. Expression levels in the csrA mutant were approximately twofold higher when cells were grown in Luria broth (LB) and 5- to 10-fold higher when LB was supplemented with glucose. It was previously shown that cstA is regulated by the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein complex and transcribed by Εσ70. We investigated the influence of σS on cstA expression and found that a σS deficiency resulted in a threefold increase in cstA expression in wild-type and csrA mutant strains; however, CsrA-dependent regulation was retained. The mechanism of CsrA-mediated cstA regulation was also examined in vitro. Cross-linking studies demonstrated that CsrA is a homodimer. Gel mobility shift results showed that CsrA binds specifically to cstA RNA, while coupled-transcription-translation and toeprint studies demonstrated that CsrA regulates CstA synthesis by inhibiting ribosome binding to cstA transcripts. RNA footprint and boundary analyses revealed three or four CsrA binding sites, one of which overlaps the cstA Shine-Dalgarno sequence, as predicted. These results establish that CsrA regulates translation of cstA by sterically interfering with ribosome binding. PMID:12867454

  15. Transcriptional control and essential roles of the Escherichia coli ccm gene products in formate-dependent nitrite reduction and cytochrome c synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Tanapongpipat, S; Reid, E; Cole, J A; Crooke, H

    1998-01-01

    The eight ccm genes located at minute 47 on the Escherichia coli chromosome, in the order ccmABCDEFGH, encode homologues of proteins which are essential for cytochrome c assembly in other bacteria. The ccm genes are immediately downstream from the napFDAGHBC genes encoding a periplasmic nitrate reductase. CcmH was previously shown to be essential for cytochrome c assembly. Deletion analysis and a two-plasmid strategy have now been used to demonstrate that CcmA, B, D, E, F and G are also essential for cytochrome c assembly, and hence for cytochrome-c-dependent nitrite reduction. The ccm genes are transcribed from a ccmA promoter located within the adjacent gene, napC, which is the structural gene for a 24 kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome, NapC. Transcription from this ccmA promoter is induced approximately 5-fold during anaerobic growth, independently of a functional Fnr protein: it is also not regulated by the ArcB-ArcA two-component regulatory system. The ccmA promoter is an example of the 'extended -10 sequence' group of promoters with a TGX motif immediately upstream of the -10 sequence. Mutagenesis of the TG motif to TC, CT or CC resulted in loss of about 50% of the promoter activity. A weak second promoter is suggested to permit transcription of the downstream ccmEFGH genes in the absence of transcription readthrough from the upstream napF and ccmA promoters. The results are consistent with, but do not prove, the current view that CcmA, B, C and D are part of an essential haem transport mechanism, that CcmE, F and H are required for covalent haem attachment to cysteine-histidine motifs in cytochrome c apoproteins in the periplasm, and that CcmG is required for the reduction of cysteine residues on apocytochromes c in preparation for haem ligation. PMID:9716493

  16. Transcriptional and Physiological Characterizations of Escherichia coli MG1655 that have been grown under Low Shear Stress Environment for 1000 Generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouia, Fathi; Tirumalai, Madhan R.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Ott, Mark C.; Pierson, Duane L.; Fofanov, Yuriy; Willson, Richard C.; Fox, George E.

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physio-logic adaptation. One of the important regulatory biology interactions affected by space flight is the alteration of the immune response. As such, the impairment of the immune system may lead to higher risk of bacterial and/or viral infection during human space flight missions. Mi-crobiological contaminants have been a source of concern over the years for NASA and there is evidence to suggest that microbes in space do not behave like they do on Earth. Previ-ous studies have examined the physiological response of bacteria when exposed to short-term microgravity either during spaceflight or in a Low Shear Modeled Microgravity (LSMMG) en-vironment. Exposure to these environments has been found to induce increased resistance to stresses and antibiotics, and in one case increase of virulence. As NASA increases the duration of space flight missions and is starting to envision human presence on the lunar surface and Mars, it becomes legitimate to question the long-term effects of microgravity on bacteria. The effect of long-term exposure to LSMMG on microbial gene expression and physiology in Escherichia coli (E. coli) is being examined using functional genomics, and molecular tech-niques. In previous E. coli short term studies, reproducible changes in transcription were seen but no direct responses to changes in the gravity vector were identified. Instead, absence of shear and a randomized gravity vector appeared to cause local extra-cellular environmental changes, which elicited cellular responses. In order to evaluate the long-term effects of micro-gravity on bacteria, E. coli was grown under simulated microgravity for 1000 generations and gene expression patterns and cellular physiology were analyzed in comparison with short-term exposure. The analysis revealed that the long-term response differed significantly from the short-term exposure and 357 genes were expressed

  17. Ada protein-RNA polymerase sigma subunit interaction and alpha subunit-promoter DNA interaction are necessary at different steps in transcription initiation at the Escherichia coli Ada and aidB promoters.

    PubMed

    Landini, P; Bown, J A; Volkert, M R; Busby, S J

    1998-05-22

    The methylated form of the Ada protein (meAda) binds the ada and aidB promoters between 60 and 40 base pairs upstream from the transcription start and activates transcription of the Escherichia coli ada and aidB genes. This region is also a binding site for the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase and resembles the rrnB P1 UP element in A/T content and location relative to the core promoter. In this report, we show that deletion of the C-terminal domain of the alpha subunit severely decreases meAda-independent binding of RNA polymerase to ada and aidB, affecting transcription initiation at these promoters. We provide evidence that meAda activates transcription by direct interaction with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase sigma70 subunit (amino acids 574-613). Several negatively charged residues in the sigma70 C-terminal domain are important for transcription activation by meAda; in particular, a glutamic acid to valine substitution at position 575 has a dramatic effect on meAda-dependent transcription. Based on these observations, we propose that the role of the alpha subunit at ada and aidB is to allow initial binding of RNA polymerase to the promoters. However, transcription initiation is dependent on meAda-sigma70 interaction.

  18. Regulation of PTS gene expression by the homologous transcriptional regulators, Mlc and NagC, in Escherichia coli (or how two similar repressors can behave differently).

    PubMed

    Plumbridge, J

    2001-07-01

    NagC and Mlc are paralogous transcriptional repressors in E.coli. Unexpectedly they possess almost identical amino acid sequences in their helix-turn-helix (H-T-H), DNA binding motif and they bind to very similar consensus operator targets. Binding to each others sites can be demonstrated in vitro but no cross regulation can be detected in vivo with physiological amounts of the two proteins. Although both proteins are involved in regulating the expression of PTS genes, the characteristics of their repression and induction are very different. NagC is a dual-function, activator-repressor which co-ordinates the metabolism of the amino sugars, N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and glucosamine, by repressing the divergent nagE-BA operons and by activating the glmUS operon. Repression (and activation) by NagC requires that NagC binds simultaneously to two operators, thus forming a DNA loop. This chelation effect allows use of lower affinity sites which would not individually bind the repressor. The specific inducer for NagC is GlcNAc-6-P, the product of GlcNAc transport by the PTS and a key compound in amino sugar metabolism. Mlc represses several genes implicated in the uptake of glucose; ptsG, ptsHI and manXYZ, and malT, the activator of the mal regulon. Glucose behaves like the inducer but growth on glucose only produces an overall increase in expression for ptsG and ptsHI. All Mlc repressed genes are also controlled by cAMP/CAP, so that glucose affects their transcription in two opposing ways: increasing expression by acting as the inducer for Mlc but decreasing expression by lowering the cAMP/CAP concentration. The Mlc protein is not directly responsive to glucose per se but to the activity status of the PTS. Displacement of Mlc from its binding sites occurs during growth on glucose and other PTS sugars and involves sequestration of the repressor to membranes by binding to dephosphorylated PtsG.

  19. Promoter discrimination at class I MarA regulon promoters mediated by glutamic acid 89 of the MarA transcriptional activator of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robert G; Rosner, Judah L

    2011-01-01

    Three paralogous transcriptional activators MarA, SoxS, and Rob, activate > 40 Escherichia coli promoters. To understand why MarA does not activate certain promoters as strongly as SoxS, we compared MarA, MarA mutants, and SoxS for their abilities to activate 16 promoters and to bind their cognate marbox binding sites. Replacement of the MarA glutamic acid residue 89 with alanine greatly increased the marbox binding and activation of many class I promoters. Like cells constitutive for SoxS, cells expressing the MarA with the E89A mutation were more resistant to superoxides than those harboring WT MarA. The activities of several other E89 substitutions ranked as follows: E89A > E89G > E89V > WT > E89D. Increased binding and activation occurred only at class I promoters when the 12th base of the promoter's marbox (a position at which there is no known interaction between the marbox and MarA) was not a T residue. Furthermore, WT MarA binding to a synthetic marbox in vitro was enhanced when the phosphate group between positions 12 and 13 was eliminated on one strand. The results demonstrate that relatively minor changes in a single amino acid side chain (e.g., alanine to valine or glutamic acid to aspartic acid) can strongly influence activity despite any evidence that the side chain is involved in positive interactions with either DNA or RNA polymerase. We present a model which attributes the differences in binding and activation to the interference between the β- and γ-carbons of the amino acid at position 89 and the phosphate group between positions 12 and 13.

  20. The leucine-responsive regulatory protein of Escherichia coli negatively regulates transcription of ompC and micF and positively regulates translation of ompF.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrario, M; Ernsting, B R; Borst, D W; Wiese, D E; Blumenthal, R M; Matthews, R G

    1995-01-01

    The two major porins of Escherichia coli K-12 strains, OmpC and OmpF, are inversely regulated with respect to one another. The expression of OmpC and OmpF has been shown to be influenced by the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp): two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins from strains with and strains without a functional Lrp protein revealed that OmpC expression is increased in an lrp strain, while OmpF expression is decreased. In agreement with these findings, we now present evidence that transcriptional (operon) fusions of lacZ+ to ompC and micF are negatively regulated by Lrp. Lrp binds specifically to the intergenic region between micF and ompC, as indicated by mobility shift assays and by DNase I footprinting. The expression of an ompF'-lacZ+ gene (translational) fusion is increased 3.7-fold in an lrp+ background compared with an lrp background, but expression of an ompF-lacZ+ operon fusion is not. Studies of in vivo expression of the outer membrane porins during growth on glucose minimal medium showed that the OmpF/OmpC ratio is higher in lrp+ strains than it is in isogenic lrp strains. The effect of Lrp was not seen in a strain containing a deletion of micF. Our studies suggest that the positive effect of Lrp on OmpF expression stems from a negative effect of Lrp on the expression of micF, an antisense RNA that inhibits ompF translation. PMID:8002608

  1. Hha Controls Escherichia coli O157:H7 Biofilm Formation by Differential Regulation of Global Transcriptional Regulators FlhDC and CsgD

    PubMed Central

    Bearson, Bradley L.

    2013-01-01

    Although molecular mechanisms promoting adherence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 on epithelial cells are well characterized, regulatory mechanisms controlling biofilm formation are not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrate that biofilm formation in EHEC O157:H7 strain 86-24 is highly repressed compared to that in an isogenic hha mutant. The hha mutant produced large quantities of biofilm compared to the wild-type strain at 30°C and 37°C. Complementation of the hha mutant reduced the level of biofilm formation to that of the wild-type strain, indicating that Hha is a negative regulator of biofilm production. While swimming motility and expression of the flagellar gene fliC were significantly reduced, the expression of csgA (encoding curlin of curli fimbriae) and the ability to bind Congo red were significantly enhanced. The expression of both fliC and csgA and the phenotypes of motility and curli production affected by these two genes, respectively, were restored to wild-type levels in the complemented hha mutant. The csgA deletion abolished biofilm formation in the hha mutant and wild-type strain, and csgA complementation restored biofilm formation to these strains, indicating the importance of csgA and curli in biofilm formation. The regulatory effects of Hha on flagellar and curli gene expression appear to occur via the induction and repression of FlhDC and CsgD, as demonstrated by reduced flhD and increased csgD transcription in the hha mutant, respectively. In gel shift assays Hha interacted with flhDC and csgD promoters. In conclusion, Hha regulates biofilm formation in EHEC O157:H7 by differential regulation of FlhDC and CsgD, the global regulators of motility and curli production, respectively. PMID:23377937

  2. New insights into the signaling mechanism of the pH-responsive, membrane-integrated transcriptional activator CadC of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Haneburger, Ina; Eichinger, Andreas; Skerra, Arne; Jung, Kirsten

    2011-03-25

    The membrane-integrated transcriptional regulator CadC of Escherichia coli activates expression of the cadBA operon at low external pH with concomitantly available lysine, providing adaptation to mild acidic stress. CadC is a representative of the ToxR-like proteins that combine sensory, signal transduction, and DNA-binding activities within a single polypeptide. Although several ToxR-like regulators such as CadC, as well as the main regulator of Vibrio cholerae virulence, ToxR itself, which activate gene expression at acidic pH, have been intensively investigated, their molecular activation mechanism is still unclear. In this study, a structure-guided mutational analysis was performed to elucidate the mechanism by which CadC detects acidification of the external milieu. Thus, a cluster of negatively charged amino acids (Asp-198, Asp-200, Glu-461, Glu-468, and Asp-471) was found to be crucial for pH detection. These amino acids form a negatively charged patch on the surface of the periplasmic domain of CadC that stretches across its two subdomains. The results of different combinations of amino acid replacements within this patch indicated that the N-terminal subdomain integrates and transduces the signals coming from both subdomains to the transmembrane domain. Alterations in the phospholipid composition did not influence pH-dependent cadBA expression, and therefore, interplay of the acidic surface patch with the negatively charged headgroups is unlikely. Models are discussed according to which protonation of these acidic amino acid side chains reduces repulsive forces between the two subdomains and/or between two monomers within a CadC dimer and thereby enables receptor activation upon lowering of the environmental pH.

  3. Different effects of transcriptional regulators MarA, SoxS and Rob on susceptibility of Escherichia coli to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs): Rob-dependent CAMP induction of the marRAB operon.

    PubMed

    Warner, Douglas M; Levy, Stuart B

    2010-02-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs), a component of the mammalian immune system, protect the host from bacterial infections. The roles of the Escherichia coli transcriptional regulators MarA, SoxS and Rob in susceptibility to these peptides were examined. Overexpression of marA, either in an antibiotic-resistant marR mutant or from a plasmid, decreased bacterial susceptibility to CAMPs. Overexpression of the soxS gene from a plasmid, which decreased susceptibility to antibiotics, unexpectedly caused no decrease in CAMP susceptibility; instead it produced increased susceptibility to different CAMPs. Deletion or overexpression of rob had little effect on CAMP susceptibility. The marRAB operon was upregulated when E. coli was incubated in sublethal amounts of CAMPs polymyxin B, LL-37 or human beta-defensin-1; however, this upregulation required Rob. Deletion of acrAB increased bacterial susceptibility to polymyxin B, LL-37 and human beta-defensin-1 peptides. Deletion of tolC yielded an even greater increase in susceptibility to these peptides and also led to increased susceptibility to human alpha-defensin-2. Inhibition of cellular proton-motive force increased peptide susceptibility for wild-type and acrAB deletion strains; however, it decreased susceptibility of tolC mutants. These findings demonstrate that CAMPs are both inducers of marA-mediated drug resistance through interaction with Rob and also substrates for efflux in E. coli. The three related transcriptional regulators show different effects on bacterial cell susceptibility to CAMPs.

  4. A basic/hydrophobic cleft of the T4 activator MotA interacts with the C-terminus of E. coli σ70 to activate middle gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Bonocora, Richard P.; Caignan, Gregori; Woodrell, Christopher; Werner, Milton H.; Hinton, Deborah M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Transcriptional activation often employs a direct interaction between an activator and RNA polymerase. For activation of its middle genes, bacteriophage T4 appropriates E. coli RNA polymerase through the action of two phage-encoded proteins, MotA and AsiA. Alone, AsiA inhibits transcription from a large class of host promoters by structurally remodeling region 4 of σ70, the primary specificity subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase. MotA interacts both with σ70 region 4 and with a DNA element present in T4 middle promoters. AsiA-induced remodeling is proposed to make the far C-terminus of σ70 region 4 accessible for MotA binding. Here, NMR chemical shift analysis indicates that MotA uses a “basic/hydrophobic” cleft to interact with the C-terminus of AsiA-remodeled σ70, but MotA does not interact with AsiA itself. Mutations within this cleft, at residues K3, K28, and Q76, both impair the interaction of MotA with σ70 region 4 and MotA-dependent activation. Furthermore, mutations at these residues greatly decrease phage viability. Most previously described activators that target σ70 directly use acidic residues to engage a basic surface of region 4. Our work supports accumulated evidence indicating that “σ appropriation” by MotA and AsiA uses a fundamentally different mechanism to activate transcription. PMID:18485078

  5. Two functions of the C-terminal domain of Escherichia coli Rob: mediating "sequestration-dispersal" as a novel off-on switch for regulating Rob's activity as a transcription activator and preventing degradation of Rob by Lon protease.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Kevin L; Fitzpatrick, M Megan; Keen, Edward F; Wolf, Richard E

    2009-05-08

    In Escherichia coli, Rob activates transcription of the SoxRS/MarA/Rob regulon. Previous work revealed that Rob resides in three to four immunostainable foci, that dipyridyl and bile salts are inducers of its activity, and that inducers bind to Rob's C-terminal domain (CTD). We propose that sequestration inactivates Rob by blocking its access to the transcriptional machinery and that inducers activate Rob by mediating its dispersal, allowing interaction with RNA polymerase. To test "sequestration-dispersal" as a new mechanism for regulating the activity of transcriptional activators, we fused Rob's CTD to SoxS and used indirect immunofluorescence microscopy to determine the effect of inducers on SoxS-Rob's cellular localization. Unlike native SoxS, which is uniformly distributed throughout the cell, SoxS-Rob is sequestered without an inducer, but is rapidly dispersed when cells are treated with an inducer. In this manner, Rob's CTD serves as an anti-sigma factor in regulating the co-sigma-factor-like activity of SoxS when fused to it. Rob's CTD also protects its N-terminus from Lon protease, since Lon's normally rapid degradation of SoxS is blocked in the chimera. Accordingly, Rob's CTD has novel regulatory properties that can be bestowed on another E. coli protein.

  6. Transformation of Arthrobacter and studies on the transcription of the Arthrobacter ermA gene in Streptomyces lividans and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, A N; Barnett, L; Brenner, S

    1987-01-01

    We report the development of a plasmid-mediated transformation system for Arthrobacter sp. NRRLB3381, using the Streptomyces cloning vector pIJ702. Our procedure gives a transformation frequency of 10(3)/micrograms of plasmid DNA. In addition we have explored the expression of the Arthrobacter ermA gene in Streptomyces lividans and Escherichia coli, and shown that the ermA promoter is recognized in S. lividans not E. coli. The relationship between Arthrobacter, Streptomyces and E. coli promoters is discussed. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2443127

  7. Transformation of Arthrobacter and studies on the transcription of the Arthrobacter ermA gene in Streptomyces lividans and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Roberts, A N; Barnett, L; Brenner, S

    1987-04-15

    We report the development of a plasmid-mediated transformation system for Arthrobacter sp. NRRLB3381, using the Streptomyces cloning vector pIJ702. Our procedure gives a transformation frequency of 10(3)/micrograms of plasmid DNA. In addition we have explored the expression of the Arthrobacter ermA gene in Streptomyces lividans and Escherichia coli, and shown that the ermA promoter is recognized in S. lividans not E. coli. The relationship between Arthrobacter, Streptomyces and E. coli promoters is discussed.

  8. Protein-protein interactions between sigma(70) region 4 of RNA polymerase and Escherichia coli SoxS, a transcription activator that functions by the prerecruitment mechanism: evidence for "off-DNA" and "on-DNA" interactions.

    PubMed

    Zafar, M Ammar; Shah, Ishita M; Wolf, Richard E

    2010-08-06

    According to the prerecruitment hypothesis, Escherichia coli SoxS activates the transcription of the genes of the SoxRS regulon by forming binary complexes with RNA polymerase (RNAP) that scan the chromosome for class I and class II SoxS-dependent promoters. We showed previously that the alpha subunit's C-terminal domain plays a role in activating both classes of promoter by making protein-protein contacts with SoxS; some of these contacts are made in solution in the absence of promoter DNA, a critical prediction of the prerecruitment hypothesis. Here, we identified seven single-alanine substitutions of the region 4 of sigma(70) (sigma(70) R4) of RNAP that reduce SoxS activation of class II promoters. With genetic epistasis tests between these sigma(70) R4 mutants and positive control mutants of SoxS, we identified 10 pairs of amino acids that interact with each other in E. coli. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and affinity immobilization assays, we showed that SoxS and sigma(70) R4 can interact in solution (i.e., "off-DNA"). The interaction requires amino acids of the class I/II (but not the class II) positive control surface of SoxS, and five amino acids of sigma(70) R4 that reduce activation in E. coli also reduce the SoxS-sigma(70) R4 interaction in yeast. One of the epistatic interactions that occur in E. coli also occurs in the yeast two-hybrid system (i.e., off-DNA). Importantly, we infer that the five epistatic interactions occurring in E. coli that require an amino acid of the class II surface occur "on-DNA" at class II promoters. Finding that SoxS contacts sigma(70) R4 both off-DNA and on-DNA is consistent with the prerecruitment hypothesis. Moreover, SoxS is now the first example of an E. coli transcriptional activator that uses a single positive control surface to make specific protein-protein contacts with two different subunits of RNAP.

  9. Distinct Functions of Regions 1.1 and 1.2 of RNA Polymerase σ Subunits from Escherichia coli and Thermus aquaticus in Transcription Initiation*

    PubMed Central

    Miropolskaya, Nataliya; Ignatov, Artem; Bass, Irina; Zhilina, Ekaterina; Pupov, Danil; Kulbachinskiy, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) from thermophilic Thermus aquaticus is characterized by higher temperature of promoter opening, lower promoter complex stability, and higher promoter escape efficiency than RNAP from mesophilic Escherichia coli. We demonstrate that these differences are in part explained by differences in the structures of the N-terminal regions 1.1 and 1.2 of the E. coli σ70 and T. aquaticus σA subunits. In particular, region 1.1 and, to a lesser extent, region 1.2 of the E. coli σ70 subunit determine higher promoter complex stability of E. coli RNAP. On the other hand, nonconserved amino acid substitutions in region 1.2, but not region 1.1, contribute to the differences in promoter opening between E. coli and T. aquaticus RNAPs, likely through affecting the σ subunit contacts with DNA nucleotides downstream of the −10 element. At the same time, substitutions in σ regions 1.1 and 1.2 do not affect promoter escape by E. coli and T. aquaticus RNAPs. Thus, evolutionary substitutions in various regions of the σ subunit modulate different steps of the open promoter complex formation pathway, with regions 1.1 and 1.2 affecting promoter complex stability and region 1.2 involved in DNA melting during initiation. PMID:22605342

  10. Effects of cranberry extracts and ursolic acid derivatives on P-fimbriated Escherichia coli, COX-2 activity, pro-inflammatory cytokine release and the NF-κβ transcriptional response in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yue; Nikolic, Dejan; Pendland, Susan; Doyle, Brian J.; Locklear, Tracie D.; Mahady, Gail B.

    2010-01-01

    Cranberry, the fresh or dried ripe fruit of Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae), is currently used as adjunct therapy for the prevention and symptomatic treatment of urinary tract infections. Data from clinical trials suggest that extracts of cranberry or cranberry juice reduce the bacterial load of E. coli and also suppress the inflammatory symptoms induced by E. coli infections. A methanol extract prepared from 10 kg of dehydrated cranberries did not directly inhibit the growth of E coli strains ATCC 700336 or ATCC 25922 in concentrations up to 256 μg/mL in vitro. However, the methanol extract (CR-ME) inhibited the activity of cyclooxygenase-2, with an IC50 of 12.8 μg/mL. Moreover, CR-ME also inhibited the NF-κβ transcriptional activation in human T lymphocytes with an IC50 of 19.4 μg/mL, and significantly (p < 0.01) inhibited the release of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α from E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro, at a concentration of 50 μg/mL. The extract had no effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. The compounds responsible for this activity were identified using a novel LC-MS based assay as ursolic acid and ursolic acid derivatives. Taken together, these data suggest CR-ME and its constituent chemical compounds target specific pathways involved in E. coli-induced inflammation. PMID:20376297

  11. The Cation-Responsive Protein NhaR of Escherichia coli Activates pgaABCD Transcription, Required for Production of the Biofilm Adhesin Poly-β-1,6-N-Acetyl-d-Glucosamine▿

    PubMed Central

    Goller, Carlos; Wang, Xin; Itoh, Yoshikane; Romeo, Tony

    2006-01-01

    The pgaABCD operon of Escherichia coli is required for production of the biofilm adhesin poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PGA). We establish here that NhaR, a DNA-binding protein of the LysR family of transcriptional regulators, activates transcription of this operon. Disruption of the nhaR gene decreased biofilm formation without affecting planktonic growth. PGA production was undetectable in an nhaR mutant strain. Expression of a pgaA′-′lacZ translational fusion was induced by NaCl and alkaline pH, but not by CaCl2 or sucrose, in an nhaR-dependent fashion. Primer extension and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses further revealed that NhaR affects the steady-state level of pga mRNA. A purified recombinant NhaR protein bound specifically and with high affinity within the pgaABCD promoter region; one apparent binding site overlaps the −35 element, and a second site lies immediately upstream of the first. This protein was necessary and sufficient for activation of in vitro transcription from the pgaA promoter. These results define a novel mechanism for regulation of biofilm formation in response to environmental conditions and suggest an expanded role for NhaR in promoting bacterial survival. PMID:16997959

  12. An excretory function for the Escherichia coli outer membrane pore TolC: upregulation of marA and soxS transcription and Rob activity due to metabolites accumulated in tolC mutants.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Judah L; Martin, Robert G

    2009-08-01

    Efflux pumps function to rid bacteria of xenobiotics, including antibiotics, bile salts, and organic solvents. TolC, which forms an outer membrane channel, is an essential component of several efflux pumps in Escherichia coli. We asked whether TolC has a role during growth in the absence of xenobiotics. Because tolC transcription is activated by three paralogous activators, MarA, SoxS, and Rob, we examined the regulation of these activators in tolC mutants. Using transcriptional fusions, we detected significant upregulation of marRAB and soxS transcription and Rob protein activity in tolC mutants. Three mechanisms could be distinguished: (i) activation of marRAB transcription was independent of marRAB, soxR, and rob functions; (ii) activation of soxS transcription required SoxR, a sensor of oxidants; and (iii) Rob protein was activated posttranscriptionally. This mechanism is similar to the mechanisms of upregulation of marRAB, soxS, and Rob by treatment with certain phenolics, superoxides, and bile salts, respectively. The transcription of other marA/soxS/rob regulon promoters, including tolC itself, was also elevated in tolC mutants. We propose that TolC is involved in the efflux of certain cellular metabolites, not only xenobiotics. As these metabolites accumulate during growth, they trigger the upregulation of MarA, SoxS, and Rob, which in turn upregulate tolC and help rid the bacteria of these metabolites, thereby restoring homeostasis.

  13. Substitutions in the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase inhibitor T7 Gp2 that allow inhibition of transcription when the primary interaction interface between Gp2 and RNA polymerase becomes compromised.

    PubMed

    Shadrin, Andrey; Sheppard, Carol; Severinov, Konstantin; Matthews, Steve; Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh

    2012-11-01

    The Escherichia coli-infecting bacteriophage T7 encodes a 7 kDa protein, called Gp2, which is a potent inhibitor of the host RNA polymerase (RNAp). Gp2 is essential for T7 phage development. The interaction site for Gp2 on the E. coli RNAp is the β' jaw domain, which is part of the DNA binding channel. The binding of Gp2 to the β' jaw antagonizes several steps associated with interactions between the RNAp and promoter DNA, leading to inhibition of transcription at the open promoter complex formation step. In the structure of the complex formed between Gp2 and a fragment of the β' jaw, amino acid residues in the β3 strand of Gp2 contribute to the primary interaction interface with the β' jaw. The 7009 E. coli strain is resistant to T7 because it carries a charge reversal point mutation in the β' jaw that prevents Gp2 binding. However, a T7 phage encoding a mutant form of Gp2, called Gp2(β), which carries triple amino acid substitutions E24K, F27Y and R56C, can productively infect this strain. By studying the molecular basis of inhibition of RNAp from the 7009 strain by Gp2(β), we provide several lines of evidence that the E24K and F27Y substitutions facilitate an interaction with RNAp when the primary interaction interface with the β' jaw is compromised. The proposed additional interaction interface between RNAp and Gp2 may contribute to the multipronged mechanism of transcription inhibition by Gp2.

  14. Intron insertion facilitates amplification of cloned virus cDNA in Escherichia coli while biological activity is reestablished after transcription in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, I E

    1996-01-01

    Insertion of introns into cloned cDNA of two isolates of the plant potyvirus pea seedborne mosaic virus facilitated plasmid amplification in Escherichia coli. Multiple stop codons in the inserted introns interrupted the open reading frame of the virus cDNA, thereby terminating undesired translation of virus proteins in E. coli. Plasmids containing the full-length virus sequences, placed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase termination signal, were stable and easy to amplify in E. coli if one or more introns were inserted into the virus sequence. These plasmids were infectious when inoculated mechanically onto Pisum sativum leaves. Examination of the cDNA-derived viruses confirmed that intron splicing of in vivo transcribed pre-mRNA had occurred as predicted, reestablishing the virus genome sequences. Symptom development and virus accumulation of the cDNA derived viruses and parental viruses were identical. It is proposed that intron insertion can be used to facilitate manipulation and amplification of cloned DNA fragments that are unstable in, or toxic to, E. coli. When transcribed in vivo in eukaryotic cells, the introns will be eliminated from the sequence and will not interfere with further analysis of protein expression or virus infection. PMID:8901593

  15. Hha controls Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm formation by differential regulation of global transcriptional regulators FlhDC and CsgD

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen that produces a broad-spectrum of diarrheal illnesses in infected humans. Although molecular mechanisms enabling EHEC O157:H7 to produce characteristic adherence on epithelial cells are well characterized, regulatory mechanisms...

  16. Comparative transcriptional profiling reveals differential expression of pathways directly and indirectly influencing biofilm formation in Escherichia coli O157:H7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) is a frequent cause of foodborne disease outbreaks. O157 encodes virulence factors for colonizing and survival in reservoir animals and the environment. For example, genetic factors promoting biofilm formation are linked to survival of O157 in and outsid...

  17. SOS-Independent Induction of dinB Transcription by β-Lactam-Mediated Inhibition of Cell Wall Synthesis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Capilla, Tatiana; Baquero, María-Rosario; Gómez-Gómez, José-María; Ionel, Alina; Martín, Soledad; Blázquez, Jesús

    2005-01-01

    Transcription of the dinB gene, encoding DNA polymerase IV, is induced by the inhibition of cell wall synthesis at different levels. Using the β-lactam antibiotic ceftazidime, a PBP3 inhibitor, as a model, we have shown that this induction is independent of the LexA/RecA regulatory system. Induction of dinB transcription mediated by ceftazidime produces an increase in the reversion of a +1 Lac frameshift mutation. PMID:15687217

  18. E. Coli

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? E. Coli KidsHealth > For Kids > E. Coli A A A What's in this article? What ... Doctor Do? What Can Kids Do? en español E. coli What Is It? E. coli is a common ...

  19. Mycobacterium tuberculosis cAMP Receptor Protein (Rv3676) Differs from the Escherichia coli Paradigm in Its cAMP Binding and DNA Binding Properties and Transcription Activation Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Melanie; Haq, Ihtshamul; Hunt, Debbie M.; Arnvig, Kristine B.; Artymiuk, Peter J.; Buxton, Roger S.; Green, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces a burst of cAMP upon infection of macrophages. Bacterial cyclic AMP receptor proteins (CRP) are transcription factors that respond to cAMP by binding at target promoters when cAMP concentrations increase. Rv3676 (CRPMt) is a CRP family protein that regulates expression of genes (rpfA and whiB1) that are potentially involved in M. tuberculosis persistence and/or emergence from the dormant state. Here, the CRPMt homodimer is shown to bind two molecules of cAMP (one per protomer) at noninteracting sites. Furthermore, cAMP binding by CRPMt was relatively weak, entropy driven, and resulted in a relatively small enhancement in DNA binding. Tandem CRPMt-binding sites (CRP1 at −58.5 and CRP2 at −37.5) were identified at the whiB1 promoter (PwhiB1). In vitro transcription reactions showed that CRP1 is an activating site and that CRP2, which was only occupied in the presence of cAMP or at high CRPMt concentrations in the absence of cAMP, is a repressing site. Binding of CRPMt to CRP1 was not essential for open complex formation but was required for transcription activation. Thus, these data suggest that binding of CRPMt to the PwhiB1 CRP1 site activates transcription at a step after open complex formation. In contrast, high cAMP concentrations allowed occupation of both CRP1 and CRP2 sites, resulting in inhibition of open complex formation. Thus, M. tuberculosis CRP has evolved several distinct characteristics, compared with the Escherichia coli CRP paradigm, to allow it to regulate gene expression against a background of high concentrations of cAMP. PMID:20028978

  20. Bacterial Two-Hybrid Analysis of Interactions between Region 4 of the ς70 Subunit of RNA Polymerase and the Transcriptional Regulators Rsd from Escherichia coli and AlgQ from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Dove, Simon L.; Hochschild, Ann

    2001-01-01

    A number of transcriptional regulators mediate their effects through direct contact with the ς70 subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAP). In particular, several regulators have been shown to contact a C-terminal portion of ς70 that harbors conserved region 4. This region of ς contains a putative helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif that contacts the −35 element of ς70-dependent promoters directly. Here we report the use of a recently developed bacterial two-hybrid system to study the interaction between the putative anti-ς factor Rsd and the ς70 subunit of E. coli RNAP. Using this system, we found that Rsd can interact with an 86-amino-acid C-terminal fragment of ς70 and also that amino acid substitution R596H, within region 4 of ς70, weakens this interaction. We demonstrated the specificity of this effect by showing that substitution R596H does not weaken the interaction between ς and two other regulators shown previously to contact region 4 of ς70. We also demonstrated that AlgQ, a homolog of Rsd that positively regulates virulence gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, can contact the C-terminal region of the ς70 subunit of RNAP from this organism. We found that amino acid substitution R600H in ς70 from P. aeruginosa, corresponding to the R596H substitution in E. coli ς70, specifically weakens the interaction between AlgQ and ς70. Taken together, our findings suggest that Rsd and AlgQ contact similar surfaces of RNAP present in region 4 of ς70 and probably regulate gene expression through this contact. PMID:11591686

  1. Substitution of a highly conserved histidine in the Escherichia coli heat shock transcription factor, sigma32, affects promoter utilization in vitro and leads to overexpression of the biofilm-associated flu protein in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kourennaia, Olga V; Dehaseth, Pieter L

    2007-12-01

    The heat shock sigma factor (sigma(32) in Escherichia coli) directs the bacterial RNA polymerase to promoters of a specific sequence to form a stable complex, competent to initiate transcription of genes whose products mitigate the effects of exposure of the cell to high temperatures. The histidine at position 107 of sigma(32) is at the homologous position of a tryptophan residue at position 433 of the main sigma factor of E. coli, sigma(70). This tryptophan is essential for the strand separation step leading to the formation of the initiation-competent RNA polymerase-promoter complex. The heat shock sigma factors of all gammaproteobacteria sequenced have a histidine at this position, while in the alpha- and deltaproteobacteria, it is a tryptophan. In vitro the alanine-for-histidine substitution at position 107 (H107A) destabilizes complexes between the GroE promoter and RNA polymerase containing sigma(32), implying that H107 plays a role in formation or maintenance of the strand-separated complex. In vivo, the H107A substitution in sigma(32) impedes recovery from heat shock (exposure to 42 degrees C), and it also leads to overexpression at lower temperatures (30 degrees C) of the Flu protein, which is associated with biofilm formation.

  2. Transcriptional control mediated by the ArcA two-component response regulator protein of Escherichia coli: characterization of DNA binding at target promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, A S; Lin, E C

    1996-01-01

    ArcA protein bearing an amino-terminal, oligohistidine extension has been purified, and its DNA binding activity has been characterized with or without prior incubation with carbamoyl phosphate. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I protection assays indicate that where the phosphorylated form of the ArcA protein (ArcA-P) is expected to act as a transcriptional repressor (e.g., of lctPRD and gltA-sdhCDAB), the effect is likely to be mediated by sequestration of cis-controlling transcriptional regulatory elements. In contrast, in the case of cydAB, for which ArcA-P is expected to function as a transcriptional activator, two discrete binding sites have been identified upstream of a known promoter, and activation from these sites is likely to be mediated by a mechanism typical of the type I class of prokaryotic transcriptional activators. An additional ArcA-P binding site has also been located downstream of the known promoter, and a distinct role for this site in the regulation of the cydAB operon during anoxic growth transitions is suggested. These results are discussed within the framework of an overall model of signaling by the Arc two-component signal transduction system in response to changes in aerobiosis. PMID:8892825

  3. Structural analysis of ternary complexes of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. Individual complexes halted along different transcription units have distinct and unexpected biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Krummel, B; Chamberlin, M J

    1992-05-20

    Ternary complexes containing RNA polymerase, DNA and nascent RNA are intermediates in all RNA syntheses and are the targets of cellular factors that regulate RNA chain elongation and termination. Hence, elucidation of the structure and properties of these complexes is essential for understanding the catalytic and regulatory properties of the enzyme. We have described methods to prepare ternary complexes halted at defined positions along the DNA template, using specific dinucleotides to prime chain initiation along with limited subsets of the NTP substrates. Study of these static, halted complexes may provide information about the structure and properties of the transient elongation intermediates involved in transcription, although there is no necessary direct relationship between the two. Using specific halted complexes as precursors, we have walked the RNA polymerase along its template, producing defined ternary complexes at unique sites along two different transcription units. These complexes differ significantly from one another in many biochemical properties, in dramatic contrast to the properties expected from models that postulate a monotonous structure for elongation intermediates. These differences include variations in complex mobility during electrophoresis in non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels, in thermal stability and in stability to dissociation. Some halted complexes lose the ability to resume elongation when presented with the missing substrates. These "dead end" complexes must represent metastable structures in which elongation is blocked, and demonstrate clearly that not all halted complexes can be considered true intermediates in elongation. Other halted complexes rapidly cleave the nascent RNA seven nucleotides from the 3' terminus, in an unexpected and unusual biochemical reaction. These differences in properties among complexes bearing transcripts that differ by only one or a few nucleotides suggest that they have distinct structures. These

  4. Dual Transcriptional Regulation of the Escherichia coli Phosphate-Starvation-Inducible psiE Gene of the Phosphate Regulon by PhoB and the Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP Receptor Protein Complex

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Ki; Kimura, Sigenobu; Shinagawa, Hideo; Nakata, Atsuo; Lee, Ki-Sung; Wanner, Barry L.; Makino, Kozo

    2000-01-01

    We have shown that the Escherichia coli phosphate-starvation-inducible psiE gene is regulated by both phosphate and the carbon source by using both lacZ and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (cat) fusions. Yet, under all conditions tested, a single transcriptional start site lying 7 bp downstream of a predicted −10 region was revealed by primer extension analysis. DNase I footprinting showed that the PhoB transcriptional-activator protein protects two predicted pho boxes lying upstream of and near the −35 promoter region. Similar analysis showed that the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (cAMP-CRP) complex binds a region that overlaps with the downstream pho box. These results, together with measurements of the in vivo psiE promoter activity under various conditions, show that expression of the psiE gene is under direct positive and negative control by PhoB and cAMP-CRP, respectively. PMID:10986267

  5. Allele-specific suppression of the temperature sensitivity of fitA/fitB mutants of Escherichia coli by a new mutation (fitC4): isolation, characterization and its implications in transcription control.

    PubMed

    Vidya, S; Kamalakar, B Praveen; Munavar, M Hussain; Kumar, L Sathish; Jayaraman, R

    2006-03-01

    The temperature sensitive transcription defective mutant of Escherichia coli originally called fitA76 has been shown to harbour two missense mutations namely pheS5 and fit95. In order to obtain a suppressor of fitA76, possibly mapping in rpoD locus, a Ts+ derivative (JV4) was isolated from a fitA76 mutant. It was found that JV4 neither harbours the lesions present in the original fitA76 nor a suppressor that maps in or near rpoD. We show that JV4 harbours a modified form of fitA76 (designated fitA76*) together with its suppressor. The results presented here indicate that the fit95 lesion is intact in the fitA76* mutant and the modification should be at the position of pheS5. Based on the cotransduction of the suppressor mutation and/or its wild type allele with pps, aroD and zdj-3124::Tn10 kan we have mapped its location to 39.01 min on the E. coli chromosome. We tentatively designate the locus defined by this new extragenic suppressor as fitC and the suppressor allele as fitC4. While fitC4 could suppress the Ts phenotype of fitA76* present in JV4, it fails to suppress the Ts phenotype of the original fitA76 mutant (harbouring pheS5 and fit95). Also fitC4 could suppress the Ts phenotype of a strain harbouring only pheS5. Interestingly, the fitC4 Ts phenotype could also be suppressed by fit95. The pattern of decay of pulse labelled RNA in the strains harbouring fitC4 and the fitA76* resembles that of the original fitA76 mutant implying a transcription defect similar to that of fitA76 in both these mutants. The implications of these findings with special reference to transcription control by Fit factors in vivo are discussed.

  6. E. Coli

    MedlinePlus

    ... We Are Organization Director, Anthony Fauci, M.D. History What We ... Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) bacteria live in the intestines of people and animals, and are key to a healthy intestinal tract. ...

  7. Transcriptional regulation of main metabolic pathways of cyoA, cydB, fnr, and fur gene knockout Escherichia coli in C-limited and N-limited aerobic continuous cultures.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Shimizu, Kazuyuki

    2011-01-27

    It is important to understand the cellular responses emanating from environmental perturbations to redesign the networks for practical applications. In particular, the carbon (C) metabolism, nitrogen (N) assimilation, and energy generation are by far important, where those are interconnected and integrated to maintain cellular integrity. In our previous study, we investigated the effect of C/N ratio on the metabolic regulation of gdhA, glnL, glt B,D mutants as well as wild type Escherichia coli (Kumar and Shimizu, MCF, 1-17, 9:8,2010), where it was shown that the transcript levels of cyoA and cydB which encode the terminal oxidases, fnr and fur which encode global regulators were significantly up-regulated under N-limited condition as compared to C-limited condition. In the present study, therefore, the effects of such single-gene knockout on the metabolic regulation were investigated to clarify the roles of those genes in the aerobic continuous culture at the dilution rate of 0.2 h(-1). The specific glucose consumption rates and the specific CO2 production rates of cyoA, cydB, fnr, and fur mutants were all increased as compared to the wild type under both C-limited and N-limited conditions. The former phenomenon was consistent with the up-regulations of the transcript levels of ptsG and ptsH, which are consistent with down-regulations of crp and mlc genes. Moreover, the increase in the specific glucose consumption rate was also caused by up-regulations of the transcript levels of pfkA, pykF and possibly zwf, where those are consistent with the down regulations of cra, crp and mlc genes. Moreover, the transcript levels of rpoN together with glnK, glnB, glnE were up-regulated, and thus the transcript levels of glnA,L,G, and gltB,D as well as nac were up-regulated, while gdhA was down-regulated. This implies the interconnection between cAMP-Crp and PII-Ntr systems. Moreover, cyoA, cydB, fnr and fur gene deletions up-regulated the transcript levels of respiration (nuo

  8. Expression, Functional Characterization and X-ray Analysis of HosA, A Member of MarR Family of Transcription Regulator from Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ajit; Reddi, Ravikumar; Sawhney, Bhavik; Ghosh, Debasish Kumar; Addlagatta, Anthony; Ranjan, Akash

    2016-08-01

    Regulators belonging to multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) family are widespread in prokaryotes and are involved in regulation of genes that are responsible for virulence and pathogenicity in most of the clinically important pathogens. Here we report the transcriptional, biophysical, and X-ray analyses of homologue of SlyA (HosA), a member of MarR family that is predominantly present in the pathogenic strains of Enterobacteriaceae family. The initiation of hosA transcription was observed to occur at two independent start sites and subsequent binding study has revealed that the purified HosA interacts with its upstream region suggesting a probable autoregulation. The secondary structure analysis through circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrated that HosA is predominantly composed of the alpha helix with higher thermal stability. To further understand the three-dimensional structure, HosA was crystallized and the crystals were diffracted to maximum of 2.9 Ǻ on exposure to X-rays. Analysis of the X-ray crystallographic data suggested a primitive space group (P 6 ? 2 2), with unit cell parameters a = b = 64.19 Å and c = 244.25 Å. The solvent content and Matthews coefficient were 41 % and 2.11 Å(3) Da(-1), respectively, which indicated the existence of two molecules of HosA in the asymmetric unit of crystal.

  9. Source-Related Effects of Wastewater on Transcription Factor (AhR, CAR and PXR)-Mediated Induction of Gene Expression in Cultured Rat Hepatocytes and Their Association with the Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Guruge, Keerthi S.; Yamanaka, Noriko; Sonobe, Miyuki; Fujizono, Wataru; Yoshioka, Miyako; Akiba, Masato; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Joshua, Derrick I.; Balakrishna, Keshava; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Extracts of wastewater collected from 4 sewage treatment plants (STPs) receiving effluents from different sources in South India were investigated for their levels of transcription factor-mediated gene induction in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. In addition, the relation between gene induction levels and the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) in wastewater was examined. STP-3, which treats only hospital wastewater, exhibited significantly greater induction potency of all 6 drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes examined, CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2B15, 3A1, and 3A2, whereas the wastewater at STP-1, which exclusively receives domestic sewage, showed significantly diminished levels of induction of 3 CYP genes when compared to the levels of CYP induction at STP-2, which receives mixed wastewater. Samples collected during the monsoon season showed a significantly altered gene induction capacity compared to that of samples from the pre-monsoon period. The data suggest that the toxicity of wastewater in STPs was not significantly diminished during the treatment process. The chemical-gene interaction data predicted that a vast number of chemicals present in the wastewater would stimulate the genes studied in the rat hepatocytes. The multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the prevalence of isolates resistant to cefotaxime, imipenem and streptomycin was significantly correlated with the levels of induction of at least three CYP-isozymes in STP wastewater. In addition, the resistance of isolates in treatment plants was not altered by the treatment steps, whereas the sampling season did have an impact on the resistance to specific antimicrobials. The identification of receptor-mediated gene regulation capacities offers important data not limited to the (synergistic) physiological role of chemicals in biological systems but may provide new insight into the link between the effects of known/unknown drugs and prevalence of

  10. Source-Related Effects of Wastewater on Transcription Factor (AhR, CAR and PXR)-Mediated Induction of Gene Expression in Cultured Rat Hepatocytes and Their Association with the Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Guruge, Keerthi S; Yamanaka, Noriko; Sonobe, Miyuki; Fujizono, Wataru; Yoshioka, Miyako; Akiba, Masato; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Joshua, Derrick I; Balakrishna, Keshava; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Extracts of wastewater collected from 4 sewage treatment plants (STPs) receiving effluents from different sources in South India were investigated for their levels of transcription factor-mediated gene induction in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. In addition, the relation between gene induction levels and the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) in wastewater was examined. STP-3, which treats only hospital wastewater, exhibited significantly greater induction potency of all 6 drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes examined, CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2B15, 3A1, and 3A2, whereas the wastewater at STP-1, which exclusively receives domestic sewage, showed significantly diminished levels of induction of 3 CYP genes when compared to the levels of CYP induction at STP-2, which receives mixed wastewater. Samples collected during the monsoon season showed a significantly altered gene induction capacity compared to that of samples from the pre-monsoon period. The data suggest that the toxicity of wastewater in STPs was not significantly diminished during the treatment process. The chemical-gene interaction data predicted that a vast number of chemicals present in the wastewater would stimulate the genes studied in the rat hepatocytes. The multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the prevalence of isolates resistant to cefotaxime, imipenem and streptomycin was significantly correlated with the levels of induction of at least three CYP-isozymes in STP wastewater. In addition, the resistance of isolates in treatment plants was not altered by the treatment steps, whereas the sampling season did have an impact on the resistance to specific antimicrobials. The identification of receptor-mediated gene regulation capacities offers important data not limited to the (synergistic) physiological role of chemicals in biological systems but may provide new insight into the link between the effects of known/unknown drugs and prevalence of

  11. In vivo D-serine deaminase transcription start sites in wild-type Escherichia coli and in dsdA promoter mutants.

    PubMed

    Bornstein-Forst, S M; McFall, E; Palchaudhuri, S

    1987-03-01

    The D-serine deaminase structural (dsdA) and regulatory (dsdC) genes are transcribed with opposite polarity from an intergenic region comprising more than 600 base pairs. The order of genes in the dsd region is supN-dsdA-dsdC-aroC---his. The DNA sequence of the intergenic region has been slightly revised from a previously published version (E. McFall and L. Runkel, J. Bacteriol. 154:1508-1512, 1983). The dsdA gene is preceded by a long open reading frame. The dsdA in vivo transcription start sites for the wild type (base pair +1) and for three phenotypically distinct promoter constitutive mutants were determined by the S1 nuclease method. They are identical and are located about 81 base pairs upstream of the translation start site. D-Serine deaminase regulation is normal in rho mutants. Possible mechanisms for dsdA activation are discussed.

  12. In vivo D-serine deaminase transcription start sites in wild-type Escherichia coli and in dsdA promoter mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein-Forst, S M; McFall, E; Palchaudhuri, S

    1987-01-01

    The D-serine deaminase structural (dsdA) and regulatory (dsdC) genes are transcribed with opposite polarity from an intergenic region comprising more than 600 base pairs. The order of genes in the dsd region is supN-dsdA-dsdC-aroC---his. The DNA sequence of the intergenic region has been slightly revised from a previously published version (E. McFall and L. Runkel, J. Bacteriol. 154:1508-1512, 1983). The dsdA gene is preceded by a long open reading frame. The dsdA in vivo transcription start sites for the wild type (base pair +1) and for three phenotypically distinct promoter constitutive mutants were determined by the S1 nuclease method. They are identical and are located about 81 base pairs upstream of the translation start site. D-Serine deaminase regulation is normal in rho mutants. Possible mechanisms for dsdA activation are discussed. Images PMID:3029015

  13. Ligand binding specificity of RutR, a member of the TetR family of transcription regulators in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen Le Minh, Phu; de Cima, Sergio; Bervoets, Indra; Maes, Dominique; Rubio, Vicente; Charlier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    RutR is a member of the large family of TetR transcriptional regulators in Escherichiacoli. It was originally discovered as the regulator of the rutABCDEFG operon encoding a novel pathway for pyrimidine utilization, but its highest affinity target is the control region of the carAB operon, encoding carbamoylphosphate synthase. Unlike most other TetR-like regulators, RutR exerts both positive and negative effects on promoter activity. Furthermore, RutR exhibits a very narrow ligand binding specificity, unlike the broad effector specificity that characterizes some of the well-studied multidrug resistance regulators of the family. Here we focus on ligand binding and ligand specificity of RutR. We construct single alanine substitution mutants of amino acid residues of the ligand-binding pocket, study their effect on in vitro DNA binding in absence and presence of potential ligands, and analyse their effect on positive regulation of the carP1 promoter and negative autoregulation in vivo. Although RutR structures have been determined previously, they were deposited in the Protein Data Bank without accompanying publications. All of them have uracil bound in the effector-binding site, representing the inactive form of the regulator. We determined the crystal structure of an unliganded mutant RutR protein and provide a structural basis for the use of uracil as sole effector molecule and the exclusion of the very similar thymine from the ligand-binding pocket. PMID:25685666

  14. Integrated stress response of Escherichia coli to methylglyoxal: transcriptional readthrough from the nemRA operon enhances protection through increased expression of glyoxalase I.

    PubMed

    Ozyamak, Ertan; de Almeida, Camila; de Moura, Alessandro P S; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian R

    2013-06-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) elicits activation of K(+) efflux systems to protect cells against the toxicity of the electrophile. ChIP-chip targeting RNA polymerase, supported by a range of other biochemical measurements and mutant creation, was used to identify genes transcribed in response to MG and which complement this rapid response. The SOS DNA repair regulon is induced at cytotoxic levels of MG, even when exposure to MG is transient. Glyoxalase I alone among the core MG protective systems is induced in response to MG exposure. Increased expression is an indirect consequence of induction of the upstream nemRA operon, encoding an enzyme system that itself does not contribute to MG detoxification. Moreover, this induction, via nemRA only occurs when cells are exposed to growth inhibitory concentrations of MG. We show that the kdpFABCDE genes are induced and that this expression occurs as a result of depletion of cytoplasmic K(+) consequent upon activation of the KefGB K(+) efflux system. Finally, our analysis suggests that the transcriptional changes in response to MG are a culmination of the damage to DNA and proteins, but that some integrate specific functions, such as DNA repair, to augment the allosteric activation of the main protective system, KefGB.

  15. Integrated stress response of Escherichia coli to methylglyoxal: transcriptional readthrough from the nemRA operon enhances protection through increased expression of glyoxalase I

    PubMed Central

    Ozyamak, Ertan; Almeida, Camila; de Moura, Alessandro P S; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) elicits activation of K+ efflux systems to protect cells against the toxicity of the electrophile. ChIP-chip targeting RNA polymerase, supported by a range of other biochemical measurements and mutant creation, was used to identify genes transcribed in response to MG and which complement this rapid response. The SOS DNA repair regulon is induced at cytotoxic levels of MG, even when exposure to MG is transient. Glyoxalase I alone among the core MG protective systems is induced in response to MG exposure. Increased expression is an indirect consequence of induction of the upstream nemRA operon, encoding an enzyme system that itself does not contribute to MG detoxification. Moreover, this induction, via nemRA only occurs when cells are exposed to growth inhibitory concentrations of MG. We show that the kdpFABCDE genes are induced and that this expression occurs as a result of depletion of cytoplasmic K+ consequent upon activation of the KefGB K+ efflux system. Finally, our analysis suggests that the transcriptional changes in response to MG are a culmination of the damage to DNA and proteins, but that some integrate specific functions, such as DNA repair, to augment the allosteric activation of the main protective system, KefGB. PMID:23646895

  16. Galangin suppresses the proliferation of β-catenin response transcription-positive cancer cells by promoting adenomatous polyposis coli/Axin/glycogen synthase kinase-3β-independent β-catenin degradation.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Jungsug; Oh, Jingyo; Cho, Munju; Bae, Soo Kyung; Song, Im-Sook; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Jeong, Yongsu; Kim, Dong-Eun; Chung, Young-Hwa; Oh, Sangtaek

    2011-06-01

    Galangin is a naturally occurring bioflavonoid with anticancer activity against certain human cancers, yet little is known about its mechanism of action. Here, we used a chemical biology approach to reveal that galangin suppresses β-catenin response transcription (CRT), which is aberrantly up-regulated in colorectal and liver cancers, by promoting the degradation of intracellular β-catenin. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) activity or mutation of the GSK-3β-targeted sequence from β-catenin was unable to abrogate the galangin-mediated degradation of β-catenin. In addition, galangin down-regulated the intracellular β-catenin levels in cancer cells with inactivating mutations of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) or Axin, which are components of the β-catenin destruction complex. Galangin repressed the expression of β-catenin/T-cell factor-dependent genes, such as cyclin D1 and c-myc, and thus inhibited the proliferation of CRT-positive cancer cells. Structure-activity data indicated that the major structural requirements for galangin-mediated β-catenin degradation are hydroxyl groups at positions 3, 5, and 7. Our findings suggest that galangin exerts its anticancer activity by promoting APC/Axin/GSK-3β-independent proteasomal degradation of β-catenin.

  17. Genome-wide screen identifies Escherichia coli TCA cycle-related mutants with extended chronological lifespan dependent on acetate metabolism and the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor ArcA

    PubMed Central

    Gonidakis, Stavros; Finkel, Steven E.; Longo, Valter D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Single-gene mutants with extended lifespan have been described in several model organisms. We performed a genome-wide screen for long-lived mutants in Escherichia coli which revealed strains lacking TCA cycle-related genes that exhibit longer stationary phase survival and increased resistance to heat stress compared to wild-type. Extended lifespan in the sdhA mutant, lacking subunit A of succinate dehydrogenase, is associated with reduced production of superoxide and increased stress resistance. On the other hand, the longer lifespan of the lipoic acid synthase mutant (lipA) is associated with reduced oxygen consumption and requires the acetate-producing enzyme pyruvate oxidase, as well as acetyl-CoA synthetase, the enzyme that converts extracellular acetate to acetyl-CoA. The hypoxia-inducible transcription factor ArcA, acting independently of acetate metabolism, is also required for maximum lifespan extension in the lipA and lpdA mutants, indicating that these mutations promote entry into a mode normally associated with a low-oxygen environment. Since analogous changes from respiration to fermentation have been observed in long-lived Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans strains, such metabolic alterations may represent an evolutionarily conserved strategy to extend lifespan. PMID:20707865

  18. Strategies for Protein Overproduction in Escherichia coli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and the role of regulatory sequences which control gene expression at transcription resulting in abundant production of messenger RNA and regulatory sequences in mRNA which promote efficient translation. Also examines the role of E. coli cells in stabilizing mRNA and protein that is…

  19. Strategies for Protein Overproduction in Escherichia coli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and the role of regulatory sequences which control gene expression at transcription resulting in abundant production of messenger RNA and regulatory sequences in mRNA which promote efficient translation. Also examines the role of E. coli cells in stabilizing mRNA and protein that is…

  20. E. Coli

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Your Teeth El cuidado de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray E. Coli KidsHealth > For Kids > E. Coli Print A A A What's in ... recalls affecting contaminated vegetables or other products. But kids can ... inside. Don't swallow lake, ocean, or pool water. If the water contains ...

  1. Structure of the Escherichia coli Antitoxin MqsA (YgiT/b3021) Bound to Its Gene Promoter Reveals Extensive Domain Rearrangements and the Specificity of Transcriptional Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    B Brown; T Wood; W Peti; R Page

    2011-12-31

    Bacterial cultures, especially biofilms, produce a small number of persister cells, a genetically identical subpopulation of wild type cells that are metabolically dormant, exhibit multidrug tolerance, and are highly enriched in bacterial toxins. The gene most highly up-regulated in Escherichia coli persisters is mqsR, a ribonuclease toxin that, along with mqsA, forms a novel toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Like all known TA systems, both the MqsR-MqsA complex and MqsA alone regulate their own transcription. Despite the importance of TA systems in persistence and biofilms, very little is known about how TA modules, and antitoxins in particular, bind and recognize DNA at a molecular level. Here, we report the crystal structure of MqsA bound to a 26-bp fragment from the mqsRA promoter. We show that MqsA binds DNA predominantly via its C-terminal helix-turn-helix domain, with direct binding of recognition helix residues Asn{sup 97} and Arg{sup 010} to the DNA major groove. Unexpectedly, the structure also revealed that the MqsA N-terminal domain interacts with the DNA phosphate backbone. This results in a more than 105{sup o} rotation of the N-terminal domains between the free and complexed states, an unprecedented rearrangement for an antitoxin. The structure also shows that MqsA bends the DNA by more than 55{sup o} in order to achieve symmetrical binding. Finally, using a combination of biochemical and NMR studies, we show that the DNA sequence specificity of MqsA is mediated by direct readout.

  2. Na+-induced transcription of nhaA, which encodes an Na+/H+ antiporter in Escherichia coli, is positively regulated by nhaR and affected by hns.

    PubMed

    Dover, N; Higgins, C F; Carmel, O; Rimon, A; Pinner, E; Padan, E

    1996-11-01

    nhaA encodes an Na+/H+ antiporter in Escherichia coli which is essential for adaptation to high salinity and alkaline pH in the presence of Na+. We used Northern (RNA) analysis to measure directly the cellular levels of nhaA mRNA. NhaR belongs to the LysR family of regulatory proteins. Consistent with our previous data with an nhaA'-'lacZ fusion, NhaR was found to be a positive regulator and Na+ was found to be a specific inducer of nhaA transcription. In the nhaA'-'lacZ fusion, maximal induction was observed at alkaline pH. In contrast, in the nhaA+ strain both the level of nhaA expression and the induction ratio were lower at alkaline pH. This difference may be due to the activity of NhaA in the wild-type strain as NhaA efficiently excreted Na+ at alkaline pH and reduced the intracellular concentration of Na+, the signal for induction. We also showed that although the global regulator rpoS was not involved in nhaA regulation, the global regulator hns played a role. Thus, the expression of nhaA'-'lacZ was derepressed in strains bearing hns mutations and transformation with a low-copy-number plasmid carrying hns repressed expression and restored Na+ induction. The derepression in hns strains was nhaR independent. Most interestingly, multicopy nhaR, which in an hns+ background acted only as an Na+-dependent positive regulator, acted as a repressor in an hns strain in the absence of Na+ but was activated in the presence of the ion. Hence, an interplay between nhaR and hns in the regulation of nhaA was suggested.

  3. Na+-induced transcription of nhaA, which encodes an Na+/H+ antiporter in Escherichia coli, is positively regulated by nhaR and affected by hns.

    PubMed Central

    Dover, N; Higgins, C F; Carmel, O; Rimon, A; Pinner, E; Padan, E

    1996-01-01

    nhaA encodes an Na+/H+ antiporter in Escherichia coli which is essential for adaptation to high salinity and alkaline pH in the presence of Na+. We used Northern (RNA) analysis to measure directly the cellular levels of nhaA mRNA. NhaR belongs to the LysR family of regulatory proteins. Consistent with our previous data with an nhaA'-'lacZ fusion, NhaR was found to be a positive regulator and Na+ was found to be a specific inducer of nhaA transcription. In the nhaA'-'lacZ fusion, maximal induction was observed at alkaline pH. In contrast, in the nhaA+ strain both the level of nhaA expression and the induction ratio were lower at alkaline pH. This difference may be due to the activity of NhaA in the wild-type strain as NhaA efficiently excreted Na+ at alkaline pH and reduced the intracellular concentration of Na+, the signal for induction. We also showed that although the global regulator rpoS was not involved in nhaA regulation, the global regulator hns played a role. Thus, the expression of nhaA'-'lacZ was derepressed in strains bearing hns mutations and transformation with a low-copy-number plasmid carrying hns repressed expression and restored Na+ induction. The derepression in hns strains was nhaR independent. Most interestingly, multicopy nhaR, which in an hns+ background acted only as an Na+-dependent positive regulator, acted as a repressor in an hns strain in the absence of Na+ but was activated in the presence of the ion. Hence, an interplay between nhaR and hns in the regulation of nhaA was suggested. PMID:8932307

  4. Escherichia Coli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsell, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…

  5. Escherichia Coli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsell, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…

  6. Specificity and robustness in transcription control networks.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Anirvan M; Djordjevic, Marko; Shraiman, Boris I

    2002-02-19

    Recognition by transcription factors of the regulatory DNA elements upstream of genes is the fundamental step in controlling gene expression. How does the necessity to provide stability with respect to mutation constrain the organization of transcription control networks? We examine the mutation load of a transcription factor interacting with a set of n regulatory response elements as a function of the factor/DNA binding specificity and conclude on theoretical grounds that the optimal specificity decreases with n. The predicted correlation between variability of binding sites (for a given transcription factor) and their number is supported by the genomic data for Escherichia coli. The analysis of E. coli genomic data was carried out using an algorithm suggested by the biophysical model of transcription factor/DNA binding. Complete results of the search for candidate transcription factor binding sites are available at http://www.physics.rockefeller.edu/~boris/public/search_ecoli.

  7. Structural basis of transcription activation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Zhang, Yu; Ebright, Richard H

    2016-06-10

    Class II transcription activators function by binding to a DNA site overlapping a core promoter and stimulating isomerization of an initial RNA polymerase (RNAP)-promoter closed complex into a catalytically competent RNAP-promoter open complex. Here, we report a 4.4 angstrom crystal structure of an intact bacterial class II transcription activation complex. The structure comprises Thermus thermophilus transcription activator protein TTHB099 (TAP) [homolog of Escherichia coli catabolite activator protein (CAP)], T. thermophilus RNAP σ(A) holoenzyme, a class II TAP-dependent promoter, and a ribotetranucleotide primer. The structure reveals the interactions between RNAP holoenzyme and DNA responsible for transcription initiation and reveals the interactions between TAP and RNAP holoenzyme responsible for transcription activation. The structure indicates that TAP stimulates isomerization through simple, adhesive, stabilizing protein-protein interactions with RNAP holoenzyme. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Thermodynamic Model of Transcription Elongation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadigotla, Vasisht; O'Maoileidigh, Daibhid; Sengupta, Anirvan; Epshtein, Vitaly; Ebright, Richard; Nudler, Evgeny; Ruckenstein, Andrei

    2006-03-01

    We present a statistical mechanics approach to the prediction of backtracked pauses in prokaryotic transcription elongation derived from structural models of the transcription elongation complex (TEC). Our algorithm is based on the thermodynamic stability of TEC along the DNA template calculated from the sequence dependent free-energy of DNA-DNA, DNA-RNA and RNA-RNA base pairing associated with (a) the translocation and size fluctuations of the transcription bubble; (b) the changes in the DNA-RNA hybrid; and (c) the changes in the RNA folding free-energy. The calculations involve no adjustable parameters apart from a cutoff used to discriminate paused from non-paused complexes. When applied to 100 experimental pauses in transcription elongation by E. coli RNA polymerase on ten DNA templates the approach produces highly statistically significant results. Transcription elongation is an inherently kinetic process and a simplified kinetic model with the same predictive power is presented separately.

  9. Weak Electromagnetic Field Effects on Gene Expression in E. coli.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and/or translation were altered by MFs. A cell-free E . coli system was used to determine whether or not MFs directly affect the translational or...inability to distinguish differences in transcription and translation in E . coli may be related to the coupled nature of these processes in the bacterial system.

  10. Complete Structural Model of Escherichia coli RNA Polymerase from a Hybrid Approach

    PubMed Central

    Opalka, Natacha; Brown, Jesse; Lane, William J.; Twist, Kelly-Anne F.; Landick, Robert; Asturias, Francisco J.; Darst, Seth A.

    2010-01-01

    The Escherichia coli transcription system is the best characterized from a biochemical and genetic point of view and has served as a model system. Nevertheless, a molecular understanding of the details of E. coli transcription and its regulation, and therefore its full exploitation as a model system, has been hampered by the absence of high-resolution structural information on E. coli RNA polymerase (RNAP). We use a combination of approaches, including high-resolution X-ray crystallography, ab initio structural prediction, homology modeling, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy, to generate complete atomic models of E. coli core RNAP and an E. coli RNAP ternary elongation complex. The detailed and comprehensive structural descriptions can be used to help interpret previous biochemical and genetic data in a new light and provide a structural framework for designing experiments to understand the function of the E. coli lineage-specific insertions and their role in the E. coli transcription program. PMID:20856905

  11. The 216-bp marB gene of the marRAB operon in Escherichia coli encodes a periplasmic protein which reduces the transcription rate of marA.

    PubMed

    Vinué, Laura; McMurry, Laura M; Levy, Stuart B

    2013-08-01

    The marRAB operon is conserved in seven genera of enteric bacteria (Escherichia, Shigella, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Cronobacter, and Citrobacter). MarA is a transcriptional regulator affecting many genes involved in resistance to stresses, and MarR is an autorepressor of the operon, but a role for the marB gene has been unclear. A recent work reported that deletion of marB causes resistance to certain stresses and increases the amount of marA transcript. We show here that the small (216 bp) marB gene encodes a protein, not an sRNA, because two different stop codons within the predicted open reading frame of marB prevented plasmid-borne marB from complementing ΔmarB::Kan. The ΔmarB::Kan mutation did not increase the stability of the marA transcript, suggesting that MarB does not destabilize the marA transcript but rather reduces its rate of transcription. Placing the putative signal sequence of MarB upstream of signal-sequence-less alkaline phosphatase guided the phosphatase to its normal periplasmic location. We conclude that MarB is a small periplasmic protein that represses the marRAB promoter by an indirect mechanism, possibly involving a signal to one of the cytoplasmic regulators of that promoter.

  12. The 216 bp marB gene of the marRAB operon in Escherichia coli encodes a periplasmic protein which reduces the transcription rate of marA

    PubMed Central

    Vinué, Laura; McMurry, Laura M.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2013-01-01

    The marRAB operon is conserved in seven genera of enteric bacteria (Escherichia, Shigella, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Cronobacter, and Citrobacter). MarA is a transcriptional regulator affecting many genes involved in resistance to stresses, and MarR is an autorepressor of the operon, but a role for the marB gene has been unclear. A recent work reported that deletion of marB causes resistance to certain stresses and increases the amount of marA transcript. We show here that the small (216 bp) marB gene encodes a protein, not an sRNA, since two different stop codons within the predicted open reading frame of marB prevented plasmid-borne marB from complementing ΔmarB::Kan. The ΔmarB::Kan mutation did not increase the stability of the marA transcript, suggesting that MarB does not destabilize the marA transcript but rather reduces its rate of transcription. Placing the putative signal sequence of MarB upstream of signal-sequence-less alkaline phosphatase guided the phosphatase to its normal periplasmic location. We conclude that MarB is a small periplasmic protein that represses the marRAB promoter by an indirect mechanism, possibly involving a signal to one of the cytoplasmic regulators of that promoter. PMID:23710538

  13. Exonuclease IX of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Shafritz, K M; Sandigursky, M; Franklin, W A

    1998-01-01

    The bacteria Escherichia coli contains several exonucleases acting on both double- and single-stranded DNA and in both a 5'-->3' and 3'-->5' direction. These enzymes are involved in replicative, repair and recombination functions. We have identified a new exonuclease found in E.coli, termed exonuclease IX, that acts preferentially on single-stranded DNA as a 3'-->5' exonuclease and also functions as a 3'-phosphodiesterase on DNA containing 3'-incised apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites to remove the product trans -4-hydroxy-2-pentenal 5-phosphate. The enzyme showed essentially no activity as a deoxyribophosphodiesterase acting on 5'-incised AP sites. The activity was isolated as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein from a sequence of the E.coli genome that was 60% identical to a 260 bp region of the small fragment of the DNA polymerase I gene. The protein has a molecular weight of 28 kDa and is free of AP endonuclease and phosphatase activities. Exonuclease IX is expressed in E.coli , as demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR, and it may function in the DNA base excision repair and other pathways. PMID:9592142

  14. Isolation and characterization of transcription fidelity mutants.

    PubMed

    Strathern, Jeffrey N; Jin, Ding Jun; Court, Donald L; Kashlev, Mikhail

    2012-07-01

    Accurate transcription is an essential step in maintaining genetic information. Error-prone transcription has been proposed to contribute to cancer, aging, adaptive mutagenesis, and mutagenic evolution of retroviruses and retrotransposons. The mechanisms controlling transcription fidelity and the biological consequences of transcription errors are poorly understood. Because of the transient nature of mRNAs and the lack of reliable experimental systems, the identification and characterization of defects that increase transcription errors have been particularly challenging. In this review we describe novel genetic screens for the isolation of fidelity mutants in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli RNA polymerases. We obtained and characterized two distinct classes of mutants altering NTP misincorporation and transcription slippage both in vivo and in vitro. Our study not only validates the genetic schemes for the isolation of RNA polymerase mutants that alter fidelity, but also sheds light on the mechanism of transcription accuracy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chromatin in time and space.

  15. Yeast DNA sequences initiating gene expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Astrid; Tran, Thi Tuyen; Jacob, Daniela; Mayer, Martin; Freytag, Barbara; Appel, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    DNA transfer between pro- and eukaryotes occurs either during natural horizontal gene transfer or as a result of the employment of gene technology. We analysed the capacity of DNA sequences from a eukaryotic donor organism (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to serve as promoter region in a prokaryotic recipient (Escherichia coli) by creating fusions between promoterless luxAB genes from Vibrio harveyi and random DNA sequences from S. cerevisiae and measuring the luminescence of transformed E. coli. Fifty-four out of 100 randomly analysed S. cerevisiae DNA sequences caused considerable gene expression in E. coli. Determination of transcription start sites within six selected yeast sequences in E. coli confirmed the existence of bacterial -10 and -35 consensus sequences at appropriate distances upstream from transcription initiation sites. Our results demonstrate that the probability of transcription of transferred eukaryotic DNA in bacteria is extremely high and does not require the insertion of the transferred DNA behind a promoter of the recipient genome.

  16. Thermoregulation of Shigella and Escherichia coli EIEC pathogenicity. A temperature-dependent structural transition of DNA modulates accessibility of virF promoter to transcriptional repressor H-NS.

    PubMed Central

    Falconi, M; Colonna, B; Prosseda, G; Micheli, G; Gualerzi, C O

    1998-01-01

    The expression of plasmid-borne virF of Shigella encoding a transcriptional regulator of the AraC family, is required to initiate a cascade of events resulting in activation of several operons encoding invasion functions. H-NS, one of the main nucleoid-associated proteins, controls the temperature-dependent expression of the virulence genes by repressing the in vivo transcription of virF only below a critical temperature (approximately 32 degrees C). This temperature-dependent transcriptional regulation has been reproduced in vitro and the targets of H-NS on the virF promoter were identified as two sites centred around -250 and -1 separated by an intrinsic DNA curvature. H-NS bound cooperatively to these two sites below 32 degrees C, but not at 37 degrees C. DNA supercoiling within the virF promoter region did not influence H-NS binding but was necessary for the H-NS-mediated transcriptional repression. Electrophoretic analysis between 4 and 60 degrees C showed that the virF promoter fragment, comprising the two H-NS sites, undergoes a specific and temperature-dependent conformational transition at approximately 32 degrees C. Our results suggest that this modification of the DNA target may modulate a cooperative interaction between H-NS molecules bound at two distant sites in the virF promoter region and thus represents the physical basis for the H-NS-dependent thermoregulation of virulence gene expression. PMID:9843508

  17. Multiple Control of Flagellum Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: Role of H-NS Protein and the Cyclic AMP-Catabolite Activator Protein Complex in Transcription of the flhDC Master Operon

    PubMed Central

    Soutourina, O.; Kolb, A.; Krin, E.; Laurent-Winter, C.; Rimsky, S.; Danchin, A.; Bertin, P.

    1999-01-01

    Little is known about the molecular mechanism by which histone-like nucleoid-structuring (H-NS) protein and cyclic AMP-catabolite activator protein (CAP) complex control bacterial motility. In the present paper, we show that crp and hns mutants are nonmotile due to a complete lack of flagellin accumulation. This results from a reduced expression in vivo of fliA and fliC, which encode the specific flagellar sigma factor and flagellin, respectively. Overexpression of the flhDC master operon restored, at least in part, motility in crp and hns mutant strains, suggesting that this operon is the main target for both regulators. Binding of H-NS and CAP to the regulatory region of the master operon was demonstrated by gel retardation experiments, and their DNA binding sites were identified by DNase I footprinting assays. In vitro transcription experiments showed that CAP activates flhDC expression while H-NS represses it. In agreement with this observation, the activity of a transcriptional fusion carrying the flhDC promoter was decreased in the crp strain and increased in the hns mutant. In contrast, the activity of a transcriptional fusion encompassing the entire flhDC regulatory region extending to the ATG translational start codon was strongly reduced in both hns and crp mutants. These results suggest that the region downstream of the +1 transcriptional start site plays a crucial role in the positive control by H-NS of flagellum biosynthesis in vivo. Finally, the lack of complementation of the nonmotile phenotype in a crp mutant by activation-deficient CAP mutated proteins and characterization of cfs, a mutation resulting in a CAP-independent motility behavior, demonstrate that CAP activates flhDC transcription by binding to its promoter and interacting with RNA polymerase. PMID:10601207

  18. An improved vector system for constructing transcriptional lacZ fusions: analysis of regulation of the dnaA, dnaN, recF and gyrB genes of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Macián, F; Pérez-Roger, I; Armengod, M E

    1994-07-22

    We describe a new vector system for the in vitro construction of transcriptional fusions to the lacZ gene, which is expressed from the translational start signals of galK. The galK ribosome-binding site (RBS) and its natural preceding region ensure a constant efficiency for lacZ translation and, thus, the beta-galactosidase (beta Gal) production of a given fusion is directly proportional to the in vivo transcriptional activity of the inserted DNA fragment. Single-copy lambda prophage versions of multicopy constructs can be made by in vivo recombination. We use this system to compare the transcriptional activities of the promoters present in the dnaA-dnaN-recF-gyrB cluster. The order of strength of these promoters is gyrB > dnaA > recF > dnaN. It is assumed that gyrB belongs to the dnaA-dnaN-recF operon, because the short recF-gyrB intercistronic region does not contain a terminator. By using this new vector system, we have detected strong termination signals within recF that are functional even when recF is translated at its normal rate. The low level of transcription coming to the end of recF, and the highest activity of the gyrB promoter, as well as results obtained with several gyrB::lacZ translational fusions, support the conclusion that gyrB is predominantly expressed from its own promoter under standard growth conditions. Finally, we have found that transcription from the dnaA promoters is constant at different growth rates. This supports the idea that autoregulation of the dnaA gene is responsible for the coupling of the DnaA protein synthesis to cell mass increase, and accumulation of DnaA protein governs the initiation of chromosome replication.

  19. Transcription factories

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Dietmar; Trajanoski, Zlatko; McNally, James G.

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that transcription does not occur homogeneously or diffusely throughout the nucleus, but rather at a number of specialized, discrete sites termed transcription factories. The factories are composed of ~4–30 RNA polymerase molecules, and are associated with many other molecules involved in transcriptional activation and mRNA processing. Some data suggest that the polymerase molecules within a factory remain stationary relative to the transcribed DNA, which is thought to be reeled through the factory site. There is also some evidence that transcription factories could help organize chromatin and nuclear structure, contributing to both the formation of chromatin loops and the clustering of active and co-regulated genes. PMID:23109938

  20. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nataro, James P.; Kaper, James B.

    1998-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the predominant nonpathogenic facultative flora of the human intestine. Some E. coli strains, however, have developed the ability to cause disease of the gastrointestinal, urinary, or central nervous system in even the most robust human hosts. Diarrheagenic strains of E. coli can be divided into at least six different categories with corresponding distinct pathogenic schemes. Taken together, these organisms probably represent the most common cause of pediatric diarrhea worldwide. Several distinct clinical syndromes accompany infection with diarrheagenic E. coli categories, including traveler’s diarrhea (enterotoxigenic E. coli), hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (enterohemorrhagic E. coli), persistent diarrhea (enteroaggregative E. coli), and watery diarrhea of infants (enteropathogenic E. coli). This review discusses the current level of understanding of the pathogenesis of the diarrheagenic E. coli strains and describes how their pathogenic schemes underlie the clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and epidemiologic investigation of these important pathogens. PMID:9457432

  1. Fis, an accessorial factor for transcriptional activation of the mar (multiple antibiotic resistance) promoter of Escherichia coli in the presence of the activator MarA, SoxS, or Rob.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, R G; Rosner, J L

    1997-01-01

    Transcription of the multiple antibiotic resistance marRAB operon increases when one of the sequence-related activators, MarA, SoxS, or Rob, binds to the "marbox" centered at -61.5 relative to the transcriptional start site. Previous deletion analyses showed that an adjacent upstream "accessory region" was needed to augment the marbox-dependent activation. To analyze the roles of the marbox and accessory regions on mar transcription, thirteen promoters, each with a different 5-bp transversion of the -96 to -32 sequence, were synthesized, fused to lacZ, and assayed for beta-galactosidase production in single-copy lysogens with appropriate genotypes. The accessory region is shown here to be a binding site for Fis centered at -81 and to bind Fis, a small DNA-binding and -bending protein, with a Kd of approximately 5 nM. The binding of MarA to the marbox and that of Fis to its site were independent of each other. MarA, SoxS, and Rob each activated the mar promoter 1.5-to 2-fold when it had a wild-type marbox but Fis was absent. In the presence of MarA, SoxS, or Rob, Fis further enhanced the activity of the promoter twofold provided the promoter was also capable of binding Fis. However, in the absence of MarA, SoxS, or Rob or in the absence of a wild-type marbox, Fis nonspecifically lowered the activity of the mar promoter about 25% whether or not a wild-type Fis site was present. Thus, Fis acts as an accessory transcriptional activator at the mar promoter. PMID:9393706

  2. The Escherichia coli metallo-regulator RcnR represses rcnA and rcnR transcription through binding on a shared operator site: Insights into regulatory specificity towards nickel and cobalt.

    PubMed

    Blaha, Didier; Arous, Safia; Blériot, Camille; Dorel, Corinne; Mandrand-Berthelot, Marie-Andrée; Rodrigue, Agnès

    2011-03-01

    RcnA is an efflux pump responsible for Ni and Co detoxification in Escherichia coli. The expression of rcnA is induced by Ni and Co via the metallo-regulator RcnR. In the present work, the functioning of the promoter-operator region of rcnR and rcnA was investigated using primer extension and DNAse I footprinting experiments. We show that the promoters of rcnR and rcnA are convergent and that apo-RcnR binds on symmetrically located sequences in this intergenic region. Moreover, RcnR DNA binding is specifically modulated by one Ni or Co equivalent and not by other metals. In addition to rcnA, RcnR controls expression of its own gene in response to Ni and Co, but the two genes are differentially expressed.

  3. Molecular mechanism of promoter selection in gene transcription. I. Development of a rapid mixing-photocrosslinking technique to study the kinetics of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase binding to T7 DNA.

    PubMed

    Park, C S; Hillel, Z; Wu, C W

    1982-06-25

    A combined rapid mixing-photocrosslinking technique has been developed to investigate the kinetics of the interaction between Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and T7 DNA. The reactants were rapidly mixed in a modified Durrum stopped-flow apparatus, and the intermediates formed at different stages of the binding process were "frozen" by photocrosslinking with a UV light pulse of 10-mus duration at various times after mixing. The results indicate that the initial binding between RNA polymerase and T7 DNA is a diffusion-controlled reaction. Furthermore, the extents of initial contracts with DNA made with the beta, beta', and sigma subunits of RNA polymerase are roughly proportional to the sizes of these subunits, suggesting that complex formation occurs through random collision between the two reactants. After the initial complex formation, the rate of transfer of polymerase between individual DNA molecules is slow, implying that the polymerase molecules are undergoing predominantly intramolecular transfer during the promoter search. From the kinetic studies of subunit-DNA contacts during RNA polymerase binding to T7 DNA, it can be inferred that the beta, beta', and sigma subunits are directly participating in the promoter search process.

  4. Transcription elongation

    PubMed Central

    Imashimizu, Masahiko; Shimamoto, Nobuo; Oshima, Taku; Kashlev, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of transcription elongation via pausing of RNA polymerase has multiple physiological roles. The pausing mechanism depends on the sequence heterogeneity of the DNA being transcribed, as well as on certain interactions of polymerase with specific DNA sequences. In order to describe the mechanism of regulation, we introduce the concept of heterogeneity into the previously proposed alternative models of elongation, power stroke and Brownian ratchet. We also discuss molecular origins and physiological significances of the heterogeneity. PMID:25764114

  5. Dialogue between E. coli free radical pathways and the mitochondria of C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Govindan, J. Amaranath; Jayamani, Elamparithi; Zhang, Xinrui; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Ruvkun, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The microbial world presents a complex palette of opportunities and dangers to animals, which have developed surveillance and response strategies to hints of microbial intent. We show here that the mitochondrial homeostatic response pathway of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to Escherichia coli mutations that activate free radical detoxification pathways. Activation of C. elegans mitochondrial responses could be suppressed by additional mutations in E. coli, suggesting that C. elegans responds to products of E. coli to anticipate challenges to its mitochondrion. Out of 50 C. elegans gene inactivations known to mediate mitochondrial defense, we found that 7 genes were required for C. elegans response to a free radical producing E. coli mutant, including the bZip transcription factor atfs-1 (activating transcription factor associated with stress). An atfs-1 loss-of-function mutant was partially resistant to the effects of free radical-producing E. coli mutant, but a constitutively active atfs-1 mutant growing on wild-type E. coli inappropriately activated the pattern of mitochondrial responses normally induced by an E. coli free radical pathway mutant. Carbonylated proteins from free radical-producing E. coli mutant may directly activate the ATFS-1/bZIP transcription factor to induce mitochondrial stress response: feeding C. elegans with H2O2-treated E. coli induces the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, and inhibition of a gut peptide transporter partially suppressed C. elegans response to free radical damaged E. coli. PMID:26392561

  6. Dialogue between E. coli free radical pathways and the mitochondria of C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Govindan, J Amaranath; Jayamani, Elamparithi; Zhang, Xinrui; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Ruvkun, Gary

    2015-10-06

    The microbial world presents a complex palette of opportunities and dangers to animals, which have developed surveillance and response strategies to hints of microbial intent. We show here that the mitochondrial homeostatic response pathway of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to Escherichia coli mutations that activate free radical detoxification pathways. Activation of C. elegans mitochondrial responses could be suppressed by additional mutations in E. coli, suggesting that C. elegans responds to products of E. coli to anticipate challenges to its mitochondrion. Out of 50 C. elegans gene inactivations known to mediate mitochondrial defense, we found that 7 genes were required for C. elegans response to a free radical producing E. coli mutant, including the bZip transcription factor atfs-1 (activating transcription factor associated with stress). An atfs-1 loss-of-function mutant was partially resistant to the effects of free radical-producing E. coli mutant, but a constitutively active atfs-1 mutant growing on wild-type E. coli inappropriately activated the pattern of mitochondrial responses normally induced by an E. coli free radical pathway mutant. Carbonylated proteins from free radical-producing E. coli mutant may directly activate the ATFS-1/bZIP transcription factor to induce mitochondrial stress response: feeding C. elegans with H2O2-treated E. coli induces the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, and inhibition of a gut peptide transporter partially suppressed C. elegans response to free radical damaged E. coli.

  7. Sequence requirements for Lon-dependent degradation of the Escherichia coli transcription activator SoxS: identification of the SoxS residues critical to proteolysis and specific inhibition of in vitro degradation by a peptide comprised of the N-terminal 21 amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ishita M; Wolf, Richard E

    2006-03-31

    When Escherichia coli encounter redox-cycling compounds that endogenously generate superoxide, the cell's defense response is initiated by the de novo synthesis of SoxS, which then activates transcription of the genes of the SoxRS regulon. Recently, we showed that after the oxidative stress is relieved, the SoxRS system resets by an active process wherein SoxS synthesis ceases and the intrinsically unstable SoxS protein is rapidly degraded, primarily by Lon protease. Here, we use deletion mutants and a library of alanine-stretch mutants of the entire protein to identify the SoxS features responsible for Lon-dependent proteolysis in vivo. We found that the 17 amino acid residues at the SoxS N terminus play the primary role in protease recognition and that the addition of the N-terminal 21 residues of SoxS to the otherwise stable green fluorescent protein is sufficient to signal the chimera for Lon-dependent degradation. With a minimal in vitro degradation system, we confirm the intrinsic instability of SoxS and the sequence requirements for Lon-dependent degradation. Lastly, we demonstrate that the addition of a peptide comprised of the 21 N-terminal amino acid residues of SoxS is able to inhibit specifically the in vitro proteolysis of SoxS.

  8. Operons in Escherichia coli: genomic analyses and predictions.

    PubMed

    Salgado, H; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G; Smith, T F; Collado-Vides, J

    2000-06-06

    The rich knowledge of operon organization in Escherichia coli, together with the completed chromosomal sequence of this bacterium, enabled us to perform an analysis of distances between genes and of functional relationships of adjacent genes in the same operon, as opposed to adjacent genes in different transcription units. We measured and demonstrated the expected tendencies of genes within operons to have much shorter intergenic distances than genes at the borders of transcription units. A clear peak at short distances between genes in the same operon contrasts with a flat frequency distribution of genes at the borders of transcription units. Also, genes in the same operon tend to have the same physiological functional class. The results of these analyses were used to implement a method to predict the genomic organization of genes into transcription units. The method has a maximum accuracy of 88% correct identification of pairs of adjacent genes to be in an operon, or at the borders of transcription units, and correctly identifies around 75% of the known transcription units when used to predict the transcription unit organization of the E. coli genome. Based on the frequency distance distributions, we estimated a total of 630 to 700 operons in E. coli. This step opens the possibility of predicting operon organization in other bacteria whose genome sequences have been finished.

  9. Transcription Against an Applied Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hong; Wang, Michelle D.; Svoboda, Karel; Landick, Robert; Block, Steven M.; Gelles, Jeff

    1995-12-01

    The force produced by a single molecule of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase during transcription was measured optically. Polymerase immobilized on a surface was used to transcribe a DNA template attached to a polystyrene bead 0.5 micrometer in diameter. The bead position was measured by interferometry while a force opposing translocation of the polymerase along the DNA was applied with an optical trap. At saturating nucleoside triphosphate concentrations, polymerase molecules stalled reversibly at a mean applied force estimated to be 14 piconewtons. This force is substantially larger than those measured for the cytoskeletal motors kinesin and myosin and exceeds mechanical loads that are estimated to oppose transcriptional elongation in vivo. The data are consistent with efficient conversion of the free energy liberated by RNA synthesis into mechanical work.

  10. Evolutionary dynamics of prokaryotic transcriptional regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Madan Babu, M; Teichmann, Sarah A; Aravind, L

    2006-04-28

    The structure of complex transcriptional regulatory networks has been studied extensively in certain model organisms. However, the evolutionary dynamics of these networks across organisms, which would reveal important principles of adaptive regulatory changes, are poorly understood. We use the known transcriptional regulatory network of Escherichia coli to analyse the conservation patterns of this network across 175 prokaryotic genomes, and predict components of the regulatory networks for these organisms. We observe that transcription factors are typically less conserved than their target genes and evolve independently of them, with different organisms evolving distinct repertoires of transcription factors responding to specific signals. We show that prokaryotic transcriptional regulatory networks have evolved principally through widespread tinkering of transcriptional interactions at the local level by embedding orthologous genes in different types of regulatory motifs. Different transcription factors have emerged independently as dominant regulatory hubs in various organisms, suggesting that they have convergently acquired similar network structures approximating a scale-free topology. We note that organisms with similar lifestyles across a wide phylogenetic range tend to conserve equivalent interactions and network motifs. Thus, organism-specific optimal network designs appear to have evolved due to selection for specific transcription factors and transcriptional interactions, allowing responses to prevalent environmental stimuli. The methods for biological network analysis introduced here can be applied generally to study other networks, and these predictions can be used to guide specific experiments.

  11. Problem-Solving Test: The Mechanism of Transcription Termination by the Rho Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2012-01-01

    Transcription termination comes in two forms in "E. coli" cells. Rho-dependent termination requires the binding of a termination protein called Rho factor to the transcriptional machinery at the terminator region, whereas Rho-independent termination is achieved by conformational changes in the transcript itself. This article presents a test…

  12. New discoveries linking transcription to DNA repair and damage tolerance pathways.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Susan E; Walker, Graham C

    2011-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, the transcription elongation factor NusA is associated with all elongating RNA polymerases where it functions in transcription termination and antitermination. Here, we review our recent results implicating NusA in the recruitment of DNA repair and damage tolerance mechanisms to sites of stalled transcription complexes.

  13. A new way to start: nanoRNA-mediated priming of transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Nickels, Bryce E

    2012-01-01

    A recent study provides evidence that RNA polymerase uses 2- to ~4-nt RNAs, species termed "nanoRNAs," to prime transcription initiation in Escherichia coli. Priming of transcription initiation with nanoRNAs represents a previously undocumented component of transcription start site selection and gene expression.

  14. Problem-Solving Test: The Mechanism of Transcription Termination by the Rho Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2012-01-01

    Transcription termination comes in two forms in "E. coli" cells. Rho-dependent termination requires the binding of a termination protein called Rho factor to the transcriptional machinery at the terminator region, whereas Rho-independent termination is achieved by conformational changes in the transcript itself. This article presents a test…

  15. Escherichia coli biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Beloin, Christophe; Roux, Agnès; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a predominant species among facultative anaerobic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract. Both its frequent community lifestyle and the availability of a wide array of genetic tools contributed to establish E. coli as a relevant model organism for the study of surface colonization. Several key factors, including different extracellular appendages, are implicated in E. coli surface colonization and their expression and activity are finely regulated, both in space and time, to ensure productive events leading to mature biofilm formation. This chapter will present known molecular mechanisms underlying biofilm development in both commensal and pathogenic E. coli. PMID:18453280

  16. Transcriptional interference – a crash course

    PubMed Central

    Shearwin, Keith E.; Callen, Benjamin P.; Egan, J. Barry

    2010-01-01

    The term ‘transcriptional interference’ (TI) is widely used but poorly defined in the literature. There are a variety of methods by which one can interfere with the process or the product of transcription but the term TI usually refers to the direct negative impact of one transcriptional activity on a second transcriptional activity in cis. Two recent studies, one examining Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the other Escherichia coli, clearly show TI at one promoter caused by the arrival of a transcribing complex initiating at a distant promoter. TI is potentially widespread throughout biology; therefore, it is timely to assess exactly its nature, significance and operative mechanisms. In this article, we will address the following questions: what is TI, how important and widespread is it, how does it work and where should we focus our future research efforts? PMID:15922833

  17. Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Escherichia coli, a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is a part of the normal flora of the intestinal tract of humans and a variety of animals. E. coli strains are classified on the basis of antigenic differences in two surface components (serotyping), the somatic antigen (O) of the lipopoly...

  18. PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia coli is a bacterial species which inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of man and warm-blooded animals. Because of the ubiquity of this bacterium in the intestinal flora, it serves as an important indicator organism of fecal contamination. E. coli, aside from serving a...

  19. Transcriptional firing helps to drive NETosis

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Meraj A.; Palaniyar, Nades

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils are short-lived innate immune cells. These cells respond quickly to stimuli, and die within minutes to hours; the relevance of DNA transcription in dying neutrophils remains an enigma for several decades. Here we show that the transcriptional activity reflects the degree of DNA decondensation occurring in both NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox)-dependent and Nox-independent neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation or NETosis. Transcriptomics analyses show that transcription starts at multiple loci in all chromosomes earlier in the rapid Nox-independent NETosis (induced by calcium ionophore A23187) than Nox-dependent NETosis (induced by PMA). NETosis-specific kinase cascades differentially activate transcription of different sets of genes. Inhibitors of transcription, but not translation, suppress both types of NETosis. In particular, promoter melting step is important to drive NETosis (induced by PMA, E. coli LPS, A23187, Streptomyces conglobatus ionomycin). Extensive citrullination of histones in multiple loci occurs only during calcium-mediated NETosis, suggesting that citrullination of histone contributes to the rapid DNA decondensation seen in Nox-independent NETosis. Furthermore, blocking transcription suppresses both types of NETosis, without affecting the reactive oxygen species production that is necessary for antimicrobial functions. Therefore, we assign a new function for transcription in neutrophils: Transcriptional firing, regulated by NETosis-specific kinases, helps to drive NETosis. PMID:28176807

  20. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Tânia A T; Elias, Waldir P; Scaletsky, Isabel C A; Guth, Beatriz E C; Rodrigues, Juliana F; Piazza, Roxane M F; Ferreira, Luís C S; Martinez, Marina B

    2016-12-01

    Most Escherichia coli strains live harmlessly in the intestines and rarely cause disease in healthy individuals. Nonetheless, a number of pathogenic strains can cause diarrhea or extraintestinal diseases both in healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Diarrheal illnesses are a severe public health problem and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children, especially in developing countries. E. coli strains that cause diarrhea have evolved by acquiring, through horizontal gene transfer, a particular set of characteristics that have successfully persisted in the host. According to the group of virulence determinants acquired, specific combinations were formed determining the currently known E. coli pathotypes, which are collectively known as diarrheagenic E. coli. In this review, we have gathered information on current definitions, serotypes, lineages, virulence mechanisms, epidemiology, and diagnosis of the major diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcription-coupled DNA repair in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Ann; Spivak, Graciela; Hanawalt, Philip C

    2012-01-01

    Transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER) that acts specifically on lesions in the transcribed strand of expressed genes. First reported in mammalian cells, TCR was then documented in Escherichia coli. In this organism, an RNA polymerase arrested at a lesion is displaced by the transcription repair coupling factor, Mfd. This protein recruits the NER lesion-recognition factor UvrA, and then dissociates from the DNA. UvrA binds UvrB, and the assembled UvrAB* complex initiates repair. In mutants lacking active Mfd, TCR is absent. A gene transcribed by the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase in E. coli also requires Mfd for TCR. The CSB protein (missing or defective in cells of patients with Cockayne syndrome, complementation group B) is essential for TCR in humans. CSB and its homologs in higher eukaryotes are likely functional equivalents of Mfd. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative genomics and transcriptomics of Escherichia coli isolates carrying virulence factors of both enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Tracy H; Michalski, Jane; Luo, Qingwei; Shetty, Amol C; Daugherty, Sean C; Fleckenstein, James M; Rasko, David A

    2017-06-14

    Escherichia coli that are capable of causing human disease are often classified into pathogenic variants (pathovars) based on their virulence gene content. However, disease-associated hybrid E. coli, containing unique combinations of multiple canonical virulence factors have also been described. Such was the case of the E. coli O104:H4 outbreak in 2011, which caused significant morbidity and mortality. Among the pathovars of diarrheagenic E. coli that cause significant human disease are the enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). In the current study we use comparative genomics, transcriptomics, and functional studies to characterize isolates that contain virulence factors of both EPEC and ETEC. Based on phylogenomic analysis, these hybrid isolates are more genomically-related to EPEC, but appear to have acquired ETEC virulence genes. Global transcriptional analysis using RNA sequencing, demonstrated that the EPEC and ETEC virulence genes of these hybrid isolates were differentially-expressed under virulence-inducing laboratory conditions, similar to reference isolates. Immunoblot assays further verified that the virulence gene products were produced and that the T3SS effector EspB of EPEC, and heat-labile toxin of ETEC were secreted. These findings document the existence and virulence potential of an E. coli pathovar hybrid that blurs the distinction between E. coli pathovars.

  3. Yeast TATA-box transcription factor gene.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M C; Kao, C C; Pei, R; Berk, A J

    1989-10-01

    The first step in the transcription of most protein-encoding genes in eukaryotes is the binding of a transcription factor to the TATA-box promoter element. This TATA-box transcription factor was purified from extracts of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using reconstitution of in vitro transcription reactions as an assay. The activity copurified with a protein whose sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel mobility is 25 kDa. The sequence of the amino-terminal 21 residues of this protein was determined by sequential Edman degradation. A yeast genomic library was screened with mixed oligonucleotides encoding six residues of the protein sequence. The yeast TATA-box factor gene was cloned, and DNA sequencing revealed a 720-base-pair open reading frame encoding a 27,016-Da protein. The identity of the clone was confirmed by expressing the gene in Escherichia coli and detecting TATA-box factor DNA binding and transcriptional activities in extracts of the recombinant E. coli. The TATA-box factor gene was mapped to chromosome five of S. cerevisiae. RNA blot hybridization and nuclease S1 analysis indicated that the major TATA-box factor mRNA is 1.3 kilobases, including an unusually long 5' untranslated region of 188 +/- 5 nucleotides. Homology searches showed a region of distant similarity to the calcium-binding structures of calpains, a structure that has a conformation similar to the helix-turn-helix motif of DNA binding proteins.

  4. Comparative studies of transcriptional regulation mechanisms in a group of eight gamma-proteobacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Vladimir; González, Abel D; Vasconcelos, Ana T; Huerta, Araceli M; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2005-11-18

    Experimental data on the Escherichia coli transcriptional regulation has enabled the construction of statistical models to predict new regulatory elements within its genome. Far less is known about the transcriptional regulatory elements in other gamma-proteobacteria with sequenced genomes, so it is of great interest to conduct comparative genomic studies oriented to extracting biologically relevant information about transcriptional regulation in these less studied organisms using the knowledge from E. coli. In this work, we use the information stored in the TRACTOR_DB database to conduct a comparative study on the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation in eight gamma-proteobacteria and 38 regulons. We assess the conservation of transcription factors binding specificity across all the eight genomes and show a correlation between the conservation of a regulatory site and the structure of the transcription unit it regulates. We also find a marked conservation of site-promoter distances across the eight organisms and a correspondence of the statistical significance of co-occurrence of pairs of transcription factor binding sites in the regulatory regions, which is probably related to a conserved architecture of higher-order regulatory complexes in the organisms studied. The results obtained in this study using the information on transcriptional regulation in E. coli enable us to conclude that not only transcription factor-binding sites are conserved across related species but also several of the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms previously identified in E. coli.

  5. Antisense transcription licenses nascent transcripts to mediate transcriptional gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yunkun; Cheng, Jiasen; Sun, Xianyun; Zhou, Zhipeng; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes, antisense transcription can regulate sense transcription by induction of epigenetic modifications. We showed previously that antisense transcription triggers Dicer-independent siRNA (disiRNA) production and disiRNA locus DNA methylation (DLDM) in Neurospora crassa. Here we show that the conserved exonuclease ERI-1 (enhanced RNAi-1) is a critical component in this process. Antisense transcription and ERI-1 binding to target RNAs are necessary and sufficient to trigger DLDM. Convergent transcription causes stalling of RNA polymerase II during transcription, which permits ERI-1 to bind nascent RNAs in the nucleus and recruit a histone methyltransferase complex that catalyzes chromatin modifications. Furthermore, we show that, in the cytoplasm, ERI-1 targets hundreds of transcripts from loci without antisense transcription to regulate RNA stability. Together, our results demonstrate a critical role for transcription kinetics in long noncoding RNA-mediated epigenetic modifications and identify ERI-1 as an important regulator of cotranscriptional gene silencing and post-transcriptional RNA metabolism. PMID:27856616

  6. Transcription termination maintains chromosome integrity.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Robert S; Gottesman, Max E

    2011-01-11

    DNA replication fork movement is impeded by collisions with transcription elongation complexes (TEC). We propose that a critical function of transcription termination factors is to prevent TEC from blocking DNA replication and inducing replication fork arrest, one consequence of which is DNA double-strand breaks. We show that inhibition of Rho-dependent transcription termination by bicyclomycin in Escherichia coli induced double-strand breaks. Cells deleted for Rho-cofactors nusA and nusG were hypersensitive to bicyclomycin, and had extensive chromosome fragmentation even in the absence of the drug. An RNA polymerase mutation that destabilizes TEC (rpoB*35) increased bicyclomycin resistance >40-fold. Double-strand break formation depended on DNA replication, and can be explained by replication fork collapse. Deleting recombination genes required for replication fork repair (recB and ruvC) increased sensitivity to bicyclomycin, as did loss of the replication fork reloading helicases rep and priA. We propose that Rho responds to a translocating replisome by releasing obstructing TEC.

  7. Effects of Kasugamycin on the Translatome of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lange, Christian; Lehr, Matthias; Zerulla, Karolin; Ludwig, Petra; Schweitzer, Jens; Polen, Tino; Wendisch, Volker F; Soppa, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    It is long known that Kasugamycin inhibits translation of canonical transcripts containing a 5'-UTR with a Shine Dalgarno (SD) motif, but not that of leaderless transcripts. To gain a global overview of the influence of Kasugamycin on translation efficiencies, the changes of the translatome of Escherichia coli induced by a 10 minutes Kasugamycin treatment were quantified. The effect of Kasugamycin differed widely, 102 transcripts were at least twofold more sensitive to Kasugamycin than average, and 137 transcripts were at least twofold more resistant, and there was a more than 100-fold difference between the most resistant and the most sensitive transcript. The 5'-ends of 19 transcripts were determined from treated and untreated cultures, but Kasugamycin resistance did neither correlate with the presence or absence of a SD motif, nor with differences in 5'-UTR lengths or GC content. RNA Structure Logos were generated for the 102 Kasugamycin-sensitive and for the 137 resistant transcripts. For both groups a short Shine Dalgarno (SD) motif was retrieved, but no specific motifs associated with resistance or sensitivity could be found. Notably, this was also true for the region -3 to -1 upstream of the start codon and the presence of an extended SD motif, which had been proposed to result in Kasugamycin resistance. Comparison of the translatome results with the database RegulonDB showed that the transcript with the highest resistance was leaderless, but no further leaderless transcripts were among the resistant transcripts. Unexpectedly, it was found that translational coupling might be a novel feature that is associated with Kasugamycin resistance. Taken together, Kasugamycin has a profound effect on translational efficiencies of E. coli transcripts, but the mechanism of action is different than previously described.

  8. Effects of Kasugamycin on the Translatome of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Christian; Lehr, Matthias; Zerulla, Karolin; Ludwig, Petra; Schweitzer, Jens; Polen, Tino; Wendisch, Volker F.; Soppa, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    It is long known that Kasugamycin inhibits translation of canonical transcripts containing a 5’-UTR with a Shine Dalgarno (SD) motif, but not that of leaderless transcripts. To gain a global overview of the influence of Kasugamycin on translation efficiencies, the changes of the translatome of Escherichia coli induced by a 10 minutes Kasugamycin treatment were quantified. The effect of Kasugamycin differed widely, 102 transcripts were at least twofold more sensitive to Kasugamycin than average, and 137 transcripts were at least twofold more resistant, and there was a more than 100-fold difference between the most resistant and the most sensitive transcript. The 5’-ends of 19 transcripts were determined from treated and untreated cultures, but Kasugamycin resistance did neither correlate with the presence or absence of a SD motif, nor with differences in 5’-UTR lengths or GC content. RNA Structure Logos were generated for the 102 Kasugamycin-sensitive and for the 137 resistant transcripts. For both groups a short Shine Dalgarno (SD) motif was retrieved, but no specific motifs associated with resistance or sensitivity could be found. Notably, this was also true for the region -3 to -1 upstream of the start codon and the presence of an extended SD motif, which had been proposed to result in Kasugamycin resistance. Comparison of the translatome results with the database RegulonDB showed that the transcript with the highest resistance was leaderless, but no further leaderless transcripts were among the resistant transcripts. Unexpectedly, it was found that translational coupling might be a novel feature that is associated with Kasugamycin resistance. Taken together, Kasugamycin has a profound effect on translational efficiencies of E. coli transcripts, but the mechanism of action is different than previously described. PMID:28081129

  9. E. Coli and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share E. coli and Pregnancy Thursday, 20 November 2014 In ... pregnancy and while breastfeeding. Donate Sign Up For E-Newsletter Full Name * Email Address * Enter The Code: ...

  10. E. Coli Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... type causes travelers' diarrhea. The worst type of E. coli causes bloody diarrhea, and can sometimes cause kidney failure and even death. These problems are most likely to occur in children and ...

  11. Power graph compression reveals dominant relationships in genetic transcription networks.

    PubMed

    Ahnert, Sebastian E

    2013-11-01

    We introduce a framework for the discovery of dominant relationship patterns in transcription networks, by compressing the network into a power graph with overlapping power nodes. Our application of this approach to the transcription networks of S. cerevisiae and E. coli, paired with GO term enrichment analysis, provides a highly informative overview of the most prominent relationships in the gene regulatory networks of these two organisms.

  12. Recurrent Escherichia coli bacteremia.

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, J N; Mulligan, M E; Arbeit, R D

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common gram-negative organism associated with bacteremia. While recurrent E. coli urinary tract infections are well-described, recurrent E. coli bacteremia appears to be uncommon, with no episodes noted in multiple series of patients with gram-negative bacteremias. We report on 5 patients with recurrent bloodstream infections identified from a series of 163 patients with E. coli bacteremia. For each patient, the isolates from each episode were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and ribotyping and for the presence of E. coli virulence factors. For each of four patients, the index and recurrent episodes of bacteremia represented the same strain as defined by PFGE, and the strains were found to carry one or more virulence factors. The remaining patient, with two episodes of bloodstream infection separated by a 4-year interval, was infected with two isolates that did not carry any virulence factors and that were clonally related by ribotype analysis but differed by PFGE. All five patients had either a local host defense defect (three patients) or impaired systemic defenses (one patient) or both (one patient). Thus, recurrent E. coli bacteremia is likely to represent a multifactorial process that occurs in patients with impaired host defenses who are infected with virulent isolates. Images PMID:7910828

  13. The effect of ribosomal protein S1 from Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus on protein synthesis in vitro by E. coli and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Farwell, M A; Roberts, M W; Rabinowitz, J C

    1992-11-01

    We have designed a set of nine plasmids containing the Bacillus pumilis cat gene with one of three Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequences (weak, strong or stronger) and one of three initiation codons (AUG, GUG or UUG). These constructions have been used to determine the effect of ribosomal protein S1, SD and initiation codon sequences and Escherichia coli ribosomal protein S1 on translation in vitro by E. coli and B. subtilis ribosomes. Translation of these nine constructions was determined with three types of ribosomes: E. coli containing ribosomal protein S1, E. coli depleted of S1, and B. subtilis which is naturally free of S1. E. coli ribosomes were able to translate all nine transcripts with variable efficiencies. B. subtilis and S1-depleted E. coli ribosomes were similar to each other and differed from non-depleted E. coli ribosomes in that they required strong or stronger SD sequences and were unable to translate any of the weak transcripts. Addition of S1 from either E. coli or Micrococcus luteus, a Gram-positive bacterium, enabled S1-depleted E. coli ribosomes to translate mRNAs with weak SD sequences but had no effect on B. subtilis ribosomes. AUG was the preferred initiation codon for all ribosome types; however, B. subtilis ribosomes showed greater tolerance for the non-AUG codons than either type of E. coli ribosome. The presence of a strong or stronger SD sequence increased the efficiency by which E. coli ribosomes could utilize non-AUG codons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Transcription termination at the tryptophan operon attenuator is decreased in vitro by an oligomer complementary to a segment of the leader transcript.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M E; Mullis, K; Barnett, J; Stroynowski, I; Yanofsky, C

    1982-04-01

    A DNA oligomer 15 nucleotides long was used to probe the involvement of RNA secondary structure in the control of transcription termination at the attenuator of the tryptophan (trp) operon of Escherichia coli. This 15-mer is perfectly complementary to a segment of trp RNA that is thought to play a role in regulation of attenuation. When added to an in vitro transcription reaction mixture containing wild-type E. coli or Salmonella typhimurium trp operon templates, the complementary 15-mer caused a 4-fold increase in read-through transcription. By contrast, the 15-mer did not affect attenuation when a mutant E. coli template was used that does not allow formation of a crucial RNA secondary structure. Control experiments established that oligomers that were not complementary to E. coli trp leader RNA did not affect attenuation and that the 15-mer did not reduce termination when the transcript lacked a complementary region. Other experiments established that the 15-mer did not increase read-through transcription by allowing RNA polymerase molecules that might have already stopped at the attenuator to resume transcription. These findings provide direct support for the view that alternate base-paired structures control transcription termination at the trp attenuator.

  15. Multichromatic control of gene expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Tabor, Jeffrey J.; Levskaya, Anselm; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    Light is a powerful tool for manipulating living cells because it can be applied with high resolution across space and over time. We previously constructed a red-light sensitive E. coli transcription system based on a chimera between the red/far red switchable cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1 and the E. coli EnvZ/OmpR two-component signaling pathways. Here we report the development of a green light inducible transcription system in E. coli based on a recently discovered green/red photoswitchable two-component system from cyanobacteria. We demonstrate that transcriptional output is proportional to the intensity of green light applied and that the green sensor is orthogonal to the red sensor at intensities of 532nm light less than 0.01W/m2. Expression of both sensors in a single cell allows two-color optical control of transcription in both batch culture and in patterns across a lawn of engineered cells. Because each sensor functions as a photoreversible switch, this system should allow the spatial and temporal control of the expression of multiple genes though different combinations of light wavelengths. This feature should aid precision single cell and population-level studies in systems and synthetic biology. PMID:21035461

  16. Comprehensive Mapping of the Escherichia coli Flagellar Regulatory Network

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Devon M.; Bonocora, Richard P.; Wade, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    Flagellar synthesis is a highly regulated process in all motile bacteria. In Escherichia coli and related species, the transcription factor FlhDC is the master regulator of a multi-tiered transcription network. FlhDC activates transcription of a number of genes, including some flagellar genes and the gene encoding the alternative Sigma factor FliA. Genes whose expression is required late in flagellar assembly are primarily transcribed by FliA, imparting temporal regulation of transcription and coupling expression to flagellar assembly. In this study, we use ChIP-seq and RNA-seq to comprehensively map the E. coli FlhDC and FliA regulons. We define a surprisingly restricted FlhDC regulon, including two novel regulated targets and two binding sites not associated with detectable regulation of surrounding genes. In contrast, we greatly expand the known FliA regulon. Surprisingly, 30 of the 52 FliA binding sites are located inside genes. Two of these intragenic promoters are associated with detectable noncoding RNAs, while the others either produce highly unstable RNAs or are inactive under these conditions. Together, our data redefine the E. coli flagellar regulatory network, and provide new insight into the temporal orchestration of gene expression that coordinates the flagellar assembly process. PMID:25275371

  17. Chromatin potentiates transcription

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Shigeki; Davis, Ralph E.; Mattei, Pierre Jean; Eagen, Kyle Patrick; Kornberg, Roger D.

    2017-01-01

    Chromatin isolated from the chromosomal locus of the PHO5 gene of yeast in a transcriptionally repressed state was transcribed with 12 pure proteins (80 polypeptides): RNA polymerase II, six general transcription factors, TFIIS, the Pho4 gene activator protein, and the SAGA, SWI/SNF, and Mediator complexes. Contrary to expectation, a nucleosome occluding the TATA box and transcription start sites did not impede transcription but rather, enhanced it: the level of chromatin transcription was at least sevenfold greater than that of naked DNA, and chromatin gave patterns of transcription start sites closely similar to those occurring in vivo, whereas naked DNA gave many aberrant transcripts. Both histone acetylation and trimethylation of H3K4 (H3K4me3) were important for chromatin transcription. The nucleosome, long known to serve as a general gene repressor, thus also performs an important positive role in transcription. PMID:28137832

  18. Conserved rates and patterns of transcription errors across bacterial growth states and lifestyles

    PubMed Central

    Traverse, Charles C.; Ochman, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Errors that occur during transcription have received much less attention than the mutations that occur in DNA because transcription errors are not heritable and usually result in a very limited number of altered proteins. However, transcription error rates are typically several orders of magnitude higher than the mutation rate. Also, individual transcripts can be translated multiple times, so a single error can have substantial effects on the pool of proteins. Transcription errors can also contribute to cellular noise, thereby influencing cell survival under stressful conditions, such as starvation or antibiotic stress. Implementing a method that captures transcription errors genome-wide, we measured the rates and spectra of transcription errors in Escherichia coli and in endosymbionts for which mutation and/or substitution rates are greatly elevated over those of E. coli. Under all tested conditions, across all species, and even for different categories of RNA sequences (mRNA and rRNAs), there were no significant differences in rates of transcription errors, which ranged from 2.3 × 10−5 per nucleotide in mRNA of the endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola to 5.2 × 10−5 per nucleotide in rRNA of the endosymbiont Carsonella ruddii. The similarity of transcription error rates in these bacterial endosymbionts to that in E. coli (4.63 × 10−5 per nucleotide) is all the more surprising given that genomic erosion has resulted in the loss of transcription fidelity factors in both Buchnera and Carsonella. PMID:26884158

  19. The hsd (host specificity) genes of E. coli K 12.

    PubMed

    Sain, B; Murray, N E

    1980-01-01

    The hsd genes of E. coli K 12 have been cloned in phage lambda by a combination of in vitro and in vivo techniques. Three genes, whose products are required for K-specific restriction and modification, have been identified by complementation tests as hsdR, M and S. The order of these closely linked genes was established as R, M, S by analysis of the DNA of genetically characterised deletion derivatives of lambda hsd phages. The three genes are transcribed in the same direction but not necessarily as a single operon. Genetic evidence identifies two promoters, one from which transcription of hsdM and S is initiated and a second for the hsdR gene. The hsdR gene codes for a polypeptide of molecular weight approximately 130 000; hsdM for one of 62--65 000 and the hsdS gene was associated with two polypeptides of approximately 50 000. Circumstantial evidence suggest that one of these two polypeptides may be a degradation, or processed, derivative of the other. The hsdS polypeptide of E. coli B has a slightly higher mobility in an SDS-polyacrylamide gel than does that of E. coli K 12. A probe comprising most of the hsdR gene and all of the hsdM and S genes of E. coli K 12 shares extensive homology with the DNA of E. coli B but none with that of E. coli C.

  20. Transcriptional enhancers: Transcription, function and flexibility.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Philippa; Yosefzon, Yahav; Rudnizky, Sergei; Pnueli, Lilach

    2016-01-01

    Active transcriptional enhancers are often transcribed to eRNAs, whose changing levels mirror those of the target gene mRNA. We discuss some of the reported functions of these eRNAs and their likely diversity to allow utilization of distinct cis regulatory regions to enhance transcription in diverse developmental and cellular contexts.

  1. Evolutionary conservation of bacterial operons: does transcriptional connectivity matter?

    PubMed

    Hazkani-Covo, Einat; Graur, Dan

    2005-07-01

    In the literature, it has been frequently suggested that the connectivity of a protein, i.e., the number of proteins with which it interacts, is inversely correlated with the rate of evolution. We attempted to extrapolate from proteins to operons by testing the hypothesis that operons with high transcriptional connectivity, i.e., operons that are controlled through interactions with many transcription factors, are evolutionarily more conserved at the structure and sequence levels than low-connectivity operons. With Escherichia coli used as reference, two structural- and two sequence-conservation measures were determined for 82 groups of homologous operons from 30 completely-sequenced bacterial genomes. In E. coli, large operons tend to be regulated by more transcription factors than either smaller operons or single genes. Large E. coli operons that are regulated by single transcription factors were found to be regulated by activators more frequently than by repressors. Levels of sequence conservation and structural conservation of operons were found to be independent of each other, i.e., structurally conserved operons may be divergent in sequence, and vice versa. Transcriptional connectivity was found to influence neither sequence nor structural conservation of operons. Although this finding seems to contradict the situation in genes, a critical review of the literature indicates that although gene connectivity is frequently touted as a factor in determining rates of evolution, only a very small fraction of the variability in degrees of evolutionary conservation is explainable by this factor.

  2. Biophysical models of transcription in cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choubey, Sandeep

    Cells constantly face environmental challenges and deal with them by changing their gene expression patterns. They make decisions regarding which genes to express and which genes not to express based on intra-cellular and environmental cues. These decisions are often made by regulating the process of transcription. While the identities of the different molecules that take part in regulating transcription have been determined for a number of different genes, their dynamics inside the cell are still poorly understood. One key feature of these regulatory dynamics is that the numbers of the bio-molecules involved is typically small, resulting in large temporal fluctuations in transcriptional outputs (mRNA and protein). In this thesis I show that measurements of the cell-to-cell variability of the distribution of transcribing RNA polymerases along a gene provide a previously unexplored method for deciphering the mechanism of its transcription in vivo. First, I propose a simple kinetic model of transcription initiation and elongation from which I calculate transcribing RNA polymerase copy-number fluctuations. I test my theory against published data obtained for yeast genes and propose a novel mechanism of transcription. Rather than transcription being initiated through a single rate-limiting step, as was previously proposed, my single-cell analysis reveals the presence of at least two rate limiting steps. Second, I compute the distribution of inter-polymerase distance distribution along a gene and propose a method for analyzing inter-polymerase distance distributions acquired in experiments. By applying this method to images of polymerases transcribing ribosomal genes in E.coli I show that one model of regulation of these genes is consistent with inter-polymerase distance data while a number of other models are not. The analytical framework described in this thesis can be used to extract quantitative information about the dynamics of transcription from single

  3. Cockayne syndrome: defective repair of transcription?

    PubMed Central

    van Gool, A J; van der Horst, G T; Citterio, E; Hoeijmakers, J H

    1997-01-01

    In the past years, it has become increasingly evident that basal metabolic processes within the cell are intimately linked and influenced by one another. One such link that recently has attracted much attention is the close interplay between nucleotide excision DNA repair and transcription. This is illustrated both by the preferential repair of the transcribed strand of active genes (a phenomenon known as transcription-coupled repair, TCR) as well as by the distinct dual involvement of proteins in both processes. The mechanism of TCR in eukaryotes is still largely unknown. It was first discovered in mammals by the pioneering studies of Hanawalt and colleagues, and subsequently identified in yeast and Escherichia coli. In the latter case, one protein, the transcription repair-coupling factor, was found to accomplish this function in vitro, and a plausible model for its activity was proposed. While the E. coli model still functions as a paradigm for TCR in eukaryotes, recent observations prompt us to believe that the situation in eukaryotes is much more complex, involving dual functionality of multiple proteins. PMID:9250659

  4. Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of transcriptional pausing.

    PubMed

    Tadigotla, Vasisht R; O Maoiléidigh, Dáibhid; Sengupta, Anirvan M; Epshtein, Vitaly; Ebright, Richard H; Nudler, Evgeny; Ruckenstein, Andrei E

    2006-03-21

    We present a statistical mechanics approach for the prediction of backtracked pauses in bacterial transcription elongation derived from structural models of the transcription elongation complex (EC). Our algorithm is based on the thermodynamic stability of the EC along the DNA template calculated from the sequence-dependent free energy of DNA-DNA, DNA-RNA, and RNA-RNA base pairing associated with (i) the translocational and size fluctuations of the transcription bubble; (ii) changes in the associated DNA-RNA hybrid; and (iii) changes in the cotranscriptional RNA secondary structure upstream of the RNA exit channel. The calculations involve no adjustable parameters except for a cutoff used to discriminate paused from nonpaused complexes. When applied to 100 experimental pauses in transcription elongation by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase on 10 DNA templates, the approach produces statistically significant results. We also present a kinetic model for the rate of recovery of backtracked paused complexes. A crucial ingredient of our model is the incorporation of kinetic barriers to backtracking resulting from steric clashes of EC with the cotranscriptionally generated RNA secondary structure, an aspect not included explicitly in previous attempts at modeling the transcription elongation process.

  5. Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of transcriptional pausing

    PubMed Central

    Tadigotla, Vasisht R.; Maoiléidigh, Dáibhid Ó; Sengupta, Anirvan M.; Epshtein, Vitaly; Ebright, Richard H.; Nudler, Evgeny; Ruckenstein, Andrei E.

    2006-01-01

    We present a statistical mechanics approach for the prediction of backtracked pauses in bacterial transcription elongation derived from structural models of the transcription elongation complex (EC). Our algorithm is based on the thermodynamic stability of the EC along the DNA template calculated from the sequence-dependent free energy of DNA–DNA, DNA–RNA, and RNA–RNA base pairing associated with (i) the translocational and size fluctuations of the transcription bubble; (ii) changes in the associated DNA–RNA hybrid; and (iii) changes in the cotranscriptional RNA secondary structure upstream of the RNA exit channel. The calculations involve no adjustable parameters except for a cutoff used to discriminate paused from nonpaused complexes. When applied to 100 experimental pauses in transcription elongation by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase on 10 DNA templates, the approach produces statistically significant results. We also present a kinetic model for the rate of recovery of backtracked paused complexes. A crucial ingredient of our model is the incorporation of kinetic barriers to backtracking resulting from steric clashes of EC with the cotranscriptionally generated RNA secondary structure, an aspect not included explicitly in previous attempts at modeling the transcription elongation process. PMID:16537373

  6. Transcription in archaea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyrpides, N. C.; Ouzounis, C. A.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Using the sequences of all the known transcription-associated proteins from Bacteria and Eucarya (a total of 4,147), we have identified their homologous counterparts in the four complete archaeal genomes. Through extensive sequence comparisons, we establish the presence of 280 predicted transcription factors or transcription-associated proteins in the four archaeal genomes, of which 168 have homologs only in Bacteria, 51 have homologs only in Eucarya, and the remaining 61 have homologs in both phylogenetic domains. Although bacterial and eukaryotic transcription have very few factors in common, each exclusively shares a significantly greater number with the Archaea, especially the Bacteria. This last fact contrasts with the obvious close relationship between the archaeal and eukaryotic transcription mechanisms per se, and in particular, basic transcription initiation. We interpret these results to mean that the archaeal transcription system has retained more ancestral characteristics than have the transcription mechanisms in either of the other two domains.

  7. Transcription in archaea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyrpides, N. C.; Ouzounis, C. A.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Using the sequences of all the known transcription-associated proteins from Bacteria and Eucarya (a total of 4,147), we have identified their homologous counterparts in the four complete archaeal genomes. Through extensive sequence comparisons, we establish the presence of 280 predicted transcription factors or transcription-associated proteins in the four archaeal genomes, of which 168 have homologs only in Bacteria, 51 have homologs only in Eucarya, and the remaining 61 have homologs in both phylogenetic domains. Although bacterial and eukaryotic transcription have very few factors in common, each exclusively shares a significantly greater number with the Archaea, especially the Bacteria. This last fact contrasts with the obvious close relationship between the archaeal and eukaryotic transcription mechanisms per se, and in particular, basic transcription initiation. We interpret these results to mean that the archaeal transcription system has retained more ancestral characteristics than have the transcription mechanisms in either of the other two domains.

  8. Expression of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gentamicin Resistance Gene aacC3 in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    van Boxtel, Renée A. J.; van de Klundert, Jos A. M.

    1998-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa aacC3 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli after cloning of the single gene behind the strong tac promoter. In the original Pseudomonas strain, aacC3 is preceded by cysC; together they form a single transcription unit. The ribosome-binding site and start codon of aacC3 are involved in a putative intercistronic hairpin, the stability of which interfered with the aminoglycoside resistance level. In Northern blots, full-length transcripts comprising both cysC and aacC3 could not be detected either in the original Pseudomonas strain or in E. coli harboring a plasmid with the cloned operon. In contrast, cysC transcripts were abundant. Cloning of the operon between the tac promoter and a transcription termination signal resulted in higher mRNA levels and phenotypic expression in E. coli. The absence of a transcription termination signal in the wild-type cysC-aacC3 sequence is associated with transcripts of heterogeneous size that were undetected in Northern blots. Our results shed more light on the expression of this gentamicin resistance determinant, although the discrepancies between its expression in E. coli and Pseudomonas are not fully solved. PMID:9835511

  9. Nuclear transport and transcription.

    PubMed

    Komeili, A; O'Shea, E K

    2000-06-01

    The compartmentalization of DNA in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells establishes a connection between the nuclear transport machinery and the transcriptional apparatus. General transcription factors, as well as specific transcriptional activators and repressors, such as p53 and NF-AT, need to be imported into the nucleus following their translation. In addition, nuclear transport plays a crucial role in regulating the activity of many transcription factors.

  10. Nucleotide sequence of an Escherichia coli chromosomal hemolysin.

    PubMed Central

    Felmlee, T; Pellett, S; Welch, R A

    1985-01-01

    We determined the DNA sequence of an 8,211-base-pair region encompassing the chromosomal hemolysin, molecularly cloned from an O4 serotype strain of Escherichia coli. All four hemolysin cistrons (transcriptional order, C, A, B, and D) were encoded on the same DNA strand, and their predicted molecular masses were, respectively, 19.7, 109.8, 79.9, and 54.6 kilodaltons. The identification of pSF4000-encoded polypeptides in E. coli minicells corroborated the assignment of the predicted polypeptides for hlyC, hlyA, and hlyD. However, based on the minicell results, two polypeptides appeared to be encoded on the hlyB region, one similar in size to the predicted molecular mass of 79.9 kilodaltons, and the other a smaller 46-kilodalton polypeptide. The four hemolysin gene displayed similar codon usage, which is atypical for E. coli. This reflects the low guanine-plus-cytosine content (40.2%) of the hemolysin DNA sequence and suggests the non-E. coli origin of the hemolysin determinant. In vitro-derived deletions of the hemolysin recombinant plasmid pSF4000 indicated that a region between 433 and 301 base pairs upstream of the putative start of hlyC is necessary for hemolysin synthesis. Based on the DNA sequence, a stem-loop transcription terminator-like structure (a 16-base-pair stem followed by seven uridylates) in the mRNA was predicted distal to the C-terminal end of hlyA. A model for the general transcriptional organization of the E. coli hemolysin determinant is presented. Images PMID:3891743

  11. Anaerobic regulation of citrate fermentation by CitAB in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Matsumoto, Fumika; Oshima, Taku; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Ogasawara, Naotake; Ishihama, Akira

    2008-11-01

    In Escherichia coli, CitB, a cognate response regulator of CitA, specifically bound to the promoter regions for mdh, citA, citC, and exuT. Transcription of these genes was induced by citrate under anaerobic conditions in a CitAB-dependent manner. Taking this together, we conclude that CitAB is the master regulatory system that activates the set of genes involved in citrate fermentation in E. coli.

  12. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Fleckenstein, James M; Munson, George M; Rasko, David A

    2013-01-01

    The enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are a pervasive cause of serious diarrheal illness in developing countries. Presently, there is no vaccine to prevent these infections, and many features of the basic pathogenesis of these organisms remain poorly understood. Until very recently most pathogenesis studies had focused almost exclusively on a small subset of known “classical” virulence genes, namely fimbrial colonization factors and the heat-labile (LT) and heat stable (ST) enterotoxins. However, recent investigations of pathogen-host interactions reveal a surprisingly complex and intricately orchestrated engagement involving the interplay of classical and “novel” virulence genes, as well as participation of genes highly conserved in the E. coli species. These studies may inform further rational approaches to vaccine development for these important pathogens. PMID:23892244

  13. WRKY transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Paul J; Somssich, Imre E; Ringler, Patricia; Shen, Qingxi J

    2010-05-01

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants and form integral parts of signalling webs that modulate many plant processes. Here, we review recent significant progress in WRKY transcription factor research. New findings illustrate that WRKY proteins often act as repressors as well as activators, and that members of the family play roles in both the repression and de-repression of important plant processes. Furthermore, it is becoming clear that a single WRKY transcription factor might be involved in regulating several seemingly disparate processes. Mechanisms of signalling and transcriptional regulation are being dissected, uncovering WRKY protein functions via interactions with a diverse array of protein partners, including MAP kinases, MAP kinase kinases, 14-3-3 proteins, calmodulin, histone deacetylases, resistance proteins and other WRKY transcription factors. WRKY genes exhibit extensive autoregulation and cross-regulation that facilitates transcriptional reprogramming in a dynamic web with built-in redundancy. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcriptional pausing at the translation start site operates as a critical checkpoint for riboswitch regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chauvier, Adrien; Picard-Jean, Frédéric; Berger-Dancause, Jean-Christophe; Bastet, Laurène; Naghdi, Mohammad Reza; Dubé, Audrey; Turcotte, Pierre; Perreault, Jonathan; Lafontaine, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of nascent transcript sequencing, it has been postulated but never demonstrated that transcriptional pausing at translation start sites is important for gene regulation. Here we show that the Escherichia coli thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) thiC riboswitch contains a regulatory pause site in the translation initiation region that acts as a checkpoint for thiC expression. By biochemically probing nascent transcription complexes halted at defined positions, we find a narrow transcriptional window for metabolite binding, in which the downstream boundary is delimited by the checkpoint. We show that transcription complexes at the regulatory pause site favour the formation of a riboswitch intramolecular lock that strongly prevents TPP binding. In contrast, cotranscriptional metabolite binding increases RNA polymerase pausing and induces Rho-dependent transcription termination at the checkpoint. Early transcriptional pausing may provide a general mechanism, whereby transient transcriptional windows directly coordinate the sensing of environmental cues and bacterial mRNA regulation. PMID:28071751

  15. Bacteroides vulgatus protects against Escherichia coli-induced colitis in gnotobiotic interleukin-2-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Waidmann, Marc; Bechtold, Oliver; Frick, Julia-Stefanie; Lehr, Hans-Anton; Schubert, Sören; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Loeffler, Jürgen; Bohn, Erwin; Autenrieth, Ingo B

    2003-07-01

    The microflora plays a crucial role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Specific pathogen-free (SPF), but not germ-free, interleukin (IL)-2-deficient (IL-2-/-) mice develop colitis. The colitogenicity of commensal bacteria was determined. Gnotobiotic IL-2-/- and IL-2+/+ mice were colonized with Escherichia coli mpk, Bacteroides vulgatus mpk, or both bacterial strains, or with E. coli strain Nissle 1917. DNA arrays were used to characterize E. coli mpk. Colitis was analyzed by histology and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-10, and CD14 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. Bacterial numbers in feces and bacterial localization in the colon was determined by culture and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). IL-2-/- but not IL-2+/+ mice monocolonized with E. coli mpk developed colitis, whereas mono-association with B. vulgatus mpk, or E. coli Nissle, or co-colonization with E. coli mpk and B. vulgatus mpk, did not induce colitis. DNA array experiments and cellular studies revealed that E. coli mpk is a nonpathogenic strain. FISH and culture methods revealed that the anticolitogenic effect of B. vulgatus mpk on E. coli mpk cannot be explained by a significant reduction in numbers of E. coli in the colon. E. coli mpk-induced colitis was associated with increased IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, CD14, and IL-10 mRNA expression in the colon. In IL-2-/- mice, B. vulgatus mpk protects against E. coli mpk-triggered colitis by an unknown mechanism. E. coli Nissle does not induce colitis. Various bacterial species common to the microflora differ in their ability to trigger IBD.

  16. Molecular analysis of cytolysin A (ClyA) in pathogenic Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Albrecht; von Rhein, Christine; Bauer, Susanne; Hüttinger, Christian; Goebel, Werner

    2004-08-01

    Cytolysin A (ClyA) of Escherichia coli is a pore-forming hemolytic protein encoded by the clyA (hlyE, sheA) gene that was first identified in E. coli K-12. In this study we examined various clinical E. coli isolates with regard to the presence and integrity of clyA. PCR and DNA sequence analyses demonstrated that 19 of 23 tested Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains, all 7 tested enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) strains, 6 of 8 enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) strains, and 4 of 7 tested enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strains possess a complete clyA gene. The remaining STEC, EAEC, and ETEC strains and 9 of the 17 tested enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains were shown to harbor mutant clyA derivatives containing 1-bp frameshift mutations that cause premature termination of the coding sequence. The other eight EPEC strains and all tested uropathogenic and new-born meningitis-associated E. coli strains (n = 14 and 3, respectively) carried only nonfunctional clyA fragments due to the deletion of two sequences of 493 bp and 204 or 217 bp at the clyA locus. Expression of clyA from clinical E. coli isolates proved to be positively controlled by the transcriptional regulator SlyA. Several tested E. coli strains harboring a functional clyA gene produced basal amounts of ClyA when grown under standard laboratory conditions, but most of them showed a clyA-dependent hemolytic phenotype only when SlyA was overexpressed. The presented data indicate that cytolysin A can play a role only for some of the pathogenic E. coli strains.

  17. Transcriptional Regulation by Competing Transcription Factor Modules

    PubMed Central

    Hermsen, Rutger; Tans, Sander; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2006-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks lie at the heart of cellular computation. In these networks, intracellular and extracellular signals are integrated by transcription factors, which control the expression of transcription units by binding to cis-regulatory regions on the DNA. The designs of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cis-regulatory regions are usually highly complex. They frequently consist of both repetitive and overlapping transcription factor binding sites. To unravel the design principles of these promoter architectures, we have designed in silico prokaryotic transcriptional logic gates with predefined input–output relations using an evolutionary algorithm. The resulting cis-regulatory designs are often composed of modules that consist of tandem arrays of binding sites to which the transcription factors bind cooperatively. Moreover, these modules often overlap with each other, leading to competition between them. Our analysis thus identifies a new signal integration motif that is based upon the interplay between intramodular cooperativity and intermodular competition. We show that this signal integration mechanism drastically enhances the capacity of cis-regulatory domains to integrate signals. Our results provide a possible explanation for the complexity of promoter architectures and could be used for the rational design of synthetic gene circuits. PMID:17140283

  18. Investigation of E. coli Enterotoxins.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    It has been determined that representative culture filtrates from two different strains (H197 and 74-114) of enterotoxigenic E . coli contain at least...for E . coli entorotoxin (soluble) and that trypsin-activated insol ECT is more antigenic than unactivated insol ECT. In contrast, it was determined...that cholera (ga) toxoid, with or without adjuvant, stimulates antitoxin capable of neutralizing both cholera and E . coli enterotoxins. It has been

  19. Specificity mechanisms in the control of transcription.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, P H; Rees, W A; Rippe, K; Wilson, K S

    1996-04-16

    In this overview we analyze and illustrate the principles underlying some of the specificity mechanisms that control the initiation, elongation, and termination phases of transcription. Thermodynamic mechanisms dominate in the first steps of initiation, where promoters at various levels of activation can be considered to be in competition for a limiting supply of core RNA polymerase. In the later stages of initiation, as well as in elongation and termination, the regulatory mechanisms that control specificity are largely kinetic, involving rate competition between branching reaction pathways where the outcome depends on the rates (and equilibria) of reaction and interconversion of different forms of the transcription complex. Elongation complexes are very stable at most positions along the DNA template, meaning that only RNA chain elongation (and editing) can occur at these positions. However, the stability of transcription complexes decreases abruptly when termination sequences are encountered, and here the outcome can be easily switched between elongation and termination (RNA release) by minor changes in the relative rates of these competing processes. Cis effectors, defined as sites at which regulatory proteins bind to upstream activation loci on either the DNA or the nascent RNA, play important roles in the control of both initiation and of the elongation-termination decision. Examples, drawn from studies of phage lambda N-dependent antitermination and E. coli rho-dependent termination processes, illustrate the flexibility and additivity of regulatory components within control mechanisms in transcription that involve multiple determinants. The generality of such regulatory principles are stressed.

  20. Transcription Regulation in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Alexandra M.; Walker, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    The known diversity of metabolic strategies and physiological adaptations of archaeal species to extreme environments is extraordinary. Accurate and responsive mechanisms to ensure that gene expression patterns match the needs of the cell necessitate regulatory strategies that control the activities and output of the archaeal transcription apparatus. Archaea are reliant on a single RNA polymerase for all transcription, and many of the known regulatory mechanisms employed for archaeal transcription mimic strategies also employed for eukaryotic and bacterial species. Novel mechanisms of transcription regulation have become apparent by increasingly sophisticated in vivo and in vitro investigations of archaeal species. This review emphasizes recent progress in understanding archaeal transcription regulatory mechanisms and highlights insights gained from studies of the influence of archaeal chromatin on transcription. PMID:27137495

  1. Organization of Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Chakalova, Lyubomira; Fraser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Investigations into the organization of transcription have their origins in cell biology. Early studies characterized nascent transcription in relation to discernable nuclear structures and components. Advances in light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and in situ hybridization helped to begin the difficult task of naming the countless individual players and components of transcription and placing them in context. With the completion of mammalian genome sequences, the seemingly boundless task of understanding transcription of the genome became finite and began a new period of rapid advance. Here we focus on the organization of transcription in mammals drawing upon information from lower organisms where necessary. The emerging picture is one of a highly organized nucleus with specific conformations of the genome adapted for tissue-specific programs of transcription and gene expression. PMID:20668006

  2. WRKY transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Madhunita; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators found exclusively in plants. They have diverse biological functions in plant disease resistance, abiotic stress responses, nutrient deprivation, senescence, seed and trichome development, embryogenesis, as well as additional developmental and hormone-controlled processes. WRKYs can act as transcriptional activators or repressors, in various homo- and heterodimer combinations. Here we review recent progress on the function of WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis and other plant species such as rice, potato, and parsley, with a special focus on abiotic, developmental, and hormone-regulated processes. PMID:24492469

  3. A Nonnatural Transcriptional Coactivator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyanguile, Origene; Uesugi, Motonari; Austin, David J.; Verdine, Gregory L.

    1997-12-01

    In eukaryotes, sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins activate gene expression by recruiting the transcriptional apparatus and chromatin remodeling proteins to the promoter through protein-protein contacts. In many instances, the connection between DNA-binding proteins and the transcriptional apparatus is established through the intermediacy of adapter proteins known as coactivators. Here we describe synthetic molecules with low molecular weight that act as transcriptional coactivators. We demonstrate that a completely nonnatural activation domain in one such molecule is capable of stimulating transcription in vitro and in vivo. The present strategy provides a means of gaining external control over gene activation through intervention using small molecules.

  4. Escherichia coli fliAZY operon.

    PubMed Central

    Mytelka, D S; Chamberlin, M J

    1996-01-01

    We have cloned the Escherichia coli fliAZY operon, which contains the fliA gene (the alternative sigma factor sigma F) and two novel genes, fliZ and fliY. Transcriptional mapping of this operon shows two start sites, one of which is preceded by a canonical E sigma F-dependent consensus and is dependent on sigma F for expression in vivo and in vitro. We have overexpressed and purified sigma F and demonstrated that it can direct core polymerase to E sigma F-dependent promoters. FliZ and FliY are not required for motility but may regulate sigma F activity, perhaps in response to a putative cell density signal that may be detected by FliY, a member of the bacterial extracellular solute-binding protein family 3. PMID:8550423

  5. Maintenance of Transcription-Translation Coupling by Elongation Factor P

    PubMed Central

    Elgamal, Sara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Under conditions of tight coupling between translation and transcription, the ribosome enables synthesis of full-length mRNAs by preventing both formation of intrinsic terminator hairpins and loading of the transcription termination factor Rho. While previous studies have focused on transcription factors, we investigated the role of Escherichia coli elongation factor P (EF-P), an elongation factor required for efficient translation of mRNAs containing consecutive proline codons, in maintaining coupled translation and transcription. In the absence of EF-P, the presence of Rho utilization (rut) sites led to an ~30-fold decrease in translation of polyproline-encoding mRNAs. Coexpression of the Rho inhibitor Psu fully restored translation. EF-P was also shown to inhibit premature termination during synthesis and translation of mRNAs encoding intrinsic terminators. The effects of EF-P loss on expression of polyproline mRNAs were augmented by a substitution in RNA polymerase that accelerates transcription. Analyses of previously reported ribosome profiling and global proteomic data identified several candidate gene clusters where EF-P could act to prevent premature transcription termination. In vivo probing allowed detection of some predicted premature termination products in the absence of EF-P. Our findings support a model in which EF-P maintains coupling of translation and transcription by decreasing ribosome stalling at polyproline motifs. Other regulators that facilitate ribosome translocation through roadblocks to prevent premature transcription termination upon uncoupling remain to be identified. PMID:27624127

  6. Structural insights into NusG regulating transcription elongation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Steitz, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    NusG is an essential transcription factor that plays multiple key regulatory roles in transcription elongation, termination and coupling translation and transcription. The core role of NusG is to enhance transcription elongation and RNA polymerase processivity. Here, we present the structure of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase complexed with NusG. The structure shows that the NusG N-terminal domain (NGN) binds at the central cleft of RNA polymerase surrounded by the β' clamp helices, the β protrusion, and the β lobe domains to close the promoter DNA binding channel and constrain the β' clamp domain, but with an orientation that is different from the one observed in the archaeal β' clamp–Spt4/5 complex. The structure also allows us to construct a reliable model of the complete NusG-associated transcription elongation complex, suggesting that the NGN domain binds at the upstream fork junction of the transcription elongation complex, similar to σ2 in the transcription initiation complex, to stabilize the junction, and therefore enhances transcription processivity. PMID:27899640

  7. appR gene product activates transcription of microcin C7 plasmid genes.

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Guerra, L; Moreno, F; San Millán, J L

    1989-01-01

    Microcin C7 (MccC7) is encoded by Escherichia coli plasmid pMccC7. However, some strains of E. coli K-12 carrying this plasmid do not produce this antibiotic. Here we show that these strains differ in the gene locus appR. This chromosomal gene product controls MccC7 production by activating the transcription of some, but not all, MccC7 plasmid genes. PMID:2651423

  8. The extracellular RNA complement of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Anubrata; Upadhyaya, Bimal Babu; Fritz, Joëlle V; Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Desai, Mahesh S; Yusuf, Dilmurat; Huang, David; Baumuratov, Aidos; Wang, Kai; Galas, David; Wilmes, Paul

    2015-01-21

    The secretion of biomolecules into the extracellular milieu is a common and well-conserved phenomenon in biology. In bacteria, secreted biomolecules are not only involved in intra-species communication but they also play roles in inter-kingdom exchanges and pathogenicity. To date, released products, such as small molecules, DNA, peptides, and proteins, have been well studied in bacteria. However, the bacterial extracellular RNA complement has so far not been comprehensively characterized. Here, we have analyzed, using a combination of physical characterization and high-throughput sequencing, the extracellular RNA complement of both outer membrane vesicle (OMV)-associated and OMV-free RNA of the enteric Gram-negative model bacterium Escherichia coli K-12 substrain MG1655 and have compared it to its intracellular RNA complement. Our results demonstrate that a large part of the extracellular RNA complement is in the size range between 15 and 40 nucleotides and is derived from specific intracellular RNAs. Furthermore, RNA is associated with OMVs and the relative abundances of RNA biotypes in the intracellular, OMV and OMV-free fractions are distinct. Apart from rRNA fragments, a significant portion of the extracellular RNA complement is composed of specific cleavage products of functionally important structural noncoding RNAs, including tRNAs, 4.5S RNA, 6S RNA, and tmRNA. In addition, the extracellular RNA pool includes RNA biotypes from cryptic prophages, intergenic, and coding regions, of which some are so far uncharacterised, for example, transcripts mapping to the fimA-fimL and ves-spy intergenic regions. Our study provides the first detailed characterization of the extracellular RNA complement of the enteric model bacterium E. coli. Analogous to findings in eukaryotes, our results suggest the selective export of specific RNA biotypes by E. coli, which in turn indicates a potential role for extracellular bacterial RNAs in intercellular communication. © 2015 The

  9. The extracellular RNA complement of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Anubrata; Upadhyaya, Bimal Babu; Fritz, Joëlle V; Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Desai, Mahesh S; Yusuf, Dilmurat; Huang, David; Baumuratov, Aidos; Wang, Kai; Galas, David; Wilmes, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The secretion of biomolecules into the extracellular milieu is a common and well-conserved phenomenon in biology. In bacteria, secreted biomolecules are not only involved in intra-species communication but they also play roles in inter-kingdom exchanges and pathogenicity. To date, released products, such as small molecules, DNA, peptides, and proteins, have been well studied in bacteria. However, the bacterial extracellular RNA complement has so far not been comprehensively characterized. Here, we have analyzed, using a combination of physical characterization and high-throughput sequencing, the extracellular RNA complement of both outer membrane vesicle (OMV)-associated and OMV-free RNA of the enteric Gram-negative model bacterium Escherichia coli K-12 substrain MG1655 and have compared it to its intracellular RNA complement. Our results demonstrate that a large part of the extracellular RNA complement is in the size range between 15 and 40 nucleotides and is derived from specific intracellular RNAs. Furthermore, RNA is associated with OMVs and the relative abundances of RNA biotypes in the intracellular, OMV and OMV-free fractions are distinct. Apart from rRNA fragments, a significant portion of the extracellular RNA complement is composed of specific cleavage products of functionally important structural noncoding RNAs, including tRNAs, 4.5S RNA, 6S RNA, and tmRNA. In addition, the extracellular RNA pool includes RNA biotypes from cryptic prophages, intergenic, and coding regions, of which some are so far uncharacterised, for example, transcripts mapping to the fimA-fimL and ves-spy intergenic regions. Our study provides the first detailed characterization of the extracellular RNA complement of the enteric model bacterium E. coli. Analogous to findings in eukaryotes, our results suggest the selective export of specific RNA biotypes by E. coli, which in turn indicates a potential role for extracellular bacterial RNAs in intercellular communication. PMID:25611733

  10. DISTILLER: a data integration framework to reveal condition dependency of complex regulons in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lemmens, Karen; De Bie, Tijl; Dhollander, Thomas; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C; Thijs, Inge M; Schoofs, Geert; De Weerdt, Ami; De Moor, Bart; Vanderleyden, Jos; Collado-Vides, Julio; Engelen, Kristof; Marchal, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    We present DISTILLER, a data integration framework for the inference of transcriptional module networks. Experimental validation of predicted targets for the well-studied fumarate nitrate reductase regulator showed the effectiveness of our approach in Escherichia coli. In addition, the condition dependency and modularity of the inferred transcriptional network was studied. Surprisingly, the level of regulatory complexity seemed lower than that which would be expected from RegulonDB, indicating that complex regulatory programs tend to decrease the degree of modularity. PMID:19265557

  11. Computational prediction of functional abortive RNA in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Jeremy I; Hassoun, Soha; Nair, Nikhil U

    2017-03-24

    Failure by RNA polymerase to break contacts with promoter DNA results in release of bound RNA and re-initiation of transcription. These abortive RNAs were assumed to be non-functional but have recently been shown to affect termination in bacteriophage T7. Little is known about the functional role of these RNA in other genetic models. Using a computational approach, we investigated whether abortive RNA could exert function in E. coli. Fragments generated from 3780 transcription units were used as query sequences within their respective transcription units to search for possible binding sites. Sites that fell within known regulatory features were then ranked based upon the free energy of hybridization to the abortive. We further hypothesize about mechanisms of regulatory action for a select number of likely matches. Future experimental validation of these putative abortive-mRNA pairs may confirm our findings and promote exploration of functional abortive RNAs (faRNAs) in natural and synthetic systems.

  12. The chemical structure of DNA sequence signals for RNA transcription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, D. G.; Dayhoff, M. O.

    1982-01-01

    The proposed recognition sites for RNA transcription for E. coli NRA polymerase, bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase, and eukaryotic RNA polymerase Pol II are evaluated in the light of the requirements for efficient recognition. It is shown that although there is good experimental evidence that specific nucleic acid sequence patterns are involved in transcriptional regulation in bacteria and bacterial viruses, among the sequences now available, only in the case of the promoters recognized by bacteriophage T7 polymerase does it seem likely that the pattern is sufficient. It is concluded that the eukaryotic pattern that is investigated is not restrictive enough to serve as a recognition site.

  13. The chemical structure of DNA sequence signals for RNA transcription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, D. G.; Dayhoff, M. O.

    1982-01-01

    The proposed recognition sites for RNA transcription for E. coli NRA polymerase, bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase, and eukaryotic RNA polymerase Pol II are evaluated in the light of the requirements for efficient recognition. It is shown that although there is good experimental evidence that specific nucleic acid sequence patterns are involved in transcriptional regulation in bacteria and bacterial viruses, among the sequences now available, only in the case of the promoters recognized by bacteriophage T7 polymerase does it seem likely that the pattern is sufficient. It is concluded that the eukaryotic pattern that is investigated is not restrictive enough to serve as a recognition site.

  14. ANIMAL ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    PubMed Central

    Dubreuil, J. Daniel; Isaacson, Richard E.; Schifferli, Dieter M.

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of E. coli diarrhea in farm animals. ETEC are characterized by the ability to produce two types of virulence factors; adhesins that promote binding to specific enterocyte receptors for intestinal colonization and enterotoxins responsible for fluid secretion. The best-characterized adhesins are expressed in the context of fimbriae, such as the F4 (also designated K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F17 and F18 fimbriae. Once established in the animal small intestine, ETEC produces enterotoxin(s) that lead to diarrhea. The enterotoxins belong to two major classes; heat-labile toxin that consist of one active and five binding subunits (LT), and heat-stable toxins that are small polypeptides (STa, STb, and EAST1). This chapter describes the disease and pathogenesis of animal ETEC, the corresponding virulence genes and protein products of these bacteria, their regulation and targets in animal hosts, as well as mechanisms of action. Furthermore, vaccines, inhibitors, probiotics and the identification of potential new targets identified by genomics are presented in the context of animal ETEC. PMID:27735786

  15. Investigation of E. coli Enterotoxins.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    In the course of investigating E . coli enterotoxins, it was discovered that trypsin treatment of partially purified enterotoxin from strain H197 (078...loops) did exhibit elevated PF titers compared with uninoculated controls. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that E . coli enterotoxins

  16. Gravity sensing by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shimoshige, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Hideki; Shimamura, Shigeru; Usami, Ron

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the growth and protein profile of Escherichia coli under various gravity strengths to determine the effects of hypergravity on biochemical reactions. E. coli grows at less than 7,500 g without inhibition. Hypergravity induced OmpW and Antigen 43. Changes in gravity strength altered the expression levels of these proteins. This suggests that hypergravity regulates gene expression in bacteria.

  17. Fos and jun cooperate in transcriptional regulation via heterologous activation domains.

    PubMed Central

    Abate, C; Luk, D; Gagne, E; Roeder, R G; Curran, T

    1990-01-01

    The products of c-fos and c-jun (Fos and Jun) function in gene regulation by interacting with the AP-1 binding site. Here we have examined the contribution of Fos and Jun toward transcriptional activity by using Fos and Jun polypeptides purified from Escherichia coli. Fos contained a transcriptional activation domain as well as a region which exerted a negative influence on transcriptional activity in vitro. Moreover, distinct activation domains in both Fos and Jun functioned cooperatively in transcriptional stimulation. Thus, regulation of gene expression by Fos and Jun results from an integration of several functional domains in a bimolecular complex. Images PMID:2119000

  18. Unusually Situated Binding Sites for Bacterial Transcription Factors Can Have Hidden Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Haycocks, James R. J.; Grainger, David C.

    2016-01-01

    A commonly accepted paradigm of molecular biology is that transcription factors control gene expression by binding sites at the 5' end of a gene. However, there is growing evidence that transcription factor targets can occur within genes or between convergent genes. In this work, we have investigated one such target for the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. We show that CRP binds between two convergent genes. When bound, CRP regulates transcription of a small open reading frame, which we term aatS, embedded within one of the adjacent genes. Our work demonstrates that non-canonical sites of transcription factor binding can have hidden functionality. PMID:27258043

  19. Binding of transcription termination protein nun to nascent RNA and template DNA.

    PubMed

    Watnick, R S; Gottesman, M E

    1999-12-17

    The amino-terminal arginine-rich motif of coliphage HK022 Nun binds phage lambda nascent transcript, whereas the carboxyl-terminal domain interacts with RNA polymerase (RNAP) and blocks transcription elongation. RNA binding is inhibited by zinc (Zn2+) and stimulated by Escherichia coli NusA. To study these interactions, the Nun carboxyl terminus was extended by a cysteine residue conjugated to a photochemical cross-linker. The carboxyl terminus contacted NusA and made Zn2+-dependent intramolecular contacts. When Nun was added to a paused transcription elongation complex, it cross-linked to the DNA template. Nun may arrest transcription by anchoring RNAP to DNA.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Transcription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevier, Stuart A.; Levine, Herbert

    2017-06-01

    The mechanical properties of transcription have recently been shown to play a central role in gene expression. However, a full physical characterization of this central biological process is lacking. In this Letter, we introduce a simple description of the basic physical elements of transcription where RNA elongation, RNA polymerase rotation, and DNA supercoiling are coupled. The resulting framework describes the relative amount of RNA polymerase rotation and DNA supercoiling that occurs during RNA elongation. Asymptotic behavior is derived and can be used to experimentally extract unknown mechanical parameters of transcription. Mechanical limits to transcription are incorporated through the addition of a DNA supercoiling-dependent RNA polymerase velocity. This addition can lead to transcriptional stalling and resulting implications for gene expression, chromatin structure and genome organization are discussed.

  1. HIV-1 Reverse Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei-Shau; Hughes, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Reverse transcription and integration are the defining features of the Retroviridae; the common name “retrovirus” derives from the fact that these viruses use a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase (RT), to convert their RNA genomes into DNA. Reverse transcription is an essential step in retroviral replication. This article presents an overview of reverse transcription, briefly describes the structure and function of RT, provides an introduction to some of the cellular and viral factors that can affect reverse transcription, and discusses fidelity and recombination, two processes in which reverse transcription plays an important role. In keeping with the theme of the collection, the emphasis is on HIV-1 and HIV-1 RT. PMID:23028129

  2. Mathematical relationships among DNA supercoiling, cation concentration, and temperature for prokaryotic transcription.

    PubMed

    Wang, J Y

    1998-08-01

    DNA twist has been proposed to affect transcription from some promoters of Escherichia coli, but involvement of twist has been difficult to test because it cannot be measured in transcription reaction mixtures. However, changes in other factors affect both DNA twist and transcription. These parameters are expected to be related when maximum transcription initiation is considered. In the present work, mathematical relationships among supercoiling, cation concentration, and temperature are derived for prokaryotic transcription initiation. The relationships indicate that as DNA becomes more negatively supercoiled, maximal initiation occurs at a higher cation concentration and at a lower temperature. For example, when superhelical density becomes more negative by 0.0025, a 1.6-fold increase in potassium concentration is predicted to be required to maintain transcription initiation at its maximum rate. Experimental verification of the relationships should provide a useful test of the idea that transcription initiation is sensitive to DNA twist.

  3. Functional analysis of Thermus thermophilus transcription factor NusG

    PubMed Central

    Sevostyanova, Anastasiya; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Transcription elongation factors from the NusG family are ubiquitous from bacteria to humans and play diverse roles in the regulation of gene expression. These proteins consist of at least two domains. The N-terminal domains directly bind to the largest, β′ in bacteria, subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP), whereas the C-terminal domains interact with other cellular components and serve as platforms for the assembly of large nucleoprotein complexes. Escherichia coli NusG and its paralog RfaH modify RNAP into a fast, pause-resistant state but the detailed molecular mechanism of this modification remains unclear since no high-resolution structural data are available for the E. coli system. We wanted to investigate whether Thermus thermophilus (Tth) NusG can be used as a model for structural studies of this family of regulators. Here, we show that Tth NusG slows down rather than facilitates transcript elongation by its cognate RNAP. On the other hand, similarly to the E. coli regulators, Tth NusG apparently binds near the upstream end of the transcription bubble, competes with σA, and favors forward translocation by RNAP. Our data suggest that the mechanism of NusG recruitment to RNAP is universally conserved even though the regulatory outcomes among its homologs may appear distinct. PMID:20639538

  4. Expression of a synthetic pertussis toxin operon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pozza, T D; Yan, H; Walker, M J

    1997-06-01

    Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough, a severe disease of infants characterised by repeated of paroxysmal coughing. Pertussis toxin (PT) is a major virulence factor of B. pertussis and is a typical A/B bacterial toxin consisting of five subunits S1-S5 in a ratio of 1:1:1:2:1. The PT subunit genes are organized into an operon which is not expressed in Escherichia coli, thus hampering the use of this organism for vaccine production. We have expressed the five PT subunits individually in E. coli by replacing the wild-type transcriptional and translational signals, and in the case of the S4 subunit the leader peptide has been exchanged with a modified E. coli beta-lactamase leader sequence. We have developed a stepwise cloning method to construct a synthetic PT operon which simultaneously expresses the five PT subunits in E. coli. Western blot analysis indicated that in E. coli KS476 containing the synthetic PT operon, S4 and S5 were completely processed, S1 was partially processed, whilst the majority of S2 and S3 remained unprocessed. Periplasmic extracts contained soluble S1 and S3; however, the processed form of S2, S4 and S5 were not detected, suggesting that these subunits may be membrane associated or in an insoluble form. This work should allow an investigation of the potential of E. coli to produce detoxified PT in a background free of other pertussis virulence factors that may contribute to the side-effects of some vaccine preparations currently in use.

  5. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli: "the other bad E coli".

    PubMed

    Johnson, James R; Russo, Thomas A

    2002-03-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), the specialized strains of E coli that cause most extraintestinal E coli infections, represent a major but little-appreciated health threat. Although the reasons for their evolution remain mysterious, by virtue of their numerous virulence traits ExPEC clearly possess a unique ability to cause disease outside the host intestinal tract. Broader appreciation of the existence and importance of ExPEC and better understandings of their distinctive virulence mechanisms, reservoirs, and transmission pathways may lead to effective preventive interventions against the morbid and costly infections ExPEC cause.

  6. Whole-genome sequence of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 strain PA20

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 PA20 is a Pennsylvania Department of Health clinical isolate. It has been used to study biofilm formation in O157:H7 clinical isolates where the high incidence of prophage insertions in the mlrA transcription factor disrupts traditional csgD biofilm regulation. Here...

  7. ASTP Onboard Voice Transcription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The transcription is presented of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project voice communications as recorded on the command module data storage equipment. Data from this recorder are telemetered (dumped) to Space Tracking and Data Network sites for retransmission to the Johnson Space Center. The transcript is divided into three columns -- time, speaker, and text. The Greenwich mean time column consists of three two-digit numbers representing hours, minutes, and seconds (e.g., 22 34 14) for the Julian dates shown at the top of the page on which a new day begins. The speaker column indicates the source of a transmission; the text column contains the verbatim transcript of the communications.

  8. Thiophene metabolism by E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the mechanism of degradation of sulfur containing heterocyclic molecules by mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. We previously isolated multiple mutants of E. coli which were selected for improved oxidation of furan and thiophene derivatives. We have focused on the thdA mutation in our subsequent research as it appears to be of central importance in thiophene oxidation. We hope that analysis of the thd gene of E. coli will lead to improvement of our thiophene metabolizing bacterial strains.

  9. DNA supercoiling during transcription.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Michelle D

    2016-11-01

    The twin-supercoiled-domain model describes how transcription can drive DNA supercoiling, and how DNA supercoiling, in turn plays an important role in regulating gene transcription. In vivo and in vitro experiments have disclosed many details of the complex interactions in this relationship, and recently new insights have been gained with the help of genome-wide DNA supercoiling mapping techniques and single molecule methods. This review summarizes the general mechanisms of the interplay between DNA supercoiling and transcription, considers the biological implications, and focuses on recent important discoveries and technical advances in this field. We highlight the significant impact of DNA supercoiling in transcription, but also more broadly in all processes operating on DNA.

  10. Flexible Transcription Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr-Smith, Norma

    1976-01-01

    Flexible structure in a San Francisco State University shorthand course is described as a way to provide motivation for students. Topics discussed are transcription testing plan, method of evaluation, practice tests, increasing difficulty of tests, and classroom results. (TA)

  11. DNA supercoiling during transcription

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Michelle D.

    2017-01-01

    The twin-supercoiled-domain model describes how transcription can drive DNA supercoiling, and how DNA supercoiling, in turn plays an important role in regulating gene transcription. In vivo and in vitro experiments have disclosed many details of the complex interactions in this relationship, and recently new insights have been gained with the help of genome-wide DNA supercoiling mapping techniques and single molecule methods. This review summarizes the general mechanisms of the interplay between DNA supercoiling and transcription, considers the biological implications, and focuses on recent important discoveries and technical advances in this field. We highlight the significant impact of DNA supercoiling in transcription, but also more broadly in all processes operating on DNA.

  12. Novel Mechanism of Escherichia coli Porin Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Keller, Maria; Vuong, Phu; Misra, Rajeev

    2006-01-01

    A novel mechanism of Escherichia coli porin regulation was discovered from multicopy suppressors that permitted growth of cells expressing a mutant OmpC protein in the absence of DegP. Analyses of two suppressors showed that both substantially lowered OmpC expression. Suppression activities were confined to a short DNA sequence, which we designated ipeX for inhibition of porin expression, and to DNA containing a 3′-truncated ompR gene. The major effect of ipeX on ompC expression was exerted posttranscriptionally, whereas the truncated OmpR protein reduced ompC transcription. ipeX was localized within an untranslated region of 247 base pairs between the stop codon of nmpC—a remnant porin gene from the cryptic phage qsr′ (DLP12) genome—and its predicted Rho-independent transcriptional terminator. Interestingly, another prophage, PA-2, which encodes a porin similar to NmpC, known as Lc, has sequences downstream from lc identical to that of ipeX. PA-2 lysogenization leads to Lc expression and OmpC inhibition. Our data show that the synthesis of the lc transcript, whose 3′ end contains the corresponding ipeX sequence, inhibits OmpC expression. Overexpression of ipeX RNA inhibited both OmpC and OmpF expression but not that of OmpA. ompC-phoA chimeric gene constructs revealed a 248-bp untranslated region of ompC required for ipeX-mediated inhibition. However, no sequence complementarity was found between ipeX and this region of ompC, indicating that inhibition may not involve simple base pairing between the two RNA molecules. The effect of ipeX on ompC, but not on ompF, was independent of the RNA chaperone Hfq. PMID:16385048

  13. Transcription and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, P. M.; Goding, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    The normal growth, development and function of an organism requires precise and co-ordinated control of gene expression. A major part of this control is exerted by regulating messenger RNA (mRNA) production and involves complex interactions between an array of transcriptionally active proteins and specific regulatory DNA sequences. The combination of such proteins and DNA sequences is specific for given gene or group of genes in a particular cell type and the proteins regulating the same gene may vary between cell types. In addition the expression or activity of these regulatory proteins may be modified depending on the state of differentiation of a cell or in response to an external stimulus. Thus, the differentiation of embryonic cells into diverse tissues is achieved and the mature structure and function of the organism is maintained. This review focusses on the role of perturbations of these transcriptional controls in neoplasia. Deregulation of transcription may result in the failure to express genes responsible for cellular differentiation, or alternatively, in the transcription of genes involved in cell division, through the inappropriate expression or activation of positively acting transcription factors and nuclear oncogenes. Whether the biochemical abnormalities that lead to the disordered growth and differentiation of a malignant tumour affect cell surface receptors, membrane or cytoplasmic signalling proteins or nuclear transcription factors, the end result is the inappropriate expression of some genes and failure to express others. Current research is starting to elucidate which of the elements of this complicated system are important in neoplasia. PMID:1645561

  14. Synthetic Promoters Functional in Francisella novicida and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    McWhinnie, Ralph L.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we describe the identification of synthetic, controllable promoters that function in the bacterial pathogen Francisella novicida, a model facultative intracellular pathogen. Synthetic DNA fragments consisting of the tetracycline operator (tetO) flanked by a random nucleotide sequence were inserted into a Francisella novicida shuttle plasmid upstream of a promoterless artificial operon containing the reporter genes cat and lacZ. Fragments able to promote transcription were selected for based on their ability to drive expression of the cat gene, conferring chloramphenicol resistance. Promoters of various strengths were found, many of which were repressed in the presence of the tetracycline repressor (TetR) and promoted transcription only in the presence of the TetR inducer anhydrotetracycline. A subset of both constitutive and inducible synthetic promoters were characterized to find their induction ratios and to identify their transcription start sites. In cases where tetO was located between or downstream of the −10 and −35 regions of the promoter, control by TetR was observed. If the tetO region was upstream of the −35 region by more than 9 bp, it did not confer TetR control. We found that three of three promoters isolated in F. novicida functioned at a comparable level in E. coli; however, none of the 10 promoters isolated in E. coli functioned at a significant level in F. novicida. Our results allowed us to isolate minimal F. novicida promoters of 47 and 48 bp in length. PMID:24141126

  15. Induction of YdeO, a regulator for acid resistance genes, by ultraviolet irradiation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Yuki; Ishihama, Akira; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi

    2012-01-01

    YdeO, an AraC-type transcription factor, is an important regulator in the induction of acid-resistance genes in Escherichia coli. In this study, we found that ydeO expression was induced 20 min after exposure to UV irradiation. This required the evgA and gadE genes in vivo. YdeO, induced by UV, controls the expression of a total of 21 genes. This accompanies SOS response in E. coli.

  16. [Virulence mechanisms of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Farfán-García, Ana Elvira; Ariza-Rojas, Sandra Catherine; Vargas-Cárdenas, Fabiola Andrea; Vargas-Remolina, Lizeth Viviana

    2016-08-01

    Acute diarrheal disease (ADD) is a global public health problem, especially in developing countries and is one of the causes of mortality in children under five. ADD etiologic agents include viruses, bacteria and parasites in that order. Escherichia coli bacteria it is classified as a major diarrheagenic agent and transmitted by consuming contaminated water or undercooked foods. This review compiled updates on information virulence factors and pathogenic mechanisms involved in adhesion and colonization of seven pathotypes of E. coli called enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), shigatoxigenic E. coli (STEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) and diffusely-adherent E. coli (DAEC). A final pathotype, adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) associated with Crohn's disease was also reviewed. The diarrheagenic pathotypes of E. coli affect different population groups and knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction with the human is important to guide research towards the development of vaccines and new tools for diagnosis and control.

  17. The impact of transcriptional tuning on in vitro integrated rRNA transcription and ribosome construction

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Brian R.; Jewett, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro ribosome construction could enable studies of ribosome assembly and function, provide a route toward constructing minimal cells for synthetic biology, and permit the construction of ribosome variants with new functions. Toward these long-term goals, we recently reported on an integrated, one-pot ribosomal RNA synthesis (rRNA), ribosome assembly, and translation technology (termed iSAT) for the construction of Escherichia coli ribosomes in crude ribosome-free S150 extracts. Here, we aimed to improve the activity of iSAT through transcriptional tuning. Specifically, we increased transcriptional efficiency through 3′ modifications to the rRNA gene sequences, optimized plasmid and polymerase concentrations, and demonstrated the use of a T7-promoted rRNA operon for stoichiometrically balanced rRNA synthesis and native rRNA processing. Our modifications produced a 45-fold improvement in iSAT protein synthesis activity, enabling synthesis of 429 ± 15 nmol/l green fluorescent protein in 6 h batch reactions. Further, we show that the translational activity of ribosomes purified from iSAT reactions is about 20% the activity of native ribosomes purified directly from E. coli cells. Looking forward, we believe iSAT will enable unique studies to unravel the systems biology of ribosome biogenesis and open the way to new methods for making and studying ribosomal variants. PMID:24792158

  18. Few regulatory metabolites coordinate expression of central metabolic genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kochanowski, Karl; Gerosa, Luca; Brunner, Simon F; Christodoulou, Dimitris; Nikolaev, Yaroslav V; Sauer, Uwe

    2017-01-03

    Transcription networks consist of hundreds of transcription factors with thousands of often overlapping target genes. While we can reliably measure gene expression changes, we still understand relatively little why expression changes the way it does. How does a coordinated response emerge in such complex networks and how many input signals are necessary to achieve it? Here, we unravel the regulatory program of gene expression in Escherichia coli central carbon metabolism with more than 30 known transcription factors. Using a library of fluorescent transcriptional reporters, we comprehensively quantify the activity of central metabolic promoters in 26 environmental conditions. The expression patterns were dominated by growth rate-dependent global regulation for most central metabolic promoters in concert with highly condition-specific activation for only few promoters. Using an approximate mathematical description of promoter activity, we dissect the contribution of global and specific transcriptional regulation. About 70% of the total variance in promoter activity across conditions was explained by global transcriptional regulation. Correlating the remaining specific transcriptional regulation of each promoter with the cell's metabolome response across the same conditions identified potential regulatory metabolites. Remarkably, cyclic AMP, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, and fructose-1-phosphate alone explained most of the specific transcriptional regulation through their interaction with the two major transcription factors Crp and Cra. Thus, a surprisingly simple regulatory program that relies on global transcriptional regulation and input from few intracellular metabolites appears to be sufficient to coordinate E. coli central metabolism and explain about 90% of the experimentally observed transcription changes in 100 genes. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  19. Inhibiting translation elongation can aid genome duplication in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Myka, Kamila K; Hawkins, Michelle; Syeda, Aisha H; Gupta, Milind K; Meharg, Caroline; Dillingham, Mark S; Savery, Nigel J; Lloyd, Robert G; McGlynn, Peter

    2016-12-11

    Conflicts between replication and transcription challenge chromosome duplication. Escherichia coli replisome movement along transcribed DNA is promoted by Rep and UvrD accessory helicases with Δrep ΔuvrD cells being inviable under rapid growth conditions. We have discovered that mutations in a tRNA gene, aspT, in an aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, AspRS, and in a translation factor needed for efficient proline-proline bond formation, EF-P, suppress Δrep ΔuvrD lethality. Thus replication-transcription conflicts can be alleviated by the partial sacrifice of a mechanism that reduces replicative barriers, namely translating ribosomes that reduce RNA polymerase backtracking. Suppression depends on RelA-directed synthesis of (p)ppGpp, a signalling molecule that reduces replication-transcription conflicts, with RelA activation requiring ribosomal pausing. Levels of (p)ppGpp in these suppressors also correlate inversely with the need for Rho activity, an RNA translocase that can bind to emerging transcripts and displace transcription complexes. These data illustrate the fine balance between different mechanisms in facilitating gene expression and genome duplication and demonstrate that accessory helicases are a major determinant of this balance. This balance is also critical for other aspects of bacterial survival: the mutations identified here increase persistence indicating that similar mutations could arise in naturally occurring bacterial populations facing antibiotic challenge.

  20. Transformation and characterization of an arsenic gene operon from urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, M; Kuribayashi, T; Yamamoto, S; Millar, B C; Moore, J E

    2016-01-01

    An arsenate susceptibility test was performed with transformed and cultured Escherichia coli DH5α cells, which carried recombinant DNA of full-length arsenic (ars) operon, namely a putative membrane permease, ArsP; a transcriptional repressor, ArsR; an arsenate reductase, ArsC; and an arsenical-resistance membrane transporter, Acr3, from the Japanese urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter lari (UPTC) CF89-12. The E. coli DH5α transformant showed reduced susceptibility to arsenate (~1536 μg/mL), compared to the control. Thus, these ars four-genes from the UPTC CF89-12 strain cells could confer a reduced susceptibility to arsenate in the transformed and E. coli DH5α cells. E. coli transformants with truncated ars operons, acr3 (acr3) and arsC-acr3 (∆arsC-acr3), of the ars operon, showed an MIC value of 384 μg/mL (~384 μg/mL), similar to the E. coli cells which carried the pGEM-T vector (control). Reverse transcription PCR confirmed in vivo transcription of recombinant full-length ars operon and deletion variants (∆acr3 and ∆arsC-acr3) in the transformed E. coli cells.

  1. Mean-field vs. Stochastic Models for Transcriptional Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blossey, Ralf; Giuraniuc, Claudiu

    2009-03-01

    We introduce a minimal model description for the dynamics of transcriptional regulatory networks. It is studied within a mean-field approximation, i.e., by deterministic ode's representing the reaction kinetics, and by stochastic simulations employing the Gillespie algorithm. We elucidate the different results both approaches can deliver, depending on the network under study, and in particular depending on the level of detail retained in the respective description. Two examples are addressed in detail: the repressilator, a transcriptional clock based on a three-gene network realized experimentally in E. coli, and a bistable two-gene circuit under external driving, a transcriptional network motif recently proposed to play a role in cellular development.

  2. Mean-field versus stochastic models for transcriptional regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blossey, R.; Giuraniuc, C. V.

    2008-09-01

    We introduce a minimal model description for the dynamics of transcriptional regulatory networks. It is studied within a mean-field approximation, i.e., by deterministic ODE’s representing the reaction kinetics, and by stochastic simulations employing the Gillespie algorithm. We elucidate the different results that both approaches can deliver, depending on the network under study, and in particular depending on the level of detail retained in the respective description. Two examples are addressed in detail: The repressilator, a transcriptional clock based on a three-gene network realized experimentally in E. coli, and a bistable two-gene circuit under external driving, a transcriptional network motif recently proposed to play a role