Science.gov

Sample records for collaborative supply chain

  1. Effects of enterprise technology on supply chain collaboration: analysis of China-linked supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling

    2012-02-01

    Supply chain collaboration has received increasing attention from scholars and practitioners in recent years. However, our understanding of how enterprise information technology facilitates supply chain collaboration is still very limited, especially with regard to Chinese enterprise ownerships such as state-owned firms, joint-venture firms and local village-owned firms. This paper extends the theory established in enterprise information technology (IT) and supply chain collaboration literature and relates it with coordination in China-linked supply chain. Drawing upon an empirical study from 177 Chinese companies, we provide three major findings: (i) uncovered the importance of leveraging enterprise IT through supply chain collaboration; (ii) identified the relationship between enterprise ownership and enterprise technology use and supply chain collaboration in China-linked supply chain and (iii) illustrated effects of supply chain collaborative activities on operational and market performance.

  2. Collaborative Manufacturing Management in Networked Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouly, Michel; Naciri, Souleiman; Berthold, Sébastien

    ERP systems provide information management and analysis to industrial companies and support their planning activities. They are currently mostly based on theoretical values (averages) of parameters and not on the actual, real shop floor data, leading to disturbance of the planning algorithms. On the other hand, sharing data between manufacturers, suppliers and customers becomes very important to ensure reactivity towards markets variability. This paper proposes software solutions to address these requirements and methods to automatically capture the necessary corresponding shop floor information. In order to share data produced by different legacy systems along the collaborative networked supply chain, we propose to use the Generic Product Model developed by Hitachi to extract, translate and store heterogeneous ERP data.

  3. Internet-enabled collaborative agent-based supply chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Weiming; Kremer, Rob; Norrie, Douglas H.

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents some results of our recent research work related to the development of a new Collaborative Agent System Architecture (CASA) and an Infrastructure for Collaborative Agent Systems (ICAS). Initially being proposed as a general architecture for Internet based collaborative agent systems (particularly complex industrial collaborative agent systems), the proposed architecture is very suitable for managing the Internet enabled complex supply chain for a large manufacturing enterprise. The general collaborative agent system architecture with the basic communication and cooperation services, domain independent components, prototypes and mechanisms are described. Benefits of implementing Internet enabled supply chains with the proposed infrastructure are discussed. A case study on Internet enabled supply chain management is presented.

  4. Supply Chain Collaboration Alternatives: Understanding the Expected Costs and Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Tim; Head, Milena; Yuan, Yufei

    2002-01-01

    Discusses collaboration as a recent trend in supply chain management (SCM) that focuses on joint planning, coordination, and process integration between suppliers, customers, and other partners in a supply chain. Analyzes alternative information systems approaches for supporting collaborative SCM, including phone, fax, or email systems; Web-based…

  5. Supply Chain Collaboration Alternatives: Understanding the Expected Costs and Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Tim; Head, Milena; Yuan, Yufei

    2002-01-01

    Discusses collaboration as a recent trend in supply chain management (SCM) that focuses on joint planning, coordination, and process integration between suppliers, customers, and other partners in a supply chain. Analyzes alternative information systems approaches for supporting collaborative SCM, including phone, fax, or email systems; Web-based…

  6. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) model for supply chain collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    CHAPMAN,LEON D.; PETERSEN,MARJORIE B.

    2000-03-13

    The Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) project during the last five years of work with the U.S. Integrated Textile Complex (retail, apparel, textile, and fiber sectors) has developed an inter-enterprise architecture and collaborative model for supply chains. This model will enable improved collaborative business across any supply chain. The DAMA Model for Supply Chain Collaboration is a high-level model for collaboration to achieve Demand Activated Manufacturing. The five major elements of the architecture to support collaboration are (1) activity or process, (2) information, (3) application, (4) data, and (5) infrastructure. These five elements are tied to the application of the DAMA architecture to three phases of collaboration - prepare, pilot, and scale. There are six collaborative activities that may be employed in this model: (1) Develop Business Planning Agreements, (2) Define Products, (3) Forecast and Plan Capacity Commitments, (4) Schedule Product and Product Delivery, (5) Expedite Production and Delivery Exceptions, and (6) Populate Supply Chain Utility. The Supply Chain Utility is a set of applications implemented to support collaborative product definition, forecast visibility, planning, scheduling, and execution. The DAMA architecture and model will be presented along with the process for implementing this DAMA model.

  7. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) supply chain collaboration development methodology

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN,MARJORIE B.; CHAPMAN,LEON D.

    2000-03-15

    The Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) project during the last five years of work with the U.S. Integrated Textile Complex (retail, apparel, textile, and fiber sectors) has developed an inter-enterprise supply chain collaboration development methodology. The goal of this methodology is to enable a supply chain to work more efficiently and competitively. The outcomes of this methodology include: (1) A definitive description and evaluation of the role of business cultures and supporting business organizational structures in either inhibiting or fostering change to a more competitive supply chain; (2) ``As-Is'' and proposed ``To-Be'' supply chain business process models focusing on information flows and decision-making; and (3) Software tools that enable and support a transition to a more competitive supply chain, which results form a business driven rather than technologically driven approach to software design. This methodology development will continue in FY00 as DAMA engages companies in the soft goods industry in supply chain research and implementation of supply chain collaboration.

  8. Macroergomonics' contribution to the effectiveness of collaborative supply chains.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Sandra Mejias; Huatuco, Luisa Huaccho

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual model that combines Macroergonomics and Supply chain. The authors combine their expertise on these individual topics, building on their previous research. The argument of the paper is that human factors are key to achieve effective supplier-customer collaboration. A conceptual model is presented, its elements and their interactions are explained. The Content-Context-Process is applied as a departing point to this model. Macroergonomics aspects considered are: a systemic approach, participatory ergonomics, formation of ergonomics teams and evaluation of ergonomics projects. The expected outcomes are: (a) improvement of production and productivity levels, (b) improvement of the product quality, (c) Reduction of absenteeism, (d) Improvement in the quality of work life (from the employees' perspective), and (e) increase in the employees' contribution rate of ideas for improvement. A case study was carried out at a vitroplant production organisation incorporating environmental aspects to obtain sustainable benefits.

  9. The Effects of Supply Chain Orientation, Supply Chain Management, and Collaboration on Perceived Firm Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 35: 507-522 (2007). 56 37. Monczka, Robert M., Kenneth J. Petersen, Robert B. Handfield , and Gary...Trent, and Robert B. Handfield . Purchasing and Supply Chain Management. Cincinnati: South-Western College Publishing, 1998. Morgan, Robert M., and

  10. A Supply Chain Architecture Based on Multi-agent Systems to Support Decentralized Collaborative Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Jorge E.; Poler, Raúl; Mula, Josefa

    In a supply chain management context, the enterprise architecture concept to efficiently support the collaborative processes among the supply chain members involved has been evolving. Each supply chain has an organizational structure that describes the hierarchical relationships among its members, ranging from centralized to decentralized organizations. From a decentralized perspective, each supply chain member is able to identify collaborative and non collaborative partners and the kind of information to be exchanged to support negotiation processes. The same concepts of organizational structure and negotiation rules can be applied to a multi-agent system. This paper proposes a novel supply chain architecture to support decentralized collaborative processes in supply chains by considering a multi-agent-based system modeling approach.

  11. Improving healthcare value through clinical community and supply chain collaboration.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Lisa; Demski, Renee; Ken Lee, K H; Mustafa, Zishan; Frank, Steve; Wolisnky, Jean Paul; Cohen, David; Khanna, Jay; Ammerman, Joshua; Khanuja, Harpal S; Unger, Anthony S; Gould, Lois; Wachter, Patricia Ann; Stearns, Lauren; Werthman, Ronald; Pronovost, Peter

    2017-03-01

    We hypothesized that integrating supply chain with clinical communities would allow for clinician-led supply cost reduction and improved value in an academic health system. Three clinical communities (spine, joint, blood management) and one clinical community-like physician led team of surgeon stakeholders partnered with the supply chain team on specific supply cost initiatives. The teams reviewed their specific utilization and cost data, and the physicians led consensus-building conversations over a series of team meetings to agree to standard supply utilization. The spine and joint clinical communities each agreed upon a vendor capping model that led to cost savings of $3 million dollars and $1.5 million dollars respectively. The blood management decreased blood product utilization and achieved $1.2 million dollars savings. $5.6 million dollars in savings was achieved by a clinical community-like group of surgeon stakeholders through standardization of sutures and endomechanicals. Physician led clinical teams empowered to lead change achieved substantial supply chain cost savings in an academic health system. The model of combining clinical communities with supply chain offers hope for an effective, practical, and scalable approach to improving value and engaging physicians in other academic health systems. This clinician led model could benefit both private and academic health systems engaging in value optimization efforts. N/A. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An improved spanning tree approach for the reliability analysis of supply chain collaborative network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, C. Y.; Ip, W. H.

    2012-11-01

    A higher degree of reliability in the collaborative network can increase the competitiveness and performance of an entire supply chain. As supply chain networks grow more complex, the consequences of unreliable behaviour become increasingly severe in terms of cost, effort and time. Moreover, it is computationally difficult to calculate the network reliability of a Non-deterministic Polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) all-terminal network using state enumeration, as this may require a huge number of iterations for topology optimisation. Therefore, this paper proposes an alternative approach of an improved spanning tree for reliability analysis to help effectively evaluate and analyse the reliability of collaborative networks in supply chains and reduce the comparative computational complexity of algorithms. Set theory is employed to evaluate and model the all-terminal reliability of the improved spanning tree algorithm and present a case study of a supply chain used in lamp production to illustrate the application of the proposed approach.

  13. A Review of Supply Chain Collaboration Practices for Small and Medium-sized Manufacturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, SY; Thoo, AC; Z, Sulaiman; FM, Muharam

    2016-05-01

    For the decades, organizations have endeavored to look for external sources for opportunities to achieve efficient and responsive supply chain with their partners especially for small and medium manufacturers (SMM). In this scenario, supply chain collaboration (SCC) is an interaction between supply chain members with the purpose of utilizes the knowledge and resources of customers and suppliers, and integrates the flows of products and information in order to achieve a common goal and obtain mutual benefit. The essential SCC dimensions for SMMs comprised of information sharing, joint knowledge creation, joint decision making, goal congruence and incentive sharing. The successful implementation of SCC can give SMMs an edge over their competitors. This paper aims to introduce a review of SCC practices for SMM. Overall, the findings provide managerial insights for the SMM in SCC implementation owing to resource scarcity and the need to draw SCC in order to ensure a sustainable competitive advantage.

  14. Health supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors.

  15. Designing The Navy Enlisted Supply Chain Inter Organizational Collaborative Capacity Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    INTER- ORGANIZATIONAL COLLABORATIVE CAPACITY ASSESSMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Amanda L. Dzananovic 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S... ORGANIZATIONAL COLLABORATIVE FACTORS .......18 1. NESC Task Interdependence (Pooled, Sequential, Reciprocal...Figure 2. Inter- Organizational Collaborative Capacity Model The ICC model outlines five key design factors and their respective sub- factors in the

  16. Supply chain planning classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  17. Pursuing supply chain gains.

    PubMed

    Long, Gene

    2005-09-01

    Five hallmarks of an effective supply chain are: A strong relationship is developed with a single GPO. Physicians are involved in supply standardization. Supply contracts are routinely reviewed at time of renewal. Freight costs are understood and negotiated effectively. Products are distributed through an in-house distribution center.

  18. Supply chain assessment methodology.

    PubMed

    Topor, E

    2000-08-01

    This article describes an assessment methodology based on the supply chain proficiency model that can be used to set realistic supply chain objectives. The assessment centers on a business model that identifies the logical stages of supply chain proficiency as measured against a comprehensive set of business characteristics. For each characteristic, an enterprise evolves from one stage to the next. The magnitude of change inherent in moving forward usually prohibits skipping stages. Although it is possible to be at different stages for each characteristic, it is usually desirable to maintain balance.

  19. Spatial Data Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadharajulu, P.; Azeem Saqiq, M.; Yu, F.; McMeekin, D. A.; West, G.; Arnold, L.; Moncrieff, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes current research into the supply of spatial data to the end user in as close to real time as possible via the World Wide Web. The Spatial Data Infrastructure paradigm has been discussed since the early 1990s. The concept has evolved significantly since then but has almost always examined data from the perspective of the supplier. It has been a supplier driven focus rather than a user driven focus. The current research being conducted is making a paradigm shift and looking at the supply of spatial data as a supply chain, similar to a manufacturing supply chain in which users play a significant part. A comprehensive consultation process took place within Australia and New Zealand incorporating a large number of stakeholders. Three research projects that have arisen from this consultation process are examining Spatial Data Supply Chains within Australia and New Zealand and are discussed within this paper.

  20. B2B collaboration method through trust values for e-supply chain integrator: a case study of Malaysian construction industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ab. Aziz, Norshakirah; Ahmad, Rohiza; Dhanapal Durai, Dominic

    2011-12-01

    Limited trust, cooperation and communication have been identified as some of the issues that hinder collaboration among business partners. These one also true in the acceptance of e-supply chain integrator among organizations that involve in the same industry. On top of that, the huge number of components in supply chain industry also makes it impossible to include entire supply chain components in the integrator. Hence, this study intends to propose a method for identifying "trusted" collaborators for inclusion into an e-supply chain integrator. For the purpose of constructing and validating the method, the Malaysian construction industry is chosen as the case study due to its size and importance to the economy. This paper puts forward the background of the research, some relevant literatures which lead to trust values elements formulation, data collection from Malaysian Construction Supply Chain and a glimpse of the proposed method for trusted partner selection. Future work is also presented to highlight the next step of this research.

  1. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  2. Supply Chain Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Jürgen

    Die Produktionslogistik hat im Rahmen der Materialbeschaffung und der Belieferung von externen Kunden vielfältige Beziehungen zu Lieferanten und Kunden. Im Ansatz des Supply Chain Managements (Lieferkettenmanagement), kurz auch als SCM bezeichnet, versucht man, sowohl Lieferanten als auch Kunden in die gesamte Logistikplanung zu integrieren. SCM umfasst dabei vor allem folgende Aufgaben: Bedarfs- und Bestandsplanung der Materialien entlang der Lieferkette

  3. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  4. Supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Palevich, R F

    1999-02-01

    This article describes how Do It Best Corp. has used technology to improve its supply chain management. Among other topics it discusses the company's use of electronic data interchange, the Internet, electronic forecasting, and warehouse management systems to gain substantial savings and increase its competitiveness.

  5. Supply chain quality.

    PubMed

    Feary, Simon

    2009-01-01

    As the development of complex manufacturing models and virtual companies become more prevalent in today's growing global markets, it is increasingly important to support the relationships between manufacturer and supplier. Utilising these relationships will ensure that supply chains operate more effectively and reduce costs, risks and time-to-market time frames, whilst maintaining product quality.

  6. Perioperative supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Feistritzer, N R; Keck, B R

    2000-09-01

    Faced with declining revenues and increasing operating expenses, hospitals are evaluating numerous mechanisms designed to reduce costs while simultaneously maintaining quality care. Many facilities have targeted initial cost reduction efforts in the reduction of labor expenses. Once labor expenses have been "right sized," facilities have continued to focus on service delivery improvements by the optimization of the "supply chain" process. This report presents a case study of the efforts of Vanderbilt University Medical Center in the redesign of its supply chain management process in the department of Perioperative Services. Utilizing a multidisciplinary project management structure, 3 work teams were established to complete the redesign process. To date, the project has reduced costs by $2.3 million and enhanced quality patient care by enhancing the delivery of appropriate clinical supplies during the perioperative experience.

  7. Streamlining the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lydon

    2003-07-01

    Effective management of the supply chain requires attention to: Product management--formulary development and maintenance, compliance, clinical involvement, standardization, and demand-matching. Sourcing and contracting--vendor consolidation, GPO portfolio management, price leveling, content management, and direct contracting Purchasing and payment-cycle--automatic placement, web enablement, centralization, evaluated receipts settlement, and invoice matching Inventory and distribution management--"unofficial" and "official" locations, vendor-managed inventory, automatic replenishment, and freight management.

  8. The stocker cattle supply chain.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Lawrence L; Anderson, David P

    2006-07-01

    This article discusses supply chain management in the US beef industry and where stocker cattle procurement fits in that chain. The supply chain in the US beef industry is defined as well as grading mechanisms that signal prices used to manage the chain. Sources of stocker cattle are also described.

  9. Supreme: Supply Chain Integration by Reconfigurable Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Y.; Kasai, F.; Kamio, Y.

    This paper deals with dynamic supply chain configuration problems for one-of-a-kind production (OKP) environment. We propose an architecture named SUPREME, which supports collaborative planning and scheduling for web-based virtual enterprises. In this architecture, each system is located on the site of the network members as well as on the site of the supply chain coordinator, who performs as an agent configuring and managing the supply chain dynamically. A prototype system of SUPREME is developed and illustrated in order to evaluate effectiveness of the proposed architecture.

  10. Integrating the healthcare supply chain.

    PubMed

    Brennan, C D

    1998-01-01

    Today's integrated delivery systems (IDSs) require efficient supply chain processes to speed products to users at the lowest possible cost. Most excess costs within the supply chain are a result of inefficient and redundant processes involved in the transport and delivery of supplies from suppliers to healthcare providers. By integrating and assuming control of these supply chain processes, improving supply chain management practices, and organizing and implementing a disciplined redesign plan, IDSs can achieve substantial savings and better focus their organizations on their core patient care mission.

  11. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrick, Steven; Cordaro, Joseph; Founds, Nanette; Chambellan, Curtis

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  12. Supply-Chain Risk Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    security score upon first submission – 3/1/2010 Measured Against CWE/SANS Top-25 Errors 24 SQL Database Query Output: All records with ID = 48983...exploitable design or coding errors • Very little data for software supply chains 8 Software Supply Chain Complexity-1 Composite inherits risk from any point... Relative Effort Operational Capabilities Knowledge of Supplier Capabilities Knowledge of Product Attributes 13 Supply-Chain Risk Categories Category

  13. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    PubMed

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices.

  14. Building an efficient supply chain.

    PubMed

    Scalise, Dagmara

    2005-08-01

    Realizing at last that supply chain management can produce efficiencies and save costs, hospitals are beginning to adopt practices from other industries, such as the concept of extended supply chains, to improve product flow. They're also investing in enterprise planning resource software, radio frequency identification and other technologies, using quality data to drive standardization and streamlining processes.

  15. Reinforcement learning in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Valluri, Annapurna; North, Michael J; Macal, Charles M

    2009-10-01

    Effective management of supply chains creates value and can strategically position companies. In practice, human beings have been found to be both surprisingly successful and disappointingly inept at managing supply chains. The related fields of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have postulated a variety of potential mechanisms to explain this behavior. One of the leading candidates is reinforcement learning. This paper applies agent-based modeling to investigate the comparative behavioral consequences of three simple reinforcement learning algorithms in a multi-stage supply chain. For the first time, our findings show that the specific algorithm that is employed can have dramatic effects on the results obtained. Reinforcement learning is found to be valuable in multi-stage supply chains with several learning agents, as independent agents can learn to coordinate their behavior. However, learning in multi-stage supply chains using these postulated approaches from cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence take extremely long time periods to achieve stability which raises questions about their ability to explain behavior in real supply chains. The fact that it takes thousands of periods for agents to learn in this simple multi-agent setting provides new evidence that real world decision makers are unlikely to be using strict reinforcement learning in practice.

  16. Aligning incentives in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, V G; Raman, Ananth

    2004-11-01

    Most companies don't worry about the behavior of their supply chain partners. Instead, they expect the supply chain to work efficiently without interference, as if guided by Adam Smith's famed invisible hand. In their study of more than 50 supply networks, V.G. Narayanan and Ananth Raman found that companies often looked out for their own interests and ignored those of their network partners. Consequently, supply chains performed poorly. Those results aren't shocking when you consider that supply chains extend across several functions and many companies, each with its own priorities and goals. Yet all those functions and firms must pull in the same direction for a chain to deliver goods and services to consumers quickly and cost-effectively. According to the authors, a supply chain works well only if the risks, costs, and rewards of doing business are distributed fairly across the network. In fact, misaligned incentives are often the cause of excess inventory, stock-outs, incorrect forecasts, inadequate sales efforts, and even poor customer service. The fates of all supply chain partners are interlinked: If the firms work together to serve consumers, they will all win. However, they can do that only if incentives are aligned. Companies must acknowledge that the problem of incentive misalignment exists and then determine its root cause and align or redesign incentives. They can improve alignment by, for instance, adopting revenue-sharing contracts, using technology to track previously hidden information, or working with intermediaries to build trust among network partners. It's also important to periodically reassess incentives, because even top-performing networks find that changes in technology or business conditions alter the alignment of incentives.

  17. Leading a supply chain turnaround.

    PubMed

    Slone, Reuben E

    2004-10-01

    Just five years ago, salespeople at Whirlpool were in the habit of referring to their supply chain organization as the "sales disablers." Now the company excels at getting products to the right place at the right time--while managing to keep inventories low. How did that happen? In this first-person account, Reuben Slone, Whirlpool's vice president of Global Supply Chain, describes how he and his colleagues devised the right supply chain strategy, sold it internally, and implemented it. Slone insisted that the right focal point for the strategy was the satisfaction of consumers at the end of the supply chain. Most supply chain initiatives do the opposite: They start with the realities of a company's manufacturing base and proceed from there. Through a series of interviews with trade customers large and small, his team identified 27 different capabilities that drove industry perceptions of Whirlpool's performance. Knowing it was infeasible to aim for world-class performance across all of them, Slone weighed the costs of excelling at each and found the combination of initiatives that would provide overall competitive advantage. A highly disciplined project management office and broad training in project management were key to keeping work on budget and on benefit. Slone set an intense pace--three "releases" of new capabilities every month--that the group maintains to this day. Lest this seem like a technology story, however, Slone insists it is just as much a "talent renaissance." People are proud today to be part of Whirlpool's supply chain organization, and its new generation of talent will give the company a competitive advantage for years to come.

  18. Supply chain challenges. building relationships.

    PubMed

    Beth, Scott; Burt, David N; Copacino, William; Gopal, Chris; Lee, Hau L; Lynch, Robert Porter; Morris, Sandra

    2003-07-01

    Supply chain management is all about software and systems, right? Put in the best technology, sit back, and watch as your processes run smoothly and the savings roll in? Apparently not. When HBR convened a panel of leading thinkers in the field of supply chain management, technology was not top of mind. People and relationships were the dominant issues of the day. The opportunities and problems created by globalization, for example, are requiring companies to establish relationships with new types of suppliers. The ever-present pressure for speed and cost containment is making it even more important to break down stubbornly high internal barriers and establish more effective cross-functional relationships. The costs of failure have never been higher. The leading supply chain performers are applying new technology, new innovations, and process thinking to far greater advantage than the laggards, reaping tremendous gains in all the variables that affect shareholder value: cost, customer service, asset productivity, and revenue generation. And the gap between the leaders and the losers is growing in almost every industry. This roundtable gathered many of the leading thinkers and doers in the field of supply chain management, including practitioners Scott Beth of Intuit, Sandra Morris of Intel, and Chris Gopal of Unisys. David Burt of the University of San Diego and Stanford's Hau Lee bring the latest research from academia. Accenture's William Copacino and the Warren Company's Robert Porter Lynch offer the consultant's perspectives. Together, they take a wide-ranging view of such topics as developing talent, the role of the chief executive, and the latest technologies, exploring both the tactical and the strategic in the current state of supply chain management.

  19. Coordinated supply chain dynamic production planning model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Charu; Grabis, Janis

    2001-10-01

    Coordination of different and often contradicting interests of individual supply chain members is one of the important issues in supply chain management because the individual members can not succeed without success of the supply chain and vice versa. This paper investigates a supply chain dynamic production planning problem with emphasis on coordination. A planning problem is formally described using a supply chain kernel, which defines supply chain configuration, management policies, available resources and objectives both at supply chain or macro and supply chain member or micro levels. The coordinated model is solved in order to balance decisions made at the macro and micro levels and members' profitability is used as the coordination criterion. The coordinated model is used to determine inventory levels and production capacity across the supply chain. Application of the coordinated model distributes costs burden uniformly among supply chain members and preserves overall efficiency of the supply chain. Influence of the demand series uncertainty is investigated. The production planning model is a part of the integrated supply chain decision modeling system, which is shared among the supply chain members across the Internet.

  20. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead. PMID:26664401

  1. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead.

  2. Climate Leadership Award for Supply Chain Leadership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Apply to the Climate Leadership Award for Supply Chain Leadership, which publicly recognizes organizations that are are at the leading edge of managing greenhouse gas emissions in their organizational supply chains.

  3. Visualisation for System Learning in Supply Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindskog, Magnus; Abrahamsson, Mats; Aronsson, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary supply chains are vastly complex, and decisions made by actors have system-wide consequences that these might not be able to foresee. There are gaps between "best practice"-founded theory and actual practice in supply chains. To remedy this, we argue, the supply chain actors need to enhance systems knowledge. There is a need to…

  4. Learning to Integrate: Supply Chains Reconceptualised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sense, Andrew J.; Clements, Michael D. J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces and explains a conception of supply chains from a situated learning perspective. This non-conventional supply chain perspective invites the reader to consider supply chain scenarios as "situated learning opportunities involving multiple communities of practice" interacting and participating together. It is argued that by…

  5. Visualisation for System Learning in Supply Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindskog, Magnus; Abrahamsson, Mats; Aronsson, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary supply chains are vastly complex, and decisions made by actors have system-wide consequences that these might not be able to foresee. There are gaps between "best practice"-founded theory and actual practice in supply chains. To remedy this, we argue, the supply chain actors need to enhance systems knowledge. There is a need to…

  6. Learning to Integrate: Supply Chains Reconceptualised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sense, Andrew J.; Clements, Michael D. J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces and explains a conception of supply chains from a situated learning perspective. This non-conventional supply chain perspective invites the reader to consider supply chain scenarios as "situated learning opportunities involving multiple communities of practice" interacting and participating together. It is argued that by…

  7. Supply Chain Management in Humanitarian Relief Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    supply chain management techniques to overcome...academic, organizational, and contemporary literature. Possible solutions to these barriers were selected from available supply chain management literature...can build upon the concept. The result of the study is a simple framework of supply chain management solutions for overcoming logistics difficulties during humanitarian relief operations. (3 tables, 66

  8. Disconnection: the user voice within the wound dressing supply chain.

    PubMed

    Campling, Natasha; Grocott, Patricia; Cowley, Sarah

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the user voice in England's National Health Service (NHS) wound dressing supply chain. The impetus for this work came from involvement in a collaboration between industry and clinicians, entitled Woundcare Research for Appropriate Products. Experiences from that study highlighted the notable absence of research about the impact of the supply chain on the users of dressings. Interview data are presented following an outline of the grounded theory method used. These data were obtained from key stakeholders (n = 41) within the wound dressing supply chain such as nurses, manufacturers, distributors, professional organizations, government organizations and user groups. The consequences of supply disconnection revealed haphazard supply, unmet user needs and lack of information transfer between player groups. These consequences explain the lack of user voice in the supply chain and have far-reaching implications for nursing management, through purchasing decisions and nurses' management of wound care.

  9. Intelligence Support to Supply Chain Risk Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    U.S. companies and increased the brittleness of those chains ( Pettit , Fiksel, and Croxton, 2010; Giunipero and Eltantawy, 2004). Attempts to minimize...management. According to Pettit , Fiksel, and Croxton (2010:6), a supply chain is “the network of companies involved in the upstream and downstream...comprise a supply chain and the effects of an uncertain external environment, supply chains are vulnerable to disruption ( Pettit , Fiksel,and Croxton

  10. The triple-A supply chain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hau L

    2004-10-01

    Building a strong supply chain is essential for business success. But when it comes to improving their supply chains, few companies take the right approach. Many businesses work to make their chains faster or more cost-effective, assuming that those steps are the keys to competitive advantage. To the contrary: Supply chains that focus on speed and costs tend to deteriorate over time. The author has spent 15 years studying more than 60 companies to gain insight into this and other supply chain dilemmas. His conclusion: Only companies that build supply chains that are agile, adaptable, and aligned get ahead of their rivals. All three components are essential; without any one of them, supply chains break down. Great companies create supply chains that respond to abrupt changes in markets. Agility is critical because in most industries, both demand and supply fluctuate rapidly and widely. Supply chains typically cope by playing speed against costs, but agile ones respond both quickly and cost-efficiently. Great companies also adapt their supply networks when markets or strategies change. The best supply chains allow managers to identify structural shifts early by recording the latest data, filtering out noise, and tracking key patterns. Finally, great companies align the interests of the partners in their supply chains with their own. That's important because every firm is concerned solely with its own interests. If its goals are out of alignment with those of other partners in the supply chain, performance will suffer. When companies hear about the triple-A supply chain, they assume that building one will require increased technology and investment. But most firms already have the infrastructure in place to create one. A fresh attitude alone can go a long way toward making it happen.

  11. An IT-enabled supply chain model: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannella, Salvatore; Framinan, Jose M.; Barbosa-Póvoa, Ana

    2014-11-01

    During the last decades, supply chain collaboration practices and the underlying enabling technologies have evolved from the classical electronic data interchange (EDI) approach to a web-based and radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled collaboration. In this field, most of the literature has focused on the study of optimal parameters for reducing the total cost of suppliers, by adopting operational research (OR) techniques. Herein we are interested in showing that the considered information technology (IT)-enabled structure is resilient, that is, it works well across a reasonably broad range of parameter settings. By adopting a methodological approach based on system dynamics, we study a multi-tier collaborative supply chain. Results show that the IT-enabled supply chain improves operational performance and customer service level. Nonetheless, benefits for geographically dispersed networks are of minor entity.

  12. Winners and losers in the complex web of global supply chains.

    PubMed

    Glendon, Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how supply chain, risk and business continuity professionals can collaboratively address the consequences of increasing supply chain complexity in order to deliver both resilient and sustainable supply chains. The paper identifies the key drivers of complexity supported by recent case examples, including the equine DNA scandal and the Rana Plaza tragedy in Bangladesh.

  13. ARN Supply Chain Management System for OCIE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-30

    APPAREL RESEARCH NETWORK (ARN) PROGRAM Final Technical Report Contract Number SP0103-02-D-0018/ Delivery Order 0003 ARN Supply Chain Management System...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Technical Report – 27 February 2003 to 30 June 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ARN Supply Chain Management System for...Module (IRM), Clothing Initial Issue Point (CIIP); Supply Chain Management ; Virtual Item Manager/Wholesale Local; Quality Logistics Management

  14. Finding gold in the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Caudle, Allen

    2009-12-01

    To optimize supply chain performance and achieve savings that enhance the bottom line, hospitals should: Generate purchase orders for every item purchased. Ensure the organization is protected from undue vendor influence. Keep track of where supply chain dollars are going. Review contracts regularly to ensure competitiveness. Have a contract for each product category. Buy only what the organization is sure to use. Get rid of excess inventory. Develop a strategic plan for continued supply chain savings.

  15. Proactive Supply Chain Performance Management with Predictive Analytics

    PubMed Central

    Stefanovic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Today's business climate requires supply chains to be proactive rather than reactive, which demands a new approach that incorporates data mining predictive analytics. This paper introduces a predictive supply chain performance management model which combines process modelling, performance measurement, data mining models, and web portal technologies into a unique model. It presents the supply chain modelling approach based on the specialized metamodel which allows modelling of any supply chain configuration and at different level of details. The paper also presents the supply chain semantic business intelligence (BI) model which encapsulates data sources and business rules and includes the data warehouse model with specific supply chain dimensions, measures, and KPIs (key performance indicators). Next, the paper describes two generic approaches for designing the KPI predictive data mining models based on the BI semantic model. KPI predictive models were trained and tested with a real-world data set. Finally, a specialized analytical web portal which offers collaborative performance monitoring and decision making is presented. The results show that these models give very accurate KPI projections and provide valuable insights into newly emerging trends, opportunities, and problems. This should lead to more intelligent, predictive, and responsive supply chains capable of adapting to future business environment. PMID:25386605

  16. Proactive supply chain performance management with predictive analytics.

    PubMed

    Stefanovic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Today's business climate requires supply chains to be proactive rather than reactive, which demands a new approach that incorporates data mining predictive analytics. This paper introduces a predictive supply chain performance management model which combines process modelling, performance measurement, data mining models, and web portal technologies into a unique model. It presents the supply chain modelling approach based on the specialized metamodel which allows modelling of any supply chain configuration and at different level of details. The paper also presents the supply chain semantic business intelligence (BI) model which encapsulates data sources and business rules and includes the data warehouse model with specific supply chain dimensions, measures, and KPIs (key performance indicators). Next, the paper describes two generic approaches for designing the KPI predictive data mining models based on the BI semantic model. KPI predictive models were trained and tested with a real-world data set. Finally, a specialized analytical web portal which offers collaborative performance monitoring and decision making is presented. The results show that these models give very accurate KPI projections and provide valuable insights into newly emerging trends, opportunities, and problems. This should lead to more intelligent, predictive, and responsive supply chains capable of adapting to future business environment.

  17. Teaching Lean Six Sigma within a Supply Chain Context: The Airplane Supply Chain Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Scott C.; Goldsby, Thomas J.; Bailey, Ana M.; Oh, Jae-Young

    2014-01-01

    Lean six sigma is a management methodology that firms can employ to achieve substantial improvement in supply chain performance. However, few pedagogical exercises facilitate students' use of a comprehensive set of lean six sigma principles within a supply chain context. We describe the Airplane Supply Chain Simulation that helps students…

  18. Teaching Lean Six Sigma within a Supply Chain Context: The Airplane Supply Chain Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Scott C.; Goldsby, Thomas J.; Bailey, Ana M.; Oh, Jae-Young

    2014-01-01

    Lean six sigma is a management methodology that firms can employ to achieve substantial improvement in supply chain performance. However, few pedagogical exercises facilitate students' use of a comprehensive set of lean six sigma principles within a supply chain context. We describe the Airplane Supply Chain Simulation that helps students…

  19. Sustainable Supply Chain Design by the P-Graph Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present work proposes a computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains in terms of sustainability metrics by resorting to the P-graph framework. The methodology is an outcome of the collaboration between the Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the ...

  20. Sustainable Supply Chain Design by the P-Graph Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present work proposes a computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains in terms of sustainability metrics by resorting to the P-graph framework. The methodology is an outcome of the collaboration between the Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the ...

  1. Essential tools of supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Buddress, L; Raedels, A

    2000-08-01

    At a recent conference, the keynote speaker provoked an incredulous response when he said, "Today, competition among individual firms is dead." He then went on to explain that today, competition is supply chain against supply chain. Whichever firm has the superior supply chain will win out in the marketplace. Given the global marketplace in which we all operate, most of us would agree that his statements are true. How does a firm establish a world-class supply base? What kinds of contracts and agreements are necessary to support the diverse requirements of today's firms? How should a firm select from among the available contract types? These are foundation questions for supply chain management.

  2. Ergonomics and sustainability--challenges from global supply chains.

    PubMed

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2012-01-01

    The development of globalised supply chains is a major challenge for sustainability. For several years, there has been discussion within the profession whether and how ergonomics and human factors can play a role. Based on our research, we have identified five major challenges from global supply chains especially related to the social aspects of sustainability: (1) criteria for social sustainability, (2) the role of key performance indicators in the management of supply chains, (3) the constant changes in supply chains, (4) the challenge in establishing participation, and (5) the development of agency and regulatory mechanisms. There are obviously no clear and simple solutions to these challenges. One possible avenue for progress might lie in acquiring a greater understanding of the challenges from global supply chains and developing a strategy which combines social and long-term business sustainability. Starting from such a basis, the next step would be to find ways for the ergonomics and human factors community to create international collaboration which can impact specific global supply chains.

  3. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains.

    PubMed

    Trienekens, Jacques; Wognum, Nel

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. The paper shows the importance of Quality Management Systems for integrating supply chains and enhancing consumer confidence. The paper also presents innovations in information system integration for aligning information exchange in the supply chain and logistics concepts based on innovative measurement technologies at the slaughterhouse stage. In the final section research challenges towards sustainable pork supply chains satisfying current consumer demands are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study on Green Supply Chain Management Based on Circular Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Jiang; Li-jun, Zhou

    The article starts with circular economy and the connotation of green supply chain, then analyzes the difference between green supply chain and traditional supply chain and elaborates the content of green supply chain management. On that basis, the approach to implement green supply chain management in china shall be put forward.

  5. Antiretroviral procurement and supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Ripin, David J; Jamieson, David; Meyers, Amy; Warty, Umesh; Dain, Mary; Khamsi, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    Procurement, the country-level process of ordering antiretrovirals (ARVs), and supply chain management, the mechanism by which they are delivered to health-care facilities, are critical processes required to move ARVs from manufacturers to patients. To provide a glimpse into the ARV procurement and supply chain, the following pages provide an overview of the primary stakeholders, principal operating models, and policies and regulations involved in ARV procurement. Also presented are key challenges that need to be addressed to ensure that the supply chain is not a barrier to the goal of universal coverage. This article will cover the steps necessary to order and distribute ARVs, including different models of delivery, key stakeholders involved, strategic considerations that vary depending on context and policies affecting them. The single drug examples given illustrate the complications inherent in fragmented supply and demand-driven models of procurement and supply chain management, and suggest tools for navigating these hurdles that will ultimately result in more secure and reliable ARV provision. Understanding the dynamics of ARV supply chain is important for the global health community, both to ensure full and efficient treatment of persons living with HIV as well as to inform the supply chain decisions for other public health products.

  6. Continuity in health care: lessons from supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Meijboom, Bert R; Bakx, Saskia J W G C; Westert, Gert P

    2010-01-01

    In health care, multidisciplinary collaboration is both indispensable and complicated. We discuss organizational problems that occur in situations where multiple health care providers are required to cooperate for patients with complex needs. Four problem categories, labelled as communication, patient safety, waiting times and integration are distinguished. Then we develop a supply chain perspective on these problems in the sense of discussing remedies according to supply chain management (SCM) literature. This perspective implies a business focus on inter-organizational conditions and requirements necessary for delivering health care and cure across organizational borders. We conclude by presenting some strategic and policy recommendations.

  7. Green Suppliers Network Supply Chain Commitment Form

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Online form to show your company desires to be a Green Suppliers Network supply chain. Expresses an intent to: commit to engage at least five suppliers to complete an assessment process within a 12-month period and more.

  8. Dynamical transition in random supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2004-04-01

    We present the stochastic model of the supply chain composed of u series machines and buffers. Each machine has an adaptation time (delay) different from the other and each buffer has a capacity of storage different from the other. We extend the deterministic supply chain model to the stochastic one in which the adaptation time and storage's capacity are random parameters. We study the effect of the random parameters on the dynamical behavior of the production process. It is found that the production process in the random supply chain is unstable when the mean value of the adaptation time is higher than the threshold. The phase diagram (region map) is given for the random supply chain.

  9. [The study of medical supplies automation replenishment algorithm in hospital on medical supplies supplying chain].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xi

    2012-07-01

    The thesis aims to study the automation replenishment algorithm in hospital on medical supplies supplying chain. The mathematical model and algorithm of medical supplies automation replenishment are designed through referring to practical data form hospital on the basis of applying inventory theory, greedy algorithm and partition algorithm. The automation replenishment algorithm is proved to realize automatic calculation of the medical supplies distribution amount and optimize medical supplies distribution scheme. A conclusion could be arrived that the model and algorithm of inventory theory, if applied in medical supplies circulation field, could provide theoretical and technological support for realizing medical supplies automation replenishment of hospital on medical supplies supplying chain.

  10. Quantifying the Army Supply Chain Water Bootprint

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    dwindling availability. Projected climate changes will likely exacerbate water scarcity in high- risk areas. Army policy does not address supply chain or...indirect water use, and, suppliers and most of industry do not track their own indirect water use or water used to manufacture products. The Army...procures through the supply chain. A primary concern driving the study is that timely provision of critical goods and services could be at risk if

  11. Natural Hazards and Supply Chain Disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraguchi, M.

    2016-12-01

    Natural hazards distress the global economy through disruptions in supply chain networks. Moreover, despite increasing investment to infrastructure for disaster risk management, economic damages and losses caused by natural hazards are increasing. Manufacturing companies today have reduced inventories and streamlined logistics in order to maximize economic competitiveness. As a result, today's supply chains are profoundly susceptible to systemic risks, which are the risk of collapse of an entire network caused by a few node of the network. For instance, the prolonged floods in Thailand in 2011 caused supply chain disruptions in their primary industries, i.e. electronic and automotive industries, harming not only the Thai economy but also the global economy. Similar problems occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011, the Mississippi River floods and droughts during 2011 - 2013, and the Earthquake in Kumamoto Japan in 2016. This study attempts to discover what kind of effective measures are available for private companies to manage supply chain disruptions caused by floods. It also proposes a method to estimate potential risks using a Bayesian network. The study uses a Bayesian network to create synthetic networks that include variables associated with the magnitude and duration of floods, major components of supply chains such as logistics, multiple layers of suppliers, warehouses, and consumer markets. Considering situations across different times, our study shows desirable data requirements for the analysis and effective measures to improve Value at Risk (VaR) for private enterprises and supply chains.

  12. The evolving role of supply chain management technology in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Langabeer, Jim

    2005-01-01

    The healthcare supply chain is a vast, disintegrated network of products and players, loosely held together by manual and people-intensive processes. Managing the flow of information, supplies, equipment, and services from manufacturers to distributors to providers of care is especially difficult in clinical supply chains, compared with more technology-intense industries like consumer goods or industrial manufacturing. As supplies move downstream towards hospitals and clinics, the quality and robustness of accompanying management and information systems used to manage these products deteriorates significantly. Technology that provides advanced planning, synchronization, and collaboration upstream at the large supply manufacturers and distributors rarely is used at even the world's larger and more sophisticated hospitals. This article outlines the current state of healthcare supply chain management technologies, addresses potential reasons for the lack of adoption of technologies and provides a roadmap for the evolution of technology for the future. This piece is based on both quantitative and qualitative research assessments of the healthcare supply chain conducted during the last two years.

  13. Supply Chain Sourcing Game: A Negotiation Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Mehmet; Love, Ernie C.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an exercise that simulates the negotiation process in a dynamic supply chain. The retailer and wholesaler roles are assigned to student groups who negotiate supply contracts in a number of rounds during a class period. Each group makes pricing, inventory, and ordering decision concurrently, and competes with others to…

  14. Commercium Interruptus: Supply Chain Responses to Disaster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    lean manufacturing coupled with the improvements in information management eventually resulted in the processes of supply chain management. With regard to supplies, once a company knew where their, inbound materials were because of the linkages of computer systems, had a guaranteed date of delivery from an information-enabled distribution

  15. Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. Objective In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Methods Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Results Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. Conclusion It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies. PMID:24355166

  16. Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jaberidoost, Mona; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Abdollahiasl, Akbar; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2013-12-19

    Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies.

  17. Supply Chain Sourcing Game: A Negotiation Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Mehmet; Love, Ernie C.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an exercise that simulates the negotiation process in a dynamic supply chain. The retailer and wholesaler roles are assigned to student groups who negotiate supply contracts in a number of rounds during a class period. Each group makes pricing, inventory, and ordering decision concurrently, and competes with others to…

  18. 77 FR 58811 - Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... International Trade Administration Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness Meeting AGENCY... notice announces a public meeting of the Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness (Committee... comments may be mailed to Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness, Office of Service...

  19. Automating the supply chain in the OR.

    PubMed

    Graham, J; Brewer, M S; Byrd, V T

    1999-08-01

    At the University of Louisville (Ky) Hospital, staff members from the materials management and surgery departments have worked together to automate the supply chain. The goals were to remove supply activities from clinical staff members whenever possible, obtain and apply information for better product ordering and use, reduce personnel in the materials management department, and improve perioperative nurses' ability to obtain supplies--all at a decreased cost to the facility. This article describes how, after implementing point-of-service technology for all surgical supplies, the facility realized a cost-per-procedure savings of 16% and increased satisfaction among staff members in both departments.

  20. Alignment of Information Systems with Supply Chains: Impacts on Supply Chain Performance and Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qrunfleh, Sufian M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, an important focus of researchers has been on supply chain management (SCM), as many organizations believe that effective SCM is the key to building and sustaining competitive advantage for their products/services. To manage the supply chain, companies need to adopt an SCM strategy (SCMS) and implement appropriate SCM…

  1. Alignment of Information Systems with Supply Chains: Impacts on Supply Chain Performance and Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qrunfleh, Sufian M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, an important focus of researchers has been on supply chain management (SCM), as many organizations believe that effective SCM is the key to building and sustaining competitive advantage for their products/services. To manage the supply chain, companies need to adopt an SCM strategy (SCMS) and implement appropriate SCM…

  2. Sustainable Supply Chain Design: A Configurational Approach

    PubMed Central

    Masoumik, S. Maryam; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research. PMID:24523652

  3. Defining the Synthetic Biology Supply Chain.

    PubMed

    Frazar, Sarah L; Hund, Gretchen E; Bonheyo, George T; Diggans, James; Bartholomew, Rachel A; Gehrig, Lindsey; Greaves, Mark

    Several recent articles have described risks posed by synthetic biology and spurred vigorous discussion in the scientific, commercial, and government communities about how to best detect, prevent, regulate, and respond to these risks. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) deep experience working with dual-use technologies for the nuclear industry has shown that analysis of supply chains can reveal security vulnerabilities and ways to mitigate security risk without hindering beneficial research and commerce. In this article, a team of experts in synthetic biology, data analytics, and national security describe the overall supply chain surrounding synthetic biology to illustrate new insights about the effectiveness of current regulations, the possible need for different screening approaches, and new technical solutions that could help identify or mitigate risks in the synthetic biology supply chain.

  4. Sustainable supply chain design: a configurational approach.

    PubMed

    Masoumik, S Maryam; Abdul-Rashid, Salwa Hanim; Olugu, Ezutah Udoncy; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research.

  5. Supply chain optimization for pediatric perioperative departments.

    PubMed

    Davis, Janice L; Doyle, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Economic challenges compel pediatric perioperative departments to reduce nonlabor supply costs while maintaining the quality of patient care. Optimization of the supply chain introduces a framework for decision making that drives fiscally responsible decisions. The cost-effective supply chain is driven by implementing a value analysis process for product selection, being mindful of product sourcing decisions to reduce supply expense, creating logistical efficiency that will eliminate redundant processes, and managing inventory to ensure product availability. The value analysis approach is an analytical methodology for product selection that involves product evaluation and recommendation based on consideration of clinical benefit, overall financial impact, and revenue implications. Copyright © 2011 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Integration of vaccine supply chains with other health commodity supply chains: a framework for decision making.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Prashant; Lydon, Patrick; Oswald, Julianna; Dicko, Modibo; Zaffran, Michel

    2014-11-28

    One of the primary objectives of National Immunization Programs is to strengthen and optimize immunization supply chains so that vaccines are delivered to the end recipients effectively, efficiently and sustainably. As a result of larger investments in global health and a wider portfolio of vaccines, global agencies are recognizing the need for vaccine supply chains to operate at their most optimal levels. Integration with other supply chains is often presented as a strategy to improve efficiency. However, it remains unclear if the proposed benefits from integration of vaccine supply chains with other supply chains will outweigh the costs. This paper provides a framework for deciding where such integration offers the most significant benefits. It also cautions about the pitfalls of integration as a one size fits all strategy. It also highlights the need for systematic collection of cost and efficiency data in order to understand the value of integration and other such initiatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. What Happens When the Supply Chain Breaks? Implications for the Army Supply Chain Under Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-22

    69 Ibid. 70 Deb Marabotti, " Supply Chain Event Management ," Line 56, 27 August 2002. 39 greater emphasis on real-time...www.totalsupplychain.com, Internet. Marabotti, Deb. " Supply Chain Event Management ," Line 56, 27 August 2002, accessed on 3 February 2003, available from http... chain event management ” (SCEM) software. SCEM software enables companies to rapidly (and sometimes automatically) respond to unplanned events

  8. GreenSCOR: Developing a Green Supply Chain Analytical Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    An emerging area in supply chain practice is green supply chain management, which integrates environmental management with traditional supply chain management...GreenSCOR is the solution to closing this gap. GreenSCOR is a modification of version 5.0 of the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR...model developed by the Supply - Chain Council (SCC). LMI used SCOR as a foundation because it has been proven over several years of continual development

  9. Building a demand-driven, vendor-managed supply chain.

    PubMed

    Haavik, S

    2000-02-01

    Vendor-managed inventory (VMI) software can help both stand-alone and IDS-based hospitals significantly reduce supply-chain management costs. The software tracks an organization's actual supply demand and generates automatic purchase orders, providing the supplies on an as-needed basis. As a result, a hospital's inventory-carrying and purchase-order processing costs may be reduced significantly. To make optimum use of the VMI software, IDSs and hospitals first need to ensure that their methods of collecting data on supply consumption are efficient and accurate. They then need to either establish a relationship with a distributor offering VMI capability or, if the organization is a large IDS with its own distribution center, acquire the software for internal use. A collaboration with a distributor requires establishing effective electronic communications for data sharing.

  10. The science of sustainable supply chains.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Dara

    2014-06-06

    Recent advances in the science and technology of global supply chain management offer near-real-time demand-response systems for decision-makers across production networks. Technology is helping propel "fast fashion" and "lean manufacturing," so that companies are better able to deliver products consumers want most. Yet companies know much less about the environmental and social impacts of their production networks. The failure to measure and manage these impacts can be explained in part by limitations in the science of sustainability measurement, as well as by weaknesses in systems to translate data into information that can be used by decision-makers inside corporations and government agencies. There also remain continued disincentives for firms to measure and pay the full costs of their supply chain impacts. I discuss the current state of monitoring, measuring, and analyzing information related to supply chain sustainability, as well as progress that has been made in translating this information into systems to advance more sustainable practices by corporations and consumers. Better data, decision-support tools, and incentives will be needed to move from simply managing supply chains for costs, compliance, and risk reduction to predicting and preventing unsustainable practices. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Designing Sustainable Supply Chains for Biofuels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Driven by the Energy and Independence Act of 2007 mandate to increase production of alternative fuels and to ensure that this increase causes minimal environmental impact, a project to design sustainable biofuel supply chains has been developed. This effort uses life cycle asses...

  12. Designing Sustainable Supply Chains (Journal Article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Office of Research and Development within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently put forth a new vision for environmental protection that states that sustainability is our “True North”. In support of this new vision, an effort to design supply chains to ...

  13. Designing Sustainable Supply Chains for Biofuels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Driven by the Energy and Independence Act of 2007 mandate to increase production of alternative fuels and to ensure that this increase causes minimal environmental impact, a project to design sustainable biofuel supply chains has been developed. This effort uses life cycle asses...

  14. Designing Sustainable Supply Chains (Journal Article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Office of Research and Development within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently put forth a new vision for environmental protection that states that sustainability is our “True North”. In support of this new vision, an effort to design supply chains to ...

  15. Design of supply chain in fuzzy environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Kandukuri Narayana; Subbaiah, Kambagowni Venkata; Singh, Ganja Veera Pratap

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays, customer expectations are increasing and organizations are prone to operate in an uncertain environment. Under this uncertain environment, the ultimate success of the firm depends on its ability to integrate business processes among supply chain partners. Supply chain management emphasizes cross-functional links to improve the competitive strategy of organizations. Now, companies are moving from decoupled decision processes towards more integrated design and control of their components to achieve the strategic fit. In this paper, a new approach is developed to design a multi-echelon, multi-facility, and multi-product supply chain in fuzzy environment. In fuzzy environment, mixed integer programming problem is formulated through fuzzy goal programming in strategic level with supply chain cost and volume flexibility as fuzzy goals. These fuzzy goals are aggregated using minimum operator. In tactical level, continuous review policy for controlling raw material inventories in supplier echelon and controlling finished product inventories in plant as well as distribution center echelon is considered as fuzzy goals. A non-linear programming model is formulated through fuzzy goal programming using minimum operator in the tactical level. The proposed approach is illustrated with a numerical example.

  16. The future of the healthcare supply chain.

    PubMed

    Parker, Jeff; DeLay, Dan

    2008-04-01

    To achieve savings in the healthcare supply chain, healthcare organizations need to cooperate instead of compete. By forming a consolidated service center (CSC), healthcare organizations can centralize their contracting, procurement, distribution, and logistical operations. The CSC would enable organizations to improve efficiency and reduce costs.

  17. Supply chain management in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Thomas M

    2006-01-31

    Between 15 and 45 percent of a clinical laboratory's operating budget is spent on supplies. Given the size of this expenditure, laboratory managers must pay close attention to the supply chain and develop effective strategies to manage their inventory. Areas that need analysis include the carrying cost of supplies, the cost to generate a purchase order, methods to efficiently count supplies on hand, processes to ensure that lot number items are used before their expiration, and detailed analysis of the inventory. At the University of California-San Francisco Medical Center, we investigated options to manage our inventory and implemented a computerized system. The system required modifications to existing practices, which initially seemed unwieldy. However, after a relatively short learning curve, the improvement to operations has been significant, with a reduction in wasted reagents, fewer staff hours used to count supplies, and the ability to provide prompt analysis of the inventory for audits and discussions with administration. Focusing on the supply chain has allowed us to reduce inventory expenses by approximately 8 percent, reduce waste, given us a more focused understanding of our operations, and provided us with the ability to analyze our inventory easily.

  18. An approach for formalising the supply chain operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdravković, Milan; Panetto, Hervé; Trajanović, Miroslav; Aubry, Alexis

    2011-11-01

    Reference models play an important role in the knowledge management of the various complex collaboration domains (such as supply chain networks). However, they often show a lack of semantic precision and, they are sometimes incomplete. In this article, we present an approach to overcome semantic inconsistencies and incompleteness of the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) model and hence improve its usefulness and expand the application domain. First, we describe a literal web ontology language (OWL) specification of SCOR concepts (and related tools) built with the intention to preserve the original approach in the classification of process reference model entities, and hence enable the effectiveness of usage in original contexts. Next, we demonstrate the system for its exploitation, in specific - tools for SCOR framework browsing and rapid supply chain process configuration. Then, we describe the SCOR-Full ontology, its relations with relevant domain ontology and show how it can be exploited for improvement of SCOR ontological framework competence. Finally, we elaborate the potential impact of the presented approach, to interoperability of systems in supply chain networks.

  19. Modelling and analysis of workflow for lean supply chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jinping; Wang, Kanliang; Xu, Lida

    2011-11-01

    Cross-organisational workflow systems are a component of enterprise information systems which support collaborative business process among organisations in supply chain. Currently, the majority of workflow systems is developed in perspectives of information modelling without considering actual requirements of supply chain management. In this article, we focus on the modelling and analysis of the cross-organisational workflow systems in the context of lean supply chain (LSC) using Petri nets. First, the article describes the assumed conditions of cross-organisation workflow net according to the idea of LSC and then discusses the standardisation of collaborating business process between organisations in the context of LSC. Second, the concept of labelled time Petri nets (LTPNs) is defined through combining labelled Petri nets with time Petri nets, and the concept of labelled time workflow nets (LTWNs) is also defined based on LTPNs. Cross-organisational labelled time workflow nets (CLTWNs) is then defined based on LTWNs. Third, the article proposes the notion of OR-silent CLTWNS and a verifying approach to the soundness of LTWNs and CLTWNs. Finally, this article illustrates how to use the proposed method by a simple example. The purpose of this research is to establish a formal method of modelling and analysis of workflow systems for LSC. This study initiates a new perspective of research on cross-organisational workflow management and promotes operation management of LSC in real world settings.

  20. Analysing biomass torrefaction supply chain costs.

    PubMed

    Svanberg, Martin; Olofsson, Ingemar; Flodén, Jonas; Nordin, Anders

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop a techno-economic system model to evaluate how logistics and production parameters affect the torrefaction supply chain costs under Swedish conditions. The model consists of four sub-models: (1) supply system, (2) a complete energy and mass balance of drying, torrefaction and densification, (3) investment and operating costs of a green field, stand-alone torrefaction pellet plant, and (4) distribution system to the gate of an end user. The results show that the torrefaction supply chain reaps significant economies of scale up to a plant size of about 150-200 kiloton dry substance per year (ktonDS/year), for which the total supply chain costs accounts to 31.8 euro per megawatt hour based on lower heating value (€/MWhLHV). Important parameters affecting total cost are amount of available biomass, biomass premium, logistics equipment, biomass moisture content, drying technology, torrefaction mass yield and torrefaction plant capital expenditures (CAPEX).

  1. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.; Caldeira, Ken

    2011-01-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are conventionally attributed to the country where the emissions are produced (i.e., where the fuels are burned). However, these production-based accounts represent a single point in the value chain of fossil fuels, which may have been extracted elsewhere and may be used to provide goods or services to consumers elsewhere. We present a consistent set of carbon inventories that spans the full supply chain of global CO2 emissions, finding that 10.2 billion tons CO2 or 37% of global emissions are from fossil fuels traded internationally and an additional 6.4 billion tons CO2 or 23% of global emissions are embodied in traded goods. Our results reveal vulnerabilities and benefits related to current patterns of energy use that are relevant to climate and energy policy. In particular, if a consistent and unavoidable price were imposed on CO2 emissions somewhere along the supply chain, then all of the parties along the supply chain would seek to impose that price to generate revenue from taxes collected or permits sold. The geographical concentration of carbon-based fuels and relatively small number of parties involved in extracting and refining those fuels suggest that regulation at the wellhead, mine mouth, or refinery might minimize transaction costs as well as opportunities for leakage. PMID:22006314

  2. The supply chain of CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Steven J; Peters, Glen P; Caldeira, Ken

    2011-11-08

    CO(2) emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are conventionally attributed to the country where the emissions are produced (i.e., where the fuels are burned). However, these production-based accounts represent a single point in the value chain of fossil fuels, which may have been extracted elsewhere and may be used to provide goods or services to consumers elsewhere. We present a consistent set of carbon inventories that spans the full supply chain of global CO(2) emissions, finding that 10.2 billion tons CO(2) or 37% of global emissions are from fossil fuels traded internationally and an additional 6.4 billion tons CO(2) or 23% of global emissions are embodied in traded goods. Our results reveal vulnerabilities and benefits related to current patterns of energy use that are relevant to climate and energy policy. In particular, if a consistent and unavoidable price were imposed on CO(2) emissions somewhere along the supply chain, then all of the parties along the supply chain would seek to impose that price to generate revenue from taxes collected or permits sold. The geographical concentration of carbon-based fuels and relatively small number of parties involved in extracting and refining those fuels suggest that regulation at the wellhead, mine mouth, or refinery might minimize transaction costs as well as opportunities for leakage.

  3. Data Supply Chain Management: Supply Chain Management for Incentive and Risk-based Assured Information Sharing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    situation, the end customer needs the data product either for sale or to help him make decisions. Another definition for SCM provided by the APICS...the analogy to data supply chain management. In both cases, the end customer needs a product. The product has to be assembled from multiple components...data source should we get the data? Is it A or B? Production decisions are important for data supply chain. When a customer needs a data product

  4. Understanding your supply chain to reduce the risk of supply chain disruption.

    PubMed

    Wildgoose, Nick; Brennan, Patrick; Thompson, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Supply chains are at the heart of the way in which organisations operate and compete today; they also play a critical role in overall organisation performance. In the context of increasingly complex and global supply chains, the actions taken to drive down costs are likely to drive risk into the supply chain. The frequency of supply chain disruptions is high and this paper offers practical advice to help reduce the frequency and cost associated with these. There is advice to help with the understanding of how to identify critical suppliers. The reader is guided through comprehensive risk assessment and mitigation approaches and a selection of practical risk solutions and tools that you can use is described. There is a section on the 'dos and don'ts' relating to supplier due diligence. For those organisations facing the challenge of drawing up a business case relating to investment in improving supply chain resiliency, there is also a section outlining some of the business benefits of improving supply chain resiliency.

  5. Performance measurement for supply chain management and evaluation criteria determination for reverse supply chain management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongar, N. Elif

    2004-12-01

    Today, since customers are able to obtain similar-quality products for similar prices, the lead time has become the only preference criterion for most of the consumers. Therefore, it is crucial that the lead time, i.e., the time spent from the raw material phase till the manufactured good reaches the customer, is minimized. This issue can be investigated under the title of Supply Chain Management (SCM). An efficiently managed supply chain can lead to reduced response time for customers. To achieve this, continuous observation of supply chain efficiency, i.e., a constant performance evaluation of the current SCM is required. Widely used conventional performance measurement methods lack the ability to evaluate a SCM since the supply chain is a dynamic system that requires a more thorough and flexible performance measurement technique. Balanced Scorecard (BS) is an efficient tool for measuring the performance of dynamic systems and has a proven capability of providing the decision makers with the appropriate feedback data. In addition to SCM, a relatively new management field, namely reverse supply chain management (RSCM), also necessitates an appropriate evaluation approach. RSCM differs from SCM in many aspects, i.e., the criteria used for evaluation, the high level of uncertainty involved etc., not allowing the usage of identical evaluation techniques used for SCM. This study proposes a generic Balanced Scorecard to measure the performance of supply chain management while defining the appropriate performance measures for SCM. A scorecard prototype, ESCAPE, is presented to demonstrate the evaluation process.

  6. Quality tracing in meat supply chains.

    PubMed

    Mack, Miriam; Dittmer, Patrick; Veigt, Marius; Kus, Mehmet; Nehmiz, Ulfert; Kreyenschmidt, Judith

    2014-06-13

    The aim of this study was the development of a quality tracing model for vacuum-packed lamb that is applicable in different meat supply chains. Based on the development of relevant sensory parameters, the predictive model was developed by combining a linear primary model and the Arrhenius model as the secondary model. Then a process analysis was conducted to define general requirements for the implementation of the temperature-based model into a meat supply chain. The required hardware and software for continuous temperature monitoring were developed in order to use the model under practical conditions. Further on a decision support tool was elaborated in order to use the model as an effective tool in combination with the temperature monitoring equipment for the improvement of quality and storage management within the meat logistics network. Over the long term, this overall procedure will support the reduction of food waste and will improve the resources efficiency of food production.

  7. Quality tracing in meat supply chains

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Miriam; Dittmer, Patrick; Veigt, Marius; Kus, Mehmet; Nehmiz, Ulfert; Kreyenschmidt, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a quality tracing model for vacuum-packed lamb that is applicable in different meat supply chains. Based on the development of relevant sensory parameters, the predictive model was developed by combining a linear primary model and the Arrhenius model as the secondary model. Then a process analysis was conducted to define general requirements for the implementation of the temperature-based model into a meat supply chain. The required hardware and software for continuous temperature monitoring were developed in order to use the model under practical conditions. Further on a decision support tool was elaborated in order to use the model as an effective tool in combination with the temperature monitoring equipment for the improvement of quality and storage management within the meat logistics network. Over the long term, this overall procedure will support the reduction of food waste and will improve the resources efficiency of food production. PMID:24797136

  8. DSB Task Force on Cyber Supply Chain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-06

    have rapid design and test cycles. It also allows for future patching of a fielded system . FPGAs have downsides as well. The commercial industry...that DoD weapons systems are designed , fielded, and sustained in a way that reduces the likelihood and consequences of cyber supply chain attacks...microelectronics and embedded software can cause mission failure in modern weapons systems . Such exploitations are especially pernicious because they can be

  9. Security of the food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Setola, Roberto; De Maggio, Maria Carla

    2009-01-01

    The food supply chain could became a dangerous weapon in the hands of enemies, for this reason the strategies developed to fight food adulteration (food safety) should be complemented with specific actions devoted to improve food "security" in the sense of food defence. This paper illustrate the methodological approach used in the EU project SecuFood to analyze threats, vulnerabilities and countermeasures existing in major European countries about what concerns deliberate attacks and manipulations of food.

  10. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  11. Transforming vaccines supply chains in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sarley, David; Mahmud, Mustafa; Idris, Jide; Osunkiyesi, Modele; Dibosa-Osadolor, Onome; Okebukola, Peter; Wiwa, Owens

    2017-04-19

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and in 2012 was suffering some of the lowest vaccination rates in the World. A combination of factors had resulted in a dysfunctional immunization cold chain and supply chain. Recognizing that the number of unimmunized children contributed to high levels of under-5-mortality, and that health MDGs would not be attained, Minister of State for Health Mohammed Pate launched a vaccines transformation project in 2013. In partnership with BMGF, GAVI, UNICEF, WHO, other donors and implementing partners the transformation journey has so far taken three years and achieved impressive results. It has though faced challenges along the way and with the financial burden of GAVI graduation facing Nigeria, the economic downturn and the decentralized funding of health services, the results are far from sustained. This paper documents the work undertaken at the Federal level and then highlights specific work undertaken in partnership with Lagos State Government. It identifies the importance of taking an end to end approach and looking at the root causes of weak system performance. The strategy combined simple innovations in how data was captured, recorded and used to drive decision making. It included a comprehensive and systematic approach to cold chain procurement, installation and maintenance with a shift to a culture of active cold chain maintenance that is performing with higher levels of uptime. It also included supply chain redesign at both the Federal and State level. Finally, it involved an institutional transformation at the National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA) to establish a data driven Department of Logistics and Health Commodities (DLHC) to manage the many challenges in immunizing 7.5 million children annually. While results have been impressive, there have been many challenges and lessons learned on the way. As Nigeria gets ready for its graduation from GAVI, a robust agile performing cold chain and

  12. Strategic information technology alliances for effective health-care supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Shih, Stephen C; Rivers, Patrick A; Hsu, H Y Sonya

    2009-08-01

    To gain and sustain competitive advantage, health-care providers have to continuously review and renovate their operational and information technology (IT) strategies through collaborative and cooperative endeavour with their supply chain channel members. This paper explores new ways of enhancing a health-care organization's responsiveness to changes and increasing its competitiveness through implementing strategic information technology alliances among channel members in a health-care supply chain network. An overview of issues and problems (e.g. bullwhip effect, negative externalities and free-riding phenomenon in multichannel supply chains) presented in the health-care supply chains is first delineated. This paper further goes over the issues of health-care supply chain coordination and integration for strategic IT alliances, followed by the discussion of the spillover effect of IT investments. A number of viable IT practices (such as information sharing and Internet-enabled supply chain portal) for effective health-care supply chain collaboration and coordination are then examined in this research. Finally, the paper discusses how strategic IT alliances can help improve the effectiveness of health-care supply chain management.

  13. Modeling a Reparable Supply Chain and Applying CPFR Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-08

    supply chain includes parts required to build, fix, or maintain aircraft delivered to the warfighter to carry out missions. Industry has shown that following Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR) concepts, particularly reducing inventory through accurate demand forecasts, has increased profits in part by lowering the holding costs of inventory and increasing sales. This is analogous to the Air Force increasing aircraft availability. There is scant evidence that demand forecasts generated at any level in the Air Force are shared with the intent of

  14. DoD Supply Chain Management Implementation Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    The DoD Supply Chain Management Implementation Guide is a tool to assist logistics personnel who are responsible for implementing supply chain management . This...progress toward fully incorporating supply chain management into the DoD logistics process. This document is Intended to serve as a roadmap for...individuals and organizations seeking day-to-day direction for implementing supply chain management in a DoD environment.

  15. [The supply chain is everybody's business...].

    PubMed

    Coulondre, Antoine

    2007-05-01

    The management of the supply chain is a matter of delicate balance. This is certainly due to its position at the crossroads between suppliers and users requirements, as well as logistic, financial and technical regulations. For a public organisation like EFS, whose annual budget amounts to 697 million euros, there is a lot at stake: supplies represent the second most important item of its budget accounting for 38% of annual expenses. Three quarters of the purchases concern basic activities such as blood collection, testing procedures, transformation and distribution of blood products. The last quarter is spent on more general activities (computer systems, telecommunications...). Professionalisation of the purchasing function has grown since the creation of the government-owned organisation as a single national unit (EFS) in the year 2000. Its consequences can be felt especially in the field of the "core activities". The current stage consists in maintaining close links between all the skills necessary to a high-quality supply chain. The latter will undoubtedly be beneficial to the medical, technical and support departments of EFS, which are the in-house customers to satisfy.

  16. Simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Jennifer H; MacKerrow, Edward P; Merritt, Terence M

    2010-04-08

    This paper outlines an opium supply chain using the Hilmand province of Afghanistan as exemplar. The opium supply chain model follows the transformation of opium poppy seed through cultivation and chemical alteration to brown heroin base. The purpose of modeling and simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain is to discover and test strategies that will disrupt this criminal enterprise.

  17. Using Game Theory to Predict Supply Chain Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Heather; Vang, David O.; Raffield, William D.

    2012-01-01

    The motivation for this research was to understand under what conditions supply chain cooperation might be feasible and under what circumstances it is not. Whereas previous research focuses on dyads in a supply chain, our research seeks to examine a possible factor that can explain why truly cooperative supply chains involving more than two firms…

  18. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce

    2013-02-22

    This report seeks to provide an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding uncertainties around offshore wind manufacturing and supply chain capabilities; projecting potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios; and identifying key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market and current suppliers of the nation’s landbased wind market.

  19. Using Game Theory to Predict Supply Chain Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Heather; Vang, David O.; Raffield, William D.

    2012-01-01

    The motivation for this research was to understand under what conditions supply chain cooperation might be feasible and under what circumstances it is not. Whereas previous research focuses on dyads in a supply chain, our research seeks to examine a possible factor that can explain why truly cooperative supply chains involving more than two firms…

  20. Needed: a strategic approach to supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Jamie C

    2009-06-01

    When devising a supply chain strategic plan, consider these points: Frame the supply chain broadly to include all possible components and expenses. Recognize how each part of the supply chain affects other parts. Engage all parties and customers in strategic discussions. Educate all involved. Objectively assess the current state. Visualize an unencumbered future state. Quantify quality, productivity, and financial goals.

  1. No more chances for supply-chain savings? Look again!

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert N

    2004-01-01

    To optimize supply-chain performance, hospitals must: Take into account all elements of the supply chain; Decide who will lead the supply-chain improvement effort; Decide where to focus improvement initiatives; Assess the savings potential; Overcome barriers to success; Set appropriate targets and measure performance.

  2. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices.

  3. Planning the bioterrorism response supply chain: learn and live.

    PubMed

    Brandeau, Margaret L; Hutton, David W; Owens, Douglas K; Bravata, Dena M

    2007-01-01

    Responses to bioterrorism require rapid procurement and distribution of medical and pharmaceutical supplies, trained personnel, and information. Thus, they present significant logistical challenges. On the basis of a review of the manufacturing and service supply chain literature, the authors identified five supply chain strategies that can potentially increase the speed of response to a bioterrorism attack, reduce inventories, and save money: effective supply chain network design; effective inventory management; postponement of product customization and modularization of component parts; coordination of supply chain stakeholders and appropriate use of incentives; and effective information management. The authors describe how concepts learned from published evaluations of manufacturing and service supply chains, as well as lessons learned from responses to natural disasters, naturally occurring outbreaks, and the 2001 US anthrax attacks, can be applied to design, evaluate, and improve the bioterrorism response supply chain. Such lessons could also be applied to the response supply chains for disease outbreaks and natural and manmade disasters.

  4. A Collaborative Scheduling Model for the Supply-Hub with Multiple Suppliers and Multiple Manufacturers

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Fei; Guan, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates a collaborative scheduling model in the assembly system, wherein multiple suppliers have to deliver their components to the multiple manufacturers under the operation of Supply-Hub. We first develop two different scenarios to examine the impact of Supply-Hub. One is that suppliers and manufacturers make their decisions separately, and the other is that the Supply-Hub makes joint decisions with collaborative scheduling. The results show that our scheduling model with the Supply-Hub is a NP-complete problem, therefore, we propose an auto-adapted differential evolution algorithm to solve this problem. Moreover, we illustrate that the performance of collaborative scheduling by the Supply-Hub is superior to separate decision made by each manufacturer and supplier. Furthermore, we also show that the algorithm proposed has good convergence and reliability, which can be applicable to more complicated supply chain environment. PMID:24892104

  5. A collaborative scheduling model for the supply-hub with multiple suppliers and multiple manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo; Lv, Fei; Guan, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates a collaborative scheduling model in the assembly system, wherein multiple suppliers have to deliver their components to the multiple manufacturers under the operation of Supply-Hub. We first develop two different scenarios to examine the impact of Supply-Hub. One is that suppliers and manufacturers make their decisions separately, and the other is that the Supply-Hub makes joint decisions with collaborative scheduling. The results show that our scheduling model with the Supply-Hub is a NP-complete problem, therefore, we propose an auto-adapted differential evolution algorithm to solve this problem. Moreover, we illustrate that the performance of collaborative scheduling by the Supply-Hub is superior to separate decision made by each manufacturer and supplier. Furthermore, we also show that the algorithm proposed has good convergence and reliability, which can be applicable to more complicated supply chain environment.

  6. Scale-Free Characteristics of Supply Chain Distribution Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Huijun; Wu, Jianjun

    This paper is the first step to a study of supply chain distribution networks based on the scale-free theory, and we attempt to analyze the growth of supply chain distribution networks. We construct the supply chain distribution network and divide it into two groups. Through empirical theory and numerical study, it is found that supply chain networks have scale-free characteristics. Additionally, other three features of supply chain distribution network are proposed in this paper. Finally, the exponent of degree distribution is given.

  7. Impacts to the ethylene supply chain from a hurricane disruption.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Downes, Paula Sue; Heinen, Russell; Welk, Margaret Ellen

    2010-03-01

    Analysis of chemical supply chains is an inherently complex task, given the dependence of these supply chains on multiple infrastructure systems (e.g., the petroleum sector, transportation, etc.). This effort requires data and information at various levels of resolution, ranging from network-level distribution systems to individual chemical reactions. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has integrated its existing simulation and infrastructure analysis capabilities with chemical data models to analyze the chemical supply chains of several nationally critical chemical commodities. This paper describes how Sandia models the ethylene supply chain; that is, the supply chain for the most widely used raw material for plastics production including a description of the types of data and modeling capabilities that are required to represent the ethylene supply chain. The paper concludes with a description of Sandia's use the model to project how the supply chain would be affected by and adapt to a disruptive scenario hurricane.

  8. A Framework of Multi Objectives Negotiation for Dynamic Supply Chain Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Jia Yee; Sakaguchi, Tatsuhiko; Shirase, Keiichi

    Trends of globalization and advances in Information Technology (IT) have created opportunity in collaborative manufacturing across national borders. A dynamic supply chain utilizes these advances to enable more flexibility in business cooperation. This research proposes a concurrent decision making framework for a three echelons dynamic supply chain model. The dynamic supply chain is formed by autonomous negotiation among agents based on multi agents approach. Instead of generating negotiation aspects (such as amount, price and due date) arbitrary, this framework proposes to utilize the information available at operational level of an organization in order to generate realistic negotiation aspect. The effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated by various case studies.

  9. Distribution and Supply Chain Management: Educating the Army Officer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-26

    Distribution and Supply Chain Management are key processes for military logistics in the future, however the Army and DoD has done little to educate...officers in these concepts and processes. This monograph describes distribution and supply chain management , and discusses the essential skills and... chain management processes. The findings indicate the Army and DoD is progressing in incorporating distribution and supply chain management principles

  10. Using Civilian Supply Chain Management Best Practices to Improve Army Supply Chain Management Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-09

    per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...different practices used by civilian corporations that have been tested and proven to achieve enhanced capabilities and improve supply chain procedures... corporations , the Center for Army Lessons Learned, and Combat Training Centers can vastly improve Army logistics. The overall reason of this study is

  11. Environmental concerns of supply chain sustainability (SCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, Mohd Faiz; Omar, Badrul; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Pauzi, Nur Fazlinda Mohd; Hasan, Sulaiman; Mohamed, W. A. Wan

    2017-04-01

    Environment concern is one important aspect for supply chain sustainability (SCS). Nowadays, company's activities give a lot of impact on the environment. Through these activities, there are other SCS issue of environment were identified. In this paper, the proposed SCS issue of environmental concern will be determined from Corporate Sustainability Report (CSR). Using a total weightage of 0.333 (after dividing into three aspects of sustainability), each proposed issues will be classified according to the company activities in order to determined weightage for each issue. Those weightages then will be used in developing of score metric for SCS in design phase. Result shows that the carbon footprint is the major concern for SCS of environment while environmental management system is a lowest concern for SCS environment.

  12. Stakeholders Integration in Higher Education: Supply Chain Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Turki, U. M.; Duffuaa, S.; Ayar, T.; Demirel, O.

    2008-01-01

    Supply chain management principles have emerged in the last decade as a strategic option to meet new challenges in global business environment. Viewing business environment as part of a chain, starting from raw material suppliers to end customers passing by producers, is at the heart of supply-chain management. Many management principles have…

  13. Stakeholders Integration in Higher Education: Supply Chain Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Turki, U. M.; Duffuaa, S.; Ayar, T.; Demirel, O.

    2008-01-01

    Supply chain management principles have emerged in the last decade as a strategic option to meet new challenges in global business environment. Viewing business environment as part of a chain, starting from raw material suppliers to end customers passing by producers, is at the heart of supply-chain management. Many management principles have…

  14. Risk management abilities in multimodal maritime supply chains: Visibility and control perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vilko, Jyri; Ritala, Paavo; Hallikas, Jukka

    2016-11-29

    Supply chain complexity and disintegration lead to increased uncertainty from a stakeholders' perspective, which is emerging as one of the major challenges of risk management. The ability to identify risks has weakened, as the responsibility of supply chain risk management is handed over to outside service providers. Regardless, the risks, their visibility and their impact depend on the position of the companies in the supply chain. The actors in the chain must therefore collaborate to create effective risk management conditions. This challenging situation is especially pronounced in multimodal maritime supply chains, where the risks and actor focality are high. This paper contributes to current risk management literature by providing a holistic and systemic view of risk visibility and control in maritime supply chains. The study employs broad-based, qualitative interview data collected from actors operating in southern Finland and the Gulf of Finland as well as an expert-panel assessment of the related risk management abilities. The results show a high level of variance in the level of risk identification and visibility between the actors in question. This further suggests that collaboration in supply chain risk management is essential, as an awareness of the risks and their control mechanisms do not necessarily reside in the same company.

  15. Fuzzy Entropy Method for Quantifying Supply Chain Networks Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jihui; Xu, Junqin

    Supply chain is a special kind of complex network. Its complexity and uncertainty makes it very difficult to control and manage. Supply chains are faced with a rising complexity of products, structures, and processes. Because of the strong link between a supply chain’s complexity and its efficiency the supply chain complexity management becomes a major challenge of today’s business management. The aim of this paper is to quantify the complexity and organization level of an industrial network working towards the development of a ‘Supply Chain Network Analysis’ (SCNA). By measuring flows of goods and interaction costs between different sectors of activity within the supply chain borders, a network of flows is built and successively investigated by network analysis. The result of this study shows that our approach can provide an interesting conceptual perspective in which the modern supply network can be framed, and that network analysis can handle these issues in practice.

  16. [Application of supply chain integration management of medical consumables].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces the background, the content, the information management system of material supply chain integration management and the consumables management process. The system helps to expand the selection of hospital supplies varieties, to reduce consumables management costs, to improve the efficiency of supplies, to ensure supplies safety, reliability and traceability.

  17. Evaluating the Security of the Global Containerized Supply Chain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    The global supply chain is the network of suppliers, manufacturing centers, warehouses, distribution centers, and retail outlets that transforms raw... supply - chain security-the consequences of an attack on or via a critical global port could be a tremendous loss of life and a crippling of the U.S...measured? This report presents a strategy for answering these questions using methods for managing risk of large-scale systems to analyze the structure of the container supply chain and its properties.

  18. Supply chain management: new paradigms for customers and suppliers.

    PubMed

    Garwood, D

    1999-02-01

    Companies are constantly looking for ways to increase their effectiveness and improve their bottom lines. One area of renewed interest is supply chain management. By managing their supply chains better, companies are able to become more flexible, offer defect-free products, eliminate unnecessary delays, and keep costs down. This article briefly describes the objectives of supply chain management and lists some of the tools that can be used to achieve them.

  19. System Dynamics Modeling for Supply Chain Information Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yang

    In this paper, we try to use the method of system dynamics to model supply chain information sharing. Firstly, we determine the model boundaries, establish system dynamics model of supply chain before information sharing, analyze the model's simulation results under different changed parameters and suggest improvement proposal. Then, we establish system dynamics model of supply chain information sharing and make comparison and analysis on the two model's simulation results, to show the importance of information sharing in supply chain management. We wish that all these simulations would provide scientific supports for enterprise decision-making.

  20. Supply chain optimization at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Labuhn, Jonathan; Almeter, Philip; McLaughlin, Christopher; Fields, Philip; Turner, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    A successful supply chain optimization project that leveraged technology, engineering principles, and a technician workflow redesign in the setting of a growing health system is described. With continued rises in medication costs, medication inventory management is increasingly important. Proper management of central pharmacy inventory and floor-stock inventory in automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) can be challenging. In an effort to improve control of inventory costs in the central pharmacy of a large academic medical center, the pharmacy department implemented a supply chain optimization project in collaboration with the medical center's inhouse team of experts on process improvement and industrial engineering. The project had 2 main components: (1) upgrading and reconfiguring carousel technology within an expanded central pharmacy footprint to generate accurate floor-stock inventory replenishment reports, which resulted in efficiencies within the medication-use system, and (2) implementing a technician workflow redesign and algorithm to right-size the ADC inventory, which decreased inventory stockouts (i.e., incidents of depletion of medication stock) and improved ADC user satisfaction. Through a multifaceted approach to inventory management, the number of stockouts per month was decreased and ADC inventory was optimized, resulting in a one-time inventory cost savings of $220,500. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Supply Chain Management (SCM) mit Kanban

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Anja; Dickmann, Eva; Dickmann, Philipp; Gerth, Wolf-Michael; Graßy, Mario; Herron, Colin; Schmidt, Peter; Seidl, Florian; Wittmann, Claus-Eduard

    Nach Schätzungen von Mercer Management Consulting und dem Fraunhofer Institut wird der Wertschöpfungsanteil in der Automobilindustrie von durchschnittlich 35 % im Jahr 2002 auf 23 % im Jahr 2015 sinken [Merc 04]. Der Trend, die Produktionstiefe oder allgemeiner, die Wertschöpfungstiefe, zu reduzieren, hat zur Folge, dass die Kaufteile den größeren Teil der Wertschöpfung einnehmen. Die Optimierungspotentiale und der Einfluss auf die Kosten wandern immer mehr zu den Lieferanten, vor allem bei größeren Unternehmen oder Konzernen. Lieferanten-Philosophien, die auf oberflächlichen Verbindungen zu Lieferanten aufbauen, um immer optimal und schnell den günstigsten Teilepreis zu erhalten, haben sich in vielen Sparten oder Produktbereichen, z. B. im Maschinenbau, im besten Fall als kurzfristig erfolgreich erwiesen. Kooperative und nachhaltige Strategien sind der erfolgversprechendere Weg, zumindest mittelbis langfristig. In der Realität wird sehr wenig in Supply Chain-Konzepte investiert und die Umsetzungen sind daher vielmals oberflächlich.

  2. Green supply chain: Simulating road traffic congestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalal, Muhammad Zulqarnain Hakim Abd; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Laailatul Hanim Mat Desa, Wan; Khalid, Ruzelan; Khalid Abduljabbar, Waleed; Ramli, Razamin

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing awareness of the consumers about environmental issues, businesses, households and governments increasingly want use green products and services which lead to green supply chain. This paper discusses a simulation study of a selected road traffic system that will contribute to the air pollution if in the congestion state. Road traffic congestion (RTC) can be caused by a temporary obstruction, a permanent capacity bottleneck in the network itself, and stochastic fluctuation in demand within a particular sector of the network, leading to spillback and queue propagation. A discrete-event simulation model is developed to represent the real traffic light control (TLC) system condition during peak hours. Certain performance measures such as average waiting time and queue length were measured using the simulation model. Existing system uses pre-set cycle time to control the light changes which is fixed time cycle. In this research, we test several other combination of pre-set cycle time with the objective to find the best system. In addition, we plan to use a combination of the pre-set cycle time and a proximity sensor which have the authority to manipulate the cycle time of the lights. The sensors work in such situation when the street seems to have less occupied vehicles, obviously it may not need a normal cycle for green light, and automatically change the cycle to street where vehicle is present.

  3. Ethylene detection in fruit supply chains

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, S.; Schmitt, K.; Blanke, M.; Bauersfeld, M. L.; Wöllenstein, J.; Lang, W.

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene is a gaseous ripening phytohormone of fruits and plants. Presently, ethylene is primarily measured with stationary equipment in laboratories. Applying in situ measurement at the point of natural ethylene generation has been hampered by the lack of portable units designed to detect ethylene at necessary resolutions of a few parts per billion. Moreover, high humidity inside controlled atmosphere stores or containers complicates the realization of gas sensing systems that are sufficiently sensitive, reliable, robust and cost efficient. In particular, three measurement principles have shown promising potential for fruit supply chains and were used to develop independent mobile devices: non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy, miniaturized gas chromatography and electrochemical measurement. In this paper, the measurement systems for ethylene are compared with regard to the needs in fruit logistics; i.e. sensitivity, selectivity, long-term stability, facilitation of automated measurement and suitability for mobile application. Resolutions of 20–10 ppb can be achieved in mobile applications with state-of-the-art equipment, operating with the three methods described in the following. The prices of these systems are in a range below €10 000. PMID:24797138

  4. The Complexities of Implementing Cluster Supply Chain - Case Study of JCH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xiao; Zhang, Jibiao; Wang, Yang

    As a new type of management pattern, "cluster supply chain" (CSC) can help SMEs to face the global challenges through all kinds of collaboration. However, a major challenge in implementing CSC is the gap between theory and practice in the field. In an effort to provide a better understanding of this emerging phenomenon, this paper presents the implementation process of CSC in the context of JingCheng Mechanical & Electrical Holding co., ltd.(JCH) as a case study. The cast study of JCH suggests that the key problems in the practice of cluster supply chain: How do small firms use cluster supply chain? Only after we clarify the problem, the actual construction and operation of cluster supply chain does show successful results as it should be.

  5. Developing a Taxonomy and Model to Transfer and Assess Best Practices for Supply Chain Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Myrna; Mendoza, Ana; Lavin, Victor; Flores, Benito

    Supply Chain Management can be briefly defined as the orchestration of a network of entities such as suppliers, distributors and clients to achieve a common goal: delivering cost efficient products and services exceeding customers’ expectations. Therefore, firms should consider all those End-to-End processes enabling an efficient integration and interoperability of partners collaborating in such Supply Chain when designing their Business Process Architecture (BPA). One key enabler to accomplish this goal is the identification, documentation and sharing of best practices. This paper describes the outcomes of a collaborative project carried out by CEMEX Research Group and the Universidad de Monterrey (UDEM), which focused on developing taxonomy to document best practices for the supply chain management together with a generic model to evaluate their level of implementation.

  6. Sustainable Supply Chain Management Programs in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neureuther, Brian D.; O'Neill, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    One of the most difficult challenges for an undergraduate supply chain management program at smaller universities is to create an environment of sustainability. Supply chain management is not at the tip of tongue for many graduating high school students and few undergraduate curriculums require a course in the content area. This research addresses…

  7. Supply Chain Synchronization: Improving Distribution Velocity to the Theatre

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    task in itself. To take a supply chain wide approach often involves considerable compromise and lots of elbow grease. The current AMC and DLA...jointvision/jvpub2.htm Accessed 9 March 2009. Lambert, Douglas M. Supply Chain Mangement : Processes, Partnerships, Performance. Jacksonville: The

  8. Harden Security of High-Risk and Critical Supply Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Glen

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the security risk in the container supply chain. It provides an overview of the technical and policy initiatives that are being implemented by international organizations, governments, and the private sector to enhance security in the container supply chain.

  9. Biofuel Supply Chains: Impacts, Indicators and Sustainability Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development has introduced a program to study the environmental impacts and sustainability of biofuel supply chains. Analyses will provide indicators and metrics for valuating sustainability. In this context, indicators are supply chain rat...

  10. Biofuel Supply Chains: Impacts, Indicators and Sustainability Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development has introduced a program to study the environmental impacts and sustainability of biofuel supply chains. Analyses will provide indicators and metrics for valuating sustainability. In this context, indicators are supply chain rat...

  11. A supply chain approach to biochar systems [Chapter 2

    Treesearch

    Nathaniel M. Anderson; Richard D. Bergman; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2017-01-01

    Biochar systems are designed to meet four related primary objectives: improve soils, manage waste, generate renewable energy, and mitigate climate change. Supply chain models provide a holistic framework for examining biochar systems with an emphasis on product life cycle and end use. Drawing on concepts in supply chain management and engineering, this chapter presents...

  12. Estimating Supply-Chain Burdens in Support of Acquisition Decisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-20

    Acquisition decisions drive supply - chain requirements that incur financial costs and other critical impacts. To account properly for the resource...operational scenario. This research uses economic input/output analysis to model the Department of Defense supply chain to estimate the fully burdened cost

  13. 78 FR 51192 - Secure Supply Chain Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Secure Supply Chain Pilot Program AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is announcing the start of the Secure Supply Chain Pilot Program (SSCPP). The SSCPP is intended to assist FDA in its...

  14. 75 FR 16157 - Pharmaceutical Supply Chain; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pharmaceutical Supply Chain; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled ``2010 PDA/FDA Pharmaceutical Supply Chain Workshop...

  15. Modeling methodology for supply chain synthesis and disruption analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Teresa; Blackhurst, Jennifer

    2004-11-01

    The concept of an integrated or synthesized supply chain is a strategy for managing today's globalized and customer driven supply chains in order to better meet customer demands. Synthesizing individual entities into an integrated supply chain can be a challenging task due to a variety of factors including conflicting objectives, mismatched incentives and constraints of the individual entities. Furthermore, understanding the effects of disruptions occurring at any point in the system is difficult when working toward synthesizing supply chain operations. Therefore, the goal of this research is to present a modeling methodology to manage the synthesis of a supply chain by linking hierarchical levels of the system and to model and analyze disruptions in the integrated supply chain. The contribution of this research is threefold: (1) supply chain systems can be modeled hierarchically (2) the performance of synthesized supply chain system can be evaluated quantitatively (3) reachability analysis is used to evaluate the system performance and verify whether a specific state is reachable, allowing the user to understand the extent of effects of a disruption.

  16. Synthesis of Sustainable Energy Supply Chain by the P-Graph Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present work proposes a computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains in terms of sustainability metrics by utilizing the P-graph framework. The methodology is an outcome of the collaboration between the Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the U.S...

  17. Synthesis of Sustainable Energy Supply Chain by the P-Graph Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present work proposes a computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains in terms of sustainability metrics by utilizing the P-graph framework. The methodology is an outcome of the collaboration between the Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the U.S...

  18. Demonstrating the Effect of Supply Chain Disruptions through an Online Beer Distribution Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkar, Sourish; Kumar, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a classroom tool to teach the impact of supply chain disruptions and mitigation strategies based on information sharing and collaboration. The tool is an adaptation of the Beer Distribution Game, is easy to play, and can be hosted online or on local servers. The game considers several scenarios based on the location of the…

  19. Demonstrating the Effect of Supply Chain Disruptions through an Online Beer Distribution Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkar, Sourish; Kumar, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a classroom tool to teach the impact of supply chain disruptions and mitigation strategies based on information sharing and collaboration. The tool is an adaptation of the Beer Distribution Game, is easy to play, and can be hosted online or on local servers. The game considers several scenarios based on the location of the…

  20. Don't break the chain: importance of supply chain management in the operating room setting.

    PubMed

    Bilyk, Candis

    2008-09-01

    Management of supplies within the operating room (OR) has considerable implications for decreasing healthcare costs while maintaining high-quality patient care. This area of healthcare therefore requires more monitoring by end-users including OR management, physicians, and nursing staff. This article is based on understanding supply chain management in the OR setting. Information provided throughout the article can be applied to small or large health care centers. It defines supply chain management and contains a brief overview of supply chain processes. It reviews the benefits of following these processes. The article also includes recommendations for improving the supply chain in the OR.

  1. Issues and Challenges in Self-Sustaining Response Supply Chains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Supply Chains Aruna Apte, John Khawam, Eva Regnier, Jay Simon, and Daniel Nussbaum Naval Postgraduate School Published April 1, 2013 Approved for...Fully-Burdened Cost of Supply in Self-Sustaining Logistics Networks Eva Regnier, Jay Simon, Daniel Nussbaum, Aruna Apte, and John Khawam Naval...Response Supply Chains Aruna Apte, John Khawam, Eva Regnier, Jay Simon, and Daniel Nussbaum Naval Postgraduate School Lead Time Demand Modeling in

  2. Global Carbon Fiber Composites Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit; Warren, Josh; West, Devin; Schexnayder, Susan M.

    2016-05-01

    This analysis identifies key opportunities in the carbon fiber supply chain where resources and investments can help advance the clean energy economy. The report focuses on four application areas — wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels — that top the list of industries using carbon fiber and carbon fiber reinforced polymers. For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components.

  3. Modeling sustainability in renewable energy supply chain systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Fei

    This dissertation aims at modeling sustainability of renewable fuel supply chain systems against emerging challenges. In particular, the dissertation focuses on the biofuel supply chain system design, and manages to develop advanced modeling framework and corresponding solution methods in tackling challenges in sustaining biofuel supply chain systems. These challenges include: (1) to integrate "environmental thinking" into the long-term biofuel supply chain planning; (2) to adopt multimodal transportation to mitigate seasonality in biofuel supply chain operations; (3) to provide strategies in hedging against uncertainty from conversion technology; and (4) to develop methodologies in long-term sequential planning of the biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. All models are mixed integer programs, which also involves multi-objective programming method and two-stage/multistage stochastic programming methods. In particular for the long-term sequential planning under uncertainties, to reduce the computational challenges due to the exponential expansion of the scenario tree, I also developed efficient ND-Max method which is more efficient than CPLEX and Nested Decomposition method. Through result analysis of four independent studies, it is found that the proposed modeling frameworks can effectively improve the economic performance, enhance environmental benefits and reduce risks due to systems uncertainties for the biofuel supply chain systems.

  4. Increasing Capacity Exploitation in Food Supply Chains Using Grid Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Eugen; Müller, Marcus; Jacob, Ansger; Racz, Peter; Waldburger, Martin

    Food supply chains today are characterized by fixed trade relations with long term contracts established between heterogeneous supply chain companies. Production and logistics capacities of these companies are often utilized in an economically inefficient manner only. In addition, increased consumer awareness in food safety issues renders supply chain management even more challenging, since integrated tracking and tracing along the whole food supply chain is needed. Facing these issues of supply chain management complexity and completely documented product quality, this paper proposes a full lifecycle solution for dynamic capacity markets based on concepts used in the field of Grid [1], like management of Virtual Organization (VO) combined with Service Level Agreement (SLA). The solution enables the cost-efficient utilization of real world capacities (e.g., production capacities or logistics facilities) by using a simple, browser-based portal. Users are able to enter into product-specific negotiations with buyers and suppliers of a food supply chain, and to obtain real-time access to product information including SLA evaluation reports. Thus, business opportunities in wider market access, process innovation, and trustworthy food products are offered for participating supply chain companies.

  5. Coopetitive Supply Chain Relationship Model: Application to the Smartphone Manufacturing Network.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Jeremy Jie Ming; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2015-01-01

    Previous researches for understanding supply chain relationship have mostly focused on its vertical collaboration between buyers and suppliers. However, there have been some instances of volatile and stable collaborative relationships amongst competitors such as Apple-Samsung product manufacturer-component supplier relationship and airline alliances, respectively, which is recognized as coopetition. Even though there have been several qualitative studies and a number of game theory models on coopetition, it is rare to find any attempts on quantitative characterization of such coopetitive dynamic behavior in supply chain relationship. Hence, in this work, we formulated a MINLP model mathematically representing coopetitive relationships in a cost efficient supply chain network. In particular, the coopetition factor was newly introduced to measure the degree of coopetition among supply chain players and determine the optimal level of coopetition to engage in. The utility and practicality of the model were strongly demonstrated using a case study of a hypothetical smartphone supply chain network under different scenarios, thus proposing their strategically viable optimal interactions. Therefore, this exploratory study can herald a new era of global coopetitive business.

  6. Coopetitive Supply Chain Relationship Model: Application to the Smartphone Manufacturing Network

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Jeremy Jie Ming; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2015-01-01

    Previous researches for understanding supply chain relationship have mostly focused on its vertical collaboration between buyers and suppliers. However, there have been some instances of volatile and stable collaborative relationships amongst competitors such as Apple-Samsung product manufacturer-component supplier relationship and airline alliances, respectively, which is recognized as coopetition. Even though there have been several qualitative studies and a number of game theory models on coopetition, it is rare to find any attempts on quantitative characterization of such coopetitive dynamic behavior in supply chain relationship. Hence, in this work, we formulated a MINLP model mathematically representing coopetitive relationships in a cost efficient supply chain network. In particular, the coopetition factor was newly introduced to measure the degree of coopetition among supply chain players and determine the optimal level of coopetition to engage in. The utility and practicality of the model were strongly demonstrated using a case study of a hypothetical smartphone supply chain network under different scenarios, thus proposing their strategically viable optimal interactions. Therefore, this exploratory study can herald a new era of global coopetitive business. PMID:26186227

  7. Understanding and reducing the risk of supply chain disruptions.

    PubMed

    Clark, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters can wreck havoc on business operations. When civil unrest swept the UK in August 2011, the effect on business was stark, losing the retail sector £300m in unexpected costs and lost revenues. On the other side of the world, the natural disaster that hit Japan in early 2011 is estimated to have run up costs in the region of £189bn in repairs. Beyond this, the earthquake and its aftermath shattered supply chains, with technology companies expecting delays of up to six months before business could resume fully. It is impossible to predict incidents like these, but businesses can help mitigate disruption in the supply chain by undertaking business continuity management (BCM). A flexible supply chain is essential when it comes to BCM - whether it means being able to cope with altering transport routes at short notice, or finding or replacing a supplier at the last minute. Understanding the supply chain is critical when responding to major impacts that affect supply chains in multiple points - like IT system failures and country-wide fuel strikes. Businesses should carry out detailed business impact assessments and risk assessments right across the end-to-end supply chain and not just at key single points of failure. It is an intensive process that needs dedicated resources and ownership at the highest level. Recognising this, DHL has designed a 10-step process, which it has implemented across its global supply chain business. This paper provides an overview of what a supply chain really looks like, what can cause disruptions and how far up/down the supply chain companies need to go with their BCM planning.

  8. Exploratory Analysis of Supply Chains in the Defense Industrial Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A LY S E S Exploratory Analysis of Supply Chains in the Defense Industrial Base James R. Dominy...contract DASW01-04-C-0003, AH-7-3315, “Exploratory Analysis of Supply Chains in the Defense Industrial Base,” for the Director, Industrial Policy. The...D E F E N S E A N A LY S E S IDA Document D-4308 Exploratory Analysis of Supply Chains in the Defense Industrial Base James R. Dominy, Project

  9. Time well spent? Assessing nursing-supply chain activities.

    PubMed

    Ferenc, Jeff

    2010-02-01

    The amount of time nurses spend providing direct patient care seems to be continually eroding. So it's little wonder a survey conducted last year of critical care, OR nurses and nurse executives found that half of the 1600 respondents feel they spend too much time on supply chain duties. Most also said their supply chain duties impact patient safe ty and their ability to provide bedside care. Experts interviewed for this report believe it's time for supply chain leaders and nurses to develop a closer working partnership. Included are their recommendations to improve performance.

  10. Pollution Prevention Cost Savings Using Supply Chain Reengineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    Supply chain management was explored as a tool to prevent hazardous waste and reduce operating costs. Previous research had shown that pollution prevention measures were often costly and no expectation of cost savings could be realized. The reengineering of the Air Force hazardous material supply chain brought about by the Hazardous Material Pharmacy Program was tested to evaluate if hazardous waste had been precluded in this effort and if costs had also been avoided. To date, no research had explored the use of supply chain

  11. Energy supply chain optimization of hybrid feedstock processes: a review.

    PubMed

    Elia, Josephine A; Floudas, Christodoulos A

    2014-01-01

    The economic, environmental, and social performances of energy systems depend on their geographical locations and the surrounding market infrastructure for feedstocks and energy products. Strategic decisions to locate energy conversion facilities must take all upstream and downstream operations into account, prompting the development of supply chain modeling and optimization methods. This article reviews the contributions of energy supply chain studies that include heat, power, and liquid fuels production. Studies are categorized based on specific features of the mathematical model, highlighting those that address energy supply chain models with and without considerations of multiperiod decisions. Studies that incorporate uncertainties are discussed, and opportunities for future research developments are outlined.

  12. Supply Chain Management: A Recommended Performance Measurement Scorecard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    Supply chain management is the management of all processes or functions to satisfy a customer’s order (from raw materials through conversion and manufacture through shipment). Performance measures, or metrics, are used to monitor the progress of supply chain initiatives. However, a consensus in DoD considers the metrics available to senior DoD managers to be inadequate or lacking the depth to measure the effectiveness of the DoD supply chain . The metrics are not balanced across customer service, cost, readiness, and

  13. The Complex Economic System of Supply Chain Financing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lili; Yan, Guangle

    Supply Chain Financing (SCF) refers to a series of innovative and complicated financial services based on supply chain. The SCF set-up is a complex system, where the supply chain management and Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) financing services interpenetrate systematically. This paper establishes the organization structure of SCF System, and presents two financing models respectively, with or without the participation of the third-party logistic provider (3PL). Using Information Economics and Game Theory, the interrelationship among diverse economic sectors is analyzed, and the economic mechanism of development and existent for SCF system is demonstrated. New thoughts and approaches to solve SMEs financing problem are given.

  14. The supply chain and clinical quality.

    PubMed

    Runy, Lee Ann

    2005-03-01

    Improving quality of care has become a major consideration when it comes to buying supplies. Here's how leading-edge hospitals are changing the process, including adding clinicians to their buying staffs and standardizing how they choose and use products.

  15. Measuring Success: Metrics that Link Supply Chain Management to Aircraft Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    This thesis evaluates and analyzes current strategic management planning methods that develop performance metrics linking supply chain management to... supply chain management Effective process-oriented performance metrics are not only critical for achieving a fully integrated supply chain, but also link... supply chain management to the common goal of aircraft readiness, provide the means for measuring supply chain performance improvements, identify

  16. Tying supply chain costs to patient care.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Rosalind C

    2014-05-01

    In September 2014, the FDA will establish a unique device identification (UDI) system to aid hospitals in better tracking and managing medical devices and analyzing their effectiveness. When these identifiers become part of patient medical records, the UDI system will provide a much-needed link between supply cost and patient outcomes. Hospitals should invest in technology and processes that can enable them to trace supply usage patterns directly to patients and analyze how these usage patterns affect cost and quality.

  17. How Sustainable Freight Creates a More Efficient Supply Chain

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EPA presentation focuses on the challenges in achieving sustainable freight transport in the supply chain, spotlighting Mondelez International and C.H. Robinson, their sustainability efforts, and how SmartWay helps.

  18. Scenario aggregation for supply chain quantity-flexibility contract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gitae; Wu, Chih-Hang

    2013-11-01

    In this research, we apply a scenario aggregation approach to solving the supply chain contract model formulated by two-stage stochastic programming problem. The supply chain contract can achieve the coordination between the buyer and the supplier. We formulate the stochastic programming model for a quantity-flexibility contract. The scenario aggregation method called the progressive hedging method is used to solve this problem. Experimental results show the convergence behaviour of the algorithm and the sensitivity of parameters.

  19. Making Supply Chains Resilient to Floods Using a Bayesian Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraguchi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Natural hazards distress the global economy by disrupting the interconnected supply chain networks. Manufacturing companies have created cost-efficient supply chains by reducing inventories, streamlining logistics and limiting the number of suppliers. As a result, today's supply chains are profoundly susceptible to systemic risks. In Thailand, for example, the GDP growth rate declined by 76 % in 2011 due to prolonged flooding. Thailand incurred economic damage including the loss of USD 46.5 billion, approximately 70% of which was caused by major supply chain disruptions in the manufacturing sector. Similar problems occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011, the Mississippi River floods and droughts during 2011 - 2013, and Hurricane Sandy in 2012. This study proposes a methodology for modeling supply chain disruptions using a Bayesian network analysis (BNA) to estimate expected values of countermeasures of floods, such as inventory management, supplier management and hard infrastructure management. We first performed a spatio-temporal correlation analysis between floods and extreme precipitation data for the last 100 years at a global scale. Then we used a BNA to create synthetic networks that include variables associated with the magnitude and duration of floods, major components of supply chains and market demands. We also included decision variables of countermeasures that would mitigate potential losses caused by supply chain disruptions. Finally, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis by estimating the expected values of these potential countermeasures while conducting a sensitivity analysis. The methodology was applied to supply chain disruptions caused by the 2011 Thailand floods. Our study demonstrates desirable typical data requirements for the analysis, such as anonymized supplier network data (i.e. critical dependencies, vulnerability information of suppliers) and sourcing data(i.e. locations of suppliers, and production rates and

  20. Implications of AM for the Navy Supply Chain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Capital Asset : The more capable an AM machine, the more it costs, upward of $1M each in some cases. This also needs to be amortized. Intellectual...strategic deployment of additive manufacturing (AM) ma- chines throughout the supply chain, coupled with the right business model , is an imperative need in...operations plan that requires changes to our business decision modeling and the tools used to manage the supply chain, including Navy Enterprise Resource

  1. Closed loop supply chain network design with fuzzy tactical decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherafati, Mahtab; Bashiri, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    One of the most strategic and the most significant decisions in supply chain management is reconfiguration of the structure and design of the supply chain network. In this paper, a closed loop supply chain network design model is presented to select the best tactical and strategic decision levels simultaneously considering the appropriate transportation mode in activated links. The strategic decisions are made for a long term; thus, it is more satisfactory and more appropriate when the decision variables are considered uncertain and fuzzy, because it is more flexible and near to the real world. This paper is the first research which considers fuzzy decision variables in the supply chain network design model. Moreover, in this study a new fuzzy optimization approach is proposed to solve a supply chain network design problem with fuzzy tactical decision variables. Finally, the proposed approach and model are verified using several numerical examples. The comparison of the results with other existing approaches confirms efficiency of the proposed approach. Moreover the results confirms that by considering the vagueness of tactical decisions some properties of the supply chain network will be improved.

  2. The Supply Chain's Role in Improving Animal Welfare.

    PubMed

    Harvey, David; Hubbard, Carmen

    2013-08-14

    Supply chains are already incorporating citizen/consumer demands for improved animal welfare, especially through product differentiation and the associated segmentation of markets. Nonetheless, the ability of the chain to deliver high(er) levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a) the innovative and adaptive capacity of the chain to respond to society's demands; (b) the extent to which consumers actually purchase animal-friendly products. Despite a substantial literature reporting estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) for animal welfare, there is a belief that in practice people vote for substantially more and better animal welfare as citizens than they are willing to pay for as consumers. This citizen-consumer gap has significant consequences on the supply chain, although there is limited literature on the capacity and willingness of supply chains to deliver what the consumer wants and is willing to pay for. This paper outlines an economic analysis of supply chain delivery of improved standards for farm animal welfare in the EU and illustrates the possible consequences of improving animal welfare standards for the supply chain using a prototype belief network analysis.

  3. Supply chain vulnerable in many ways.

    PubMed

    2001-12-01

    The specter of terrorism has reached the materials management department, now that a supply room worker in a New York hospital has died from anthrax. At the same time, the tragedy of the Sept. 11 attacks has led hospitals and their vendors to realize that "partnership" is not just a trendy word for business association anymore; it is a strategy for survival.

  4. Addressing Counterfeit Parts in the DoD Supply Chain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    465 - = Logistics Management Fully-Burdened Cost of Supply in Self-Sustaining Logistics Networks Eva Regnier, Jay Simon, Daniel Nussbaum, Aruna ...Challenges in Self-Sustaining Response Supply Chains Aruna Apte, John Khawam, Eva Regnier, Jay Simon, and Daniel Nussbaum Naval Postgraduate School

  5. Supply-chain management: exceeding the customer's expectations.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, B

    2000-10-01

    Driven by increasing competition, manufacturers are desperate to cut costs and are looking for increased efficiency and customer service from their supply chains. E-commerce offers a new model of supply and demand, but many companies do not have the processes in place to support this new model. By implementing the techniques discussed here they can achieve substantial improvements in performance.

  6. SCRL-Model for Human Space Flight Operations Enterprise Supply Chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Standard approach to evaluate and configure adaptable and sustainable program and mission supply chains at an enterprise level. End-to-end view. Total Lifecycle. Evaluate the readiness of the supply chain during the supply chain development phase.

  7. Collaborative Learning in Advanced Supply Systems: The KLASS Pilot Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Ed; Carter, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    The Knowledge and Learning in Advanced Supply Systems (KLASS) project developed collaborative learning networks of suppliers in the British automotive and aerospace industries. Methods included face-to-face and distance learning, work toward National Vocational Qualifications, and diagnostic workshops for senior managers on improving quality,…

  8. Collaborative Learning in Advanced Supply Systems: The KLASS Pilot Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Ed; Carter, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    The Knowledge and Learning in Advanced Supply Systems (KLASS) project developed collaborative learning networks of suppliers in the British automotive and aerospace industries. Methods included face-to-face and distance learning, work toward National Vocational Qualifications, and diagnostic workshops for senior managers on improving quality,…

  9. Defining a Closed-Loop U.S. Aluminum Can Supply Chain Through Technical Design and Supply Chain Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffington, Jack; Peterson, Ray

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to conduct a supply chain material flow analysis (MFA) for the U.S. aluminum can market, consistent with studies conducted for the overall worldwide aluminum industry. A technical definition of the use of alloys 5182 and 3104 is conducted by metallurgists for use in the "aluminum can" MFA. Four propositions are created: technical, economic, and supply chain factors are as important to secondary aluminum recycling in an aluminum can as higher recycling rates (P1); the development of a unialloy aluminum can will increase reuse rates, but recycling rates must increase for this to happen (P2); a closed-loop aluminum can supply chain is not able to be fully realized in today's environment but is very useful for understanding improvement through both supply and demand (P3); and UBC supply can improve through a "voluntary deposit-refund system" approach (P4).

  10. Supply chain management for small business--how to avoid being part of the food chain.

    PubMed

    Knechtges, J P; Watts, C A

    2000-08-01

    A supply chain is a series of customer and supplier relationships that extend throughout and beyond the company. It is an interwoven set of links that together form a chain supplying our customers in a seamless and integrated fashion delivering a high level of customer satisfaction. Supply chain management (SCM) integrates all activities so they are focused on customer satisfaction (both internally and externally). One of the things this article will attempt to accomplish is to provide a clear understanding of SCM's positive impact on customer service as well as on improving profitability, cash flow, product cycle times, and communication. Whether we go forward in the supply chain to the final end-user or backward in the supply chain to our supplier's suppliers, SCM will significantly improve our ability to serve our customers.

  11. Global Carbon Fiber Composites. Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit; Warren, Joshua A.; West, Devin; Schexnayder, Susan M.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to identify key opportunities in the carbon fiber (CF) supply chain where resources and investments can help advance the clean energy economy. The report focuses on four application areas—wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels—that top the list of industries using CF and carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) and are particularly relevant to the mission of U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE EERE). For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components.

  12. Vendors: part of the supply chain solution.

    PubMed

    Smith, Al; Lacy, Ramona; Justice, Walton A

    2008-04-01

    St. Joseph Health System in Bryan, Texas, recently undertook a formal performance improvement process in which vendors were treated as partners rather than adversaries. The health system established three systemwide initiatives-vendor summit, a vendor of the year award, and a vendor survey-to improve vendor relationships. Engaging vendors in dialogue to help reduce supply costs ultimately helped St. Joseph save nearly $8 million within just six months.

  13. Innovations in cold chain equipment for immunization supply chains.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Joanie; Franzel, Lauren; Maire, Denis

    2017-04-19

    Since 2010, numerous new technologies have entered the immunization cold chain equipment market. The World Health Organization (WHO) Immunization Devices Programme-Performance, Quality and Safety (PQS)-has played a key role in bringing these to market. In this article, the authors explore the emergence of new cold chain equipment technologies from 2004 to 2016 and the role of PQS in this evolution. This review focuses on three major vaccine cold chain technology innovations-solar direct-drive refrigerators, long-term passive cold boxes, and equipment with user-independent freeze prevention. For the review, we used online data from WHO PQS, a literature search, and unpublished research reports. Timelines with key milestones in the emergence of the three focus technologies show delays of between one and three years between earliest field trials and publication of WHO specifications; procurement builds after the WHO prequalification of initial devices. The timelines show the role of PQS as both gatekeeper and enabler for cold chain equipment technologies. The use of target product profiles by PQS has increased its ability to signal preferred attributes and to engage with manufacturers during the product-development stage. Procurement data show how demand for solar direct-drive refrigerators increased over time. Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, is employing demand-generation strategies to try to drive procurement of technologies with favorable technical attributes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Hybrid modeling and empirical analysis of automobile supply chain network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jun-yan; Tang, Jian-ming; Fu, Wei-ping; Wu, Bing-ying

    2017-05-01

    Based on the connection mechanism of nodes which automatically select upstream and downstream agents, a simulation model for dynamic evolutionary process of consumer-driven automobile supply chain is established by integrating ABM and discrete modeling in the GIS-based map. Firstly, the rationality is proved by analyzing the consistency of sales and changes in various agent parameters between the simulation model and a real automobile supply chain. Second, through complex network theory, hierarchical structures of the model and relationships of networks at different levels are analyzed to calculate various characteristic parameters such as mean distance, mean clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. By doing so, it verifies that the model is a typical scale-free network and small-world network. Finally, the motion law of this model is analyzed from the perspective of complex self-adaptive systems. The chaotic state of the simulation system is verified, which suggests that this system has typical nonlinear characteristics. This model not only macroscopically illustrates the dynamic evolution of complex networks of automobile supply chain but also microcosmically reflects the business process of each agent. Moreover, the model construction and simulation of the system by means of combining CAS theory and complex networks supplies a novel method for supply chain analysis, as well as theory bases and experience for supply chain analysis of auto companies.

  15. Review of the 2015 Drug Supply Chain Security Act.

    PubMed

    Brechtelsbauer, Erich D; Pennell, Benjamin; Durham, Mary; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    The integrity of the pharmaceutical supply chain is threatened by medication counterfeiting, importation of unapproved and substandard drugs, and grey markets - all of which have the potential to distribute drug products with the potential for serious harm. On November 27, 2013, President Obama signed into law Title II of the Drug Quality and Security Act, now known as the Drug Supply Chain Security Act (DSCSA). Over the next 10 years, the DSCSA will require the pharmaceutical supply chain to implement medication tracking and tracing; serialization, verification, and detection of suspicious products; and strict guidelines for wholesaler licensing and reporting. This article reviews the important aspects of the DSCSA and outlines the role of health-system pharmacy leaders in ensuring compliance to the DSCSA. By verifying that medication supplies are free from adulteration and tampering, the DSCSA serves as a foundational law to ensure quality in providing patient-centered pharmacy services.

  16. Review of the 2015 Drug Supply Chain Security Act

    PubMed Central

    Brechtelsbauer, Erich D.; Pennell, Benjamin; Durham, Mary; Hertig, John B.; Weber, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The integrity of the pharmaceutical supply chain is threatened by medication counterfeiting, importation of unapproved and substandard drugs, and grey markets – all of which have the potential to distribute drug products with the potential for serious harm. On November 27, 2013, President Obama signed into law Title II of the Drug Quality and Security Act, now known as the Drug Supply Chain Security Act (DSCSA). Over the next 10 years, the DSCSA will require the pharmaceutical supply chain to implement medication tracking and tracing; serialization, verification, and detection of suspicious products; and strict guidelines for wholesaler licensing and reporting. This article reviews the important aspects of the DSCSA and outlines the role of health-system pharmacy leaders in ensuring compliance to the DSCSA. By verifying that medication supplies are free from adulteration and tampering, the DSCSA serves as a foundational law to ensure quality in providing patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:27354753

  17. Animal health and price transmission along livestock supply chains.

    PubMed

    Aragrande, M; Canali, M

    2017-04-01

    Animal health diseases can severely affect the food supply chain by causing variations in prices and market demand. Price transmission analysis reveals in what ways price variations are transmitted along the supply chain, and how supply chains of substitute products and different regional markets are also affected. In perfect markets, a price variation would be completely and instantaneously transmitted across the different levels of the supply chain: producers, the processing industry, retailers and consumers. However, empirical studies show that food markets are often imperfect, with anomalies or asymmetries in price transmission and distortions in the distribution of market benefits. This means, for instance, that a price increase at the consumer level may not be transmitted from retailers to processors and producers; yet, on the other hand, price falls may rapidly affect the upstream supply chain. Market concentration and the consequent exertion of market power in key segments of the supply chain can explain price transmission asymmetries and their distributional effects, but other factors may also be involved, such as transaction costs, scale economies, and imperfect information. During the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, asymmetric price transmission in the beef supply chain and related meat markets determined distributional effects among sectors. After the spread of the BSE food scare, the fall in demand marginally affected the price paid to retailers, but producers and wholesalers suffered much more, in both price reductions and the time needed to recover to precrisis demand. Price transmission analysis investigates how animal health crises create different economic burdens for various types of stakeholder, and provides useful socioeconomic insights when used with other tools.

  18. Developing a Model for Agile Supply: an Empirical Study from Iranian Pharmaceutical Supply Chain

    PubMed Central

    Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Zarenezhad, Forouzandeh; Rasekh, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Agility is the fundamental characteristic of a supply chain needed for survival in turbulent markets, where environmental forces create additional uncertainty resulting in higher risk in the supply chain management. In addition, agility helps providing the right product, at the right time to the consumer. The main goal of this research is therefore to promote supplier selection in pharmaceutical industry according to the formative basic factors. Moreover, this paper can configure its supply network to achieve the agile supply chain. The present article analyzes the supply part of supply chain based on SCOR model, used to assess agile supply chains by highlighting their specific characteristics and applicability in providing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). This methodology provides an analytical modeling; the model enables potential suppliers to be assessed against the multiple criteria using both quantitative and qualitative measures. In addition, for making priority of critical factors, TOPSIS algorithm has been used as a common technique of MADM model. Finally, several factors such as delivery speed, planning and reorder segmentation, trust development and material quantity adjustment are identified and prioritized as critical factors for being agile in supply of API. PMID:24250689

  19. Developing a model for agile supply: an empirical study from Iranian pharmaceutical supply chain.

    PubMed

    Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Zarenezhad, Forouzandeh; Rasekh, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Agility is the fundamental characteristic of a supply chain needed for survival in turbulent markets, where environmental forces create additional uncertainty resulting in higher risk in the supply chain management. In addition, agility helps providing the right product, at the right time to the consumer. The main goal of this research is therefore to promote supplier selection in pharmaceutical industry according to the formative basic factors. Moreover, this paper can configure its supply network to achieve the agile supply chain. The present article analyzes the supply part of supply chain based on SCOR model, used to assess agile supply chains by highlighting their specific characteristics and applicability in providing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). This methodology provides an analytical modeling; the model enables potential suppliers to be assessed against the multiple criteria using both quantitative and qualitative measures. In addition, for making priority of critical factors, TOPSIS algorithm has been used as a common technique of MADM model. Finally, several factors such as delivery speed, planning and reorder segmentation, trust development and material quantity adjustment are identified and prioritized as critical factors for being agile in supply of API.

  20. Integrating the Department of Defense Supply Chain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    46.202-4), “Examples of higher-level quality standards are ISO 9001 , 9002, or 9003; ANSI/ ISO /ASQ Q9001-2000; ANSI/ASQC Q9001, Q9002, or Q9003; QS...nature; with others considered “retail” but non-tactical, such as Air Force base supply, Army SSAs for training activities, and SS&D sites. Nevertheless...RAND Corporation research, 2003; Peltz, Eric, and Aimee Bower, “The Drivers of Operational Readiness Rates: A National Training Center Analysis

  1. Lean production in improving supply chain performance through hybrid model SCOR 11.0 - system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Chairul; Fatcha Mubiena, Ghaida; Immawan, Taufiq; Hassan, Azmi

    2016-02-01

    Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR) is a method to measure supply chain serving the business process framework, performance indicators and unique technologies to support communication and collaboration among supply chain partners. The objective of this paper is to measure Supply Chain Management performance by using SCOR version 11.0 for production typology of MTS-MTO in Indonesian Batik Industry. This research combines SCOR's model and System Dynamics in order to predict the complex activities on batik industry. The hybrid SCOR-SD could identify the interaction among five attributes with the associated variables simultaneously. The results are obtained after the performance of lean production application is increased and the targets are achieved, even exceeding the target. For reliability attributes that associated with perfect order fulfilment started from 2015 to 2019 respectively are calculated as 80.06%, 103.53%, 105.58%, 93.76%, and 72.17%. Responsiveness attributes associated with the order fulfilment cycle time, respectively 122.45%, 149.10%, 159.26%, 131.53%, and 119.36%. Attributes associated with the total cost of service charge respectively 93.46%, 93.53%, 93.45%, 93.49, and 93.49%. Attributes associated with cash management assets to cash cycle time in a row were 160%, 153%, 146.3%, 150%, and 126.7%. The latter attribute is agility attributes associated with supply chain flexibility upside respectively 100%, 87.2%, 100%, 82%, and 82%.

  2. The investigation of supply chain's reliability measure: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghizadeh, Houshang; Hafezi, Ehsan

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, using supply chain operational reference, the reliability evaluation of available relationships in supply chain is investigated. For this purpose, in the first step, the chain under investigation is divided into several stages including first and second suppliers, initial and final customers, and the producing company. Based on the formed relationships between these stages, the supply chain system is then broken down into different subsystem parts. The formed relationships between the stages are based on the transportation of the orders between stages. Paying attention to the system elements' location, which can be in one of the five forms of series namely parallel, series/parallel, parallel/series, or their combinations, we determine the structure of relationships in the divided subsystems. According to reliability evaluation scales on the three levels of supply chain, the reliability of each chain is then calculated. Finally, using the formulas of calculating the reliability in combined systems, the reliability of each system and ultimately the whole system is investigated.

  3. Salmonella serotype distribution in the Dutch broiler supply chain.

    PubMed

    van Asselt, E D; Thissen, J T N M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2009-12-01

    Salmonella serotype distribution can give insight in contamination routes and persistence along a production chain. Therefore, it is important to determine not only Salmonella prevalence but also to specify the serotypes involved at the different stages of the supply chain. For this purpose, data from a national monitoring program in the Netherlands were used to estimate the serotype distribution and to determine whether this distribution differs for the available sampling points in the broiler supply chain. Data covered the period from 2002 to 2005, all slaughterhouses (n = 22), and the following 6 sampling points: departure from hatchery, arrival at the farm, departure from the farm, arrival at the slaughterhouse, departure from the slaughterhouse, and end of processing. Furthermore, retail data for 2005 were used for comparison with slaughterhouse data. The following serotypes were followed throughout the chain: Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Paratyphi B var. Java (Salmonella Java), Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Virchow, and Salmonella Mbandaka. Results showed that serotype distribution varied significantly throughout the supply chain (P < 0.05). Main differences were found at the farm and at the slaughterhouse (within one stage), and least differences were found between departure from one stage and arrival at the next stage. The most prominent result was the increase of Salmonella Java at farm level. This serotype remained the most prominent pathogen throughout the broiler supply chain up to the retail phase.

  4. Advancing the health care supply chain and promoting leadership through strategic partnerships with industry.

    PubMed

    Motiwala, Sanober S; McLaughlin, Joan E; King, John; Hodgson, Brent; Hamilton, Michael

    2008-01-01

    While supply chain partnerships are common in the private industry, they are unique in health care. This article looks at the novel partnership between St. Michael's Hospital and Baxter Canada. By sharing information and working together, these organizations evaluated and tackled service disruptions caused by backorders. Their formal collaboration has resulted in a streamlined backorder management process, and more importantly, better and timelier patient care.

  5. Integrated forward and reverse supply chain: A tire case study.

    PubMed

    Pedram, Ali; Yusoff, Nukman Bin; Udoncy, Olugu Ezutah; Mahat, Abu Bakar; Pedram, Payam; Babalola, Ayo

    2017-02-01

    This paper attempts to integrate both a forward and reverse supply chain to design a closed-loop supply chain network (CLSC). The problem in the design of a CLSC network is uncertainty in demand, return products and the quality of return products. Scenario analyses are generated to overcome this uncertainty. In contrast to the existing supply chain network design models, a new application of a CLSC network was studied in this paper to reduce waste. A multi-product, multi-tier mixed integer linear model is developed for a CLSC network design. The main objective is to maximize profit and provide waste management decision support in order to minimize pollution. The result shows applicability of the model in the tire industry. The model determines the number and the locations of facilities and the material flows between these facilities.

  6. A Review of Theoretical Frameworks for Supply Chain Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoo, AC; Tan, LC; Sulaiman, Z.; Zakuan, N.

    2017-06-01

    In a world of fierce competition and business driven by speed to market, good quality and low costs, this environment requires firms to have a source of competitive advantage that is inimitable and non-substitutable. For a supply chain integration (SCI) strategy to achieve sustainable competitive advantage it must be non-substitutable, inimitable, path-dependent and developed over time. Also, an integrated supply chain framework is needed to tie the whole network together in order to reduce perennial supply chain challenges such as functional silos, poor transparency of knowledge and information and the inadequate formation of appropriate customer and supplier relationships. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate the competitive impact of a SCI strategy on firm performance using the theory of Resource-based View (RBV) and relational view.

  7. Chemical supply chain modeling for analysis of homeland security events

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlen, Mark A.; Sun, Amy C.; Pepple, Mark A.; Eidson, Eric D.; Jones, Brian S.

    2013-09-06

    The potential impacts of man-made and natural disasters on chemical plants, complexes, and supply chains are of great importance to homeland security. To be able to estimate these impacts, we developed an agent-based chemical supply chain model that includes: chemical plants with enterprise operations such as purchasing, production scheduling, and inventories; merchant chemical markets, and multi-modal chemical shipments. Large-scale simulations of chemical-plant activities and supply chain interactions, running on desktop computers, are used to estimate the scope and duration of disruptive-event impacts, and overall system resilience, based on the extent to which individual chemical plants can adjust their internal operations (e.g., production mixes and levels) versus their external interactions (market sales and purchases, and transportation routes and modes). As a result, to illustrate how the model estimates the impacts of a hurricane disruption, a simple example model centered on 1,4-butanediol is presented.

  8. Custom 3D Printers Revolutionize Space Supply Chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Under a series of SBIR contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, start-up company Made In Space, located on the center's campus, developed a high-precision 3D printer capable of manufacturing items in microgravity. The company will soon have a printer installed on the International Space Station, altering the space supply chain. It will print supplies and tools for NASA, as well as nanosatellite shells and other items for public and private entities.

  9. Teaching Supply Chain Management Complexities: A SCOR Model Based Classroom Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, G. Scott; Thomas, Stephanie P.; Liao-Troth, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The SCOR (Supply Chain Operations Reference) Model Supply Chain Classroom Simulation is an in-class experiential learning activity that helps students develop a holistic understanding of the processes and challenges of supply chain management. The simulation has broader learning objectives than other supply chain related activities such as the…

  10. Teaching Supply Chain Management Complexities: A SCOR Model Based Classroom Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, G. Scott; Thomas, Stephanie P.; Liao-Troth, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The SCOR (Supply Chain Operations Reference) Model Supply Chain Classroom Simulation is an in-class experiential learning activity that helps students develop a holistic understanding of the processes and challenges of supply chain management. The simulation has broader learning objectives than other supply chain related activities such as the…

  11. 78 FR 69267 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Requirements Relating to Supply Chain Risk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... supply chain risk. This rule implements section 806's three supply-chain risk-management approaches as... to improve supply chain risk management (SCRM). In doing so, the DoDI requires, among other things... consider the impact of supply chain risk in specified types of procurements related to national...

  12. Warehouse Performance and Supply Chain Management: Current Practices in the Use of Performance Measures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    This thesis addresses the question of how warehouses, which use a supply chain management logistics strategy, measure performance compared to...distinguish which companies use supply chain management versus companies which use a traditional logistics strategy, this study also provides a...comprehensive literature review on supply chain management , to include company additional information on how a supply chain management strategy is developed

  13. Community resiliency through recovery resource supply chain planning.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Charlotte; Todt, Kiersten

    2014-01-01

    Information in this paper is the result of recommendations and remedies developed at 'Local Supply Chain Capacity in a Crisis Summit Exercise' held in Arlington, VA on 30th-31st January,2013. At the event, which was funded through the Regional Catastrophic Preparedness Grant Program, national private sector and not-for-profit essential resource provider experts in sectors such as transportation, communication systems, energy/power, financial resources, medical supplies and other vital supplies, together with emergency managers, discussed best practices, major challenges and exchanged remedy recommendations.

  14. 76 FR 68159 - Establishment of the Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness and Solicitation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership AGENCY... Chain Competitiveness and solicitation of nominations for membership. SUMMARY: Pursuant to provisions... International Trade announces the establishment of the Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness...

  15. 76 FR 77778 - Amendment to Notice of Establishment of the Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Chain Competitiveness and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership AGENCY: International Trade... Supply Chain Competitiveness and solicitation of nominations for membership. SUMMARY: The Under Secretary... establishment of the Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness (the Committee) by the Secretary...

  16. Supply chain carbon footprinting and responsibility allocation under emission regulations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Xiao; Chen, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has become an enormous challenge for any single enterprise and its supply chain because of the increasing concern on global warming. This paper investigates carbon footprinting and responsibility allocation for supply chains involved in joint production. Our study is conducted from the perspective of a social planner who aims to achieve social value optimization. The carbon footprinting model is based on operational activities rather than on firms because joint production blurs the organizational boundaries of footprints. A general model is proposed for responsibility allocation among firms who seek to maximize individual profits. This study looks into ways for the decentralized supply chain to achieve centralized optimality of social value under two emission regulations. Given a balanced allocation for the entire supply chain, we examine the necessity of over-allocation to certain firms under specific situations and find opportunities for the firms to avoid over-allocation. The comparison of the two regulations reveals that setting an emission standard per unit of product will motivate firms to follow the standard and improve their emission efficiencies. Hence, a more efficient and promising policy is needed in contrast to existing regulations on total production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Supply Chain Management: Are You Maximizing Your Procurement Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbin, James; Jenkins, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Today's purchasing professionals recognize the need to reduce non-value-added procedures (clerical functions) while emphasizing strategic planning. Results-oriented supply-chain managers need superb communication, negotiation, and leadership skills to achieve long-term value and resist the lowest, first- cost bids. (Contains 13 references.) (MLH)

  18. Lead Time Demand Modeling in Continuous Review Supply Chain Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Jay Simon, Daniel Nussbaum, Aruna Apte, and John Khawam Naval Postgraduate School Platform Design for Fleet-Level Efficiency: Application for Air...Gue Auburn University Issues and Challenges in Self-Sustaining Response Supply Chains Aruna Apte, John Khawam, Eva Regnier, Jay Simon, and Daniel

  19. Benchmarking Operations to Promote Learning: An Internal Supply Chain Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Helen; Binder, Mario; Egel-Hess, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Despite the widespread discussion of organisational learning, there is little scholarly contribution on promoting learning through the practical application of management tools. This is especially true in a complex internal supply chain context of an organisation. This paper seeks to address this gap by exploring and analysing the capability of…

  20. Removing the regional level from the Niger vaccine supply chain.

    PubMed

    Assi, Tina-Marie; Brown, Shawn T; Kone, Souleymane; Norman, Bryan A; Djibo, Ali; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Rajgopal, Jayant; Slayton, Rachel B; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-06-10

    Since many of the world's vaccine supply chains contain multiple levels, the question remains of whether removing a level could bring efficiencies. We utilized HERMES to generate a detailed discrete-event simulation model of Niger's vaccine supply chain and compared the current four-tier (central, regional, district, and integrated health center levels) with a modified three-tier structure (removing the regional level). Different scenarios explored various accompanying shipping policies and frequencies. Removing the regional level and implementing a collection-based shipping policy from the district stores increases vaccine availability from a mean of 70-100% when districts could collect vaccines at least weekly. Alternatively, implementing a delivery-based shipping policy from the central store monthly in three-route and eight-route scenarios only increases vaccine availability to 87%. Restricting central-to district vaccine shipments to a quarterly schedule for three-route and eight-route scenarios reduces vaccine availability to 49%. The collection-based shipping policy from district stores reduces supply chain logistics cost per dose administered from US$0.14 at baseline to US$0.13 after removing the regional level. Removing the regional level from Niger's vaccine supply chain can substantially improve vaccine availability as long as certain concomitant adjustments to shipping policies and frequencies are implemented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Removing the Regional Level from the Niger Vaccine Supply Chain

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Tina-Marie; Brown, Shawn T.; Kone, Souleymane; Norman, Bryan A.; Djibo, Ali; Connor, Diana L.; Wateska, Angela R.; Rajgopal, Jayant; Slayton, Rachel B.; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Since many of the world’s vaccine supply chains contain multiple levels, the question remains of whether removing a level could bring efficiencies. Methods We utilized HERMES to generate a detailed discrete-event simulation model of Niger’s vaccine supply chain and compare the current four-tier (central, regional, district and integrated health center levels) with a modified three-tier structure (removing the regional level). Different scenarios explored various accompanying shipping policies and frequencies. Findings Removing the regional level and implementing a collection-based shipping policy from the district stores increases vaccine availability from a mean of 70% to 100% when districts could collect vaccines at least weekly. Alternatively, implementing a delivery-based shipping policy from the central store monthly in three-route and eight-route scenarios only increases vaccine availability to 87%. Restricting central-to district vaccine shipments to a quarterly schedule for three-route and eight-route scenarios reduces vaccine availability to 49%. The collection-based shipping policy from district stores reduces supply chain logistics cost per dose administered from US$0.14 at baseline to US$0.13 after removing the regional level. Conclusion Removing the regional level from Niger’s vaccine supply chain can substantially improve vaccine availability as long as certain concomitant adjustments to shipping policies and frequencies are implemented. PMID:23602666

  2. Mapping of Supply Chain Learning: A Framework for SMEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakkar, Jitesh; Kanda, Arun; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to propose a mapping framework for evaluating supply chain learning potential for the context of small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach: The extracts of recently completed case based research for ten manufacturing SME units and facts reported in the previous research are utilized…

  3. Hardwood lumber supply chain: current status and market opportunities

    Treesearch

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Al Schuler; Mark Barford

    2007-01-01

    The membership of the Appalachian Hardwood Manufacturers Association was surveyed in 2005 to determine the current status of large Appalachian sawmills. The primary focus was to assess the impacts of globalization on primary manufacturing, but attention was also paid to general issues affecting the hardwood lumber supply chain-from concerns over forest health and log...

  4. Supply Chain Resilience: Assessing USAF Weapon System Life Cycle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Signed // ____________ 12 March 2010 Timothy J. Pettit , Lt Col, PhD (Chairman) Date ______________// Signed //______________ 12...advisor, Lt Col Tim Pettit , and my committee member, Maj Dan Mattioda, for their guidance and support during this research effort. I would, also, like...Resilience Assessment and Management (SCRAM™) tool ( Pettit , 2008). The SCRAM™ tool is used to measure current supply chain vulnerabilities and capabilities

  5. Examining the Geographies of Supply Chains in Introductory Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafsky, Ronald V.; Conner, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Supply chains and other trade networks are of interest to geographers, due to their ability to connect economic processes at various scales. Relatively recent research, however, suggests that core concepts and topics in economic geography are not being fully and effectively engaged in the classroom environment. With such findings as a motivation,…

  6. Proposal for Supply Chain Concentration in the Traditional MBA Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswamy, K. V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to develop and implement a concentration in Supply Chain Management in the existing traditional MBA program effective fall 2012. Houston is the hub for many multinational oil and energy companies, large healthcare systems, wholesale/retail businesses, engineering and construction companies, and is a major city along…

  7. Biofuel Supply Chains: Impacts, Indicators and Sustainability Metrics(Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuel supply chains in the United States are expected to expand considerably, in part due to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. This law mandates through the EPA’s Renewable Fuel Standard an expansion to 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels per year by 2...

  8. Identifying and Managing Acquisition and Sustainment Supply Chain Risks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    40 percent • demand volatility leading to surges or shortfalls in production, repair, or distribution, cited by 36 percent • brand reputation...in supply chain risk management. Factor Overall Chem. Retail High- Tech Auto Aero & Defense Pharma Con- sumer Goods Ind./ Discrete...reduced Volcanic eruptions Flight cancellations Floods Capacities of high-tech and automotive industries reduced Labor unrest Chinese factory riots

  9. Supply Chain Management: Are You Maximizing Your Procurement Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbin, James; Jenkins, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Today's purchasing professionals recognize the need to reduce non-value-added procedures (clerical functions) while emphasizing strategic planning. Results-oriented supply-chain managers need superb communication, negotiation, and leadership skills to achieve long-term value and resist the lowest, first- cost bids. (Contains 13 references.) (MLH)

  10. Benchmarking Operations to Promote Learning: An Internal Supply Chain Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Helen; Binder, Mario; Egel-Hess, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Despite the widespread discussion of organisational learning, there is little scholarly contribution on promoting learning through the practical application of management tools. This is especially true in a complex internal supply chain context of an organisation. This paper seeks to address this gap by exploring and analysing the capability of…

  11. Supply Chain Development: Insights from Strategic Niche Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caniels, Marjolein C. J.; Romijn, Henny A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the study of supply chain design from the perspective of complex dynamic systems. Unlike extant studies that use formal simulation modelling and associated methodologies rooted in the physical sciences, it adopts a framework rooted in the social sciences, strategic niche management, which…

  12. Mapping of Supply Chain Learning: A Framework for SMEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakkar, Jitesh; Kanda, Arun; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to propose a mapping framework for evaluating supply chain learning potential for the context of small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach: The extracts of recently completed case based research for ten manufacturing SME units and facts reported in the previous research are utilized…

  13. Supply Chain Development: Insights from Strategic Niche Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caniels, Marjolein C. J.; Romijn, Henny A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the study of supply chain design from the perspective of complex dynamic systems. Unlike extant studies that use formal simulation modelling and associated methodologies rooted in the physical sciences, it adopts a framework rooted in the social sciences, strategic niche management, which…

  14. Maintenance Enterprise Resource Planning: Information Value Among Supply Chain Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-30

    MSC) involves Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul ( MRO ) organizations and the relationships within and across suppliers and customers. These...Abstract Maintenance Supply Chain (MSC) involves Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul ( MRO ) organizations and the relationships within and across suppliers...maintenance, repair and overhaul ( MRO ) organizations to show how uncertainty is affected by the use of information systems in maintenance operations. In spite

  15. An Integrated Supply Chain Solution for Theater Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-17

    5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Colonel Ronda G. Urey Department of Military Strategy, Planning, and...PROJECT AN INTEGRATED SUPPLY CHAIN SOLUTION FOR THEATER DISTRIBUTION by Colonel Mark A. McCormick United States Army Colonel Ronda G. Urey Project

  16. Examining the Geographies of Supply Chains in Introductory Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafsky, Ronald V.; Conner, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Supply chains and other trade networks are of interest to geographers, due to their ability to connect economic processes at various scales. Relatively recent research, however, suggests that core concepts and topics in economic geography are not being fully and effectively engaged in the classroom environment. With such findings as a motivation,…

  17. RFID in the healthcare supply chain: usage and application.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sameer; Swanson, Eric; Tran, Thuy

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to first, determine the most efficient and cost effective portions of the healthcare supply chain in which radio frequency identification devices (RFID) can be implemented. Second, provide specific examples of RFID implementation and show how these business applications will add to the effectiveness of the healthcare supply chain. And third, to describe the current state of RFID technology and to give practical information for managers in the healthcare sector to make sound decisions about the possible implementation of RFID technology within their organizations. Healthcare industry literature was reviewed and examples of specific instances of RFID implementation were examined using an integrated simulation model developed with Excel, @Risk and Visio software tools. Analysis showed that the cost of implementing current RFID technology is too expensive for broad and sweeping implementation within the healthcare sector at this time. However, several example applications have been identified in which this technology can be effectively leveraged in a cost-effective way. This study shows that RFID technology has come a long way in the recent past and has potential to improve healthcare sector productivity and efficiency. Implementation by large companies such as Wal-mart has helped to make the technology become much more economical in its per unit cost as well as its supporting equipment and training costs. The originality of this study lies in the idea that few practical and pragmatic approaches have been taken within the academic field of study for the implementation of RFID into the healthcare supply chain. Much of the research has focused on specific companies or portions of the supply chain and not the entire supply chain. Also, many of the papers have discussed the future of the supply chain that is heavily dependent on advances in RFID technology. A few viable applications of how RFID technology can be implemented in the healthcare

  18. Global Carbon Fiber Composites Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit; Warren, Josh; West, Devin; Schexnayder, Susan M.

    2016-05-01

    This study identifies key opportunities in the carbon fiber supply chain where the United States Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy resources and investments can help the United States achieve or maintain a competitive advantage. The report focuses on four application areas--wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels--that top the list of industries using carbon fiber and carbon fiber reinforced polymers and are also particularly relevant to EERE's mission. For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components, all contributing to a competitiveness assessment that addresses the United States' role in future industry growth. This report was prepared by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center.

  19. Production Planning and Simulation for Reverse Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Takeshi; Yoda, Mitsunobu; Eguchi, Toru; Oba, Fuminori

    This paper describes a production planning method for a reverse supply chain, in which a disassembly company takes reusable components from returned used products and supplies the reusable components for a product manufacturer. This method addresses the issue that the timings and quantities of returned products and reusable components obtained from them are unknown. This method first predicts the quantities of returned products and reusable components at each time period by using reliability models. Using the prediction result, the method performs production planning based on Material Requirements Planning (MRP). This method enables us to plan at each time period: the quantity of the products to be disassembled; the quantity of the reusable components to be used; and the quantity of the new components to be produced. The flow of the components and products through a forward and reverse supply chain is simulated to show the effectiveness of the method.

  20. Biomass Supply Chain and Conversion Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Ronalds W.

    2011-12-01

    Cellulosic biomass is a potential and competitive source for bioenergy production, reasons for such acclamation include: biomass is one the few energy sources that can actually be utilized to produce several types of energy (motor fuel, electricity, heat) and cellulosic biomass is renewable and relatively found everywhere. Despite these positive advantages, issues regarding cellulosic biomass availability, supply chain, conversion process and economics need a more comprehensive understanding in order to identify the near short term routes in biomass to bioenergy production. Cellulosic biomass accounts for around 35% to 45% of cost share in cellulosic ethanol production, in addition, different feedstock have very different production rate, (dry ton/acre/year), availability across the year, and chemical composition that affect process yield and conversion costs as well. In the other hand, existing and brand new conversion technologies for cellulosic ethanol production offer different advantages, risks and financial returns. Ethanol yield, financial returns, delivered cost and supply chain logistic for combinations of feedstock and conversion technology are investigated in six studies. In the first study, biomass productivity, supply chain and delivered cost of fast growing Eucalyptus is simulated in economic and supply chain models to supply a hypothetic ethanol biorefinery. Finding suggests that Eucalyptus can be a potential hardwood grown specifically for energy. Delivered cost is highly sensitive to biomass productivity, percentage of covered area. Evaluated at different financial expectations, delivered cost can be competitive compared to current forest feedstock supply. In the second study, Eucalyptus biomass conversion into cellulosic ethanol is simulated in the dilute acid pretreatment, analysis of conversion costs, cost share, CAPEX and ethanol yield are examined. In the third study, biomass supply and delivered cost of loblolly pine is simulated in economic

  1. Supply chain management/ Some lessons learned the hard way.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This paper will look at some of the experiences, lessons and frustrations experienced in managing supply chains for business continuity. No-one has time to make all the mistakes, nor to learn all the lessons on their own, so it is useful to share experiences. Over the last 25 years, the author has been involved in supply chain management as a contract manager; a programme and project manager; and as a business continuity manager. Although times change, there are some fundamental principles that are absolutely critical in making sure that supply chains do what they are needed to do/ to keep business going. Supply chains are here to stay. Indeed, with today's drive towards outsourcing, best-shoring and contracting out, they are becoming more important every year and this will only continue over time. Moreover, in the highly competitive markets in which all organisations operate, suppliers may well be carrying out operations that not all that long ago would have been considered to be part of core business. Getting the right relationship with the supply chain is more critical than ever before.1 What does this mean to business continuity professionals? They need to think not just about their own BC plans, but about the plans of their suppliers, and even those of their suppliers' suppliers. This may seem obvious, but unlike internal BC plans written by and for an organisation, it must be considered just what a supplier's plans are designed to achieve. What business outcomes will their plans deliver? If they recover their own business, how does that affect the business they serve? Are others' assumptions of how they will react in line with theirs?

  2. The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Aruoma, Okezie I

    2006-04-03

    Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, "a hazard" is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer.

  3. Improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology.

    PubMed

    Matanza, David; Hallouard, François; Rioufol, Catherine; Fessi, Hatem; Fraysse, Marc

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate an approach for improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology. We first evaluated the current situation of our radiopharmaceutical supply chain and, by means of the ALARM protocol, analysed two dispensing errors that occurred in our department. Thereafter, we implemented a bar code system to secure selected key stages of the radiopharmaceutical supply chain. Finally, we evaluated the cost of this implementation, from overtime, to overheads, to additional radiation exposure to workers. An analysis of the events that occurred revealed a lack of identification of prepared or dispensed drugs. Moreover, the evaluation of the current radiopharmaceutical supply chain showed that the dispensation and injection steps needed to be further secured. The bar code system was used to reinforce product identification at three selected key stages: at usable stock entry; at preparation-dispensation; and during administration, allowing to check conformity between the labelling of the delivered product (identity and activity) and the prescription. The extra time needed for all these steps had no impact on the number and successful conduct of examinations. The investment cost was reduced (2600 euros for new material and 30 euros a year for additional supplies) because of pre-existing computing equipment. With regard to the radiation exposure to workers there was an insignificant overexposure for hands with this new organization because of the labelling and scanning processes of radiolabelled preparation vials. Implementation of bar code technology is now an essential part of a global securing approach towards optimum patient management.

  4. Optimizing energy for a 'green' vaccine supply chain.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, John; McCarney, Steve; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Lydon, Patrick; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-02-11

    This paper describes an approach piloted in the Kasserine region of Tunisia to increase the energy efficiency of the distribution of vaccines and temperature sensitive drugs. The objectives of an approach, known as the 'net zero energy' (NZE) supply chain were demonstrated within the first year of operation. The existing distribution system was modified to store vaccines and medicines in the same buildings and to transport them according to pre-scheduled and optimized delivery circuits. Electric utility vehicles, dedicated to the integrated delivery of vaccines and medicines, improved the regularity and reliability of the supply chains. Solar energy, linked to the electricity grid at regional and district stores, supplied over 100% of consumption meeting all energy needs for storage, cooling and transportation. Significant benefits to the quality and costs of distribution were demonstrated. Supply trips were scheduled, integrated and reliable, energy consumption was reduced, the recurrent cost of electricity was eliminated and the release of carbon to the atmosphere was reduced. Although the initial capital cost of scaling up implementation of NZE remain high today, commercial forecasts predict cost reduction for solar energy and electric vehicles that may permit a step-wise implementation over the next 7-10 years. Efficiency in the use of energy and in the deployment of transport is already a critical component of distribution logistics in both private and public sectors of industrialized countries. The NZE approach has an intensified rationale in countries where energy costs threaten the maintenance of public health services in areas of low population density. In these countries where the mobility of health personnel and timely arrival of supplies is at risk, NZE has the potential to reduce energy costs and release recurrent budget to other needs of service delivery while also improving the supply chain. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  5. Optimizing energy for a ‘green’ vaccine supply chain

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, John; McCarney, Steve; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Lydon, Patrick; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an approach piloted in the Kasserine region of Tunisia to increase the energy efficiency of the distribution of vaccines and temperature sensitive drugs. The objectives of an approach, known as the ‘net zero energy’ (NZE) supply chain were demonstrated within the first year of operation. The existing distribution system was modified to store vaccines and medicines in the same buildings and to transport them according to pre-scheduled and optimized delivery circuits. Electric utility vehicles, dedicated to the integrated delivery of vaccines and medicines, improved the regularity and reliability of the supply chains. Solar energy, linked to the electricity grid at regional and district stores, supplied over 100% of consumption meeting all energy needs for storage, cooling and transportation. Significant benefits to the quality and costs of distribution were demonstrated. Supply trips were scheduled, integrated and reliable, energy consumption was reduced, the recurrent cost of electricity was eliminated and the release of carbon to the atmosphere was reduced. Although the initial capital cost of scaling up implementation of NZE remain high today, commercial forecasts predict cost reduction for solar energy and electric vehicles that may permit a step-wise implementation over the next 7–10 years. Efficiency in the use of energy and in the deployment of transport is already a critical component of distribution logistics in both private and public sectors of industrialized countries. The NZE approach has an intensified rationale in countries where energy costs threaten the maintenance of public health services in areas of low population density. In these countries where the mobility of health personnel and timely arrival of supplies is at risk, NZE has the potential to reduce energy costs and release recurrent budget to other needs of service delivery while also improving the supply chain. PMID:25444811

  6. Optimisation of a green gas supply chain--a review.

    PubMed

    Bekkering, J; Broekhuis, A A; van Gemert, W J T

    2010-01-01

    In this review the knowledge status of and future research options on a green gas supply based on biogas production by co-digestion is explored. Applications and developments of the (bio)gas supply in The Netherlands have been considered, whereafter literature research has been done into the several stages from production of dairy cattle manure and biomass to green gas injection into the gas grid. An overview of a green gas supply chain has not been made before. In this study it is concluded that on installation level (micro-level) much practical knowledge is available and on macro-level knowledge about availability of biomass. But on meso-level (operations level of a green gas supply) very little research has been done until now. Future research should include the modeling of a green gas supply chain on an operations level, i.e. questions must be answered as where to build digesters based on availability of biomass. Such a model should also advise on technology of upgrading depending on scale factors. Future research might also give insight in the usability of mixing (partly upgraded) biogas with natural gas. The preconditions for mixing would depend on composition of the gas, the ratio of gases to be mixed and the requirements on the mixture.

  7. Supply Chain Engineering and the Use of a Supporting Knowledge Management Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakmann, Frank

    The future competition in markets will happen between logistics networks and no longer between enterprises. A new approach for supporting the engineering of logistics networks is developed by this research as a part of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 559: "Modeling of Large Networks in Logistics" at the University of Dortmund together with the Fraunhofer-Institute of Material Flow and Logistics founded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). Based on a reference model for logistics processes, the process chain model, a guideline for logistics engineers is developed to manage the different types of design tasks of logistics networks. The technical background of this solution is a collaborative knowledge management application. This paper will introduce how new Internet-based technologies support supply chain design projects.

  8. Supply chain value creation methodology under BSC approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golrizgashti, Seyedehfatemeh

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this paper is proposing a developed balanced scorecard approach to measure supply chain performance with the aim of creating more value in manufacturing and business operations. The most important metrics have been selected based on experts' opinion acquired by in-depth interviews focused on creating more value for stakeholders. Using factor analysis method, a survey research has been used to categorize selected metrics into balanced scorecard perspectives. The result identifies the intensity of correlation between perspectives and cause-and-effect chains among them using statistical method based on a real case study in home appliance manufacturing industries.

  9. Lignocellulosic crop supply chains (eg, Miscanthus, switchgrass, reed canary grass, rye, giant reed, etc.) Chapter 12 of "Biomass Supply Chains for Bioenergy and Biorefining"

    SciTech Connect

    Roni, Mohammad S.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Hess, J. Richard; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Searcy, Erin; Tumuluru, Jaya S.

    2016-03-01

    This chapter provides an overview of lignocellulosic crop supply chains such as Miscanthus, switch grass, reed canary grass, rye, and giant reed by outlining typical logistic operations in support of a liquid biofuel market. We present two strategies for managing feedstocks within the biomass supply system: (1) the conventional bale feedstock supply system and (2) the advanced supply system concept. Finally, we discuss feedstock blending and integrated landscape management as innovative improvements to the lignocellulosic crop supply chain.

  10. Hybrid Algorithms for Fuzzy Reverse Supply Chain Network Design

    PubMed Central

    Che, Z. H.; Chiang, Tzu-An; Kuo, Y. C.

    2014-01-01

    In consideration of capacity constraints, fuzzy defect ratio, and fuzzy transport loss ratio, this paper attempted to establish an optimized decision model for production planning and distribution of a multiphase, multiproduct reverse supply chain, which addresses defects returned to original manufacturers, and in addition, develops hybrid algorithms such as Particle Swarm Optimization-Genetic Algorithm (PSO-GA), Genetic Algorithm-Simulated Annealing (GA-SA), and Particle Swarm Optimization-Simulated Annealing (PSO-SA) for solving the optimized model. During a case study of a multi-phase, multi-product reverse supply chain network, this paper explained the suitability of the optimized decision model and the applicability of the algorithms. Finally, the hybrid algorithms showed excellent solving capability when compared with original GA and PSO methods. PMID:24892057

  11. Learning to Select Supplier Portfolios for Service Supply Chain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Jingfei; Wu, Shaoyu; Meng, Dabin

    2016-01-01

    The research on service supply chain has attracted more and more focus from both academia and industrial community. In a service supply chain, the selection of supplier portfolio is an important and difficult problem due to the fact that a supplier portfolio may include multiple suppliers from a variety of fields. To address this problem, we propose a novel supplier portfolio selection method based on a well known machine learning approach, i.e., Ranking Neural Network (RankNet). In the proposed method, we regard the problem of supplier portfolio selection as a ranking problem, which integrates a large scale of decision making features into a ranking neural network. Extensive simulation experiments are conducted, which demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed supplier portfolio selection model can be applied in a real corporation easily in the future. PMID:27195756

  12. Rare earths: Market disruption, innovation, and global supply chains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggert, Roderick; Wadia, Cyrus; Anderson, Corby; Bauer, Diana; Fields, Fletcher; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Taylor, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Rare earths, sometimes called the vitamins of modern materials, captured public attention when their prices increased more than ten-fold in 2010 and 2011. As prices fell between 2011 and 2016, rare earths receded from public view—but less visibly they became a major focus of innovative activity in companies, government laboratories and universities. Geoscientists worked to better understand the resource base and improve our knowledge about mineral deposits that will be mines in the future. Process engineers carried out research that is making primary production and recycling more efficient. Materials scientists and engineers searched for substitutes that will require fewer or no rare earths while providing properties comparable or superior to those of existing materials. As a result, even though global supply chains are not significantly different now than they were before the market disruption, the innovative activity motivated by the disruption likely will have far-reaching, if unpredictable, consequences for supply chains of rare earths in the future.

  13. Using integrated information systems in supply chain management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzálvez-Gallego, Nicolás; Molina-Castillo, Francisco-Jose; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Varajao, Joao; Trigo, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to empirically test not only the direct effects of information and communication technology (ICT) capabilities and integrated information systems (IS) on firm performance, but also the moderating role of IS integration along the supply chain in the relationship between ICT external and capabilities and business performance. Data collected from 102 large Iberian firms from Spain and Portugal are used to test the research model. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis is employed to test the direct effects and the moderating relationships proposed. Results show that external and internal ICT capabilities are important drivers of firm performance, while merely having integrated IS do not lead to better firm performance. In addition, a moderating effect of IS integration in the relationship between ICT capabilities and business performance is found, although this integration only contributes to firm performance when it is directed to connect with suppliers or customers rather than when integrating the whole supply chain.

  14. Hybrid algorithms for fuzzy reverse supply chain network design.

    PubMed

    Che, Z H; Chiang, Tzu-An; Kuo, Y C; Cui, Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    In consideration of capacity constraints, fuzzy defect ratio, and fuzzy transport loss ratio, this paper attempted to establish an optimized decision model for production planning and distribution of a multiphase, multiproduct reverse supply chain, which addresses defects returned to original manufacturers, and in addition, develops hybrid algorithms such as Particle Swarm Optimization-Genetic Algorithm (PSO-GA), Genetic Algorithm-Simulated Annealing (GA-SA), and Particle Swarm Optimization-Simulated Annealing (PSO-SA) for solving the optimized model. During a case study of a multi-phase, multi-product reverse supply chain network, this paper explained the suitability of the optimized decision model and the applicability of the algorithms. Finally, the hybrid algorithms showed excellent solving capability when compared with original GA and PSO methods.

  15. Environmental and sustainability ethics in supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Beamon, Benita M

    2005-04-01

    Environmentally Conscious Supply Chain Management (ECSCM refers to the control exerted over all immediate and eventual environmental effects of products and processes associated with converting raw materials into final products. While much work has been done in this area, the focus has traditionally been on either: product recovery (recycling, remanufacturing, or re-use) or the product design function only (e.g., design for environment). Environmental considerations in manufacturing are often viewed as separate from traditional, value-added considerations. However, the case can be made that professional engineers have an ethical responsibility to consider the immediate and eventual environmental impacts of products and processes that they design and/or manage. This paper describes ECSCM as a component of engineering ethics, and highlights the major issues associated with ethical decision-making in supply chain management.

  16. Progress in combating cigarette smuggling: controlling the supply chain

    PubMed Central

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    2008-01-01

    Background: The illicit tobacco trade results in huge losses of revenue to governments, estimated at $US40–50 billion in 2006, and in increased consumption and thus health problems because it makes tobacco available more cheaply. On 20 October 2008 the second meeting of the International Negotiating Body (INB2) on the illicit trade protocol of WHO’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) will discuss measures to tackle the illicit trade in tobacco products. Methods: This paper presents the experience over the last decade of three countries, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom, which shows that tobacco smuggling can be successfully tackled. Conclusion: The evidence strongly suggests that the key to controlling smuggling is controlling the supply chain, and that the supply chain is controlled to a great extent by the tobacco industry. PMID:18784154

  17. Learning to Select Supplier Portfolios for Service Supply Chain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Jingfei; Wu, Shaoyu; Meng, Dabin

    2016-01-01

    The research on service supply chain has attracted more and more focus from both academia and industrial community. In a service supply chain, the selection of supplier portfolio is an important and difficult problem due to the fact that a supplier portfolio may include multiple suppliers from a variety of fields. To address this problem, we propose a novel supplier portfolio selection method based on a well known machine learning approach, i.e., Ranking Neural Network (RankNet). In the proposed method, we regard the problem of supplier portfolio selection as a ranking problem, which integrates a large scale of decision making features into a ranking neural network. Extensive simulation experiments are conducted, which demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed supplier portfolio selection model can be applied in a real corporation easily in the future.

  18. Centralized Supply Chain Management: Command and Control of Sustainment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Continued streamlining of the RSSs to a single, more agile organization will better support the expeditionary Air Force. The research will...examine only the effects of centralizing the management of RSSs at a single location. A literature review of transformational supply chain processes...primarily confined to individual theaters and are managed by theater- based organizations, like MAJCOM RSSs . Examples of this management included

  19. Model-Based Engineering for Supply Chain Risk Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Model-Based Engineering for Supply Chain Risk Management Dan Shoemaker, Ph.D. University of Detroit Mercy Carol Woody, Ph.D. Carnegie Mellon...University Software Engineering Institute Abstract—Expanded use of commercial components has increased the complexity of system assurance...verification. Model- based engineering (MBE) offers a means to design, develop, analyze, and maintain a complex system architecture. Architecture Analysis

  20. When supply chain strategy changes, what doesn't change?

    PubMed

    Sochocki, L; Kaminski, P

    1999-02-01

    Although implementation of an assemble-to-order supply chain strategy can often improve customer service, the transition to an assemble-to-order system requires many new processes, organizations, and skills. This article, in describing how Etec Systems, a leader in patterning solutions for the semiconductor and electronics industries, has implemented an assemble-to-order strategy, illuminates some of the issues that will be faced by any company choosing such a strategy.

  1. Quantifying food waste in Hawaii's food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Loke, Matthew K; Leung, PingSun

    2015-12-01

    Food waste highlights a considerable loss of resources invested in the food supply chain. While it receives a lot of attention in the global context, the assessment of food waste is deficient at the sub-national level, owing primarily to an absence of quality data. This article serves to explore that gap and aims to quantify the edible weight, economic value, and calorie equivalent of food waste in Hawaii. The estimates are based on available food supply data for Hawaii and the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability data for defined food groups at three stages of the food supply chain. At its highest aggregated level, we estimate Hawaii's food waste generation at 237,122 t or 26% of available food supply in 2010. This is equivalent to food waste of 161.5 kg per person, per annum. Additionally, this food waste is valued at US$1.025 billion annually or the equivalent of 502.6 billion calories. It is further evident that the occurrence of food waste by all three measures is highest at the consumer stage, followed by the distribution and retail stage, and is lowest at the post-harvest and packing stage. The findings suggest that any meaningful intervention to reduce food waste in Hawaii should target the consumer, and distribution and retail stages of the food supply chain. Interventions at the consumer stage should focus on the two protein groups, as well as fresh fruits and fresh vegetables. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Complex interdependent supply chain networks: Cascading failure and robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Liang; Jing, Ke; He, Jie; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2016-02-01

    A supply chain network is a typical interdependent network composed of an undirected cyber-layer network and a directed physical-layer network. To analyze the robustness of this complex interdependent supply chain network when it suffers from disruption events that can cause nodes to fail, we use a cascading failure process that focuses on load propagation. We consider load propagation via connectivity links as node failure spreads through one layer of an interdependent network, and we develop a priority redistribution strategy for failed loads subject to flow constraint. Using a giant component function and a one-to-one directed interdependence relation between nodes in a cyber-layer network and physical-layer network, we construct time-varied functional equations to quantify the dynamic process of failed loads propagation in an interdependent network. Finally, we conduct a numerical simulation for two cases, i.e., single node removal and multiple node removal at the initial disruption. The simulation results show that when we increase the number of removed nodes in an interdependent supply chain network its robustness undergoes a first-order discontinuous phase transition, and that even removing a small number of nodes will cause it to crash.

  3. Chemical supply chain modeling for analysis of homeland security events

    DOE PAGES

    Ehlen, Mark A.; Sun, Amy C.; Pepple, Mark A.; ...

    2013-09-06

    The potential impacts of man-made and natural disasters on chemical plants, complexes, and supply chains are of great importance to homeland security. To be able to estimate these impacts, we developed an agent-based chemical supply chain model that includes: chemical plants with enterprise operations such as purchasing, production scheduling, and inventories; merchant chemical markets, and multi-modal chemical shipments. Large-scale simulations of chemical-plant activities and supply chain interactions, running on desktop computers, are used to estimate the scope and duration of disruptive-event impacts, and overall system resilience, based on the extent to which individual chemical plants can adjust their internal operationsmore » (e.g., production mixes and levels) versus their external interactions (market sales and purchases, and transportation routes and modes). As a result, to illustrate how the model estimates the impacts of a hurricane disruption, a simple example model centered on 1,4-butanediol is presented.« less

  4. Sustainability in Supply Chain Management: Aggregate Planning from Sustainability Perspective.

    PubMed

    Türkay, Metin; Saraçoğlu, Öztürk; Arslan, Mehmet Can

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers.

  5. Sustainability in Supply Chain Management: Aggregate Planning from Sustainability Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Türkay, Metin; Saraçoğlu, Öztürk; Arslan, Mehmet Can

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers. PMID:26807848

  6. Control of enterprise interfaces for supply chain enterprise modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Interrante, L.D.; Macfarlane, J.F.

    1995-04-01

    There is a current trend for manufacturing enterprises in a supply chain of a particular industry to join forces in an attempt to promote efficiencies and improve competitive position. Such alliances occur in the context of specific legal and business agreements such that each enterprise retains a majority of its business and manufacturing information as private and shares other information with its trading partners. Shared information may include enterprise demand projections, capacities, finished goods inventories, and aggregate production schedules. Evidence of the trend toward information sharing includes the recent emphases on vendor-managed inventories, quick response, and Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards. The increased competition brought on by the global marketplace is driving industries to consider the advantages of trading partner agreements. Aggregate-level forecasts, supply-chain production smoothing, and aggregate-level inventory policies can reduce holding costs, record-keeping overhead, and lead time in product development. The goal of this research is to orchestrate information exchange among trading partners to allow for aggregate-level analysis to enhance supply chain efficiency. The notion of Enterprise Interface Control (EIC) is introduced as a means of accomplishing this end.

  7. Enhancing supply chain performance with improved order-control policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilakantan, K.

    2010-09-01

    This article takes up the study of the dynamics of a single product in a prototype three-stage supply chain system, at the downstream warehouse end of the chain, under a responsive chain strategy. The dynamics under various ordering policies and the parameters which will yield desired responses are systematically analysed, both for deterministic and stochastic systems. Higher-order control policies are then proposed and analysed. The considered key performance criteria are the permanent inventory deviations from the desired levels, or the offset, the maximum dip in inventory, the 'undershoot', the damping effect and decay rates, and the duration of time in the negative region, for deterministic systems; and additionally, the inventory variance for stochastic systems. It is shown that the disadvantages of the conventional (proportional-integral-derivative) control policies, like large negative deviations, low decay rates, and high inventory variance, can be overcome by the use of higher-order control policies proposed herein.

  8. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan

    2013-02-22

    The objective of the report is to provide an assessment of the domestic supply chain and manufacturing infrastructure supporting the U.S. offshore wind market. The report provides baseline information and develops a strategy for future development of the supply chain required to support projected offshore wind deployment levels. A brief description of each of the key chapters includes: » Chapter 1: Offshore Wind Plant Costs and Anticipated Technology Advancements. Determines the cost breakdown of offshore wind plants and identifies technical trends and anticipated advancements in offshore wind manufacturing and construction. » Chapter 2: Potential Supply Chain Requirements and Opportunities. Provides an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding the uncertainties associated with a future U.S. offshore wind market. It projects potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios and identifies key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market as well as current suppliers of the nation’s land-based wind market. » Chapter 3: Strategy for Future Development. Evaluates the gap or competitive advantage of adding manufacturing capacity in the U.S. vs. overseas, and evaluates examples of policies that have been successful . » Chapter 4: Pathways for Market Entry. Identifies technical and business pathways for market entry by potential suppliers of large-scale offshore turbine components and technical services. The report is intended for use by the following industry stakeholder groups: (a) Industry participants who seek baseline cost and supplier information for key component segments and the overall U.S. offshore wind market (Chapters 1 and 2). The component-level requirements and opportunities presented in Section 2.3 will be particularly useful in identifying market sizes, competition, and risks for the various component segments. (b) Federal, state, and local policymakers and economic development

  9. Integrating strategic and tactical decisions in livestock supply chain using bi-level programming, case study: Iran poultry supply chain.

    PubMed

    Teimoury, Ebrahim; Jabbarzadeh, Armin; Babaei, Mohammadhosein

    2017-01-01

    Inventory management has frequently been targeted by researchers as one of the most pivotal problems in supply chain management. With the expansion of research studies on inventory management in supply chains, perishable inventory has been introduced and its fundamental differences from non-perishable inventory have been emphasized. This article presents livestock as a type of inventory that has been less studied in the literature. Differences between different inventory types, affect various levels of strategic, tactical and operational decision-making. In most articles, different levels of decision-making are discussed independently and sequentially. In this paper, not only is the livestock inventory introduced, but also a model has been developed to integrate decisions across different levels of decision-making using bi-level programming. Computational results indicate that the proposed bi-level approach is more efficient than the sequential decision-making approach.

  10. The Research on Integrated Strategy of Supply Chain Information Systems in the Automobile Industry Based on Order-To-Delivery Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Gan, Lianzhen; He, Xuefeng

    The automotive industry there are different degrees of impairment of many companies supply chain IT strategy. In this paper, in which the automotive industry supply chain management business cooperation between enterprises loose, poor exchange of information leading to the presence or delays in product customization, supply of raw materials, material control, production planning and control, sales and service and a fast response propose a series of typical problems of scientific and rational supply chain information integration strategy. The strategy through the development system integration platform, improve internal ERP system, implementation of supply chain management and other methods. Put some protection principles in the information process, to ensure the correct implementation of supply chain IT strategy, and ultimately achieve collaborative business development concept and enhance the automotive industry as a whole level of information.

  11. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Adom, Felix K.; Cai, Hao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Hartley, Damon; Searcy, Erin; Tan, Eric; Jones, Sue; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2016-03-31

    This report describes the supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA) of renewable gasoline and diesel produced via fast pyrolysis of a blended woody feedstock. The metrics considered in this analysis include supply chain greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and water consumption.

  12. Measuring the influence of industry sector membership on supply chain disruption reporting.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The global Supply Chain Resilience Survey by the Business Continuity Institute and Zurich Insurance is a comprehensive study on the state of supply chains in different organisations worldwide. As a benchmarking tool, it also contains data about business continuity arrangements in place to ensure supply chain resilience. Given this study's historically qualitative approach to reporting, this paper aims to introduce quantitative analysis. In this paper, responses that report membership in Standard Industrial Classification 2007 industry sectors from the 2013 Supply Chain Resilience Survey were disaggregated and related to supply chain disruption reporting. A chi-square test of independence reveals that membership in a particular industry sector influences reporting of supply chain disruption. Nonetheless, the relationship between these variables is weak. This study demonstrates interesting differences between industry sectors in terms of supply chain resilience. Further research is required in terms of other variables in order to provide granularity and relevant findings to supply chain planners.

  13. What is Climate Leadership: Examples and Lessons Learned in Supply Chain Management Webinar

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Organizations that have developed comprehensive greenhouse gas inventories and aggressive emissions reduction goals discuss their strategies for managing greenhouse gases in their organizational supply chains and use of EPA Supply Chain resources.

  14. 77 FR 7133 - Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness Solicitation of Nominations for Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... International Trade Administration Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness Solicitation of..., Including Ports, To Apply for Membership on the Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness. SUMMARY... Competitiveness (Committee). Representatives of ports are particularly encouraged to apply. The purpose of...

  15. Traceability and Risk Analysis Strategies for Addressing Counterfeit Electronics in Supply Chains for Complex Systems.

    PubMed

    DiMase, Daniel; Collier, Zachary A; Carlson, Jinae; Gray, Robin B; Linkov, Igor

    2016-10-01

    Within the microelectronics industry, there is a growing concern regarding the introduction of counterfeit electronic parts into the supply chain. Even though this problem is widespread, there have been limited attempts to implement risk-based approaches for testing and supply chain management. Supply chain risk management tends to focus on the highly visible disruptions of the supply chain instead of the covert entrance of counterfeits; thus counterfeit risk is difficult to mitigate. This article provides an overview of the complexities of the electronics supply chain, and highlights some gaps in risk assessment practices. In particular, this article calls for enhanced traceability capabilities to track and trace parts at risk through various stages of the supply chain. Placing the focus on risk-informed decision making through the following strategies is needed, including prioritization of high-risk parts, moving beyond certificates of conformance, incentivizing best supply chain management practices, adoption of industry standards, and design and management for supply chain resilience.

  16. Effects-Based Logistics Operations: A Strategic Supply Chain Approach for the US Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-23

    Additional References Annexes Initiative Summary (Readiness Based Analysis / Supply Chain Management ) LOGSA - Provide Project Enabling Analytic Data...Costs While Maintaining Readiness Classical Inventory Theory Recent Developments in Supply Chain Management Theory “Benchmarking” Against Corporate

  17. Supply Chain Viability for the North American Microwave Power Tube Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Sponsored by DTIC Supply Chain Viability for the North American Microwave Power Tube Industry Supply Chain Viability for the US Microwave Power Tube...Industry iii Supply Chain Viability for the North American Microwave Power Tube Industry September 2002 Therese M. Philippi Federico M. Sciammarella...Patterson Air Force Base 45433-7739 Supply Chain Viability for the US Microwave Power Tube Industry ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved Public

  18. The Future of Integrated Supply Chain Management Utilizing Performance Based Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Defense Acquisition Review Journal 2 the future of integrateD supply chain ManageMent Image designed by Jim Elmore Report Documentation Page Form...00-00-2002 to 00-00-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Future of Integrated Supply Chain Management Utilizing Performance Based Logistics 5a...Defense Acquisition Review Journal the future of integrateD supply chain ManageMent 3 the future of integrateD supply chain ManageMent utiliZing

  19. National supply-chain survey of drug manufacturer back orders.

    PubMed

    Wellman, G S

    2001-07-01

    The impact of manufacturer back orders on the supply chain for pharmaceuticals in the institutional setting was studied. A questionnaire was distributed during May and June 2000 to 600 institutional pharmacies affiliated with a major national drug and supply group purchasing organization. The instrument included questions on basic institutional demographics, perceptions about the frequency of manufacturer back orders for pharmaceuticals, the quality of communication with manufacturers and wholesalers about back orders, the two most significant back orders that had occurred in the 12 months preceding the survey, and the reasons for and impact of back orders. A total of 170 usable surveys were returned (net response rate, 28.3%). Reported manufacturer back orders included an array of drug classes, including blood products, antimicrobials, antiarrhythmics, benzodiazepine antagonists, thrombolytics, corticosteroids, and antihypertensives. Respondents perceived significant back orders as increasing in frequency. Communication by manufacturers and wholesalers about back orders was reported to be relatively poor. A raw-material shortage was the most common reason given by manufacturers for back orders (36.5%), followed by a regulatory issue (23.2%). In most cases (92%), medical staff members had to be contacted, indicating an interruption in the normal drug distribution process. In over a third of instances, respondents stated that the back order resulted in less optimal therapy. A survey found that manufacturer back orders for pharmaceuticals were increasing in frequency and that information flow within the supply chain was insufficient to meet the needs of end users.

  20. Study on supply chain management in tourism e-commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaodong; Wu, Shuyan; Ma, Haiyan

    2009-07-01

    On-line customer research has been conducted for European and American markets by marketers and academics. Whilst e-Commerce and tourism develop rapidly in China, and the fraud information in E-commerce market makes the conditions of information asymmetry becoming more seriously, understanding of Chinese internet travelers is required. This paper reviews current research on supply chain management (SCM) within the context of tourism. SCM in the manufacturing industry has attracted widespread research interest over the past two decades, whereas studies of SCM in the tourism e-commerce are very limited. The potential benefit of considering not only individual enterprises but also the tourism value chain becomes evident. This paper presents the model e-market structure and process analysis of tourism e-commerce, and also sets up tourism supply chain and tourism e-commerce system to probe how to apply tourism ecommerce to promote the sustainable development of tourism. The paper also identifies key research questions in TSCM worthy of future theoretical and empirical exploration.

  1. 76 FR 34271 - Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit... Supply Chain Group, including leased workers from QFlex, North America Logistics and UPS teleworkers...

  2. 78 FR 79401 - Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness Charter Renewal AGENCY... Administration, renewed the Charter for the Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness on November 20, 2013. DATES: The Charter for the Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness was renewed...

  3. Open-Source ERP: Is It Ripe for Use in Teaching Supply Chain Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Minh Q.; Chu, Hung W.

    2011-01-01

    The field of supply chain management has changed greatly and rapidly. With the advent of enterprise systems, supply chains are now operating with up-to-the-minute information. The value of the information flow is marked by speed, accessibility, accuracy, and most of all relevancy. As it continually evolves, the supply chain management curriculum…

  4. Open-Source ERP: Is It Ripe for Use in Teaching Supply Chain Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Minh Q.; Chu, Hung W.

    2011-01-01

    The field of supply chain management has changed greatly and rapidly. With the advent of enterprise systems, supply chains are now operating with up-to-the-minute information. The value of the information flow is marked by speed, accessibility, accuracy, and most of all relevancy. As it continually evolves, the supply chain management curriculum…

  5. Organizing Defense Logistics: What Strategic Structures Should Exist for the Defense Supply Chain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-17

    Logistics Board, TRANSCOM, DLA, Supply Chain Management , SCOR Model, Core Processes 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18...10 Supply Chain Management Literature...Executive DLGSCMS Defense Logistics and Global Supply Chain Management System DMI Define, Measure, Improve DoD Department of Defense DODD

  6. Supply Chain Management: A Case Study of Using EDI and Bar Code Information Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    This research addresses the impact of various practices in supply chain management with EDI and barcoding information technology. While EDI...through the supply chain in a Taiwan company. By implementing EDI, Barcoding, POS, EOS systems, the Kang Kuo Company has embraced the supply chain management and

  7. Modelling and genetic algorithm based optimisation of inverse supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bányai, T.

    2009-04-01

    The design and control of recycling systems of products with environmental risk have been discussed in the world already for a long time. The main reasons to address this subject are the followings: reduction of waste volume, intensification of recycling of materials, closing the loop, use of less resource, reducing environmental risk [1, 2]. The development of recycling systems is based on the integrated solution of technological and logistic resources and know-how [3]. However the financial conditions of recycling systems is partly based on the recovery, disassembly and remanufacturing options of the used products [4, 5, 6], but the investment and operation costs of recycling systems can be characterised with high logistic costs caused by the geographically wide collection system with more collection level and a high number of operation points of the inverse supply chain. The reduction of these costs is a popular area of the logistics researches. These researches include the design and implementation of comprehensive environmental waste and recycling program to suit business strategies (global system), design and supply all equipment for production line collection (external system), design logistics process to suit the economical and ecological requirements (external system) [7]. To the knowledge of the author, there has been no research work on supply chain design problems that purpose is the logistics oriented optimisation of inverse supply chain in the case of non-linear total cost function consisting not only operation costs but also environmental risk cost. The antecedent of this research is, that the author has taken part in some research projects in the field of closed loop economy ("Closing the loop of electr(on)ic products and domestic appliances from product planning to end-of-life technologies), environmental friendly disassembly (Concept for logistical and environmental disassembly technologies) and design of recycling systems of household appliances

  8. Halal Supply Chain Management Streamlined Practices: Issues and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijrah Abd Kadir, Muhammad; Zuraidah Raja Mohd Rasi, Raja; Omar, Siti Sarah; Manap, Zariq Imran Abdul

    2016-11-01

    The quickly developing worldwide halal in business sector has given a remarkable window of chance, which empowers Malaysia to the renowned halal centre in worldwide (known as Halal-hubs). Malaysia also has proactively taken a lead in halal activities, which is presently considered as the benchmark for a halal framework worldwide. Malaysia also set up the Halal Industry Development Corporation (HDC) which driving a wide range of halal activities since the demand of halal food has increased significantly which is very crucial for a Muslim in ensuring its authenticity and integrity. Even in parallel to this developments, many studies has been conducted because there are many issues still occurs in the food industry. The issue of consumer awareness and understanding the halal principles, mixing of halal and non- halal products, halal certification and logo compliance with Shariah law and lack of regulation and enforcement need the serious attention by all parties along the supply chain. The challenges occur mainly in the halal food segregation and halal traceability of the products. The unit of analysis in this study different halal stakeholders group which are JAKIM, Halal Development Centre (HDC), Raw Material Manufacturers, Retailers and Government Agencies. This paper attempt discusses the issues and challenges occurs in the halal supply chain and faced by the practitioners as well as the relevant parties involved in the industry especially for food products manufacturers. The study would like to give a basic information about the issues and challenges in the contribution of Halal Supply Chain Management (HSCM) as well as for the future studies.

  9. Supply Chain Modeling: Downstream Risk Assessment Methodology (DRAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-05

    Approach  Use neodymium iron boron magnet supply chain as basis for prototype  Conduct literature review and canvass experts to identify desirable...Analysis 14K Neodymium Dysprosium Demand 15K 3000 1650 1250 50 4464 5952 5 5 14 40K 56.5K 990 China China 24K 91K China China China...Production Magnet Production Magnet Fabrication 9 14K Neodymium Dysprosium Demand 15K 3000 1650 1250 50 4464 5952 5 5 14 40K 56.5K 990

  10. Using SCOR as a Supply Chain Management Framework for Government Agency Contract Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxton, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Enterprise Supply Chain Management consists of: Specifying suppliers to support inter-program and inter-agency efforts. Optimizing inventory levels and locations throughout the supply chain. Executing corrective actions to improve quality and lead time issues throughout the supply chain. Processing reported data to calculate and make visible supply chain performance (provide information for decisions and actions). Ensuring the right hardware and information is provided at the right time and in the right place. Monitoring the industrial base while developing, producing, operating and retiring a system. Seeing performance deep in the supply chain that could indicate issues affecting system availability and readiness.

  11. Alignment between chain quality management and chain governance in EU pork supply chains: a Transaction-Cost-Economics perspective.

    PubMed

    Wever, Mark; Wognum, Nel; Trienekens, Jacques; Omta, Onno

    2010-02-01

    Although inter-firm coordination of quality management is increasingly important for meeting end-customer demand in agri-food chains, few researchers focus on the relation between inter-firm quality management systems (QMS) and inter-firm governance structures (GS). However, failure to align QMSs and GSs may lead to inefficiencies in quality management because of high transaction-costs. In addition, misalignment is likely to reduce the quality of end-customer products. This paper addresses this gap in research by empirically examining the relation between QMSs and GSs in pork meat supply chains. Transaction-Cost-Economic theory is used to develop propositions about the relation between three aspects of QMSs--ownership, vertical scope and scale of adoption--and the use of different types of GSs in pork meat supply chains. To validate the propositions, seven cases are examined from four different countries. The results show that the different aspects of QMSs largely relate to specific GSs used in chains in the manner predicted by the propositions. This supports the view that alignment between QMSs and GSs is important for the efficient coordination of quality management in (pork meat) supply chains.

  12. Tracing global supply chains to air pollution hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Daniel; Kanemoto, Keiichiro

    2016-09-01

    While high-income countries have made significant strides since the 1970s in improving air quality, air pollution continues to rise in many developing countries and the world as a whole. A significant share of the pollution burden in developing countries can be attributed to production for export to consumers in high-income nations. However, it remains a challenge to quantify individual actors’ share of responsibility for pollution, and to involve parties other than primary emitters in cleanup efforts. Here we present a new spatially explicit modeling approach to link SO2, NO x , and PM10 severe emissions hotspots to final consumers via global supply chains. These maps show developed countries reducing their emissions domestically but driving new pollution hotspots in developing countries. This is also the first time a spatially explicit footprint inventory has been established. Linking consumers and supply chains to emissions hotspots creates opportunities for other parties to participate alongside primary emitters and local regulators in pollution abatement efforts.

  13. Consequence and Resilience Modeling for Chemical Supply Chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamber, Kevin L.; Vugrin, Eric D.; Ehlen, Mark A.; Sun, Amy C.; Warren, Drake E.; Welk, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. chemical sector produces more than 70,000 chemicals that are essential material inputs to critical infrastructure systems, such as the energy, public health, and food and agriculture sectors. Disruptions to the chemical sector can potentially cascade to other dependent sectors, resulting in serious national consequences. To address this concern, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) tasked Sandia National Laboratories to develop a predictive consequence modeling and simulation capability for global chemical supply chains. This paper describes that capability , which includes a dynamic supply chain simulation platform called N_ABLE(tm). The paper also presents results from a case study that simulates the consequences of a Gulf Coast hurricane on selected segments of the U.S. chemical sector. The case study identified consequences that include impacted chemical facilities, cascading impacts to other parts of the chemical sector. and estimates of the lengths of chemical shortages and recovery . Overall. these simulation results can DHS prepare for and respond to actual disruptions.

  14. Shrinking the Supply Chain for Implantable Coronary Stent Devices.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sean S; O'Sullivan, Kevin J; Verdecchia, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    Stenting treatments for the management of disease in the heart, arterial and venous systems, biliary ducts, urethras, ureters, oesophageal tract and prostate have made enormous technical advances since their introduction into clinical use. The progression from metallic to polymer based bio-absorbable stents, coupled with the advances in additive manufacturing techniques, present a unique opportunity to completely re-envision the design, manufacture, and supply chain of stents. This paper looks at current stenting trends and proposes a future where the stent supply chain is condensed from ~150 days to ~20 min. The Cardiologist therefore has the opportunity to become a designer, manufacturer and user with patients receiving custom stents specific to their unique pathology that will be generated, delivered and deployed in the Cath-lab. The paper will outline this potentially revolutionary development and consider the technical challenges that will need to be overcome in order to achieve these ambitious goals. A high level overview of the generating eluting stents in situ program-GENESIS-is outlined including some early experimental work.

  15. Integrated strategic and tactical biomass-biofuel supply chain optimization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Rodríguez, Luis F; Shastri, Yogendra N; Hansen, Alan C; Ting, K C

    2014-03-01

    To ensure effective biomass feedstock provision for large-scale biofuel production, an integrated biomass supply chain optimization model was developed to minimize annual biomass-ethanol production costs by optimizing both strategic and tactical planning decisions simultaneously. The mixed integer linear programming model optimizes the activities range from biomass harvesting, packing, in-field transportation, stacking, transportation, preprocessing, and storage, to ethanol production and distribution. The numbers, locations, and capacities of facilities as well as biomass and ethanol distribution patterns are key strategic decisions; while biomass production, delivery, and operating schedules and inventory monitoring are key tactical decisions. The model was implemented to study Miscanthus-ethanol supply chain in Illinois. The base case results showed unit Miscanthus-ethanol production costs were $0.72L(-1) of ethanol. Biorefinery related costs accounts for 62% of the total costs, followed by biomass procurement costs. Sensitivity analysis showed that a 50% reduction in biomass yield would increase unit production costs by 11%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Managing the innovation supply chain to maximize personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Waldman, S A; Terzic, A

    2014-02-01

    Personalized medicine epitomizes an evolving model of care tailored to the individual patient. This emerging paradigm harnesses radical technological advances to define each patient's molecular characteristics and decipher his or her unique pathophysiological processes. Translated into individualized algorithms, personalized medicine aims to predict, prevent, and cure disease without producing therapeutic adverse events. Although the transformative power of personalized medicine is generally recognized by physicians, patients, and payers, the complexity of translating discoveries into new modalities that transform health care is less appreciated. We often consider the flow of innovation and technology along a continuum of discovery, development, regulation, and application bridging the bench with the bedside. However, this process also can be viewed through a complementary prism, as a necessary supply chain of services and providers, each making essential contributions to the development of the final product to maximize value to consumers. Considering personalized medicine in this context of supply chain management highlights essential points of vulnerability and/or scalability that can ultimately constrain translation of the biological revolution or potentiate it into individualized diagnostics and therapeutics for optimized value creation and delivery.

  17. Emergency management logistics must become emergency supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Young, Richard R; Peterson, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written about how emergency management (EM) needs to look to the future regarding issues of resource management (monetary, human, and material). Constraints on budgets are ongoing and the staffing of emergency response activities is often difficult because volunteers have little to no training. The management of material resources has also been a challenge because 1) the categories of material vary by the type of emergency, 2) the necessary quantities of material are often not located near the ultimate point of need, and 3) the transportation assets are rarely available in the form and quantity required to allow timely and effective response. The logistics and resource management functions of EM (what we refer to as EM logistics) have been largely reactive, with little to no pre-event planning for potential demand. We applied the Supply Chain Operational Reference (SCOR) model to EM logistics in an effort to transform it to an integrated and scalable system of physical, information, and financial flows into which are woven the functions of sourcing, making, delivering, and returning, with an overarching planning function that transcends the organizational boundaries of participants. The result is emergency supply chain management, which embraces many more participants who share in a larger quantity of more useful information about the resources that need to be deployed when responding to and recovering from emergency events.

  18. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-01-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674

  19. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-07-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating.

  20. Optimizing clinical trial supply requirements: simulation of computer-controlled supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Magnus; Byrom, Bill; Dowlman, Nikki; McEntegart, Damian

    2004-01-01

    Computer-controlled systems are commonly used in clinical trials to control dispensing and manage site inventories of trial supplies. Typically such systems are used with an interactive telephone or web system that provide an interface with the study site. Realizing the maximum savings in medication associated with this approach has, in the past, been problematic as it has been difficult to fully estimate medication requirements due to the complexities of these algorithms and the inherent variation in the clinical trial recruitment process. We describe the traditional and automated methods of supplying sites. We detail a simulation approach that models the automated system. We design a number of simulation experiments using this model to investigate the supply strategy properties that influence medication overage and other strategy performance metrics. The computer-controlled medication system gave superior performance to the traditional method. In one example, a 75% overage of wasted medication in the traditional system was associated with higher supply failure than an automated system strategy with an overage of 47%. In a further example, we demonstrate that the impact of using a country stratified as opposed to site stratified scheme affects the number of deliveries and probability of supply failures more than the amount of drug wasted with respective increases of 20, 2300 and 4%. Medication savings with automated systems are particularly significant in repeat dispensing designs. We show that the number of packs required can fall by as much as 50% if one uses a predictive medication algorithm. We conclude that a computer-controlled supply chain enables medication savings to be realized and that it is possible to quantify the distribution of these savings using a simulation model. The simulation model can be used to optimize the prestudy medication supply strategy and for midstudy monitoring using real-time data contained in the study database.

  1. Exploring future scenarios for the global supply chain of tuna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullon, C.; Guillotreau, P.; Galbraith, E. D.; Fortilus, J.; Chaboud, C.; Bopp, L.; Aumont, O.; Kaplan, D.

    2017-06-01

    The abundance of tuna, an important top predator that ranges throughout tropical and subtropical oceans, is now largely determined by fishing activity. Fishing activity, in turn, is determined by the interaction of fish availability, fishing capacity, fishing costs and global markets for tuna products. In the face of overfishing, the continued sustainable supply of tuna is likely to require improved global governance, that would benefit from modeling frameworks capable of integrating market forces with the availability of fish in order to consider alternative future projections. Here we describe such a modeling framework, in which we develop several simple, contrasting scenarios for the development of the tuna supply chain in order to illustrate the utility of the approach for global evaluation of management strategies for tuna and other complex, stock-structured fisheries. The model includes multiple national and multi-national fishing fleets, canneries and fresh/frozen markets, and connects these to global consumers using a network of flows. The model is calibrated using recent data on fish catch, cannery and fresh/frozen production, and consumption. Scenarios explore the control on future outcomes in the global tuna fishery by representing, in a simple way, the effects of (1) climate change, (2) changes in the global demand for tuna, and (3) changes in the access to fishing grounds (marine reserves). The results emphasize the potential importance of increasing demand in provoking a global collapse, and suggest that controlling tuna production by limiting technical efficiency is a potential countermeasure. Finally we discuss the outcomes in terms of potential extensions of the scenario approach allowed by this global network model of the tuna supply chain.

  2. Analysing the external supply chain risk driver competitiveness: a risk mitigation framework and business continuity plan.

    PubMed

    Blos, Mauricio F; Wee, Hui-Ming; Yang, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    Innovation challenges for handling supply chain risks have become one of the most important drivers in business competitiveness and differentiation. This study analyses competitiveness at the external supply chain level as a driver of risks and provides a framework for mitigating these risks. The mitigation framework, also called the supply chain continuity framework, provides insight into six stages of the business continuity planning (BCP) process life cycle (risk mitigation management, business impact analysis, supply continuity strategy development, supply continuity plan development, supply continuity plan testing and supply continuity plan maintenance), together with the operational constructs: customer service, inventory management, flexibility, time to market, ordering cycle time and quality. The purpose of the BCP process life cycle and operational constructs working together is to emphasise the way in which a supply chain can deal with disruption risks and, consequently, bring competitive advantage. Future research will consider the new risk scenarios and analyse the consequences to promote the improvement of supply chain resilience.

  3. Short Term Cyber Attacks with Long Term Effects and Degradation of Supply Chain Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    product returns . Risk is assessed in the supply chain by the determination of likelihood and consequence based on short- term views (non-black swan...supplying goods during periods of critical needs. Using a life-cycle approach, quantifiable metrics were used to compare short-term risks with long...term risks in a network supply chain to establish the existence of black swan events. 14. SUBJECT TERMS cybersecurity, supply chain risk

  4. Making products available among community health workers: Evidence for improving community health supply chains from Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Chandani, Yasmin; Andersson, Sarah; Heaton, Alexis; Noel, Megan; Shieshia, Mildred; Mwirotsi, Amanda; Krudwig, Kirstin; Nsona, Humphreys; Felling, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background A UNICEF review of the challenges to scaling up integrated community case management (iCCM) found that drug shortages were a common bottleneck. In many settings, little thought has gone into the design of supply chains to the community level and limited evidence exists for how to address these unique challenges. SC4CCM’s purpose was to conduct intervention research to identify proven, simple, affordable solutions that address the unique supply chain challenges faced by CHWs and to demonstrate that supply chain constraints at the community level can be overcome. Methods SC4CCM selected three countries to implement supply chain innovations and developed a theory of change (TOC) framework for the learning phase, which identified the main drivers of product availability and was used for baseline assessments, design, implementation and evaluation of interventions in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda. Interventions were developed in each country and tested over 12–24 months. Mixed–method follow up assessments were conducted in each country in 2012–2013. The Supply Chain for Community Case Management (SC4CCM) Project then simplified the TOC into a Community Health Supply Chain (CHSC) framework to enable cross country analysis Results The findings from interventions in the three countries suggest that the greatest supply chain benefits are realized when all three CHSC framework elements (data flow, product flow, and effective people) are in place and working together. The synergistic effect of these three elements on supply chain performance was most effectively demonstrated by results from the Enhanced Management and Quality Collaborative interventions in Malawi and Rwanda, respectively, which were characterized by lower mean stockout rates and higher in stock rates on day of visit, when compared to other interventions. Conclusions Many conditions are necessary to ensure continuous product availability at the community level, however a supply chain works

  5. Making products available among community health workers: Evidence for improving community health supply chains from Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Chandani, Yasmin; Andersson, Sarah; Heaton, Alexis; Noel, Megan; Shieshia, Mildred; Mwirotsi, Amanda; Krudwig, Kirstin; Nsona, Humphreys; Felling, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    A UNICEF review of the challenges to scaling up integrated community case management (iCCM) found that drug shortages were a common bottleneck. In many settings, little thought has gone into the design of supply chains to the community level and limited evidence exists for how to address these unique challenges. SC4CCM's purpose was to conduct intervention research to identify proven, simple, affordable solutions that address the unique supply chain challenges faced by CHWs and to demonstrate that supply chain constraints at the community level can be overcome. SC4CCM selected three countries to implement supply chain innovations and developed a theory of change (TOC) framework for the learning phase, which identified the main drivers of product availability and was used for baseline assessments, design, implementation and evaluation of interventions in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda. Interventions were developed in each country and tested over 12-24 months. Mixed-method follow up assessments were conducted in each country in 2012-2013. The Supply Chain for Community Case Management (SC4CCM) Project then simplified the TOC into a Community Health Supply Chain (CHSC) framework to enable cross country analysis. The findings from interventions in the three countries suggest that the greatest supply chain benefits are realized when all three CHSC framework elements (data flow, product flow, and effective people) are in place and working together. The synergistic effect of these three elements on supply chain performance was most effectively demonstrated by results from the Enhanced Management and Quality Collaborative interventions in Malawi and Rwanda, respectively, which were characterized by lower mean stockout rates and higher in stock rates on day of visit, when compared to other interventions. Many conditions are necessary to ensure continuous product availability at the community level, however a supply chain works best when three key elements (product flow, data

  6. Using SCOR as a Supply Chain Management Framework for Government Agency Contract Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxton, Joseph; Tucker, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This paper will present a model that uses the Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) model as a foundation for a framework to illustrate the information needed throughout a product lifecycle to support a healthy supply chain management function and the subsequent contract requirements to enable it. It will also show where in the supply chain the information must be extracted. The ongoing case study used to exemplify the model is NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Ares I program for human spaceflight. Effective supply chain management and contract requirements are ongoing opportunities for continuous improvement within government agencies, specifically development of systems for human spaceflight operations. Multiple reports from the Government Accountability Office (GAO) reinforce this importance. The SCOR model is a framework for describing a supply chain with process building blocks and business activities. It provides a set of metrics for measuring supply chain performance and best practices for continuously improving. This paper expands the application of the SCOR to also provide the framework for defining information needed from different levels of the supply chain and at different phases of the lifecycle. These needs can be incorporated into contracts to enable more effective supply chain management. Depending on the phase of the lifecycle, effective supply chain management will require involvement from different levels of the organization and different levels of the supply chain.

  7. Using SCOR as a Supply Chain Management Framework for Government Agency Contract Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxton, Joseph; Tucker, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This paper will present a model that uses the Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) model as a foundation for a framework to illustrate the information needed throughout a product lifecycle to support a healthy supply chain management function and the subsequent contract requirements to enable it. It will also show where in the supply chain the information must be extracted. The ongoing case study used to exemplify the model is NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Ares I program for human spaceflight. Effective supply chain management and contract requirements are ongoing opportunities for continuous improvement within government agencies, specifically development of systems for human spaceflight operations. Multiple reports from the Government Accountability Office (GAO) reinforce this importance. The SCOR model is a framework for describing a supply chain with process building blocks and business activities. It provides a set of metrics for measuring supply chain performance and best practices for continuously improving. This paper expands the application of the SCOR to also provide the framework for defining information needed from different levels of the supply chain and at different phases of the lifecycle. These needs can be incorporated into contracts to enable more effective supply chain management. Depending on the phase of the lifecycle, effective supply chain management will require involvement from different levels of the organization and different levels of the supply chain.

  8. The palm oil supply chain, deforestation and peat clearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, D. H.

    2013-12-01

    The palm oil industry has expanded rapidly in the last two decades, particularly in Indonesia. A considerable amount of this expansion has been at the expense of forests and peatlands, resulting in considerable greenhouse gas emissions. Now the industry is faced with two new challenges. There is a possible oversupply on the global market due to recent expansion and the time lag between clearing and new production coming on line, which may depress prices considerably. Furthermore, there is increasing pressure to reduce the industry's impact on climate and biodiversity, exemplified by the commitment by the businesses of the Consumer Goods Forum to eliminate deforestation from their supply chains by 2020. This presentation will examine the interaction between these two challenges and its implications for the industry, in both southeast Asia and new regions of expansion, and how this interaction could transform the industry's mode of expansion in the coming decade.

  9. How to Increase Value in the Footwear Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasiero, Rosanna; Tescaro, Mauro; Scarso, Enrico; Gottardi, Giorgio

    The Lean approach has been implemented in many different sectors as a methodology to improve industrial performance at company level. In the latest years this approach has been further developed in literature and in practice to integrate the principles of agility, adaptability and the mass customization paradigm where product and services have to be designed together to meet specific requirements, and where value originated by the supply chain enhance the value of single company thanks to the use of ICT and remote control. In this paper we analyze the Beyond-Lean paradigm and propose a path for companies in the footwear sector to improve their performance based on high-value-added products and processes. A detailed process analysis based on Value Stream Mapping is used to define criticalities and suggest improvements paths both at technological and organizational level.

  10. Supply-chain environmental effects of wastewater utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Jennifer R.; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-01-01

    This letter describes a comprehensive modeling framework and the Wastewater-Energy Sustainability Tool (WWEST) designed for conducting hybrid life-cycle assessments of the wastewater collection, treatment, and discharge infrastructure in the United States. Results from a case study treatment plant which produces electricity using methane offgas are discussed. The case study system supplements influent with 'high-strength organic waste' to augment electricity production. The system balance is 55 kg of greenhouse gases per million liters of wastewater. Sensitivity analysis confirms that reusing biogas from anaerobic digestion for electricity reduces life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions by nine times. When biogas is captured and reused for electricity, material production (e.g., chemicals and pipes) and the corresponding supply chains, rather than energy production, are responsible for most of the environmental effects. When biogas is flared, the material and energy production contributions are similar.

  11. An Organizational Knowledge Ontology for Automotive Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellingrath, Bernd; Witthaut, Markus; Böhle, Carsten; Brügger, Stephan

    The currently completed ILIPT (Intelligent Logistics for Innovative Product Technologies) project was concerned with the concept of the “5 day car” (a customized car that is delivered within five days after its ordering) and encompassed extensive research on the required production and logistics network structures and processes. As car manufacturers in the automotive industry (commonly referred to as OEMs) rely heavily on their suppliers, the major challenge lies in the organization of inter-enterprise cooperation supported by information systems (IS) in an efficient manner. A common understanding of supply chain concepts is indispensable for this. Ontologies as formal representations of concepts can be used as a semantic basis for cooperation. Relevant results from ILIPT are presented followed by a concept as well as a prototype of how to transfer the theoretical findings to a practical implementation, in this case a multi-agent system.

  12. Supply chain coordination with defective items and quantity discount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsien-Jen; Lin, Yu-Jen

    2014-12-01

    This study develops an integrated inventory system involving defective items and quantity discount for optimal pricing and ordering strategies. The model analysed in this study is one in which the buyer orders a quantity, the vendor produces more than buyer's order quantity in order to reduce set-up cost, and then he/she offers an all-units quantity discount to the buyer. Our objective is to determine the optimal order quantity, retail price, mark-up rate, and the number of shipments per production run from the vendor to the buyer, so that the entire supply chain joint total profit incurred has a maximum value. Furthermore, an algorithm of finding the optimal solution is developed. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  13. 76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to... issued by the Department on November 8, 2010 for all workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply...

  14. The benefits of redesigning Benin's vaccine supply chain.

    PubMed

    Brown, Shawn T; Schreiber, Benjamin; Cakouros, Brigid E; Wateska, Angela R; Dicko, Hamadou M; Connor, Diana L; Jaillard, Philippe; Mvundura, Mercy; Norman, Bryan A; Levin, Carol; Rajgopal, Jayant; Avella, Mélanie; Lebrun, Caroline; Claypool, Erin; Paul, Proma; Lee, Bruce Y

    2014-07-07

    New vaccine introductions have put strains on vaccine supply chains around the world. While increasing storage and transportation may be the most straightforward options, it is also important to consider what financial and operational benefits can be incurred. In 2012, suboptimal vaccine coverage and impending vaccine introductions prompted the Republic of Benin's Ministry of Health (MOH) to explore ways to improve their vaccine supply chain. Working alongside the Beninese MOH, we utilized our computational model, HERMES, to explore the impact on cost and vaccine availability of three possible options: (1) consolidating the Commune level to a Health Zone level, (2) removing the Commune level completely, and (3) removing the Commune level and expanding to 12 Department Stores. We also analyzed the impact of adding shipping loops during delivery. At baseline, new vaccine introductions without any changes to the current system increased the logistics cost per dose ($0.23 to $0.26) and dropped the vaccine availability to 71%. While implementing the Commune level removal scenario had the same capital costs as implementing the Health Zone scenario, the Health Zone scenario had lower operating costs. This increased to an overall cost savings of $504,255 when implementing shipping loops. The best redesign option proved to be the synergistic approach of converting to the Health Zone design and using shipping loops (serving ten Health Posts/loop). While a transition to either redesign or only adding shipping loops was beneficial, implementing a redesign option and shipping loops can yield both lower capital expenditures and operating costs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Project financing knits parts of costly LNG supply chain

    SciTech Connect

    Minyard, R.J.; Strode, M.O.

    1997-06-02

    The supply and distribution infrastructure of an LNG project requires project sponsors and LNG buyers to make large, interdependent capital investments. For a grassroots project, substantial investments may be necessary for each link in the supply chain: field development; liquefaction plant and storage; ports and utilities; ships; receiving terminal and related facilities; and end-user facilities such as power stations or a gas distribution network. The huge sums required for these projects make their finance ability critical to implementation. Lenders have become increasingly comfortable with LNG as a business and now have achieved a better understanding of the risks associated with it. Raising debt financing for many future LNG projects, however, will present new and increasingly difficult challenges. The challenge of financing these projects will be formidable: political instability, economic uncertainty, and local currency volatility will have to be recognized and mitigated. Described here is the evolution of financing LNG projects, including the Rasgas LNG project financing which broke new ground in this area. The challenges that lie ahead for sponsors seeking to finance future projects selling LNG to emerging markets are also discussed. And the views of leading experts from the field of project finance, specifically solicited for this article, address major issues that must be resolved for successful financing of these projects.

  16. Supply Chain Collaboration: Information Sharing in a Tactical Operating Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUN 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND...the divisions as 6 ASCEF & BORDETSKY cost centers and the divisions could work as a team. This action can improve lead- times and decrease...BORDETSKY transaction costs of the buyers, and buyers tend to reduce the supplier base too(E. T. G. Wang & Seidmann, 2012). To quantify the

  17. An intelligent traceability system: Efficient tool for a supply chain sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougdira, Abdesselam; Ahaitouf, Abdelaziz; Akharraz, Ismail

    2016-07-01

    The supply chain sustainability becomes a necessity for a smooth, a rapid and a fluid economic transaction. To reach a sustainable supply chain, we propose to focus attention on products and their lifecycle. So, we consider the traceability as a major success key to ensure the supply chain sustainability. For that, we consider a supply chain design that use an intelligent products traced by an intelligent traceability system. This system identifies, restores history and properties of a product, besides it tracks, in real-time a product. This solution can, also, bring, in the product environment, appropriate adjustments to prevent any risk of threatening qualities for the product. So, it helps supply chain contributors making the sustainable adjustments and the instant benchmark of the supply chain sustainability.

  18. Medium-chain fatty acid nanoliposomes for easy energy supply.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Wei-Lin; Liu, Cheng-Mei; Liu, Jian-Hua; Yang, Shui-Bing; Zheng, Hui-Juan; Lei, Han-Wu; Ruan, Roger; Li, Ti; Tu, Zong-Cai; Song, Xin-Yong

    2011-06-01

    Developing a nanoliposome delivery system for an easy energy supply of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) to improve oral doses and bioavailability. Bangham's method and high-pressure microfluidization were used to prepare MCFA liposomes. The easy energy-supply property of MCFA nanoliposomes was estimated by the anti-fatigue experiments of mice including a weight-loaded swimming test and its corresponding parameters (serum urea nitrogen, blood lactic acid, and hepatic glycogen). For comparison, nanoliposomes without MCFAs and MCFAs not entrapped in nanoliposomes were used throughout. Compared with crude MCFA liposomes according to Bangham's method, the MCFA nanoliposomes made by high-pressure microfluidization exhibited great advantages in their characteristics, with a small average diameter (76.2 ± 34.7 nm), narrow size distribution (polydispersity index 0.207), high ζ-potential (-50.51 mV), great entrapment efficiency (70.5%) and drug loading (9.4%), and good stability. The high-dose group and the MCFA group (680 mg/kg) showed a longer weight-loaded swimming time (104 ± 29 min, P = 0.087, and 108 ± 11 min, P = 0.047, respectively) and significantly higher hepatic glycogen (16.40 ± 1.45 mg/g, P < 0.001 and 17.27 ± 2.13 mg/g, P < 0.001, respectively) than the control group (59 ± 11 min and 8.79 ± 2.76 mg/g, respectively). Moreover, serum urea nitrogen (891.5 ± 113.4 mg/L, P = 0.024, and 876.6 ± 70.8 mg/L, P = 0.015, respectively) and blood lactic acid (6.05 ± 1.40 mmol/L, P = 0.001, and 5.95 ± 1.27 mmol/L, P < 0.001, respectively) in the high-dose group and the group with an equivalent MCFA dose were significantly lower than those in the control group (1153.6 ± 102.5 mg/L and 12.53 ± 1.86 mmol/L, respectively). Similar to MCFAs, MCFA nanoliposomes prepared by high-pressure microfluidization showed a strong easy energy-supply property, which suggested that MCFA nanoliposomes could be a potential drug candidate for an easy energy supply. Copyright © 2011

  19. Advanced Value Chain Collaboration in Ghana's Cocoa Sector: An Entry Point for Integrated Landscape Approaches?

    PubMed

    Deans, Howard; Ros-Tonen, Mirjam A F; Derkyi, Mercy

    2017-04-15

    Value chain analyses have focused mainly on collaboration between chain actors, often neglecting collaboration "beyond the chain" with non-chain actors to tackle food security, poverty and sustainability issues in the landscapes in which these value chains are embedded. Comparing conventional and advanced value chain collaborations involving small-scale cocoa farmers in Ghana, this paper analyzes the merits of a more integrated approach toward value chain collaboration. It particularly asks whether advanced value chain collaboration targeting cocoa-producing areas potentially offers an entry point for implementing a landscape approach. The findings detail current chain actors and institutions and show how advanced value chain collaboration has a greater positive impact than conventional value chain collaboration on farmers' social, human and natural capital. The paper concludes that the integrated approach, focus on learning, and stable relationships with small-scale farmers inherent in advanced value chain collaboration makes it both more sustainable and effective at the local level than conventional approaches. However, its scope and the actors' jurisdictional powers and self-organization are too limited to be the sole tool in negotiating land use and trade-offs at the landscape level. To evolve as such would require certification beyond the farm level, partnering with other landscape stakeholders, and brokering by bridging organizations.

  20. Exploration on Building of Visualization Platform to Innovate Business Operation Pattern of Supply Chain Finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiangjun; Tang, Lingyun

    Supply Chain Finance, as a new financing pattern, has been arousing general attentions of scholars at home and abroad since its publication. This paper describes the author's understanding towards supply chain finance, makes classification of its business patterns in China from different perspectives, analyzes the existing problems and deficiencies of the business patterns, and finally puts forward the notion of building a visualization platform to innovate the business operation patterns and risk control modes of domestic supply chain finance.

  1. How Killdeer Mountain Manufacturing is Optimizing Aerospace Supply Chain Visibility Using RFID (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    This project is a trial RFID Supply Chain Optimization pilot for the purpose of determining the optimal method to enhance supply chain capability and responsiveness by implementing RFID processes along with Lean/Six Sigma and e-commerce that is intended to be deployed into small and medium manufacturing and supply chain facilities. A key goal of this program is not only to comply with DOD shipping mandates, but also implement RFID solutions that will provide enhanced product visibility and reduced cost.

  2. The DASCh Experience: How to Model a Supply Chain. Chapter 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Chapter 1 The DASCh Experience: How to Model a Supply Chain H. Van Dyke Parunak Center for Electronic Commerce, ERIM 3600 Green Court, Suite 550... supply chain modeling, we have found agent-based modeling to be more flexible than ODE models for basic exploration. One phenomenon we discovered...Section 2 of this paper describes the supply chain problem. Section 3 reports the three models that we constructed. Section 4 reviews the roles of each

  3. The application of supply chain management principles to emergency management logistics: An empirical study.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Matthew R; Young, Richard R; Gordon, Gary A

    2016-01-01

    Key elements of supply chain theory remain relevant to emergency management (EM) logistics activities. The Supply Chain Operations Reference model can also serve as a useful template for the planning, organizing, and execution of EM logistics. Through a series of case studies (developed through intensive survey of organizations and individuals responsible for EM), the authors identified the extent supply chain theory is being adopted and whether the theory was useful for emergency logistics managers. The authors found several drivers that influence the likelihood of an organization to implement elements of supply chain management: the frequency of events, organizational resources, population density, range of events, and severity of the disaster or emergency.

  4. Comprehensive Study on Wastages of Supply Chain Information Sharing in Automotive Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendhil Kumar, R.; Pugazhendhi, S.; Muralidharan, C.; Murali, S.

    2017-03-01

    A supply chain is a very extensive concept, which encompasses many problems and features when it comes to controlling. Now a day’s lean concept is a very common method to several areas, such as service sectors and manufacturing. Applying the lean concept to supply chain management is a very popular study part, it has attracted many industrial practices and researchers with different applications. Information sharing and technology remain one of the key factors of integrating the supply chain members. Current scenario the competition is no longer between the competing companies, but it happens between the supply chains. So the efficiency of the supply chain is very important. And the effective sharing of information can enhance the supply chain efficiency through minimizing the inventories and Information sharing can increase supply chain efficiency by reducing inventories and stabilizing the production. This paper describes and discusses about the seven deadly wastes of supply chain information with the comparative principle of Toyota production system (TPS) principle approach. How the TPS can be applied to supply chain information sharing And lean tool of 5S concept possibility improve the information sharing.

  5. Promise and problems with supply chain management approaches to health care purchasing.

    PubMed

    Ford, Eric W; Scanlon, Dennis P

    2007-01-01

    Double-digit health care inflation, coupled with widespread reports of poor care quality and deadly medical errors, has caused private sector employers to reevaluate their health benefits purchasing strategies, with a focus on supply chain management approaches. In other industries, this strategy has proven to be an effective method for simultaneously reducing costs and increasing quality. This article describes four current applications of supply chain management network methodologies to health care systems and identifies potential ways to improve purchasers' return on investment. In particular, information exchanges, purchase decision, and payment agreement components of integrated supply chains are described. First, visual depictions of the health care supply chain are developed from a purchaser's perspective. Next, five nationwide programs designed to realign incentives and rewards across the health care supply chain are described. Although several nationwide efforts are gaining traction in the marketplace, at this time, no cost reduction and quality improvement program initiative appears to systematically align the entire health care supply chain from providers to purchasers, raising doubt about the ability of supply chain management network techniques to significantly impact the health care marketplace in the short run. Current individual efforts to coordinate the health care supply chain do not act on all of the actors necessary to improve outcomes, promote safety, and control costs. Nevertheless, there are indications that several of the individual efforts are coming together. If national efforts touching on all critical elements can coordinate with purchasers, then the health care supply chain's performance may improve significantly.

  6. Applying Value Stream Mapping to reduce food losses and wastes in supply chains: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    De Steur, Hans; Wesana, Joshua; Dora, Manoj K; Pearce, Darian; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    The interest to reduce food losses and wastes has grown considerably in order to guarantee adequate food for the fast growing population. A systematic review was used to show the potential of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) not only to identify and reduce food losses and wastes, but also as a way to establish links with nutrient retention in supply chains. The review compiled literature from 24 studies that applied VSM in the agri-food industry. Primary production, processing, storage, food service and/or consumption were identified as susceptible hotspots for losses and wastes. Results further revealed discarding and nutrient loss, most especially at the processing level, as the main forms of loss/waste in food, which were adapted to four out of seven lean manufacturing wastes (i.e. defect, unnecessary inventory, overproduction and inappropriate processing). This paper presents the state of the art of applying lean manufacturing practices in the agri-food industry by identifying lead time as the most applicable performance indicator. VSM was also found to be compatible with other lean tools such as Just-In-Time and 5S which are continuous improvement strategies, as well as simulation modelling that enhances adoption. In order to ensure successful application of lean practices aimed at minimizing food or nutrient losses and wastes, multi-stakeholder collaboration along the entire food supply chain is indispensable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Measuring Urban Carbon Footprint from Carbon Flows in the Global Supply Chain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuanchao; Lin, Jianyi; Cui, Shenghui; Khanna, Nina Zheng

    2016-06-21

    A global multiregional input-output (MRIO) model was built for eight Chinese cities to track their carbon flows. For in-depth understanding of urban carbon footprint from the perspectives of production, consumption, and trade balance, four kinds of footprints and four redefined measurement indicators were calculated. From the global supply chain, urban carbon inflows from Mainland China were larger than outflows, while the carbon outflows to European, principal North American countries and East Asia were much larger than inflows. With the rapid urbanization of China, Construction was the largest consumer and Utilities was the largest producer. Cities with higher consumption (such as Dalian, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Beijing) should change their consumption patterns, while cities with lower production efficiency (such as Dalian, Shanghai, Ningbo, and Chongqing) should improve their technology. The cities of net carbon consumption tended to transfer carbon emissions out of them by trading in carbon-intensive products, while the cities of net carbon production tended to produce carbon-intensive products for nonlocal consumers. Our results indicated that urban carbon abatement requires not only rational consumption and industrial symbiosis at the city level, but also tighter collaboration along all stages of the global supply chain.

  8. An integrated supply chain model for new products with imprecise production and supply under scenario dependent fuzzy random demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagar, Lokesh; Dutta, Pankaj; Jain, Karuna

    2014-05-01

    In the present day business scenario, instant changes in market demand, different source of materials and manufacturing technologies force many companies to change their supply chain planning in order to tackle the real-world uncertainty. The purpose of this paper is to develop a multi-objective two-stage stochastic programming supply chain model that incorporates imprecise production rate and supplier capacity under scenario dependent fuzzy random demand associated with new product supply chains. The objectives are to maximise the supply chain profit, achieve desired service level and minimise financial risk. The proposed model allows simultaneous determination of optimum supply chain design, procurement and production quantities across the different plants, and trade-offs between inventory and transportation modes for both inbound and outbound logistics. Analogous to chance constraints, we have used the possibility measure to quantify the demand uncertainties and the model is solved using fuzzy linear programming approach. An illustration is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. Sensitivity analysis is performed for maximisation of the supply chain profit with respect to different confidence level of service, risk and possibility measure. It is found that when one considers the service level and risk as robustness measure the variability in profit reduces.

  9. Selected Aspects Of The Risk In The Supply Chain In Context Of The Supplier Quality Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblen, Ivan; Lestyánszka Škůrková, Katarína

    2015-06-01

    The introductory part of the paper underlines the importance of "Risk-based thinking" in the Quality Management System (QMS) and risk in the supply chain, as a principle part of the QMS. After introducing the key terms, the authors focused on the principle part of the article - explanation of the external and internal supply chain risks and the main factors concerning the supply risks, demand risks and environmental risks (as cardinal types of external supply chain risks) as well as the manufacturing and process risks, network/planning and control risks (as most important types of internal supply chain risks). The authors inform on the selected supply chain risk management tools, especially on those which are linked to the appropriate utilization of quality management tools.

  10. Modelling inter-supply chain competition with resource limitation and demand disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaobo; Teng, Chunxian; Zhang, Ding; Sun, Jiayi

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive model for studying supply chain versus supply chain competition with resource limitation and demand disruption. We assume that there are supply chains with heterogeneous supply network structures that compete at multiple demand markets. Each supply chain is comprised of internal and external firms. The internal firms are coordinated in production and distribution and share some common but limited resources within the supply chain, whereas the external firms are independent and do not share the internal resources. The supply chain managers strive to develop optimal strategies in terms of production level and resource allocation in maximising their profit while facing competition at the end market. The Cournot-Nash equilibrium of this inter-supply chain competition is formulated as a variational inequality problem. We further study the case when there is demand disruption in the plan-execution phase. In such a case, the managers need to revise their planned strategy in order to maximise their profit with the new demand under disruption and minimise the cost of change. We present a bi-criteria decision-making model for supply chain managers and develop the optimal conditions in equilibrium, which again can be formulated by another variational inequality problem. Numerical examples are presented for illustrative purpose.

  11. Processing Uncertain RFID Data in Traceability Supply Chains

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Dong; Xiao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is widely used to track and trace objects in traceability supply chains. However, massive uncertain data produced by RFID readers are not effective and efficient to be used in RFID application systems. Following the analysis of key features of RFID objects, this paper proposes a new framework for effectively and efficiently processing uncertain RFID data, and supporting a variety of queries for tracking and tracing RFID objects. We adjust different smoothing windows according to different rates of uncertain data, employ different strategies to process uncertain readings, and distinguish ghost, missing, and incomplete data according to their apparent positions. We propose a comprehensive data model which is suitable for different application scenarios. In addition, a path coding scheme is proposed to significantly compress massive data by aggregating the path sequence, the position, and the time intervals. The scheme is suitable for cyclic or long paths. Moreover, we further propose a processing algorithm for group and independent objects. Experimental evaluations show that our approach is effective and efficient in terms of the compression and traceability queries. PMID:24737978

  12. Processing uncertain RFID data in traceability supply chains.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dong; Xiao, Jie; Guo, Guangjun; Jiang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is widely used to track and trace objects in traceability supply chains. However, massive uncertain data produced by RFID readers are not effective and efficient to be used in RFID application systems. Following the analysis of key features of RFID objects, this paper proposes a new framework for effectively and efficiently processing uncertain RFID data, and supporting a variety of queries for tracking and tracing RFID objects. We adjust different smoothing windows according to different rates of uncertain data, employ different strategies to process uncertain readings, and distinguish ghost, missing, and incomplete data according to their apparent positions. We propose a comprehensive data model which is suitable for different application scenarios. In addition, a path coding scheme is proposed to significantly compress massive data by aggregating the path sequence, the position, and the time intervals. The scheme is suitable for cyclic or long paths. Moreover, we further propose a processing algorithm for group and independent objects. Experimental evaluations show that our approach is effective and efficient in terms of the compression and traceability queries.

  13. SCRL-Model for Human Space Flight Operations Enterprise Supply Chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Brian; Paxton, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This paper will present a Supply Chain Readiness Level (SCRL) model that can be used to evaluate and configure adaptable and sustainable program and mission supply chains at an enterprise level. It will also show that using SCRL in conjunction with Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs), Manufacturing Readiness Levels (MRLs) and National Aeronautics Space Administrations (NASA s) Project Lifecycle Process will provide a more complete means of developing and evaluating a robust sustainable supply chain that encompasses the entire product, system and mission lifecycle. In addition, it will be shown that by implementing the SCRL model, NASA can additionally define supplier requirements to enable effective supply chain management (SCM). Developing and evaluating overall supply chain readiness for any product, system and mission lifecycle is critical for mission success. Readiness levels are presently being used to evaluate the maturity of technology and manufacturing capability during development and deployment phases of products and systems. For example, TRLs are used to support the assessment of the maturity of a particular technology and compare maturity of different types of technologies. MRLs are designed to assess the maturity and risk of a given technology from a manufacturing perspective. In addition, when these measurement systems are used collectively they can offer a more comprehensive view of the maturity of the system. While some aspects of the supply chain and supply chain planning are considered in these familiar metric systems, certain characteristics of an effective supply chain, when evaluated in more detail, will provide an improved insight into the readiness and risk throughout the supply chain. Therefore, a system that concentrates particularly on supply chain attributes is required to better assess enterprise supply chain readiness.

  14. SCRL-Model for Human Space Flight Operations Enterprise Supply Chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Brian; Paxton, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This paper will present a Supply Chain Readiness Level (SCRL) model that can be used to evaluate and configure adaptable and sustainable program and mission supply chains at an enterprise level. It will also show that using SCRL in conjunction with Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs), Manufacturing Readiness Levels (MRLs) and National Aeronautics Space Administrations (NASA s) Project Lifecycle Process will provide a more complete means of developing and evaluating a robust sustainable supply chain that encompasses the entire product, system and mission lifecycle. In addition, it will be shown that by implementing the SCRL model, NASA can additionally define supplier requirements to enable effective supply chain management (SCM). Developing and evaluating overall supply chain readiness for any product, system and mission lifecycle is critical for mission success. Readiness levels are presently being used to evaluate the maturity of technology and manufacturing capability during development and deployment phases of products and systems. For example, TRLs are used to support the assessment of the maturity of a particular technology and compare maturity of different types of technologies. MRLs are designed to assess the maturity and risk of a given technology from a manufacturing perspective. In addition, when these measurement systems are used collectively they can offer a more comprehensive view of the maturity of the system. While some aspects of the supply chain and supply chain planning are considered in these familiar metric systems, certain characteristics of an effective supply chain, when evaluated in more detail, will provide an improved insight into the readiness and risk throughout the supply chain. Therefore, a system that concentrates particularly on supply chain attributes is required to better assess enterprise supply chain readiness.

  15. Advancing health system integration through supply chain improvement.

    PubMed

    Rosser, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Collaboration is a key element to success in the provision of sustainable and integrated healthcare services. Among the many initiatives undertaken to improve service quality and reduce costs, collaboration among hospitals in Ontario has been difficult to achieve; however, voluntary collaboration is vital to achieving transformation of the magnitude envisioned by system leaders.

  16. Research on Coordination of Fresh Produce Supply Chain in Big Market Sales Environment

    PubMed Central

    Su, Juning; Liu, Chenguang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two decision models for decentralized and centralized fresh produce supply chains with stochastic supply and demand and controllable transportation time. The optimal order quantity and the optimal transportation time in these two supply chain systems are derived. To improve profits in a decentralized supply chain, based on analyzing the risk taken by each participant in the supply chain, we design a set of contracts which can coordinate this type of fresh produce supply chain with stochastic supply and stochastic demand, and controllable transportation time as well. We also obtain a value range of contract parameters that can increase profits of all participants in the decentralized supply chain. The expected profits of the decentralized setting and the centralized setting are compared with respect to given numerical examples. Furthermore, the sensitivity analyses of the deterioration rate factor and the freshness factor are performed. The results of numerical examples show that the transportation time is shorter, the order quantity is smaller, the total profit of whole supply chain is less, and the possibility of cooperation between supplier and retailer is higher for the fresh produce which is more perishable and its quality decays more quickly. PMID:24764770

  17. Research on coordination of fresh produce supply chain in big market sales environment.

    PubMed

    Su, Juning; Wu, Jiebing; Liu, Chenguang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two decision models for decentralized and centralized fresh produce supply chains with stochastic supply and demand and controllable transportation time. The optimal order quantity and the optimal transportation time in these two supply chain systems are derived. To improve profits in a decentralized supply chain, based on analyzing the risk taken by each participant in the supply chain, we design a set of contracts which can coordinate this type of fresh produce supply chain with stochastic supply and stochastic demand, and controllable transportation time as well. We also obtain a value range of contract parameters that can increase profits of all participants in the decentralized supply chain. The expected profits of the decentralized setting and the centralized setting are compared with respect to given numerical examples. Furthermore, the sensitivity analyses of the deterioration rate factor and the freshness factor are performed. The results of numerical examples show that the transportation time is shorter, the order quantity is smaller, the total profit of whole supply chain is less, and the possibility of cooperation between supplier and retailer is higher for the fresh produce which is more perishable and its quality decays more quickly.

  18. Digital Piracy: An Assessment of Consumer Piracy Risk and Optimal Supply Chain Coordination Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Bong-Keun

    2010-01-01

    Digital piracy and the emergence of new distribution channels have changed the dynamics of supply chain coordination and created many interesting problems. There has been increased attention to understanding the phenomenon of consumer piracy behavior and its impact on supply chain profitability. The purpose of this dissertation is to better…

  19. Designing Energy Supply Chains with the P-graph Framework under Cost Constraints and Sustainability Considerations

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains is presented using the P-graph framework to develop supply chain structures which are analyzed using cost, the cost of producing electricity, and two sustainability metrics: ecological footprint and emergy. They...

  20. Developing a Supply Chain Management Certification for the Department of Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    listings now include the best business schools with a supply chain/logistics specialty. Not surprisingly, many of the top ranked MBA programs throughout...U.S. News & World Report also publishes a list of the best business schools in the specialty of supply chain/logistics. Their 2008 edition of

  1. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Lautala, Pasi T.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J.; Roni, Mohammad S.; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M.; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-06-30

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term 'supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. Our paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Lastly, gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.

  2. Landscaping the structures of GAVI country vaccine supply chains and testing the effects of radical redesign.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Norman, Bryan A; Rajgopal, Jayant; Cakouros, Brigid E; Chen, Sheng-I; Claypool, Erin G; Haidari, Leila A; Karir, Veena; Leonard, Jim; Mueller, Leslie E; Paul, Proma; Schmitz, Michelle M; Welling, Joel S; Weng, Yu-Ting; Brown, Shawn T

    2015-08-26

    Many of the world's vaccine supply chains do not adequately provide vaccines, prompting several questions: how are vaccine supply chains currently structured, are these structures closely tailored to individual countries, and should these supply chains be radically redesigned? We segmented the 57 GAVI-eligible countries' vaccine supply chains based on their structure/morphology, analyzed whether these segments correlated with differences in country characteristics, and then utilized HERMES to develop a detailed simulation model of three sample countries' supply chains and explore the cost and impact of various alternative structures. The majority of supply chains (34 of 57) consist of four levels, despite serving a wide diversity of geographical areas and population sizes. These four-level supply chains loosely fall into three clusters [(1) 18 countries relatively more bottom-heavy, i.e., many more storage locations lower in the supply chain, (2) seven with relatively more storage locations in both top and lower levels, and (3) nine comparatively more top-heavy] which do not correlate closely with any of the country characteristics considered. For all three cluster types, our HERMES modeling found that simplified systems (a central location shipping directly to immunization locations with a limited number of Hubs in between) resulted in lower operating costs. A standard four-tier design template may have been followed for most countries and raises the possibility that simpler and more tailored designs may be warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Multidisciplinary Nature of Supply Chain Management: Where Does It Fit in Business Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael A.; Cope, Robert; Budden, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Supply chain management is an area of growing interest in both industry and academics. A number of new text books are available for courses in the area, and a number of Colleges of Business are adding relevant curriculum. However, questions arise as to what Supply Chain Management comprises, as to needed courses in the area, and an appropriate…

  4. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains.

    PubMed

    Lautala, Pasi T; Hilliard, Michael R; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J; Roni, Mohammad S; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-12-01

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term 'supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. The paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Finally gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.

  5. Leveraging Human Resource Development Expertise to Improve Supply Chain Managers' Skills and Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellinger, Alexander E.; Ellinger, Andrea D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is an ongoing shortage of talented supply chain managers with the necessary skills and business-related competencies to manage increasingly complex and strategically important supply chain processes. The purpose of this paper is to propose that organizations can create and maintain competitive advantage by leveraging the expertise…

  6. Digital Piracy: An Assessment of Consumer Piracy Risk and Optimal Supply Chain Coordination Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Bong-Keun

    2010-01-01

    Digital piracy and the emergence of new distribution channels have changed the dynamics of supply chain coordination and created many interesting problems. There has been increased attention to understanding the phenomenon of consumer piracy behavior and its impact on supply chain profitability. The purpose of this dissertation is to better…

  7. An Exploration of Supply Chain Management Practices in the Central District Municipality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambe, I. M.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to explore supply chain management practices in the Central District Municipality, North West province of South Africa, using the grounded theory methodology. Supply chain management was introduced in the South African public sector to alleviate deficiencies related to governance, interpretation and…

  8. Teaching Teachers about Supply Chain Management to Influence Students' Career and Education Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Leslie L.

    2013-01-01

    Since teachers are influential in high school students' career choices, enabling high school teachers to introduce educational and career opportunities in supply chain management is a viable strategy for reaching high school students about these opportunities. This article presents a pilot program of supply chain workshops to educate high school…

  9. The Diffusion and Impact of Radio Frequency Identification in Supply Chains: A Multi-Method Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoran

    2012-01-01

    As a promising and emerging technology for supply chain management, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a new alternative to existing tracking technologies and also allows a range of internal control and supply chain coordination. RFID has generated a significant amount of interest and activities from both practitioners and researchers in…

  10. 78 FR 50394 - Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness: Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... International Trade Administration Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness: Notice of Public Meeting... Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness (Committee). DATES: The meeting will be held on... national freight policy designed to support U.S. export and growth competitiveness, foster...

  11. 78 FR 11155 - Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness: Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... International Trade Administration Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness: Notice of Public Meeting... Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness (Committee). DATES: The meeting will be held on March 12... national freight policy designed to support U.S. export and growth competitiveness, foster...

  12. 78 FR 26750 - Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness: Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... International Trade Administration Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness: Notice of Public Meeting... ] Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness (Committee). DATES: The meeting will be held on June 4... national freight policy designed to support U.S. export and growth competitiveness, foster...

  13. Master's Degree in Management Information Systems with a Supply Chain Management Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswamy, Kizhanatham V.; Boyd, Joseph L.; Desai, Mayur

    2007-01-01

    A graduate curriculum in Management Information Systems with a Supply Chain Management focus is presented. The motivation for this endeavor stems from the fact that the global scope of modern business organizations and the competitive environment in which they operate, requires an information system leveraged supply chain management system (SCM)…

  14. 78 FR 25416 - Information Collection Request: Web-Based Supply Chain Management Commodity Offer Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Farm Service Agency Commodity Credit Corporation Information Collection Request: Web-Based Supply Chain... invitations, however, are issued throughout the month. Web-Based Supply Chain Management (WBSCM) allows... offerors electronically. Awarded contracts will be posted to the FSA Web site and also to the WBSCM portal...

  15. Optimizing the DoD Supply Chain for the Future Joint Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    4 Sunil Chopra and Peter Meindl, Supply Chain Management: Strategy, Planning, and Operation, 5th ed. (Boston: Pearson Education, Inc., 2013), 339...Arlington, VA: Lexington Institute, 2005. Chopra, Sunil and Peter Meindl. Supply Chain Management: Strategy, Planning, and Operation. 5th ed. Boston

  16. Master's Degree in Management Information Systems with a Supply Chain Management Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswamy, Kizhanatham V.; Boyd, Joseph L.; Desai, Mayur

    2007-01-01

    A graduate curriculum in Management Information Systems with a Supply Chain Management focus is presented. The motivation for this endeavor stems from the fact that the global scope of modern business organizations and the competitive environment in which they operate, requires an information system leveraged supply chain management system (SCM)…

  17. The Diffusion and Impact of Radio Frequency Identification in Supply Chains: A Multi-Method Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoran

    2012-01-01

    As a promising and emerging technology for supply chain management, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a new alternative to existing tracking technologies and also allows a range of internal control and supply chain coordination. RFID has generated a significant amount of interest and activities from both practitioners and researchers in…

  18. Exploring the Dynamics of Globalization: Supply Chain Vulnerability to Natural Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafsky, Ronald V.; Conner, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Global supply chains play an increasingly important role in the economy and should therefore be addressed within geography coursework, especially given concerns that geographers have not fully explored various angles of globalization. This article explores the use of an online case study on supply chains and their vulnerability to natural…

  19. Impact of RFID Information-Sharing Coordination over a Supply Chain with Reverse Logistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nativi Nicolau, Juan Jose

    2016-01-01

    Companies have adopted environmental practices such as reverse logistics over the past few decades. However, studies show that aligning partners inside the green supply chain can be a substantial problem. This lack of coordination can increase overall supply chain cost. Information technology such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has the…

  20. An Exploration of Supply Chain Management Practices in the Central District Municipality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambe, I. M.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to explore supply chain management practices in the Central District Municipality, North West province of South Africa, using the grounded theory methodology. Supply chain management was introduced in the South African public sector to alleviate deficiencies related to governance, interpretation and…

  1. Designing Energy Supply Chains with the P-graph Framework under Cost Constraints and Sustainability Considerations

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains is presented using the P-graph framework to develop supply chain structures which are analyzed using cost, the cost of producing electricity, and two sustainability metrics: ecological footprint and emergy. They...

  2. Teaching Teachers about Supply Chain Management to Influence Students' Career and Education Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Leslie L.

    2013-01-01

    Since teachers are influential in high school students' career choices, enabling high school teachers to introduce educational and career opportunities in supply chain management is a viable strategy for reaching high school students about these opportunities. This article presents a pilot program of supply chain workshops to educate high school…

  3. Leveraging Human Resource Development Expertise to Improve Supply Chain Managers' Skills and Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellinger, Alexander E.; Ellinger, Andrea D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is an ongoing shortage of talented supply chain managers with the necessary skills and business-related competencies to manage increasingly complex and strategically important supply chain processes. The purpose of this paper is to propose that organizations can create and maintain competitive advantage by leveraging the expertise…

  4. Stop the supply chain insanity. Retail as a model for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Belkoski, David A

    2008-04-01

    The healthcare supply chain has yet to embrace any single industrywide source for synchronized product data. A synchronized product data system is a keystone in other multibillion-dollar markets. University Health Care System (UHCS), Augusta, Ga., developed a pilot program that demonstrates the benefits of data standardization and synchronization and enabled the system to recognize productivity gains in the supply chain.

  5. Phase 0: Feasibility Study for ARN Balanced Flow NOMEX Supply Chain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Without total asset visibility, DLA’s retail focus has been on fulfilling retail requisitions rather than optimizing the overall supply chain performance...visibility across the NOMEX Supply Chain . A business case analysis was conducted to investigate potential cost benefits of the Data Model and its enabling

  6. Operations and Maintenance Task Order (OMTO)/Southern Border Initiative (SBInet) Supply Chain Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Initiative Network (SBInet) Supply Chain approach in the areas of lead times between repairs, spares inventory, and the identification of failure trends...The availability rate of the platform(s) needed to be improved because the current supply chain process enacted by the government did not work in a

  7. Metric Development During the Reorganization of the Supply Chain Management Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    This MBA Project documents a case study of an ongoing reorganization effort at the Supply Chain Management Center (SCMC), Marine Corps Logistics...Command (MARCORLOGCOM), and their use of the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) Model and the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) to develop performance

  8. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautala, Pasi T.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J.; Roni, Mohammad S.; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M.; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-12-01

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term `supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. The paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Finally gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.

  9. Exploring the Dynamics of Globalization: Supply Chain Vulnerability to Natural Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafsky, Ronald V.; Conner, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Global supply chains play an increasingly important role in the economy and should therefore be addressed within geography coursework, especially given concerns that geographers have not fully explored various angles of globalization. This article explores the use of an online case study on supply chains and their vulnerability to natural…

  10. Analysis of production-inventory decisions in a decentralized supply chain with price-dependent demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdhi, N. A.; Irsanianto, S. T.; Sutanto

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a production-inventory supply chain system with single-manufacturer and single-retailer. There are many types of contract that guarantee the supply chain. However, the administrative costs of the contract are usually neglected in real situation. The additional gain from integration may not cover the extra administrative costs may not addressed to supply chain. Therefore, a Stackelberg game and RFM policy are examined in order to investigate its performance on supply chain. The RFM policy is applied because its administrative costs are lower than othe policies. Although RFM policy is not capable of coordinating the channel, it leads to considerable improvements over the channel. The purpose of this research is to present a model of integrated policy, in which the goal is to maximize the whole system profit, and to evaluate decentralized-Stackelberg and RFM policies, in which individual firms in the supply chain have their own objectives and decisions to optimize.

  11. The importance of vaccine supply chains to everyone in the vaccine world.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; Haidari, Leila A

    2017-08-16

    While the focus of many in the vaccine world has been on developing new vaccines and measuring their effects on humans, failure to understand and properly address vaccine supply chain issues can greatly reduce the impact of any vaccine. Therefore, everyone involved in vaccine decision-making may want to take into account supply chains when making key decisions. In fact, considering supply chain issues long before a vaccine reaches the market can help design vaccines and vaccine programs that better match the system. We detail how vaccine supply chains may affect the work and decision making of ten examples of different members of the vaccine community: preclinical vaccinologists, vaccine clinical trialists, vaccine package designers, health care workers, epidemiologists and disease surveillance experts, policy makers, storage equipment manufacturers, other technology developers, information system specialists, and funders. We offer ten recommendations to help decision makers better understand and address supply chains. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. An exploration in mineral supply chain mapping using tantalum as an example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Menzie, W. David; Papp, John F.; Yager, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    This report uses the supply chain of tantalum (Ta) to investigate the complexity of mineral and metal supply chains in general and show how they can be mapped. A supply chain is made up of all the manufacturers, suppliers, information networks, and so forth, that provide the materials and parts that go into making up a final product. The mineral portion of the supply chain begins with mineral material in the ground (the ore deposit); extends through a series of processes that include mining, beneficiation, processing (smelting and refining), semimanufacture, and manufacture; and continues through transformation of the mineral ore into concentrates, refined mineral commodities, intermediate forms (such as metals and alloys), component parts, and, finally, complex products. This study analyses the supply chain of tantalum beginning with minerals in the ground to many of the final goods that contain tantalum.

  13. D Partition-Based Clustering for Supply Chain Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaibah, A.; Uznir, U.; Anton, F.; Mioc, D.; Rahman, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the management of the products and goods flow from its origin point to point of consumption. During the process of SCM, information and dataset gathered for this application is massive and complex. This is due to its several processes such as procurement, product development and commercialization, physical distribution, outsourcing and partnerships. For a practical application, SCM datasets need to be managed and maintained to serve a better service to its three main categories; distributor, customer and supplier. To manage these datasets, a structure of data constellation is used to accommodate the data into the spatial database. However, the situation in geospatial database creates few problems, for example the performance of the database deteriorate especially during the query operation. We strongly believe that a more practical hierarchical tree structure is required for efficient process of SCM. Besides that, three-dimensional approach is required for the management of SCM datasets since it involve with the multi-level location such as shop lots and residential apartments. 3D R-Tree has been increasingly used for 3D geospatial database management due to its simplicity and extendibility. However, it suffers from serious overlaps between nodes. In this paper, we proposed a partition-based clustering for the construction of a hierarchical tree structure. Several datasets are tested using the proposed method and the percentage of the overlapping nodes and volume coverage are computed and compared with the original 3D R-Tree and other practical approaches. The experiments demonstrated in this paper substantiated that the hierarchical structure of the proposed partitionbased clustering is capable of preserving minimal overlap and coverage. The query performance was tested using 300,000 points of a SCM dataset and the results are presented in this paper. This paper also discusses the outlook of the structure for future reference.

  14. Strengthening the links in the supply chain--some preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Compas, Brian J

    2005-01-01

    There are many links in the supply chain that can lead to a "break" in an organization's supply process. These breaks can waste professional and clinical time and take staff away from patient care activities. By paying attention to some key areas, designing efficient workflows, and monitoring supply usage, an organization can avoid the headaches of a supply process that doesn't optimize scarce labor resources. It also can lead to significant savings that go directly to the organization's bottom line. As with all hospital processes, some consistent and focused preventive medicine makes sense for its supply chain.

  15. Mathematical supply-chain modelling: Product analysis of cost and time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easters, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    Establishing a mathematical supply-chain model is a proposition that has received attention due to its inherent benefits of evolving global supply-chain efficiencies. This paper discusses the prevailing relationships found within apparel supply-chain environments, and contemplates the complex issues indicated for constituting a mathematical model. Principal results identified within the data suggest, that the multifarious nature of global supply-chain activities require a degree of simplification in order to fully dilate the necessary factors which affect, each sub-section of the chain. Subsequently, the research findings allowed the division of supply-chain components into sub-sections, which amassed a coherent method of product development activity. Concurrently, the supply-chain model was found to allow systematic mathematical formulae analysis, of cost and time, within the multiple contexts of each subsection encountered. The paper indicates the supply-chain model structure, the mathematics, and considers how product analysis of cost and time can improve the comprehension of product lifecycle management.

  16. Consumer-perceived quality in 'traditional' food chains: the case of the Greek meat supply chain.

    PubMed

    Krystallis, Athanassios; Chryssochoidis, George; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Recent food scares have increased consumer concern about meat safety. However, the Greek 'traditional' meat supply chain from producers to local butchers does not seem to realise the pressing consumer demand for certified meat quality. Or is it that, in such food chains, this demand is not so pressing yet? The present paper seeks to answer this question based on a survey conducted in the Athens area, involving a sample of 268 participants responsible for food purchasing decisions. The survey mainly aims to develop an integrated model of factors that affect consumer-perceived meat quality and to develop the profile of different consumer segments in relation to these perceptions. The substantial findings of the survey include the fact that, despite their enormous per capita consumption, the majority of consumers are not particularly involved in the meat-purchasing process. Rather they attach importance to visual intrinsic quality cues evaluated in a pre-purchasing context. In this respect, intrinsic quality cues are assigned a role similar to that of quality certification; coupled with the choice of traditional channels and the resulting personal relation with the butcher, they can be understood as efforts to decrease risk of the purchasing decision. Moreover, consumers with such behaviour seem to relate domestic country of origin of meat mostly with perceptions of general safety. Finally, a small, but promising trend with substantial marketing implications of frequent purchases of chicken and pork at supermarkets should not be ignored.

  17. Contract portfolio optimization for a gasoline supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shanshan

    Major oil companies sell gasoline through three channels of trade: branded (associated with long-term contracts), unbranded (associated with short-term contracts), and spot market. The branded channel provides them with a long-term secured and sustainable demand source, but requires an inflexible long-term commitment with demand and price risks. The unbranded channel provides a medium level of allocation flexibility. The spot market provides them with the greatest allocation flexibility to the changing market conditions, but the spot market's illiquidity mitigates this benefit. In order to sell the product in a profitable and sustainable way, they need an optimal contract portfolio. This dissertation addresses the contract portfolio optimization problem from different perspectives (retrospective view and forward-looking view) at different levels (strategic level, tactical level and operational level). The objective of the retrospective operational model is to develop a financial case to estimate the business value of having a dynamic optimization model and quantify the opportunity values missed in the past. This model proves the financial significance of the problem and provides top management valuable insights into the business. BP has applied the insights and principles gained from this work and implemented the model to the entire Midwest gasoline supply chain to retrospectively review optimization opportunities. The strategic model is the most parsimonious model that captures the essential economic tradeoffs among different contract types, to demonstrate the need for a contract portfolio and what drives the portfolio. We examine the properties of the optimal contract portfolio and provide a comparative statics analysis by changing the model parameters. As the strategic model encapsulates the business problem at the macroscopic level, the tactical model resolves lower level issues. It considers the time dynamics, the information flow and contracting flow. Using

  18. A quantile-based scenario analysis approach to biomass supply chain optimization under uncertainty

    DOE PAGES

    Zamar, David S.; Gopaluni, Bhushan; Sokhansanj, Shahab; ...

    2016-11-21

    Supply chain optimization for biomass-based power plants is an important research area due to greater emphasis on renewable power energy sources. Biomass supply chain design and operational planning models are often formulated and studied using deterministic mathematical models. While these models are beneficial for making decisions, their applicability to real world problems may be limited because they do not capture all the complexities in the supply chain, including uncertainties in the parameters. This study develops a statistically robust quantile-based approach for stochastic optimization under uncertainty, which builds upon scenario analysis. We apply and evaluate the performance of our approach tomore » address the problem of analyzing competing biomass supply chains subject to stochastic demand and supply. Finally, the proposed approach was found to outperform alternative methods in terms of computational efficiency and ability to meet the stochastic problem requirements.« less

  19. A quantile-based scenario analysis approach to biomass supply chain optimization under uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Zamar, David S.; Gopaluni, Bhushan; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Newlands, Nathaniel K.

    2016-11-21

    Supply chain optimization for biomass-based power plants is an important research area due to greater emphasis on renewable power energy sources. Biomass supply chain design and operational planning models are often formulated and studied using deterministic mathematical models. While these models are beneficial for making decisions, their applicability to real world problems may be limited because they do not capture all the complexities in the supply chain, including uncertainties in the parameters. This study develops a statistically robust quantile-based approach for stochastic optimization under uncertainty, which builds upon scenario analysis. We apply and evaluate the performance of our approach to address the problem of analyzing competing biomass supply chains subject to stochastic demand and supply. Finally, the proposed approach was found to outperform alternative methods in terms of computational efficiency and ability to meet the stochastic problem requirements.

  20. System redesign of the immunization supply chain: Experiences from Benin and Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Wendy; Jaillard, Philippe; Assy, Emmanuelle; Brown, Shawn T; Matsinhe, Graça; Dekoun, Mawutondji; Lee, Bruce Y

    2017-04-19

    Evidence suggests that immunization supply chains are becoming outdated and unable to deliver needed vaccines due to growing populations and new vaccine introductions. Redesigning a supply chain could result in meeting current demands. The Ministries of Health in Benin in Mozambique recognized known barriers to the immunization supply chain and undertook a system redesign to address those barriers. Changes were made to introduce an informed push system while consolidating storage points, introducing transport loops, and increasing human resource capacity for distribution. Evaluations were completed in each country. Evaluation in each country indicated improved performance of the supply chain. The Effective Vaccine Management (EVM) assessment in Benin documented notable improvements in the distribution criteria of the tool, increasing from 40% to 100% at the district level. In Mozambique, results showed reduced stockouts at health facility level from 79% at baseline to less than 1% at endline. Coverage rates of DTP3 also increased from 68.9% to 92.8%. Benin and Mozambique are undertaking system redesign in order to respond to constraints identified in the vaccine supply chain. Results and learnings show improvements in supply chain performance and make a strong case for system redesign. These countries demonstrate the feasibility of system redesign for other countries considering how to address outdated supply chains. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Supply chain management of health commodities for reducing global disease burden.

    PubMed

    Chukwu, Otuto Amarauche; Ezeanochikwa, Valentine Nnaemeka; Eya, Benedict Ejikeme

    Reducing global disease burden requires improving access to medicines, thus the need for efficient and effective supply chain management for medicines. The Nigerian government came up with new policies on Mega Drug Distribution Centres and National Drug Distribution Guidelines to improve access to quality medicines with pharmacists having a key role to play. However, pharmacists in Nigeria seem not to be aware and adequately equipped to handle the medicines supply chain. This article aimed at assessing the awareness and readiness of Nigerian pharmacists on supply chain management practices for improving access to medicines. Pharmacists in Nigeria's Capital were randomly sampled. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered. Descriptive statistics was used in data analysis. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be significant. 29.3%, 20.7% and 53.7% were not aware of supply chain management, National Drug Distribution Guidelines and Mega Drug Distribution Centres, respectively. 85.46% do not have a copy of the National Drug Distribution Guidelines. 78% were not aware that Mega Drug Distribution Centres are already operational. 35.4% have never been involved in any supply chain management practice. 69.5% often experience stock out of vital and essential medicines, of which 85.2% were in hospitals. 15.9% were successful in managing their facility's supply chains. 84.1% opined that pharmacists in Nigeria are not yet ready to handle the medicines supply chain. Findings showed limited awareness and readiness on supply chain management of medicines. This may be due to inadequate supply chain management skills and infrastructure, poor financing, lack of accountability and poor management. Tackling these as well as pharmacists showing more interest in the country's health policies and obtaining necessary postgraduate certifications will lead to improvements. This will improve access to quality medicines and thus help in the fight to reduce disease burden both

  2. A Case Study of the Degree of Collaboration Between Various Levels in the Reparable Chain in the United States Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    implementing CPFR processes. Can these processes be applied to the Air Force supply chain? This thesis intends to examine the flows and relationships...ultimate solution. It will merely present the literature reviewed and the data collected and try to draw a conclusion as to whether civilian CPFR ...26 Collaborative Planning Forecasting and Replenishment ( CPFR

  3. Challenges and opportunities of health care supply chain management in the United States.

    PubMed

    Elmuti, Dean; Khoury, Grace; Omran, Omar; Abou-Zaid, Ahmed S

    2013-01-01

    This article explores current supply chain management challenges and initiatives and identifies problems that affect supply chain management success in the U.S. health-care industry. In addition, it investigates the impact of health care supply chain management (SCM) initiatives on the overall organizational effectiveness. The attitudinal results, as well as the performance results presented in this study support the claim of health care proponents that the SCM allows organizations to reduce cost, improve quality, and reduce cycle time, and leads to high performance.

  4. Distribution Free Approach for Coordination of a Supply Chain with Consumer Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinsong; Xu, Yuanji

    Consumer return is considered in a coordination of a supply chain consisting of one manufacturer and one retailer. A distribution free approach is employed to deal with a centralized decision model and a decentralized model which are constructed under the situation with only knowing the demand function's mean and variance, respectively. A markdown money contract is designed to coordinate the supply chain, and it is also proved that the contract can make the supply chain perfectly coordinated. Several numerical examples are given at the end of this paper.

  5. A study on pricing decision of supply chain based on fairness concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongxiong; Sun, Xiongle

    2017-03-01

    The fairness concern is introduced into a closed-loop supply chain, which includes a manufacturer and a retailer. This paper study the effect of fairness concern on wholesale price, retail price, recycling prices, manufacturer profits and retails profits under two situation: only the manufacturer is fairness concern and only the retailer is fairness concern. Studies show that: Retailer's fairness concern will reduce the price of the wholesale price, while the retail price and the recycling price unchanged, which led to the retailer to get more supply chain profits. Manufacturers' fairness concerns will raise the wholesale price, thereby increasing the manufacturer's supply chain profit, and the retailer's profit is compromised.

  6. Excellence in supply chain management--trends and strategies to enhance profitability. Panel discussion.

    PubMed

    Gerhart, Bobbie; Baskel, Chris; Van Drasek, Jim; Downing, Scott

    2004-12-13

    Supply-chain management--the art of getting the most at the least cost from the products and services purchased by an organization--has transformed industries such as manufacturing and retailing, and can potentially do the same for healthcare. VHA is committed to keeping its members educated on current thinking and best practices in supply-chain management. In support of that mission, four supply chain experts gathered in Chicago recently at Modern Healthcare's offices to discuss the issues they face in their organizations and the strategies they've found most successful in addressing them.

  7. Modelling a flows in supply chain with analytical models: Case of a chemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhida, Khalid; Azougagh, Yassine; Elfezazi, Said

    2016-02-01

    This study is interested on the modelling of the logistics flows in a supply chain composed on a production sites and a logistics platform. The contribution of this research is to develop an analytical model (integrated linear programming model), based on a case study of a real company operating in the phosphate field, considering a various constraints in this supply chain to resolve the planning problems for a better decision-making. The objectives of this model is to determine and define the optimal quantities of different products to route, to and from the various entities in the supply chain studied.

  8. Evolutional Optimization on Material Ordering and Inventory Control of Supply Chain through Incentive Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasertwattana, Kanit; Shimizu, Yoshiaki; Chiadamrong, Navee

    This paper studied the material ordering and inventory control of supply chain systems. The effect of controlling policies is analyzed under three different configurations of the supply chain systems, and the formulated problem has been solved by using an evolutional optimization method known as Differential Evolution (DE). The numerical results show that the coordinating policy with the incentive scheme outperforms the other policies and can improve the performance of the overall system as well as all members under the concept of supply chain management.

  9. A performance evaluation of ACO and SA TSP in a supply chain network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, T. Srinivas

    2017-07-01

    Supply Chain management and E commerce business solutions are one of the prominent areas of active research. In our paper we have modelled a supply chain model which aggregates all the manufacturers requirement and the products are supplied to all the manufacturer through a common vehicle routing algorithm. An appropriate tsp has been constructed for all the manufacturers which determines the shortest route thru which the aggregated material can be supplied in the shortest possible time. In this paper we have solved the shortest route through constructing a Simulated annealing algorithm and Ant colony algorithm and their performance is evaluated.

  10. Vaccine supply chains need to be better funded and strengthened, or lives will be at risk.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Judith R; Miller, Roger; Cheyne, James

    2011-06-01

    In the next decade, at least twelve additional vaccines that target such diseases as typhoid, malaria, and dengue will become available to lower- and middle-income countries. These vaccines must travel along what are called supply chains, which include all personnel, systems, equipment, and activities involved in ensuring that vaccines are effectively delivered from the point of production to the people who need them. But for various reasons, supply chains are already strained in many developing countries, and the potential inability to distribute new vaccines will place lives at risk. Among the many steps needed to strengthen the global vaccine supply chain, we suggest that the international community pursue improved coordination between organizations that donate and ship vaccines and the host-country officials who receive and distribute the vaccines, as well as better training for supply-chain managers.

  11. Robust optimization on sustainable biodiesel supply chain produced from waste cooking oil under price uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Jiang, Yunjian

    2017-02-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO)-for-biodiesel conversion is regarded as the "waste-to-wealthy" industry. This paper addresses the design of a WCO-for-biodiesel supply chain at both strategic and tactical levels. The supply chain of this problem is studied, which is based on a typical mode of the waste collection (from restaurants' kitchen) and conversion in the cities. The supply chain comprises three stakeholders: WCO supplier, integrated bio-refinery and demand zone. Three key problems should be addressed for the optimal design of the supply chain: (1) the number, sizes and locations of bio-refinery; (2) the sites and amount of WCO collected; (3) the transportation plans of WCO and biodiesel. A robust mixed integer linear model with muti-objective (economic, environmental and social objectives) is proposed for these problems. Finally, a large-scale practical case study is adopted based on Suzhou, a city in the east of China, to verify the proposed models.

  12. Optimal design of supply chain network under uncertainty environment using hybrid analytical and simulation modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiadamrong, N.; Piyathanavong, V.

    2017-04-01

    Models that aim to optimize the design of supply chain networks have gained more interest in the supply chain literature. Mixed-integer linear programming and discrete-event simulation are widely used for such an optimization problem. We present a hybrid approach to support decisions for supply chain network design using a combination of analytical and discrete-event simulation models. The proposed approach is based on iterative procedures until the difference between subsequent solutions satisfies the pre-determined termination criteria. The effectiveness of proposed approach is illustrated by an example, which shows closer to optimal results with much faster solving time than the results obtained from the conventional simulation-based optimization model. The efficacy of this proposed hybrid approach is promising and can be applied as a powerful tool in designing a real supply chain network. It also provides the possibility to model and solve more realistic problems, which incorporate dynamism and uncertainty.

  13. Assessment of Supply Chain Energy Efficiency Potentials: A U.S. Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Masanet, Eric; Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Gregory; Brown, Richard; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes a modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to the supply chain energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a variety of goods and services purchased by U.S. consumers. The framework couples an input-output supply chain modeling approach with"bottom-up" fuel end use models for individual IO sectors. This fuel end use modeling detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the supply chain energy and GHG"footprints" of goods and services. To illustrate the policy-relevance of thisapproach, a case study was conducted to estimate achievable household GHG footprint reductions associated with the adoption of best practice energy-efficient supply chain technologies.

  14. A stochastic inventory management model for a dual sourcing supply chain with disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iakovou, Eleftherios; Vlachos, Dimitrios; Xanthopoulos, Anastasios

    2010-03-01

    As companies continue to globalise their operations and outsource significant portion of their value chain activities, they often end up relying heavily on order replenishments from distant suppliers. The explosion in long-distance sourcing is exposing supply chains and shareholder value at ever increasing operational and disruption risks. It is well established, both in academia and in real-world business environments, that resource flexibility is an effective method for hedging against supply chain disruption risks. In this contextual framework, we propose a single period stochastic inventory decision-making model that could be employed for capturing the trade-off between inventory policies and disruption risks for an unreliable dual sourcing supply network for both the capacitated and uncapacitated cases. Through the developed model, we obtain some important managerial insights and evaluate the merit of contingency strategies in managing uncertain supply chains.

  15. A supply chain contract with flexibility as a risk-sharing mechanism for demand forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Whan-Seon

    2013-06-01

    Demand forecasting is one of the main causes of the bullwhip effect in a supply chain. As a countermeasure for demand uncertainty as well as a risk-sharing mechanism for demand forecasting in a supply chain, this article studies a bilateral contract with order quantity flexibility. Under the contract, the buyer places orders in advance for the predetermined horizons and makes minimum purchase commitments. The supplier, in return, provides the buyer with the flexibility to adjust the order quantities later, according to the most updated demand information. To conduct comparative simulations, four-echelon supply chain models, that employ the contracts and different forecasting techniques under dynamic market demands, are developed. The simulation outcomes show that demand fluctuation can be effectively absorbed by the contract scheme, which enables better inventory management and customer service. Furthermore, it has been verified that the contract scheme under study plays a role as an effective coordination mechanism in a decentralised supply chain.

  16. Information technology and supply chain management: a study of the food industry.

    PubMed

    Hill, C A

    2000-08-01

    This paper's topic is the use of information technology (IT) for the development of supply chain management (SCM). In today's business environment, both in academics and industry, the term SCM has become a popular paradigm. In particular, the use of IT to facilitate the development of supply chain partners is gaining interest within industry. This paper develops the topic of SCM and further develops the relationship between the use of IT, in the form of electronic data interchange, and the development of supply chain integration. The goal of using SCM along with IT is to develop a supply chain that is capable of responding more quickly and efficiently in the meeting of consumer's requirements.

  17. Price competition and equilibrium analysis in multiple hybrid channel supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Guihua; Wang, Aihu; Sha, Jin

    2017-06-01

    The amazing boom of Internet and logistics industry prompts more and more enterprises to sell commodity through multiple channels. Such market conditions make the participants of multiple hybrid channel supply chain compete each other in traditional and direct channel at the same time. This paper builds a two-echelon supply chain model with a single manufacturer and a single retailer who both can choose different channel or channel combination for their own sales, then, discusses the price competition and calculates the equilibrium price under different sales channel selection combinations. Our analysis shows that no matter the manufacturer and retailer choose same or different channel price to compete, the equilibrium price does not necessarily exist the equilibrium price in the multiple hybrid channel supply chain and wholesale price change is not always able to coordinate supply chain completely. We also present the sufficient and necessary conditions for the existence of equilibrium price and coordination wholesale price.

  18. Applying the Heuristic to the Risk Assessment within the Automotive Industry Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasova, Daniela; Andrejiova, Miriam; Grincova, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Risk management facilitates risk identification, evaluation, control, and by means of appropriate set of measures, risk reduction or complete elimination. Therefore, the risk management becomes a strategic factor for a company's success. Properly implemented risk management system does not represent a tool to avoid the risk; it is used to understand the risk and provide the bases for strategic decision-making. Risk management represents a key factor for the supply chain operations. Managing the risks is crucial for achieving the customer satisfaction and thus also a company's success. The subject-matter of the article is the assessment of the supply chain in the automobile industry, in terms of risks. The topicality of this problem is even higher, as after the economic crisis it is necessary to revaluate the readiness of the supply chain for prospective risk conditions. One advantage of this article is the use of the Saaty method as a tool for the risk management within the supply chain.

  19. Development of S-ARIMA Model for Forecasting Demand in a Beverage Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mircetic, Dejan; Nikolicic, Svetlana; Maslaric, Marinko; Ralevic, Nebojsa; Debelic, Borna

    2016-11-01

    Demand forecasting is one of the key activities in planning the freight flows in supply chains, and accordingly it is essential for planning and scheduling of logistic activities within observed supply chain. Accurate demand forecasting models directly influence the decrease of logistics costs, since they provide an assessment of customer demand. Customer demand is a key component for planning all logistic processes in supply chain, and therefore determining levels of customer demand is of great interest for supply chain managers. In this paper we deal with exactly this kind of problem, and we develop the seasonal Autoregressive IntegratedMoving Average (SARIMA) model for forecasting demand patterns of a major product of an observed beverage company. The model is easy to understand, flexible to use and appropriate for assisting the expert in decision making process about consumer demand in particular periods.

  20. The SmartWay to Cut Costs and Carbon from Your Supply Chain

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EPA webinar-slide presentation provides information on how sustainability directors and other staff can meet their goals of cutting costs and carbon emissions from their supply chain by using the resources provided by the SmartWay program.

  1. The Analysis of Rush Orders Risk in Supply Chain: A Simulation Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahfouz, Amr; Arisha, Amr

    2011-01-01

    Satisfying customers by delivering demands at agreed time, with competitive prices, and in satisfactory quality level are crucial requirements for supply chain survival. Incidence of risks in supply chain often causes sudden disruptions in the processes and consequently leads to customers losing their trust in a company's competence. Rush orders are considered to be one of the main types of supply chain risks due to their negative impact on the overall performance, Using integrated definition modeling approaches (i.e. IDEF0 & IDEF3) and simulation modeling technique, a comprehensive integrated model has been developed to assess rush order risks and examine two risk mitigation strategies. Detailed functions sequence and objects flow were conceptually modeled to reflect on macro and micro levels of the studied supply chain. Discrete event simulation models were then developed to assess and investigate the mitigation strategies of rush order risks, the objective of this is to minimize order cycle time and cost.

  2. Impact of radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies on the hospital supply chain: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Coustasse, Alberto; Tomblin, Shane; Slack, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Supply costs account for more than one-third of the average operating budget and constitute the second largest expenditure in hospitals. As hospitals have sought to reduce these costs, radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology has emerged as a solution. This study reviews existing literature to gauge the recent and potential impact and direction of the implementation of RFID in the hospital supply chain to determine current benefits and barriers of adoption. Findings show that the application of RFID to medical equipment and supplies tracking has resulted in efficiency increases in hospitals with lower costs and increased service quality. RFID technology can reduce costs, improve patient safety, and improve supply chain management effectiveness by increasing the ability to track and locate equipment, as well as monitoring theft prevention, distribution management, and patient billing. Despite ongoing RFID implementation in the hospital supply chain, barriers to widespread and rapid adoption include significant total expenditures, unclear return on investment, and competition with other strategic imperatives.

  3. Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: using supply chain management to appraise health systems strengthening.

    PubMed

    Windisch, Ricarda; Waiswa, Peter; Neuhann, Florian; Scheibe, Florian; de Savigny, Don

    2011-08-01

    Strengthened national health systems are necessary for effective and sustained expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART and its supply chain management in Uganda are largely based on parallel and externally supported efforts. The question arises whether systems are being strengthened to sustain access to ART. This study applies systems thinking to assess supply chain management, the role of external support and whether investments create the needed synergies to strengthen health systems. This study uses the WHO health systems framework and examines the issues of governance, financing, information, human resources and service delivery in relation to supply chain management of medicines and the technologies. It looks at links and causal chains between supply chain management for ART and the national supply system for essential drugs. It combines data from the literature and key informant interviews with observations at health service delivery level in a study district. Current drug supply chain management in Uganda is characterized by parallel processes and information systems that result in poor quality and inefficiencies. Less than expected health system performance, stock outs and other shortages affect ART and primary care in general. Poor performance of supply chain management is amplified by weak conditions at all levels of the health system, including the areas of financing, governance, human resources and information. Governance issues include the lack to follow up initial policy intentions and a focus on narrow, short-term approaches. The opportunity and need to use ART investments for an essential supply chain management and strengthened health system has not been exploited. By applying a systems perspective this work indicates the seriousness of missing system prerequisites. The findings suggest that root causes and capacities across the system have to be addressed synergistically to enable systems that can match and accommodate investments in

  4. Balancing detail and scale in assessing transparency to improve the governance of agricultural commodity supply chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godar, Javier; Suavet, Clément; Gardner, Toby A.; Dawkins, Elena; Meyfroidt, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    To date, assessments of the sustainability of agricultural commodity supply chains have largely relied on some combination of macro-scale footprint accounts, detailed life-cycle analyses and fine-scale traceability systems. Yet these approaches are limited in their ability to support the sustainability governance of agricultural supply chains, whether because they are intended for coarser-grained analyses, do not identify individual actors, or are too costly to be implemented in a consistent manner for an entire region of production. Here we illustrate some of the advantages of a complementary middle-ground approach that balances detail and scale of supply chain transparency information by combining consistent country-wide data on commodity production at the sub-national (e.g. municipal) level with per shipment customs data to describe trade flows of a given commodity covering all companies and production regions within that country. This approach can support supply chain governance in two key ways. First, enhanced spatial resolution of the production regions that connect to individual supply chains allows for a more accurate consideration of geographic variability in measures of risk and performance that are associated with different production practices. Second, identification of key actors that operate within a specific supply chain, including producers, traders, shippers and consumers can help discriminate coalitions of actors that have shared stake in a particular region, and that together are capable of delivering more cost-effective and coordinated interventions. We illustrate the potential of this approach with examples from Brazil, Indonesia and Colombia. We discuss how transparency information can deepen understanding of the environmental and social impacts of commodity production systems, how benefits are distributed among actors, and some of the trade-offs involved in efforts to improve supply chain sustainability. We then discuss the challenges and

  5. Supply Chain Modeling: Downstream Risk Assessment Methodology (DRAM) Summary of Development and Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    This briefing demonstrates the operation of DRAM using the neodymium -iron-boron (NdFeB) magnet supply chain as a test case. It can also serve as a...is necessary to assess risk more precisely and to evaluate and support proposed risk mitigation measures. Develop DRAM—Approach  Use neodymium ...the specific approach taken to develop the DRAM methodology and build a prototype supply chain model for neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) magnets. These

  6. RFID Application Strategy in Agri-Food Supply Chain Based on Safety and Benefit Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Li, Peichong

    Agri-food supply chain management (SCM), a management method to optimize internal costs and productivities, has evolved as an application of e-business technologies. These days, RFID has been widely used in many fields. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of agri-food supply chain. Then the disadvantages of RFID are discussed. After that, we study the application strategies of RFID based on benefit and safety degree.

  7. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains

    DOE PAGES

    Lautala, Pasi T.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Webb, Erin; ...

    2015-06-30

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term 'supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmostmore » importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. Our paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Lastly, gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.« less

  8. U.S. healthcare fix: leveraging the lessons from the food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sameer; Blair, John T

    2013-01-01

    U.S. healthcare costs consistently outpace inflation, causing growing problems of affordability. This trend cannot be sustained indefinitely. The purpose of this study is to use supply-chain tools for macro-level examination of the U.S. healthcare as a business system and identify options and best use practices. We compare the important and successful U.S. food industry to the essential but problematic U.S. healthcare industry. Supply chain strategies leading to food business operations success are examined and healthcare applications suggested. We emphasize "total cost of ownership" which includes all costs incurred by all stakeholders of U.S. healthcare, including maintenance and cleanup, not just the initial purchase price. U.S. hospitals and clinics can use supply chain strategies in a total cost of ownership framework to reduce healthcare costs while maintaining patient care quality. Supply chain strategies of resource pooling, mass customization, centralized logistics, specialization, postponement and continuous improvement that have been successfully used in the U.S. food industry should be more widely applied to the U.S. healthcare industry. New and growing areas of telemedicine and medical tourism should be included in the supply chain analysis of U.S. healthcare. Valid statistical analysis of results in all areas of U.S. healthcare is an important part of the process. U.S. healthcare industry problems are systematic operational and supply chain problems rather than problems with workforce or technology. Examination of the U.S. healthcare industry through a supply chain framework should lead to significant operational improvement in both prevention and treatment of acute and chronic ailments. A rational and unemotional reorganization of the U.S. healthcare system operations, using supply chain strategies, should help reduce healthcare costs while maintaining quality and increasing accessibility.

  9. Coordinating a supply chain with a loss-averse retailer and effort dependent demand.

    PubMed

    Li, Liying; Wang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the channel coordination issue of a supply chain with a risk-neutral manufacturer and a loss-averse retailer facing stochastic demand that is sensitive to sales effort. Under the loss-averse newsvendor setting, a distribution-free gain/loss-sharing-and-buyback (GLB) contract has been shown to be able to coordinate the supply chain. However, we find that a GLB contract remains ineffective in managing the supply chain when retailer sales efforts influence the demand. To effectively coordinate the channel, we propose to combine a GLB contract with sales rebate and penalty (SRP) contract. In addition, we discover a special class of gain/loss contracts that can coordinate the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate the expected supply chain profit between the manufacturer and the retailer. We then analyze the effect of loss aversion on the retailer's decision-making behavior and supply chain performance. Finally, we perform a numerical study to illustrate the findings and gain additional insights.

  10. Supply chain analysis of e-tailing versus retailing operation - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sameer; Tiffany, Maryellen; Vaidya, Salil

    2016-07-01

    The swift growth of e-commerce or e-tailing as a consumer retail channel has made it a serious competitor to traditional retail channels and is changing consumers' purchasing behaviour. The purpose of this case study, based on Target and Amazon.com, is to analyse the attributes of traditional retailing, e-tailing, and hybrid supply chain models to form conclusions about the feasibility of an idealised supply chain model for the future. An integrated and generalised modelling framework is used that incorporates Six Sigma - define, measure, analyse, improve, control methodology leveraging various tools, including process flow maps, cause and effect diagram, performance efficiency metrics, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), and Monte Carlo simulation. Based on this analysis and research, the conclusion is that the idealised supply chain of the future may evolve into a hybrid supply chain, which includes both e-tail and retail channels. The main recommendations from this study include assessing the risks of migrating to such a hybrid supply chain and to leverage the recommended actions provided in the hybrid FMEA. To facilitate more effective and mature processes, this study can guide researchers in exhaustive empirical evaluations of hybrid supply chains, gather experiences and lessons learned for practitioners.

  11. Coordinating a Supply Chain with a Loss-Averse Retailer and Effort Dependent Demand

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liying

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the channel coordination issue of a supply chain with a risk-neutral manufacturer and a loss-averse retailer facing stochastic demand that is sensitive to sales effort. Under the loss-averse newsvendor setting, a distribution-free gain/loss-sharing-and-buyback (GLB) contract has been shown to be able to coordinate the supply chain. However, we find that a GLB contract remains ineffective in managing the supply chain when retailer sales efforts influence the demand. To effectively coordinate the channel, we propose to combine a GLB contract with sales rebate and penalty (SRP) contract. In addition, we discover a special class of gain/loss contracts that can coordinate the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate the expected supply chain profit between the manufacturer and the retailer. We then analyze the effect of loss aversion on the retailer's decision-making behavior and supply chain performance. Finally, we perform a numerical study to illustrate the findings and gain additional insights. PMID:25197696

  12. Conceptual Model of Supply Chain Structure Mapping - A Case of Subsidized LPG Commodity in Yogyakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistio, Joko; Thoif, Afifuddin; Fitri Alindira, Aulia

    2016-01-01

    — In 2007, the government launched a conversion program of kerosene to LPG by issuing a Presidential Regulation No. 104/2007 on Supply, Distribution and Pricing LPG 3 Kg. Article 2 on the regulation says that setting the supply, distribution, and pricing of LPG 3 Kg include planning an annual sales volume of enterprises, the reference price and the retail price and conditions of export and import of LPG 3 Kg in order to reduce subsidies Kerosene especially to divert the use of kerosene according to government policy. In principle, the purpose of this policy is to reduce energy subsidies on commodities, especially Kerosene. Although the government claimed the conversion program is success, there are few problems arising from conversion program. In 2014, many scarcity and high price of LPG 3 Kg were reported. In this case, Pertamina was given full authority to manage all supply chain and distribution. Because the root of the problem of scarcity that occurred in the supply chain system has not been explained, the proposed solutions will also be partial and not comprehensive. Thus, this research will build a structural map of the causes of supply chain system LPG 3 Kg, as well as providing a comprehensive picture of system dynamics of LPG 3 Kg supply chain system which applied in Indonesia. And the result is expected as in form of Causal Loop Diagram of supply chain system.

  13. 75 FR 29307 - Web Based Supply Chain Management Commodity Offer Form, Paperwork Collection Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Web Based Supply Chain Management Commodity Offer Form, Paperwork Collection... revision to the information collection request is required for the implementation of a new system named Web....tuckwiller@ams.usda.gov . Fax: (202) 720-2782. Mail: David Tuckwiller, Project Manager, Web Based Supply...

  14. Food supply chain disruption due to natural disaster: Entities, risks and strategies for resilience

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The resilience of food supply chain (FSC) to disruptions has not kept pace with the extended, globalized and complex network of modern food chain. This chapter presents a holistic view of the FSC, interactions among its components, risks and vulnerabilities of disruption in the context of natural d...

  15. Removing costs from the health care supply chain: lessons from mass retail.

    PubMed

    Agwunobi, John; London, Paul A

    2009-01-01

    Improved supply-chain management and high-volume purchasing have benefited other industries. This same approach could also reduce health care costs. Streamlining layers in the supply chain and using purchasing volume to reduce prices can save money and may improve care. Providing access to in-store health clinics and low-cost generic drugs are examples of how this approach is being tested by mass retailers. We examine lessons learned from these and similar initiatives and identify opportunities to cut the costs of generic and name-brand drugs, medical supplies, over-the-counter remedies, and vision care.

  16. Optimizing a Military Supply Chain in the Presence of Random, Non-Stationary Demands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    supply chain that satisfies uncertain, non-stationary demands, while taking into account the volatility and singularity of military operations This research focuses on the development of a modeling framework that determines the optimal deployment of transportation assets and supplies at the operational level, with possible interdiction by enemy forces, We term this model, Optimal Military Logistics Supply Chain (OPTiMiLSC), This is a two-level, multiple time period scenario-based stochastic model OPTiMiLSC uses a combination of optimization,

  17. 2006 Land and Maritime Supply Chains Business Conference and Exhibition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-30

    NSN-NOW......................................................107 Ontario Knife Company...................................405 Oshkosh Truck ...A WHOLLY OWNED SUBSIDIARY OF BOEING 681 21 889 45152 OSHKOSH TRUCK CORPORATION 85 108 216 59211 PARKER HANNIFIN CORPORATION 433 152 596 4U884...HET 665 (68) q FMTV 2,805 (764 AoA, 286 LSAC) q HEMTT 1,595 (1,196) q M915 Freightliner 1,302 (259) Demand/Supply Chain… Maritime Arleigh Burke Class

  18. How PEPFAR's public-private partnerships achieved ambitious goals, from improving labs to strengthening supply chains.

    PubMed

    Sturchio, Jeffrey L; Cohen, Gary M

    2012-07-01

    The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), established in 2003, is widely recognized as one of the most ambitious and successful bilateral programs ever implemented to address a single disease. Part of the program's success is attributable to the participation of the private sector, working in partnership with the US and local governments and implementing organizations to maximize the reach and effectiveness of every dollar spent. We examined key public-private partnerships that grew out of PEPFAR to identify features that have made them effective. For example, PEPFAR's Supply Chain Management System took advantage of private industry's best practices in logistics, and a partnership with the medical technology company BD (Becton, Dickinson and Company) improved laboratory systems throughout sub-Saharan Africa. We found that setting ambitious goals, enlisting both global and local partners, cultivating a culture of collaboration, careful planning, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and measuring outcomes systematically led to the most effective programs. The Office of the US Global AIDS Coordinator and PEPFAR should continue to strengthen their capacity for private-sector partnerships, learning from a decade of experience and identifying new ways to make smart investments that will make the most efficient use of taxpayer resources, expand proven interventions more rapidly, and help ensure the sustainability of key programs.

  19. Evaluating Opportunities to Improve Material and Energy Impacts in Commodity Supply Chains.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanes, Rebecca J.; Carpenter, Alberta

    2016-06-28

    When evaluated at the process level, next-generation technologies may be more energy and emissions intensive than current technology. However, many advanced technologies have the potential to reduce material and energy consumption in upstream or downstream processing stages. In order to fully understand the benefits and consequences of technology deployment, next-generation technologies should be evaluated in context, as part of a supply chain. This work presents the Material Flows through Industry (MFI) scenario modeling tool. The MFI tool is a cradle-to-gate linear network model of the U.S. industrial sector that can model a wide range of manufacturing scenarios, including changes in production technology, increases in industrial energy efficiency, and substitution between functionally equivalent materials. The MFI tool was developed to perform supply chain scale analyses in order to quantify the impacts and benefits of next-generation technologies and materials at that scale. For the analysis presented in this paper, the MFI tool is utilized to explore a case study comparing a steel supply chain to the supply chains of several functionally equivalent materials. Several of the alternatives to the baseline steel supply chain include next-generation production technologies and materials. Results of the case study show that aluminum production scenarios can out-perform the steel supply chain by using either an advanced smelting technology or an increased aluminum recycling rate. The next-generation material supply chains do not perform as well as either aluminum or steel, but may offer additional use phase reductions in energy and emissions that are outside the scope of the MFI tool. Future work will combine results from the MFI tool with a use phase analysis.

  20. Evaluating opportunities to improve material and energy impacts in commodity supply chains

    DOE PAGES

    Hanes, Rebecca J.; Carpenter, Alberta

    2017-01-10

    When evaluated at the scale of individual processes, next-generation technologies may be more energy and emissions intensive than current technology. However, many advanced technologies have the potential to reduce material and energy consumption in upstream or downstream processing stages. In order to fully understand the benefits and consequences of technology deployment, next-generation technologies should be evaluated in context, as part of a supply chain. This work presents the Materials Flow through Industry (MFI) supply chain modeling tool. The MFI tool is a cradle-to-gate linear network model of the US industrial sector that can model a wide range of manufacturing scenarios,more » including changes in production technology and increases in industrial energy efficiency. The MFI tool was developed to perform supply chain scale analyses in order to quantify the impacts and benefits of next-generation technologies and materials at that scale. For the analysis presented in this paper, the MFI tool is utilized to explore a case study comparing three lightweight vehicle supply chains to the supply chain of a conventional, standard weight vehicle. Several of the lightweight vehicle supply chains are evaluated under manufacturing scenarios that include next-generation production technologies and next-generation materials. Results indicate that producing lightweight vehicles is more energy and emission intensive than producing the non-lightweight vehicle, but the fuel saved during vehicle use offsets this increase. In this case study, greater reductions in supply chain energy and emissions were achieved through the application of the next-generation technologies than from application of energy efficiency increases.« less

  1. Developing and sustaining human resources in the health supply chain in Ethiopia: barriers and enablers.

    PubMed

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Traulsen, Janine M; Damene Kabtimer, Woynabeba; Mekasha Habtegiorgis, Bitsatab; Teshome Gebregeorgise, Dawit; Essah, Nana Am; Khan, Sara A; Brown, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    The health supply chain is often the weakest link in achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals and universal health coverage, requiring trained professionals who are often unavailable. In Ethiopia there have been recent developments in the area of health supply chain management. The aim of this study was to explore the current status of the development of human resources in health supply chain management in Ethiopia and to identify important factors affecting this development. A series of face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders was carried out in 2014. The interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. The interview guide comprised 51 questions. A qualitative analysis of transcripts was made. A total of 25 interviews were conducted. Three themes were identified: General changes: recognition, commitment and resources, Education and training, and Barriers and enablers. Results confirm the development of human resources in health supply chain management in many areas. However, several problems were identified including lack of coordination, partly due to the large number of stakeholders; reported high staff mobility; and a lack of overall strategy regarding the job/career structures necessary for maintaining human resources. Rural areas have a particular set of problems, including in transportation of goods and personnel, attracting and keeping personnel, and in communication and access to information. Ethiopia is on the way to developing a nationwide viable system for health supply chain management. However, there are still challenges. Short-term challenges include the importance of highlighting strategies and programs for human resources in health supply chain management. In the long term, commitments to financial support must be obtained. A strategy is needed for the further development and sustainability of human resources in the health supply chain in Ethiopia.

  2. Evaluating Opportunities to Improve Material and Energy Impacts in Commodity Supply Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Hanes, Rebecca J.; Carpenter, Alberta

    2017-01-01

    When evaluated at the scale of individual processes, next-generation technologies may be more energy and emissions intensive than current technology. However, many advanced technologies have the potential to reduce material and energy consumption in upstream or downstream processing stages. In order to fully understand the benefits and consequences of technology deployment, next-generation technologies should be evaluated in context, as part of a supply chain. This work presents the Materials Flow through Industry (MFI) supply chain modeling tool. The MFI tool is a cradle-to-gate linear network model of the US industrial sector that can model a wide range of manufacturing scenarios, including changes in production technology and increases in industrial energy efficiency. The MFI tool was developed to perform supply chain scale analyses in order to quantify the impacts and benefits of next-generation technologies and materials at that scale. For the analysis presented in this paper, the MFI tool is utilized to explore a case study comparing three lightweight vehicle supply chains to the supply chain of a conventional, standard weight vehicle. Several of the lightweight vehicle supply chains are evaluated under manufacturing scenarios that include next-generation production technologies and next-generation materials. Results indicate that producing lightweight vehicles is more energy and emission intensive than producing the non-lightweight vehicle, but the fuel saved during vehicle use offsets this increase. In this case study, greater reductions in supply chain energy and emissions were achieved through the application of the next-generation technologies than from application of energy efficiency increases.

  3. Hospital employment of physicians and supply chain performance: An empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Young, Gary J; Nyaga, Gilbert N; Zepeda, E David

    2016-01-01

    As hospital employment of physicians becomes increasingly common in the United States, much speculation exists as to whether this type of arrangement will promote hospital operating efficiency in such areas as supply chain management. Little empirical research has been conducted to address this question. The aim of this study was to provide an exploratory assessment of whether hospital employment of physicians is associated with better supply chain performance. Drawing from both agency and stewardship theories, we examined whether hospitals with a higher proportion of employed medical staff members have relatively better supply chain performance based on two performance measures, supply chain expenses and inventory costs. We conducted the study using a pooled, cross-sectional sample of hospitals located in California between 2007 and 2009. Key data sources were hospital annual financial reports from California's Office of Statewide Health Policy and Development and the American Hospital Association annual survey of hospitals. To examine the relationship between physician employment and supply chain performance, we specified physician employment as the proportion of total employed medical staff members as well as the proportion of employed medical staff members within key physician subgroups. We analyzed the data using generalized estimating equations. Study results generally supported our hypothesis that hospital employment of physicians is associated with better supply chain performance. Although the results of our study should be viewed as preliminary, the trend in the United States toward hospital employment of physicians may be a positive development for improved hospital operating efficiency. Hospital managers should also be attentive to training and educational resources that medical staff members may need to strengthen their role in supply chain activities.

  4. China’s rare earth supply chain: Illegal production, and response to new cerium demand

    DOE PAGES

    Nguyen, Ruby Thuy; Imholte, D. Devin

    2016-03-29

    As the demand for personal electronic devices, wind turbines, and electric vehicles increases, the world becomes more dependent on rare earth elements. Given the volatile, Chinese-concentrated supply chain, global attempts have been made to diversify supply of these materials. However, the overall effect of supply diversification on the entire supply chain, including increasing low-value rare earth demand, is not fully understood. This paper is the first attempt to shed some light on China’s supply chain from both demand and supply perspectives, taking into account different Chinese policies such as mining quotas, separation quotas, export quotas, and resource taxes. We constructedmore » a simulation model using Powersim Studio that analyzes production (both legal and illegal), production costs, Chinese and rest-of-world demand, and market dynamics. We also simulated new demand of an automotive aluminum-cerium alloy in the U.S. market starting from 2018. Results showed that market share of the illegal sector has grown since 2007 to 2015, ranging between 22% and 25% of China’s rare earth supply, translating into 59–65% illegal heavy rare earths and 14–16% illegal light rare earths. There would be a shortage in certain light and heavy rare earths given three production quota scenarios and constant demand growth rate from 2015 to 2030. The new simulated Ce demand would require supply beyond that produced in China. Lastly, we illustrated revenue streams for different ore compositions in China in 2015.« less

  5. China’s rare earth supply chain: Illegal production, and response to new cerium demand

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ruby Thuy; Imholte, D. Devin

    2016-03-29

    As the demand for personal electronic devices, wind turbines, and electric vehicles increases, the world becomes more dependent on rare earth elements. Given the volatile, Chinese-concentrated supply chain, global attempts have been made to diversify supply of these materials. However, the overall effect of supply diversification on the entire supply chain, including increasing low-value rare earth demand, is not fully understood. This paper is the first attempt to shed some light on China’s supply chain from both demand and supply perspectives, taking into account different Chinese policies such as mining quotas, separation quotas, export quotas, and resource taxes. We constructed a simulation model using Powersim Studio that analyzes production (both legal and illegal), production costs, Chinese and rest-of-world demand, and market dynamics. We also simulated new demand of an automotive aluminum-cerium alloy in the U.S. market starting from 2018. Results showed that market share of the illegal sector has grown since 2007 to 2015, ranging between 22% and 25% of China’s rare earth supply, translating into 59–65% illegal heavy rare earths and 14–16% illegal light rare earths. There would be a shortage in certain light and heavy rare earths given three production quota scenarios and constant demand growth rate from 2015 to 2030. The new simulated Ce demand would require supply beyond that produced in China. Lastly, we illustrated revenue streams for different ore compositions in China in 2015.

  6. China's Rare Earth Supply Chain: Illegal Production, and Response to new Cerium Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ruby Thuy; Imholte, D. Devin

    2016-07-01

    As the demand for personal electronic devices, wind turbines, and electric vehicles increases, the world becomes more dependent on rare earth elements. Given the volatile, Chinese-concentrated supply chain, global attempts have been made to diversify supply of these materials. However, the overall effect of supply diversification on the entire supply chain, including increasing low-value rare earth demand, is not fully understood. This paper is the first attempt to shed some light on China's supply chain from both demand and supply perspectives, taking into account different Chinese policies such as mining quotas, separation quotas, export quotas, and resource taxes. We constructed a simulation model using Powersim Studio that analyzes production (both legal and illegal), production costs, Chinese and rest-of-world demand, and market dynamics. We also simulated new demand of an automotive aluminum-cerium alloy in the US market starting from 2018. Results showed that market share of the illegal sector has grown since 2007-2015, ranging between 22% and 25% of China's rare earth supply, translating into 59-65% illegal heavy rare earths and 14-16% illegal light rare earths. There will be a shortage in certain light and heavy rare earths given three production quota scenarios and constant demand growth rate from 2015 to 2030. The new simulated Ce demand would require supply beyond that produced in China. Finally, we illustrate revenue streams for different ore compositions in China in 2015.

  7. A Risk Management Method for the Operation of a Supply-Chain without Storage:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Manabe, Yuuji; Nakata, Norimasa; Kusaka, Satoshi

    A business risk management method has been developed for a supply-chain without a storage function under demand uncertainty. Power supply players in the deregulated power market face the need to develop the best policies for power supply from self-production and reserved purchases to balance demand, which is predictable with error. The proposed method maximizes profit from the operation of the supply-chain under probabilistic demand uncertainty on the basis of a probabilistic programming approach. Piece-wise linear functions are employed to formulate the impact of under-booked or over-booked purchases on the supply cost, and constraints on over-demand probability are introduced to limit over-demand frequency on the basis of the demand probability distribution. The developed method has been experimentally applied to the supply policy of a power-supply-chain, the operation of which is based on a 3-stage pricing purchase contract and on 28 time zones. The characteristics of the obtained optimal supply policy are successfully captured in the numerical results, which suggest the applicability of the proposed method.

  8. Fuel Costs, Propulsion Systems and Interplanetary Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R.

    A perspective on the economics of space logistics in a future state where there are continuous supply routes between Earth and outlying bodies in the solar system is discussed. In particular, the dependence of the cost of transport on specific impulse and % of non-fuel mass as cargo is discussed. Also, a simple way to calculate the optimal cargo mass of a transport ship carrying a commodity with constant demand is proposed as well as qualitative issues regarding backhaul and inventory that space logistics planners will have to one day confront.

  9. Gathering Information from Transport Systems for Processing in Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodym, Oldřich; Unucka, Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Paper deals with complex system for processing information from means of transport acting as parts of train (rail or road). It focuses on automated information gathering using AutoID technology, information transmission via Internet of Things networks and information usage in information systems of logistic firms for support of selected processes on MES and ERP levels. Different kinds of gathered information from whole transport chain are discussed. Compliance with existing standards is mentioned. Security of information in full life cycle is integral part of presented system. Design of fully equipped system based on synthesized functional nodes is presented.

  10. Improving pharmacy supply-chain management in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J A; Martin, V; Frank, S

    2000-12-01

    Anesthesia services can account for a significant portion of a healthcare organization's costs. Deaconess Hospital of Evansville, Indiana, used a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort to implement process improvements that yielded significant cost savings while improving patient care. Shifting responsibility for drug distribution from the operating room (OR) nurses to a pharmacist, the hospital established a satellite pharmacy service for the OR. As a result, the hospital was able to improve control of drug distribution and record-keeping, reduce turnaround time for medication preparation, lower its medication charge error rate, and increase the percentage of surgeries that start on time. The success of the OR satellite pharmacy led the hospital to expand satellite pharmacy services to labor and delivery, the cardiac cath laboratory, and the intensive care units.

  11. [Drug supply chain safety in hospitals: current data and experience of the Grenoble university hospital].

    PubMed

    Bedouch, P; Baudrant, M; Detavernier, M; Rey, C; Brudieu, E; Foroni, L; Allenet, B; Calop, J

    2009-01-01

    Drug supply chain safety has become a priority for public health which implies a collective process. This process associates all health professionals including the pharmacist who plays a major role. The objective of this present paper is to describe the several approaches proven effective in the reduction of drug-related problem in hospital, illustrated by the Grenoble University Hospital experience. The pharmacist gets involved first in the general strategy of hospital drug supply chain, second by his direct implication in clinical activities. The general strategy of drug supply chain combines risk management, coordination of the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee, selection and purchase of drugs and organisation of drug supply chain. Computer management of drug supply chain is a major evolution. Nominative drug delivering has to be a prior objective and its implementation modalities have to be defined: centralized or decentralized in wards, manual or automated. Also, new technologies allow the automation of overall drug distribution from central pharmacy and the implementation of automated drug dispensing systems into wards. The development of centralised drug preparation allows a safe compounding of high risk drugs, like cytotoxic drugs. The pharmacist should develop his clinical activities with patients and other health care professionals in order to optimise clinical decisions (medication review, drug order analysis) and patients follow-up (therapeutic monitoring, patient education, discharge consultation).

  12. Time-based analysis of the apheresis platelet supply chain in England.

    PubMed

    Wilding, R; Cotton, S; Dobbin, J; Chapman, J; Yates, N

    2011-10-01

    During 2009/2010 loss of platelets within NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) due to time expiry was 9.3%. Hospitals remain reluctant to hold stocks of platelets due to the poor shelf life at issue. The purpose of this study was to identify areas for time compression in the apheresis platelet supply chain to extend the shelf life available for hospitals and reduce wastage in NHSBT. This was done within the context of NHSBT reconfiguring their supply chain and moving towards a consolidated and centralised approach. Time based process mapping was applied to identify value and non-value adding time in two manufacturing models. A large amount of the non-value adding time in the apheresis platelet supply chain is due to transportation and waiting for the next process in the manufacturing process to take place. Time based process mapping provides an effective 'lens' for supply chain professionals to identify opportunities for improvement in the platelet supply chain. © 2011 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2011 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  13. A novel approach for inventory problem in the pharmaceutical supply chain.

    PubMed

    Candan, Gökçe; Yazgan, Harun Reşit

    2016-02-24

    In pharmaceutical enterprises, keeping up with global market conditions is possible with properly selected supply chain management policies. Generally; demand-driven classical supply chain model is used in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, a new mathematical model is developed to solve an inventory problem in the pharmaceutical supply chain. Unlike the studies in literature, the "shelf life and product transition times" constraints are considered, simultaneously, first time in the pharmaceutical production inventory problem. The problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model with a hybrid time representation. The objective is to maximize total net profit. Effectiveness of the proposed model is illustrated considering a classical and a vendor managed inventory (VMI) supply chain on an experimental study. To show the effectiveness of the model, an experimental study is performed; which contains 2 different supply chain policy (Classical and VMI), 24 and 30 months planning horizon, 10 and 15 different cephalosporin products. Finally the mathematical model is compared to another model in literature and the results show that proposed model is superior. This study suggest a novel approach for solving pharmaceutical inventory problem. The developed model is maximizing total net profit while determining optimal production plan under shelf life and product transition constraints in the pharmaceutical industry. And we believe that the proposed model is much more closed to real life unlike the other studies in literature.

  14. Decision and coordination of low-carbon supply chain considering technological spillover and environmental awareness.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lang; Wang, Chuanxu; Li, Hui

    2017-06-08

    We focus on the impacts of technological spillovers and environmental awareness in a two-echelon supply chain with one-single supplier and one-single manufacturer to reduce carbon emission. In this supply chain, carbon abatement investment becomes one of key factors of cutting costs and improving profits, which is reducing production costs in the components and products-the investment from players in supply chain. On the basis of optimality theory, the centralized and decentralized models are respectively established to investigate the optimal decisions and profits. Further, setting the players' profits of the decentralized scenario as the disagreement points, we propose a bargaining-coordination contract through revenue-cost sharing to enhance the performance. Finally, by theoretical comparison and numerical analysis, the results show that: (i) The optimal profits of players and supply chain improve as technological spillovers and environmental awareness increase, and the profits of them in the bargaining-coordination contract are higher than that in the decentralized scenario; (ii) Technological spillovers between the players amplify the impact of "free-ride" behavior, in which the supplier always incentives the manufacturer to improve carbon emission intensity, but the cooperation will achieves and the profits will improve only when technological spillovers and environmental awareness are great; (iii) The contract can effectively achieve coordinated supply chain, and improve carbon abatement investment.

  15. A Case Study Using Modeling and Simulation to Predict Logistics Supply Chain Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Optimization of critical supply chains to deliver thousands of parts, materials, sub-assemblies, and vehicle structures as needed is vital to the success of the Constellation Program. Thorough analysis needs to be performed on the integrated supply chain processes to plan, source, make, deliver, and return critical items efficiently. Process modeling provides simulation technology-based, predictive solutions for supply chain problems which enable decision makers to reduce costs, accelerate cycle time and improve business performance. For example, United Space Alliance, LLC utilized this approach in late 2006 to build simulation models that recreated shuttle orbiter thruster failures and predicted the potential impact of thruster removals on logistics spare assets. The main objective was the early identification of possible problems in providing thruster spares for the remainder of the Shuttle Flight Manifest. After extensive analysis the model results were used to quantify potential problems and led to improvement actions in the supply chain. Similarly the proper modeling and analysis of Constellation parts, materials, operations, and information flows will help ensure the efficiency of the critical logistics supply chains and the overall success of the program.

  16. Building green supply chains in eco-industrial parks towards a green economy: Barriers and strategies.

    PubMed

    Li, Jacqueline; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Kim, Hyunook; Linn, Jean H; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-10-01

    As suggested by UNEP, the key to sustainable development is to create a "green economy" which should encapsulate all three sectors: the industry, the people, and the government. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop and implement the green technologies into the existing facilities, especially in the developing countries. In this study, the role of green supply chains in eco-industrial parks (EIPs) towards a green economy was investigated. The strategies and effective evaluation procedures of the green economy were proposed by assessing the barriers from the perspective of institution, regulation, technology, and finance. In addition, three case studies from iron and steel-making, paper mill and pulping, and petrochemical industries were presented and illustrated for building the green supply chains. For example, in the case of Lin-Hai Industrial Park, a total of 15 efficient green supply chains using waste-to-resources technologies were established by 2012, resulting in an economic benefit of USD 100 million per year. It suggests that the green supply chains should be established to achieve both economic growth and environmental protection. With these successful experiences, building a green supply chain within industrial park should be extensively promoted to make traditional industries around the world being environmentally bearable, economic viable, and social equitable.

  17. Innovations in low input and organic dairy supply chains--what is acceptable in Europe?

    PubMed

    Nicholas, P K; Mandolesi, S; Naspetti, S; Zanoli, R

    2014-02-01

    The growth in organic and low-input farming practices is driven by both market demand for high quality, safe food, and European Union policy support, and these types of farming practices are considered in European Union policies for sustainable production, food quality, healthy life, and rural development. However, many constraints to the development of low-input and organic dairy farming supply chains have been identified, including economic, political, and technical constraints. In order for these types of supply chains to develop and provide further benefits to society, innovations are required to improve their sustainability. However, an innovation will only be taken up and result in desirable change if the whole supply chain accepts the innovation. In this paper, Q methodology is used to identify the acceptability of dairy supply chain innovations to low-input and organic supply chain members and consumers in Belgium, Finland, Italy, and the United Kingdom. A strong consensus existed across all respondents on innovations that were deemed as unacceptable. The use of genetically modified and transgenic organisms in the farming system and innovations perceived as conflicting with the naturalness of the production system and products were strongly rejected. Innovations that were strongly liked across all participants in the study were those related to improving animal welfare and improving forage quality to be able to reduce the need for purchased concentrate feeds. Only minor differences existed between countries as to where the priorities lay in terms of innovation acceptability.

  18. Strategic supply system design - a holistic evaluation of operational and production cost for a biorefinery supply chain

    DOE PAGES

    Lamers, Patrick; Tan, Eric C. D.; Searcy, Erin M.; ...

    2015-08-20

    Here, pioneer cellulosic biorefineries across the United States rely on a conventional feedstock supply system based on one-year contracts with local growers, who harvest, locally store, and deliver feed-stock in low-density format to the conversion facility. While the conventional system is designed for high biomass yield areas, pilot scale operations have experienced feedstock supply shortages and price volatilities due to reduced harvests and competition from other industries. Regional supply dependency and the inability to actively manage feedstock stability and quality, provide operational risks to the biorefinery, which translate into higher investment risk. The advanced feedstock supply system based on amore » network of depots can mitigate many of these risks and enable wider supply system benefits. This paper compares the two concepts from a system-level perspective beyond mere logistic costs. It shows that while processing operations at the depot increase feedstock supply costs initially, they enable wider system benefits including supply risk reduction (leading to lower interest rates on loans), industry scale-up, conversion yield improvements, and reduced handling equipment and storage costs at the biorefinery. When translating these benefits into cost reductions per liter of gasoline equivalent (LGE), we find that total cost reductions between -0.46 to -0.21 per LGE for biochemical and -0.32 to -0.12 per LGE for thermochemical conversion pathways are possible. Naturally, these system level benefits will differ between individual actors along the feedstock supply chain. Further research is required with respect to depot sizing, location, and ownership structures.« less

  19. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Three Biofuel Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Erin Searcy; Kara Cafferty; Jennifer B. Dunn; Michael Johnson; Zhichao Wang; Michael Wang; Mary Biddy; Abhijit Dutta; Daniel Inman; Eric Tan; Sue Jones; Lesley Snowden-Swan

    2013-11-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) collaborates with industrial, agricultural, and non-profit partners to develop and deploy biofuels and other biologically-derived products. As part of this effort, BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth techno-economic assessments (TEA) of technologies to produce biofuels as part state of technology (SOT) analyses. An SOT assesses progress within and across relevant technology areas based on actual experimental results relative to technical targets and cost goals from design cases and includes technical, economic, and environmental criteria as available. Overall assessments of biofuel pathways begin with feedstock production and the logistics of transporting the feedstock from the farm or plantation to the conversion facility or biorefinery. The conversion process itself is modeled in detail as part of the SOT analysis. The teams then develop an estimate of the biofuel minimum selling price (MSP) and assess the cost competitiveness of the biofuel with conventional fuels such as gasoline.

  20. Employer-Led Organizations and Skill Supply Chains: Linking Worker Advancement with the Skill Needs of Employers. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jack; Prince, Heath

    Skill supply chains apply a chain strategy to human resources to make the labor market more efficient. They link the multiple skill levels in a given labor market within a network of recruitment pathways for employers and advancement pathways for workers. Skill supply chains are based on employers' actual skill needs and on the principle that…

  1. [Improving a hospital's supply chain through lean management].

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Escobar, V G; Garrido-Vega, P; Godino-Gallego, N

    2013-01-01

    Supply management is an area where hospitals have significant opportunities for improvement. The main objective of this paper has been to analyze how the application of Lean principles can improve logistics costs and user satisfaction. In connection with satisfaction, it also aimed to examine which aspects of the service define it and check for differences between different groups of users. The results of an experience to reorganize the hospital logistic system based on some Lean principles have been studied. This is therefore a case study, which combine different methods of data collection. The logistics cost calculation was carried out using the full costing method. To measure satisfaction of healthcare personnel, the internal logistics service users, an anonymous survey was conducted. Processing of the data obtained from the survey have included exploratory analysis, factor analysis and ANOVAs. The data have showed an improvement in logistics management after the implementation of Lean principles. Logistics costs were reduced and the satisfaction level of the internal users with the new logistics system was increased. Some differences in the degree of satisfaction by different groups of users were also detected, although they did not seem to distinguish between different aspects of logistic service. The analyzed experience shows the applicability and suitability of Lean principles to improve logistics operational costs and increase user satisfaction. Copyright © 2012 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Integration of internet of things to reduce various losses of jatropha seed supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, S. P.; Anitha, J.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of bio fuel supply chain has revolutionized the organization by restructuring the practices of the traditional management. A flexible distribution system is becoming the need of our society. The main focus of this paper is to integrate IoT technologies into a cultivation, extraction and management of Jatropha seed. It was noticed that major set-back of farmers due to poor supply chain integration. The various losses like information about the Jatropha seed availability, the location of esterification plants and distribution details are identified through this IoT. This enables the farmers to reorganize the land resources, yield estimation and distribution functions. The wastage and the scarcity of energy can be tackled by using the smart phone technologies. This paper is proposes a conceptual frame work on various losses involved in the supply chain of Jatropha seed.

  3. Modeling the national chlorinated hydrocarbon supply chain and effects of disruption.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Downes, Paula Sue; Blair, Angela S.; Welk, Margaret Ellen

    2010-03-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons represent the precursors for products ranging from PVC and refrigerants to pharmaceuticals. Natural or manmade disruptions that affect the availability of these products nationally have the potential to affect a wide range of markets, from healthcare to construction. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has developed datasets and models that allow the analysis of the interdependencies within the chlorine chemical supply chain and consequences of disruptions. Combining data on plant locations, transportation, utilities, and the chemical supply chain itself, with modeling tools such as N-ABLE, a Sandia-developed agent based modeling system, allows Sandia to model this complex system dynamically. Sandia has used the N-ABLE technology to simulate a disruption to the chlorinated hydrocarbon supply chain caused by a hurricane striking the Louisiana coast. This paper presents results and conclusions from this analysis.

  4. Research on the performance evaluation of agricultural products supply chain integrated operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jiake; Wang, Xifu; Liu, Yang

    2017-04-01

    The agricultural product supply chain integrated operation can ensure the quality and efficiency of agricultural products, and achieve the optimal goal of low cost and high service. This paper establishes a performance evaluation index system of agricultural products supply chain integration operation based on the development status of agricultural products and SCOR, BSC and KPI model. And then, we constructing rough set theory and BP neural network comprehensive evaluation model with the aid of Rosetta and MATLAB tools and the case study is about the development of agricultural products integrated supply chain in Jing-Jin-Ji region. And finally, we obtain the corresponding performance results, and give some improvement measures and management recommendations to the managers.

  5. Channel characteristics and coordination in three-echelon dual-channel supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Subrata

    2016-02-01

    We explore the impact of channel structure on the manufacturer, the distributer, the retailer and the entire supply chain by considering three different channel structures in radiance of with and without coordination. These structures include a traditional retail channel and two manufacturer direct channels with and without consistent pricing. By comparing the performance of the manufacturer, the distributer and the retailer, and the entire supply chain in three different supply chain structures, it is established analytically that, under some conditions, a dual channel can outperform a single retail channel; as a consequence, a coordination mechanism is developed that not only coordinates the dual channel but also outperforms the non-cooperative single retail channel. All the analytical results are further analysed through numerical examples.

  6. Integrated supply chain design for commodity chemicals production via woody biomass fast pyrolysis and upgrading.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanan; Hu, Guiping; Brown, Robert C

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the optimal supply chain design for commodity chemicals (BTX, etc.) production via woody biomass fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing pathway. The locations and capacities of distributed preprocessing hubs and integrated biorefinery facilities are optimized with a mixed integer linear programming model. In this integrated supply chain system, decisions on the biomass chipping methods (roadside chipping vs. facility chipping) are also explored. The economic objective of the supply chain model is to maximize the profit for a 20-year chemicals production system. In addition to the economic objective, the model also incorporates an environmental objective of minimizing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, analyzing the trade-off between the economic and environmental considerations. The capital cost, operating cost, and revenues for the biorefinery facilities are based on techno-economic analysis, and the proposed approach is illustrated through a case study of Minnesota, with Minneapolis-St. Paul serving as the chemicals distribution hub. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Managing perceived operational risk factors for effective supply-chain management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylla, Cheickna

    2014-12-01

    This research is part of a large scale comprehensive mathematical and empirical modeling investigation projects aimed at developing a better understanding of supply-chain risk management by offering a comprehensive framework including theoretical elements and empirical evidence based on managers' perception of improved organizational level of preparedness to safeguard against the threats of disruptions, delays and stoppage in the supply chain. More specifically, this paper reports the empirical investigation conducted using 92 companies in several eastern USA regions involved in international trades with global supply chains. Among the 56 general hypotheses investigated, the results support that managers strive to balance their control and decision impacts to mold their responses to risk factors with knowledge of the extent of cost consequences as stated in previous research. However, the results also propose new findings which significantly vary from previous research reports.

  8. Coordinating a supply chain with price and advertisement dependent stochastic demand.

    PubMed

    Li, Liying; Wang, Yong; Yan, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates pricing and ordering as well as advertising coordination issues in a single-manufacturer single-retailer supply chain, where the manufacturer sells a newsvendor-type product through the retailer who faces a stochastic demand depending on both retail price and advertising expenditure. Under the assumption that the market demand has a multiplicative functional form, the Stackelberg and cooperative game models are developed, and the closed form solution to each model is provided as well. Comparisons and insights are presented. We show that a properly designed revenue-cost-sharing contract can achieve supply chain coordination and lead to a Pareto improving win-win situation for channel members. We also discuss the allocation of the extra joint profit according to individual supply chain members' risk preferences and negotiating powers.

  9. Supply chain optimization: a practitioner's perspective on the next logistics breakthrough.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, G L

    2000-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to profile a practitioner's perspective on supply chain optimization and highlight the critical elements of this potential new logistics breakthrough idea. The introduction will briefly describe the existing distribution network, and business environment. This will include operational statistics, manufacturing software, and hardware configurations. The first segment will cover the critical success factors or foundations elements that are prerequisites for success. The second segment will give you a glimpse of a "working game plan" for successful migration to supply chain optimization. The final segment will briefly profile "bottom-line" benefits to be derived from the use of supply chain optimization as a strategy, tactical tool, and competitive advantage.

  10. Walk the Talk: Progress in Building a Supply Chain Security Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, Gretchen

    2016-08-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has engaged industry to “go beyond compliance” for over a decade in controlling and securing their supply chains to ensure their goods are not diverted to nuclear weapons programs. This work has focused on dual-use industries that manufacture products that can be used in both commercial applications and in the development of a nuclear weapon. The team encourages industry to self-regulate to reduce proliferation risks. As part of that work, PNNL interviewed numerous companies about their compliance practices to understand their business and to build awareness around best practices to ensure security of goods, technology, and information along their supply chains. From conducting this work, PNNL identified indicators that a company can adopt as part of its commitment to nonproliferation ideals with a focus on supply chain security.

  11. A decision model for cost effective design of biomass based green energy supply chains.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz Balaman, Şebnem; Selim, Hasan

    2015-09-01

    The core driver of this study is to deal with the design of anaerobic digestion based biomass to energy supply chains in a cost effective manner. In this concern, a decision model is developed. The model is based on fuzzy multi objective decision making in order to simultaneously optimize multiple economic objectives and tackle the inherent uncertainties in the parameters and decision makers' aspiration levels for the goals. The viability of the decision model is explored with computational experiments on a real-world biomass to energy supply chain and further analyses are performed to observe the effects of different conditions. To this aim, scenario analyses are conducted to investigate the effects of energy crop utilization and operational costs on supply chain structure and performance measures.

  12. System dynamics research of remanufacturing closed-loop supply chain dominated by the third party.

    PubMed

    Miao, Shidi; Wang, Tengfei; Chen, Deyun

    2017-04-01

    With the rapid development of the electronic information industry in recent years, electronic products are being updated faster and faster, and e-waste recycling has become a common problem around the world. Firstly, this article contrasts recycling at home and abroad using the predicament of Midea Corp. Based on a closed-loop supply chain with the system dynamics method, a model is constructed and simulated. In this model, the collection point coverage rate is introduced to adjust the e-waste recycling rate dynamically. Aiming at a recycling mode dominated by the third party of the closed-loop supply chain, the article mainly discusses the impact on the sales rate and market share of the recycling model by third-party enterprises and compares the total revenue of all supply chains. Simulation results show that the model is more effective and optimal than the traditional recycling model.

  13. Multi-scale process and supply chain modelling: from lignocellulosic feedstock to process and products.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Shah, Nilay

    2011-04-06

    There is a large body of literature regarding the choice and optimization of different processes for converting feedstock to bioethanol and bio-commodities; moreover, there has been some reasonable technological development in bioconversion methods over the past decade. However, the eventual cost and other important metrics relating to sustainability of biofuel production will be determined not only by the performance of the conversion process, but also by the performance of the entire supply chain from feedstock production to consumption. Moreover, in order to ensure world-class biorefinery performance, both the network and the individual components must be designed appropriately, and allocation of resources over the resulting infrastructure must effectively be performed. The goal of this work is to describe the key challenges in bioenergy supply chain modelling and then to develop a framework and methodology to show how multi-scale modelling can pave the way to answer holistic supply chain questions, such as the prospects for second generation bioenergy crops.

  14. A seller-buyer supply chain model with exponential distribution lead time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahri, Mehrab; Tarokh, Mohammad Jafar

    2012-08-01

    Supply chain is an accepted way of remaining in the competition in today's rapidly changing market. This paper presents a coordinated seller-buyer supply chain model in two stages, which is called Joint Economic Lot Sizing (JELS) in literature. The delivery activities in the supply chain consist of a single raw material. We assume that the delivery lead time is stochastic and follows an exponential distribution. Also, the shortage during the lead time is permitted and completely back-ordered for the buyer. With these assumptions, the annual cost function of JELS is minimized. At the end, a numerical example is presented to show that the integrated approach considerably improves the costs in comparison with the independent decisions by seller and buyer.

  15. Risk assessment of supply chain for pharmaceutical excipients with AHP-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Maozhong; Du, Yunai; Wang, Qiyue; Sun, Chunmeng; Ling, Xiang; Yu, Boyang; Tu, Jiasheng; Xiong, Yerong

    2016-04-01

    As the essential components in formulations, pharmaceutical excipients directly affect the safety, efficacy, and stability of drugs. Recently, safety incidents of pharmaceutical excipients posing seriously threats to the patients highlight the necessity of controlling the potential risks. Hence, it is indispensable for the industry to establish an effective risk assessment system of supply chain. In this study, an AHP-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was developed based on the analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy mathematical theory, which quantitatively assessed the risks of supply chain. Taking polysorbate 80 as the example for model analysis, it was concluded that polysorbate 80 for injection use is a high-risk ingredient in the supply chain compared to that for oral use to achieve safety application in clinic, thus measures should be taken to control and minimize those risks.

  16. Risk assessment of supply chain for pharmaceutical excipients with AHP-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Maozhong; Du, Yunai; Wang, Qiyue; Sun, Chunmeng; Ling, Xiang; Yu, Boyang; Tu, Jiasheng; Xiong, Yerong

    2016-01-01

    As the essential components in formulations, pharmaceutical excipients directly affect the safety, efficacy, and stability of drugs. Recently, safety incidents of pharmaceutical excipients posing seriously threats to the patients highlight the necessity of controlling the potential risks. Hence, it is indispensable for the industry to establish an effective risk assessment system of supply chain. In this study, an AHP-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was developed based on the analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy mathematical theory, which quantitatively assessed the risks of supply chain. Taking polysorbate 80 as the example for model analysis, it was concluded that polysorbate 80 for injection use is a high-risk ingredient in the supply chain compared to that for oral use to achieve safety application in clinic, thus measures should be taken to control and minimize those risks.

  17. Coordinating a Supply Chain with Price and Advertisement Dependent Stochastic Demand

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liying; Wang, Yong; Yan, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates pricing and ordering as well as advertising coordination issues in a single-manufacturer single-retailer supply chain, where the manufacturer sells a newsvendor-type product through the retailer who faces a stochastic demand depending on both retail price and advertising expenditure. Under the assumption that the market demand has a multiplicative functional form, the Stackelberg and cooperative game models are developed, and the closed form solution to each model is provided as well. Comparisons and insights are presented. We show that a properly designed revenue-cost-sharing contract can achieve supply chain coordination and lead to a Pareto improving win-win situation for channel members. We also discuss the allocation of the extra joint profit according to individual supply chain members' risk preferences and negotiating powers. PMID:24453832

  18. [Production chain supply management for public hospitals: a logistical approach to healthcare].

    PubMed

    Infante, Maria; dos Santos, Maria Angélica Borges

    2007-01-01

    Despite their importance for hospital operations, discussions of healthcare organization logistics and supply and materials management are notably lacking in Brazilian literature. This paper describes a methodology for organizing the supply of medical materials in public hospitals, based on an action-research approach. Interventions were based on the assumption that a significant portion of problems in Brazil's National Health System (SUS) facilities derive from the fact that their clinical and administrative departments do not see themselves as belonging to the same production chain - neither the hospital nor the supply department is aware of what the other produces. The development of the methodology and its main steps are presented and discussed, against a background of recent literature and total quality and supply chain management concepts.

  19. Augmenting transport versus increasing cold storage to improve vaccine supply chains.

    PubMed

    Haidari, Leila A; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Brown, Shawn T; Mueller, Leslie E; Norman, Bryan A; Schmitz, Michelle M; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S; Leonard, Jim; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-01-01

    When addressing the urgent task of improving vaccine supply chains, especially to accommodate the introduction of new vaccines, there is often a heavy emphasis on stationary storage. Currently, donations to vaccine supply chains occur largely in the form of storage equipment. This study utilized a HERMES-generated detailed, dynamic, discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain to compare the impacts on vaccine availability of adding stationary cold storage versus transport capacity at different levels and to determine whether adding stationary storage capacity alone would be enough to relieve potential bottlenecks when pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines are introduced by 2015. Relieving regional level storage bottlenecks increased vaccine availability (by 4%) more than relieving storage bottlenecks at the district (1% increase), central (no change), and clinic (no change) levels alone. Increasing transport frequency (or capacity) yielded far greater gains (e.g., 15% increase in vaccine availability when doubling transport frequency to the district level and 18% when tripling). In fact, relieving all stationary storage constraints could only increase vaccine availability by 11%, whereas doubling the transport frequency throughout the system led to a 26% increase and tripling the frequency led to a 30% increase. Increasing transport frequency also reduced the amount of stationary storage space needed in the supply chain. The supply chain required an additional 61,269L of storage to relieve constraints with the current transport frequency, 55,255L with transport frequency doubled, and 51,791L with transport frequency tripled. When evaluating vaccine supply chains, it is important to understand the interplay between stationary storage and transport. The HERMES-generated dynamic simulation model showed how augmenting transport can result in greater gains than only augmenting stationary storage and can reduce stationary storage needs.

  20. Augmenting Transport versus Increasing Cold Storage to Improve Vaccine Supply Chains

    PubMed Central

    Haidari, Leila A.; Connor, Diana L.; Wateska, Angela R.; Brown, Shawn T.; Mueller, Leslie E.; Norman, Bryan A.; Schmitz, Michelle M.; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S.; Leonard, Jim; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background When addressing the urgent task of improving vaccine supply chains, especially to accommodate the introduction of new vaccines, there is often a heavy emphasis on stationary storage. Currently, donations to vaccine supply chains occur largely in the form of storage equipment. Methods This study utilized a HERMES-generated detailed, dynamic, discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain to compare the impacts on vaccine availability of adding stationary cold storage versus transport capacity at different levels and to determine whether adding stationary storage capacity alone would be enough to relieve potential bottlenecks when pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines are introduced by 2015. Results Relieving regional level storage bottlenecks increased vaccine availability (by 4%) more than relieving storage bottlenecks at the district (1% increase), central (no change), and clinic (no change) levels alone. Increasing transport frequency (or capacity) yielded far greater gains (e.g., 15% increase in vaccine availability when doubling transport frequency to the district level and 18% when tripling). In fact, relieving all stationary storage constraints could only increase vaccine availability by 11%, whereas doubling the transport frequency throughout the system led to a 26% increase and tripling the frequency led to a 30% increase. Increasing transport frequency also reduced the amount of stationary storage space needed in the supply chain. The supply chain required an additional 61,269L of storage to relieve constraints with the current transport frequency, 55,255L with transport frequency doubled, and 51,791L with transport frequency tripled. Conclusions When evaluating vaccine supply chains, it is important to understand the interplay between stationary storage and transport. The HERMES-generated dynamic simulation model showed how augmenting transport can result in greater gains than only augmenting stationary storage and can reduce

  1. The people factor: An analysis of the human resources landscape for immunization supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Kasonde, Musonda; Steele, Pamela

    2017-04-19

    Human resources is the backbone of any system and the key enabler for all other functions to effectively perform. This is no different with the Immunization Supply Chain, more so in todays' complex operating environment with the increasing strain caused by new vaccines and expanding immunization programmes (Source: WHO, UNICEF). In order to drive the change that is required for sustainability and continuous improvement, every immunization supply chain needs an effective leader. A dedicated and competent immunization supply chain leader with adequate numbers of skilled, accountable, motivated and empowered personnel at all levels of the health system to overcome existing and emerging immunization supply chain (ISC) challenges. Without an effective supply chain leader supported by capable and motivated staff, none of the interventions designed to strengthen the supply chain can be effective or sustainable (Source: Gavi Alliance SC Strategy 2014). This landscape analysis was preceded by an HR Evidence Review (March 2014) and has served to inform global partner strategies and country activities, as well as highlight where most support is required. The study also aimed to define the status quo in order to create some form of baseline against which to measure the impact of interventions related to HR going forward. The analysis was comprised of a comprehensive desk review, a survey of 40 respondents from 32 countries and consultations with ISC practitioners in several forums. The findings highlight key areas that should inform the pillars of a HR capacity development plan. At the same time, it revealed that there are some positive examples of where countries are actively addressing some of the issues identified and putting in place mechanisms and structures to optimize the SC function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The commercial performance of cellulosic ethanol supply-chains in Europe.

    PubMed

    Slade, Raphael; Bauen, Ausilio; Shah, Nilay

    2009-02-03

    The production of fuel-grade ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass resources has the potential to increase biofuel production capacity whilst minimising the negative environmental impacts. These benefits will only be realised if lignocellulosic ethanol production can compete on price with conventional fossil fuels and if it can be produced commercially at scale. This paper focuses on lignocellulosic ethanol production in Europe. The hypothesis is that the eventual cost of production will be determined not only by the performance of the conversion process but by the performance of the entire supply-chain from feedstock production to consumption. To test this, a model for supply-chain cost comparison is developed, the components of representative ethanol supply-chains are described, the factors that are most important in determining the cost and profitability of ethanol production are identified, and a detailed sensitivity analysis is conducted. The most important cost determinants are the cost of feedstocks, primarily determined by location and existing markets, and the value obtained for ethanol, primarily determined by the oil price and policy incentives. Both of these factors are highly uncertain. The best performing chains (ethanol produced from softwood and sold as a low percentage blend with gasoline) could ultimately be cost competitive with gasoline without requiring subsidy, but production from straw would generally be less competitive. Supply-chain design will play a critical role in determining commercial viability. The importance of feedstock supply highlights the need for location-specific assessments of feedstock availability and price. Similarly, the role of subsidies and policy incentives in creating and sustaining the ethanol market highlights the importance of political engagement and the need to include political risks in investment appraisal. For the supply-chains described here, and with the cost and market parameters selected, selling ethanol as

  3. We Cannot Blindly Reap the Benefits of a Globalized ICT Supply Chain!

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    management strategy into other government organizations (and their suppliers) and the country’s wider Critical Infrastructure Protection initiatives... Infrastructure Protection DHS SCRM DHS Software Assurance Joe Jarzombek − joe.jarzombek@hq.dhs.gov ISO Standards and Harmonization CS1 ICT SCRM Ad hoc...Allen Hamilton Abstract. Information and Communication Technology ( ICT ) Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM) seeks to manage and mitigate cyber and supply

  4. Metaheuristic simulation optimisation for the stochastic multi-retailer supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Marina; Mustaffa, Noorfa Haszlinna H.; Othman, Siti Norsyahida

    2013-04-01

    Supply Chain Management (SCM) is an important activity in all producing facilities and in many organizations to enable vendors, manufacturers and suppliers to interact gainfully and plan optimally their flow of goods and services. A simulation optimization approach has been widely used in research nowadays on finding the best solution for decision-making process in Supply Chain Management (SCM) that generally faced a complexity with large sources of uncertainty and various decision factors. Metahueristic method is the most popular simulation optimization approach. However, very few researches have applied this approach in optimizing the simulation model for supply chains. Thus, this paper interested in evaluating the performance of metahueristic method for stochastic supply chains in determining the best flexible inventory replenishment parameters that minimize the total operating cost. The simulation optimization model is proposed based on the Bees algorithm (BA) which has been widely applied in engineering application such as training neural networks for pattern recognition. BA is a new member of meta-heuristics. BA tries to model natural behavior of honey bees in food foraging. Honey bees use several mechanisms like waggle dance to optimally locate food sources and to search new ones. This makes them a good candidate for developing new algorithms for solving optimization problems. This model considers an outbound centralised distribution system consisting of one supplier and 3 identical retailers and is assumed to be independent and identically distributed with unlimited supply capacity at supplier.

  5. Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: using supply chain management to appraise health systems strengthening

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Strengthened national health systems are necessary for effective and sustained expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART and its supply chain management in Uganda are largely based on parallel and externally supported efforts. The question arises whether systems are being strengthened to sustain access to ART. This study applies systems thinking to assess supply chain management, the role of external support and whether investments create the needed synergies to strengthen health systems. Methods This study uses the WHO health systems framework and examines the issues of governance, financing, information, human resources and service delivery in relation to supply chain management of medicines and the technologies. It looks at links and causal chains between supply chain management for ART and the national supply system for essential drugs. It combines data from the literature and key informant interviews with observations at health service delivery level in a study district. Results Current drug supply chain management in Uganda is characterized by parallel processes and information systems that result in poor quality and inefficiencies. Less than expected health system performance, stock outs and other shortages affect ART and primary care in general. Poor performance of supply chain management is amplified by weak conditions at all levels of the health system, including the areas of financing, governance, human resources and information. Governance issues include the lack to follow up initial policy intentions and a focus on narrow, short-term approaches. Conclusion The opportunity and need to use ART investments for an essential supply chain management and strengthened health system has not been exploited. By applying a systems perspective this work indicates the seriousness of missing system prerequisites. The findings suggest that root causes and capacities across the system have to be addressed synergistically to enable systems that can match

  6. Supply Chain and Blade Manufacturing Considerations in the Global Wind Industry (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    James, T.; Goodrich, A.

    2013-12-01

    This briefing provides an overview of supply chain developments in the global wind industry and a detailed assessment of blade manufacturing considerations for U.S. end-markets. The report discusses the international trade flows of wind power equipment, blade manufacturing and logistical costs, and qualitative issues that often influence factory location decisions. To help guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, this report offers a comprehensive perspective of both quantitative and qualitative factors that affect selected supply chain developments in the growing wind power industry.

  7. Distribution of controlled substances in the U.S. supply chain: where does the compass point?

    PubMed

    Ruble, James H

    2012-09-01

    Recent administrative actions taken by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in Florida have prompted an articulate and detailed discussion of the pharmaceutical supply chain for controlled substances. Current practices in commercial distribution systems may have a partial nexus to the proliferation of opioid prescription drug abuse in Florida. No single factor or entity is responsible for this abuse proliferation, and there is no intent to harm consumers; however, distribution practices are adding risk to public health. This commentary extends a discussion on supply chain practices that seem misaligned in the promotion of legitimate business objectives and advancing public health.

  8. A Two-Layered Model for Dynamic Supply Chain Management Considering Transportation Constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimizu, Yoshitaka; Harada, Kana; Ozawa, Chisato; Iwamura, Koji; Sugimura, Nobuhiro

    This research proposes a two-layered model for dynamic supply chain management considering transportation constraint. The model provides a method for suppliers to estimate suitable prices and delivery times of products based on not only production schedules but also transportation plans in consideration of constraints about shipping times and loading capacities for transportation. A prototype of dynamic supply chain simulation system was developed and some computational experiments were carried out in order to verify the effectiveness of the model. The prototype system is available to determine suitable shipping times and loading capacities of transportation vehicles.

  9. Forecasting jobs in the supply chain for investments in residential energy efficiency retrofits in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fobair, Richard C., II

    This research presents a model for forecasting the numbers of jobs created in the energy efficiency retrofit (EER) supply chain resulting from an investment in upgrading residential buildings in Florida. This investigation examined material supply chains stretching from mining to project installation for three product types: insulation, windows/doors, and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Outputs from the model are provided for the project, sales, manufacturing, and mining level. The model utilizes reverse-estimation to forecast the numbers of jobs that result from an investment. Reverse-estimation is a process that deconstructs a total investment into its constituent parts. In this research, an investment is deconstructed into profit, overhead, and hard costs for each level of the supply chain and over multiple iterations of inter-industry exchanges. The model processes an investment amount, the type of work and method of contracting into a prediction of the number of jobs created. The deconstruction process utilizes data from the U.S. Economic Census. At each supply chain level, the cost of labor is reconfigured into full-time equivalent (FTE) jobs (i.e. equivalent to 40 hours per week for 52 weeks) utilizing loaded labor rates and a typical employee mix. The model is sensitive to adjustable variables, such as percentage of work performed per type of product, allocation of worker time per skill level, annual hours for FTE calculations, wage rate, and benefits. This research provides several new insights into job creation. First, it provides definitions that can be used for future research on jobs in supply chains related to energy efficiency. Second, it provides a methodology for future investigators to calculate jobs in a supply chain resulting from an investment in energy efficiency upgrades to a building. The methodology used in this research is unique because it examines gross employment at the sub-industry level for specific

  10. Community campaigns, supply chains, and protecting the health and well-being of workers.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Michael; Sokas, Rosemary K

    2009-11-01

    The growth of contingent work (also known as precarious employment), the informal sector, and business practices that diffuse employer responsibility for worker health and safety (such as outsourcing and the development of extended national and international contracting networks [supply chains]) pose a serious threat to occupational health and safety that disproportionately affects low-wage, ethnic minority, and immigrant workers. Drawing on cases from the United States and Australia, we examine the role that community-based campaigns can play in meeting these challenges, including several successful campaigns that incorporate supply chain regulation.

  11. Automotive Lithium-ion Cell Manufacturing: Regional Cost Structures and Supply Chain Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Donald; Elgqvist, Emma; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2016-04-01

    Manufacturing capacity for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) — which power many consumer electronics and are increasingly used to power electric vehicles — is heavily concentrated in East Asia. To illuminate the factors that drive regional competitiveness in automotive LIB cell production, this study models cell manufacturing cost and minimum sustainable price, and examines development of LIB supply chains and current LIB market conditions. The study shows that factors driving the cost competitiveness of LIB manufacturing locations are mostly built—supply chain developments and competition, access to materials, and production expertise. Some regional costs — including cost of capital, labor, and materials — are significant and should be considered.

  12. Mechanism for coordination between the collector and the dismantler in a reverse supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochampally, Kishore K.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The growing desire of consumers to acquire the latest technology (both at home and in the workplace), along with the rapid technological development of new products, has led to a new environmental problem: waste. The only way to tackle this problem is design and implementation of reverse supply chains. Implementation of an efficient reverse supply chain requires coordination among a number of parties, such as the collector, the dismantler, the shredder, and the recycler. In this paper, we identify four different scenarios of homogeneous and heterogeneous products, and formulate some potential interactions between the collector and the dismantler, for each of those scenarios.

  13. Materials Flows Through Industry Tool to Track Supply Chain Energy Demand

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Alberta; Mann, Margaret; Gelman, Rachel; Lewis, John; Benson, David; Cresko, Joe; Ma, Seungwook

    2014-10-01

    In evaluating next-generation materials and processes, the supply chain can have a large impact on the life cycle energy impacts. The Materials Flow through Industry (MFI) tool was developed for the Department of Energy's Advanced Manufacturing Office to be able to evaluate the energy impacts of the U.S. supply chain. The tool allows users to perform process comparisons, material substitutions, and grid modifications, and to see the effects of implementing sector efficiency potentials (Masanet, et al. 2009). This paper reviews the methodology of the tool and provides results around specific scenarios.

  14. Pricing, manufacturing and inventory policies for raw material in a three-level supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allah Taleizadeh, Ata; Noori-daryan, Mahsa

    2016-03-01

    We studied a decentralised three-layer supply chain including a supplier, a producer and some retailers. All the retailers order their demands to the producer and the producer order his demands to the supplier. We assumed that the demand is price sensitive and shortage is not permitted. The goal of the paper is to optimise the total cost of the supply chain network by coordinating decision-making policy using Stackelberg-Nash equilibrium. The decision variables of our model are the supplier's price, the producer's price and the number of shipments received by the supplier and producer, respectively. To illustrate the applicability of the proposed model numerical examples are presented.

  15. Innovative Approaches to Teaching Packaging Design Using the Example of Mineral Water Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestyánszka Škůrková, Katarína; Bajor, Peter; Trafela, Sabrina

    2013-12-01

    Designing the packaging of a product has many critical factors. In our paper, we present some of them on the example of a simple product: mineral water. In spite of the fact that today not only products, but also supply chains are competing with each other, designers sometimes pay little attention to considering the packaging system not only from the customer and the producer side, but for warehousing and transportation as well. We cover a lot of "what can go wrong" scenarios on the example of mineral water packaging for the purpose of defining the critical points in the supply chain.

  16. The Life Cycle Evaluation Model of External Diseconomy of Open-loop Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qian; Hu, Tianjun

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, with the continuous deterioration of pollution, resource space is gradually narrowed, the number of waste items increased, people began to use the method of recycling on waste products to ease the pressure on the environment. This paper adopted the external diseconomy of open-loop supply chain as the research object and constructed the model by the life cycle evaluation method, comparative analysis through the case. This paper also concludes that the key to solving the problem is to realize the closed-loop supply chain and building reverse logistics system is of great significance.

  17. Community Campaigns, Supply Chains, and Protecting the Health and Well-Being of Workers

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The growth of contingent work (also known as precarious employment), the informal sector, and business practices that diffuse employer responsibility for worker health and safety (such as outsourcing and the development of extended national and international contracting networks [supply chains]) pose a serious threat to occupational health and safety that disproportionately affects low-wage, ethnic minority, and immigrant workers. Drawing on cases from the United States and Australia, we examine the role that community-based campaigns can play in meeting these challenges, including several successful campaigns that incorporate supply chain regulation. PMID:19890154

  18. Research on Duplication Dynamics and Evolutionary Stable of Reverse Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizhong, Dong; Hongli, Song

    An evolutionary game model of Reverse Supply Chain(RSC) is established based on duplication dynamics function and evolutionary stable strategy. Using the model framework, this paper provides insights into a deeper understanding on how each supplier make strategic decision independently in reverse supply chain to determine their performance. The main conclusion is as follow: Under the market mechanism, not unless the extra income derived from the implementation of RSC exceeds zero point would the suppliers implement RSC strategy. When those suppliers are passive to RSC, the effective solution is that the government takes macro-control measures, for example, to force those suppliers implement RSC through punishment mechanism.

  19. The key role of supply chain actors in groundwater irrigation development in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejars, Caroline; Daoudi, Ali; Amichi, Hichem

    2017-04-01

    The role played by supply chain actors in the rapid development of groundwater-based irrigated agriculture is analyzed. Agricultural groundwater use has increased tremendously in the past 50 years, leading to the decline of water tables. Groundwater use has enabled intensification of existing farming systems and ensured economic growth. This "groundwater economy" has been growing rapidly due to the initiative of farmers and the involvement of a wide range of supply chain actors, including suppliers of equipment, inputs retailers, and distributors of irrigated agricultural products. In North Africa, the actors in irrigated production chains often operate at the margin of public policies and are usually described as "informal", "unstructured", and as participating in "groundwater anarchy". This paper underlines the crucial role of supply chain actors in the development of groundwater irrigation, a role largely ignored by public policies and rarely studied. The analysis is based on three case studies in Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria, and focuses on the horticultural sub-sector, in particular on onions and tomatoes, which are irrigated high value crops. The study demonstrates that although supply chain actors are catalyzers of the expansion of groundwater irrigation, they could also become actors in adaptation to the declining water tables. Through their informal activities, they help reduce market risks, facilitate credit and access to subsidies, and disseminate innovation. The interest associated with making these actors visible to agricultural institutions is discussed, along with methods of getting them involved in the management of the resource on which they depend.

  20. The key role of supply chain actors in groundwater irrigation development in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejars, Caroline; Daoudi, Ali; Amichi, Hichem

    2017-09-01

    The role played by supply chain actors in the rapid development of groundwater-based irrigated agriculture is analyzed. Agricultural groundwater use has increased tremendously in the past 50 years, leading to the decline of water tables. Groundwater use has enabled intensification of existing farming systems and ensured economic growth. This "groundwater economy" has been growing rapidly due to the initiative of farmers and the involvement of a wide range of supply chain actors, including suppliers of equipment, inputs retailers, and distributors of irrigated agricultural products. In North Africa, the actors in irrigated production chains often operate at the margin of public policies and are usually described as "informal", "unstructured", and as participating in "groundwater anarchy". This paper underlines the crucial role of supply chain actors in the development of groundwater irrigation, a role largely ignored by public policies and rarely studied. The analysis is based on three case studies in Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria, and focuses on the horticultural sub-sector, in particular on onions and tomatoes, which are irrigated high value crops. The study demonstrates that although supply chain actors are catalyzers of the expansion of groundwater irrigation, they could also become actors in adaptation to the declining water tables. Through their informal activities, they help reduce market risks, facilitate credit and access to subsidies, and disseminate innovation. The interest associated with making these actors visible to agricultural institutions is discussed, along with methods of getting them involved in the management of the resource on which they depend.

  1. Robust design of (s, S) inventory policy parameters in supply chains with demand and lead time uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi Movahed, Kamran; Zhang, Zhi-Hai

    2015-09-01

    Demand and lead time uncertainties have significant effects on supply chain behaviour. In this paper, we present a single-product three-level multi-period supply chain with uncertain demands and lead times by using robust techniques to study the managerial insights of the supply chain inventory system under uncertainty. We formulate this problem as a robust mixed-integer linear program with minimised expected cost and total cost variation to determine the optimal (s, S) values of the inventory parameters. Several numerical studies are performed to investigate the supply chain behaviour. Useful guidelines for the design of a robust supply chain are also provided. Results show that the order variance and the expected cost in a supply chain significantly increase when the manufacturer's review period is an integer ratio of the distributor's and the retailer's review periods.

  2. Reorganizing Nigeria's Vaccine Supply Chain Reduces Need For Additional Storage Facilities, But More Storage Is Required.

    PubMed

    Shittu, Ekundayo; Harnly, Melissa; Whitaker, Shanta; Miller, Roger

    2016-02-01

    One of the major problems facing Nigeria's vaccine supply chain is the lack of adequate vaccine storage facilities. Despite the introduction of solar-powered refrigerators and the use of new tools to monitor supply levels, this problem persists. Using data on vaccine supply for 2011-14 from Nigeria's National Primary Health Care Development Agency, we created a simulation model to explore the effects of variance in supply and demand on storage capacity requirements. We focused on the segment of the supply chain that moves vaccines inside Nigeria. Our findings suggest that 55 percent more vaccine storage capacity is needed than is currently available. We found that reorganizing the supply chain as proposed by the National Primary Health Care Development Agency could reduce that need to 30 percent more storage. Storage requirements varied by region of the country and vaccine type. The Nigerian government may want to consider the differences in storage requirements by region and vaccine type in its proposed reorganization efforts. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. A strategy to improve skills in pharmaceutical supply management in East Africa: the regional technical resource collaboration for pharmaceutical management.

    PubMed

    Matowe, Lloyd; Waako, Paul; Adome, Richard Odoi; Kibwage, Isaac; Minzi, Omary; Bienvenu, Emile

    2008-12-23

    International initiatives such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the President's Malaria Initiative have significantly increased availability and access to medicines in some parts of the developing world. Despite this, however, skills remain limited on quantifying needs for medications and ordering, receiving and storing medications appropriately; recording medications inventories accurately; distributing medications for use appropriately; and advising patients on how to use medications appropriately. The Regional Technical Resource Collaboration for Pharmaceutical Management (RTRC) has been established to help address the problem of skills shortage in pharmaceutical management in East Africa. The initiative brings together academic institutions from four East African countries to participate in skills-building activities in pharmaceutical supply management. The initiative targeted the institutions' ability to conduct assessments of pharmaceutical supply management systems and to develop and implement effective skills-building programmes for pharmaceutical supply chain management. Over a two-year period, the RTRC succeeded in conducting assessments of pharmaceutical supply management systems and practices in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. In 2006, the RTRC participated in a materials-development workshop in Kampala, Uganda, and contributed to the development of comprehensive HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical management training materials; these materials are now widely available in all four countries. In Tanzania and Uganda the RTRC has been involved with the training of health care workers in HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical management. In Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda the RTRC has been conducting operations research to find solutions to their countries' skills-shortage problems. Some of the interventions tested include applying and evaluating the effectiveness of a novel skills-building approach for

  4. Evaluating Opportunities for Improved Processes and Flow Rates in Royal Saudi Air Force F-15 Reparable Items Supply Chain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-15

    of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Logistics and Supply Chain Management Ali A. Alshehri Captain, RSAF...tools, and equipment. Consideration is given to applying existing management techniques to the Royal Saudi Air Force’s F-15 supply chain . The...selected techniques are supply chain mapping, the lean management approach, and gap analysis. The research suggests that these techniques can improve F-15

  5. Defense Logistics. Lack of Key Information May Impede DOD’s Ability to Improve Supply Chain Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have focused attention on the performance of the Department of Defense’s (DOD) supply chain management...According to DOD, it spent approximately $178 billion on its supply chain in fiscal year 2007. As a result of weaknesses in DOD’s management of its... supply chain , this area has been on GAO’s list of high-risk federal government programs since 1990. DOD released its Logistics Roadmap in July 2008 to

  6. Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: Empirical Study of the Current Management Practices in the Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-21

    Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: Empirical Study of the Current Management Practices in the Army 21 September...Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: Empirical Study of the Current Management Practices in the Army 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Service Supply Chain , Services Acquisition, Service Lifecycle, Contract Management, Project Management, Program Management = = ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ

  7. DOD’s High-Risk Areas. Progress Made Implementing Supply Chain Management Recommendations, but Full Extent of Improvement Unknown

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    DOD’s success in improving supply chain management is closely linked with its overall defense business transformation efforts and completion of a...to confront other high-risk areas, including supply chain management . We have made a number of recommendations to address defense business...resources, and metrics to guide improvements in supply chain management and other areas of DOD logistics. DOD has not established a target date for

  8. The impact of implementing a demand forecasting system into a low-income country's supply chain.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Leslie E; Haidari, Leila A; Wateska, Angela R; Phillips, Roslyn J; Schmitz, Michelle M; Connor, Diana L; Norman, Bryan A; Brown, Shawn T; Welling, Joel S; Lee, Bruce Y

    2016-07-12

    To evaluate the potential impact and value of applications (e.g. adjusting ordering levels, storage capacity, transportation capacity, distribution frequency) of data from demand forecasting systems implemented in a lower-income country's vaccine supply chain with different levels of population change to urban areas. Using our software, HERMES, we generated a detailed discrete event simulation model of Niger's entire vaccine supply chain, including every refrigerator, freezer, transport, personnel, vaccine, cost, and location. We represented the introduction of a demand forecasting system to adjust vaccine ordering that could be implemented with increasing delivery frequencies and/or additions of cold chain equipment (storage and/or transportation) across the supply chain during varying degrees of population movement. Implementing demand forecasting system with increased storage and transport frequency increased the number of successfully administered vaccine doses and lowered the logistics cost per dose up to 34%. Implementing demand forecasting system without storage/transport increases actually decreased vaccine availability in certain circumstances. The potential maximum gains of a demand forecasting system may only be realized if the system is implemented to both augment the supply chain cold storage and transportation. Implementation may have some impact but, in certain circumstances, may hurt delivery. Therefore, implementation of demand forecasting systems with additional storage and transport may be the better approach. Significant decreases in the logistics cost per dose with more administered vaccines support investment in these forecasting systems. Demand forecasting systems have the potential to greatly improve vaccine demand fulfilment, and decrease logistics cost/dose when implemented with storage and transportation increases. Simulation modeling can demonstrate the potential health and economic benefits of supply chain improvements. Copyright

  9. Assessing "First Mile" Supply Chain Factors Affecting Timeliness of School-Based Deworming Interventions: Supply and Logistics Performance Indicators.

    PubMed

    Koporc, Kimberly M; Strunz, Eric; Holloway, Cassandra; Addiss, David G; Lin, William

    2015-12-01

    Between 2007 and 2012, Children Without Worms (CWW) oversaw the Johnson & Johnson (J&J) donation of Vermox (mebendazole) for treatment of school-age children to control soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH). To identify factors associated with on-time, delayed, or missed mass drug administration (MDA) interventions, and explore possible indicators for supply chain performance for drug donation programs, we reviewed program data for the 14 STH-endemic countries CWW supported during 2007-2012. Data from drug applications, shipping records, and annual treatment reports were tracked using Microsoft Excel. Qualitative data from interviews with key personnel were used to provide additional context on the causes of delayed or missed MDAs. Four possible contributory factors to delayed or missed MDAs were considered: production, shipping, customs clearance, and miscellaneous in-country issues. Coverage rates were calculated by dividing the number of treatments administered by the number of children targeted during the MDA. Of the approved requests for 78 MDAs, 54 MDAs (69%) were successfully implemented during or before the scheduled month. Ten MDAs (13%) were classified as delayed; seven of these were delayed by one month or less. An additional 14 MDAs (18%) were classified as missed. For the 64 on-time or delayed MDAs, the mean coverage was approximately 88%. To continue to assess the supply chain processes and identify areas for improvement, we identified four indicators or metrics for supply chain performance that can be applied across all neglected tropical disease (NTD) drug donation programs: (1) donor having available inventory to satisfy the country request for donation; (2) donor shipping the approved number of doses; (3) shipment arriving at the Central Medical Stores one month in advance of the scheduled MDA date; and (4) country programs implementing the MDA as scheduled.

  10. Manufacturing Improvement Program for the Oil and Gas Industry Supply Chain and Marketing Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Robert

    2016-09-28

    This project supported upgrades for manufacturing companies in the oil and natural gas supply chain in Oklahoma. The goal is to provide assistance that will lead to the improved efficiency advancement of the manufacturing processes currently used by the existing manufacturing clients. The basis for the work is to improve the economic environment for the clients and the communities they serve.

  11. International Supply Chain Management Courses: Semester-Long versus Study-Abroad Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Matthew J.; Luchs, Ryan J.; Mawhinney, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Short-term study-abroad programs are gaining in popularity at business schools around the United States. We discuss the innovative 4-week program we have developed at Duquesne University where we offer two three-credit, required business core courses. In particular, we focus on the structure of a 2-week core supply chain management course. By…

  12. Effectively Sustaining Forces Overseas While Minimizing Supply Chain Costs. Targeted Theater Inventory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    recommend that Department of Defense (DoD) supply chain managers design the distribution system to meet customer needs driven by their operational...distribution costs to meet customer needs , some items should be sent overseas by air and some should be sent by surface but usually to intermediate theater

  13. Diffusing Supply Chain Innovations at Hewlett-Packard Company: Applications of Performance Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargille, Brian; Branvold, Dwight

    2000-01-01

    Explains how Hewlett-Packard creates supply chain management innovations and effectively diffuses new technologies. Outlines how performance technologists help accelerate the diffusion and adoption of innovations by modifying innovations, define the client adoption path, create resources to lead clients through adoption, and improve the diffusion…

  14. The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica

    Treesearch

    Jessica Haynes; Frederick Cubbage; D. Evan Mercer; Erin Sills

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative interviews with participants in the cocoa (Theobroma cacao) supply chain in Costa Rica and the United States were conducted and supplemented with an analysis of the marketing literature to examine the prospects of organic and Fairtrade certification for enhancing environmentally and socially responsible trade of cocoa from Costa Rica. Respondents were...

  15. Counterfeit Electronic Parts Controls in the Department of Defense Supply Chain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    warfighters at risk. Consumer demand for products containing integrated circuits has risen dramatically. Electronics manufacturers leverage overseas...specification conformance of integrated circuit components. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Counterfeit Parts, Integrated Circuits , Supply Chain Risk Management...systems, provide a competitive edge to adversaries, and put warfighters at risk. Consumer demand for products containing integrated circuits has risen

  16. Hardwood supply chain and the role of log brokers in 2012

    Treesearch

    Iris Montague; Adrienn Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann

    2013-01-01

    The recent economic crisis has greatly affected how companies conduct business. To be competitive, companies had to make changes to their product lines, distribution channels, marketing, and overall business strategies. This study was conducted to describe and analyze the log supply component of the hardwood forest products distribution chain and to investigate changes...

  17. Service-Learning in Supply Chain Management: Benefits, Challenges and Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is a pedagogical approach in which students are assigned a course-related project in a not-for-profit organization, and are tasked to apply course content to execute the project. While the benefits are multifarious, only recently have supply chain management (SCM) courses adapted this innovative teaching methodology. The…

  18. A Constructivist Approach to Studying the Bullwhip Effect by Simulating the Supply Chain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; Adenso-Díaz, B.; Moreno, Plácido

    2015-01-01

    The Cider Game is a simulator for a supply chain-related learning environment. Its main feature is that it provides support to students in the constructivist discovery process when learning how to make logistics decisions, at the same time as noting the occurrence of the bullwhip phenomenon. This learning environment seeks a balance between direct…

  19. The Role of Multi-Institutional Partnerships in Supply Chain Management Course Design and Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Suzanna; Moos, J. Chris; Radic, Anne Bartel

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the skills achieved through a multicultural, virtual student project environment among 3 supply chain management courses. The partnership included 2 universities in the United States and 1 in France and created virtual teams of students across university lines and is presented as a case study. The case includes detailed…

  20. An Innovative Supply Chain Management Programme Structure: Broadening the SCM Skill Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okongwu, Uche

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a matrix structure for training Supply Chain Management (SCM) professionals. It is an innovative programme structure that combines two approaches: cross-border and inter-organisational. It enables the students to comprehend complex and specific business environments and to understand the diverse nature of SCM systems in both…