Science.gov

Sample records for collagens transforming growth

  1. Novel chitosan/collagen scaffold containing transforming growth factor-{beta}1 DNA for periodontal tissue engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yufeng; Cheng Xiangrong; Wang Jiawei

    2006-05-26

    The current rapid progression in tissue engineering and local gene delivery system has enhanced our applications to periodontal tissue engineering. In this study, porous chitosan/collagen scaffolds were prepared through a freeze-drying process, and loaded with plasmid and adenoviral vector encoding human transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1). These scaffolds were evaluated in vitro by analysis of microscopic structure, porosity, and cytocompatibility. Human periodontal ligament cells (HPLCs) were seeded in this scaffold, and gene transfection could be traced by green fluorescent protein (GFP). The expression of type I and type III collagen was detected with RT-PCR, and then these scaffolds were implanted subcutaneouslymore » into athymic mice. Results indicated that the pore diameter of the gene-combined scaffolds was lower than that of pure chitosan/collagen scaffold. The scaffold containing Ad-TGF-{beta}1 exhibited the highest proliferation rate, and the expression of type I and type III collagen up-regulated in Ad-TGF-{beta}1 scaffold. After implanted in vivo, EGFP-transfected HPLCs not only proliferated but also recruited surrounding tissue to grow in the scaffold. This study demonstrated the potential of chitosan/collagen scaffold combined Ad-TGF-{beta}1 as a good substrate candidate in periodontal tissue engineering.« less

  2. The pro-fibrotic properties of transforming growth factor on human fibroblasts are counteracted by caffeic acid by inhibiting myofibroblast formation and collagen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mia, Masum M; Bank, Ruud A

    2016-03-01

    Fibrosis is a chronic disorder affecting many organs. A universal process in fibrosis is the formation of myofibroblasts and the subsequent collagen deposition by these cells. Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFβ1) plays a major role in the formation of myofibroblasts, e.g. by activating fibroblasts. Currently, no treatments are available to circumvent fibrosis. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) shows a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-fibrotic properties in vivo in mice and rats. However, little is known about the direct effects of CAPE on fibroblasts. We have tested whether CAPE is able to suppress myofibroblast formation and collagen formation of human dermal and lung fibroblasts exposed to TGFβ1, and found that this was indeed the case. In fact, the formation of myofibroblasts by TGFβ1 and subsequent collagen formation was completely abolished by CAPE. The same was observed for fibronectin and tenascin C. The lack of myofibroblast formation is likely due to the suppression of GLI1 and GLI2 expression by CAPE because of diminished nuclear SMAD2/3 levels. Post-treatment with CAPE after myofibroblast formation even resulted in a partial reversal of myofibroblasts into fibroblasts and/or reduction in collagen formation. Major discrepancies were seen between mRNA levels of collagen type I and cells stained positive for collagen, underlining the need for protein data in fibrosis studies to make reliable conclusions.

  3. Differential effects of the immunosuppressant FK-506 on human alpha2(I) collagen gene expression and transforming growth factor beta signaling in normal and scleroderma fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Asano, Yoshihide; Ihn, Hironobu; Yamane, Kenichi; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Mimura, Yoshihiro; Tamaki, Kunihiko

    2005-04-01

    To investigate the effects of FK-506 on the expression of the human alpha2(I) collagen gene and transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling in normal and scleroderma fibroblasts. The expression levels of type I procollagen protein and alpha2(I) collagen messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed by immunoblotting and Northern blotting, respectively. The promoter activities of alpha2(I) collagen gene and 3TP-Lux were determined by transient transfection assay. Interaction between TGFbeta receptor type I and FK-506 binding protein 12 (FKBP12) was evaluated by immunoprecipitation. FK-506 did not affect the basal expression of type I procollagen protein or alpha2(I) collagen mRNA, but it significantly reduced the TGFbeta1-induced expression of type I procollagen protein and alpha2(I) collagen mRNA in normal fibroblasts. The effect of FK-506 was regulated posttranscriptionally, but not transcriptionally. In scleroderma fibroblasts, FK-506 significantly reduced the expression of type I procollagen protein and alpha2(I) collagen mRNA through posttranscriptional regulation, but not transcriptional regulation. FK-506 increased the basal activity of the 3TP-Lux promoter, but it did not affect the TGFbeta1-induced promoter activity in normal fibroblasts. In contrast, FK-506 did not affect the basal or the TGFbeta1-induced 3TP-Lux promoter activity in scleroderma fibroblasts. Furthermore, FKBP12, which protects TGFbeta receptor type I from ligand-independent activation by TGFbeta receptor type II, constitutively dissociated from TGFbeta receptor type I in scleroderma fibroblasts. FK-506 inhibits alpha2(I) collagen gene expression by reducing the stability of mRNA without exhibiting its activation effect on TGFbeta signaling in scleroderma fibroblasts.

  4. Low transformation growth factor-β1 production and collagen synthesis correlate with the lack of hepatic periportal fibrosis development in undernourished mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Barros, Andreia Ferreira; Oliveira, Sheilla Andrade; Carvalho, Camila Lima; Silva, Fabiana Leticia; Souza, Veruska Cintia Alexandrino de; Silva, Anekecia Lauro da; Araujo, Roni Evencio de; Souza, Bruno Solano F; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira; Costa, Vlaudia M A; Coutinho, Eridan de Medeiros

    2014-04-01

    Undernourished mice infected (UI) submitted to low and long-lasting infections by Schistosoma mansoni are unable to develop the hepatic periportal fibrosis that is equivalent to Symmers' fibrosis in humans. In this report, the effects of the host's nutritional status on parasite (worm load, egg viability and maturation) and host (growth curves, biology, collagen synthesis and characteristics of the immunological response) were studied and these are considered as interdependent factors influencing the amount and distribution of fibrous tissue in hepatic periovular granulomas and portal spaces. The nutritional status of the host influenced the low body weight and low parasite burden detected in UI mice as well as the number, viability and maturation of released eggs. The reduced oviposition and increased number of degenerated or dead eggs were associated with low protein synthesis detected in deficient hosts, which likely induced the observed decrease in transformation growth factor (TGF)-β1 and liver collagen. Despite the reduced number of mature eggs in UI mice, the activation of TGF-β1 and hepatic stellate cells occurred regardless of the unviability of most miracidia, due to stimulation by fibrogenic proteins and eggshell glycoproteins. However, changes in the repair mechanisms influenced by the nutritional status in deficient animals may account for the decreased liver collagen detected in the present study.

  5. Role of Flightless-I (Drosophila) homolog in the transcription activation of type I collagen gene mediated by transforming growth factor beta

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Mi-Sun; Jeong, Kwang Won, E-mail: kwjeong@gachon.ac.kr

    2014-11-21

    Highlights: • FLII activates TGFβ-mediated expression of COL1A2 gene. • TGFβ induces the association of FLII with SMAD3 and BRG1 in A549 cells. • FLII is required for the recruitment of SWI/SNF complex and chromatin accessibility to COL1A2 promoter. - Abstract: Flightless-I (Drosophila) homolog (FLII) is a nuclear receptor coactivator that is known to interact with other transcriptional regulators such as the SWI/SNF complex, an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex, at the promoter or enhancer region of estrogen receptor (ER)-α target genes. However, little is known about the role of FLII during transcription initiation in the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)/SMAD-dependent signalingmore » pathway. Here, we demonstrate that FLII functions as a coactivator in the expression of type I collagen gene induced by TGFβ in A549 cells. FLII activates the reporter gene driven by COL1A2 promoter in a dose-dependent manner. Co-expression of GRIP1, CARM1, or p300 did not show any synergistic activation of transcription. Furthermore, the level of COL1A2 expression correlated with the endogenous level of FLII mRNA level. Depletion of FLII resulted in a reduction of TGFβ-induced expression of COL1A2 gene. In contrast, over-expression of FLII caused an increase in the endogenous expression of COL1A2. We also showed that FLII is associated with Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1) as well as SMAD in A549 cells. Notably, the recruitment of BRG1 to the COL1A2 promoter region was decreased in FLII-depleted A549 cells, suggesting that FLII is required for TGFβ-induced chromatin remodeling, which is carried out by the SWI/SNF complex. Furthermore, formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE)-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) experiments revealed that depletion of FLII caused a reduction in chromatin accessibility at the COL1A2 promoter. These results suggest that FLII plays a critical role in TGFβ/SMAD-mediated transcription of the COL1A2

  6. Transforming growth factor beta 1 increases collagen content, and stimulates procollagen I and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 production of dental pulp cells: Role of MEK/ERK and activin receptor-like kinase-5/Smad signaling.

    PubMed

    Lin, Po-Shuen; Chang, Hsiao-Hua; Yeh, Chien-Yang; Chang, Mei-Chi; Chan, Chiu-Po; Kuo, Han-Yueh; Liu, Hsin-Cheng; Liao, Wan-Chuen; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2017-05-01

    In order to clarify the role of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) in pulp repair/regeneration responses, we investigated the differential signaling pathways responsible for the effects of TGF-β1 on collagen turnover, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) production in human dental pulp cells. Pulp cells were exposed to TGF-β1 with/without pretreatment and coincubation by 1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(o-aminophenyl mercapto)butadiene (U0126; a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase [MEK]/extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK] inhibitor) and 4-(5-benzol[1,3]dioxol-5-yl-4-pyrldin-2-yl-1H- imidazol-2-yl)-benzamide hydrate (SB431542; an activin receptor-like kinase-5/Smad signaling inhibitor). Sircol collagen assay was used to measure cellular collagen content. Culture medium procollagen I, TIMP-1, and MMP-3 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TGF-β1 increased the collagen content, procollagen I, and TIMP-1 production, but slightly decreased MMP-3 production of pulp cells. SB431542 and U0126 prevented the TGF-β1-induced increase of collagen content and TIMP-1 production of dental pulp cells. These results indicate that TGF-β1 may be involved in the healing/regeneration processes of dental pulp in response to injury by stimulation of collagen and TIMP-1 production. These events are associated with activin receptor-like kinase-5/Smad2/3 and MEK/ERK signaling. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Beneficial regulation of matrixmetalloproteinases and their inhibitors, fibrillar collagens and transforming growth factor-beta by Polypodium leucotomos, directly or in dermal fibroblasts, ultraviolet radiated fibroblasts, and melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Philips, Neena; Conte, Jennifer; Chen, Yu-Jun; Natrajan, Prashanti; Taw, May; Keller, Thomas; Givant, Joshua; Tuason, Marvin; Dulaj, Luiji; Leonardi, Donna; Gonzalez, Salvador

    2009-08-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) that gives tissue its structural integrity is remodeled in skin aging/photoaging and cancer via the increased expression/activities of matrixmetalloproteinases (MMP), inhibition of the tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP), or inhibition of collagen synthesis. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a predominant regulator of the ECM, is inhibited in aging/photoaging and stimulated in carcinogenesis. P. leucotomos (fern) extract has potential to counteract these alterations via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and photoprotective properties. The goal of this research was to determine the efficacy of P. leucotomos to (a) directly inhibit MMP-1, 2, 3, and 9 activities, (b) inhibit MMP-2, and stimulate TIMPs, fibrillar collagens and TGF-beta in non-irradiated or ultraviolet (UV) radiated fibroblasts, and (c) inhibit MMPs and TGF-beta, and stimulate TIMPs in melanoma cells. To this purpose, we examined the direct effect of P. leucotomos (0-1%) on MMPs' activities, and its effects on the expression (protein and/or transcription levels) of (1) MMPs and TIMPs in dermal fibroblasts, and melanoma cells, (2) TGF-beta in non-irradiated, UVA (2.5 J/cm2) or UVB (2.5 mJ/cm2) irradiated fibroblasts, and melanoma cells, and (3) types I, III, and V collagen in non-irradiated or UV irradiated fibroblasts. P. leucotomos directly inhibited the activities of MMPs as well as the expression of MMPs in fibroblasts, and melanoma cells while stimulating the expression of TIMPs in these cells. P. leucotomos stimulated types I, III, and V collagen in non-irradiated fibroblasts, and types I and V collagen in UV radiated fibroblasts. P. leucotomos had predominant stimulatory effects on TGF-beta expression in non-irradiated or UV radiated fibroblasts, and inhibited TGF-beta expression in melanoma cells. The effects of P. leucotomos were largely similar to that of ascorbic acid. P. leucotomos demonstrated dual protective effects on the ECM via

  8. Transformation of amorphous calcium carbonate to rod-like single crystal calcite via "copying" collagen template.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhonghui; Hu, Binbin; Dai, Shuxi; Du, Zuliang

    2015-10-01

    Collagen Langmuir films were prepared by spreading the solution of collagen over deionized water, CaCl2 solution and Ca(HCO3)2 solution. Resultant collagen Langmuir monolayers were then compressed to a lateral pressure of 10 mN/m and held there for different duration, allowing the crystallization of CaCO3. The effect of crystallization time on the phase composition and microstructure of CaCO3 was investigated. It was found that amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) was obtained at a crystallization time of 6 h. The amorphous CaCO3 was transformed to rod-like single crystal calcite crystals at an extended crystallization time of 12 h and 24 h, via "copying" the symmetry and dimensionalities of collagen fibers. Resultant calcite crystallites were well oriented along the longitudinal axis of collagen fibers. The ordered surface structure of collagen fibers and electrostatic interactions played key roles in tuning the oriented nucleation and growth of the calcite crystallites. The mineralized collagen possessing both desired mechanical properties of collagen fiber and good biocompatibility of calcium carbonate may be assembled into an ideal biomaterial for bone implants. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Subcutaneous administration of polymerized type I collagen downregulates interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-22 and transforming growth factor-β1 expression, and increases Foxp3-expressing cells in localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Furuzawa-Carballeda, J; Ortíz-Ávalos, M; Lima, G; Jurado-Santa Cruz, F; Llorente, L

    2012-08-01

    Localized scleroderma (LS) is a disfiguring inflammatory autoimmune disease of the skin and underlying tissue. As in systemic sclerosis, a key feature is the presence of T cells in inflammatory lesions. To evaluate the effect of polymerized type I collagen vs. methylprednisolone (MP) in LS, and to determine the influence of this polymerized collagen (PC) on CD4+ peripheral T cells expressing interleukin (IL)-4, IL-17A, interferon-γ and Forkhead box protein (Foxp)3, and on cells expressing transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, IL-17A, IL-22 and Foxp3 in the skin. In total, 16 patients with LS were treated for 3 months with monthly subcutaneous intralesional injections of 0.1 mL MP (giving a total dose of 20 mg/mL each month) and 15 patients were treated, with weekly subcutaneous intralesional injections of PC, ranging from 0.2 mL (equivalent to 1.66 mg collagen) for a lesion of 50 mm in size, up to a maximum of 1.0 mL (8.3 mg collagen) for a lesion > 100 mm in size, and followed up for a further 6 months. Skin biopsies were obtained from lesions at baseline (before treatment) and 9 months later (6 months after treatment end). Tissue sections were evaluated by histology and immunohistochemistry (IL-17A, IL-22, TGF-β1 and Foxp3). CD4+ T-cell subsets were determined in peripheral blood by flow cytometry. Abnormal tissue architecture was seen in the biopsies taken from patients treated with MP, whereas the PC treatment restored normal skin architecture. PC downregulated pro-inflammatory/profibrotic cytokine expression in peripheral cells, and upregulated the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in skin. PC was safe and well tolerated. PC is not only an antifibrotic/fibrolytic agent but also an immunomodulator biodrug that restores the balance between T helper (Th)1, Th2, Th17 and Tregs, downregulates production of pro-inflammatory or profibrogenic cytokines (IL-17A, IL-22 and TGF-β1), and renews skin architecture, without adverse effects. © The Author(s). CED

  10. Influence of Short-Term Octreotide Administration on Chronic Tissue Injury, Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-beta) Overexpression, and Collagen Accumulation in Irradiated Rat Intestine.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zheng, H; Hauer-Jensen, M

    2001-04-01

    The somatostatin analog octreotide was recently found to ameliorate radiation-induced tissue injury in rat intestine. The present study addressed whether octreotide reduces chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis, whether enteroprotection is conferred by direct or indirect mechanisms, and whether the effects are dose-dependent. Using a rat model designed for fractionated irradiation, a segment of small intestine was sham-irradiated or exposed to 67.2 Gy X-radiation in 16 daily fractions. Octreotide (0, 2, or 10 microg/kg/h) was administered subcutaneously by osmotic minipumps for 4 weeks, from 2 days before to 10 days after irradiation. Tissue injury was assessed at 2 weeks (early phase) and 26 weeks (chronic phase) by quantitative histopathology and morphometry. Epithelial and smooth muscle cell proliferation was assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining; connective tissue mast cell hyperplasia by metachromatic staining; and TGF-beta1 and collagen protein and mRNA by quantitative immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and/or real-time fluorogenic probe reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Octreotide conferred dose-dependent protection against early (p = 0.0003) and chronic (p < 0.0001) tissue injury. Octreotide abrogated radiation-induced chronic increases in extracellular matrix-associated TGF-beta (p < 0.0001), collagen I (p = 0.0001), and collagen III (p = 0.0002) immunoreactivity. Octreotide did not affect radiation-induced changes in steady-state TGF-beta1 mRNA levels, mast cell hyperplasia, or smooth muscle cell proliferation. Octreotide reduced crypt epithelial cell proliferation (p = 0.01), but did not otherwise affect unirradiated intestine. Octreotide confers dose-dependent protection against delayed small bowel radiation toxicity and ameliorates radiation fibrosis predominantly by reducing acute mucosal injury. These data strengthen the rationale for using somatostatin analogs as enteroprotective agents in clinical

  11. Mechanically Oriented 3D Collagen Hydrogel for Directing Neurite Growth.

    PubMed

    Antman-Passig, Merav; Levy, Shahar; Gartenberg, Chaim; Schori, Hadas; Shefi, Orit

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies in the field of neuro-tissue engineering have demonstrated the promising effects of aligned contact guidance cue to scaffolds of enhancement and direction of neuronal growth. In vivo, neurons grow and develop neurites in a complex three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding. Studies have utilized hydrogel scaffolds derived from ECM molecules to better simulate natural growth. While many efforts have been made to control neuronal growth on 2D surfaces, the development of 3D scaffolds with an elaborate oriented topography to direct neuronal growth still remains a challenge. In this study, we designed a method for growing neurons in an aligned and oriented 3D collagen hydrogel. We aligned collagen fibers by inducing controlled uniaxial strain on gels. To examine the collagen hydrogel as a suitable scaffold for neuronal growth, we evaluated the physical properties of the hydrogel and measured collagen fiber properties. By combining the neuronal culture in 3D collagen hydrogels with strain-induced alignment, we were able to direct neuronal growth in the direction of the aligned collagen matrix. Quantitative evaluation of neurite extension and directionality within aligned gels was performed. The analysis showed neurite growth aligned with collagen matrix orientation, while maintaining the advantageous 3D growth.

  12. The Effector Protein BPE005 from Brucella abortus Induces Collagen Deposition and Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Downmodulation via Transforming Growth Factor β1 in Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Arriola Benitez, Paula Constanza; Rey Serantes, Diego; Herrmann, Claudia Karina; Pesce Viglietti, Ayelén Ivana; Vanzulli, Silvia; Giambartolomei, Guillermo Hernán; Comerci, Diego José; Delpino, María Victoria

    2016-02-01

    The liver is frequently affected in patients with active brucellosis. In the present study, we identified a virulence factor involved in the modulation of hepatic stellate cell function and consequent fibrosis during Brucella abortus infection. This study assessed the role of BPE005 protein from B. abortus in the fibrotic phenotype induced on hepatic stellate cells during B. abortus infection in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that the fibrotic phenotype induced by B. abortus on hepatic stellate (LX-2) cells was dependent on BPE005, a protein associated with the type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB from B. abortus. Our results indicated that B. abortus inhibits matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) secretion through the activity of the BPE005-secreted protein and induces concomitant collagen deposition by LX-2 cells. BPE005 is a small protein containing a cyclic nucleotide monophosphate binding domain (cNMP) that modulates the LX-2 cell phenotype through a mechanism that is dependent on the cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. Altogether, these results indicate that B. abortus tilts LX-2 cells to a profibrogenic phenotype employing a functional T4SS and the secreted BPE005 protein through a mechanism that involves the cAMP and PKA signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Enhanced periodontal regeneration using collagen, stem cells or growth factors.

    PubMed

    Basan, Tanja; Welly, Daniel; Kriebel, Katja; Scholz, Malte; Brosemann, Anne; Liese, Jan; Vollmar, Brigitte; Frerich, Bernhard; Lang, Hermann

    2017-01-01

    The regeneration of periodontal tissues still remains a challenge in periodontology. The aim of the present study was to examine the regenerative potential of a) different collagen support versus blank, b) different collagen support +/- a growth factor cocktail (GF) and c) a collagen powder versus collagen powder + periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) comparatively in a large animal model. The stem cells (SC) were isolated from extracted teeth of 15 adult miniature pigs. A total of 60 class II furcation defects were treated with the materials named above. Concluding, a histological evaluation followed. A significant increase in regeneration was observed in all treatment groups. The new attachment formation reached a maximum of 77 percent. In the control group a new attachment formation of 13 percent was observed. The study shows that all implanted materials improved periodontal regeneration, though there were no significant differences between the experimental groups. Within the limitations of this study, it can be assumed that the lack of significant differences is due to the complexity of the clinical setting.

  14. Collagen barrier membranes adsorb growth factors liberated from autogenous bone chips.

    PubMed

    Caballé-Serrano, Jordi; Sawada, Kosaku; Miron, Richard J; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Buser, Daniel; Gruber, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Collagen membranes serve as barriers to separate bone grafts from soft tissues. Bone grafts harvested with a bone scraper release growth factors activating transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling in mesenchymal cells. The aim of the present pilot study was to determine whether collagen membranes adsorb molecules from bone-conditioned medium (BCM) with the capacity to provoke the expression of TGF-β target genes in vitro. Collagen membranes were soaked in aqueous extracts from fresh and demineralized bone chips placed in cell culture medium. Recombinant human TGF-β1 served as control. Gingival fibroblasts were seeded onto the washed collagen membranes and evaluated for the expression of adrenomedullin, pentraxin 3, interleukin 11, and proteoglycan 4. Cell viability and morphology with phalloidin staining were also determined. Incubation of collagen membranes with BCM for at least one minute caused fibroblasts to decrease the expression of adrenomedullin and pentraxin 3, and to increase the expression of interleukin 11 and proteoglycan 4. Four different membrane treatments - incubated with recombinant TGF-β1, pre-wetted with saline solution, exposed to UV light, and dry out and stored one week at room temperature - also provoked significant changes in gene expression. Likewise, conditioned medium from demineralized bone chips caused gene expression changes. BCM did not alter the viability or morphology of gingival fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate that collagen membranes rapidly adsorb the TGF-β activity released from bone chips, a molecular process that might contribute to guided bone regeneration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Growth Factor Regulation of Corneal Keratocyte Differentiation and Migration in Compressed Collagen Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Areum; Lakshman, Neema; Karamichos, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate a novel 3D culture model of the corneal stroma and apply it to investigate how key wound-healing growth factors regulate the mechanics of corneal keratocyte migration. Methods. Rabbit corneal keratocytes were seeded within collagen matrices that were compacted using external compression. Six-millimeter-diameter buttons were then incubated in media supplemented with 10% FBS, TGFβ1, TGFβ2, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), or no growth factor (control). After 1, 3, or 7 days, matrices were labeled with phalloidin and a nucleic acid dye, and were imaged using laser confocal microscopy. To study cell migration, buttons were nested within acellular uncompressed outer collagen matrices before growth factor stimulation. Results. Corneal keratocytes in basal media within compressed matrices had a broad, convoluted cell body and thin dendritic processes. In contrast, cells in 10% FBS developed a bipolar fibroblastic morphology. Treatment with TGFβ induced the formation of stress fibers expressing α-smooth muscle actin, suggesting myofibroblast transformation. PDGF induced keratocyte elongation without inducing stress fiber formation. Both 10% FBS and PDGF stimulated significant keratocyte migration through the uncompressed outer matrix, but 10% FBS produced more cell-induced collagen matrix reorganization. TGFβ induced the smallest increase in migration and the greatest matrix reorganization. Conclusions. Corneal keratocytes are able to differentiate normally and respond to growth factors within compressed collagen matrices, which provide a high-stiffness, 3D environment, similar to native stromal tissue. In addition, nesting these matrices provides a unique platform for investigating the mechanics of keratocyte migration after exposure to specific wound-healing cytokines. PMID:19815729

  16. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging of cardiac tissue to detect collagen deposition after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Cheheltani, Rabee; Rosano, Jenna M.; Wang, Bin; Sabri, Abdel Karim; Pleshko, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Myocardial infarction often leads to an increase in deposition of fibrillar collagen. Detection and characterization of this cardiac fibrosis is of great interest to investigators and clinicians. Motivated by the significant limitations of conventional staining techniques to visualize collagen deposition in cardiac tissue sections, we have developed a Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS) methodology for collagen assessment. The infrared absorbance band centered at 1338  cm−1, which arises from collagen amino acid side chain vibrations, was used to map collagen deposition across heart tissue sections of a rat model of myocardial infarction, and was compared to conventional staining techniques. Comparison of the size of the collagen scar in heart tissue sections as measured with this methodology and that of trichrome staining showed a strong correlation (R=0.93). A Pearson correlation model between local intensity values in FT-IRIS and immuno-histochemical staining of collagen type I also showed a strong correlation (R=0.86). We demonstrate that FT-IRIS methodology can be utilized to visualize cardiac collagen deposition. In addition, given that vibrational spectroscopic data on proteins reflect molecular features, it also has the potential to provide additional information about the molecular structure of cardiac extracellular matrix proteins and their alterations. PMID:22612137

  17. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging of cardiac tissue to detect collagen deposition after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Cheheltani, Rabee; Rosano, Jenna M; Wang, Bin; Sabri, Abdel Karim; Pleshko, Nancy; Kiani, Mohammad F

    2012-05-01

    Myocardial infarction often leads to an increase in deposition of fibrillar collagen. Detection and characterization of this cardiac fibrosis is of great interest to investigators and clinicians. Motivated by the significant limitations of conventional staining techniques to visualize collagen deposition in cardiac tissue sections, we have developed a Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS) methodology for collagen assessment. The infrared absorbance band centered at 1338  cm(-1), which arises from collagen amino acid side chain vibrations, was used to map collagen deposition across heart tissue sections of a rat model of myocardial infarction, and was compared to conventional staining techniques. Comparison of the size of the collagen scar in heart tissue sections as measured with this methodology and that of trichrome staining showed a strong correlation (R=0.93). A Pearson correlation model between local intensity values in FT-IRIS and immuno-histochemical staining of collagen type I also showed a strong correlation (R=0.86). We demonstrate that FT-IRIS methodology can be utilized to visualize cardiac collagen deposition. In addition, given that vibrational spectroscopic data on proteins reflect molecular features, it also has the potential to provide additional information about the molecular structure of cardiac extracellular matrix proteins and their alterations.

  18. Axon growth and dynamics in 3D collagen gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Ryan; Rosoff, Will; Urbach, Jeffrey

    2006-03-01

    Living cells exhibit importantly different morphology and behavior in 3D hydrogels than on 2D substrates, but there have been very few studies of the dynamics of axons growing in 3D environments. To compare shape and outgrowth behavior of neuronal cells in 2- and 3D, we have developed a live-cell imaging apparatus using a spinning-disk confocal microscope. We compare growth cone cytoskeletal dynamics in fluorescently transfected neuronal cell-lines growing on a coated glass coverslip with those growing in a collagen matrix. We will describe some of the experimental challenges and our results (movies) to date.

  19. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and Infrared Fiber Optic Probe Spectroscopy Identify Collagen Type in Connective Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hanifi, Arash; McCarthy, Helen; Roberts, Sally; Pleshko, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Hyaline cartilage and mechanically inferior fibrocartilage consisting of mixed collagen types are frequently found together in repairing articular cartilage. The present study seeks to develop methodology to identify collagen type and other tissue components using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral evaluation of matrix composition in combination with multivariate analyses. FTIR spectra of the primary molecular components of repair cartilage, types I and II collagen, and aggrecan, were used to develop multivariate spectral models for discrimination of the matrix components of the tissues of interest. Infrared imaging data were collected from bovine bone, tendon, normal cartilage, meniscus and human repair cartilage tissues, and composition predicted using partial least squares analyses. Histology and immunohistochemistry results were used as standards for validation. Infrared fiber optic probe spectral data were also obtained from meniscus (a tissue with mixed collagen types) to evaluate the potential of this method for identification of collagen type in a minimally-invasive clinical application. Concentration profiles of the tissue components obtained from multivariate analysis were in excellent agreement with histology and immunohistochemistry results. Bone and tendon showed a uniform distribution of predominantly type I collagen through the tissue. Normal cartilage showed a distribution of type II collagen and proteoglycan similar to the known composition, while in repair cartilage, the spectral distribution of both types I and II collagen were similar to that observed via immunohistochemistry. Using the probe, the outer and inner regions of the meniscus were shown to be primarily composed of type I and II collagen, respectively, in accordance with immunohistochemistry data. In summary, multivariate analysis of infrared spectra can indeed be used to differentiate collagen type I and type II, even in the presence of proteoglycan, in connective tissues

  20. Enhancement of neurite outgrowth in neuron cancer stem cells by growth on 3-D collagen scaffolds

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chih-Hao; Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, ROC; Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neuron cancer stem cells (NCSCs) behave high multiply of growth on collagen scaffold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhancement of NCSCs neurite outgrowth on porous collagen scaffold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-D collagen culture of NCSCs shows an advance differentiation than 2-D culture. -- Abstract: Collagen is one component of the extracellular matrix that has been widely used for constructive remodeling to facilitate cell growth and differentiation. The 3-D distribution and growth of cells within the porous scaffold suggest a clinical significance for nerve tissue engineering. In the current study, we investigated proliferation and differentiation of neuron cancer stem cells (NCSCs) on a 3-D porousmore » collagen scaffold that mimics the natural extracellular matrix. We first generated green fluorescence protein (GFP) expressing NCSCs using a lentiviral system to instantly monitor the transitions of morphological changes during growth on the 3-D scaffold. We found that proliferation of GFP-NCSCs increased, and a single cell mass rapidly grew with unrestricted expansion between days 3 and 9 in culture. Moreover, immunostaining with neuronal nuclei (NeuN) revealed that NCSCs grown on the 3-D collagen scaffold significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth. Our findings confirmed that the 80 {mu}m porous collagen scaffold could enhance attachment, viability and differentiation of the cancer neural stem cells. This result could provide a new application for nerve tissue engineering and nerve regeneration.« less

  1. Angiogenic Type I Collagen Extracellular Matrix Integrated with Recombinant Bacteriophages Displaying Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Junghyo; Korkmaz Zirpel, Nuriye; Park, Hyun-Ji; Han, Sewoon; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Shin, Jisoo; Cho, Seung-Woo; Nam, Chang-Hoon; Chung, Seok

    2016-01-21

    Here, a growth-factor-integrated natural extracellular matrix of type I collagen is presented that induces angiogenesis. The developed matrix adapts type I collagen nanofibers integrated with synthetic colloidal particles of recombinant bacteriophages that display vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The integration is achieved during or after gelation of the type I collagen and the matrix enables spatial delivery of VEGF into a desired region. Endothelial cells that contact the VEGF are found to invade into the matrix to form tube-like structures both in vitro and in vivo, proving the angiogenic potential of the matrix. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The elastic modulus and collagen of sclera increase during the early growth process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congcong; Xie, Yongfang; Wang, Guohui

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the elastic modulus and collagen in scleral tissues of different ages. The eyeballs of 1-, 2- and 3-month-old New Zealand white rabbits were obtained to assess three regions of the sclera-anterior, equatorial and posterior. The three regions of the scleral tissues were then separately divided into four groups. The first group was made into scleral strips for elastic modulus measurement using an Instron 5544. The second group was HE stained for observation of the scleral structures. The third group was used for electron microscopy to observe the size distribution of collagen fibrils. The last group was homogenized and the concentration of hydroxyproline was measured to determine the collagen content. The elastic modulus and diameters of the collagen fibrils of each scleral region increased with age, while the number of scleral fibroblasts decreased. The posterior sclera had a looser collagen fibrils arrangement, less collagen and a lower elastic modulus than the anterior and equatorial sclera. The structure across the scleral regions changed constantly, and the diameter of the scleral collagen fibrils increased during the early growth process, which led to the improvement of the elastic modulus of the scleral tissues. The posterior sclera had a looser collagen fibril arrangement, less collagen and lower elastic modulus than the anterior and equatorial sclera; this finding may explain several physiological and pathological uncertainties of the sclera, such as emmetropization, posterior sclera expanding and myopia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation of bovine type X collagen and immunolocalization in growth-plate cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, T; von der Mark, K

    1990-01-01

    Type X collagen was extracted with 1 M-NaCl and 10 mM-dithiothreitol at neutral pH from fetal-bovine growth cartilage and purified to homogeneity by using f.p.l.c. gel filtration on a Superose 12 column, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on a Mono Q column. The purified protein migrates in SDS/polyacrylamide gels with an apparent Mr of 58,000 under reducing conditions and as a high-Mr oligomer in its unreduced form. The amino acid composition is similar to the published composition of chick type X collagen. Pepsin digestion at 4 degrees C decreases the Mr of the monomer to 43,000; purified bacterial collagenase digests most of the molecule, leaving a non-collagenous domain of apparent Mr 15,000, which probably represents the C-terminal globular domain. The IgG fraction from a rabbit antiserum raised against purified bovine type X collagen was specific for this collagen by the criteria of e.l.i.s.a. and immunoblotting after immunoabsorption with collagen types I, II, IX and XI. Immunofluorescence localization of type X collagen in sections of fetal-bovine and human cartilage was possible after acetone fixation of sections and hyaluronidase treatment. Type X collagen was restricted to the zone of hypertrophic and calcified cartilage inside the bone spicules of the growth plate. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2405843

  4. Isolation of bovine type X collagen and immunolocalization in growth-plate cartilage.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, T; von der Mark, K

    1990-01-15

    Type X collagen was extracted with 1 M-NaCl and 10 mM-dithiothreitol at neutral pH from fetal-bovine growth cartilage and purified to homogeneity by using f.p.l.c. gel filtration on a Superose 12 column, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on a Mono Q column. The purified protein migrates in SDS/polyacrylamide gels with an apparent Mr of 58,000 under reducing conditions and as a high-Mr oligomer in its unreduced form. The amino acid composition is similar to the published composition of chick type X collagen. Pepsin digestion at 4 degrees C decreases the Mr of the monomer to 43,000; purified bacterial collagenase digests most of the molecule, leaving a non-collagenous domain of apparent Mr 15,000, which probably represents the C-terminal globular domain. The IgG fraction from a rabbit antiserum raised against purified bovine type X collagen was specific for this collagen by the criteria of e.l.i.s.a. and immunoblotting after immunoabsorption with collagen types I, II, IX and XI. Immunofluorescence localization of type X collagen in sections of fetal-bovine and human cartilage was possible after acetone fixation of sections and hyaluronidase treatment. Type X collagen was restricted to the zone of hypertrophic and calcified cartilage inside the bone spicules of the growth plate.

  5. α3 Chains of type V collagen regulate breast tumour growth via glypican-1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guorui; Ge, Gaoxiang; Izzi, Valerio; Greenspan, Daniel S.

    2017-01-01

    Pericellular α3(V) collagen can affect the functioning of cells, such as adipocytes and pancreatic β cells. Here we show that α3(V) chains are an abundant product of normal mammary gland basal cells, and that α3(V) ablation in a mouse mammary tumour model inhibits mammary tumour progression by reducing the proliferative potential of tumour cells. These effects are shown to be primarily cell autonomous, from loss of α3(V) chains normally produced by tumour cells, in which they affect growth by enhancing the ability of cell surface proteoglycan glypican-1 to act as a co-receptor for FGF2. Thus, a mechanism is presented for microenvironmental influence on tumour growth. α3(V) chains are produced in both basal-like and luminal human breast tumours, and its expression levels are tightly coupled with those of glypican-1 across breast cancer types. Evidence indicates α3(V) chains as potential targets for inhibiting tumour growth and as markers of oncogenic transformation. PMID:28102194

  6. Increased Collagen Deposition and Elevated Expression of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Human Thoracic Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinwen; LeMaire, Scott A.; Chen, Li; Shen, Ying H.; Gan, Yehua; Bartsch, Heather; Carter, Stacey A.; Utama, Budi; Ou, Hesheng; Coselli, Joseph S.; Wang, Xing Li

    2009-01-01

    Background Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) is characterized by dysregulated extracellular matrix. Little is known about the alterations of collagen and stimulators of collagen synthesis, eg, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), in patients with TAD. In this study, we examined their roles in TAD. Methods and Results Surgical specimens of the aortic wall of TAD patients (n=10) and controls (n=10) were tested for collagen types I and III and CTGF expression. When compared with controls, protein levels of type I and III collagen and CTGF were significantly increased by 3.2-, 3.7-, and 5.3-fold, respectively (P<0.05 for all). Similar patterns were shown in mRNA levels of type Iα and Iα2 collagen and CTGF. Using immunohistochemistry and trichrome staining, we also observed elevated levels of collagen in the aortic media and adventitia. Treatment with recombinant human CTGF increased collagen synthesis in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, in which expression of collagens increased from 506±108 counts per minute to 2764±240 cpm by 50 ng/mL CTGF, and from 30±43 cpm to 429±102 cpm at 48 hours. Conclusions TAD patients exhibited significantly increased expression of aortic collagen types I and III as well as CTGF, which is likely to be responsible for the compromised aortic distensibility and systemic compliance. Because CTGF can increase collagen expression, CTGF may be a new target molecule in the pathogenesis and progression of TAD. PMID:16820572

  7. Developmental distribution of collagen type XII in cartilage: association with articular cartilage and the growth plate.

    PubMed

    Gregory, K E; Keene, D R; Tufa, S F; Lunstrum, G P; Morris, N P

    2001-11-01

    Collagen type XII is a member of the fibril-associated collagens and is characterized by a short triple-helical domain with three extended noncollagenous NC3 domains. Previous studies suggested that collagen XII is a component of cartilage but little is known about its spatial-temporal distribution. This study uses a polyclonal antibody to the purified NC3 domain to investigate its developmental distribution in rat forelimb. Collagen XII was present at the joint interzone on embryonic day 16 (E16d) and restricted to the presumptive articular cartilage by E18d. Labeling of the articular surface intensified as development progressed postnatally (day 1 [1d] to 28d) and extended approximately six cell diameters deep. In juvenile rats, collagen XII antibodies also labeled the longitudinal and transverse septa of stacked chondrocytes in the growth plate. However, collagen XII was not associated at any developmental stage with the cartilaginous secondary ossification center and was only weakly expressed in epiphyseal cartilage. Ultrastructural localization of the NC3 domain epitope showed labeling of the surface of collagen II fibrils both in tissue and in isolated fibrils. The results presented provide further evidence that articular cartilage differs substantially from the underlying epiphyseal cartilage and that different chondrocytic developmental fates are reflected in the composition of their extracellular matrix starting early in development. In addition, collagen XII was distributed in areas of cartilage with more organized fibril orientation and may have a role in promoting alignment or stabilizing such an organization, thereby creating a matrix capable of withstanding load-bearing forces.

  8. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantify Collagen and Elastin in an In Vitro Model of Extracellular Matrix Degradation in Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Cheheltani, Rabee; McGoverin, Cushla M.; Rao, Jayashree; Vorp, David A.; Kiani, Mohammad F.; Pleshko, N.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a key component and regulator of many biological tissues including aorta. Several aortic pathologies are associated with significant changes in the composition of the matrix, especially in the content, quality and type of aortic structural proteins, collagen and elastin. The purpose of this study was to develop an infrared spectroscopic methodology that is comparable to biochemical assays to quantify collagen and elastin in aorta. Enzymatically degraded porcine aorta samples were used as a model of ECM degradation in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). After enzymatic treatment, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the aortic tissue were acquired by an infrared fiber optic probe (IFOP) and FTIR imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS). Collagen and elastin content were quantified biochemically and partial least squares (PLS) models were developed to predict collagen and elastin content in aorta based on FTIR spectra. PLS models developed from FT-IRIS spectra were able to predict elastin and collagen content of the samples with strong correlations (RMSE of validation = 8.4% and 11.1% of the range respectively), and IFOP spectra were successfully used to predict elastin content (RMSE = 11.3% of the range). The PLS regression coefficients from the FT-IRIS models were used to map collagen and elastin in tissue sections of degraded porcine aortic tissue as well as a human AAA biopsy tissue, creating a similar map of each component compared to histology. These results support further application of FTIR spectroscopic techniques for evaluation of AAA tissues. PMID:24761431

  9. Oral supplementation with specific bioactive collagen peptides improves nail growth and reduces symptoms of brittle nails.

    PubMed

    Hexsel, Doris; Zague, Vivian; Schunck, Michael; Siega, Carolina; Camozzato, Fernanda O; Oesser, Steffen

    2017-12-01

    Brittle nail syndrome is a common problem among women and refers to nails that exhibit surface roughness, raggedness, and peeling. The goal of this study was to investigate whether daily oral supplementation with collagen peptides alleviates the symptoms of brittle nails and improves nail growth rate. In this open-label, single-center trial, 25 participants took 2.5 g of specific bioactive collagen peptides (BCP, VERISOL ® ) once daily for 24 weeks followed by a 4-week off-therapy period. Nail growth rate and the frequency of cracked and/or chipped nails as well as an evaluation of symptoms and global clinical improvement score of brittle nails were assessed by a physician during treatment and 4 weeks after discontinuation. Bioactive collagen peptides treatment promoted an increase of 12% nail growth rate and a decrease of 42% in the frequency of broken nails. Additionally, 64% of participants achieved a global clinical improvement in brittle nails, and 88% of participants experienced an improvement 4 weeks post-treatment. The majority of participants (80%) agreed that the use of BCP improved their nails' appearance, and were completely satisfied with the performance of the treatment. This study demonstrated that the daily ingestion of BCP increased nail growth and improved brittle nails in conjunction with a notable decrease in the frequency of broken nails. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Transforming growth factor-β-independent role of connective tissue growth factor in the development of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Keiko; Jawaid, Safdar; Sasaki, Takako; Bou-Gharios, George; Sakai, Takao

    2014-10-01

    We previously identified transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling as a fibronectin-independent mechanism of type I collagen fibrillogenesis following adult liver injury. To address the contribution of TGF-β signaling during the development of liver fibrosis, we generated adult mice lacking TGF-β type II receptor (TGF-βIIR) from the liver. TGF-βIIR knockout livers indeed showed a dominant effect in reducing fibrosis, but fibrosis still remained approximately 45% compared with control and fibronectin knockout livers. Unexpectedly, this was accompanied by significant up-regulation of connective tissue growth factor mRNA levels. Organized type I collagen networks in TGF-βIIR knockout livers colocalized well with fibronectin. We provide evidence that elimination of TGF-βIIR is not sufficient to completely prevent liver fibrosis. Our results indicate a TGF-β-independent mechanism of type I collagen production and suggest connective tissue growth factor as its potent mediator. We advocate combined elimination of TGF-β signaling and connective tissue growth factor as a potential therapeutic target by which to attenuate liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiscale modelling of solid tumour growth: the effect of collagen micromechanics.

    PubMed

    Wijeratne, Peter A; Vavourakis, Vasileios; Hipwell, John H; Voutouri, Chrysovalantis; Papageorgis, Panagiotis; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos; Evans, Andrew; Hawkes, David J

    2016-10-01

    Here we introduce a model of solid tumour growth coupled with a multiscale biomechanical description of the tumour microenvironment, which facilitates the explicit simulation of fibre-fibre and tumour-fibre interactions. We hypothesise that such a model, which provides a purely mechanical description of tumour-host interactions, can be used to explain experimental observations of the effect of collagen micromechanics on solid tumour growth. The model was specified to mouse tumour data, and numerical simulations were performed. The multiscale model produced lower stresses than an equivalent continuum-like approach, due to a more realistic remodelling of the collagen microstructure. Furthermore, solid tumour growth was found to cause a passive mechanical realignment of fibres at the tumour boundary from a random to a circumferential orientation. This is in accordance with experimental observations, thus demonstrating that such a response can be explained as purely mechanical. Finally, peritumoural fibre network anisotropy was found to produce anisotropic tumour morphology. The dependency of tumour morphology on the peritumoural microstructure was reduced by adding a load-bearing non-collagenous component to the fibre network constitutive equation.

  12. Denaturation of collagen structures and their transformation under the physical and chemical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivankin, A.; Boldirev, V.; Fadeev, G.; Baburina, M.; Kulikovskii, A.; Vostrikova, N.

    2017-11-01

    The process of denaturation of collagen structures under the influence of physical and chemical factors play an important role in the manufacture of food technology and the production of drugs for medicine and cosmetology. The paper discussed the problem of the combined effects of heat treatment, mechanical dispersion and ultrasonic action on the structural changes of the animal collagen in the presence of weak protonated organic acids. Algorithm combined effects of physical and chemical factors as a result of the formation of the technological properties of products containing collagen has been shown.

  13. Refinement of collagen-mineral interaction: a possible role for osteocalcin in apatite crystal nucleation, growth and development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Jacquet, Robin; Lowder, Elizabeth; Landis, William J

    2015-02-01

    Mineralization of vertebrate tissues such as bone, dentin, cementum, and calcifying tendon involves type I collagen, which has been proposed as a template for calcium and phosphate ion binding and subsequent nucleation of apatite crystals. Type I collagen thereby has been suggested to be responsible for the deposition of apatite mineral without the need for non-collagenous proteins or other extracellular matrix molecules. Based on studies in vitro, non-collagenous proteins, including osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein, are thought to mediate vertebrate mineralization associated with type I collagen. These proteins, as possibly related to mineral deposition, have not been definitively localized in vivo. The present study has reexamined their localization in the leg tendons of avian turkeys, a representative model of vertebrate mineralization. Immunocytochemistry of osteocalcin demonstrates its presence at the surface of, outside and within type I collagen while that of bone sialoprotein appears to be localized at the surface of or outside type I collagen. The association between osteocalcin and type I collagen structure is revealed optimally when calcium ions are added to the antibody solution in the methodology. In this manner, osteocalcin is found specifically located along the a4-1, b1, c2 and d bands defining in part the hole and overlap zones within type I collagen. From these data, while type I collagen itself may be considered a stereochemical guide for intrafibrillar mineral nucleation and subsequent deposition, osteocalcin bound to type I collagen may also possibly mediate nucleation, growth and development of platelet-shaped apatite crystals. Bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin as well, each immunolocalized at the surface of or outside type I collagen, may affect mineral deposition in these portions of the avian tendon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Collagen-binding vascular endothelial growth factor attenuates CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kangkang; Huang, Rui; Wu, Hongyan; Liu, Yong; Yang, Chenchen; Cao, Shufeng; Hou, Xianglin; Chen, Bing; Dai, Jianwu; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) serves an important role in promoting angiogenesis and tissue regeneration. However, the lack of an effective delivery system that can target this growth factor to the injured site reduces its therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, in the current study, collagen-binding VEGF was constructed by fusing a collagen-binding domain (CBD) to the N-terminal of native VEGF. The CBD-VEGF can specifically bind to collagen which is the major component of the extracellular matrix in fibrotic liver. The anti-fibrotic effects of this novel material were investigated by the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrotic mouse model. Mice were injected with CCl4 intraperitoneally to induce liver fibrosis. CBD-VEGF was injected directly into the liver tissue of mice. The liver tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for general observation or with Masson's trichrome staining for detection of collagen deposition. The hepatic stellate cell activation, blood vessel formation and hepatocyte proliferation were measured by immunohistochemical staining for α-smooth muscle actin, CD31 and Ki67 in the liver tissue. The fluorescent TUNEL assay was performed to evaluate the hepatocyte apoptosis. The present study identified that the CBD-VEGF injection could significantly promote vascularization of the liver tissue of fibrotic mice and attenuate liver fibrosis. Furthermore, hepatocyte apoptosis and hepatic stellate cell activation were attenuated by CBD-VEGF treatment. CBD-VEGF treatment could additionally promote hepatocyte regeneration in the liver tissue of fibrotic mice. Thus, it was suggested that CBD-VEGF may be used as a novel therapeutic intervention for liver fibrosis. PMID:27748931

  15. Substrate flexibility regulates growth and apoptosis of normal but not transformed cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, H. B.; Dembo, M.; Wang, Y. L.

    2000-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of oncogenic transformation is anchorage-independent growth (27). Here we demonstrate that responses to substrate rigidity play a major role in distinguishing the growth behavior of normal cells from that of transformed cells. We cultured normal or H-ras-transformed NIH 3T3 cells on flexible collagen-coated polyacrylamide substrates with similar chemical properties but different rigidity. Compared with cells cultured on stiff substrates, nontransformed cells on flexible substrates showed a decrease in the rate of DNA synthesis and an increase in the rate of apoptosis. These responses on flexible substrates are coupled to decreases in cell spreading area and traction forces. In contrast, transformed cells maintained their growth and apoptotic characteristics regardless of substrate flexibility. The responses in cell spreading area and traction forces to substrate flexibility were similarly diminished. Our results suggest that normal cells are capable of probing substrate rigidity and that proper mechanical feedback is required for regulating cell shape, cell growth, and survival. The loss of this response can explain the unregulated growth of transformed cells.

  16. Proton pump inhibitor induced collagen expression in colonocytes is associated with collagenous colitis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Shiori; Kadochi, Yui; Luo, Yi; Fujiwara-Tani, Rina; Nishiguchi, Yukiko; Kishi, Shingo; Fujii, Kiyomu; Ohmori, Hitoshi; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    AIM To elucidate the role of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in collagenous disease, direct effect of PPI on colonocytes was examined. METHODS Collagenous colitis is a common cause of non-bloody, watery diarrhea. Recently, there has been increasing focus on the use of proton PPIs as a risk factor for developing collagenous colitis. Mouse CT26 colonic cells were treated with PPI and/or PPI-induced alkaline media. Expression of fibrosis-associated genes was examined by RT-PCR. In human materials, collagen expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS CT26 cells expressed a Na+-H+ exchanger gene (solute carrier family 9, member A2). Treatment with PPI and/or PPI-induced alkaline media caused growth inhibition and oxidative stress in CT26 cells. The treatment increased expression of fibrosis inducing factors, transforming growth factor β and fibroblast growth factor 2. The treatment also decreased expression of a negative regulator of collagen production, replication factor C1, resulting in increased expression of collagen types III and IV in association with lipid peroxide. In biopsy specimens from patients with collagenous colitis, type III and IV collagen were increased. Increase of type III collagen was more pronounced in PPI-associated collagenous colitis than in non-PPI-associated disease. CONCLUSION From these findings, the reaction of colonocytes to PPI might participate in pathogenesis of collagenous colitis. PMID:28321159

  17. Inhibition of transforming growth factor beta signaling by halofuginone as a modality for pancreas fibrosis prevention.

    PubMed

    Zion, Orit; Genin, Olga; Kawada, Norifumi; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Roffe, Suzy; Nagler, Arnon; Iovanna, Juan L; Halevy, Orna; Pines, Mark

    2009-05-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by inflammation and fibrosis. We evaluated the efficacy of halofuginone, an inhibitor of collagen synthesis and myofibroblast activation, in preventing cerulein-induced pancreas fibrosis. Collagen synthesis was evaluated by in situ hybridization and staining. Levels of prolyl 4-hydroxylase beta (P4Hbeta), cytoglobin/stellate cell activation-associated protein (Cygb/STAP), transgelin, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, serum response factor, transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta), Smad3, and pancreatitis-associated protein 1 (PAP-1) were determined by immunohistochemistry. Metalloproteinase activity was evaluated by zymography. Halofuginone prevented cerulein-dependent increase in collagen synthesis, collagen cross-linking enzyme P4Hbeta, Cygb/STAP, and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 2. Halofuginone did not affect TGFbeta levels in cerulein-treated mice but inhibited serum response factor synthesis and Smad3 phosphorylation. In culture, halofuginone inhibited pancreatic stellate cell (PSC) proliferation and TGFbeta-dependent increase in Cygb/STAP and transgelin synthesis and metalloproteinase 2 activity. Halofuginone increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation in PSCs derived from cerulein-treated mice. Halofuginone prevented the increase in acinar cell proliferation and further increased the cerulein-dependent PAP-1 synthesis. Halofuginone inhibits Smad3 phosphorylation and increases c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation, leading to the inhibition of PSC activation and consequent prevention of fibrosis. Halofuginone increased the synthesis of PAP-1, which further reduces pancreas fibrosis. Thus, halofuginone might serve as a novel therapy for pancreas fibrosis.

  18. Sustained release of growth hormone and sodium nitrite from biomimetic collagen coating immobilized on silicone tubes improves endothelialization.

    PubMed

    Salehi-Nik, Nasim; Malaie-Balasi, Zahra; Amoabediny, Ghassem; Banikarimi, Seyedeh Parnian; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2017-08-01

    Biocompatibility of biomedical devices can be improved by endothelialization of blood-contacting parts mimicking the vascular endothelium's function. Improved endothelialization might be obtained by using biomimetic coatings that allow local sustained release of biologically active molecules, e.g. anti-thrombotic and growth-inducing agents, from nanoliposomes. We aimed to test whether incorporation of growth-inducing nanoliposomal growth hormone (nGH) and anti-thrombotic nanoliposomal sodium nitrite (nNitrite) into collagen coating of silicone tubes enhances endothelialization by stimulating endothelial cell proliferation and inhibiting platelet adhesion. Collagen coating stably immobilized on acrylic acid-grafted silicone tubes decreased the water contact angle from 102° to 56°. Incorporation of 50 or 500nmol/ml nNitrite and 100 or 1000ng/ml nGH into collagen coating decreased the water contact angle further to 48°. After 120h incubation, 58% nitrite and 22% GH of the initial amount of sodium nitrite and GH in nanoliposomes were gradually released from the nNitrite-nGH-collagen coating. Endothelial cell number was increased after surface coating of silicone tubes with collagen by 1.6-fold, and with nNitrite-nGH-collagen conjugate by 1.8-3.9-fold after 2days. After 6days, endothelial cell confluency in the absence of surface coating was 22%, with collagen coating 74%, and with nNitrite-nGH-collagen conjugate coating 83-119%. In the absence of endothelial cells, platelet adhesion was stimulated after collagen coating by 1.3-fold, but inhibited after nNitrite-nGH-collagen conjugate coating by 1.6-3.7-fold. The release of anti-thrombotic prostaglandin I 2 from endothelial cells was stimulated after nNitrite-nGH-collagen conjugate coating by 1.7-2.2-fold compared with collagen coating. Our data shows improved endothelialization and blood compatibility using nNitrite-nGH-collagen conjugate coating on silicone tubes suggesting that these coatings are highly suitable

  19. In vitro evaluation of collagen immobilization on polytetrafluoroethylene through NH3 plasma treatment to enhance endothelial cell adhesion and growth.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Mahboobeh; Zamanifard, Mohammad; Safarzadeh, Mina; Bonakdar, Shahin

    2017-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is poorly biocompatible due to its low surface energy and hydrophobicity, which cause weak cell attachment and proliferation and complicate its use in implants. NH3 plasma was used for surface modification and binding of amine groups on the PTFE surface. Collagen was immobilized on the plasma-treated PTFE in order to enable it to support enhanced cell adhesion and growth. PTFE was exposed to NH3 plasma and collagen was immobilized on the NH3 plasma-treated surface. ATR-IR, SEM, EDXA and contact angle were conducted to determine the composition, microstructure and wettability of samples. The cytocompatibility of the samples was assessed via the growth HUVEC cells using MTT assay. Plasma treatment resulted in an incorporation of functional groups, containing N2 and O2 that caused the PTFE surface to become hydrophilic with contact angle 68°. Also, a reduction in F/C ratio was observed after collagen immobilization that indicates the presence of collagen. Cells proliferated in greater numbers on the collagen immobilized-PTFE as compared to the plasma-treated one. Plasma treatment incorporates functional polar moieties on the PTFE surface, causing enhanced wettability, collagen immobilization and cell viability. Collagen-immobilized PTFE may offer a valuable solution in biomedical applications such as vessel grafts.

  20. Fibril growth kinetics link buffer conditions and topology of 3D collagen I networks.

    PubMed

    Kalbitzer, Liv; Pompe, Tilo

    2018-02-01

    Three-dimensional fibrillar networks reconstituted from collagen I are widely used as biomimetic scaffolds for in vitro and in vivo cell studies. Various physicochemical parameters of buffer conditions for in vitro fibril formation are well known, including pH-value, ion concentrations and temperature. However, there is a lack of a detailed understanding of reconstituting well-defined 3D network topologies, which is required to mimic specific properties of the native extracellular matrix. We screened a wide range of relevant physicochemical buffer conditions and characterized the topology of the reconstituted 3D networks in terms of mean pore size and fibril diameter. A congruent analysis of fibril formation kinetics by turbidimetry revealed the adjustment of the lateral growth phase of fibrils by buffer conditions to be key in the determination of pore size and fibril diameter of the networks. Although the kinetics of nucleation and linear growth phase were affected by buffer conditions as well, network topology was independent of those two growth phases. Overall, the results of our study provide necessary insights into how to engineer 3D collagen matrices with an independent control over topology parameters, in order to mimic in vivo tissues in in vitro experiments and tissue engineering applications. The study reports a comprehensive analysis of physicochemical conditions of buffer solutions to reconstitute defined 3D collagen I matrices. By a combined analysis of network topology, i.e., pore size and fibril diameter, and the kinetics of fibril formation we can reveal the dependence of 3D network topology on buffer conditions, such as pH-value, phosphate concentration and sodium chloride content. With those results we are now able to provide engineering strategies to independently tune the topology parameters of widely used 3D collagen scaffolds based on the buffer conditions. By that, we enable the straightforward mimicking of extracellular matrices of in vivo

  1. Neurotrophins differentially stimulate the growth of cochlear neurites on collagen surfaces and in gels☆

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Joanna; Pak, Kwang; Evans, Amaretta; Kamgar-Parsi, Andy; Fausti, Stephen; Mullen, Lina; Ryan, Allen Frederic

    2013-01-01

    The electrodes of a cochlear implant are located far from the surviving neurons of the spiral ganglion, which results in decreased precision of neural activation compared to the normal ear. If the neurons could be induced to extend neurites toward the implant, it might be possible to stimulate more discrete subpopulations of neurons, and to increase the resolution of the device. However, a major barrier to neurite growth toward a cochlear implant is the fluid filling the scala tympani, which separates the neurons from the electrodes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the growth of cochlear neurites in three-dimensional extracellular matrix molecule gels, and to increase biocompatibility by using fibroblasts stably transfected to produce neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Spiral ganglion explants from neonatal rats were evaluated in cultures. They were exposed to soluble neurotrophins, cells transfected to secrete neurotrophins, and/or collagen gels. We found that cochlear neurites grew readily on collagen surfaces and in three-dimensional collagen gels. Co-culture with cells producing neurotrophin-3 resulted in increased numbers of neurites, and neurites that were longer than when explants were cultured with control fibroblasts stably transfected with green fluorescent protein. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor-producing cells resulted in a more dramatic increase in the number of neurites, but there was no significant effect on neurite length. It is suggested that extracellular matrix molecule gels and cells transfected to produce neurotrophins offer an opportunity to attract spiral ganglion neurites toward a cochlear implant. PMID:24459465

  2. Transforming growth factor beta1 and aldosterone

    PubMed Central

    Matsuki, Kota; Hathaway, Catherine K.; Chang, Albert S.; Smithies, Oliver; Kakoki, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review It is well established that blocking renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone system (RAAS) is effective for the treatment of cardiovascular and renal complications in hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Although the induction of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) by components of RAAS mediates the hypertrophic and fibrogenic changes in cardiovascular-renal complications, it is still controversial as to whether TGFbeta1 can be a target to prevent such complications. Here we review recent findings on the role of TGFbeta1 in fluid homeostasis, focusing on the relationship with aldosterone. Recent findings TGFbeta1 suppresses adrenal production of aldosterone and renal tubular sodium reabsorption. We have generated mice with TGFbeta1 mRNA expression graded in five steps from 10% to 300% normal, and found that blood pressure and plasma volume are negatively regulated by TGFbeta1. Notably, the 10 % hypomorph exhibits primary aldosteronism and sodium and water retention due to markedly impaired urinary excretion of water and electrolytes. Summary These results identify TGFbeta signaling as an important counterregulatory system against aldosterone. Understanding the molecular mechanisms for the suppressive effects of TGFbeta1 on adrenocortical and renal function may further our understanding of primary aldosteronism as well as assist in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for hypertension. PMID:25587902

  3. Collagen directly stimulates bladder smooth muscle cell growth in vitro: regulation by extracellular regulated mitogen activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Herz, Daniel B; Aitken, Karen; Bagli, Darius J

    2003-11-01

    Bladders clinically subjected to excessive pressure or distention demonstrate an altered extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. We determined how an altered collagen substratum might affect bladder smooth muscle cell (bSMC) growth in vitro and probed the mechanism of this response. Primary culture rat bSMCs were seeded onto culture plates pre-coated with normal type I collagen (NC) or heat denatured type I collagen (DNC) under standard culture conditions. In separate experiments bSMCs from the 2 substrates were enzymatically released and changed to growth on normal collagen (NC-->NC or DNC-->NC) or denatured collagen (DNC-->DNC or NC-->DNC). At 24 hours proliferation was assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation. Statistical significance in triplicate wells was determined by ANOVA. The proliferation of bSMCs on DNC was 5-fold greater than on NC (p <0.0001). Passage onto damaged collagen (DNC-->DNC) showed 2-fold further augmentation in proliferation (p <0.0001) but only a 50% decrease when NC was reintroduced (DNC-->NC) (p <0.001). Conversely replating on NC (NC-->NC) generated a 33% decrease in the already low proliferation rate (p <0.001) but 9-fold stimulation of proliferation when changed to damaged ECM (NC-->DNC) (p <0.0001). The mitogenic effect of damaged ECM on bSMC growth was abolished by specific inhibition of extracellular regulated kinase mitogen activated protein kinase signaling using PD98059. Damaged type I collagen (ECM) is mitogenic to bSMCs. The response is amplified by re-exposure to DNC. However, mitogenicity is only partially reversible by re-introducing NC. These results demonstrate striking bSMC responsiveness to ECM conformation. Signaling through the extracellular regulated kinase mitogen activated protein kinase pathway supports bSMC-ECM interaction. We speculate that remodeling the ECM in vivo may regulate bSMC growth.

  4. Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells Are Dependent on Self-collagen, Cleaved by Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase for Their Growth

    PubMed Central

    Birukawa, Naoko Kubo; Murase, Kazuyuki; Sato, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akemi; Yoneda, Akihiro; Nishita, Hiroki; Fujita, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Miyuki; Ninomiya, Takafumi; Kajiwara, Keiko; Miyazaki, Miyono; Nakashima, Yusuke; Ota, Sigenori; Murakami, Yuya; Tanaka, Yasunobu; Minomi, Kenjiro; Tamura, Yasuaki; Niitsu, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    Stellate cells are distributed throughout organs, where, upon chronic damage, they become activated and proliferate to secrete collagen, which results in organ fibrosis. An intriguing property of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is that they undergo apoptosis when collagen is resolved by stopping tissue damage or by treatment, even though the mechanisms are unknown. Here we disclose the fact that HSCs, normal diploid cells, acquired dependence on collagen for their growth during the transition from quiescent to active states. The intramolecular RGD motifs of collagen were exposed by cleavage with their own membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). The following evidence supports this conclusion. When rat activated HSCs (aHSCs) were transduced with siRNA against the collagen-specific chaperone gp46 to inhibit collagen secretion, the cells underwent autophagy followed by apoptosis. Concomitantly, the growth of aHSCs was suppressed, whereas that of quiescent HSCs was not. These in vitro results are compatible with the in vivo observation that apoptosis of aHSCs was induced in cirrhotic livers of rats treated with siRNAgp46. siRNA against MT1-MMP and addition of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), which mainly inhibits MT1-MMP, also significantly suppressed the growth of aHSCs in vitro. The RGD inhibitors echistatin and GRGDS peptide and siRNA against the RGD receptor αVβ1 resulted in the inhibition of aHSCs growth. Transduction of siRNAs against gp46, αVβ1, and MT1-MMP to aHSCs inhibited the survival signal of PI3K/AKT/IκB. These results could provide novel antifibrosis strategies. PMID:24867951

  5. Activated hepatic stellate cells are dependent on self-collagen, cleaved by membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase for their growth.

    PubMed

    Birukawa, Naoko Kubo; Murase, Kazuyuki; Sato, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akemi; Yoneda, Akihiro; Nishita, Hiroki; Fujita, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Miyuki; Ninomiya, Takafumi; Kajiwara, Keiko; Miyazaki, Miyono; Nakashima, Yusuke; Ota, Sigenori; Murakami, Yuya; Tanaka, Yasunobu; Minomi, Kenjiro; Tamura, Yasuaki; Niitsu, Yoshiro

    2014-07-18

    Stellate cells are distributed throughout organs, where, upon chronic damage, they become activated and proliferate to secrete collagen, which results in organ fibrosis. An intriguing property of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is that they undergo apoptosis when collagen is resolved by stopping tissue damage or by treatment, even though the mechanisms are unknown. Here we disclose the fact that HSCs, normal diploid cells, acquired dependence on collagen for their growth during the transition from quiescent to active states. The intramolecular RGD motifs of collagen were exposed by cleavage with their own membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). The following evidence supports this conclusion. When rat activated HSCs (aHSCs) were transduced with siRNA against the collagen-specific chaperone gp46 to inhibit collagen secretion, the cells underwent autophagy followed by apoptosis. Concomitantly, the growth of aHSCs was suppressed, whereas that of quiescent HSCs was not. These in vitro results are compatible with the in vivo observation that apoptosis of aHSCs was induced in cirrhotic livers of rats treated with siRNAgp46. siRNA against MT1-MMP and addition of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), which mainly inhibits MT1-MMP, also significantly suppressed the growth of aHSCs in vitro. The RGD inhibitors echistatin and GRGDS peptide and siRNA against the RGD receptor αVβ1 resulted in the inhibition of aHSCs growth. Transduction of siRNAs against gp46, αVβ1, and MT1-MMP to aHSCs inhibited the survival signal of PI3K/AKT/IκB. These results could provide novel antifibrosis strategies. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni occurs beyond limits of growth.

    PubMed

    Vegge, Christina S; Brøndsted, Lone; Ligowska-Marzęta, Małgorzata; Ingmer, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency of transformation is correlated to the growth conditions, but more importantly that transformation occurs at growth-restrictive conditions as well as in the late stationary phase; hence revealing that growth per se is not required for C. jejuni to be competent. Yet, natural transformation of C. jejuni is an energy dependent process, that occurs in the absence of transcription but requires an active translational machinery. Moreover, we show the ATP dependent ClpP protease to be important for transformation, which possibly could be associated with reduced protein glycosylation in the ClpP mutant. In contrast, competence of C. jejuni was neither found to be involved in DNA repair following DNA damage nor to provide a growth benefit. Kinetic studies revealed that several transformation events occur per cell cycle indicating that natural transformation of C. jejuni is a highly efficient process. Thus, our findings suggest that horizontal gene transfer by natural transformation takes place in various habitats occupied by C. jejuni.

  7. Natural Transformation of Campylobacter jejuni Occurs Beyond Limits of Growth

    PubMed Central

    Vegge, Christina S.; Brøndsted, Lone; Ligowska-Marzęta, Małgorzata; Ingmer, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency of transformation is correlated to the growth conditions, but more importantly that transformation occurs at growth-restrictive conditions as well as in the late stationary phase; hence revealing that growth per se is not required for C. jejuni to be competent. Yet, natural transformation of C. jejuni is an energy dependent process, that occurs in the absence of transcription but requires an active translational machinery. Moreover, we show the ATP dependent ClpP protease to be important for transformation, which possibly could be associated with reduced protein glycosylation in the ClpP mutant. In contrast, competence of C. jejuni was neither found to be involved in DNA repair following DNA damage nor to provide a growth benefit. Kinetic studies revealed that several transformation events occur per cell cycle indicating that natural transformation of C. jejuni is a highly efficient process. Thus, our findings suggest that horizontal gene transfer by natural transformation takes place in various habitats occupied by C. jejuni. PMID:23049803

  8. Heparin/collagen encapsulating nerve growth factor multilayers coated aligned PLLA nanofibrous scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kuihua; Huang, Dianwu; Yan, Zhiyong; Wang, Chunyang

    2017-07-01

    Biomimicing topological structure of natural nerve tissue to direct axon growth and controlling sustained release of moderate neurotrophic factors are extremely propitious to the functional recovery of damaged nervous systems. In this study, the heparin/collagen encapsulating nerve growth factor (NGF) multilayers were coated onto the aligned poly-L-lactide (PLLA) nanofibrous scaffolds via a layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique to combine biomolecular signals, and physical guidance cues for peripheral nerve regeneration. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) revealed that the surface of aligned PLLA nanofibrous scaffolds coated with heparin/collagen multilayers became rougher and appeared some net-like filaments and protuberances in comparison with PLLA nanofibrous scaffolds. The heparin/collagen multilayers did not destroy the alignment of nanofibers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angles displayed that heparin and collagen were successfully coated onto the aligned PLLA nanofibrous scaffolds and improved its hydrophilicity. Three-dimensional (3 D) confocal microscopy images further demonstrated that collagen, heparin, and NGF were not only coated onto the surface of aligned PLLA nanofibrous scaffolds but also permeated into the inner of scaffolds. Moreover, NGF presented a sustained release for 2 weeks from aligned nanofibrous scaffolds coated with 5.5 bilayers or above and remained good bioactivity. The heparin/collagen encapsulating NGF multilayers coated aligned nanofibrous scaffolds, in particular 5.5 bilayers or above, was more beneficial to Schwann cells (SCs) proliferation and PC12 cells differentiation as well as the SC cytoskeleton and neurite growth along the direction of nanofibrous alignment compared to the aligned PLLA nanofibrous scaffolds. This novel scaffolds combining sustained release of bioactive NGF and aligned nanofibrous topography presented an excellent potential in peripheral nerve regeneration. © 2016 Wiley

  9. Type I collagen aging impairs discoidin domain receptor 2-mediated tumor cell growth suppression

    PubMed Central

    Saby, Charles; Buache, Emilie; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie; El Btaouri, Hassan; Courageot, Marie-Pierre; Van Gulick, Laurence; Garnotel, Roselyne; Jeannesson, Pierre; Morjani, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells are confronted to a type I collagen rich environment which regulates cell proliferation and invasion. Biological aging has been associated with structural changes of type I collagen. Here, we address the effect of collagen aging on cell proliferation in a three-dimensional context (3D). We provide evidence for an inhibitory effect of adult collagen, but not of the old one, on proliferation of human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. This effect involves both the activation of the tyrosine kinase Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2) and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. DDR2 and SHP-2 were less activated in old collagen. DDR2 inhibition decreased SHP-2 phosphorylation in adult collagen and increased cell proliferation to a level similar to that observed in old collagen. In the presence of old collagen, a high level of JAK2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed while expression of the cell cycle negative regulator p21CIP1 was decreased. Inhibition of DDR2 kinase function also led to an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and a decrease in p21CIP1 expression. Similar signaling profile was observed when DDR2 was inhibited in adult collagen. Altogether, these data suggest that biological collagen aging could increase tumor cell proliferation by reducingthe activation of the key matrix sensor DDR2. PMID:27121132

  10. Type I collagen aging impairs discoidin domain receptor 2-mediated tumor cell growth suppression.

    PubMed

    Saby, Charles; Buache, Emilie; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie; El Btaouri, Hassan; Courageot, Marie-Pierre; Van Gulick, Laurence; Garnotel, Roselyne; Jeannesson, Pierre; Morjani, Hamid

    2016-05-03

    Tumor cells are confronted to a type I collagen rich environment which regulates cell proliferation and invasion. Biological aging has been associated with structural changes of type I collagen. Here, we address the effect of collagen aging on cell proliferation in a three-dimensional context (3D).We provide evidence for an inhibitory effect of adult collagen, but not of the old one, on proliferation of human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. This effect involves both the activation of the tyrosine kinase Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2) and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. DDR2 and SHP-2 were less activated in old collagen. DDR2 inhibition decreased SHP-2 phosphorylation in adult collagen and increased cell proliferation to a level similar to that observed in old collagen.In the presence of old collagen, a high level of JAK2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed while expression of the cell cycle negative regulator p21CIP1 was decreased. Inhibition of DDR2 kinase function also led to an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and a decrease in p21CIP1 expression. Similar signaling profile was observed when DDR2 was inhibited in adult collagen. Altogether, these data suggest that biological collagen aging could increase tumor cell proliferation by reducingthe activation of the key matrix sensor DDR2.

  11. A Histologically Distinctive Interstitial Pneumonia Induced by Overexpression of the Interleukin 6, Transforming Growth Factor β1, or Platelet-Derived Growth Factor B Gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Sakuma, Junko; Hayashi, Seiji; Abe, Kin'ya; Saito, Izumu; Harada, Shizuko; Sakatani, Mitsunoir; Yamamoto, Satoru; Matsumoto, Norinao; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Kishmoto, Tadamitsu

    1995-10-01

    Interstitial pneumonia is characterized by alveolitis with resulting fibrosis of the interstitium. To determine the relevance of humoral factors in the pathogenesis of interstitial pneumonia, we introduced expression vectors into Wistar rats via the trachea to locally overexpress humoral factors in the lungs. Human interleukin (IL) 6 and IL-6 receptor genes induced lymphocytic alveolitis without marked fibroblast proliferation. In contrast, overexpression of human transforming growth factor β1 or human platelet-derived growth factor B gene induced only mild or apparent cellular infiltration in the alveoli, respectively. However, both factors induced significant proliferation of fibroblasts and deposition of collagen fibrils. These histopathologic changes induced by the transforming growth factor β1 and platelet-derived growth factor B gene are partly akin to those changes seen in lung tissues from patients with pulmonary fibrosis and markedly contrast with the changes induced by overexpression of the IL-6 and IL-6 receptor genes that mimics lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia.

  12. Changes in collagen fibril network organization and proteoglycan distribution in equine articular cartilage during maturation and growth

    PubMed Central

    Hyttinen, Mika M; Holopainen, Jaakko; René van Weeren, P; Firth, Elwyn C; Helminen, Heikki J; Brama, Pieter A J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to record growth-related changes in collagen network organization and proteoglycan distribution in intermittently peak-loaded and continuously lower-level-loaded articular cartilage. Cartilage from the proximal phalangeal bone of the equine metacarpophalangeal joint at birth, at 5, 11 and 18 months, and at 6–10 years of age was collected from two sites. Site 1, at the joint margin, is unloaded at slow gaits but is subjected to high-intensity loading during athletic activity; site 2 is a continuously but less intensively loaded site in the centre of the joint. The degree of collagen parallelism was determined with quantitative polarized light microscopy and the parallelism index for collagen fibrils was computed from the cartilage surface to the osteochondral junction. Concurrent changes in the proteoglycan distribution were quantified with digital densitometry. We found that the parallelism index increased significantly with age (up to 90%). At birth, site 2 exhibited a more organized collagen network than site 1. In adult horses this situation was reversed. The superficial and intermediate zones exhibited the greatest reorganization of collagen. Site 1 had a higher proteoglycan content than site 2 at birth but here too the situation was reversed in adult horses. We conclude that large changes in joint loading during growth and maturation in the period from birth to adulthood profoundly affect the architecture of the collagen network in equine cartilage. In addition, the distribution and content of proteoglycans are modified significantly by altered joint use. Intermittent peak-loading with shear seems to induce higher collagen parallelism and a lower proteoglycan content in cartilage than more constant weight-bearing. Therefore, we hypothesize that the formation of mature articular cartilage with a highly parallel collagen network and relatively low proteoglycan content in the peak-loaded area of a joint is needed to withstand

  13. Construction of multifunctional proteins for tissue engineering: epidermal growth factor with collagen binding and cell adhesive activities.

    PubMed

    Hannachi Imen, Elloumi; Nakamura, Makiko; Mie, Masayasu; Kobatake, Eiry

    2009-01-01

    The development of different techniques based on natural and polymeric scaffolds are useful for the design of different biomimetic materials. These approaches, however, require supplementary steps for the chemical or physical modification of the biomaterial. To avoid such steps, in the present study, we constructed a new multifunctional protein that can be easily immobilized onto hydrophobic surfaces, and at the same time helps enhance specific cell adhesion and proliferation onto collagen substrates. A collagen binding domain was fused to a previously constructed protein, which had an epidermal growth factor fused to a hydrophobic peptide that allows for cell adhesion. The new fusion protein, designated fnCBD-ERE-EGF is produced in Escherichia coli, and its abilities to bind to collagen and promote cell proliferation were investigated. fnCBD-ERE-EGF was shown to keep both collagen binding and cell growth-promoting activities comparable to those of the corresponding unfused proteins. The results obtained in this study also suggest the use of a fnCBD-ERE-EGF as an alternative for the design of multifunctional ECM-bound growth factor based materials.

  14. Connective tissue growth factor dependent collagen gene expression induced by MAS agonist AR234960 in human cardiac fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Arunachal; Barnard, John; Moravec, Christine; Desnoyer, Russell; Tirupula, Kalyan

    2017-01-01

    Perspectives on whether the functions of MAS, a G protein-coupled receptor, are beneficial or deleterious in the heart remain controversial. MAS gene knockout reduces coronary vasodilatation leading to ischemic injury. G protein signaling activated by MAS has been implicated in progression of adaptive cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure and fibrosis. In the present study, we observed increased expression of MAS, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and collagen genes in failing (HF) human heart samples when compared to non-failing (NF). Expression levels of MAS are correlated with CTGF in HF and NF leading to our hypothesis that MAS controls CTGF production and the ensuing expression of collagen genes. In support of this hypothesis we show that the non-peptide MAS agonist AR234960 increases both mRNA and protein levels of CTGF via ERK1/2 signaling in HEK293-MAS cells and adult human cardiac fibroblasts. MAS-mediated CTGF expression can be specifically blocked by MAS inverse agonist AR244555 and also by MEK1 inhibition. Expression of CTGF gene was essential for MAS-mediated up-regulation of different collagen subtype genes in HEK293-MAS cells and human cardiac fibroblasts. Knockdown of CTGF by RNAi disrupted collagen gene regulation by the MAS-agonist. Our data indicate that CTGF mediates the profibrotic effects of MAS in cardiac fibroblasts. Blocking MAS-CTGF-collagen pathway should be considered for pharmacological intervention for HF. PMID:29287092

  15. Connective tissue growth factor dependent collagen gene expression induced by MAS agonist AR234960 in human cardiac fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Arunachal; Barnard, John; Moravec, Christine; Desnoyer, Russell; Tirupula, Kalyan; Karnik, Sadashiva S

    2017-01-01

    Perspectives on whether the functions of MAS, a G protein-coupled receptor, are beneficial or deleterious in the heart remain controversial. MAS gene knockout reduces coronary vasodilatation leading to ischemic injury. G protein signaling activated by MAS has been implicated in progression of adaptive cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure and fibrosis. In the present study, we observed increased expression of MAS, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and collagen genes in failing (HF) human heart samples when compared to non-failing (NF). Expression levels of MAS are correlated with CTGF in HF and NF leading to our hypothesis that MAS controls CTGF production and the ensuing expression of collagen genes. In support of this hypothesis we show that the non-peptide MAS agonist AR234960 increases both mRNA and protein levels of CTGF via ERK1/2 signaling in HEK293-MAS cells and adult human cardiac fibroblasts. MAS-mediated CTGF expression can be specifically blocked by MAS inverse agonist AR244555 and also by MEK1 inhibition. Expression of CTGF gene was essential for MAS-mediated up-regulation of different collagen subtype genes in HEK293-MAS cells and human cardiac fibroblasts. Knockdown of CTGF by RNAi disrupted collagen gene regulation by the MAS-agonist. Our data indicate that CTGF mediates the profibrotic effects of MAS in cardiac fibroblasts. Blocking MAS-CTGF-collagen pathway should be considered for pharmacological intervention for HF.

  16. Effect of platelet-released growth factors and collagen type I on osseous regeneration of mandibular defects. A pilot study in minipigs.

    PubMed

    Fuerst, Gabor; Reinhard, Gruber; Tangl, Stefan; Mittlböck, Martina; Sanroman, Fidel; Watzek, Georg

    2004-09-01

    To study the effects of platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) and collagen type I on bone defect healing in minipig mandibles. In eight adult minipigs defects were trephined in the facial mandibular wall from extra-oral and filled with collagen+PRGF or with collagen alone. Control defects were left untreated. PRGF were defined as the supernatants obtained after centrifugation of washed, thrombin-activated allogenic cells of platelet-rich plasma. The animals were sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks. For histological analysis, undecalcified ground specimens stained with the Levai-Laczko stain were used. For the entire follow-up, the amount of newly formed bone was 35.49 +/- 3.84% in the collagen+PRGF group, 46.34 +/- 3.84% in the collagen-only group and 33.83 +/- 4.11% in the controls. The differences between the collagen+PRGF and the collagen-only group (p = 0.0343), and between the collagen-only group and the controls (p = 0.0305) were significant. Histologically, defects filled with collagen+PRGF showed inflammatory reactions at 4 weeks, and new bone formation near the remnants of the filler collagen was reduced. The data suggest that collagen type I alone, but not its combination with PRGF can support the early stages of cortical bone repair.

  17. Role of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF) beta in the physiopathology of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo-Gil, Elena; Galindo-Izquierdo, María

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a cytokine with pleiotropic functions in hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. Although its role in rheumatoid arthritis is not well defined, TGF-β activation leads to functional immunomodulatory effects according to environmental conditions. The function of TGF-β in the development of arthritis in murine models has been extensively studied with controversial results. Recent findings point to a non-relevant role for TGF-β in a mice model of collagen-induced arthritis. The study of TGF-β on T-cell responses has shown controversial results as an inhibitor or promoter of the inflammatory response. This paper presents a review of the role of TGF-β in animal models of arthritis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Endothelial cell transforming growth factor-β receptor activation causes tacrolimus-induced renal arteriolar hyalinosis.

    PubMed

    Chiasson, Valorie L; Jones, Kathleen A; Kopriva, Shelley E; Mahajan, Ashutosh; Young, Kristina J; Mitchell, Brett M

    2012-10-01

    Arteriolar hyalinosis is a common histological finding in renal transplant recipients treated with the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus; however, the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. In addition to increasing transforming growth factor (TGF)-β levels, tacrolimus inhibits calcineurin by binding to FK506-binding protein 12 (FKBP12). FKBP12 alone also inhibits TGF-β receptor activation. Here we tested whether tacrolimus binding to FKBP12 removes an inhibition of the TGF-β receptor, allowing ligand binding, ultimately leading to receptor activation and arteriolar hyalinosis. We found that specific deletion of FKBP12 from endothelial cells was sufficient to activate endothelial TGF-β receptors and induce renal arteriolar hyalinosis in these knockout mice, similar to that induced by tacrolimus. Tacrolimus-treated and knockout mice exhibited significantly increased levels of aortic TGF-β receptor activation as evidenced by SMAD2/3 phosphorylation, along with increased collagen and fibronectin expression compared to controls. Treatment of isolated mouse aortas with tacrolimus increased TGF-β receptor activation and collagen and fibronectin expression. These effects were independent of calcineurin, absent in endothelial denuded aortic rings, and could be prevented by the small molecule TGF-β receptor inhibitor SB-505124. Thus, endothelial cell TGF-β receptor activation is sufficient to cause vascular remodeling and renal arteriolar hyalinosis.

  19. Early alterations in extracellular matrix and transforming growth factor [beta] gene expression in mouse lung indicative of late radiation fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, J.N.; Johnston, C.J.; Baggs, R.

    1994-02-01

    Fibrosis, characterized by the accumulation of collagen, is a late result of thoracic irradiation. The expression of late radiation injury can be found immediately after irradiation by measuring messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance. To determine if extracellular matrix mRNA and transforming growth factor beta abundance was affected acutely after irradiation, the authors measured mRNA levels of collagen I (CI), collagen III (CIII), collagen IV (CIV), fibronectin (FN), and transforming growth factor [beta] (TGF[beta][sub 1,2 3]) in mouse lungs on day 1 and day 14 after graded doses of radiation. C57BL/6 female mice were irradiated with a single dose to the thoraxmore » of 5 or 12.5 Gy. Total lung RNA was prepared and immobilized by Northern and slot blotting and hybridized with radiolabelled cDNA probes for CI, CIII, CIV, FN, TGF[beta][sub 1,2 3] and a control probe encoding for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Autoradiographic data were quantified by video densitometry and results normalized to GAPDH. Changes in the expression of CI, CIII, CIV, FN and TGF[beta][sub 1,2 3] were observed as early as 1 day after exposure. Through 14 days, changes in mRNA up to 5-fold were seen for any one dose. Dose related changes as high as 10-fold were also evident. The CI:CIII ratio increased gradually for the 5 Gy dose at 14 days postirradiation while the CI:CII ratio for the 12.5 Gy dose decreased by approximately 4-fold as compared to the control. These studies suggest that alterations in expression of extracellular matrix and TGF[beta] mRNA occur very early after radiation injury even at low doses and may play a role in the development of chronic fibrosis. 37 refs., 6 figs.« less

  20. Effects of transforming growth factor-beta1 and vascular endothelial growth factor 165 gene transfer on Achilles tendon healing.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yu; Mao, ZeBin; Wei, XueLei; Lin, Lin; Chen, LianXu; Wang, HaiJun; Fu, Xin; Zhang, JiYing; Yu, Changlong

    2009-07-01

    Repaired Achilles tendons typically take weeks before they are strong enough to handle physiological loads. Gene therapy is a promising treatment for Achilles tendon defects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the histological/biomechanical effects of Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF(165)) gene transfer on Achilles tendon healing in rabbits. Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMSCs) were transduced with adenovirus carrying human TGF-beta1 cDNA (Ad-TGF-beta1), human VEGF(165) cDNA (Ad-VEGF(165)), or both (PIRES-TGF-beta1/VEGF(165)) Viruses, no cDNA (Ad-GFP), and the BMSCs without gene transfer and the intact tendon were used as control. BMSCs were surgically implanted into the experimentally injured Achilles tendons. TGF-beta1 distribution, cellularity, nuclear aspect ratio, nuclear orientation angle, vascular number, collagen synthesis, and biomechanical features were measured at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery. The TGF-beta1 and TGF beta 1/VEGF(165) co-expression groups exhibited improved parameters compared with other groups, while the VEGF(165) expression group had a negative impact. In the co-expression group, the angiogenesis effects of VEGF(165) were diminished by TGF-beta1, while the collagen synthesis effects of TGF-beta1 were unaltered by VEGF(165). Thus treatment with TGF-beta1 cDNA-transduced BMSCs grafts is a promising therapy for acceleration and improvement of tendon healing, leading to quicker recovery and improved biomechanical properties of Achilles tendons.

  1. Identification and Evaluation of Cryoprotective Peptides from Chicken Collagen: Ice-Growth Inhibition Activity Compared to That of Type I Antifreeze Proteins in Sucrose Model Systems.

    PubMed

    Du, Lihui; Betti, Mirko

    2016-06-29

    The ability of chicken collagen peptides to inhibit the growth of ice crystals was evaluated and compared to that of fish antifreeze proteins (AFPs). This ice inhibition activity was assessed using a polarized microscope by measuring ice crystal dimensions in a sucrose model system with and without collagen peptides after seven thermal cycles. The system was stabilized at -25 °C and cycled between -16 and -12 °C. Five candidate peptides with ice inhibition activity were identified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry and were then synthesized. Their ice inhibition capacity was compared to that of type I AFPs in a 23% sucrose model system. Specific collagen peptides with certain amino acid sequences reduced the extent of ice growth by approximately 70% at a relatively low concentration (1 mg/mL). These results suggest that specific collagen peptides may act in a noncolligative manner, inhibiting ice crystal growth like type I AFPs, but less efficiently.

  2. Fibroblast contractility and growth in plastic compressed collagen gel scaffolds with microstructures correlated with hydraulic permeability.

    PubMed

    Serpooshan, Vahid; Muja, Naser; Marelli, Benedetto; Nazhat, Showan N

    2011-03-15

    Scaffold microstructure is hypothesized to influence physical and mechanical properties of collagen gels, as well as cell function within the matrix. Plastic compression under increasing load was conducted to produce scaffolds with increasing collagen fibrillar densities ranging from 0.3 to above 4.1 wt % with corresponding hydraulic permeability (k) values that ranged from 1.05 to 0.03 μm², as determined using the Happel model. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that increasing the level of collagen gel compression yielded a concomitant reduction in pore size distribution and a slight increase in average fibril bundle diameter. Decreasing k delayed the onset of contraction and significantly reduced both the total extent and the maximum rate of contraction induced by NIH3T3 fibroblasts seeded at a density of either 6.0 x 10⁴ or 1.5 x 10⁵ cells mL⁻¹. At the higher cell density, however, the effect of k reduction on collagen gel contraction was overcome by an accelerated onset of contraction which led to an increase in both the total extent and the maximum rate of contraction. AlamarBlue™ measurements indicated that the metabolic activity of fibroblasts within collagen gels increased as k decreased. Moreover, increasing seeded cell density from 2.0 x 10⁴ to 1.5 x 10⁵ cells mL⁻¹ significantly increased NIH3T3 proliferation. In conclusion, fibroblast-matrix interactions can be optimized by defining the microstructural properties of collagen scaffolds through k adjustment which in turn, is dependent on the cell seeding density. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Collagen and Stretch Modulate Autocrine Secretion of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins from Differentiated Skeletal Muscle Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrone, Carmen E.; Fenwick-Smith, Daniela; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1995-01-01

    Stretch-induced skeletal muscle growth may involve increased autocrine secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) since IGF-1 is a potent growth factor for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and stretch elevates IGF-1 mRNA levels in vivo. In tissue cultures of differentiated avian pectoralis skeletal muscle cells, nanomolar concentrations of exogenous IGF-1 stimulated growth in mechanically stretched but not static cultures. These cultures released up to 100 pg of endogenously produced IGF-1/micro-g of protein/day, as well as three major IGF binding proteins of 31, 36, and 43 kilodaltons (kDa). IGF-1 was secreted from both myofibers and fibroblasts coexisting in the muscle cultures. Repetitive stretch/relaxation of the differentiated skeletal muscle cells stimulated the acute release of IGF-1 during the first 4 h after initiating mechanical activity, but caused no increase in the long-term secretion over 24-72 h of IGF-1, or its binding proteins. Varying the intensity and frequency of stretch had no effect on the long-term efflux of IGF-1. In contrast to stretch, embedding the differentiated muscle cells in a three-dimensional collagen (Type I) matrix resulted in a 2-5-fold increase in long-term IGF-1 efflux over 24-72 h. Collagen also caused a 2-5-fold increase in the release of the IGF binding proteins. Thus, both the extracellular matrix protein type I collagen and stretch stimulate the autocrine secretion of IGF-1, but with different time kinetics. This endogenously produced growth factor may be important for the growth response of skeletal myofibers to both types of external stimuli.

  4. Effect of transforming growth factor-beta1 on decorin expression and muscle morphology during chicken embryonic and posthatch growth and development.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Velleman, S G

    2009-02-01

    During skeletal muscle development, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a potent inhibitor of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as a regulator of extracellular matrix (ECM) production. Decorin, a member of the small leucine-rich ECM proteoglycans, binds to TGF-beta1 and modulates TGF-beta1-dependent cell growth stimulation or inhibition. The expression of decorin can be regulated by TGF-beta1 during muscle proliferation and differentiation. How TGF-beta1 affects decorin and muscle growth, however, has not been well documented in vivo. The present study investigated the effect of TGF-beta1 on decorin expression and intracellular connective tissue development during skeletal muscle growth. Exogenous TGF-beta1 significantly decreased the number of myofibers in a given area at both 1 d and 6 wk posthatch. The TGF-beta1-treated muscle had a significant decrease in decorin mRNA expression at embryonic day (ED) 10, whereas protein amounts decreased at 17 ED and 1 d posthatch compared to the control muscle. Decorin was localized in both the endomysium and perimysium in the control pectoralis major muscle. Transforming growth factor-beta1 reduced decorin in both the endomysium and perimysium from 17 ED to 6 wk posthatch. Compared to the control muscle, the perimysium space in the pectoralis major muscle was dramatically decreased by TGF-beta1 during embryonic development through posthatch growth. Because decorin regulates collagen fibrillogenesis, a major component of the ECM, the reduction of decorin by TGF-beta1 treatment may cause the irregular formation of collagen fibrils, leading to the decrease in endomysium and perimysium space. The results from the current study suggest that the effect of TGF-beta1 on decorin expression and localization was likely associated with altered development of the perimysium and the regulation of muscle fiber development.

  5. Mediation of Transforming Growth Factor-β1-Stimulated Matrix Contraction by Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Julie T.; Schultz, Gregory S.; Blalock, Timothy D.; Garrett, Qian; Grotendorst, Gary R.; Dean, Nicholas M.; Khaw, Peng T.

    2003-01-01

    Excessive cell-mediated tissue contraction after injury can lead to morbid contractile scarring in the body. In the eye this can cause blindness because of posterior capsule opacification, proliferative vitroretinopathy, failure of glaucoma filtration surgery, and corneal haze. During repair, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) genes are co-ordinately expressed. Although TGF-β and CTGF stimulate new matrix deposition, their role and regulation during contractile scarring is unknown. In this study, an in vitro model of collagen matrix contraction culminating from tractional forces generated by fibroblasts showed that both TGF-β1 and CTGF-stimulated contraction. Using a specific anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotide to CTGF the procontractile activity of TGF-β1 was found to be mediated by CTGF. During contraction fibroblasts produced similar levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and -9 with TGF-β1 or CTGF and a modest increase in MMP-1 with CTGF only (indicated by zymography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The requirement of MMPs for contraction was demonstrated using a broad-spectrum synthetic inhibitor. This study demonstrates a new function for CTGF in mediating matrix contraction by fibroblasts involving MMPs and suggests a novel regulatory mechanism for TGF-β-stimulated contraction. Inhibition of CTGF activity or gene transcription could be a suitable target for anti-scarring therapies. PMID:14578203

  6. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    DOE PAGES

    Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena

    2014-11-15

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm² due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stablemore » growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.« less

  7. Colloidal Gold--Collagen Protein Core--Shell Nanoconjugate: One-Step Biomimetic Synthesis, Layer-by-Layer Assembled Film, and Controlled Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ruirui; Jiao, Tifeng; Yan, Linyin; Ma, Guanghui; Liu, Lei; Dai, Luru; Li, Junbai; Möhwald, Helmuth; Yan, Xuehai

    2015-11-11

    The biogenic synthesis of biomolecule-gold nanoconjugates is of key importance for a broad range of biomedical applications. In this work, a one-step, green, and condition-gentle strategy is presented to synthesize stable colloidal gold-collagen core-shell nanoconjugates in an aqueous solution at room temperature, without use of any reducing agents and stabilizing agents. It is discovered that electrostatic binding between gold ions and collagen proteins and concomitant in situ reduction by hydroxyproline residues are critically responsible for the formation of the core-shell nanoconjugates. The film formed by layer-by-layer assembly of such colloidal gold-collagen nanoconjugates can notably improve the mechanical properties and promote cell adhesion, growth, and differentiation. Thus, the colloidal gold-collagen nanoconjugates synthesized by such a straightforward and clean manner, analogous to a biomineralization pathway, provide new alternatives for developing biologically based hybrid biomaterials toward a range of therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  8. Transforming Growth Factor Beta Family in the Pathogenesis of Meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mahlon D

    2017-08-01

    Meningiomas account for 36% of primary brain tumors. The pathogenesis of these tumors is not completely established, hindering development of effective chemotherapy. Numerous studies have identified alterations in several growth factors and receptor kinases that regulate meningioma growth. These may be targets for new therapies. One of these, sometimes overlooked, is the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family of proteins. Its receptors and signaling pathways play a critical role in development or progression of many forms of neoplasia. Evidence suggesting a potential role for TGF-β, bone morphogenetic protein, and their mediators is reviewed. TGF-β inhibition of growth in normal leptomeninges may be lost in neoplasia. Moreover, loss of TGF-β and bone morphogenetic protein signaling components and TGF-β type III receptor likely contribute to the development and/or progression of higher grade meningiomas. Accumulating evidence suggests that derangement of TGF-β family signaling contributes to development and progression of meningiomas. The TGF-β family may represent new targets for chemotherapy and could include inhibitors of kinases activated by TGF-β. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-. alpha. in human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Masaki; Wakai, Kae; Shizume, Kazuo

    1991-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{alpha} and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were measured in human milk by means of homologous radioimmunoassay. As previously reported, EGF concentration in the colostrum was approximately 200 ng/ml and decreased to 50 ng/ml by day 7 postpartum. The value of immunoreactive (IR)-TGF-{alpha} was 2.2-7.2 ng/ml, much lower than that of EGF. In contrast to EGF, the concentration of IR-TGF-{alpha} was fairly stable during the 7 postpartum days. There was no relationship between the concentrations of IR-TGF-{alpha} and IR-EGF, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism in the release of the two growth factors is different. On gel-chromatography using amore » Sephadex G-50 column, IR-EGF appeared in the fraction corresponding to that of authentic human EGF, while 70%-80% of the IR-TGF-{alpha} was eluted as a species with a molecular weight greater than that of authentic human TGF-{alpha}. Although the physiological role of TGF-{alpha} in milk is not known, it is possible that it is involved in the development of the mammary gland and/or the growth of newborn infants.« less

  10. Smad-Independent Transforming Growth Factor-β Regulation of Early Growth Response-1 and Sustained Expression in Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Swati; Chen, Shu-Jen; Wu, Minghua; Warner-Blankenship, Matthew; Ning, Hongyan; Lakos, Gabriella; Mori, Yasuji; Chang, Eric; Nihijima, Chihiro; Takehara, Kazuhiro; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol; Varga, John

    2008-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a key role in scleroderma pathogenesis. The transcription factor early growth response-1 (Egr-1) mediates the stimulation of collagen transcription elicited by TGF-β and is necessary for the development of pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Here, we report that TGF-β causes a time- and dose-dependent increase in Egr-1 protein and mRNA levels and enhanced transcription of the Egr-1 gene via serum response elements in normal fibroblasts. The ability of TGF-β to stimulate Egr-1 was preserved in Smad3-null mice and in explanted Smad3-null fibroblasts. The response was blocked by a specific mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1) inhibitor but not by an ALK5 kinase inhibitor. Furthermore, MEK1 was phosphorylated by TGF-β, which was sufficient to drive Egr-1 transactivation. Stimulation by TGF-β enhanced the transcriptional activity of Elk-1 via the MEK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway. Bleomycin-induced scleroderma in the mouse was accompanied by increased Egr-1 accumulation in lesional fibroblasts. Furthermore, biopsies of lesional skin and lung from patients with scleroderma showed increased Egr-1 levels, which were highest in early diffuse disease. Moreover, both Egr-1 mRNA and protein were elevated in explanted scleroderma skin fibroblasts in vitro. Together, these findings define a Smad-independent TGF-β signal transduction mechanism that underlies the stimulation of Egr-1, demonstrate for the first time sustained Egr-1 up-regulation in fibrotic lesions and suggests that Egr-1 has a role in the induction and progression of fibrosis. PMID:18772333

  11. Sustained release of human growth hormone (hGH) from collagen film and evaluation of effect on wound healing in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Maeda, M; Kadota, K; Kajihara, M; Sano, A; Fujioka, K

    2001-12-13

    Collagen films containing human growth hormone (hGH) were prepared and the release of hGH from these films and their effect on healing of full-thickness wounds in db/db mice were evaluated. The release profiles of hGH from the collagen films varied with composition and preparation conditions. The film prepared by air-drying of the mixture of hGH and collagen solution released hGH continuously over 3 days both in vitro and in vivo. By application of collagen film containing 3 mg of hGH twice at an interval of 6 days to wounds, area of wounds on day 21 was significantly reduced compared with that of non-treated wounds. Application of hGH alone at the same dose had no significant effect on wound healing. The maximum serum hGH concentration after single administration of the hGH collagen film was lower than that with hGH alone, and hGH persisted in serum over 3 days. These results suggest that hGH collagen film may be a useful topical formulation for the treatment of wounds.

  12. Binding efficiency of recombinant collagen-binding basic fibroblast growth factors (CBD-bFGFs) and their promotion for NIH-3T3 cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenxu; Zhou, Yulai; Chen, Li; Hu, Mingxin; Wang, Yu; Li, Linlong; Wang, Zongliang; Zhang, Peibiao

    2018-03-01

    The recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) containing collagen-binding domain (CBD) has been found to be a potential therapeutic factor in tissue regeneration. However, its binding efficiency and quantification remain uncertain. In this research, massive recombinant bFGFs with good bioactivity for enhancing the proliferation of NIH-3T3 cells were achieved. An ELISA-based quantitative method was set up to investigate the binding efficiency of CBD-bFGFs on collagen films. It indicated that the CBDs significantly increased the collagen-binding ability of bFGF (P < .05), with the optimum binding condition first determined to be in the pH range of 7.5-9.5 (P < .05). Then, the relevant equations to calculate the binding density of bFGF, C-bFGF, and V-bFGF were acquired. Analysis confirmed that the bioactivity of immobilized bFGFs was well correlated with the density of growth factor on collagen films. Based on this research, the density of growth factor is a logical and applicable dosage unit for quantification of binding efficiency of growth factors, rather than traditional concentration of soluble growth factors in tissue engineering applications. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Growth hormone-releasing peptide-biotin conjugate stimulates myocytes differentiation through insulin-like growth factor-1 and collagen type I.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Jin; Jeon, Jung Eun; Jeong, Se Kyoo; Yoon, Seok Jeong; Kwon, Seon Deok; Lim, Jina; Park, Keedon; Kim, Dae Yong; Ahn, Jeong Keun; Kim, Bong-Woo

    2015-09-01

    Based on the potential beneficial effects of growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP)-6 on muscle functions, a newly synthesized GHRP-6-biotin conjugate was tested on cultured myoblast cells. Increased expression of myogenic marker proteins was observed in GHRP-6-biotin conjugate-treated cells. Additionally, increased expression levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 and collagen type I were observed. Furthermore, GHRP-6-biotin conjugate-treated cells showed increased metabolic activity, as indicated by increased concentrations of energy metabolites, such as ATP and lactate, and increased enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase. Finally, binding protein analysis suggested few candidate proteins, including desmin, actin, and zinc finger protein 691 as potential targets for GHRP6-biotin conjugate action. These results suggest that the newly synthesized GHRP-6-biotin conjugate has myogenic stimulating activity through, at least in part, by stimulating collagen type I synthesis and several key proteins. Practical applications of the GHRP-6-biotin conjugate could include improving muscle condition.

  14. Alignment of Astrocytes Increases Neuronal Growth in Three-Dimensional Collagen Gels and Is Maintained Following Plastic Compression to Form a Spinal Cord Repair Conduit

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Daniela Blum; Golding, Jon P.; Phillips, James B.

    2010-01-01

    After injury to the spinal cord, reactive astrocytes form a glial scar consisting of highly ramified cell processes that constitute a major impediment to repair, partly due to their lack of orientation and guidance for regenerating axons. In some nonmammalian vertebrates, successful central nervous system regeneration is attributed to the alignment of reactive glia, which guide axons across the lesion site. Here, a three-dimensional mammalian cell-seeded collagen gel culture system was used to explore the effect of astrocyte alignment on neuronal growth. Astrocyte alignment was mapped within tethered rectangular gels and was significantly greater at the edge and middle of the gels compared to the control unaligned regions. When neurons were seeded on and within astrocyte gels, neurite length was greatest in the areas of astrocyte alignment. There was no difference in expression of astrocyte reactivity markers between aligned and control areas. Having established the potential utility of astrocyte alignment, the aligned gels were plastic compressed, transforming them into mechanically robust implantable devices. After compression, astrocytes remained viable and aligned and supported neurite outgrowth, yielding a novel method for assembling aligned cellular constructs suitable for tissue engineering and highlighting the importance of astrocyte alignment as a possible future therapeutic intervention for spinal cord repair. PMID:20649441

  15. Transforming growth factor-beta and Forkhead box O transcription factors as cardiac fibroblast regulators.

    PubMed

    Norambuena-Soto, Ignacio; Núñez-Soto, Constanza; Sanhueza-Olivares, Fernanda; Cancino-Arenas, Nicole; Mondaca-Ruff, David; Vivar, Raul; Díaz-Araya, Guillermo; Mellado, Rosemarie; Chiong, Mario

    2017-05-23

    Fibroblasts play several homeostatic roles, including electrical coupling, paracrine signaling and tissue repair after injury. Fibroblasts have low secretory activity. However, in response to injury, they differentiate to myofibroblasts. These cells have an increased extracellular matrix synthesis and secretion, including collagen fibers, providing stiffness to the tissue. In pathological conditions myofibroblasts became resistant to apoptosis, remaining in the tissue, causing excessive extracellular matrix secretion and deposition, which contributes to the progressive tissue remodeling. Therefore, increased myofibroblast content within damaged tissue is a characteristic hallmark of heart, lung, kidney and liver fibrosis. Recently, it was described that cardiac fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation is triggered by the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) through a Smad-independent activation of Forkhead box O (FoxO). FoxO proteins are a transcription factor family that includes FoxO1, FoxO3, FoxO4 and FoxO6. In several cells types, they play an important role in cell cycle arrest, oxidative stress resistance, cell survival, energy metabolism, and cell death. Here, we review the role of FoxO family members on the regulation of cardiac fibroblast proliferation and differentiation.

  16. [Advances of transforming growth factor-β inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiao-xiong; Zhou, Qi-fan; Chen, Guo-liang

    2015-04-01

    Transforming growth factor-β is an important cytokine with various bioactivities, including embryonic development, wound healing, chemotaxis and cell cycle regulation. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the main pathway of tumor cell to obtain the ability of invasion and metastasis. The TGF-β is the key factor known to induce EMT in cancer cells and plays an important role in the process. In recent years, some progress has been obtained. Some TGF-β inhibitors have approved in the market or in clinical trials. TGF-β inhibitors can play an important role on the treatment of tumors, glaucoma, liver and kidney fibrosis disease and scar repair. Novel TGF-β inhibitors reported in recent years were reviewed in this article.

  17. Growth and phase transformations of Ir on Ge(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullet, C. H.; Stenger, B. H.; Durand, A. M.; Morad, J. A.; Sato, Y.; Poppenheimer, E. C.; Chiang, S.

    2017-12-01

    The growth of Ir on Ge(111) as a function of temperature between 23 °C and 820 °C is characterized with low energy electron microscopy (LEEM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Deposition onto a substrate at 350 °C revealed a novel growth mode consisting of multilayer Ir islands with (√3 × √3)R30° (abbreviated as √3) structure interconnected by ;bridges; of single-layer Ir several atoms wide. For deposition onto substrates above 500 °C, the √3 Ir phase grows with dendritic morphology, and substrate step bunches act as barriers to √3 Ir growth. LEEM images showed Stranski-Krastanov growth for 650-820 °C: after the √3 phase covers the surface, corresponding to 2 monolayers (ML) Ir coverage, multilayer hexagonal-shaped Ir islands form, surrounded by regions of IrGe alloy. Hexagonal-shaped Ir islands also formed upon heating 1.2 ML of √3 Ir beyond 830 °C, which resulted in the elimination of √3 structure from the surface. The transformation from √3 to (1 × 1) structure upon heating to 830 °C was an irreversible surface phase transition. Annealing > 2.0 ML of Ir in the √3 phase above the 830 °C disorder temperature, followed by cooling, produced a (3 × 1) structure. Subsequent heating and cooling through 830 °C give evidence for a reversible (3 × 1) to (1 × 1) phase transition.

  18. The Initiator Methionine tRNA Drives Secretion of Type II Collagen from Stromal Fibroblasts to Promote Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Cassie J.; Berg, Tracy J.; Birch, Joanna; Ennis, Darren; Mitchell, Louise; Cloix, Catherine; Campbell, Andrew; Sumpton, David; Nixon, Colin; Campbell, Kirsteen; Bridgeman, Victoria L.; Vermeulen, Peter B.; Foo, Shane; Kostaras, Eleftherios; Jones, J. Louise; Haywood, Linda; Pulleine, Ellie; Yin, Huabing; Strathdee, Douglas; Sansom, Owen; Blyth, Karen; McNeish, Iain; Zanivan, Sara; Reynolds, Andrew R.; Norman, Jim C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Expression of the initiator methionine tRNA (tRNAiMet) is deregulated in cancer. Despite this fact, it is not currently known how tRNAiMet expression levels influence tumor progression. We have found that tRNAiMet expression is increased in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts, implicating deregulated expression of tRNAiMet in the tumor stroma as a possible contributor to tumor progression. To investigate how elevated stromal tRNAiMet contributes to tumor progression, we generated a mouse expressing additional copies of the tRNAiMet gene (2+tRNAiMet mouse). Growth and vascularization of subcutaneous tumor allografts was enhanced in 2+tRNAiMet mice compared with wild-type littermate controls. Extracellular matrix (ECM) deposited by fibroblasts from 2+tRNAiMet mice supported enhanced endothelial cell and fibroblast migration. SILAC mass spectrometry indicated that elevated expression of tRNAiMet significantly increased synthesis and secretion of certain types of collagen, in particular type II collagen. Suppression of type II collagen opposed the ability of tRNAiMet-overexpressing fibroblasts to deposit pro-migratory ECM. We used the prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (DHB) to determine whether collagen synthesis contributes to the tRNAiMet-driven pro-tumorigenic stroma in vivo. DHB had no effect on the growth of syngeneic allografts in wild-type mice but opposed the ability of 2+tRNAiMet mice to support increased angiogenesis and tumor growth. Finally, collagen II expression predicts poor prognosis in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. Taken together, these data indicate that increased tRNAiMet levels contribute to tumor progression by enhancing the ability of stromal fibroblasts to synthesize and secrete a type II collagen-rich ECM that supports endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. PMID:26948875

  19. Assessment of collagen quality associated with non-enzymatic cross-links in human bone using Fourier-transform infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, F N; Zimmermann, E A; Campbell, G M; Sroga, G E; Püschel, K; Amling, M; Tang, S Y; Vashishth, D; Busse, B

    2017-04-01

    Aging and many disease conditions, most notably diabetes, are associated with the accumulation of non-enzymatic cross-links in the bone matrix. The non-enzymatic cross-links, also known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), occur at the collagen tissue level, where they are associated with reduced plasticity and increased fracture risk. In this study, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) imaging was used to detect spectroscopic changes associated with the formation of non-enzymatic cross-links in human bone collagen. Here, the non-enzymatic cross-link profile was investigated in one cohort with an in vitro ribose treatment as well as another cohort with an in vivo bisphosphonate treatment. With FTIR imaging, the two-dimensional (2D) spatial distribution of collagen quality associated with non-enzymatic cross-links was measured through the area ratio of the 1678/1692cm -1 subbands within the amide I peak, termed the non-enzymatic crosslink-ratio (NE-xLR). The NE-xLR increased by 35% in the ribation treatment group in comparison to controls (p<0.005), with interstitial bone tissue being more susceptible to the formation of non-enzymatic cross-links. Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography, fluorescence microscopy, and fluorometric assay confirm a correlation between the non-enzymatic cross-link content and the NE-xLR ratio in the control and ribated groups. High resolution FTIR imaging of the 2D bone microstructure revealed enhanced accumulation of non-enzymatic cross-links in bone regions with higher tissue age (i.e., interstitial bone). This non-enzymatic cross-link ratio (NE-xLR) enables researchers to study not only the overall content of AGEs in the bone but also its spatial distribution, which varies with skeletal aging and diabetes mellitus and provides an additional measure of bone's propensity to fracture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of collagen quality associated with non-enzymatic cross-links in human bone using Fourier-transform infrared imaging

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, F.N.; Zimmermann, E.A.; Campbell, G.M.; Sroga, G.E.; Püschel, K.; Amling, M.; Tang, S. Y.; Vashishth, D.; Busse, B.

    2017-01-01

    Aging and many disease conditions, most notably diabetes, are associated with the accumulation of non-enzymatic cross-links in the bone matrix. The non-enzymatic crosslinks, also known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), occur at the collagen tissue level, where they are associated with reduced plasticity and increased fracture risk. In this study, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) imaging was used to detect spectroscopic changes associated with the formation of non-enzymatic cross-links in human bone collagen. Here, the non-enzymatic cross-link profile was investigated in one cohort with an in vitro ribose treatment as well as another cohort with an in vivo bisphosphonate treatment. With FTIR imaging, the two-dimensional (2D) spatial distribution of collagen quality associated with non-enzymatic cross-links was measured through the area ratio of the 1678/1692 cm−1 subbands within the amide I peak, termed the non-enzymatic crosslink-ratio (NE-xLR). The NE-xLR increased by 35% in the ribation treatment group in comparison to controls (p< 0.005), with interstitial bone tissue being more susceptible to the formation of non-enzymatic cross-links. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography, fluorescence microscopy, and fluorometric assay confirm a correlation between the non-enzymatic cross-link content and the NE-xLR ratio in the control and ribated groups. High resolution FTIR imaging of the 2D bone microstructure revealed enhanced accumulation of non-enzymatic cross-links in bone regions with higher tissue age (i.e., interstitial bone). This non-enzymatic cross-link ratio (NE-xLR) enables researchers to study not only the overall content of AGEs in the bone but also its spatial distribution, which varies with skeletal aging and diabetes mellitus and provides an additional measure of bone's propensity to fracture. PMID:28109917

  1. Inhibition of Nb2 T-lymphoma cell growth by transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed Central

    Rayhel, E J; Prentice, D A; Tabor, P S; Flurkey, W H; Geib, R W; Laherty, R F; Schnitzer, S B; Chen, R; Hughes, J P

    1988-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) inhibits proliferation of Nb2 cells, a rat T lymphoma, in response to lactogens and interleukin-2. Prostaglandins may play an important role in the pathway through which TGF-beta exerts its inhibitory actions, because prostaglandin E2 also inhibits proliferation of Nb2 cells, and indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, reverses the inhibitory effects of TGF-beta on Nb2 cell proliferation. PMID:3262338

  2. Disruption of transforming growth factor-β superfamily signaling: A shared mechanism underlying hereditary cerebral small vessel disease.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yumi; Ihara, Masafumi

    2017-07-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is not only one of the leading causes of cognitive impairment but also an important contributory factor in Alzheimer's disease. SVD and related white matter changes are common in the elderly, but the underlying pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. The end-stage pathology of SVD often involves replacement of vascular smooth muscle cells with collagenous or other nontensile fibrillary material. Recent studies on hereditary SVD have revealed a close relationship between small vessel pathology and disruption of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily signaling. TGF-β superfamily members, such as TGF-β and bone morphogenetic proteins, are multifunctional proteins that regulate production of extracellular matrix proteins, which in turn control the bioavailability of TGF-β superfamily members and modulate their signaling activities. This article reviews hereditary disorders with small vessel pathology and their relation to TGF-β superfamily signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Latent transforming growth factor beta1 activation in situ: quantitative and functional evidence after low-dose gamma-irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrhart, E. J.; Segarini, P.; Tsang, M. L.; Carroll, A. G.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The biological activity of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta) is controlled by its secretion as a latent complex in which it is noncovalently associated with latency-associated peptide (LAP). Activation is the extracellular process in which TGF-beta is released from LAP, and is considered to be a primary regulatory control. We recently reported rapid and persistent changes in TGF-beta immunoreactivity in conjunction with extracellular matrix remodeling in gamma-irradiated mouse mammary gland. Our hypothesis is that these specific changes in immunoreactivity are indicative of latent TGF-beta activation. In the present study, we determined the radiation dose response and tested whether a functional relationship exists between radiation-induced TGF-beta and collagen type III remodeling. After radiation exposures as low as 0.1 Gy, we detected increased TGF-beta immunoreactivity in the mammary epithelium concomitant with decreased LAP immunostaining, which are events consistent with activation. Quantitative image analysis demonstrated a significant (P=0.0005) response at 0.1 Gy without an apparent threshold and a linear dose response to 5 Gy. However, in the adipose stroma, loss of LAP demonstrated a qualitative threshold at 0.5 Gy. Loss of LAP paralleled induction of collagen III immunoreactivity in this tissue compartment. We tested whether TGF-beta mediates collagen III expression by treating animals with TGF-beta panspecific monoclonal antibody, 1D11.16, administered i.p. shortly before irradiation. Radiation-induced collagen III staining in the adipose stroma was blocked in an antibody dose-dependent manner, which persisted through 7 days postirradiation. RNase protection assay revealed that radiation-induced elevation of total gland collagen III mRNA was also blocked by neutralizing antibody treatment. These data provide functional confirmation of the hypothesis that radiation exposure leads to latent TGF-beta activation, support our interpretation of the

  4. Potential in two types of collagen scaffolds for urological tissue engineering applications - Are there differences in growth behaviour of juvenile and adult vesical cells?

    PubMed

    Leonhäuser, D; Vogt, M; Tolba, R H; Grosse, J O

    2016-02-01

    The aging society has a deep impact on patient care in urology. The number of patients in need of partial or whole bladder wall replacement is increasing simultaneously with the number of cancer incidents. Therefore, urological research requires a model of bladder wall replacement in adult and elderly people. Two types of porcine collagen I/III scaffolds were used in vitro for comparison of cell growth of two different pig breeds at different growth stages. Scaffolds were characterised with scanning electron and laser scanning microscopy. Urothelial and detrusor smooth muscle cells were isolated from 15 adult Göttingen minipigs and 15 juvenile German Landrace pigs. Growth behaviour was examined in cell culture and seeded onto the collagen scaffolds via immunohistochemistry, two-photon laser scanning microscopy and a viability assay. The collagen scaffolds showed different structured surfaces which are appropriate for seeding of the two different cell types. Moisturisation of the scaffolds resulted in a change of the structure. Cell growth of German Landrace urothelial cells and smooth muscle cells was significantly higher than cell growth of the Göttingen minipig cells. Seeding of scaffolds with both cell types from both pig races was possible which could be shown by immunohistochemistry and two-photon laser scanning microscopy. Growth behaviour on the scaffolds was significantly increased for the German Landrace compared to Göttingen minipig. Nevertheless, seeding with the adult Göttingen minipig cells resulted in a closed layer on the surface and urothelial cells and smooth muscle cells showed increasing growth until day 14. The results show that these collagen scaffolds are adequate for the seeding with vesical cells. Moreover, they seem appropriate for the use as an in vitro model for the adult or elderly as the cells of the adult Göttingen minipig too, show good growth behaviour. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Evaluation of nanohydroxyapaptite (nano-HA) coated epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chenyu; Deng, Jia; Man, Yi; Qu, Yili

    2017-09-01

    Collagen is the main component of extracellular matrix (ECM) with desirable biological activities and low antigenicity. Collagen materials have been widely utilized in guided bone regeneration (GBR) surgery due to its abilities to maintain space for hard tissue growth. However, pure collagen lacks optimal mechanical properties. In our previous study, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes, with better biological activities and enhanced mechanical properties, may promote osteoblast proliferation, but their effect on osteoblast differentiation is not very significant. Nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA) is the main component of mineral bone, which possesses exceptional bioactivity properties including good biocompatibility, high osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity, non-immunogenicity and non-inflammatory behavior. Herein, by analyzing the physical and chemical properties as well as the effects on promoting bone regeneration, we have attempted to present a novel EGCG-modified collagen membrane with nano-HA coating, and have found evidence that the novel collagen membrane may promote bone regeneration with a better surface morphology, without destroying collagen backbone. To evaluate the surface morphologies, chemical and mechanical properties of pure collagen membranes, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes, nano-HA coated collagen membranes, nano-HA coated EGCG-collagen membranes, (ii) to evaluate the bone regeneration promoted by theses membranes. In the present study, collagen membranes were divided into 4 groups: (1) untreated collagen membranes (2) EGCG cross-linked collagen membranes (3) nano-HA modified collagen membranes (4) nano-HA modified EGCG-collagen membranes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to evaluate surface morphologies and chemical properties, respectively. Mechanical properties were determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC

  6. Transcriptional modulation of transin gene expression by epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor beta.

    PubMed Central

    Machida, C M; Muldoon, L L; Rodland, K D; Magun, B E

    1988-01-01

    Transin is a transformation-associated gene which is expressed constitutively in rat fibroblasts transformed by a variety of oncogenes and in malignant mouse skin carcinomas but not benign papillomas or normal skin. It has been demonstrated that, in nontransformed Rat-1 cells, transin RNA expression is modulated positively by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and negatively by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta); other peptide growth factors were found to have no effect on transin expression. Results presented here indicate that both protein synthesis and continuous occupancy of the EGF receptor by EGF were required for sustained induction of transin RNA. Treatment with TGF-beta inhibited the ability of EGF to induce transin, whether assayed at the transcriptional level by nuclear run-on analysis or at the level of transin RNA accumulation by Northern (RNA) blot analysis of cellular RNA. TGF-beta both blocked initial induction of transin transcription by EGF and halted established production of transin transcripts during prolonged treatment. These results suggest that TGF-beta acts at the transcriptional level to antagonize EGF-mediated induction of transin gene expression. Images PMID:3043179

  7. Engineered collagen hydrogels for the sustained release of biomolecules and imaging agents: promoting the growth of human gingival cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jonghoon; Park, Hoyoung; Kim, Taeho; Jeong, Yoon; Oh, Myoung Hwan; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Gilad, Assaf A; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2014-01-01

    We present here the in vitro release profiles of either fluorescently labeled biomolecules or computed tomography contrast nanoagents from engineered collagen hydrogels under physiological conditions. The collagen constructs were designed as potential biocompatible inserts into wounded human gingiva. The collagen hydrogels were fabricated under a variety of conditions in order to optimize the release profile of biomolecules and nanoparticles for the desired duration and amount. The collagen constructs containing biomolecules/nanoconstructs were incubated under physiological conditions (ie, 37°C and 5% CO2) for 24 hours, and the release profile was tuned from 20% to 70% of initially loaded materials by varying the gelation conditions of the collagen constructs. The amounts of released biomolecules and nanoparticles were quantified respectively by measuring the intensity of fluorescence and X-ray scattering. The collagen hydrogel we fabricated may serve as an efficient platform for the controlled release of biomolecules and imaging agents in human gingiva to facilitate the regeneration of oral tissues.

  8. LOXL4 knockdown enhances tumor growth and lung metastasis through collagen-dependent extracellular matrix changes in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sul Ki; Kim, Hoe Suk; Jin, Tiefeng; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2017-02-14

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) family genes catalyze collagen cross-link formation. To determine the effects of lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4) expression on breast tumor formation and metastasis, we evaluated primary tumor growth and lung metastasis in mice injected with LOXL4-knockdown MDA-MB-231 triple-negative human breast cancer cells. In addition, we analyzed overall survival in breast cancer patients based on LOXL4 expression using a public online database. In the mouse xenograft model, LOXL4 knockdown increased primary tumor growth and lung colonization as well as collagen I and IV, lysine hydroxylase 1 and 2, and prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha 1 and 2 levels. Second harmonic generation imaging revealed that LOXL4 knockdown resulted in the thickening of collagen bundles within tumors. In addition, weak LOXL4 expression was associated with poor overall survival in breast cancer patients from the BreastMark dataset, and this association was strongest in triple-negative breast cancer patients. These results demonstrate that weak LOXL4 expression leads to remodeling of the extracellular matrix through induction of collagen synthesis, deposition, and structural changes. These alterations in turn promote tumor growth and metastasis and are associated with poor clinical outcomes in triple-negative breast cancer.

  9. [EXPRESSIONS OF TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR β1 AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE GROWTH FACTOR IN HUMAN LUMBAR INTERVERTEBRAL DISCS IN DIFFERENT DEGREES OF DEGENERATION].

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Xiu, Lei; Guan, Tao; Hu, Zhifu; Jin, Qunhua

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the role of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in pathogenesis and progression of human intervertebral disc degeneration by detecting the expressions of these two factors in different degrees of degenerative discs. The lumbar intervertebral discs were collected from 33 patients with lumbar disc herniation and 12 patients with lumbar vertebral fracture between November 2012 and April 2013. All samples were observed under the microscope after HE staining, and then were divided into different subgroups according to the degenerative degree. The expressions of TGF-β1 and CTGF were detected by Western blot. According to the pathological features, 10 discs were defined as normal discs, 10 as mild degenerative discs, 9 as moderate degenerative discs, and 16 as severe degenerative discs. The histological observation showed that rounded nucleus pulposus cells with similar size evenly distributed in the cartilage-like matrix, and no hyperplastic collagenous fiber was seen in normal discs; mild degenerative discs characterized by slightly larger nucleus pulposus cells in the matrix, but cells did not decrease, a small quantity of inflammatory cells infiltrated in the matrix, hyperplasia of collagenous fiber was not seen; most of the nucleus pulposus cells became bigger, some showed a bulb form, the number of nucleus pulposus cells was significantly reduced, low grade hyperplasia of collagenous fiber emerged in the matrix, new vessels and inflammatory cells were both found in some specific areas of discs in moderate degenerative discs; there was no nucleus pulposus cells in the matrix of severe degenerative discs, the hyperplasia of collagenous fiber was obvious. The relative expression of TGF-β1 in 3 degeneration discs was significantly higher than that in normal discs (P < 0.05), and the expression of TGF-β1 was significantly higher in severe degenerative discs than in moderate and mild degenerative discs (P

  10. Bone resorption analysis of platelet-derived growth factor type BB application on collagen for bone grafts secured by titanium mesh over a pig jaw defect model.

    PubMed

    Herford, Alan Scott; Cicciù, Marco

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether the addition of the platelet derived growth factor type BB (PDGF-BB) to a collagen matrix applied on a titanium mesh would favor healing and resorption onto the grafted bone. A histologic and radiographic study of two different groups (test and control) was performed. A surgical procedure was performed on 8 pigs to obtain 16 bilateral mandibular alveolar defects. All the defects were then reconstructed with a mixture of autogenous bovine bone using titanium mesh positioning. Two groups, with a total of 16 defects were created: The first to study collagen sponge and PDGF-BB and the second to control collagen only. The collagen matrix was positioned directly over the mesh and soft tissue was closed without tensions onto both groups without attempting to obtain primary closure. Possible exposure of the titanium mesh as well as the height and volume of the new bone was recorded. New bone formation averaged about 6.68 mm in the test group studied; the control group had less regenerated bone at 4.62 mm. PDGF-BB addition to the collagen matrix induced a strong increase in hard and soft tissue healing and favored bone formation, reducing bone resorption even if the mesh was exposed.

  11. Chondroitin sulfate microparticles modulate transforming growth factor-β1-induced chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cell spheroids.

    PubMed

    Goude, Melissa C; McDevitt, Todd C; Temenoff, Johnna S

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been previously explored as a part of cell-based therapies for the repair of damaged cartilage. Current MSC chondrogenic differentiation strategies employ large pellets; however, we have developed a technique to form small MSC aggregates (500-1,000 cells) that can reduce transport barriers while maintaining a multicellular structure analogous to cartilaginous condensations. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of incorporating chondroitin sulfate methacrylate (CSMA) microparticles (MPs) within small MSC spheroids cultured in the presence of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 on chondrogenesis. Spheroids with MPs induced earlier increases in collagen II and aggrecan gene expression (chondrogenic markers) than spheroids without MPs, although no large differences in immunostaining for these matrix molecules were observed by day 21 between these groups. Collagen I and X were also detected in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of all spheroids by immunostaining. Interestingly, histology revealed that CSMA MPs clustered together near the center of the MSC spheroids and induced circumferential alignment of cells and ECM around the material core. This study demonstrates the use of CSMA materials to further examine the effects of matrix molecules on MSC phenotype as well as potentially direct differentiation in a more spatially controlled manner that better mimics the architecture of specific musculoskeletal tissues. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Baicalin ameliorates renal fibrosis via inhibition of transforming growth factor β1 production and downstream signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Long; Zhang, Chao; Li, Long; Hu, Chao; Hu, Mushuang; Sidikejiang, Niyazi; Wang, Xuanchuan; Lin, Miao; Rong, Ruiming

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential antifibrotic effects of baicalin in vitro, via examination of 21 compounds isolated from plants. However, its biological activity and underlying mechanisms of action in vivo remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of baicalin on renal fibrosis in vivo, and the potential signaling pathways involved. A unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced renal fibrosis model was established using Sprague-Dawley rats. Baicalin was administrated intraperitoneally every 2 days for 10 days. The degree of renal damage and fibrosis was investigated by histological assessment, and detection of fibronectin and collagen I mRNA expression levels. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) levels and downstream phosphorylation of mothers against decapentaplegic 2/3 (Smad2/3) were examined in vivo and in an NRK-52E rat renal tubular cell line in vitro. Baicalin was demonstrated to markedly ameliorate renal fibrosis and suppress EMT, as evidenced by reduced interstitial collagen accumulation, decreased fibronectin and collagen I mRNA expression levels, upregulation of N- and E-cadherin expression levels, and downregulation of α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin expression. Furthermore, baicalin decreased TGF-β1 expression levels in serum and kidney tissue following UUO, and suppressed Smad2/3 phosphorylation in rat kidney tissue. In vitro studies identified that baicalin may inhibit the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 under the same TGF-β1 concentration. In conclusion, baicalin may protect against renal fibrosis, potentially via inhibition of TGF-β1 production and its downstream signal transduction. PMID:28260014

  13. Baicalin ameliorates renal fibrosis via inhibition of transforming growth factor β1 production and downstream signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Long; Zhang, Chao; Li, Long; Hu, Chao; Hu, Mushuang; Sidikejiang, Niyazi; Wang, Xuanchuan; Lin, Miao; Rong, Ruiming

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential antifibrotic effects of baicalin in vitro, via examination of 21 compounds isolated from plants. However, its biological activity and underlying mechanisms of action in vivo remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of baicalin on renal fibrosis in vivo, and the potential signaling pathways involved. A unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)‑induced renal fibrosis model was established using Sprague‑Dawley rats. Baicalin was administrated intraperitoneally every 2 days for 10 days. The degree of renal damage and fibrosis was investigated by histological assessment, and detection of fibronectin and collagen I mRNA expression levels. Epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) levels and downstream phosphorylation of mothers against decapentaplegic 2/3 (Smad2/3) were examined in vivo and in an NRK‑52E rat renal tubular cell line in vitro. Baicalin was demonstrated to markedly ameliorate renal fibrosis and suppress EMT, as evidenced by reduced interstitial collagen accumulation, decreased fibronectin and collagen I mRNA expression levels, upregulation of N‑ and E‑cadherin expression levels, and downregulation of α‑smooth muscle actin and vimentin expression. Furthermore, baicalin decreased TGF‑β1 expression levels in serum and kidney tissue following UUO, and suppressed Smad2/3 phosphorylation in rat kidney tissue. In vitro studies identified that baicalin may inhibit the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 under the same TGF‑β1 concentration. In conclusion, baicalin may protect against renal fibrosis, potentially via inhibition of TGF‑β1 production and its downstream signal transduction.

  14. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 binds to immobilized fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Mooradian, D L; Lucas, R C; Weatherbee, J A; Furcht, L T

    1989-12-01

    We have characterized the interaction of homodimeric porcine transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) with affinity-purified human plasma fibronectin. Using a solid-phase binding assay, we have demonstrated that TGF-beta 1 binds to fibronectin immobilized on Immunlon ITM microtiter plates. TGF-beta 1 binding increased with time, reaching a plateau after 4-6 h, and was dependent upon the concentration of both labeled TGF-beta 1 and immobilized fibronectin present. The binding of radiolabeled TGF-beta 1 to fibronectin was saturable and was reduced 75% in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled TGF-beta 1. TGF-beta 1 bound to fibronectin with an association rate constant (Ka) of 2.96 x 10(3) M-1 s-1 and did not readily dissociate under various conditions. The binding of TGF-beta 1 to fibronectin was insensitive to variations in ionic strength over a range of 0.1-1.0 M NaCl and was relatively insensitive to divalent cation concentration in the range of 0.1-10.0 mM as well. These data suggest that the binding of TGF-beta 1 to fibronectin may not be dependent upon the interaction of charged amino acids within these two molecules. However, the binding of TGF-beta 1 to fibronectin was strongly pH-dependent and binding decreased dramatically below pH 4.0 and above pH 10.0, suggesting that charged amino acids may influence TGF-beta 1/fibronectin interactions. The association of TGF-beta 1 with immobilized fibronectin or other extracellular matrix components and subsequent dissociation under acidic conditions or by an as-yet-unidentified mechanism may play a role in the distribution and/or activity of this potent growth regulator at sites of tissue injury and inflammation in vivo.

  15. Enriched Astaxanthin Extract from Haematococcus pluvialis Augments Growth Factor Secretions to Increase Cell Proliferation and Induces MMP1 Degradation to Enhance Collagen Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsin-Yu; Lee, Chelsea; Pan, Jian-Liang; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Shu-Hung; Lan, Chi-Wei John; Liu, Wang-Ta; Hour, Tzyh-Chyuan; Hseu, You-Cheng; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Wang, Hui-Min David

    2016-06-16

    Among many antioxidants that are used for the repairing of oxidative stress induced skin damages, we identified the enriched astaxanthin extract (EAE) from Haematococcus pluvialis as a viable ingredient. EAE was extracted from the red microalgae through supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction. To compare the effectiveness, EAE wastreated on human dermal fibroblasts with other components, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and doxycycline. With sirius red staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we found that PMA decreased the collagen concentration and production while overall the addition of doxycycline and EAE increased the collagen concentration in a trial experiments. EAE increased collagen contents through inhibited MMP1 and MMP3 mRNA expression and induced TIMP1, the antagonists of MMPs protein, gene expression. As for when tested for various proteins through western blotting, it was seen that the addition of EAE increased the expression of certain proteins that promote cell proliferation. Testing those previous solutions using growth factor assay, it was noticeable that EAE had a positive impact on cell proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) than doxycycline, indicating that it was a better alternative treatment for collagen production. To sum up, the data confirmed the possible applications as medical cosmetology agentsand food supplements.

  16. Enriched Astaxanthin Extract from Haematococcus pluvialis Augments Growth Factor Secretions to Increase Cell Proliferation and Induces MMP1 Degradation to Enhance Collagen Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Hsin-Yu; Lee, Chelsea; Pan, Jian-Liang; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Shu-Hung; Lan, Chi-Wei John; Liu, Wang-Ta; Hour, Tzyh-Chyuan; Hseu, You-Cheng; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Wang, Hui-Min David

    2016-01-01

    Among many antioxidants that are used for the repairing of oxidative stress induced skin damages, we identified the enriched astaxanthin extract (EAE) from Haematococcus pluvialis as a viable ingredient. EAE was extracted from the red microalgae through supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction. To compare the effectiveness, EAE wastreated on human dermal fibroblasts with other components, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and doxycycline. With sirius red staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we found that PMA decreased the collagen concentration and production while overall the addition of doxycycline and EAE increased the collagen concentration in a trial experiments. EAE increased collagen contents through inhibited MMP1 and MMP3 mRNA expression and induced TIMP1, the antagonists of MMPs protein, gene expression. As for when tested for various proteins through western blotting, it was seen that the addition of EAE increased the expression of certain proteins that promote cell proliferation. Testing those previous solutions using growth factor assay, it was noticeable that EAE had a positive impact on cell proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) than doxycycline, indicating that it was a better alternative treatment for collagen production. To sum up, the data confirmed the possible applications as medical cosmetology agentsand food supplements. PMID:27322248

  17. Alterations in biosynthetic accumulation of collagen types I and III during growth and morphogenesis of embryonic mouse salivary glands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the biosynthetic patterns of interstitial collagens in mouse embryonic submandibular and sublingual glands cultured in vitro. Rudiments explanted on day 13 of gestation and cultured for 24, 48, and 72 h all synthesized collagen types I, III, and V. However, while the total incorporation of label into collagenous proteins did not change over the three-day culture period, the rate of accumulation of newly synthesized types I and III did change. At 24 h, the ratio of newly synthesized collagen types I:III was approximately 2, whereas at 72 h, the ratio was approximately 5. These data suggest that collagen types I and III may be important in initiation of branching in this organ, but that type I may become dominant in the later stages of development and in maintenance of the adult organ.

  18. Intracellular trafficking of transforming growth factor β receptors.

    PubMed

    Yakymovych, Ihor; Yakymovych, Mariya; Heldin, Carl-Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) family members signal via heterotetrameric complexes of type I (TβRI) and type II (TβRII) dual specificity kinase receptors. The availability of the receptors on the cell surface is controlled by several mechanisms. Newly synthesized TβRI and TβRII are delivered from the Golgi apparatus to the cell surface via separate routes. On the cell surface, TGFβ receptors are distributed between different microdomains of the plasma membrane and can be internalized via clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytic mechanisms. Although receptor endocytosis is not essential for TGFβ signaling, localization of the activated receptor complexes on the early endosomes promotes TGFβ-induced Smad activation. Caveolae-mediated endocytosis, which is widely regarded as a mechanism that facilitates the degradation of TGFβ receptors, has been shown to be required for TGFβ signaling via non-Smad pathways. The importance of proper control of TGFβ receptor intracellular trafficking is emphasized by clinical data, as mislocalization of receptors has been described in connection with several human diseases. Thus, control of intracellular trafficking of the TGFβ receptors together with the regulation of their expression, posttranslational modifications and down-regulation, ensure proper regulation of TGFβ signaling. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling Pathway Activation in Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    ENGLER, CHRISTOPH; CHAKRAVARTI, SHUKTI; DOYLE, JEFFERSON; EBERHART, CHARLES G.; MENG, HUAN; STARK, WALTER J.; KELLIHER, CLARE; JUN, ALBERT S.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the presence of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) pathway markers in the epithelium of keratoconus patient corneas. DESIGN Retrospective, comparative case series of laboratory specimens. METHODS Immunohistochemistry results for TGFβ2, total TGFβ, mothers against decacentaplegic homolog (Smad) 2, and phosphorylated Smad2 was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of keratoconus patient corneas and normal corneas from human autopsy eyes. Keratoconus patient corneas were divided in two groups, depending on their severity based on keratometer readings and pachymetry. Autopsy controls were age-matched with the keratoconus cases. Immunohistochemistry signal quantification was performed using automated software. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed on total ribonucleic acid of epithelium of keratoconus patient corneas and autopsy control corneas. RESULTS Immunohistochemistry quantification showed a significant increase in mean signal in the group of severe keratoconus cases compared with normal corneas for TGFβ2 and phosphorylated Smad2 (P < .05). Immunohistochemistry analysis using antibodies against total TGFβ and Smad2 did not show any significant increase in the keratoconus cases versus the autopsy controls. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction exhibited elevated messenger ribonucleic acid levels of Smad2 and TGFβ2 in severe keratoconus corneal epithelium. CONCLUSIONS This work shows increased TGFβ pathway markers in severe keratoconus cases and provides the rationale for investigating TGFβ signaling further in the pathophysiology of keratoconus. PMID:21310385

  20. Transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway activation in Keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Engler, Christoph; Chakravarti, Shukti; Doyle, Jefferson; Eberhart, Charles G; Meng, Huan; Stark, Walter J; Kelliher, Clare; Jun, Albert S

    2011-05-01

    To assess the presence of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) pathway markers in the epithelium of keratoconus patient corneas. Retrospective, comparative case series of laboratory specimens. Immunohistochemistry results for TGFβ2, total TGFβ, mothers against decacentaplegic homolog (Smad) 2, and phosphorylated Smad2 was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of keratoconus patient corneas and normal corneas from human autopsy eyes. Keratoconus patient corneas were divided in two groups, depending on their severity based on keratometer readings and pachymetry. Autopsy controls were age-matched with the keratoconus cases. Immunohistochemistry signal quantification was performed using automated software. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed on total ribonucleic acid of epithelium of keratoconus patient corneas and autopsy control corneas. Immunohistochemistry quantification showed a significant increase in mean signal in the group of severe keratoconus cases compared with normal corneas for TGFβ2 and phosphorylated Smad2 (P < .05). Immunohistochemistry analysis using antibodies against total TGFβ and Smad2 did not show any significant increase in the keratoconus cases versus the autopsy controls. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction exhibited elevated messenger ribonucleic acid levels of Smad2 and TGFβ2 in severe keratoconus corneal epithelium. This work shows increased TGFβ pathway markers in severe keratoconus cases and provides the rationale for investigating TGFβ signaling further in the pathophysiology of keratoconus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of growth factors in the growth of normal and transformed cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lokeshwar, V.B.

    1989-01-01

    Growth factors play an important role in the growth of normal cells. However, their untimely and/or excess production leads to neoplastic transformation. The role of growth factors in the growth of normal cells was studied by investigating the mechanism of transmodulation of the cell surface EGF receptor number by protamine. Protamine increased the EGF stimulated mitogenic response in Swiss mouse 3T3 cells and A431 cells by increasing the number of functionally active EGF receptors. Protamine also increased EGF receptor number in plasma membranes and solubilized membranes. This was evidenced by an increase in both {sup 125}I-EGF-EGF-receptor complex and EGF stimulatedmore » phosphorylation of the EGF receptor. The solubilized EGF receptor was retained on a protamine-agarose gel indicating that protamine might increase EGF receptor number by directly activating cryptic EGF receptors in the plasma membranes. The role of growth factors in neoplastic transformation was studied by investigating the role of the oncogene v-sis in the growth of Simian sarcoma virus (SSV) transformed cells. The product of the oncogene v-sis is 94% homologous to the B chain of PDGF. This study found that (i) v-sis gene product is synthesized as a 32 kDa unglycosylated monomer which is glycosylated, dimerized and proteolytically processed into p36, p72, p68, p58, p44 and p27 mol. wt. species respectively. (ii) p36, p72, p68 and p58 are very likely formed in the endoplasmic reticulum and/or Golgi complex. A fraction of newly synthesized p72, p68 and p58 is degraded intracellularly at a fast rate. (iii) p44 is a secretory product which remains tightly associated with the cell surface. p44 is recaptured by the cells through interaction with cell surface PDGF receptors and degraded into p27. (iv) During long term cultures p44 is extracellularly cleaved into a 27 kDa product.« less

  2. Incorporation of chitosan microspheres into collagen-chitosan scaffolds for the controlled release of nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wen; Rong, Mengyao; Hu, Xueyu; Xiao, Wei; Qi, Fengyu; Huang, Jinghui; Luo, Zhuojing

    2014-01-01

    Artifical nerve scaffold can be used as a promising alternative to autologous nerve grafts to enhance the repair of peripheral nerve defects. However, current nerve scaffolds lack efficient microstructure and neurotrophic support. Microsphere-Scaffold composite was developed by incorporating chitosan microspheres loaded with nerve growth factor (NGF-CMSs) into collagen-chitosan scaffolds (CCH) with longitudinally oriented microchannels (NGF-CMSs/CCH). The morphological characterizations, in vitro release kinetics study, neurite outgrowth assay, and bioactivity assay were evaluated. After that, a 15-mm-long sciatic nerve gap in rats was bridged by the NGF-CMSs/CCH, CCH physically absorbed NGF (NGF/CCH), CCH or nerve autograft. 16 weeks after implantation, electrophysiology, fluoro-gold retrograde tracing, and nerve morphometry were performed. The NGF-CMSs were evenly distributed throughout the longitudinally oriented microchannels of the scaffold. The NGF-CMSs/CCH was capable of sustained release of bioactive NGF within 28 days as compared with others in vitro. In vivo animal study demonstrated that the outcomes of NGF-CMSs/CCH were better than those of NGF/CCH or CCH. Our findings suggest that incorporation of NGF-CMSs into the CCH may be a promising tool in the repair of peripheral nerve defects.

  3. Effect of recombinant human growth hormone and interferon gamma on hepatic collagen synthesis and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells in cirrhotic rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Hua; Du, Bing-Qing; Zheng, Zhen-Jiang; Xiang, Guang-Ming; Liu, Xu-Bao; Mai, Gang

    2012-06-01

    Fibrosis plays a key role in the development of liver cirrhosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of growth hormone and interferon gamma on hepatic collagen synthesis and the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells in a cirrhotic rat model. Cirrhosis was induced in rats using carbon tetrachloride. Rats were simultaneously treated with daily subcutaneous injections of recombinant human growth hormone or interferon gamma combined with recombinant human growth hormone. The control group was given saline. The relative content of type I and type IV collagen was assessed by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Activated hepatic stellate cells were prepared from cirrhotic rats. The 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method was used to assess the effects of recombinant human growth hormone and interferon gamma on these cells in vitro. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis showed that type I and type IV collagen secretion increased with time after recombinant human growth hormone administration and was significantly higher than control and recombinant human growth hormone combined with interferon gamma administration. In vitro, recombinant human growth hormone significantly stimulated hepatic stellate cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner (10(-3)-10(-1) mg/100 μL), and interferon gamma (10(-2)-10(-1) μg/100 μL) significantly inhibited their growth compared to the control group. Interferon gamma combined with recombinant human growth hormone eliminated this growth-promoting effect to a certain degree in a concentration-dependent manner (10(-1) μg/100 μL, P<0.05, 10(-2)-10(-3) μg/100 μL, P>0.05) and a time-dependent manner (P<0.05). Recombinant human growth hormone increased collagen secretion in cirrhotic rats in vivo and promoted the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells from cirrhotic rats in vitro. It is possible that concurrent interferon gamma therapy can offset these side-effects of

  4. Transforming growth factor-β modulates pancreatic cancer associated fibroblasts cell shape, stiffness and invasion.

    PubMed

    Stylianou, Andreas; Gkretsi, Vasiliki; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2018-03-12

    Tumor microenvironment consists of the extracellular matrix (ECM), stromal cells, such as fibroblasts (FBs) and cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), and a myriad of soluble factors. In many tumor types, including pancreatic tumors, the interplay between stromal cells and the other tumor microenvironment components leads to desmoplasia, a cancer-specific type of fibrosis that hinders treatment. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and CAFs are thought to play a crucial role in this tumor desmoplastic reaction, although the involved mechanisms are unknown. Optical/fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy, image processing techniques, invasion assay in 3D collagen I gels and real-time PCR were employed to investigate the effect of TGF-β on normal pancreatic FBs and CAFs with regard to crucial cellular morphodynamic characteristics and relevant gene expression involved in tumor progression and metastasis. CAFs present specific myofibroblast-like characteristics, such as α-smooth muscle actin expression and cell elongation, they also form more lamellipodia and are softer than FBs. TGF-β treatment increases cell stiffness (Young's modulus) of both FBs and CAFs and increases CAF's (but not FB's) elongation, cell spreading, lamellipodia formation and spheroid invasion. Gene expression analysis shows that these morphodynamic characteristics are mediated by Rac, RhoA and ROCK expression in CAFs treated with TGF-β. TGF-β modulates CAFs', but not FBs', cell shape, stiffness and invasion. Our findings elucidate on the effects of TGF-β on CAFs' behavior and stiffness providing new insights into the mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transforming growth factor-beta following skeletal muscle strain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cheryl A; Stauber, Franciose; Waters, Christopher; Alway, Stephen E; Stauber, William T

    2007-02-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional cytokine implicated in inflammatory processes, wound healing, and fibrosis. In muscle diseases (i.e., dystrophy and inflammatory myopathy) and in animal models of muscle injury (i.e., produced by cardiotoxin, laceration, and eccentric contractions), increased TGF-beta was associated with muscle fibrosis and healing. Although TGF-beta transcript abundance was increased following injury, many studies presume that TGF-beta protein was also active as evident by increases in collagen transcript abundance. The purpose was to determine whether TGF-beta protein is present and active 48 h following injury. Using female rats, muscle strains were produced by stretching (50 stretches) the plantar flexor muscles. Forty-eight hours following injury, the medial gastrocnemius was removed and compartmentalized into five equal segments. Damaged myofibers with intracellular concanavalin A staining were counted. The percentage of damaged myofibers was significantly greater in the distal-most segment. TGF-beta was assessed by using immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and immunoblot analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of TGF-beta1 in areas of myofiber injury, whereas TGF-beta2 was not detected. Increases in TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 transcript abundance following strain injury were documented by RT-PCR analysis. Increases in TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 precursor abundance were observed following strain injury by using immunoblot analysis but there was no change in active TGF-beta abundance. Although there was no correlation between the amount of cellular injury and TGF-beta transcript and protein abundance, elevated levels of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 precursor proteins were present in strain-injured skeletal muscles 48 h after injury.

  6. Design and characterization of 3D hybrid collagen matrixes as a dermal substitute in skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Giriprasath; Singaravelu, Sivakumar; Muthukumar, Thangavelu; Thyagarajan, Sitalakshmi; Perumal, Paramasivan Thirumalai; Sivagnanam, Uma Tiruchirapalli

    2017-03-01

    The highly interconnected porous dressing material was fabricated with the utilization of novel collagen (COL-SPG) for the efficient healing of the wound. Herein, we report the fabrication of 3D collagen impregnated with bioactive extract (COL-SPG-CPE) to get rid of infection at the wound site. The resultant 3D collagen matrix was characterized physiochemically using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical property. The dressing substrate possesses the high swelling ability, increase in the porosity, in vitro enzymatic degradability and antibacterial property. The in vitro biocompatibility and fluorescence activity of the collagen scaffold against both NIH 3T3 fibroblast and Human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell lines assisted in excellent cell adhesion and proliferation over the collagen matrix. Furthermore, the in vivo evaluation of the COL-SPG-CPE 3D sponge exhibited with enhanced collagen synthesis and aids in faster reepithelialization. However, the rate of wound healing was influenced by the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF-β) growth factors promotes the collagen synthesis, thereby increases the healing efficiency. Based on the results, COL-SPG-CPE has a potential ability in the remodeling of the wound with the 3D collagen as wound dressing material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Discoidin Domain Receptor-1 Regulates Calcific Extracellular Vesicle Release in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Fibrocalcific Response via Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Jona B; Hutcheson, Joshua D; Martínez-Martínez, Eduardo; Irvin, Whitney S; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Bertazzo, Sergio; Bendeck, Michelle P; Aikawa, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Collagen accumulation and calcification are major determinants of atherosclerotic plaque stability. Extracellular vesicle (EV)-derived microcalcifications in the collagen-poor fibrous cap may promote plaque rupture. In this study, we hypothesize that the collagen receptor discoidin domain receptor-1 (DDR-1) regulates collagen deposition and release of calcifying EVs by vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) through the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathway. SMCs from the carotid arteries of DDR-1(-/-) mice and wild-type littermates (n=5-10 per group) were cultured in normal or calcifying media. At days 14 and 21, SMCs were harvested and EVs isolated for analysis. Compared with wild-type, DDR-1(-/-) SMCs exhibited a 4-fold increase in EV release (P<0.001) with concomitantly elevated alkaline phosphatase activity (P<0.0001) as a hallmark of EV calcifying potential. The DDR-1(-/-) phenotype was characterized by increased mineralization (Alizarin Red S and Osteosense, P<0.001 and P=0.002, respectively) and amorphous collagen deposition (P<0.001). We further identified a novel link between DDR-1 and the TGF-β pathway previously implicated in both fibrotic and calcific responses. An increase in TGF-β1 release by DDR-1(-/-) SMCs in calcifying media (P<0.001) stimulated p38 phosphorylation (P=0.02) and suppressed activation of Smad3. Inhibition of either TGF-β receptor-I or phospho-p38 reversed the fibrocalcific DDR-1(-/-) phenotype, corroborating a causal relationship between DDR-1 and TGF-β in EV-mediated vascular calcification. DDR-1 interacts with the TGF-β pathway to restrict calcifying EV-mediated mineralization and fibrosis by SMCs. We therefore establish a novel mechanism of cell-matrix homeostasis in atherosclerotic plaque formation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Transforming growth factor 15 increased in severe aplastic anemia patients.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Honglei; Liu, Chunyan; Cao, Qiuying; Fu, Rong; Wang, Huaquan; Wang, Ting; Qi, Weiwei; Shao, Zonghong

    2017-10-01

    The patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) usually rely on red cell transfusion which lead to secondary iron overload. Transforming growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) plays an important role in erythropoiesis and iron regulation. In this study, we investigated the level of GDF-15 and other indexes of iron metabolism in SAA patients to explore the correlation with GDF-15 and iron overload in SAA. The levels of serum GDF-15, hepcidin (Hepc), and erythropoietin (EPO) were determined by ELISA. The levels of serum iron (SI), ferritin, TIBC, and transferrin saturation (TS) were measured by an auto analyzer. Iron staining of bone marrow cells was used for testing extracellular and intracellular iron. The GDF-15 level in the experimental group was higher than that of the case-control group and normal control group (all p < 0.05). The Hepc level in the experimental group and case-control group were both higher than that of healthy controls (all p < 0.05). The Hepc level was significantly lower in the experimental group patients who had excessive GDF-15 (r = -0.766, p = 0.000). There was a positive correlation between the level of GDF15 and EPO in the experimental group (r = 0.68, p < 0.000). The level of GDF15 in SAA patients was positively correlated with SI levels (r = 0.537, p = 0.008), TS levels (r = 0.466, p = 0.025), and sideroblasts (%) (r = 0.463, p = 0.026). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between GDF-15 level and blood transfusion-dependent time (r = 0.739, p = 0.000). Our data indicated that GDF-15 plays an important role in iron metabolism in SAA. GDF-15 might be a novel target for SAA therapy.

  9. Transforming growth factor beta and wound healing in human cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Margriet A; de Heer, Emile; Ten Dijke, Peter; Grote, Jan J

    2008-01-01

    Cholesteatoma is a nonmalignant, destructive lesion of the temporal bone that gradually expands and causes complications by the erosion of the adjacent bony structures. The consequences can be as severe as facial paralysis and intracranial complications. Until now, surgery has been the only treatment of choice. The pathogenesis of cholesteatoma remains controversial. Current concepts postulate that cholesteatoma may be a wound-healing process, although formal proof is lacking as of yet. Several reports provide evidence for the involvement of transforming growth factor (TGF)beta in both normal and abnormal wound healing. The expression of TGFbeta, the activated form of its intracellular effector, phosphorylated-Sma-Mad (pSmad)2, its natural inhibitor, Smad7, and target gene extra domain A-positive fibronectin (EDA-FN) were examined. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis was performed using an image analysis system. In 12 cholesteatoma and control samples, protein expressions showed consistent relationships among TGFbeta, nuclear pSmad2, and Smad7. We found concordant expressions of TGFbeta and nuclear pSmad2 in cholesteatoma epithelium and its control. Epithelial Smad7 expression was significantly reduced in cholesteatoma when compared with control epithelium (P = .04). In cholesteatoma extracellular matrix (ECM), a significantly increased TGFbeta, and nuclear pSmad2 was demonstrated (P < .01). Smad7 expression in the ECM was comparable in cholesteatoma and its control. EDA-FN deposition in cholesteatoma ECM was excessive, whereas EDA-FN expression was absent in controls. Our results confirm reports of in vitro experiments and support the concept that cholesteatoma behaves as a chronic wound healing process.

  10. Stretching human mesenchymal stromal cells on stiffness-customized collagen type I generates a smooth muscle marker profile without growth factor addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothdiener, Miriam; Hegemann, Miriam; Uynuk-Ool, Tatiana; Walters, Brandan; Papugy, Piruntha; Nguyen, Phong; Claus, Valentin; Seeger, Tanja; Stoeckle, Ulrich; Boehme, Karen A.; Aicher, Wilhelm K.; Stegemann, Jan P.; Hart, Melanie L.; Kurz, Bodo; Klein, Gerd; Rolauffs, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    Using matrix elasticity and cyclic stretch have been investigated for inducing mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) differentiation towards the smooth muscle cell (SMC) lineage but not in combination. We hypothesized that combining lineage-specific stiffness with cyclic stretch would result in a significantly increased expression of SMC markers, compared to non-stretched controls. First, we generated dense collagen type I sheets by mechanically compressing collagen hydrogels. Atomic force microscopy revealed a nanoscale stiffness range known to support myogenic differentiation. Further characterization revealed viscoelasticity and stable biomechanical properties under cyclic stretch with >99% viable adherent human MSC. MSCs on collagen sheets demonstrated a significantly increased mRNA but not protein expression of SMC markers, compared to on culture flasks. However, cyclic stretch of MSCs on collagen sheets significantly increased both mRNA and protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin, transgelin, and calponin versus plastic and non-stretched sheets. Thus, lineage-specific stiffness and cyclic stretch can be applied together for inducing MSC differentiation towards SMCs without the addition of recombinant growth factors or other soluble factors. This represents a novel stimulation method for modulating the phenotype of MSCs towards SMCs that could easily be incorporated into currently available methodologies to obtain a more targeted control of MSC phenotype.

  11. Organic neem compounds inhibit soft-rot fungal growth and improve the strength of anthracite bricks bound with collagen and lignin for use in iron foundry cupolas.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, D J; Nieto-Delgado, C; Cannon, F S; Brennan, R A

    2015-07-01

    To examine organic neem compounds for their effective growth inhibition of saprotrophic soft-rot fungi on anthracite bricks bound with collagen and lignin for use in iron foundry cupolas as an alternative fuel source. Azadirachtin, crude neem oil (NO), and clarified neem oil extract (CNO) were combined with copper to inhibit the growth of the soft-rot fungus, Chaetomium globosum. A synergistic interaction was observed between CNO and a low dose of copper on nutrient media (two-factor anova with triplicate replication: P < 0·05). Interaction was confirmed on lab-scale collagen-lignin-anthracite briquettes by measuring their unconfined compressive (UC) strength. The effective collagen strength of the briquettes was enhanced by applying CNO to their surface prior to inoculation: the room temperature UC strength of the briquettes was 28 ± 4·6% greater when CNO (0·4 mg cm(-2) ) was surface-applied, and was 43 ± 3·0% greater when CNO plus copper (0·14 μg cm(-2) ) were surface-applied. Surface application of CNO and copper synergistically prevents fungal growth on bindered anthracite briquettes and increases their room temperature strength. This novel organic fungicidal treatment may increase the storage and performance of anthracite bricks in iron foundries, thereby saving 15-20% of the energy used in conventional coke production. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. MT1-MMP promotes cell growth and ERK activation through c-Src and paxillin in three-dimensional collagen matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Takino, Takahisa; Tsuge, Hisashi; Ozawa, Terumasa

    2010-06-11

    Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is essential for tumor invasion and growth. We show here that MT1-MMP induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in cancer cells cultured in collagen gel, which is indispensable for their proliferation. Inhibition of MT1-MMP by MMP inhibitor or small interfering RNA suppressed activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and ERK in MT1-MMP-expressing cancer cells, which resulted in up-regulation of p21{sup WAF1} and suppression of cell growth in collagen gel. Cell proliferation was also abrogated by the inhibitor against ERK pathway without affecting FAK phosphorylation. MT1-MMP and integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} were shown to be involvedmore » in c-Src activation, which induced FAK and ERK activation in collagen gel. These MT1-MMP-mediated signal transductions were paxillin dependent, as knockdown of paxillin reduced cell growth and ERK activation, and co-expression of MT1-MMP with paxillin induced ERK activation. The results suggest that MT1-MMP contributes to proliferation of cancer cells in the extracellular matrix by activating ERK through c-Src and paxillin.« less

  13. Engineered collagen hydrogels for the sustained release of biomolecules and imaging agents: promoting the growth of human gingival cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jonghoon; Park, Hoyoung; Kim, Taeho; Jeong, Yoon; Oh, Myoung Hwan; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Gilad, Assaf A; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2014-01-01

    We present here the in vitro release profiles of either fluorescently labeled biomolecules or computed tomography contrast nanoagents from engineered collagen hydrogels under physiological conditions. The collagen constructs were designed as potential biocompatible inserts into wounded human gingiva. The collagen hydrogels were fabricated under a variety of conditions in order to optimize the release profile of biomolecules and nanoparticles for the desired duration and amount. The collagen constructs containing biomolecules/nanoconstructs were incubated under physiological conditions (ie, 37°C and 5% CO2) for 24 hours, and the release profile was tuned from 20% to 70% of initially loaded materials by varying the gelation conditions of the collagen constructs. The amounts of released biomolecules and nanoparticles were quantified respectively by measuring the intensity of fluorescence and X-ray scattering. The collagen hydrogel we fabricated may serve as an efficient platform for the controlled release of biomolecules and imaging agents in human gingiva to facilitate the regeneration of oral tissues. PMID:25429215

  14. Transforming your professional self: encouraging lifelong personal and professional growth.

    PubMed

    Rodts, Mary F; Lamb, Karen V

    2008-01-01

    Transforming from student nurse to registered nurse is often discussed in a capstone class or a hospital orientation program. Changes in professional plans later in the career continuum often occur, but are not always planned. This article discusses the challenges of change, the need for career planning, stages of role acquisition, role socialization, and role transformation. In addition, it outlines the importance of creating a career plan to meet future career goals.

  15. Resveratrol inhibits transforming growth factor-β2-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human retinal pigment epithelial cells by suppressing the Smad pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Long; Chen, Yi-Hao; Tai, Ming-Cheng; Liang, Chang-Min; Lu, Da-Wen; Chen, Jiann-Torng

    2017-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is the main cause of failure following retinal detachment surgery. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the development of PVR, and EMT inhibition decreases collagen gel contraction and fibrotic membrane formation, resulting in prevention of PVR. Resveratrol is naturally found in red wine and has inhibitory effects on EMT. Resveratrol is widely used in cardioprotection, neuroprotection, chemotherapy, and antiaging therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on TGF-β2-induced EMT in ARPE-19 cells in vitro. We found that resveratrol suppressed the decrease of zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) and caused an increase of alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in TGF-β2-treated ARPE-19 cells, assessed using Western blots; moreover, it also suppressed the decrease in ZO-1 and the increase of vimentin expression, observed using immunocytochemistry. Resveratrol attenuated TGF-β2-induced wound closure and cell migration in ARPE-19 cells in a scratch wound test and modified Boyden chamber assay, respectively. We also found that resveratrol reduced collagen gel contraction - assessed by collagen matrix contraction assay - and suppressed the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 in TGF-β2-treated ARPE-19 cells. These results suggest that resveratrol mediates anti-EMT effects, which could be used in the prevention of PVR.

  16. Differential MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity and collagen distribution in skeletal muscle from pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) during juvenile and adult growth phases.

    PubMed

    Michelin, Aline Cristina; Justulin, Luis Antonio; Delella, Flávia Karina; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Felisbino, Sérgio Luis; Dal-Pai-Silva, Maeli

    2009-03-01

    Here, we evaluated collagen distribution and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in skeletal muscle of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) during juvenile and adult growth phases. Muscle samples from juvenile and adult fishes were processed by histochemistry for collagen system fibers and for gelatin-zymography for MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities analysis. Picrosirius staining revealed a myosept, endomysium, and perimysium-like structures in both growth phases and muscle types, with increased areas of collagen fibers in adults, mainly in red muscle. Reticulin staining showed that reticular fibers in the endomysium-like structure were thinner and discontinuous in the red muscle fibers. The zymography revealed clear bands of the pro- MMP-9, active- MMP-9, intermediate- MMP-2, and active- MMP-2 forms in red and white muscle in both growth phases. MMP-2 activity was more intense in juvenile than adult muscle fibers. Comparing the red and white muscle types, MMP-2 activity was significantly higher in red muscle in adult phase only. The activity of MMP-9 forms was similar in juvenile red and white muscles and in the adult red muscle, without any activity in adult white muscle. In conclusion, our results show that, in pacu, the higher activities of MMP-2 and -9 are associated with the rapid muscle growth in juvenile age and in adult fish, these activities are related with a different red and white muscle physiology. This study may contribute to the understanding muscle growth mechanisms and may also contribute to analyse red and the white muscle parameters of firmness and softness, respectively, of the commercial product. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Human corneal fibroblast migration and extracellular matrix synthesis during stromal repair: Role played by platelet-derived growth factor-BB, basic fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor-β1.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Muñoz, Patricia; Ibares-Frías, Lucía; Garrote, José A; Valsero-Blanco, María Cruz; Cantalapiedra-Rodríguez, Roberto; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Carmen Martínez-García, M

    2018-02-01

    The development of treatments that modulate corneal wound healing to avoid fibrosis during tissue repair is important for the restoration of corneal transparency after an injury. To date, few studies have studied the influence of growth factors (GFs) on human corneal fibroblast (HCF) expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as collagen types I and III, proteoglycans such as perlecan, or proteins implicated in cellular migration such as α5β1-integrin and syndecan-4. Using in vitro HCFs, a mechanical wound model was developed to study the influence of the GFs basic fibroblast GF (bFGF), platelet-derived GF (PDGF-BB) and transforming GF-β1 (TGFβ1) on ECM protein production and cellular migration. Our results show that mechanical wounding provokes the autocrine release of bFGF and TGFβ1 at different time points during the wound closure. The HCF response to PDGF-BB was a rapid closure due to fast cellular migration associated with a high focal adhesion replacement and a high expression of collagen and proteoglycans, producing nonfibrotic healing. bFGF stimulated nonfibrotic ECM production and limited the migration process. Finally, TGFβ1 induced expression of the fibrotic markers collagen type III and α5β1 integrin, and it inhibited cellular migration due to the formation of focal adhesions with a low turnover rate. The novel in vitro HCF mechanical wound model can be used to understand the role played by GFs in human corneal repair. The model can also be used to test the effects of different treatments aimed at improving the healing process. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Nanomechanics of collagen microfibrils

    PubMed Central

    Vesentini, Simone; Redaelli, Alberto; Gautieri, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Summary Collagen constitutes one third of the human proteome, providing mechanical stability, elasticity and strength to organisms and is thus the prime construction material in biology. Collagen is also the dominating material in the extracellular matrix where its stiffness controls cell differentiation, growth and pathology. We use atomistic-based hierarchical multiscale modeling to describe this complex biological material from the bottom up. This includes the use and development of large-scale computational modeling tools to investigate several aspects related to collagen-based tissues, including source of visco-elasticity and deformation mechanisms at the nanoscale level. The key innovation of this research is that until now, collagen materials have primarily been described at macroscopic scales, without explicitly understanding the mechanical contributions at the molecular and fibrillar levels. The major impact of this research will be the development of fundamental models of collagenous tissues, important to the design of new scaffolding biomaterials for regenerative medicine as well as for the understanding of collagen-related diseases. PMID:23885342

  19. The roles of TGF-beta1 gene transfer on collagen formation during Achilles tendon healing.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yu; Mao, ZeBing; Wei, XueLei; Lin, Lin; Chen, LianXu; Wang, HaiJun; Fu, Xin; Zhang, JiYing; Yu, ChangLong

    2009-05-29

    Collagen content and cross-linking are believed to be major determinants of tendon structural integrity and function. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 on the collagen content and cross-linking of Achilles tendons, and on the histological and biomechanical changes occurring during Achilles tendon healing in rabbits. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transfected with the TGF-beta1 gene were surgically implanted into experimentally injured Achilles tendons. Collagen proteins were identified by immunohistochemical staining and fiber bundle accumulation was revealed by Sirius red staining. Achilles tendons treated with TGF-beta1-transfected BMSCs showed higher concentrations of collagen I protein, more rapid matrix remodeling, and larger fiber bundles. Thus TGF-beta1 can promote mechanical strength in healing Achilles tendons by regulating collagen synthesis, cross-link formation, and matrix remodeling.

  20. TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TITLE:
    TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF). AUTHORS (ALL): Abbott, Barbara D.1; Best, Deborah S.1; Narotsky, Michael G.1. SPONSOR NAME: None INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Repro Tox ...

  1. [Collagen nephritis].

    PubMed

    Lago, N R; Bulos, M J; Monserrat, A J

    1997-01-01

    Fibrillar collagen in the glomeruli is considered specific of the nail-patella syndrome. A new nephropathy with diffuse intraglomerular deposition of type III collagen without nail and skeletal abnormalities has been described. We report the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented persistent proteinuria, hematuria, deafness without nail and skeletal abnormalities. The renal biopsy showed focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis by light microscopy. The electron microscopy revealed the presence of massive fibrillar collagen within the mesangial matriz and the basement membrane. This is the first patient reported in our country. We emphasize the usefulness of electron microscopy in the study of glomerular diseases.

  2. SIRT1 reduction causes renal and retinal injury in diabetes through endothelin 1 and transforming growth factor β1

    PubMed Central

    Mortuza, Rokhsana; Feng, Biao; Chakrabarti, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    In diabetes, hyperglycaemia causes up-regulation of endothelin 1 (ET-1) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). Previously we showed glucose reduces sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a class III histone deacetylase. Here, we investigated the regulatory role of SIRT1 on ET-1 and TGF-β1 expression. Human microvascular endothelial cells were examined following incubation with 25 mmol/l glucose (HG) and 5 mmol/l glucose (NG) with or without SIRT1 or histone acetylase p300 overexpression or knockdown. mRNA expressions of ET-1, TGF-β1, SIRT1, p300 and collagen 1α(I) were examined. SIRT1 enzyme activity, ET-1 and TGF-β1 protein levels were measured. Histone acetylation and endothelial permeability were further investigated. Similar analyses were performed in the kidneys and retinas of SIRT1 overexpressing transgenic mice with or without streptozotocin induced diabetes. Renal functions were evaluated. In the endothelial cells (ECs), HG caused increased permeability and escalated production of ET-1, TGF-β1, collagen Iα(I). These cells also showed increased p300 expression, histone acetylation and reduced SIRT1 levels. These changes were rectified in the ECs following p300 silencing or by SIRT1 overexpression, whereas SIRT1 knockdown or p300 overexpression in NG mimicked the effects of HG. High ET-1 and TGF-β1 levels were seen in the kidneys and retinas of diabetic mice along with micro-albuminuria and increased fibronectin protein (marker of glucose-induced cell injury) levels. Interestingly, these detrimental changes were blunted in SIRT1 overexpressing transgenic mice with diabetes. This study showed a novel SIRT1 mediated protection against renal and retinal injury in diabetes, regulated through p300, ET-1 and TGF-β1. PMID:25753689

  3. Human dental pulp stem cells expressing transforming growth factor β3 transgene for cartilage-like tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Ahmed; Rabie, A Bakr M

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to engineer sizable three-dimensional cartilage-like constructs using stem cells isolated from human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Human DPSCs were isolated from teeth extracted for orthodontic treatment and enriched further using immuno-magnetic bead selection for stem cell marker CD146. Chondrogenic lineage differentiation of DPSCs induced using recombinant transforming growth factor β3 (TGFβ3) was verified by pellet culture. Because the use of recombinant proteins is associated with rapid degradation and difficult in vivo administration, we constructed the recombinant adeno-associated viral vector encoding human TGFβ3 and determined the best multiplicity of infection for DPSCs. Transduced DPSCs were seeded on poly-l-lactic acid/polyethylene glycol (PLLA/PEG) electrospun fiber scaffolds demonstrating proper attachment, proliferation and viability as shown by scanning electron microscopy micrographs and CCK-8 cell counting kit. Scaffolds seeded with DPSCs were implanted in the back of nude mice. Transduced DPSCs highly expressed human TGFβ3 for up to 48 days and expressed chondrogenic markers collagen IIa1, Sox9 and aggrecan, as verified by immunohistochemistry and messenger RNA (mRNA). Immunohistochemistry for TGFβ3/DPSC constructs (n = 5/group) showed cartilage-like matrix formation with glycosaminoglycans. In vivo constructs with TGFβ3/DPSCs showed higher collagen type II and Sox9 mRNA expression relative to non-transduced DPSC constructs (n = 5/group). Western blot analysis confirmed this expression pattern on the protein level (n = 3/group). Immuno-selected DPSCs can be successfully differentiated toward chondrogenic lineage, while expressing the chondrogenic inducing factor. Seeded on PLLA/PEG electrospun scaffold, human DPSCs formed three-dimensional cartilage constructs that could prove useful in future treatment of cartilage defects. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc

  4. Procollagen Lysyl Hydroxylase 2 Expression Is Regulated by an Alternative Downstream Transforming Growth Factor β-1 Activation Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Gjaltema, Rutger A. F.; de Rond, Saskia; Rots, Marianne G.; Bank, Ruud A.

    2015-01-01

    PLOD2 (procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2) hydroxylates lysine residues in collagen telopeptides and is essential for collagen pyridinoline cross-link formation. PLOD2 expression and subsequent pyridinoline cross-links are increased in fibrotic pathologies by transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFβ1). In this report we examined the molecular processes underlying TGFβ1-induced PLOD2 expression. We found that binding of the TGFβ1 pathway related transcription factors SMAD3 and SP1-mediated TGFβ1 enhanced PLOD2 expression and could be correlated to an increase of acetylated histone H3 and H4 at the PLOD2 promoter. Interestingly, the classical co-activators of SMAD3 complexes, p300 and CBP, were not responsible for the enhanced H3 and H4 acetylation. Depletion of SMAD3 reduced PLOD2 acetylated H3 and H4, indicating that another as of yet unidentified histone acetyltransferase binds to SMAD3 at PLOD2. Assessing histone methylation marks at the PLOD2 promoter depicted an increase of the active histone mark H3K79me2, a decrease of the repressive H4K20me3 mark, but no role for the generally strong transcription-related modifications: H3K4me3, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3. Collectively, our findings reveal that TGFβ1 induces a SP1- and SMAD3-dependent recruitment of histone modifying enzymes to the PLOD2 promoter other than the currently known TGFβ1 downstream co-activators and epigenetic modifications. This also suggests that additional activation strategies are used downstream of the TGFβ1 pathway, and hence their unraveling could be of great importance to fully understand TGFβ1 activation of genes. PMID:26432637

  5. Growth and development of bone mass in untreated alloxan diabetic rats. Effects of collagen glycosylation and parathyroid activity on bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Locatto, M E; Abranzon, H; Caferra, D; Fernandez, M C; Alloatti, R; Puche, R C

    1993-11-01

    Body and skeletal growth and development were studied in alloxan-treated and age-matched control rats, between 3 and 23 weeks of age. For both groups the growth of the skeletal and body weights were in phase, with a maximum at 7 weeks of age. The growth data was assessed according to Parks' theory of feeding and growth. Alloxan-treated rats showed an important reduction in body and bone mass, with a greater impact on soft tissues. As expected, the asymptotic body and skeletal weights were reduced respect to controls. The time needed to attain 63% of mature food intake (Brody's 'time constant') was also reduced, indicating that maturation occurred at an earlier age than controls. The diabetic state is characterized by a reduced food conversion efficiency. Despite hyperfagia, alloxan-treated rats showed circa one-half the body and skeletal weights of age-matched controls. The following adverse effects of alloxan diabetes on bone tissue were observed: (a) a decrease in trabecular bone volume (femoral metaphyses) and cortical width (femoral diaphyses), (b) increased bone collagen glycosylation as a function of extracellular glucose concentration, (c) increased resistance of bone collagen to collagenase hydrolysis, (d) decreased rate of bone resorption except under strongly stimulated parathyroid function, (d) significantly lower ashes/bone matrix ratio in diabetic rats with more than 10 weeks of diabetes, and (e) no histological evidence of osteomalacia.

  6. Extracellular matrix is modulated in advanced glycation end products milieu via a RAGE receptor dependent pathway boosted by transforming growth factor-β1 RAGE.

    PubMed

    Serban, Andreea Iren; Stanca, Loredana; Geicu, Ovidiu Ionut; Munteanu, Maria Cristina; Costache, Marieta; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial fibrosis is induced by imbalances in extracellular matrix homeostasis. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can bind and activate the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), which is involved in diabetic nephropathy. We set out to identify the role of AGEs in producing alterations leading to matrix hypertrophy and the pathway through which aminoguanidine, as well as anti-RAGE and anti-transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 antibody treatments could prevent these modifications. Human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells were exposed to glycated bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA) and co-treated with neutralizing antibodies or aminoguanidine. The effects on the transcriptional and translational levels of RAGE, TGF-β1 and collagen IV were evaluated, while metalloproteinase activity was assessed by gelatin zymography. AGE-BSA (200 μg/mL) upregulated RAGE's expression, while TGF-β1 synthesis and the formation of its bioactive form were increased in a dose-dependent manner by AGEs. AGE-BSA exposure increased both matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and collagen IV synthesis, boosted by TGF-β1 upregulation. Aminoguanidine's effects revealed that small concentrations (10 μmol/L) enhance AGE-BSA effects, by increasing the expression of RAGE and TGF-β1, while higher concentrations (100 μmol/L) contribute to their downregulation. Although AGEs regulate RAGE and TGF-β1 by distinct pathways, RAGE activation leads to a further increase of TGF-β1 levels. MMP-2 activity seems to rely on TGF-β1, while MMP-9 was dependent on RAGE. These factors converge to control collagen IV turnover. Furthermore, although the antibody treatments might appear more efficient than AG in decreasing collagen IV levels, the cells compensate the RAGE and TGF-β1 blockade by increasing the mRNA expression of these proteins. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signalling is increased in rheumatoid synovium but TGF-β blockade does not modify experimental arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo-Gil, E; Criado, G; Santiago, B; Dotor, J; Pablos, J L; Galindo, M

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the distribution of regulatory and inhibitory mothers against decapentaplegic homologue (Smad) proteins as markers of active transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signalling in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial tissue and to investigate the effect of TGF-β blockade in the development and progression of collagen-induced arthritis. The expression of Smad proteins in synovial tissues from RA, osteoarthritic and healthy controls was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Arthritis was induced in DBA/1 mice by immunization with chicken type-II collagen (CII). TGF-β was blocked in vivo with the specific peptide p17 starting at the time of immunization or on the day of arthritis onset. T cell population frequencies and specific responses to CII were analysed. The expression of cytokines and transcription factors was quantified in spleen and joint samples. Statistical differences between groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test or one-way analysis of variance (anova) using the Kruskal-Wallis test. p-Smad-2/3 and inhibitory Smad-7 expression were detected in RA and control tissues. In RA, most lymphoid infiltrating cells showed nuclear p-Smad-2/3 without Smad-7 expression. Treatment with TGF-β antagonist did not affect clinical severity, joint inflammation and cartilage damage in collagen-induced arthritis. Frequency of T cell subsets, mRNA levels of cytokines and transcription factors, specific proliferation to CII, serum interleukin (IL)-6 and anti-CII antibodies were comparable in p17 and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated groups. The pattern of Smad proteins expression demonstrates active TGF-β signalling in RA synovium. However, specific TGF-β blockade does not have a significant effect in the mice model of collagen-induced arthritis. © 2013 British Society for Immunology.

  8. Quantitative analysis of interdental Gingiva in patients with chronic periodontitis and transforming growth factor-β1 29C/T gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Zahra; Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb, Hamidreza; Hashemi, Mohammad; Rigi-Ladiz, Mohammad Ayub

    2014-02-01

    The association of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 29C/T gene polymorphisms with level of tissue breakdown and periodontal disease progression is not clear. In this study, quantitative parameters of interdental papilla are investigated in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) and TGF-β1 29C/T gene polymorphisms. Sixty gingiva samples were included. After determination of TGF-β1 29C/T gene polymorphisms using tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system/polymerase chain reaction (T-ARMS-PCR), 15 gingival tissue samples from patients with CP in each genotype (TT, TC, and CC) were considered as case groups. Fifteen control samples were also collected from healthy individuals. After tissue processing, interdental gingiva tissues were exhaustively sectioned into 4-μm-thick sections. Ten to 13 sections were sampled by systematic uniform random sampling and stained with Masson trichrome, and the volume density (Vv) of the gingival components was estimated using Cavalieri estimation. Statistically significant differences were found in Vv of epithelium, connective tissue, collagenous and non-collagenous matrix, and blood vessels between control and CP groups (P <0.0001). There was a corresponding decrease in the collagenous matrix Vv in patients with the TT genotype compared with those with CT and CC genotypes. Collagenous matrix and blood vessel Vv values were statistically correlated with the number of T alleles (r = -0.74, r(2) = 54.8%, P = 0.0001 and r = 0.84, r(2) = 70.6%, P = 0.0001, respectively). This study shows that there is a strong association between TGF-β1 29C/T gene polymorphisms and quantitative parameters of interdental papilla in patients with CP.

  9. Role of transforming growth factor β‑1 in the pathogenesis of pelvic organ prolapse: A potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Wang, Ying; Li, Bing-Shu; Yang, Qing; Tang, Jian-Ming; Min, Jie; Hong, Sha-Sha; Guo, Wen-Jun; Hong, Li

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to reveal the metabolic alterations of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in uterosacral ligament (USL) with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and to explore the role of transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1) in pathogenesis of POP. For this purpse, 60 participants who underwent hysterectomy for benign indications were enrolled, 30 of which had symptomatic POP (grade II, III or IV) and composed the POP group, and the other 30 had asymptomatic POP (grade I or less) and served as the controls. Collagen fibers, elastin,matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2/9, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP)‑2 and TGF‑β1 were examined by Masson's trichrome staining, immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR using USL biopsies. In vitro, human USL fibroblasts (hUSLFs) were primary cultured, pre-treated with recombinant TGF‑β1 (0, 5, or 10 ng/ml) and then subjected to cyclic mechanical stretching (CMS; 0 or 5,333 µε strain). Changes in the expression levels of collagen type I/III, elastin, TIMP‑2, MMP‑2/9 and Smad were detected. Our results revealed that at the tissue level, the expression of collagen fibers, elastin, TIMP‑2 and TGF‑β1 was significantly reduced in the POP group, while the activities of MMP‑2/9 were significantly upregulated, compared with the control group. Statistical analysis indicated that the mRNA expression of TGF‑β1 inversely correlated with the severity of POP partially. Our in vitro experimental data demonstrated that a CMS of 5333 µε strain promoted the degradation of ECM proteins, inhibited the synthesis of TIMP‑2, and upregulated the proteolytic activities of MMP‑2/9. Pre-treatment with TGF‑β1 attenuated the loss of ECM by stimulating the synthesis of TIMP‑2 and inhibiting the activities of MMP‑2/9 through the TGF‑β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. On the whole, our data indicate that the reduced anabolism and increased catabolism of ECM proteins in USL are the pathological

  10. Role of transforming growth factor β-1 in the pathogenesis of pelvic organ prolapse: A potential therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cheng; Wang, Ying; Li, Bing-Shu; Yang, Qing; Tang, Jian-Ming; Min, Jie; Hong, Sha-Sha; Guo, Wen-Jun; Hong, Li

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to reveal the metabolic alterations of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in uterosacral ligament (USL) with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and to explore the role of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in pathogenesis of POP. For this purpse, 60 participants who underwent hysterectomy for benign indications were enrolled, 30 of which had symptomatic POP (grade II, III or IV) and composed the POP group, and the other 30 had asymptomatic POP (grade I or less) and served as the controls. Collagen fibers, elastin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP)-2 and TGF-β1 were examined by Masson's trichrome staining, immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR using USL biopsies. In vitro, human USL fibroblasts (hUSLFs) were primary cultured, pre-treated with recombinant TGF-β1 (0, 5, or 10 ng/ml) and then subjected to cyclic mechanical stretching (CMS; 0 or 5,333 με strain). Changes in the expression levels of collagen type I/III, elastin, TIMP-2, MMP-2/9 and Smad were detected. Our results revealed that at the tissue level, the expression of collagen fibers, elastin, TIMP-2 and TGF-β1 was significantly reduced in the POP group, while the activities of MMP-2/9 were significantly upregulated, compared with the control group. Statistical analysis indicated that the mRNA expression of TGF-β1 inversely correlated with the severity of POP partially. Our in vitro experimental data demonstrated that a CMS of 5333 με strain promoted the degradation of ECM proteins, inhibited the synthesis of TIMP-2, and upregulated the proteolytic activities of MMP-2/9. Pre-treatment with TGF-β1 attenuated the loss of ECM by stimulating the synthesis of TIMP-2 and inhibiting the activities of MMP-2/9 through the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. On the whole, our data indicate that the reduced anabolism and increased catabolism of ECM proteins in USL are the pathological characteristics of POP. TGF-β1 not only has a specific

  11. Development of biomimetic tilapia collagen nanofibers for skin regeneration through inducing keratinocytes differentiation and collagen synthesis of dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tian; Wang, Nanping; Xue, Yang; Ding, Tingting; Liu, Xin; Mo, Xiumei; Sun, Jiao

    2015-02-11

    In this study, tilapia skin collagen sponge and electrospun nanofibers were developed for wound dressing. The collagen sponge was composed of at least two α-peptides, and its denaturation temperature was 44.99 °C. It did not change the number of spleen-derived lymphocytes in BALB/c mice, the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ lymphocytes, and the level of IgG or IgM in Sprague-Dawley rat. The contact angle, tensile strength, and weight loss temperature of collagen nanofibers were 21.2°, 6.72±0.44 MPa, and 300 °C, respectively. The nanofibers could promote the viabilities of human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), inducing epidermal differentiation through the gene expression of involucrin, filaggrin, and type I transglutaminase of HaCaTs, and they could also accelerate migration of HaCaTs with the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Besides, the nanofibers could upregulate the protien level of Col-I in HDFs both via a direct effect and TGF-β1 secreted from HaCaTs, thus facilitating the formation of collagen fibers. Furthermore, the collagen nanofibers stimulated the skin regeneration rapidly and effectively in vivo. These biological effects could be explained as the contributions from the biomimic extracellular cell matrix structure, hydrophilicity, and the multiple amino acids of the collagen nanofibers.

  12. Multiscale simulation of thrombus growth and vessel occlusion triggered by collagen/tissue factor using a data-driven model of combinatorial platelet signalling.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yichen; Lee, Mei Yan; Zhu, Shu; Sinno, Talid; Diamond, Scott L

    2017-12-11

    During clotting under flow, platelets bind and activate on collagen and release autocrinic factors such as ADP and thromboxane, while tissue factor (TF) on the damaged wall leads to localized thrombin generation. Towards patient-specific simulation of thrombosis, a multiscale approach was developed to account for: platelet signalling [neural network (NN) trained by pairwise agonist scanning (PAS), PAS-NN], platelet positions (lattice kinetic Monte Carlo, LKMC), wall-generated thrombin and platelet-released ADP/thromboxane convection-diffusion (partial differential equation, PDE) and flow over a growing clot (lattice Boltzmann). LKMC included shear-driven platelet aggregate restructuring. The PDEs for thrombin, ADP and thromboxane were solved by finite element method using cell activation-driven adaptive triangular meshing. At all times, intracellular calcium was known for each platelet by PAS-NN in response to its unique exposure to local collagen, ADP, thromboxane and thrombin. When compared with microfluidic experiments of human blood clotting on collagen/TF driven by constant pressure drop, the model accurately predicted clot morphology and growth with time. In experiments and simulations at TF at 0.1 and 10 molecule-TF/$\\mu$m$^{2}$ and initial wall shear rate of 200 s$^{-1}$, the occlusive blockade of flow for a 60-$\\mu$m channel occurred relatively abruptly at 600 and 400 s, respectively (with no occlusion at zero TF). Prior to occlusion, intrathrombus concentrations reached 50 nM thrombin, ~ 1 $\\mu$M thromboxane and ~ 10 $\\mu$M ADP, while the wall shear rate on the rough clot peaked at ~ 1000-2000 s$^{-1}$. Additionally, clotting on TF/collagen was accurately simulated for modulators of platelet cyclooxygenase-1, P2Y$_{1}$ and IP-receptor. This multiscale approach facilitates patient-specific simulation of thrombosis under hemodynamic and pharmacological conditions. © The authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of

  13. Interleukin-1β Attenuates Myofibroblast Formation and Extracellular Matrix Production in Dermal and Lung Fibroblasts Exposed to Transforming Growth Factor-β1

    PubMed Central

    Mia, Masum M.; Boersema, Miriam; Bank, Ruud A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most potent pro-fibrotic cytokines is transforming growth factor (TGFβ). TGFβ is involved in the activation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, resulting in the hallmark of fibrosis: the pathological accumulation of collagen. Interleukin-1β (IL1β) can influence the severity of fibrosis, however much less is known about the direct effects on fibroblasts. Using lung and dermal fibroblasts, we have investigated the effects of IL1β, TGFβ1, and IL1β in combination with TGFβ1 on myofibroblast formation, collagen synthesis and collagen modification (including prolyl hydroxylase, lysyl hydroxylase and lysyl oxidase), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We found that IL1β alone has no obvious pro-fibrotic effect on fibroblasts. However, IL1β is able to inhibit the TGFβ1-induced myofibroblast formation as well as collagen synthesis. Glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1), the Hedgehog transcription factor that is involved in the transformation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts is upregulated by TGFβ1. The addition of IL1β reduced the expression of GLI1 and thereby also indirectly inhibits myofibroblast formation. Other potentially anti-fibrotic effects of IL1β that were observed are the increased levels of MMP1, −2, −9 and −14 produced by fibroblasts exposed to TGFβ1/IL1β in comparison with fibroblasts exposed to TGFβ1 alone. In addition, IL1β decreased the TGFβ1-induced upregulation of lysyl oxidase, an enzyme involved in collagen cross-linking. Furthermore, we found that lung and dermal fibroblasts do not always behave identically towards IL1β. Suppression of COL1A1 by IL1β in the presence of TGFβ1 is more pronounced in lung fibroblasts compared to dermal fibroblasts, whereas a higher upregulation of MMP1 is seen in dermal fibroblasts. The role of IL1β in fibrosis should be reconsidered, and the differences in phenotypical properties of fibroblasts derived from different organs should be taken into account in future anti

  14. Collagen in organ development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    It is important to know whether microgravity will adversely affect developmental processes. Collagens are macromolecular structural components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) which may be altered by perturbations in gravity. Interstitial collagens have been shown to be necessary for normal growth and morphogenesis in some embryonic organs, and in the mouse salivary gland, the biosynthetic pattern of these molecules changes during development. Determination of the effects of microgravity on epithelial organ development must be preceded by crucial ground-based studies. These will define control of normal synthesis, secretion, and deposition of ECM macromolecules and the relationship of these processes to morphogenesis.

  15. Control of growth by picolinic acid: Differential response of normal and transformed cells

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Pol, J. A.; Bono, Vincent H.; Johnson, George S.

    1977-01-01

    Picolinic acid reversibly inhibits the growth of cultured cells. Fourteen other pyridine derivatives were ineffective or toxic. Untransformed normal rat kidney (NRK) cells are reversibly arrested in the G1 stage of the growth cycle as shown by cell counts, mitotic index, [3H]thymidine incorporation, and flow microfluorometry. Flow microfluorometry was used to monitor the effects of picolinic acid on numerous other cell lines. Normal cells are blocked in G1, whereas transformed cells show responses that are dependent upon the transforming virus and independent of species or origin of the cell line. Kirsten sarcoma virus-transformed cells are blocked in G1. Simian virus 40-transformed cells progress to a G2 block. Cells transformed by polyoma or Harvey sarcoma virus with Moloney virus coat have flow microfluorometry profiles that indicate blocks in both G1 and G2. Cells transformed with Moloney sarcoma virus are not blocked in a specific phase of the cell cycle. Picolinic acid does not change the levels of NAD+ plus NADH; however, the growth inhibition by picolinic acid is partially overcome by nicotinamide. These results suggest that picolinic acid interacts with a specific growth control mechanism that may involve NAD+ and that this control mechanism is altered by different transforming viruses in different manners. Images PMID:197524

  16. Serum-free growth of normal and transformed fibroblasts in milk: differential requirements for fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Bovine milk may be used as a supplement for the serum-free growth of certain fibroblastic cells in culture. The growth properties of three representative cell types in milk-supplemented medium were examined; fibroblastic cell strains, fibroblastic cell lines, and transformed fibroblasts. Transformed fibroblasts, which included RNA and DNA tumor virus-transformed cells and carcinogen-transformed cells, grew in milk. Instead of growing attached to the culture dishes, as they normally do in serum, transformed fibroblasts grew in milk as large clusters in suspension. In contrast, nontransformed fibroblastic cell strains and cell lines did not grow in milk-supplemented medium. Fibroblasts transformed by a temperature-sensitive transformation mutant of Rous sarcoma virus were temperature-sensitive for growth in milk. The failure of cells to adhere to the substratum in milk-supplemented medium suggested that milk might be deficient in attachment factors for fibroblasts. When the attachment of fibroblastic cells in milk- supplemented medium was facilitated by pretreating culture dishes with fibronectin, (a) transformed cells grew attached rather than in suspension, (b) normal cell lines attached and grew to confluence, and (c) normal cell strains adhered and survived but did not exhibit appreciable cell proliferation. PMID:7204495

  17. Stimulation of collagen synthesis by the anabolic steroid stanozolol.

    PubMed

    Falanga, V; Greenberg, A S; Zhou, L; Ochoa, S M; Roberts, A B; Falabella, A; Yamaguchi, Y

    1998-12-01

    There is evidence that anabolic steroids, which are derived from testosterone and have markedly less androgenic activity, promote tissue growth and enhance tissue repair; however, the mechanisms involved in their anabolic activities remain unclear. In this report, we measured the effect of the anabolic steroid stanozolol on cell replication and collagen synthesis in cultures of adult human dermal fibroblasts. Stanozolol (0.625-5 microg per ml) had no effect on fibroblast replication and cell viability (p = 0.764) but enhanced collagen synthesis (p < 0.01) in a dose-dependent manner (r = 0.907). Stanozolol also increased (by 2-fold) the mRNA levels of alpha1 (I) and alpha1 (III) procollagen and, to a similar extent, upregulated transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA and peptide levels (p < 0.001). There was no stimulation of collagen synthesis by testosterone. The stimulatory effects of stanozolol on collagen synthesis were blocked by a TGF-beta1 anti-sense oligonucleotide, by antibodies to TGF-beta, and in dermal fibroblast cultures derived from TGF-beta1 knockout mice. We conclude that collagen synthesis is increased by the anabolic steroid stanozolol and that, for the most part, this effect is due to TGF-beta1. These findings point to a novel mechanism of action of anabolic steroids.

  18. Opposite effects of non-thermal plasma on cell migration and collagen production in keloid and normal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung Un; Kim, Yeon Soo; Kim, Yang Eun; Park, Ju-Kyeong; Lee, Yun Sang; Kang, Hee Young; Jang, Jae Won; Ryeo, Jeong Beom; Lee, Yuijina; Shin, Yoo Seob; Kim, Chul-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress in the understanding non-thermal plasma (NTP) properties prompted its application in the treatment of various diseases. However, therapeutic effect of NTP on keloid cells has not been reported previously. We sought to investigate the effect of NTP treatment on keloid by comparing cell migration and collagen production of keloid (KFs) and normal fibroblasts (NFs) and determined the regulatory pathways involved. We assessed NTP effects on cell migration in KFs and NFs by the wound healing assay and measured the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), and collagen by western blot. Expression of the transforming growth factor-β and Type I collagen following NTP treatment was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence staining, and the Sircol collagen assay. NTP treatment increased cell migration and collagen production of NFs. However, it reduced these parameters in KFs. NTP reduced the expression of EGFR, STAT3, and Type I collagen in KFs but increased their levels in NFs. We revealed that NTP suppressed KF cell migration via down-regulation of EGFR and STAT3 and reduced collagen production via supressing transforming growth factor-β. Our data suggest that NTP may be a new therapeutic strategy for keloids.

  19. Collagen microsphere serving as a cell carrier supports oligodendrocyte progenitor cell growth and differentiation for neurite myelination in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Microspheres fabricated from natural materials serve as a promising biodegradable and biocompatible carrier in a small volume for efficient cell delivery to the lesion of the injured neural tissue to generate biological functions. As the major component of extracellular matrix and due to its natural abundance within the body, collagen may be fabricated into microspheres and improve the ability of pre-seeded cells on the microspheres to encounter the hostile micro-environment in the lesion. Methods In this study, collagen microspheres were fabricated using the water-in-oil emulsion technique and cross-linked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropryl) carbodiimide. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells isolated from postnatal day P1 to 2 rats were cultured and differentiated on the microspheres. The microspheres carrying the oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were co-cultured with dorsal root ganglions from 15-day-old rat embryos. The myelination formation was studied for the co-culture of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglions. Results We showed that the viability of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, B104 cells and PC12 cells grown on microspheres was not significantly different with those in cell culture plates. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells differentiated into oligodendrocytes on collagen microspheres. The oligodendrocytes grown on microspheres extended processes that wrapped the axons of dorsal root ganglion neurons and the formation of myelin sheath was observed in the co-culture. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of collagen microspheres in further applications for the delivery of neural progenitor cells for neural regeneration. PMID:24018105

  20. Estimation of the use of fibrin and collagen membranes as carriers for platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) in the presence of amoxicillin.

    PubMed

    Michalska, Marta; Kozakiewicz, Marcin; Bodek, Andrzej; Bodek, Kazimiera Henryka

    2015-04-01

    The effect of homogeneous fibrin (Fb), collagen (Coll) and composite fibrin-heparin (Fb-Hp), fibrin-collagen (Fb-Coll) membranes on in vitro release of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) was evaluated in the presence or absence of amoxicillin using of the ELISA immunoassay test. Amoxicillin concentration was determined spectrophotometrically at 272 nm. The process of the PDGF-BB growth factor and amoxicillin release from the studied membranes was of a two-phase nature in the majority of the systems analysed. The PDGF-BB was released in the highest amount from the Coll membrane (M7) without the presence of amoxicillin--546.2 ± 7.47 pg, t0.5 = 0.88 h and 202.5 ± 6.83 pg, t0.5 = 26.65 h during the first phase and second phase, respectively. The lowest PDGF-BB release was observed from composite M4 (Fb-Hp) membrane--5.88 ± 0.81 pg, t0.5 = 1.69 h; and 110.2 ± 6.48 pg, t0.5 = 855.6 h during first and second phase respectively. An optimal release of amoxicillin was observed in the case of the composite M6 (Fb-Coll) membrane--only in the second phase: 64.2 ± 7.8 μg, t0.5 = 83.5 h. The lowest and delayed amoxicillin release was achieved for M4 membrane (approx. 17.1 ± 1.12 μg, t0.5 = 46.5 h). The results of the PDGF-BB release and amoxicillin from membranes indicated a correlation between the level of release and composition of the film. Our results suggested that fibrin and collagen membranes may be beneficial to enhance periodontal bone regeneration.

  1. The effect on bone growth enhancement of implant coatings with hydroxyapatite and collagen deposited electrochemically and by plasma spray

    PubMed Central

    Daugaard, Henrik; Elmengaard, Brian; Bechtold, Joan E.; Jensen, Thomas; Soballe, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal bone consists of hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] and collagen type I, both of which are osseoconductive. The goal of osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants is the rapid achievement of a mechanically stable long-lasting fixation between bone and an implant surface. In this study, we evaluated the mechanical fixation and tissue distribution surrounding implants coated with three surfaces: plasma-sprayed HA coating, thinner coating of electrochemical-assisted deposition of HA, and an identical thin coating with a top layer of mineralized collagen. Uncoated plasma-sprayed titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) served as negative control. The electrochemical-assisted deposition was performed near physiological conditions. We used a canine experimental joint replacement model with four cylindrical implants (one of each treatment group) inserted in the humeri cancellous metaphyseal bone in a 1 mm gap. Observation time was 4 weeks. The mechanical fixation was quantified by push-out test to failure, and the peri-implant tissue formation by histomorphometric evaluation. HA coatings deposited by plasma spray technique or electrochemically, increased the mechanical fixation and bone ongrowth, but there was no statistical difference between the individual HA applications. Addition of collagen to the mineralized phase of the coating to create a more bone natural surface did not improve the osseoconductive effect of HA. PMID:19291683

  2. Initial boost release of transforming growth factor-β3 and chondrogenesis by freeze-dried bioactive polymer scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Jan Philipp; Machens, Isabel; Lahner, Matthias; Endres, Michaela; Kaps, Christian

    2014-12-01

    In cartilage regeneration, bio-activated implants are used in stem and progenitor cell-based microfracture cartilage repair procedures. Our aim was to analyze the chondrogenic potential of freeze-dried resorbable polymer-based polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds bio-activated with transforming growth factor-β3 (TGFB3) on human subchondral mesenchymal progenitor cells known from microfracture. Progenitor cells derived from femur heads were cultured in the presence of freeze-dried TGFB3 in high-density pellet culture and in freeze-dried TGFB3-PGA scaffolds for chondrogenic differentiation. Progenitor cell cultures in PGA scaffolds as well as pellet cultures with and without continuous application of TGFB3 served as controls. Release studies showed that freeze-dried TGFB3-PGA scaffolds facilitate a rapid, initial boost-like release of 71.5% of TGFB3 in the first 10 h. Gene expression analysis and histology showed induction of typical chondrogenic markers like type II collagen and formation of cartilaginous tissue in TGFB3-PGA scaffolds seeded with subchondral progenitor cells and in pellet cultures stimulated with freeze-dried TGFB3. Chondrogenic differentiation in freeze-dried TGFB3-PGA scaffolds was comparable to cultures receiving TGFB3 continuously, while non-stimulated controls did not show chondrogenesis during prolonged culture for 14 days. These results suggest that bio-activated, freeze-dried TGFB3-PGA scaffolds have chondrogenic potential and are a promising tool for stem cell-mediated cartilage regeneration.

  3. Prominent Vascularization Capacity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Collagen-Gold Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shu-Chen; Chen, Hui-Jye; Hsu, Shan-Hui; Yang, Yi-Chin; Tang, Cheng-Ming; Chu, Mei-Yun; Lin, Pei-Ying; Fu, Ru-Huei; Kung, Mei-Lang; Chen, Yun-Wen; Yeh, Bi-Wen; Hung, Huey-Shan

    2016-10-26

    The ideal characteristics of surface modification on the vascular graft for clinical application would be with excellent hemocompatibility, endothelialization capacity, and antirestenosis ability. Here, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle (θ) measurement, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to evaluate the chemical and mechanical properties of collagen-gold nanocomposites (collagen+Au) with 17.4, 43.5, and 174 ppm of Au and suggested that the collagen+Au with 43.5 ppm of Au had better biomechanical properties and thermal stability than pure collagen. Besides, stromal-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) at 50 ng/mL promoted the migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on collagen+Au material through the α5β3 integrin/endothelial oxide synthase (eNOS)/metalloproteinase (MMP) signaling pathway which can be abolished by the knockdown of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The potentiality of collagen+Au with MSCs for vascular regeneration was evaluated by our in vivo rat model system. Artery tissues isolated from an implanted collagen+Au-coated catheter with MSCs expressed substantial CD-31 and α-SMA, displayed higher antifibrotic ability, antithrombotic activity, as well as anti-inflammatory response than all other materials. Our results indicated that the implantation of collagen+Au-coated catheters with MSCs could be a promising strategy for vascular regeneration.

  4. Mechanical stretching stimulates collagen synthesis via down-regulating SO2/AAT1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Yu, Wen; Liu, Yan; Chen, Selena; Huang, Yaqian; Li, Xiaohui; Liu, Cuiping; Zhang, Yanqiu; Li, Zhenzhen; Du, Jie; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2)/ aspartate aminotransferase 1 (AAT1) pathway in stretch-induced excessive collagen expression and its mechanism. The mechanical stretch downregulated SO2/AAT1 pathway and increased collagen I and III protein expression. Importantly, AAT1 overexpression blocked the increase in collagen I and III expression, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF- β1) expression and phosphorylation of Smad2/3 induced by stretch, but AAT1 knockdown mimicked the increase in collagen I and III expression, TGF- β1 expression and phosphorylation of Smad2/3 induced by stretch. Mechanistically, SB431542, a TGF-β1/Smad2/3 inhibitor, eliminated excessive collagen I and III accumulation induced by AAT1 knockdown, stretch or stretch plus AAT1 knockdown. In a rat model of high pulmonary blood flow-induced pulmonary vascular collagen accumulation, AAT1 expression and SO2 content in lung tissues of rat were reduced in shunt rats with high pulmonary blood flow. Supplement of SO2 derivatives inhibited activation of TGF- β1/Smad2/3 pathway and alleviated the excessive collagen accumulation in lung tissues of shunt rats. The results suggested that deficiency of endogenous SO2/AAT1 pathway mediated mechanical stretch-stimulated abnormal collagen accumulation via TGF-β1/Smad2/3 pathway. PMID:26880260

  5. Acetaldehyde stimulates the activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta1 and induces expression of the type II receptor of the cytokine in rat cultured hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Anping

    2002-01-01

    Acetaldehyde, the major active metabolite of alcohol, induces the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), leading to over-production of alpha1(I) collagen and ultimately causing hepatic fibrosis. The underlying mechanisms of this process remain largely unknown. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a potent inducer of alpha1(I) collagen production. Accumulating evidence has shown a potential role for TGF-beta1 in alcohol-induced hepatic fibrogenesis. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of acetaldehyde on TGF-beta signalling, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms as well as to evaluate its role in expression of alpha1(I) collagen gene in cultured HSC. It was hypothesized that acetaldehyde activated TGF-beta signalling by inducing the expression of elements in the TGF-beta signal transduction pathway, which might contribute to alpha1(I) collagen gene expression in cultured HSC. Initial results revealed that acetaldehyde activated TGF-beta signalling in cultured HSC. Additional studies demonstrated that acetaldehyde stimulated the secretion and activation of latent TGF-beta1, and induced the expression of the type II TGF-beta receptor (Tbeta-RII). Further experiments found cis - and trans -activating elements responsible for Tbeta-RII gene expression induced by acetaldehyde. Activation of TGF-beta signalling by acetaldehyde contributed to alpha1(I) collagen gene expression in cultured HSC. In summary, this report demonstrated that acetaldehyde stimulated TGF-beta signalling by increasing the secretion and activation of latent TGF-beta1 as well as by inducing the expression of Tbeta-RII in cultured HSC. Results from this report provided a novel insight into mechanisms by which acetaldehyde stimulated the expression of alpha1(I) collagen in HSC and a better understanding of effects of alcohol (or acetaldehyde) on hepatic fibrogenesis. PMID:12223100

  6. Human hair follicle stem cell differentiation into contractile smooth muscle cells is induced by transforming growth factor-β1 and platelet-derived growth factor BB.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi Cheng; Zhang, Qun; Li, Hong

    2013-12-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are important in vascular homeostasis and disease and thus, are critical elements in vascular tissue engineering. Although adult SMCs have been used as seed cells, such mature differentiated cells suffer from limited proliferation potential and cultural senescence, particularly when originating from older donors. By comparison, human hair follicle stem cells (hHFSCs) are a reliable source of stem cells with multi-differentiation potential. The aim of the present study, was to develop an efficient strategy to derive functional SMCs from hHFSCs. hHFSCs were obtained from scalp tissues of healthy adult patients undergoing cosmetic plastic surgery. The hHFSCs were expanded to passage 2 and induced by the administration of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) in combination with culture medium. Expression levels of SMC-related markers, including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), α-calponin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC), were detected by immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). When exposed to differentiation medium, hHFSCs expressed early, mid and late markers (α-SMA, α-calponin and SM-MHC, respectively) that were similar to the markers expressed by human umbilical artery SMCs. Notably, when entrapped inside a collagen matrix lattice, these SM differentiated cells showed a contractile function. Therefore, the present study developed an efficient strategy for differentiating hHFSCs into contractile SMCs by stimulation with TGF-β1 and PDGF-BB. The high yield of derivation suggests that this strategy facilitates the acquisition of the large numbers of cells that are required for blood vessel engineering and the study of vascular disease pathophysiology.

  7. Gelatin-methacrylamide gel loaded with microspheres to deliver GDNF in bilayer collagen conduit promoting sciatic nerve growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Hai; Bu, Shoushan; Hua, Lei; Darabi, Mohammad A; Cao, Xiaojian; Xing, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-loaded microspheres, then seeded the microspheres in gelatin-methacrylamide hydrogel, which was finally integrated with the commercial bilayer collagen membrane (Bio-Gide®). The novel composite of nerve conduit was employed to bridge a 10 mm long sciatic nerve defect in a rat. GDNF-loaded gelatin microspheres had a smooth surface with an average diameter of 3.9±1.8 μm. Scanning electron microscopy showed that microspheres were uniformly distributed in both the GelMA gel and the layered structure. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in vitro release studies (pH 7.4) of GDNF from microspheres exhibited an initial burst release during the first 3 days (18.0%±1.3%), and then, a prolonged-release profile extended to 32 days. However, in an acidic condition (pH 2.5), the initial release percentage of GDNF was up to 91.2%±0.9% within 4 hours and the cumulative release percentage of GDNF was 99.2%±0.2% at 48 hours. Then the composite conduct was implanted in a 10 mm critical defect gap of sciatic nerve in a rat. We found that the nerve was regenerated in both conduit and autograft (AG) groups. A combination of electrophysiological assessment and histomorphometry analysis of regenerated nerves showed that axonal regeneration and functional recovery in collagen tube filled with GDNF-loaded microspheres (GM + CT) group were similar to AG group (P>0.05). Most myelinated nerves were matured and arranged densely with a uniform structure of myelin in a neat pattern along the long axis in the AG and GM + CT groups, however, regenerated nerve was absent in the BLANK group, left the 10 mm gap empty after resection, and the nerve fiber exhibited a disordered arrangement in the collagen tube group. These results indicated that the hybrid system of bilayer collagen conduit and GDNF-loaded gelatin microspheres combined with gelatin-methacrylamide hydrogels could serve as a new biodegradable

  8. STUDIES ON THE FORMATION OF COLLAGEN

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Jerome

    1958-01-01

    The total amount of neutral salt-extractible collagen in the skin of growing, suckling guinea pigs amounted to about 10 per cent of the total collagen of the dennis. This is roughly equivalent to a 1 to 2 day increment in dermal collagen incident to growth. Fourteen days of static weight maintained by limited caloric intake reduced the neutral salt-extractible collagen to very low levels. Following this period, 5 to 7 days of steady weight gain induced by ad lib. feeding was required to produce significant increases in this collagen fraction. Return to control levels occurred within 12 days of continuous growth. The amount of collagen extracted from the dermis of young guinea pigs with cold neutral salt solutions varied directly with growth rate (weight gain) and was greatly diminished after short periods of restricted caloric intake. Two days of fasting diminished the total extracted collagen by one-half. Three consecutive extractions with citrate buffer pH, 3.5, of the residues remaining after exhaustive saline extraction removed 40 per cent more collagen from the skins of actively growing animals than from those of animals fasted for 2 days. However, subsequent extraction of residues with dilute acetic acid equalized the total amount of collagen extracted at acid pH from the two groups. The viscosity of cold neutral extracts was unrelated to the concentrations of non-collagenous proteins and carbohydrates but varied directly with the collagen content. PMID:13491761

  9. Lysyl Oxidase-Like 1 Protein Deficiency Protects Mice from Adenoviral Transforming Growth Factor-β1-induced Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bellaye, Pierre-Simon; Shimbori, Chiko; Upagupta, Chandak; Sato, Seidai; Shi, Wei; Gauldie, Jack; Ask, Kjetil; Kolb, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the lung parenchyma. The abnormal ECM deposition slowly overtakes normal lung tissue, disturbing gas exchange and leading to respiratory failure and death. ECM cross-linking and subsequent stiffening is thought to be a major contributor of disease progression and also promotes the activation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, one of the main profibrotic growth factors. Lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL) 1 belongs to the cross-linking enzyme family and has been shown to be up-regulated in active fibrotic regions of bleomycin-treated mice and patients with IPF. We demonstrate in this study that LOXL1-deficient mice are protected from experimental lung fibrosis induced by overexpression of TGF-β1 using adenoviral (Ad) gene transfer (AdTGF-β1). The lack of LOXL1 prevented accumulation of insoluble cross-linked collagen in the lungs, and therefore limited lung stiffness after AdTGF-β1. In addition, we applied mechanical stretch to lung slices from LOXL1 +/+ and LOXL1 -/- mice treated with AdTGF-β1. Lung stiffness (Young's modulus) of LOXL1 -/- lung slices was significantly lower compared with LOXL1 +/+ lung slices. Moreover, the release of activated TGF-β1 after mechanical stretch was significantly lower in LOXL1 -/- mice compared with LOXL1 +/+ mice after AdTGF-β1. These data support the concept that cross-linking enzyme inhibition represents an interesting therapeutic target for drug development in IPF.

  10. Lead induces chondrogenesis and alters transforming growth factor-beta and bone morphogenetic protein signaling in mesenchymal cell populations.

    PubMed

    Zuscik, Michael J; Ma, Lin; Buckley, Taylor; Puzas, J Edward; Drissi, Hicham; Schwarz, Edward M; O'Keefe, Regis J

    2007-09-01

    It has been established that skeletal growth is stunted in lead-exposed children. Because chondrogenesis is a seminal step during skeletal development, elucidating the impact of Pb on this process is the first step toward understanding the mechanism of Pb toxicity in the skeleton. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that Pb alters chondrogenic commitment of mesenchymal cells and to assess the effects of Pb on various signaling pathways. We assessed the influence of Pb on chondrogenesis in murine limb bud mesenchymal cells (MSCs) using nodule formation assays and gene analyses. The effects of Pb on transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling was studied using luciferase-based reporters and Western analyses, and luciferase-based assays were used to study cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB), beta-catenin, AP-1, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling. We also used an ectopic bone formation assay to determine how Pb affects chondrogenesis in vivo. Pb-exposed MSCs showed enhanced basal and TGF-beta/BMP induction of chondrogenesis, evidenced by enhanced nodule formation and up-regulation of Sox-9, type 2 collagen, and aggrecan, all key markers of chondrogenesis. We observed enhanced chondrogenesis during ectopic bone formation in mice preexposed to Pb via drinking water. In MSCs, Pb enhanced TGF-beta but inhibited BMP-2 signaling, as measured by luciferase reporter assays and Western analyses of Smad phosphorylation. Although Pb had no effect on basal CREB or Wnt/beta-catenin pathway activity, it induced NFkappaB signaling and inhibited AP-1 signaling. The in vitro and in vivo induction of chondrogenesis by Pb likely involves modulation and integration of multiple signaling pathways including TGF-beta, BMP, AP-1, and NFkappaB.

  11. In vitro tendon tissue development from human fibroblasts demonstrates collagen fibril diameter growth associated with a rise in mechanical strength.

    PubMed

    Herchenhan, Andreas; Bayer, Monika L; Svensson, René B; Magnusson, S Peter; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Collagen-rich tendons and ligaments are important for joint stability and force transmission, but the capacity to form new tendon is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated mechanical strength, fibril size, and structure during development of tendon-like tissue from adult human tenocytes (termed tendon constructs) in vitro over 5 weeks in 3D tissue culture. The constructs displayed large elongated tendon cells aligned along the tendon axis together with collagen fibrils that increased in diameter by 50% from day 14 to 35, which approaches that observed in adult human tendon in vivo. The increase in diameter was accompanied by a 5-fold increase in mechanical strength (0.9±0.1 MPa to 4.9±0.6 MPa) and Young's modulus (5.8±0.9 MPa to 32.3±4.2 MPa), while the maximal strain at failure (16%) remained constant throughout the 5-week culture period. The present study demonstrates that 3D tendon constructs can be formed by isolated human tendon fibroblasts, and when these constructs are subjected to static self-generated tension, the fibrils will grow in size and strength approaching that of adult human tendon in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Fish collagen-based scaffold containing PLGA microspheres for controlled growth factor delivery in skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huan; Chen, Ming-Mao; Liu, Yan; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Qing; Wang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Jing-Di; Zhang, Qi-Qing

    2015-12-01

    To design a scaffold controlled release system for skin tissue engineering, fish collagen/chitosan/chondroitin sulfate scaffolds were fabricated by freeze-drying and incorporated with bFGF-loaded PLGA microspheres (MPs). SEM showed that the scaffolds exhibited an interconnected porous structure, and the spherical MPs were uniformly distributed into the scaffolds. The higher swelling and degradation rate of scaffolds/MPs could lead to a higher diffusion rate of MPs from the scaffolds, causing an increase in the protein release. The release rate of proteins could be adjusted by the size of MPs and the ratio of collagen to chitosan of scaffolds. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and MTT of bFGF after release indicated that the released bFGF retained its structural integrity and bioactivity during preparation. Cell proliferation and in vivo evaluation results suggested that the scaffolds/MPs had a good biocompatibility and an ability to promote fibroblast cell proliferation and skin tissue regeneration. These results demonstrated that this scaffold/MP controlled release system has the potential for skin tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Growth control mechanisms in normal and transformed intestinal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, A W

    1998-01-01

    The cells populating the intestinal crypts are part of a dynamic tissue system which involves the self-renewal of stem cells, a commitment to proliferation, lineage-specific differentiation, movement and cell death. Our knowledge of these processes is limited, but even now there are important clues to the nature of the regulatory systems, and these clues are leading to a better understanding of intestinal cancers. Few intestinal-specific markers have been described; however, homeobox genes such as cdx-2 appear to be important for morphogenic events in the intestine. There are several intestinal cell surface proteins such as the A33 antigen which have been used as targets for immunotherapy. Many regulatory cytokines (lymphokines or growth factors) influence intestinal development: enteroglucagon, IL-2, FGF, EGF family members. In conjunction with cell-cell contact and/or ECM, these cytokines lead to specific differentiation signals. Although the tissue distribution of mitogens such as EGF, TGF alpha, amphiregulin, betacellulin, HB-EGF and cripto have been studied in detail, the physiological roles of these proteins have been difficult to determine. Clearly, these mitogens and the corresponding receptors are involved in the maintenance and progression of the tumorigenic state. The interactions between mitogenic, tumour suppressor and oncogenic systems are complex, but the tumorigenic effects of multiple lesions in intestinal carcinomas involve synergistic actions from lesions in these different systems. Together, the truncation of apc and activation of the ras oncogene are sufficient to induce colon tumorigenesis. If we are to improve cancer therapy, it is imperative that we discover the biological significance of these interactions, in particular the effects on cell division, movement and survival. PMID:9684287

  14. REGULATION OF IMMATURE CARTILAGE GROWTH BY IGF-I, TGF-β1, BMP-7, AND PDGF-AB: ROLE OF METABOLIC BALANCE BETWEEN FIXED CHARGE AND COLLAGEN NETWORK

    PubMed Central

    Asanbaeva, Anna; Masuda, Koichi; Thonar, Eugene J-M.A.; Klisch, Stephen M.; Sah, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Cartilage growth may involve alterations in the balance between the swelling tendency of proteoglycans and the restraining function of the collagen network. Growth factors, including IGF-I, TGF-β1, BMP-7, and PDGF-AB, regulate chondrocyte metabolism and, consequently, may regulate cartilage growth. Immature bovine articular cartilage explants from the superficial and middle zones were incubated for 13 days in basal medium or medium supplemented with serum, IGF-I, TGF-β1, BMP-7, or PDGF-AB. Variations in tissue size, accumulation of proteoglycan and collagen, and tensile properties were assessed. The inclusion of serum, IGF-I, or BMP-7 resulted in expansive tissue growth, stimulation of proteoglycan deposition but not of collagen, and a diminution of tensile integrity. The regulation of cartilage metabolism by TGF-β1 resulted in tissue homeostasis, with maintenance of size, composition, and function. Incubation in basal medium or with PDGF-AB resulted in small volumetric and compositional changes, but a marked decrease in tensile integrity. These results demonstrate that the phenotype of cartilage growth, and the associated balance between proteoglycan content and integrity of the collagen network, is regulated differentially by certain growth factors. PMID:17762943

  15. Controlled release of vascular endothelial growth factor from spray-dried alginate microparticles in collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds for promoting vascularization and bone repair.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Elaine; López-Noriega, Adolfo; Thompson, Emmet M; Hibbitts, Alan; Cryan, Sally Ann; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2017-04-01

    A major limitation with current tissue-engineering approaches is creating functionally vascularized constructs that can successfully integrate with the host; this often leads to implant failure, due to avascular necrosis. In order to overcome this, the objective of the present work was to develop a method to incorporate growth factor-eluting alginate microparticles (MPs) into freeze-dried, collagen-based scaffolds. A collagen-hydroxyapatite (CHA) scaffold, previously optimized for bone regeneration, was functionalized for the sustained delivery of an angiogenic growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), with the aim of facilitating angiogenesis and enhancing bone regeneration. VEGF was initially encapsulated in alginate MPs by spray-drying, producing particles of < 10 µm in diameter. This process was found to effectively encapsulate and control VEGF release while maintaining its stability and bioactivity post-processing. These VEGF-MPs were then incorporated into CHA scaffolds, leading to homogeneous distribution throughout the interconnected scaffold pore structure. The scaffolds were capable of sustained release of bioactive VEGF for up to 35 days, which was proficient at increasing tubule formation by endothelial cells in vitro. When implanted in vivo in a rat calvarial defect model, this scaffold enhanced vessel formation, resulting in increased bone regeneration compared to empty-defect and VEGF-free scaffolds. This biologically functionalized scaffold, composed entirely of natural-based materials, may offer an ideal platform to promote angiogenesis and tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Photobiomodulation therapy on collagen type I and III, vascular endothelial growth factor, and metalloproteinase in experimentally induced tendinopathy in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Marques, Anna Cristina de Farias; Albertini, Regiane; Serra, Andrey Jorge; da Silva, Evela Aparecida Pereira; de Oliveira, Vanessa Lima Cavalcante; Silva, Luciana Miatto; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on collagen type I and III, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in experimentally induced tendinopathy in female aged rats. Tendinopathy was induced by the Achilles tendoncollagenase peritendinous. Forty-two Wistar rats (Norvegicus albinus) were used; groups consisted of 36 aged animals (18 months old; mean body weight, 517.7 ± 27.54 g) and 6 adult animals (12 weeks old; mean body weight, 266± 19.30 g). The animals were divided into three groups: control, aged tendinopathy, and aged tendinopathy PBMT; the aged groups were subdivided based on time to euthanasia: 7, 14, and 21 days. PBMT involved a gallium-arsenide-aluminum laser (Theralaser, DMC®) with active medium operating at wavelength 830 ± 10 nm, 50 mW power, 0.028 cm 2 laser beam, 107 J/cm 2 energy density, 1.8 W/cm 2 power density, and an energy of 3 J per point. The laser was applied by direct contact with the left Achilles tendon during 60 s per point at a frequency of three times per week, until the euthanasia date (7, 14, and 21 days). VEGF, MMP-3, and MMP-9 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and collagen type I and III by Sirius red. PBMT increased the deposition of collagen type I and III in a gradual manner, with significant differences relative to the group aged tendonitis (p < 0.001), and in relation to VEGF (p < 0.001); decreased expression of MMP-3 and 9 were observed in group aged tendinopathy (p < 0.001). PBMT, therefore, increased the production of collagen type I and III, downregulated the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-9, and upregulated that of VEGF, with age and age-induced hormonal deficiency.

  17. Telmisartan improves vascular remodeling through ameliorating prooxidant and profibrotic mechanisms in hypertension via the involvement of transforming growth factor-β1.

    PubMed

    Shang, Peijin; Liu, Tianlong; Liu, Wenxing; Li, Yuwen; Dou, Fang; Zhang, Yikai; Sun, Lijuan; Zhang, Tiejun; Zhu, Zhihui; Mu, Fei; Ding, Yi; Wen, Aidong

    2017-10-01

    Vascular remodeling is a common complication and pathological basis of hypertension. Transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1)/small mothers against decapentaplegic 3 (Smad3) is considered a potential therapeutic target for vascular remodeling in hypertension. The present study aimed to demonstrate the antifibrotic effects of telmisartan and examined the potential mechanisms associated with its prevention of vascular remodeling. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were treated with telmisartan (20 mg/kg), and vascular contractility, reactivity and oxidative stress were preliminarily evaluated. Vascular pathological alterations and collagen deposition were assessed using hematoxylin and eosin, and Masson staining, respectively. The profibrotic factors, TGF‑β1 and Smad3 were evaluated using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. The protein levels of TGF‑β1/Smad3, phosphorylated (p‑)Smad3, collagen‑1 and α-smooth muscle actin in the aorta were assessed using western blot analysis. It was found that telmisartan attenuated chronic vasoconstriction and oxidative stress in the SHRs, and improved vascular reactivity. Telmisartan also restored vascular pathological alterations and decreased collagen deposition. In the vascular wall of the SHRs, telmisartan effectively decreased the protein levels of TGF‑β1/Smad3 and p‑Smad3. Taken together, these findings indicated that telmisartan, with its antioxidant effect, prevented vascular remodeling in hypertension through preventing the TGF‑β1/Smad3 signaling pathway.

  18. The Four-Herb Chinese Medicine ANBP Enhances Wound Healing and Inhibits Scar Formation via Bidirectional Regulation of Transformation Growth Factor Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Hao-Jie; Han, Qing-Wang; Chen, Li; Dong, Liang; Liu, Jie-Jie; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Ya-Jing; Ma, Ying-Zhi; Han, Wei-Dong; Fu, Xiao-Bing

    2014-01-01

    The four-herb Chinese medicine ANBP is a pulverized mixture of four herbs including Agrimonia Eupatoria (A), Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn (N), Boswellia Carteri (B) and Pollen Typhae Angustifoliae (P). The combination of the four herbs was first described in Chinese canonical medicine about 2000 years ago for treatment of various trauma disorders, such as hemostasis, antiinflammatory, analgesia, and wound healing, etc. However, the precise mechanisms of ANBP are still unclear. In our study, using rabbit ear hypertrophic scar models of full-thickness skin defect, we showed that local ANBP treatment not only significantly enhanced wound healing by relieving inflammation, increasing formation of granulation tissue and accelerating re-epithelialization, but also reduced scar formation by decreasing collagen production, protuberant height and volume of scars, and increasing collagen maturity. We demonstrated that these effects of ANBP are associated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-mediated signalling pathways through Smad-dependent pathways. ANBP treatment significantly increased expression of TGF-β1 and Smad2/3 mRNA at the early stage of wound healing, and led to markedly decrease expression of TGF-β1 and Smad2/3 compared with the control group after 14 days post-wounding. Taken together, our results defined a bidirectional regulation role of ANBP for TGF-β1/Smad pathway in promoting wound healing and alleviating scar formation, which may be an effective therapy for human wounds at the earliest stage. PMID:25489732

  19. Pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®) suppresses cigarette smoke-induced fibrotic response via transforming growth factor-β1/Smad family member 2/3 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Je-Won; Shin, Na-Rae; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Kim, Joong-Sun; Cho, Young-Kwon; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) is an important disease featured as intense inflammation, protease imbalance, and air flow limitation and mainly induced by cigarette smoke (CS). In present study, we explored the effects of Pycnogenol® (PYC, pine bark extract) on pulmonary fibrosis caused by CS+lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. Mice were treated with LPS intranasally on day 12 and 26, followed by CS exposure for 1 h/day (8 cigarettes per day) for 4 weeks. One hour before CS exposure, 10 and 20 mg/kg of PYC were administered by oral gavage for 4 weeks. PYC effectively reduced the number of inflammatory cells and proinflammatory mediators caused by CS+LPS exposure in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. PYC inhibited the collagen deposition on lung tissue caused by CS+LPS exposure, as evidenced by Masson's trichrome stain. Furthermore, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression and Smad family member 2/3 (Smad 2/3) phosphorylation were effectively suppressed by PYC treatment. PYC markedly reduced the collagen deposition caused by CS+LPS exposure, which was closely involved in TGF-β1/Smad 2/3 signaling, which is associated with pulmonary fibrotic change. These findings suggest that treatment with PYC could be a therapeutic strategy for controlling COPD progression. PMID:28747971

  20. Transforming growth factor-beta1 promotes articular cartilage repair through canonical Smad and Hippo pathways in bone mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jun; Wang, Pinger; Zhang, Shanxing; Xu, Taotao; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Rui; Xu, Shibing; Tong, Peijian; Wu, Chengliang; Jin, Hongting

    2018-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a chondrogenic factor and has been reported to be able to enhance chondrocyte differentiation from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Here we investigate the molecular mechanism through which TGF-β1 chronically promotes the repair of cartilage defect and inhibit chondrocyte hypertrophy. Animal models of full thickness cartilage defects were divided into three groups: model group, BMSCs group (treated with BMSCs/calcium alginate gel) and BMSCs+TGF-β1 group (treated with Lentivirus-TGF-β1-EGFP transduced BMSCs/calcium alginate gel). 4 and 8weeks after treatment, macroscopic observation, histopathological study and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were done to analyze phenotypes of the animals. BMSCs were transduced with Lentivirus-TGF-β1-EGFP in vitro and Western blot analysis was performed. We found that TGF-β1-expressiing BMSCs improved the repair of the cartilage defect. The impaired cartilage contained higher amount of GAG and type II collagen and was integrated to the surrounding normal cartilage and higher content of GAG and type II collagen. The major events include increased expression of type II collagen following Smad2/3 phosphorylation, and inhibition of cartilage hypertrophy by increasing Yes-associated protein-1 (YAP-1) and inhibiting Runx2 and Col10 after the completion of chondrogenic differentiation. We conclude that TGF-β1 is beneficial to chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs via canonical Smad pathway to promote early-repairing of cartilage defect. Furthermore, TGF-β1 inhibits chondrocyte hypertrophy by decreasing hypertrophy marker gene expression via Hippo signaling. Long-term rational use of TGF-β1 may be an alternative approach in clinic for cartilage repair and regeneration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Polylactide pin with transforming growth factor beta 1 in delayed osteotomy fixation.

    PubMed

    Tielinen, L; Manninen, M; Puolakkainen, P; Pihlajamäki, H; Pohjonen, T; Rautavuori, J; Törmälä, P

    1998-10-01

    The effect of an absorbable pin containing transforming growth factor beta 1 on fracture healing was studied in a rat model of delayed osteotomy fixation. Transforming growth factor beta 1 was mixed into a blend of L-lactide oligomer and a copolymer of epsilon-caprolactone and DL-lactide that was placed in the grooves of a self reinforced fracture fixation pin made of poly-LD-lactic acid copolymer. A distal femoral osteotomy was made in 54 rats and left untreated. A week later surgery was performed to fix the osteotomy with a fracture fixation pin in 48 rats. In the remaining six rats no fixation was performed. The pin that was used in the study group contained either 5 micrograms (15 rats) or 50 micrograms (15 rats) of the growth factor, while in the control group of 18 rats, an identical pin without growth factor was used. The femurs were examined radiographically, histologically, histomorphometrically, and microradiographically. Tetracycline labeling studies were used after a followup of 1, 3, and 6 weeks. Faster callus formation in the transforming growth factor beta 1 treated animals but no acceleration in the healing of the osteotomy is reported. The addition of bone growth factors to bioabsorbable fracture fixation materials may enhance bone healing.

  2. G3139, an Anti-Bcl-2 Antisense Oligomer that Binds Heparin-Binding Growth Factors and Collagen I, Alters In Vitro Endothelial Cell Growth and Tubular Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Stein, C.A.; Wu, SiJian; Voskresenskiy, Anatoliy M.; Zhou, Jin-Feng; Shin, Joongho; Miller, Paul; Souleimanian, Naira; Benimetskaya, Luba

    2009-01-01

    Purpose We examined the effects of G3139 on the interaction of heparin-binding proteins (e.g., FGF2 and collagen I) with endothelial cells. G3139 is an 18mer phosphorothioate oligonucleotide targeted to the initiation codon region of the Bcl-2 mRNA. A randomized, prospective global Phase III trial in advanced melanoma (GM301) has evaluted G3139 in combination with dacarbazine. However, the mechanism of action of G3139 is incompletely understood, as it is unlikely that Bcl-2 silencing is the sole mechanism for chemo-sensitization in melanoma cells. Experimental Design The ability of G3139 to interact with and protect heparin-binding proteins was quantitated. The effects of G3139 on the binding of FGF2 to high affinity cell surface receptors, and the induction of cellular mitogenesis and tubular morphogenesis in HMEC-1 and HUVEC cells were determined. Results G3139 binds with picomolar affinity to collagen I. By replacing heparin, the drug can potentiate the binding of FGF2 to FGFR1 IIIc, and it protects FGF from oxidation and from proteolysis. G3139 can increase endothelial cell mitogenesis and tubular morphogenesis of HMEC-1 cells in 3D collagen gels, increases the mitogenesis of HUVEC cells similarly, and induces vessel sprouts in the rat aortic ring model. Conclusions G3139 dramatically affects the behavior of endothelial cells. There may be a correlation between this observation and the treatment interaction with LDH observed clinically. PMID:19351753

  3. Effect of transforming DNA on growth and frequency of mutation of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Grist, R W; Butler, L O

    1983-01-01

    We studied the effect of the presence of homologous transforming DNA on the growth of several transformable strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and on the frequency of mutation of these strains to various antibiotic resistances. We observed no effect on growth until the strains became competent, when growth was depressed. At the end of the competence period, some strains showed recovery to varying degrees, whereas others showed evidence of cell death. Growth was also depressed by the presence of DNA from Escherichia coli, indicating that recombination was not likely to be the cause of the observed effect. Furthermore, cell death was not caused by the induction of a prophage. Several of the strains showed increased mutation frequencies during the competence period, although treatment with E. coli DNA gave no such effect, indicating that the mutagenesis was due to recombination. We observed no mutagenesis due to UV irradiation of the strains. The possibility that integration of the transforming DNA may produce lesions which induce error-prone repair is discussed. Furthermore, a strain that showed no mutability by transforming DNA, indicating the presence of a more efficient repair system, gave evidence of producing higher amounts of the hex system when competent, and the possible relationship between these properties is discussed.

  4. Effect of Agobacterium growth phase and inoculation density on transformation efficiency of citrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of Agrobacterium growth phase and density on transformation of citrus rootstock US-812 (Citrus reticulata x Poncirus trifoliata) epicotyl explants was determined. In the first experiment, Agrobacterium EHA105 containing pBINGUSint was grown in YEP medium to an OD600 of 1 and glycerol sto...

  5. Immune Cells, If Rendered Insensitive to Transforming Growth Factor-Beta, Can Cure Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    implications for cancer immunotherapy. Leukimia . 13, 188-1199 (1999). 21. Terabe, M. et al. Transforming growth factor- 3 production and myeloid...Effects of TGF-3 on the immune system: lular carcinoma. Am J Surg 1999;177:209-215. Implications for cancer immunotherapy. Leukimia 1999;13:188- 36

  6. Growth arrest and decrease of alpha-SMA and type I collagen expression by palmitic acid in the rat hepatic stellate cell line PAV-1.

    PubMed

    Abergel, Armand; Sapin, Vincent; Dif, Nicolas; Chassard, Christophe; Darcha, Claude; Marcand-Sauvant, Julie; Gaillard-Martinie, Brigitte; Rock, Edmond; Dechelotte, Pierre; Sauvant, Patrick

    2006-05-01

    Liver fibrosis is characterized by an activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). During primary culture HSC evolve from a quiescent into an activated phenotype which is characterized by alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) up-regulation, increase in cell growth, and extracellular matrix secretion. HSC culture with trans-resveratrol can lead to deactivation of myofibroblast-like HSC. We used an HSC line, PAV-1, to check the role of retinol and palmitic acid in the deactivation process of HSC. Using mass and metabolic-based methods, Western blot and immunocytochemistry assays, we demonstrated that treatment with palmitic acid (75 muM) alone or in combination with retinol (2 muM) significantly decreased cell proliferation and alpha-SMA expression. We also established that the association of both compounds strongly decreased collagen type I expression. Our results suggest the potential use of palmitic acid alone or in combination with retinol to induce HSC deactivation.

  7. Collagen telopeptides (cross-linking sites) play a role in collagen gel lattice contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodley, D. T.; Yamauchi, M.; Wynn, K. C.; Mechanic, G.; Briggaman, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Solubilized interstitial collagens will form a fibrillar, gel-like lattice when brought to physiologic conditions. In the presence of human dermal fibroblasts the collagen lattice will contract. The rate of contraction can be determined by computer-assisted planemetry. The mechanisms involved in contraction are as yet unknown. Using this system it was found that the rate of contraction was markedly decreased when collagen lacking telopeptides was substituted for native collagen. Histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine (HHL) is a major stable trifunctional collagen cross-link in mature skin that involves a carboxyl terminal, telopeptide site 16c, the sixteenth amino acid residue from the carboxy terminal of the telopeptide region of alpha 1 (I) in type I collagen. Little, if any, HHL was present in native, purified, reconstituted, soluble collagen fibrils from 1% acetic acid-extracted 2-year-old bovine skin. In contrast, HHL cross-links were present (0.22 moles of cross-link per mole of collagen) in lattices of the same collagen contracted by fibroblasts. However, rat tail tendon does not contain HHL cross-links, and collagen lattices made of rat tail tendon collagen are capable of contraction. This suggests that telopeptide sites, and not mature HHL cross-links per se, are essential for fibroblasts to contract collagen lattices. Beta-aminopropionitrile fumarate (BAPN), a potent lathyrogen that perturbs collagen cross-linking by inhibition of lysyl oxidase, also inhibited the rate of lattice cell contraction in lattices composed of native collagen. However, the concentrations of BAPN that were necessary to inhibit the contraction of collagen lattices also inhibited fibroblast growth suggestive of cellular toxicity. In accordance with other studies, we found no inhibition of the rate of lattice contraction when fibronectin-depleted serum was used. Electron microscopy of contracted gels revealed typical collagen fibers with a characteristic axial periodicity. The data

  8. Ionic solutes impact collagen scaffold bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Pawelec, K M; Husmann, A; Wardale, R J; Best, S M; Cameron, R E

    2015-02-01

    The structure of ice-templated collagen scaffolds is sensitive to many factors. By adding 0.5 wt% of sodium chloride or sucrose to collagen slurries, scaffold structure could be tuned through changes in ice growth kinetics and interactions of the solute and collagen. With ionic solutes (sodium chloride) the entanglements of the collagen molecule decreased, leading to fibrous scaffolds with increased pore size and decreased attachment of chondrocytes. With non-ionic solutes (sucrose) ice growth was slowed, leading to significantly reduced pore size and up-regulated cell attachment. This highlights the large changes in structure and biological function stimulated by solutes in ice-templating systems.

  9. Effect of captopril on collagen metabolisms in keloid fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junjie; Zhao, Sha; Liu, Yong; Cen, Ying; Nicolas, Crook

    2016-12-01

    Keloid is a proliferative disease of fibrous tissues. The mechanism and consistently effective treatments of keloid remained unknown. Although there was a report about treating keloid with topical captopril, the further investigation about captopril affecting keloid has not been performed so far. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of captopril on collagen metabolisms in keloid fibroblast cells, and to provide information for the mechanism and therapy of keloid. To investigate the effects and relative mechanism of captopril on keloid fibroblast cells, we examined the changes of collagen metabolism, expression of angiotensin, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), and cellular proliferation in keloid fibroblast cells. We found that all collagen metabolisms, expression of TGF-β1, PDGF-BB and HSP47, and cellular proliferation decreased significantly with effective captopril concentrations in keloid fibroblast cells. With a comprehensive analysis of test results, we proposed that captopril may decrease the expression of angiotensin, PDGF-BB, TGF-β1 and HSP47, and further inhibit proliferation and collagen synthesis of keloid fibroblast cells, which were the key in keloid formation. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  10. Type I Collagen and Collagen Mimetics as Angiogenesis Promoting Superpolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Twardowski, T.; Fertala, A.; Orgel, J.P.R.O.

    2008-07-18

    Angiogenesis, the development of blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature, is a key component of embryogenesis and tissue regeneration. Angiogenesis also drives pathologies such as tumor growth and metastasis, and hemangioma development in newborns. On the other hand, promotion of angiogenesis is needed in tissues with vascular insufficiencies, and in bioengineering, to endow tissue substitutes with appropriate microvasculatures. Therefore, much research has focused on defining mechanisms of angiogenesis, and identifying pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules. Type I collagen, the most abundant protein in humans, potently stimulates angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Crucial to its angiogenic activity appears to be ligationmore » and possibly clustering of endothelial cell (EC) surface {alpha}1{beta}1/{alpha}2{beta}1 integrin receptors by the GFPGER502-507 sequence of the collagen fibril. However, additional aspects of collagen structure and function that may modulate its angiogenic properties are discussed. Moreover, type I collagen and fibrin, another angiogenic polymer, share several structural features. These observations suggest strategies for creating 'angiogenic superpolymers', including: modifying type I collagen to influence its biological half-life, immunogenicity, and integrin binding capacity; genetically engineering fibrillar collagens to include additional integrin binding sites or angiogenic determinants, and remove unnecessary or deleterious sequences without compromising fibril integrity; and exploring the suitability of poly(ortho ester), PEG-lysine copolymer, tubulin, and cholesteric cuticle as collagen mimetics, and suggesting means of modifying them to display ideal angiogenic properties. The collagenous and collagen mimetic angiogenic superpolymers described here may someday prove useful for many applications in tissue engineering and human medicine.« less

  11. TRANSFORMER

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  12. Transforming growth factor-beta1 inhibits tissue engineering cartilage absorption via inducing the generation of regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Chichi; Bi, Wei; Gong, Yiming; Ding, Xiaojun; Guo, Xuehua; Sun, Jian; Cui, Lei; Yu, Youcheng

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore the mechanisms of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 inhibiting the absorption of tissue engineering cartilage. We transfected TGF-β1 gene into bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and co-cultured with interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and CD4(+) CD25(-) T lymphocytes. We then characterized the morphological changes, apoptosis and characterization of chondrogenic-committed cells from TGF-β1(+) BMMSCs and explored their mechanisms. Results showed that BMMSCs apoptosis and tissue engineering cartilage absorption in the group with added IFN-γ and TNF-α were greater than in the control group. In contrast, there was little BMMSC apoptosis and absorption by tissue engineering cartilage in the group with added CD4(+) CD25(-) T lymphocytes; Foxp3(+) T cells and CD25(+) CD39(+) T cells were found. In contrast, no type II collagen or Foxp3(+) T cells or CD25(+) CD39(+) T cells was found in the TGF-β1(-) BMMSC group. The data suggest that IFN-γ and TNF-α induced BMMSCs apoptosis and absorption of tissue engineering cartilage, but the newborn regulatory T (Treg) cells inhibited the function of IFN-γ and TNF-α and protected BMMSCs and tissue engineering cartilage. TGF-β1not only played a cartilage inductive role, but also inhibited the absorption of tissue engineering cartilage. The pathway proposed in our study may simulate the actual reaction procedure after implantation of BMMSCs and tissue engineering cartilage in vivo. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Transforming growth factor-beta 3 alters intestinal smooth muscle function: implications for gastroschisis-related intestinal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Moore-Olufemi, S D; Olsen, A B; Hook-Dufresne, D M; Bandla, V; Cox, C S

    2015-05-01

    Gastroschisis (GS) is a congenital abdominal wall defect that results in the development of GS-related intestinal dysfunction (GRID). Transforming growth factor-β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, has been shown to cause organ dysfunction through alterations in vascular and airway smooth muscle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of TGF-β3 on intestinal smooth muscle function and contractile gene expression. Archived human intestinal tissue was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR for TGF-β isoforms and markers of smooth muscle gene and micro-RNA contractile phenotype. Intestinal motility was measured in neonatal rats ± TGF-β3 (0.2 and 1 mg/kg). Human intestinal smooth muscle cells (hiSMCs) were incubated with fetal bovine serum ± 100 ng/ml of TGF-β 3 isoforms for 6, 24 and 72 h. The effects of TGF-β3 on motility, hiSMC contractility and hiSMC contractile phenotype gene and micro-RNA expression were measured using transit, collagen gel contraction assay and RT-PCR analysis. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM, ANOVA (n = 6-7/group). GS infants had increased immunostaining of TGF-β3 and elevated levels of micro-RNA 143 & 145 in the intestinal smooth muscle. Rats had significantly decreased intestinal transit when exposed to TGF-β3 in a dose-dependent manner compared with Sham animals. TGF-β3 significantly increased hiSMC gel contraction and contractile protein gene and micro-RNA expression. TGF-β3 contributed to intestinal dysfunction at the organ level, increased contraction at the cellular level and elevated contractile gene expression at the molecular level. A hyper-contractile response may play a role in the persistent intestinal dysfunction seen in GRID.

  14. Oncogenic transformation of mammary epithelial cells by transforming growth factor beta independent of mammary stem cell regulation.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Karen A; Seo, Jae-Hong; Kim, Daniel J; Roberts, Amy L; Tao, Luwei; DiRenzo, James; Balboni, Amanda L; Crisi, Giovanna M; Hagen, Mary J; Chandrasekaran, Thiruppavai; Gauger, Kelly J; Schneider, Sallie Smith; Jerry, D Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is transiently increased in the mammary gland during involution and by radiation. While TGFβ normally has a tumour suppressor role, prolonged exposure to TGFβ can induce an oncogenic epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) program in permissive cells and initiate the generation of cancer stem cells. Our objective is to mimic the transient exposure to TGFβ during involution to determine the persistent effects on premalignant mammary epithelium. CDβGeo cells, a transplantable mouse mammary epithelial cell line, were treated in vitro for 14 days with TGFβ (5 ng/ml). The cells were passaged for an additional 14 days in media without TGFβ and then assessed for markers of EMT and transformation. The 14-day exposure to TGFβ induced EMT and transdifferentiation in vitro that persists after withdrawal of TGFβ. TGFβ-treated cells are highly tumorigenic in vivo, producing invasive solid de-differentiated tumours (100%; latency 6.7 weeks) compared to control (43%; latency 32.7 weeks). Although the TGFβ-treated cells have initiated a persistent EMT program, the stem cell population was unchanged relative to the controls. The gene expression profiles of TGFβ-treated cells demonstrate de-differentiation with decreases in the expression of genes that define luminal, basal and stem cells. Additionally, the gene expression profiles demonstrate increases in markers of EMT, growth factor signalling, TGFβ2 and changes in extra cellular matrix. This model demonstrates full oncogenic EMT without an increase in stem cells, serving to separate EMT markers from stem cell markers.

  15. Collagen scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Julie; Mizuno, Shuichi

    2008-05-01

    There are two major approaches to tissue engineering for regeneration of tissues and organs. One involves cell-free materials and/or factors and one involves delivering cells to contribute to the regeneraion process. Of the many scaffold materials being investigated, collagen type I, with selective removal of its telopeptides, has been shown to have many advantageous features for both of these approaches. Highly porous collagen lattice sponges have been used to support in vitro growth of many types of tissues. Use of bioreactors to control in vitro perfusion of medium and to apply hydrostatic fluid pressure has been shown to enhance histogenesis in collagen scaffolds. Collagen sponges have also been developed to contain differentiating-inducing materials like demineralized bone to stimulate differentiation of cartilage tissue both in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Characterization of newly established tumor lines from a spontaneous malignant schwannoma in F344 rats: nerve growth factor production, growth inhibition by transforming growth factor-beta1, and macrophage-like phenotype expression.

    PubMed

    Yamate, J; Yasui, H; Benn, S J; Tsukamoto, Y; Kuwamura, M; Kumagai, D; Sakuma, S; LaMarre, J

    2003-09-01

    Transplantable tumor (KE) and clone cell (KE-F11) lines were established from a spontaneous malignant schwannoma found in an aged F344 rat. The primary tumor and KE tumors consisted of oval or spindle cells arranged in ill-defined bundles. Cultured KE-F11 cells exhibited polygonal or spindle configurations. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells in KE and KE-F11 reacted to vimentin, S-100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, myelin basic protein, and glial fibrillary acidic protein in varying degrees, indicating neurogenic features; occasional cells reacted to alpha-smooth muscle actin. Cells positive for lysosomal enzymes (acid phosphatase and non-specific esterase), and ED1 (rat macrophage specific) were observed in KE-F11, and electron microscopically, cells with many lysosomes were frequently present, indicating expression of macrophage-like phenotypes. Bioassay analysis revealed that KE-F11 cells produced high levels of nerve growth factor. DNA synthesis was inhibited by addition of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), and Northern blot analysis revealed that expression of c-myc, a cell cycle-related immediate early gene, was depressed by TGF-beta1. Likely, TGF-beta1 is a factor capable of inhibiting cellular growth of Schwann cells. mRNA expression of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) was seen in KE-F11 cells by Northern blot analysis, and the level was decreased by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. LRP may be attributable to regulation of Schwann cell functions. KE-F11 cells seeded on laminin-coated dishes exhibited more extended cytoplasmic projections than on collagen type I-coated dishes. The present study provides evidence that biological properties of malignant schwannoma-derived cells might be affected by exogenous factors such as TGF-beta1, LPS and laminin. These tumor lines may be useful for studies on pathobiological characteristics of Schwann cells.

  17. Selective platelet-derived growth factor receptor kinase blockers reverse sis-transformation.

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, M; Gazit, A; Böhmer, A; Rorsman, C; Rönnstrand, L; Heldin, C H; Waltenberger, J; Böhmer, F D; Levitzki, A

    1994-12-01

    A novel class of tyrosine kinase blockers represented by the tyrphostins AG1295 and AG1296 is described. These compounds inhibit selectively the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor kinase and the PDGF-dependent DNA synthesis in Swiss 3T3 cells and in porcine aorta endothelial cells with 50% inhibitory concentrations below 5 and 1 microM, respectively. The PDGF receptor blockers have not effect on epidermal growth factor receptor autophosphorylation; weak effects on DNA synthesis stimulated by insulin, by epidermal growth factor, or by a combination of both; and over an order of magnitude weaker blocking effect on fibroblast growth factor-dependent DNA synthesis. AG1296 potently inhibits signaling of human PDGF alpha- and beta-receptors as well as of the related stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit) but has no effect on autophosphorylation of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor KDR or on DNA synthesis induced by vascular endothelial growth factor in porcine aortic endothelial cells. Treatment by AG1296 reverses the transformed phenotype of sis-transfected NIH 3T3 cells but has no effect on src-transformed NIH 3T3 cells or on the activity of the kinase p60c-src(F527) immunoprecipitated from these cells. These potent and selective compounds represent leads for the development of novel agents to combat tumors driven by PDGF or to inhibit PDGF action in other diseases in which PDGF plays a key role, such as restenosis.

  18. Handling Arabidopsis plants: growth, preservation of seeds, transformation, and genetic crosses.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Luz; Scholl, Randy; Holomuzki, Nicholas; Crist, Deborah; Grotewold, Erich; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Growing healthy plants is essential for the advancement of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) research. Over the last 20 years, the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (ABRC) has collected and developed a series of best-practice protocols, some of which are presented in this chapter. Arabidopsis can be grown in a variety of locations, growth media, and environmental conditions. Most laboratory accessions and their mutant or transgenic derivatives flower after 4-5 weeks and set seeds after 7-8 weeks, under standard growth conditions (soil, long day, 23 ºC). Some mutant genotypes, natural accessions, and Arabidopsis relatives require strict control of growth conditions best provided by growth rooms, chambers, or incubators. Other lines can be grown in less-controlled greenhouse settings. Although the majority of lines can be grown in soil, certain experimental purposes require utilization of sterile solid or liquid growth media. These include the selection of primary transformants, identification of homozygous lethal individuals in a segregating population, or bulking of a large amount of plant material. The importance of controlling, observing, and recording growth conditions is emphasized and appropriate equipment required to perform monitoring of these conditions is listed. Proper conditions for seed harvesting and preservation, as well as seed quality control, are also described. Plant transformation and genetic crosses, two of the methods that revolutionized Arabidopsis genetics, are introduced as well.

  19. Transforming and nontransforming growth factors are present in medium conditioned by fetal rat calvariae.

    PubMed Central

    Centrella, M; Canalis, E

    1985-01-01

    Conditioned medium recovered from fetal rat calvarial cultures contains an autocrine factor termed bone-derived growth factor (BDGF); this factor has been purified by acid extraction, gel-permeation chromatography, and two reversed-phase HPLC steps and examined for mitogenicity on normal rat kidney fibroblasts (NRK, clone 49F). HPLC-purified BDGF caused a dose-related increase in cell number, DNA content, and [3H]thymidine incorporation into acid-insoluble material. Since highly purified BDGF appeared less mitogenic than cruder preparations, the latter were tested for additional growth factors, with particular attention to those required for anchorage-independent colony formation in soft agar. BDGF did not displace 125I-labeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) in a radioligand-receptor assay, indicating the absence of EGF and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha). Without EGF, no BDGF preparation induced NRK cells to form soft agar colonies. However, calvarial conditioned medium contained a factor which, like TGF-beta, induced large soft-agar colonies in the presence of EGF; this TGF-beta-like factor did not copurify with BDGF. Polyclonal antibodies against platelet-derived growth factor did not neutralize the effects of BDGF on NRK cells. BDGF is a potent mitogen for nonskeletal-tissue-derived fibroblasts. Although crude BDGF preparations do contain TGF-beta, BDGF is distinct from this factor and others necessary for NRK cell transformation to anchorage-independent growth. Images PMID:2997787

  20. TRANSFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants wasmore » revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).« less

  1. Increased oxygen exposure alters collagen expression and tissue architecture during ligature-induced periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Gajendrareddy, P K; Junges, R; Cygan, G; Zhao, Y; Marucha, P T; Engeland, C G

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increased oxygen availability on gene expression and on collagen deposition/maturation in the periodontium following disease. Male Wistar rats had ligatures placed around their molars to induce periodontal disease, and a subset of animals underwent hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment for 2 h twice per day. At 15 and 28 d, tissue gene expression of COL1A1, transforming growth factor-β1 and alkaline phosphatase was determined; other histological samples were stained with Picrosirius red to evaluate levels of collagen deposition, maturation and thickness. In animals that underwent HBO treatment, type I collagen expression was higher and collagen deposition, maturation and thickness were more robust. Reduced mRNA levels of transforming growth factor-beta1 and alkaline phosphatase in HBO-treated rats on day 28 suggested that a quicker resolution in both soft tissue and bone remodeling occurred following oxygen treatment. No differences in inflammation were observed between groups. The extracellular matrix regenerated more quickly in the HBO-treated group as evidenced by higher collagen expression, deposition and maturation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Demineralized bone matrix combined bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, bone morphogenetic protein-2 and transforming growth factor-β3 gene promoted pig cartilage defect repair.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yanlin; Han, Rui; He, Chuan; Wang, Guoliang; Wang, Jianwei; Zheng, Jiali; Pei, Ming; Pei, Mei; Wei, Lei

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether a combination of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) infected with adenovirus-mediated- bone morphogenetic protein (Ad-BMP-2) and transforming growth factor-β3 (Ad-TGF-β3) promotes the repair of the full-thickness cartilage lesions in pig model. BMSCs isolated from pig were cultured and infected with Ad-BMP-2(B group), Ad-TGF-β3 (T group), Ad-BMP-2 + Ad-TGF-β3(BT group), cells infected with empty Ad served as a negative group(N group), the expression of the BMP-2 and TGF-β3 were confirmed by immunofluorescence, PCR, and ELISA, the expression of SOX-9, type II collagen(COL-2A), aggrecan (ACAN) in each group were evaluated by real-time PCR at 1w, 2w, 3w, respectively. The chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs was evaluated by type II collagen at 21d with immunohistochemical staining. The third-passage BMSCs infected with Ad-BMP-2 and Ad-TGF-β3 were suspended and cultured with DBM for 6 days to construct a new type of tissue engineering scaffold to repair full-thickness cartilage lesions in the femur condyles of pig knee, the regenerated tissue was evaluated at 1,2 and 3 months after surgery by gross appearance, H&E, safranin O staining and O'driscoll score. Ad-BMP-2 and Ad-TGF-β3 (BT group) infected cells acquired strong type II collagen staining compared with Ad-BMP-2 (B group) and Ad-TGF-β3 (T group) along. The Ad-BMP-2 and Ad-TGF-β3 infected BMSCs adhered and propagated well in DBM and the new type of tissue engineering scaffold produced hyaline cartilage morphology containing a stronger type II collagen and safranin O staining, the O'driscoll score was higher than other groups. The DBM compound with Ad-BMP-2 and Ad-TGF-β3 infected BMSCs scaffold has a good biocompatibility and could well induce cartilage regeneration to repair the defects of joint cartilage. This technology may be efficiently employed for cartilage lesions repair in vivo.

  3. Autoregulation of periodontal ligament cell phenotype and functions by transforming growth factor-beta1.

    PubMed

    Brady, T A; Piesco, N P; Buckley, M J; Langkamp, H H; Bowen, L L; Agarwal, S

    1998-10-01

    During orthodontic tooth movement, mechanical forces acting on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells induce the synthesis of mediators which alter the growth, differentiation, and secretory functions of cells of the PDL. Since the cells of the PDL represent a heterogeneous population, we examined mechanically stress-induced cytokine profiles in three separate clones of human osteoblast-like PDL cells. Of the four pro-inflammatory cytokines investigated, only IL-6 and TGF-beta1 were up-regulated in response to mechanical stress. However, the expression of other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, or IL-8 was not observed. To understand the consequences of the increase in TGF-beta1 expression following mechanical stress, we examined the effect of TGF-beta1 on PDL cell phenotype and functions. TGF-beta1 was mitogenic to PDL cells at concentrations between 0.4 and 10 ng/mL. Furthermore, TGF-beta1 down-regulated the osteoblast-like phenotype of PDL cells, i.e., alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium phosphate nodule formation, expression of osteocalcin, and TGF-beta1, in a dose-dependent manner. Although initially TGF-beta1 induced expression of type I collagen mRNA, prolonged exposure to TGF-beta1 down-regulated the ability of PDL cells to express type I collagen mRNA. Our results further show that, within 4 hrs, exogenously applied TGF-beta1 down-regulated IL-6 expression in a dose-dependent manner, and this inhibition was sustained over a six-day period. In summary, the data suggest that mechanically stress-induced TGF-beta1 expression may be a physiological mechanism to induce mitogenesis in PDL cells while down-regulating its osteoblast-like features and simultaneously reducing the IL-6-induced bone resorption.

  4. The retinoic acid-induced up-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 and 2 is associated with prolidase-dependent collagen synthesis in UVA-irradiated human dermal equivalents.

    PubMed

    Shim, Joong Hyun; Shin, Dong Wook; Lee, Tae Ryong; Kang, Hak Hee; Jin, Sun Hee; Noh, Minsoo

    2012-04-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) A irradiation causes the degeneration of extracellular matrix in the skin dermis, mainly due to disrupted collagen homeostasis, resulting in the photo-aging of human skin. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) improves photo-aged human skin in vivo. Although the effects of ATRA on collagen synthesis and MMP regulation are well known, the effects of ATRA on other collagen homeostasis-associated genes have not been elucidated. This study was aimed to study the factors that are pharmacologically associated with the effect of ATRA on collagen homeostasis. The gene transcription profile of collagen homeostasis-associated genes was systematically evaluated in three-dimensional human dermal equivalents (HDEs) following UVA-irradiation and/or ATRA treatment. In addition to the expected changes in MMPs and collagen synthesis in HDEs in response to ATRA, prolidase, an important enzyme in the recycling of proline and hydroxyproline from degraded collagen molecules, was significantly decreased by UVA irradiation, and its down-regulation was antagonized by ATRA. Transfection with a prolidase-specific siRNA led to a significant decrease in procollagen synthesis in human fibroblasts. ATRA inhibited the UVA irradiation-induced decrease in prolidase activity through an insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor signaling pathway in HDEs. ARTA increased IGF1 and IGF2 production in HDEs, and neutralizing IGFs with anti-IGF antibodies abolished the effect of ATRA on proliase activity. These data demonstrate that ATRA regulates prolidase activity in HDEs via IGF receptor signaling, suggesting one of the pharmacological mechanisms by which improves photo-aged human skin. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synergistic effect of vitamin D and low concentration of transforming growth factor beta 1, a potential role in dermal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jie; Kwan, Peter; Ma, Zengshuan; Iwashina, Takashi; Wang, Jianfei; Shankowsky, Heather A; Tredget, Edward E

    2016-09-01

    Dermal wound healing, in which transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) plays an important role, is a complex process. Previous studies suggest that vitamin D has a potential regulatory role in TGFβ1 induced activation in bone formation, and there is cross-talk between their signaling pathways, but research on their effects in other types of wound healing is limited. The authors therefore wanted to explore the role of vitamin D and its interaction with low concentration of TGFβ1 in dermal fibroblast-mediated wound healing through an in vitro study. Human dermal fibroblasts were treated with vitamin D, TGFβ1, both, or vehicle, and then the wound healing functions of dermal fibroblasts were measured. To further explore possible mechanisms explaining the synergistic effect of vitamin D and TGFβ1, targeted gene silencing of the vitamin D receptor was performed. Compared to either factor alone, treatment of fibroblasts with both vitamin D and low concentration of TGFβ1 increased gene expression of TGFβ1, connective tissue growth factor, and fibronectin 1, and enhanced fibroblast migration, myofibroblast formation, and collagen production. Vitamin D receptor gene silencing blocked this synergistic effect of vitamin D and TGFβ1 on both collagen production and myofibroblast differentiation. Thus a synergistic effect of vitamin D and low TGFβ1 concentration was found in dermal fibroblast-mediated wound healing in vitro. This study suggests that supplementation of vitamin D may be an important step to improve wound healing and regeneration in patients with a vitamin D deficiency. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased cAMP levels modulate transforming growth factor-beta/Smad-induced expression of extracellular matrix components and other key fibroblast effector functions.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Meinhard; Dennler, Sylviane; Anderegg, Ulf; Kokot, Agatha; Simon, Jan C; Luger, Thomas A; Mauviel, Alain; Böhm, Markus

    2010-01-01

    cAMP is a key messenger of many hormones and neuropeptides, some of which modulate the composition of extracellular matrix. Treatment of human dermal fibroblasts with dibutyryl cyclic AMP and forskolin antagonized the inductive effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) on the expression of collagen, connective tissue growth factor, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type I, four prototypical TGF-beta-responsive genes. Increased intracellular cAMP prevented TGF-beta-induced Smad-specific gene transactivation, although TGF-beta-mediated Smad phosphorylation and nuclear translocation remained unaffected. However, increased cAMP levels abolished TGF-beta-induced interaction of Smad3 with its transcriptional co-activator cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP)/p300. Overexpression of the transcriptional co-activator CBP/p300 rescued Smad-specific gene transcription in the presence of cAMP suggesting that sequestration of limited amounts of CBP/p300 by the activated cAMP/CREB pathway is the molecular basis of this inhibitory effect. These findings were extended by two functional assays. Increased intracellular cAMP levels suppressed the inductive activity of TGF-beta to contract mechanically unloaded collagen lattices and resulted in an attenuation of fibroblast migration of mechanically induced cell layer wounds. Of note, cAMP and TGF-beta synergistically induced hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) expression and hyaluronan secretion, presumably via putative CREB-binding sites adjacent to Smad-binding sites within the HAS2 promoter. Our findings identify the cAMP pathway as a potent but differential and promoter-specific regulator of TGF-beta-mediated effects involved in extracellular matrix homeostasis.

  7. Growth of organic crystals via attachment and transformation of nanoscopic precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yuan; Kellermeier, Matthias; Gebaue, Denis; Lu, Zihao; Rosenberg, Rose; Moise, Adrian; Przybylski, Michael; Cölfen, Helmut

    2017-06-01

    A key requirement for the understanding of crystal growth is to detect how new layers form and grow at the nanoscale. Multistage crystallization pathways involving liquid-like, amorphous or metastable crystalline precursors have been predicted by theoretical work and have been observed experimentally. Nevertheless, there is no clear evidence that any of these precursors can also be relevant for the growth of crystals of organic compounds. Herein, we present a new growth mode for crystals of DL-glutamic acid monohydrate that proceeds through the attachment of preformed nanoscopic species from solution, their subsequent decrease in height at the surface and final transformation into crystalline 2D nuclei that eventually build new molecular layers by further monomer incorporation. This alternative mechanism provides a direct proof for the existence of multistage pathways in the crystallization of molecular compounds and the relevance of precursor units larger than the monomeric constituents in the actual stage of growth.

  8. Is cancer a pure growth curve or does it follow a kinetics of dynamical structural transformation?

    PubMed

    González, Maraelys Morales; Joa, Javier Antonio González; Cabrales, Luis Enrique Bergues; Pupo, Ana Elisa Bergues; Schneider, Baruch; Kondakci, Suleyman; Ciria, Héctor Manuel Camué; Reyes, Juan Bory; Jarque, Manuel Verdecia; Mateus, Miguel Angel O'Farril; González, Tamara Rubio; Brooks, Soraida Candida Acosta; Cáceres, José Luis Hernández; González, Gustavo Victoriano Sierra

    2017-03-07

    Unperturbed tumor growth kinetics is one of the more studied cancer topics; however, it is poorly understood. Mathematical modeling is a useful tool to elucidate new mechanisms involved in tumor growth kinetics, which can be relevant to understand cancer genesis and select the most suitable treatment. The classical Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami as well as the modified Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami models to describe unperturbed fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumor growth are used and compared with the Gompertz modified and Logistic models. Viable tumor cells (1×10 5 ) are inoculated to 28 BALB/c male mice. Modified Gompertz, Logistic, Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami classical and modified Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami models fit well to the experimental data and agree with one another. A jump in the time behaviors of the instantaneous slopes of classical and modified Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami models and high values of these instantaneous slopes at very early stages of tumor growth kinetics are observed. The modified Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation can be used to describe unperturbed fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumor growth. It reveals that diffusion-controlled nucleation/growth and impingement mechanisms are involved in tumor growth kinetics. On the other hand, tumor development kinetics reveals dynamical structural transformations rather than a pure growth curve. Tumor fractal property prevails during entire TGK.

  9. Hepatocyte growth factor fusion protein having collagen-binding activity (CBD-HGF) accelerates re-endothelialization and intimal hyperplasia in balloon-injured rat carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Ohkawara, Nana; Ueda, Hiroki; Shinozaki, Shohei; Kitajima, Takashi; Ito, Yoshihiro; Asaoka, Hiroshi; Kawakami, Akio; Kaneko, Eiji; Shimokado, Kentaro

    2007-08-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is known to stimulate endothelial cell proliferation. However, re-endothelialization is not enhanced when the native protein is administered to the injured artery, probably due to the short half-life of HGF at the site of injury. Therefore, the effects of an HGF fusion protein having collagen-binding activity (CBD-HGF) on re-endothelialization and neointimal formation was studied in the balloon-injured rat carotid artery. The left common carotid artery of male Sprague-Dawley rats was injured with an inflated balloon catheter, and then treated with CBD-HGF 10 microg/mL), HGF (10 micro g/mL) or saline (control) for 15 min. After 14 days, the rats were injected with Evans blue and sacrificed. The re-endothelialized area was significantly greater in the CBD-HGF- treated rats than in the control or HGF -treated rats. Neointimal formation was significantly more pronounced in the CBD-HGF treated rats than in other rat groups. Both HGF and CBD-HGF stimulated proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells as well as endothelial cells in vitro. Consistent with this, cultured smooth muscle cells were shown to express the HGF receptor (c-Met). CBD-HGF accelerates re-endothelialization and neointimal formation in vivo. CBD fusion protein is a useful vehicle to deliver vascular growth factors to injured arteries.

  10. Insights into the Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling Pathway in Cutaneous Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Perrot, Carole Yolande; Javelaud, Delphine

    2013-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic growth factor with broad tissue distribution that plays critical roles during embryonic development, normal tissue homeostasis, and cancer. While its cytostatic activity on normal epithelial cells initially defined TGF-β signaling as a tumor suppressor pathway, there is ample evidence indicating that TGF-β is a potent pro-tumorigenic agent, acting via autocrine and paracrine mechanisms to promote peri-tumoral angiogenesis, together with tumor cell migration, immune escape, and dissemination to metastatic sites. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the implication of TGF-β signaling in melanoma. PMID:23717002

  11. Tissue-specific transformation by oncogenic mutants of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Carter, T H; Kung, H J

    1994-01-01

    Mutations in the receptor for the epidermal growth factor provide valuable insight into mechanisms of growth control. Oncogenic mutants of this receptor tyrosine kinase cause erythroid leukemia, fibrosarcoma, angiosarcoma, glioblastoma, and melanoma. Mutations in the avian protooncogene occur by retroviral mechanisms. Deletion of the ligand-binding domain results in erythroblastosis, while additional mutations in cytoplasmic structures broaden the disease potential to other cell types. A carboxyl-terminal structure of erbB oncogenes modulates growth responses in a complex, cell-specific manner; this tissue-specificity region appears to promote growth in erythroblasts and to produce trans-dominant inhibition in fibroblasts. Human glioblastoma multiforme frequently contains receptor mutations that are reminiscent of avian oncogenes. In hereditary melanoma of Xiphophorus, aberrant regulation of transcription by a recombinant promoter determines tissue-specific tumorigenesis. The diversity of oncogenic mutations raises important questions concerning the roles of several receptor structures. The extracellular domain inhibits the receptor when unoccupied by ligand, for example, through a mechanism that is unknown. The auto-phosphorylation sites are dispensable for transformation, so their function in neoplastic growth is unclear. The carboxyl-terminal region promotes or blocks transformation in different tissues, suggesting complex regulation by unknown cellular factors. These issues are critical to understanding of the mechanisms of receptor activation and tissue tropism for this family of oncogenes.

  12. [Intervention of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on expressions of connective tissue growth factor, type I collagen, and type III collage in acute paraquat poisoned rats].

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Yang, Hui-fang; Zhang, Ping; Chang, Xiu-li; Zhou, Zhi-jun

    2013-01-01

    To observe the changes in the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), type I collagen (Col I), and type III collagen (Col III) among the rats with acute paraquat (PQ) poisoning and the intervention effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on their expression, and to investigate the mechanism of PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis and the intervention effect of PDTC on the disease. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group (n = 6), PQ group (n = 36), and PQ + PDTC group (n = 36). The PQ group and PQ + PDTC group were given a single dose of saline-diluted PQ (80 mg/kg) by gavage; 2 h later, the PQ + PDTC group was intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of PDTC (100 mg/kg), and the PQ group was intraperitoneally injected with the same amount of saline. The control group was given saline (1 ml/kg) by gavage and was intraperitoneally injected with the same amount of saline 2h later. At 1, 3, 7, 14, 25, and 56 days after operation, the protein expression of CTGF was evaluated by Western blot; the mRNA expression of CTGF, Col I, and Col III was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR; the content of hydroxyproline in lung tissue was measured, and the pathological changes of lung tissue of the poisoned rats were observed. The protein expression of CTGF in the PQ group increased as the time went on, slowly from the 3rd to the 14th day and rapidly from the 28th to the 56th day, significantly higher than that in the control group at each time point (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The mRNA expression of CTGF in the PQ group began to rise markedly on the 1st day, increased rapidly from the 3rd to the 14th day, and remained at a relatively high level from the 28th to the 56th day, significantly higher than that in the control group at each time point (P < 0.01). The mRNA expression of Col I in the PQ group changed little on the 1st and 3rd day, increased slightly on the 7th day, and increased greatly from the 14th to the 56th day, significantly

  13. Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling in Growth of Estrogen-Insensitive Metastatic Bone Lesions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702...proliferation. Neoplastic cells are able to overcome this TGF regulation, and frequently use the pathway instead for uncontrolled growth and invasion ( 10 ...4890 (Oct 15, 1993). 9. J. Zhang et al., J Clin Invest 107, 1235 (May, 2001). 10 . J. Massague, Cell 134, 215 (Jul 25, 2008). 11. R. A. McClelland

  14. Methylation Silencing of ULK2, an Autophagy Gene, Is Essential for Astrocyte Transformation and Tumor Growth*

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Sudhanshu; Patric, Irene Rosita Pia; Patil, Vikas; Shwetha, Shivayogi D.; Hegde, Alangar S.; Chandramouli, Bangalore A.; Arivazhagan, Arimappamagan; Santosh, Vani; Somasundaram, Kumaravel

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive type of brain tumor and shows very poor prognosis. Here, using genome-wide methylation analysis, we show that G-CIMP+ and G-CIMP-subtypes enrich distinct classes of biological processes. One of the hypermethylated genes in GBM, ULK2, an upstream autophagy inducer, was found to be down-regulated in GBM. Promoter hypermethylation of ULK2 was confirmed by bisulfite sequencing. GBM and glioma cell lines had low levels of ULK2 transcripts, which could be reversed upon methylation inhibitor treatment. ULK2 promoter methylation and transcript levels showed significant negative correlation. Ectopic overexpression of ULK2-induced autophagy, which further enhanced upon nutrient starvation or temozolomide chemotherapy. ULK2 also inhibited the growth of glioma cells, which required autophagy induction as kinase mutant of ULK2 failed to induce autophagy and inhibit growth. Furthermore, ULK2 induced autophagy and inhibited growth in Ras-transformed immortalized Baby Mouse Kidney (iBMK) ATG5+/+ but not in autophagy-deficient ATG5−/− cells. Growth inhibition due to ULK2 induced high levels of autophagy under starvation or chemotherapy utilized apoptotic cell death but not at low levels of autophagy. Growth inhibition by ULK2 also appears to involve catalase degradation and reactive oxygen species generation. ULK2 overexpression inhibited anchorage independent growth, inhibited astrocyte transformation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Of all autophagy genes, we found ULK2 and its homologue ULK1 were only down-regulated in all grades of glioma. Thus these results altogether suggest that inhibition of autophagy by ULK1/2 down-regulation is essential for glioma development. PMID:24923441

  15. Altered biological activity of equine chondrocytes cultured in a three-dimensional fibrin matrix and supplemented with transforming growth factor beta-1.

    PubMed

    Fortier, L A; Nixon, A J; Mohammed, H O; Lust, G

    1997-01-01

    To determine the effects of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) on the synthesis of DNA, collagen, and proteoglycans (PG) by equine chondrocytes. Articular cartilage obtained from multiple joints of a 4-month-old foal. Chondrocytes were isolated by collagenase digestion, cultured in monolayer, trypsinized, and implanted at a cellular density of 10 x 10(6) chondrocytes/ml in a three-dimensional fibrin matrix. Chondrocytes in culture were supplemented with TGF-beta 1 at concentrations of 0, 1, 5, or 10 ng/ml in serum-free medium or medium containing fetal bovine serum (FBS). Total PG accumulation, [35S]-labeled PG synthesis, PG monomer hydrodynamic size, type II collagen production, total DNA content, and [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA were determined at 7 and 14 days of culture. Chondrocytes maintained a rounded phenotype, dedifferentiating slightly to a more fibroblastic appearance only in medium containing FBS and 10 ng of TGF-beta 1/ml. Type II collagen immunoreaction on day 14 was decreased in the pericellular matrix in cultures containing FBS and 1, 5, and 10 ng of TGF-beta 1/ml, and in all serum-free culture conditions compared to FBS and 0 ng of TGF-beta 1/ml. Total proteoglycan accumulation and [35S]-labeled proteoglycan synthesis in cultures on days 7 and 14 were increased by the addition of exogenous TGF-beta 1 in serum-free conditions and decreased by TGF-beta 1 in FBS-supplemented conditions. Calculation of the partition coefficients for PG indicated that there was synthesis of low molecular weight PG in serum-free conditions and larger sized proteoglycans in FBS-supplemented conditions. Proteoglycan molecular size was unchanged by the addition of TGF-beta 1. Total DNA content of chondrocytes increased with the addition of TGF-beta 1 in FBS-supplemented conditions and decreased in serum-free conditions. In a solid three-dimensional fibrin matrix, the effects of TGF-beta 1 on chondrocyte biological activity depend on the culture duration

  16. Water-soluble undenatured type II collagen ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshinari, Orie; Shiojima, Yoshiaki; Moriyama, Hiroyoshi; Shinozaki, Junichi; Nakane, Takahisa; Masuda, Kazuo; Bagchi, Manashi

    2013-11-01

    Earlier studies have reported the efficacy of type II collagen (C II) in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, a few studies have investigated the ability of the antigenic collagen to induce oral tolerance, which is defined as active nonresponse to an orally administered antigen. We hypothesized that water-soluble undenatured C II had a similar effect as C II in RA. The present study was designed to examine the oral administration of a novel, water-soluble, undenatured C II (commercially known as NEXT-II) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. In addition, the underlying mechanism of NEXT-II was also identified. After a booster dose (collagen-Freund's complete adjuvant), mice were assigned to control CIA group, or NEXT-II treatment group, to which saline and NEXT-II were administered, respectively. The arthritis index in the NEXT-II group was significantly lower compared with the CIA group. Serum IL-6 levels in the NEXT-II group were significantly lower compared with the CIA group, while serum IL-2 level was higher. Furthermore, oral administration of NEXT-II enhanced the proportion of CD4+CD25+T (Treg) cells, and gene expressions of stimulated dendritic cells induced markers for regulatory T cells such as forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and CD25. These results demonstrated that orally administered water-soluble undenatured C II (NEXT-II) is highly efficacious in the suppression of CIA by inducing CD4+CD25+ Treg cells.

  17. Effects of Artesunate on the Expressions of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1, Osteopontin and C-Telopeptides of Type II Collagen in a Rat Model of Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhe; Guo, Xiao-Hui; Tang, Chi; Yue, Si-Tong; Shi, Long; Qiang, Bo

    2018-01-01

    The study aims to explore the effects of artesunate on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), Osteopontin (OPN), and C-telopeptides of type II collagen (CTX-II) in serum, synovial fluid (SF), and cartilage tissues of rats with osteoarthritis (OA). OA models were established. Normal model, artesunate, and Viatril-S groups (20 rats respectively) were set. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, IHC staining, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were conducted to calculate IGF-1, OPN, and CTX-II levels in serum, SF, and cartilage tissues of rats. The pathological changes in cartilage tissues were evaluated with Mankin score and Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Compared with the normal group, the model group showed increased IGF-1 level; decreased OPN, CTX-II levels in the serum and SF; and contrary results were seen in the cartilage tissues. A gradual ascending IGF-1 level and descending OPN and CTX-II levels existed in the serum and SF in the artesunate and Viatril-S groups after 2 weeks. The model group showed the most obvious pathological changes and highest Mankin score compared with the other groups. Higher IGF-1 level and lower OPN, CTX-II levels were exhibited in the cartilage tissue in the artesunate and Viatril-S groups but not in the model group. Artesunate and Viatril-S inhibit OA development by elevating IGF-1 level and reducing OPN and CTX-II levels. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Epidermal growth factor promotes a mesenchymal over an amoeboid motility of MDA-MB-231 cells embedded within a 3D collagen matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geum, Dongil T.; Kim, Beum Jun; Chang, Audrey E.; Hall, Matthew S.; Wu, Mingming

    2016-01-01

    The receptor of epidermal growth factor (EGFR) critically regulates tumor cell invasion and is a potent therapeutic target for treatment of many types of cancers, including carcinomas and glioblastomas. It is known that EGF regulates cell motility when tumor cells are embedded within a 3D biomatrix. However, roles of EGF in modulating tumor cell motility phenotype are largely unknown. In this article, we report that EGF promotes a mesenchymal over an amoeboid motility phenotype using a malignant breast tumor cell line, MDA-MB-231, embedded within a 3D collagen matrix. Amoeboid cells are rounded in shape, while mesenchymal cells are elongated, and their migrations are governed by a distinctly different set of biomolecules. Using single cell tracking analysis, we also show that EGF promotes cell dissemination through a significant increase in cell persistence along with a moderate increase of speed. The increase of persistence is correlated with the increase of the percentage of the mesenchymal cells within the population. Our work reveals a novel role of microenvironmental cue, EGF, in modulating heterogeneity and plasticity of tumor cell motility phenotype. In addition, it suggests a potential visual cue for diagnosing invasive states of breast cancer cells. This work can be easily extended beyond breast cancer cells.

  19. The set of growth factors stimulatory for a transformed rat cell of line NRK-49F depends on the identity of the transforming virus.

    PubMed

    el-Enany, T M; Dubes, G R

    1986-01-01

    Re-cloned rat fibroblast line NRK-49F was transformed by human adenovirus type 5 which had been grown in human cells of the KB carcinoma line. Cell subclones were isolated from seven independent transformation events, and seven untransformed cell subclones were isolated in parallel from control cultures which had been inoculated with lysate of uninfected KB cells. The adenovirus-transformed cells differed from the control untransformed fibroblasts by being typically small and cuboidal, showing multilayered growth, producing colonies in soft-agar medium, and growing to higher saturation density. Adenovirus-transformed subclones showed no infective virus and no consistent difference from control subclones in karyotype (mode = 41). Like the original re-cloned NRK-49F cells, all fourteen subclones required epidermal growth factor, fibronectin, insulin, and retinoic acid for optimal growth in serum-free culture. Thus, transformation by HA5 did not alter the required set, in contrast to the earlier finding that transformation of this same re-cloned line by polyoma virus eliminated the requirements for insulin and retinoic acid.

  20. Fibrin, γ'-fibrinogen, and transclot pressure gradient control hemostatic clot growth during human blood flow over a collagen/tissue factor wound.

    PubMed

    Muthard, Ryan W; Welsh, John D; Brass, Lawrence F; Diamond, Scott L

    2015-03-01

    Biological and physical factors interact to modulate blood response in a wounded vessel, resulting in a hemostatic clot or an occlusive thrombus. Flow and pressure differential (ΔP) across the wound from the lumen to the extravascular compartment may impact hemostasis and the observed core/shell architecture. We examined physical and biological factors responsible for regulating thrombin-mediated clot growth. Using factor XIIa-inhibited human whole blood perfused in a microfluidic device over collagen/tissue factor at controlled wall shear rate and ΔP, we found thrombin to be highly localized in the P-selectin(+) core of hemostatic clots. Increasing ΔP from 9 to 29 mm Hg (wall shear rate=400 s(-1)) reduced P-selectin(+) core size and total clot size because of enhanced extravasation of thrombin. Blockade of fibrin polymerization with 5 mmol/L Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro dysregulated hemostasis by enhancing both P-selectin(+) core size and clot size at 400 s(-1) (20 mm Hg). For whole-blood flow (no Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro), the thickness of the P-selectin-negative shell was reduced under arterial conditions (2000 s(-1), 20 mm Hg). Consistent with the antithrombin-1 activity of fibrin implicated with Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro, anti-γ'-fibrinogen antibody enhanced core-localized thrombin, core size, and overall clot size, especially at venous (100 s(-1)) but not arterial wall shear rates (2000 s(-1)). Pathological shear (15 000 s(-1)) and Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro synergized to exacerbate clot growth. Hemostatic clotting was dependent on core-localized thrombin that (1) triggered platelet P-selectin display and (2) was highly regulated by fibrin and the transclot ΔP. Also, γ'-fibrinogen had a role in venous but not arterial conditions. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Fibrin, γ’-fibrinogen, and trans-clot pressure gradient control hemostatic clot growth during human blood flow over a collagen/tissue factor wound

    PubMed Central

    Muthard, Ryan W.; Welsh, John D.; Brass, Lawrence F.; Diamond, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Biological and physical factors interact to modulate blood response in a wounded vessel, resulting in a hemostatic clot or an occlusive thrombus. Flow and pressure differential (ΔP) across the wound from the lumen to the extravascular compartment may impact hemostasis and the observed core/shell architecture. We examined physical and biological factors responsible for regulating thrombin mediated clot growth. Approach and Results Using factor XIIa-inhibited human whole blood perfused in a microfluidic device over collagen/tissue factor at controlled wall shear rate and ΔP, we found thrombin to be highly localized in the P-selectin+ core of hemostatic clots. Increasing ΔP from 9 to 29 mm-Hg (wall shear rate = 400 s−1) reduced P-selectin+ core size and total clot size due to enhanced extravasation of thrombin. Blockade of fibrin polymerization with 5 mM GPRP dysregulated hemostasis by enhancing both P-selectin+ core size and clot size at 400 s−1 (20 mm-Hg). For whole blood flow (no GPRP), the thickness of the P-selectin-negative shell was reduced under arterial conditions (2000 s−1, 20 mm-Hg). Consistent with the antithrombin-1 activity of fibrin implicated with GPRP, anti-γ’-fibrinogen antibody enhanced core-localized thrombin, core size, and overall clot size, especially at venous (100 s−1) but not arterial wall shear rates (2000 s−1). Pathological shear (15,000 s−1) and GPRP synergized to exacerbate clot growth. Conclusions Hemostatic clotting was dependent on core-localized thrombin that (1) triggered platelet P-selectin display and (2) was highly regulated by fibrin and the trans-clot ΔP. Also, γ’-fibrinogen had a role in venous but not arterial conditions. PMID:25614284

  2. Endogenous sulfur dioxide alleviates collagen remodeling via inhibiting TGF-β/Smad pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yaqian; Shen, Zhizhou; Chen, Qinghua; Huang, Pan; Zhang, Heng; Du, Shuxu; Geng, Bin; Zhang, Chunyu; Li, Kun; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-14

    The study was designed to investigate the role of endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2) in collagen remodeling and its mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Overexpression of endogenous SO2 synthase aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) 1 or 2 increased SO2 levels and inhibited collagen I and III expressions induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in VSMCs. In contrast, AAT1 or AAT2 knockdown induced a severe collagen deposition in TGF-β1-treated VSMCs. Furthermore, AAT1 or AAT2 overexpression suppressed procollagen I and III mRNA, upregulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 expression, downregulated tissue inhibitors of MMP-1 level, and vice versa. Mechanistically, AAT1 or AAT2 overexpression inhibited phosphorylation of type I TGF-β receptor (TβRI) and Smad2/3 in TGF-β1-stimulated VSMCs. Whereas SB431542, an inhibitor of TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, attenuated excessive collagen deposition induced by AAT knockdown. Most importantly, ectopically expressing AAT or exogenous addition of 100 μM SO2 blocked AAT deficiency-aggravated collagen accumulation in TGF-β1-stimulatd VSMCs, while no inhibition was observed at 100 μM ethyl pyruvate. These findings indicated that endogenous SO2 alleviated collagen remodeling by controlling TGF-β1/TβRI/Smad2/3-mediated modulation of collagen synthesis and degradation.

  3. Endogenous sulfur dioxide alleviates collagen remodeling via inhibiting TGF-β/Smad pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yaqian; Shen, Zhizhou; Chen, Qinghua; Huang, Pan; Zhang, Heng; Du, Shuxu; Geng, Bin; Zhang, Chunyu; Li, Kun; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the role of endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2) in collagen remodeling and its mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Overexpression of endogenous SO2 synthase aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) 1 or 2 increased SO2 levels and inhibited collagen I and III expressions induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in VSMCs. In contrast, AAT1 or AAT2 knockdown induced a severe collagen deposition in TGF-β1-treated VSMCs. Furthermore, AAT1 or AAT2 overexpression suppressed procollagen I and III mRNA, upregulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 expression, downregulated tissue inhibitors of MMP-1 level, and vice versa. Mechanistically, AAT1 or AAT2 overexpression inhibited phosphorylation of type I TGF-β receptor (TβRI) and Smad2/3 in TGF-β1-stimulated VSMCs. Whereas SB431542, an inhibitor of TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, attenuated excessive collagen deposition induced by AAT knockdown. Most importantly, ectopically expressing AAT or exogenous addition of 100 μM SO2 blocked AAT deficiency-aggravated collagen accumulation in TGF-β1-stimulatd VSMCs, while no inhibition was observed at 100 μM ethyl pyruvate. These findings indicated that endogenous SO2 alleviated collagen remodeling by controlling TGF-β1/TβRI/Smad2/3-mediated modulation of collagen synthesis and degradation. PMID:26762477

  4. Influence of phase transformation on stress evolution during growth of metal thin films on silicon.

    PubMed

    Fillon, A; Abadias, G; Michel, A; Jaouen, C; Villechaise, P

    2010-03-05

    In situ stress measurements during two-dimensional growth of low mobility metal films on amorphous Si were used to demonstrate the impact of interface reactivity and phase transformation on stress evolution. Using Mo1-xSix films as examples, the results show that the tensile stress rise, which develops after the film has become crystalline, is correlated with an increase in lateral grain size. The origin of the tensile stress is attributed to the volume change resulting from the alloy crystallization, which occurs at a concentration-dependent critical thickness.

  5. Phase transformations during the growth of paracetamol crystals from the vapor phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, A. P.; Rubets, V. P.; Antipov, V. V.; Bordei, N. S.

    2014-07-01

    Phase transformations during the growth of paracetamol crystals from the vapor phase are studied by differential scanning calorimetry. It is found that the vapor-crystal phase transition is actually a superposition of two phase transitions: a first-order phase transition with variable density and a second-order phase transition with variable ordering. The latter, being a diffuse phase transition, results in the formation of a new, "pretransition," phase irreversibly spent in the course of the transition, which ends in the appearance of orthorhombic crystals. X-ray diffraction data and micrograph are presented.

  6. Transforming growth factor β: a master regulator of the gut microbiota and immune cell interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bauché, David; Marie, Julien C

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between host organisms and their microbiota has co-evolved towards an inter-dependent network of mutualistic interactions. This interplay is particularly well studied in the gastrointestinal tract, where microbiota and host immune cells can modulate each other directly, as well as indirectly, through the production and release of chemical molecules and signals. In this review, we define the functional impact of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) on this complex interplay, especially through its modulation of the activity of local regulatory T cells (Tregs), type 17 helper (Th17) cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and B cells. PMID:28523126

  7. Effect of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) receptor I kinase inhibitor on prostate cancer bone growth

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xinhai; Li, Zhi-Gang; Yingling, Jonathan M.; Yang, Jun; Starbuck, Michael W.; Ravoori, Murali K.; Kundra, Vikas; Vazquez, Elba; Navone, Nora M.

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastasis. In this study, we tested the antitumor efficacy of a selective TGF-β receptor I kinase inhibitor, LY2109761, in preclinical models. The effect of LY2109761 on the growth of MDA PCa 2b and PC-3 human PCa cells and primary mouse osteoblasts (PMOs) was assessed in vitro by measuring radiolabeled thymidine incorporation into DNA. In vivo, the right femurs of male SCID mice were injected with PCa cells. We monitored the tumor burden in control- and LY2109761-treated mice with MRI analysis and the PCa-induced bone response with x-ray and micro-CT analyses. Histologic changes in bone were studied by performing bone histomorphometric evaluations. PCa cells and PMOs expressed TGF-β receptor I. TGF-β1 induced pathway activation (as assessed by induced expression of p-Smad2) and inhibited cell growth in PC-3 cells and PMOs but not in MDA PCa 2b cells. LY2109761 had no effect on PCa cells but induced PMO proliferation in vitro. As expected, LY2109761 reversed the TGF-β1–induced pathway activation and growth inhibition in PC-3 cells and PMOs. In vivo, LY2109761 treatment for 6 weeks resulted in increased volume in normal bone and increased osteoblast and osteoclast parameters. In addition, LY2109761 treatment significantly inhibited the growth of MDA PCa 2b and PC-3 in the bone of SCID mice (p < 0.05); moreover, it resulted in significantly less bone loss and change in osteoclast-associated parameters in the PC-3 tumor–bearing bones than in the untreated mice. In summary, we report for the first time that targeting TGF-β receptors with LY2109761 can control PCa bone growth while increasing the mass of normal bone. This increased bone mass in nontumorous bone may be a desirable side effect of LY2109761 treatment for men with osteopenia or osteoporosis secondary to androgen-ablation therapy, reinforcing the benefit of effectively controlling PCa

  8. Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGF-β1) Enhances Expression of Profibrotic Genes through a Novel Signaling Cascade and MicroRNAs in Renal Mesangial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Nancy E.; Kato, Mitsuo; Park, Jung Tak; Natarajan, Rama

    2014-01-01

    Increased expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in glomerular mesangial cells (MC) augments extracellular matrix accumulation and hypertrophy during the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN), a debilitating renal complication of diabetes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in the pathogenesis of DN by modulating the actions of TGF-β1 to enhance the expression of profibrotic genes like collagen. In this study, we found a significant decrease in the expression of miR-130b in mouse MC treated with TGF-β1. In parallel, there was a down-regulation in miR-130b host gene 2610318N02RIK (RIK), suggesting host gene-dependent expression of this miRNA. TGF-β receptor 1 (TGF-βR1) was identified as a target of miR-130b. Interestingly, the RIK promoter contains three NF-Y binding sites and was regulated by NF-YC. Furthermore, NF-YC expression was inhibited by TGF-β1, suggesting that a signaling cascade, involving TGF-β1-induced decreases in NF-YC, RIK, and miR-130b, may up-regulate TGF-βR1 to augment expression of TGF-β1 target fibrotic genes. miR-130b was down-regulated, whereas TGF-βR1, as well as the profibrotic genes collagen type IV α 1 (Col4a1), Col12a1, CTGF, and PAI-1 were up-regulated not only in mouse MC treated with TGF-β1 but also in the glomeruli of streptozotocin-injected diabetic mice, supporting in vivo relevance. Together, these results demonstrate a novel miRNA- and host gene-mediated amplifying cascade initiated by TGF-β1 that results in the up-regulation of profibrotic factors, such as TGF-βR1 and collagens associated with the progression of DN. PMID:25204661

  9. Fibromodulin-deficiency alters temporospatial expression patterns of transforming growth factor-β ligands and receptors during adult mouse skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhong; Lee, Kevin S; Zhang, Xinli; Nguyen, Calvin; Hsu, Chingyun; Wang, Joyce Z; Rackohn, Todd Matthew; Enjamuri, Dwarak Reddy; Murphy, Maxwell; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2014-01-01

    Fibromodulin (FMOD) is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan required for scarless fetal cutaneous wound repair. Interestingly, increased FMOD levels have been correlated with decreased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 expression in multiple fetal and adult rodent models. Our previous studies demonstrated that FMOD-deficiency in adult animals results in delayed wound closure and increased scar size accompanied by loose package collagen fiber networks with increased fibril diameter. In addition, we found that FMOD modulates in vitro expression and activities of TGF-β ligands in an isoform-specific manner. In this study, temporospatial expression profiles of TGF-β ligands and receptors in FMOD-null and wild-type (WT) mice were compared by immunohistochemical staining and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using a full-thickness, primary intention wound closure model. During the inflammatory stage, elevated inflammatory infiltration accompanied by increased type I TGF-β receptor levels in individual inflammatory cells was observed in FMOD-null wounds. This increased inflammation was correlated with accelerated epithelial migration during the proliferative stage. On the other hand, significantly more robust expression of TGF-β3 and TGF-β receptors in FMOD-null wounds during the proliferative stage was associated with delayed dermal cell migration and proliferation, which led to postponed granulation tissue formation and wound closure and increased scar size. Compared with WT controls, expression of TGF-β ligands and receptors by FMOD-null dermal cells was markedly reduced during the remodeling stage, which may have contributed to the declined collagen synthesis capability and unordinary collagen architecture. Taken together, this study demonstrates that a single missing gene, FMOD, leads to conspicuous alternations in TGF-β ligand and receptor expression at all stages of wound repair in various cell types. Therefore, FMOD critically

  10. Regulation of human lung fibroblast C1q-receptors by transforming growth factor-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Lurton, J; Soto, H; Narayanan, A S; Raghu, G

    1999-03-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are two polypeptide mediators which are believed to play a role in the evolution of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We have evaluated the effect of these two substances on the expression of receptors for collagen (cC1q-R) and globular (gC1q-R) domains of C1q and on type I collagen in human lung fibroblasts. Two fibroblast subpopulations differing in C1q receptor expression were obtained by culturing human lung explants in medium containing fresh human serum and heated plasma-derived serum and separating them based on C1q binding [Narayanan, Lurton and Raghu: Am J Resp Cell Mol Biol. 1998; 17:84]. The cells, referred to as HH and NL cells, respectively, were exposed to TGF-beta and TNF-alpha in serum-free conditions. The levels of mRNA were assessed by in situ hybridization and Northern analysis, and protein levels compared after SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. NL cells exposed to TGF-beta and TNF-alpha contained 1.4 and 1.6 times as much cC1q-R mRNA, respectively, whereas in HH cells cC1q-R mRNA increased 2.0- and 2.4-fold. The gC1q-R mRNA levels increased to a lesser extent in both cells. These increases were not reflected in protein levels of CC1q-R and gC1q-R, which were similar to or less than controls. Both TGF-beta and TNF-alpha also increased procollagen [I] mRNA levels in both cells. Overall, TNF-alpha caused a greater increase and the degree of response by HH fibroblasts to both TGF-beta and TNF-alpha was higher than NL cells. These results indicated that TGF-beta and TNF-alpha upregulate the mRNA levels for cC1q-R and collagen and that they do not affect gC1q-R mRNA levels significantly. They also indicated different subsets of human lung fibroblasts respond differently to inflammatory mediators.

  11. Titanium nanoparticle inhalation induces renal fibrosis in mice via an oxidative stress upregulated transforming growth factor-β pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Tong; Wu, Cheng-Tien; Huang, Kuo-How; Lin, Wei-Chou; Chen, Chang-Mu; Guan, Siao-Syun; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Liu, Shing-Hwa

    2015-03-16

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Nano-TiO2) are gradually being used extensively in clinical settings, industry, and daily life. Accumulation studies showed that Nano-TiO2 exposure is able to cause injuries in various animal organs, including the lung, liver, spleen, and kidney. However, it remains unclear whether exposure of Nano-TiO2 by inhalation causes renal fibrosis. Here, we investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) related signaling molecules in chronic renal damage after Nano-TiO2 inhalation in mice. Mice were treated with Nano-TiO2 (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/week) or microparticle-TiO2 (0.5 mg/week) by nonsurgical intratracheal instillation for 4 weeks. The results showed that Nano-TiO2 inhalation increased renal pathological changes in a dose-dependent manner. No renal pathological changes were observed in microparticle-TiO2-instilled mice. Nano-TiO2 (0.5 mg/week) possessed the ability to precipitate in the kidneys, determined by transmission electron microscopy and increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen. The expressions of markers of ROS/RNS and renal fibrosis markers, including nitrotyrosine, inducible nitric oxide synthase, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), heme oxygenase 1, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), and collagen I, determined by immunohistochemical staining were increased in the kidneys. Furthermore, Nano-TiO2-induced renal injury could be mitigated by iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine and ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine treatment in transcription level. The in vitro experiments showed that Nano-TiO2 significantly and dose-dependently increased the ROS production and the expressions of HIF-1α and TGFβ in human renal proximal tubular cells, which could be reversed by N-acetylcysteine treatment. Taken together, these results suggest Nano-TiO2 inhalation might induce renal fibrosis through a ROS/RNS-related HIF-1α-upregulated TGF-β signaling pathway.

  12. Recombinant expression of hydroxylated human collagen in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rutschmann, Christoph; Baumann, Stephan; Cabalzar, Jürg; Luther, Kelvin B; Hennet, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body and thereby a structural protein of considerable biotechnological interest. The complex maturation process of collagen, including essential post-translational modifications such as prolyl and lysyl hydroxylation, has precluded large-scale production of recombinant collagen featuring the biophysical properties of endogenous collagen. The characterization of new prolyl and lysyl hydroxylase genes encoded by the giant virus mimivirus reveals a method for production of hydroxylated collagen. The coexpression of a human collagen type III construct together with mimivirus prolyl and lysyl hydroxylases in Escherichia coli yielded up to 90 mg of hydroxylated collagen per liter culture. The respective levels of prolyl and lysyl hydroxylation reaching 25 % and 26 % were similar to the hydroxylation levels of native human collagen type III. The distribution of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine along recombinant collagen was also similar to that of native collagen as determined by mass spectrometric analysis of tryptic peptides. The triple helix signature of recombinant hydroxylated collagen was confirmed by circular dichroism, which also showed that hydroxylation increased the thermal stability of the recombinant collagen construct. Recombinant hydroxylated collagen produced in E. coli supported the growth of human umbilical endothelial cells, underlining the biocompatibility of the recombinant protein as extracellular matrix. The high yield of recombinant protein expression and the extensive level of prolyl and lysyl hydroxylation achieved indicate that recombinant hydroxylated collagen can be produced at large scale for biomaterials engineering in the context of biomedical applications.

  13. Myostatin-null mice exhibit delayed skin wound healing through the blockade of transforming growth factor-β signaling by decorin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Tan, Chek Kun; McFarlane, Craig; Sharma, Mridula; Tan, Nguan Soon; Kambadur, Ravi

    2012-04-15

    Myostatin (Mstn) is a secreted growth and differentiation factor that belongs to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. Mstn has been well characterized as a regulator of myogenesis and has been shown to play a critical role in postnatal muscle regeneration. Herein, we report for the first time that Mstn is expressed in both epidermis and dermis of murine and human skin and that Mstn-null mice exhibited delayed skin wound healing attributable to a combination of effects resulting from delayed epidermal reepithelialization and dermal contraction. In epidermis, reduced keratinocyte migration and protracted keratinocyte proliferation were observed, which subsequently led to delayed recovery of epidermal thickness and slower reepithelialization. Furthermore, primary keratinocytes derived from Mstn-null mice displayed reduced migration capacity and increased proliferation rate as assessed through in vitro migration and adhesion assays, as well as bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and Western blot analysis. Moreover, in dermis, both fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transformation and collagen deposition were concomitantly reduced, resulting in a delayed dermal wound contraction. These decreases are due to the inhibition of TGF-β signaling. In agreement, the expression of decorin, a naturally occurring TGF-β suppressor, was elevated in Mstn-null mice; moreover, topical treatment with TGF-β1 protein rescued the impaired skin wound healing observed in Mstn-null mice. These observations highlight the interplay between TGF-β and Mstn signaling pathways, specifically through Mstn regulation of decorin levels during the skin wound healing process. Thus we propose that Mstn agonists might be beneficial for skin wound repair.

  14. Pancreatic Cancer Cells Enhance the Ability of Collagen Internalization during Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Ikenaga, Naoki; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Akagawa, Shin; Fujiwara, Kenji; Eguchi, Daiki; Kozono, Shingo; Ohtsuka, Takao; Takahata, Shunichi; Tanaka, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Background Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is predominantly mediated by fibroblasts using intracellular and extracellular pathways. Although it is well known that extracellular degradation of the ECM by proteases derived from cancer cells facilitates cellular invasion, the intracellular degradation of ECM components by cancer cells has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to characterize collagen internalization, which is the initial step of the intracellular degradation pathway in pancreatic cancer cells, in light of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the function of collagen internalization in two pancreatic cancer cell lines, SUIT-2 and KP-2, and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) using Oregon Green 488-gelatin. PSCs had a strong ability for collagen uptake, and the pancreatic cancer cells also internalized collagen although less efficiently. The collagen internalization abilities of SUIT-2 and KP-2 cells were promoted by EMT induced by human recombinant transforming growth factor β1 (P<0.05). Expression of Endo180, a collagen uptake receptor, was high in mesenchymal pancreatic cancer cell lines, as determined by EMT marker expression (P<0.01). Quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analyses showed that Endo180 expression was also increased by EMT induction in SUIT-2 and KP-2 cells. Endo180 knockdown by RNA interference attenuated the collagen uptake (P<0.01) and invasive abilities (P<0.05) of SUIT-2 and KP-2 cells. Conclusions/Significance Pancreatic cancer cells are capable of collagen internalization, which is enhanced by EMT. This ECM clearance system may be a novel mechanism for cellular invasion and a potential therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. PMID:22792318

  15. The Collagen Family

    PubMed Central

    Ricard-Blum, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Collagens are the most abundant proteins in mammals. The collagen family comprises 28 members that contain at least one triple-helical domain. Collagens are deposited in the extracellular matrix where most of them form supramolecular assemblies. Four collagens are type II membrane proteins that also exist in a soluble form released from the cell surface by shedding. Collagens play structural roles and contribute to mechanical properties, organization, and shape of tissues. They interact with cells via several receptor families and regulate their proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Some collagens have a restricted tissue distribution and hence specific biological functions. PMID:21421911

  16. Effect of Transforming Growth Factor-β upon Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Rosas, Gabriela; Arce-Sillas, Asiel; Bobes, Raúl J; Cárdenas, Graciela; Hernández, Marisela; Trejo, Celeste; Meneses, Gabriela; Hernández, Beatriz; Estrada, Karel; Fleury, Agnes; Laclette, Juan P; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2017-09-27

    Taeniids exhibit a great adaptive plasticity, which facilitates their establishment, growth, and reproduction in a hostile inflammatory microenvironment. Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGFβ), a highly pleiotropic cytokine, plays a critical role in vertebrate morphogenesis, cell differentiation, reproduction, and immune suppression. TGFβ is secreted by host cells in sites lodging parasites. The role of TGFβ in the outcome of T. solium and T. crassiceps cysticercosis is herein explored. Homologues of the TGFβ family receptors (TsRI and TsRII) and several members of the TGFβ downstream signal transduction pathway were found in T. solium genome, and the expression of Type-I and -II TGFβ receptors was confirmed by RT-PCR. Antibodies against TGFβ family receptors recognized cysticercal proteins of the expected molecular weight as determined by Western blot, and different structures in the parasite external tegument. In vitro, TGFβ promoted the growth and reproduction of T. crassiceps cysticerci and the survival of T. solium cysticerci. High TGFβ levels were found in cerebrospinal fluid from untreated neurocysticercotic patients who eventually failed to respond to the treatment (P = 0.03) pointing to the involvement of TGFβ in parasite survival. These results indicate the relevance of TGFβ in the infection outcome by promoting cysticercus growth and treatment resistance.

  17. Enhanced Activity of Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGF-β1) Bound to Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Haudenschild, Dominik R.; Hong, Eunmee; Yik, Jasper H. N.; Chromy, Brett; Mörgelin, Matthias; Snow, Kaylene D.; Acharya, Chitrangada; Takada, Yoshikazu; Di Cesare, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is an important non-collagenous cartilage protein that is essential for the structural integrity of the cartilage extracellular matrix. The repeated modular structure of COMP allows it to “bridge” and assemble multiple cartilage extracellular matrix components such as collagens, matrilins, and proteoglycans. With its modular structure, COMP also has the potential to act as a scaffold for growth factors, thereby affecting how and when the growth factors are presented to cell-surface receptors. However, it is not known whether COMP binds growth factors. We studied the binding interaction between COMP and TGF-β1 in vitro and determined the effect of COMP on TGF-β1-induced signal transduction in reporter cell lines and primary cells. Our results demonstrate that mature COMP protein binds to multiple TGF-β1 molecules and that the peak binding occurs at slightly acidic pH. These interactions were confirmed by dual polarization interferometry and visualized by rotary shadow electron microscopy. There is cation-independent binding of TGF-β1 to the C-terminal domain of COMP. In the presence of manganese, an additional TGF-β-binding site is present in the TSP3 repeats of COMP. Finally, we show that COMP-bound TGF-β1 causes increased TGF-β1-dependent transcription. We conclude that TGF-β1 binds to COMP and that TGF-β1 bound to COMP has enhanced bioactivity. PMID:21940632

  18. Spiking, Bursting, and Population Dynamics in a Network of Growth Transform Neurons.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Ahana; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2017-04-27

    This paper investigates the dynamical properties of a network of neurons, each of which implements an asynchronous mapping based on polynomial growth transforms. In the first part of this paper, we present a geometric approach for visualizing the dynamics of the network where each of the neurons traverses a trajectory in a dual optimization space, whereas the network itself traverses a trajectory in an equivalent primal optimization space. We show that as the network learns to solve basic classification tasks, different choices of primal-dual mapping produce unique but interpretable neural dynamics like noise shaping, spiking, and bursting. While the proposed framework is general enough, in this paper, we demonstrate its use for designing support vector machines (SVMs) that exhibit noise-shaping properties similar to those of ΣΔ modulators, and for designing SVMs that learn to encode information using spikes and bursts. It is demonstrated that the emergent switching, spiking, and burst dynamics produced by each neuron encodes its respective margin of separation from a classification hyperplane whose parameters are encoded by the network population dynamics. We believe that the proposed growth transform neuron model and the underlying geometric framework could serve as an important tool to connect well-established machine learning algorithms like SVMs to neuromorphic principles like spiking, bursting, population encoding, and noise shaping.

  19. Extended Polynomial Growth Transforms for Design and Training of Generalized Support Vector Machines.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Ahana; Chatterjee, Oindrila; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2017-04-17

    Growth transformations constitute a class of fixed-point multiplicative update algorithms that were originally proposed for optimizing polynomial and rational functions over a domain of probability measures. In this paper, we extend this framework to the domain of bounded real variables which can be applied towards optimizing the dual cost function of a generic support vector machine (SVM). The approach can, therefore, not only be used to train traditional soft-margin binary SVMs, one-class SVMs, and probabilistic SVMs but can also be used to design novel variants of SVMs with different types of convex and quasi-convex loss functions. In this paper, we propose an efficient training algorithm based on polynomial growth transforms, and compare and contrast the properties of different SVM variants using several synthetic and benchmark data sets. The preliminary experiments show that the proposed multiplicative update algorithm is more scalable and yields better convergence compared to standard quadratic and nonlinear programming solvers. While the formulation and the underlying algorithms have been validated in this paper only for SVM-based learning, the proposed approach is general and can be applied to a wide variety of optimization problems and statistical learning models.

  20. Controlled release of transforming growth factor-β3 from cartilage-extra-cellular-matrix-derived scaffolds to promote chondrogenesis of human-joint-tissue-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Henrique V; Liu, Yurong; Cunniffe, Gráinne M; Mulhall, Kevin J; Matsiko, Amos; Buckley, Conor T; O'Brien, Fergal J; Kelly, Daniel J

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a scaffold derived from cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM) that could be used as a growth factor delivery system to promote chondrogenesis of stem cells. Dehydrothermal crosslinked scaffolds were fabricated using a slurry of homogenized porcine articular cartilage, which was then seeded with human infrapatellar-fat-pad-derived stem cells (FPSCs). It was found that these ECM-derived scaffolds promoted superior chondrogenesis of FPSCs when the constructs were additionally stimulated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3. Cell-mediated contraction of the scaffold was observed, which could be limited by the additional use of 1-ethyl-3-3dimethyl aminopropyl carbodiimide (EDAC) crosslinking without suppressing cartilage-specific matrix accumulation within the construct. To further validate the utility of the ECM-derived scaffold, we next compared its chondro-permissive properties to a biomimetic collagen-hyaluronic acid (HA) scaffold optimized for cartilage tissue engineering (TE) applications. The cartilage-ECM-derived scaffold supported at least comparable chondrogenesis to the collagen-HA scaffold, underwent less contraction and retained a greater proportion of synthesized sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Having developed a promising scaffold for TE, with superior chondrogenesis observed in the presence of exogenously supplied TGF-β3, the final phase of the study explored whether this scaffold could be used as a TGF-β3 delivery system to promote chondrogenesis of FPSCs. It was found that the majority of TGF-β3 that was loaded onto the scaffold was released in a controlled manner over the first 10days of culture, with comparable long-term chondrogenesis observed in these TGF-β3-loaded constructs compared to scaffolds where the TGF-β3 was continuously added to the media. The results of this study support the use of cartilage-ECM-derived scaffolds as a growth factor delivery system for use in articular cartilage

  1. Transient exposure to transforming growth factor beta 3 improves the mechanical properties of mesenchymal stem cell-laden cartilage constructs in a density-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Huang, Alice H; Stein, Ashley; Tuan, Rocky S; Mauck, Robert L

    2009-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source for cartilage tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the use of these cells has been limited by their reduced ability to form functional tissue compared to chondrocytes when placed in three-dimensional culture systems. To optimize MSC functional chondrogenesis, we examined the effects of increasing seeding density and transient application of transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-beta3), two factors previously shown to improve growth of chondrocyte-based constructs. Chondrocytes seeded in agarose at 20 million cells/mL and MSCs seeded at 20 or 60 million cells/mL agarose were cultured for 7 weeks under continuous or transient application of TGF-beta3. In the transient group, cell-laden constructs were exposed to TGF-beta3 for the initial 3 weeks, followed by 4 weeks of culture in medium without TGF-beta3. Compressive properties, biochemical content, and gene expression were assessed at 3, 5, and 7 weeks. Matrix distribution and collagen type was determined using histology and immunohistochemistry, and chondrogenic and osteogenic markers were assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. When maintained continuously with TGF-beta3, chondrocyte-seeded constructs achieved a higher equilibrium compressive modulus than MSCs similarly maintained. Although properties of both groups increased with respect to starting values, there was no difference in bulk mechanical or biochemical properties with higher seeding density when MSCs were cultured with constant TGF-beta3. Findings also showed that while transient application of TGF-beta3 elicited robust growth from chondrocyte-laden gels, MSCs seeded at the same density failed to respond, although constructs maintained their previously accrued properties and continued to express cartilaginous genes after TGF-beta3 removal. Conversely, MSCs seeded at 60 million cells/mL exhibited a strong anabolic response with transient TGF-beta3 exposure

  2. Parabens enable suspension growth of MCF-10A immortalized, non-transformed human breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Sugandha; Darbre, Philippa D

    2013-05-01

    Parabens (alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) are used extensively as preservatives in consumer products, and intact esters have been measured in several human tissues. Concerns of a potential link between parabens and breast cancer have been raised, but mechanistic studies have centred on their oestrogenic activity and little attention has been paid to any carcinogenic properties. In the present study, we report that parabens can induce anchorage-independent growth of MCF-10A immortalized but non-transformed human breast epithelial cells, a property closely related to transformation and a predictor of tumour growth in vivo. In semi-solid methocel suspension culture, MCF-10A cells produced very few colonies and only of a small size but the addition of 5 × 10(-4) M methylparaben, 10(-5) M n-propylparaben or 10(-5) M n-butylparaben resulted in a greater number of colonies per dish (P < 0.05 in each case) and an increased average colony size (P < 0.001 in each case). Dose-responses showed that concentrations as low as 10(-6) M methylparaben, 10(-7) M n-propylparaben and 10(-7) M n-butylparaben could increase colony numbers (P = 0.016, P = 0.010, P = 0.008, respectively): comparison with a recent measurement of paraben concentrations in human breast tissue samples from 40 mastectomies (Barr et al., 2012) showed that 22/40 of the patients had at least one of the parabens at the site of the primary tumour at or above these concentrations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report that parabens can induce a transformed phenotype in human breast epithelial cells in vitro, and further investigation is now justified into a potential link between parabens and breast carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Association of the porcine transforming growth factor beta type I receptor (TGFBR1) gene with growth and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kefei; Hawken, Rachel; Flickinger, Gail H; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Rund, Laurie A; Wheeler, Matthew B; Abrahamsen, Mitch; Rutherford, Mark S; Beever, Jonathan E; Schook, Lawrence B

    2012-01-01

    Growth and carcass traits are of great economic importance in livestock production. A large number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for growth and carcass traits on porcine chromosome one (SSC1). A key positional candidate for this chromosomal region is TGFBR1 (transforming growth factor beta type I receptor). This gene plays a key role in inherited disorders at cardiovascular, craniofacial, neurocognitive, and skeletal development in mammals. In this study, 27 polymorphic SNPs in the porcine TGFBR1 gene were identified on the University of Illinois Yorkshire × Meishan resource population. Three SNPs (SNP3, SNP43, SNP64) representing major polymorphic patterns of the 27 SNPs in F1 and F0 individuals of the Illinois population were selected for analyses of QTL association and genetic diversity. An association analysis for growth and carcass traits was completed using these three representative SNPs in the Illinois population with 298 F2 individuals and a large commercial population of 1008 animals. The results indicate that the TGFBR1 gene polymorphism (SNP64) is significantly associated (p < 0.05) with growth rates including average daily gains between birth and 56 kg (p = 0.049), between 5.5 and 56 kg (p = 0.024), between 35 and 56 kg (p = 0.021). Significant associations (p < 0.05) were also identified between TGFBR1 gene polymorphisms (SNP3/SNP43) and carcass traits including loin-eye-area (p = 0.022) in the Illinois population, and back-fat thickness (p = 0.0009), lean percentage (p = 0.0023) and muscle color (p = 0.021) in the commercial population. These three SNPs were also used to genotype a diverse panel of 130 animals representing 11 pig breeds. Alleles SNP3_T and SNP43_G were fixed in Pietrain and Sinclair pig breeds. SNP64_G allele was uniquely identified in Chinese Meishan pigs. Strong evidence of association (p < 0.01) between both SNP3 and SNP64 alleles and reproductive traits including gestation length and number of corpora

  4. Collagen vascular disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001223.htm Collagen vascular disease To use the sharing features on ... were previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names for many ...

  5. The distribution of phosphorus and its transformations during batch growth of Synechocystis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun; Nguyen, Binh T; Zhou, Chen; Straka, Levi; Lai, YenJung Sean; Xia, Siqing; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2017-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient that affects the growth and metabolism of microalgal biomass. Despite the obvious importance of P, the dynamics of how it is taken up and distributed in microalgae are largely undefined. In this study, we tracked the fate of P during batch growth of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. We determined the distribution of P in intracellular polymeric substances (IPS), extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and soluble microbial products (SMP) for three initial ortho-phosphate concentrations. Results show that the initial P concentration had no impact on the production of biomass, SMP, and EPS. While the initial P concentration affected the rate and the timing of how P was transformed among internal and external forms of inorganic P (IP) and organic P (OP), the trends were the same no matter the starting P concentration. Initially, IP in the bulk solution was rapidly and simultaneously adsorbed by EPS (IP EPS ) and taken up as internal IP (IP int ). As the bulk-solution's IP was depleted, desorption of IP EPS became the predominant source for IP that was taken up by the growing cells and converted into OP int . At the end of the 9-d batch experiments, almost all P was OP, and most of the OP was intracellular. Based on all of the results, we propose a set of transformation pathways for P during the growth of Synechocystis. Key is that EPS and intracellular P pool play important and distinct roles in the uptake and storage of P. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Transforming growth factor-beta, transforming growth factor-beta receptor II, and p27Kip1 expression in nontumorous and neoplastic human pituitaries.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, L.; Qian, X.; Kulig, E.; Sanno, N.; Scheithauer, B. W.; Kovacs, K.; Young, W. F.; Lloyd, R. V.

    1997-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta has been implicated in the regulation of normal and neoplastic anterior pituitary cell function. TGF-beta regulates the expression of various proteins, including p27Kip1 (p27), a cell cycle inhibitory protein. We examined TGF-beta, TGF-beta type II receptor (TGF-beta-RII), and p27 expression in normal pituitaries, pituitary adenomas, and carcinomas to analyze the possible roles of these proteins in pituitary tumorigenesis. Normal pituitary, pituitary adenomas, and pituitary carcinomas all expressed TGF-beta and TGF-beta-RII immunoreactivity. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed TGF-beta 1, -beta 2, and -beta 3 isoforms and TGF-beta-RII in normal pituitaries and pituitary adenomas. Pituitary adenomas cells cultured for 7 days in defined media showed a biphasic response to TGF-beta with significant inhibition of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion at higher concentrations (10(-9) mol/L) and stimulation of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion at lower concentrations (10(-13) mol/L) of TGF-beta 1 in gonadotroph adenomas. Immunohistochemical analysis for p27 protein expression showed the highest levels in nontumorous pituitaries with decreased immunoreactivity in adenomas and carcinomas. When nontumorous pituitaries and various adenomas were analyzed for p27 and specific hormone production, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone cells and tumors had the highest percentages of cells expressing p27, whereas adrenocorticotrophic hormone cells and tumors had the lowest percentages. Immunoblotting analysis showed that adrenocorticotrophic hormone adenomas also had the lowest levels of p27 protein. Semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Northern hybridization analysis did not show significant differences in p27 mRNA expression in the various types of adenomas or in nontumorous pituitaries. In situ hybridization for p27 mRNA showed similar

  7. Amelioration of diabetes-induced cavernosal fibrosis by antioxidant and anti-transforming growth factor-β1 therapies in inducible nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Ferrini, Monica G.; Moon, Joanne; Rivera, Steve; Rajfer, Jacob; Gonzalez-Cadavid, Nestor F.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate whether sustained long-term separate treatments of diabetic inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout (iNOSKo) mice with allopurinol, an antioxidant inhibiting xanthine oxidoreductase, decorin, a transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) -binding antagonist, and molsidomine, a long-life nitric oxide donor, prevent the processes of diabetes-induced cavernosal fibrosis. METHODS iNOSKo mice were divided into groups and treated Blood chemistry and histopathology were investigated. RESULTS Eight-week treatment with either allopurinol or decorin counteracted the decrease in smooth muscle cells and the increase in apoptosis and local oxidative stress within the corpora tissue. Decorin but not allopurinol increased the smooth muscle cell/collagen ratio, whereas allopurinol but not decorin inhibited systemic oxidative stress. Molsidomine was effective in reducing both local and systemic oxidative stress, but did not prevent corporal fibrosis. CONCLUSION Both allopurinol and decorin appear as promising approaches either as a single or a combined pharmacological modality for protecting the diabetic corpora from undergoing apoptosis and fibrosis although their functional effects still need to be defined. PMID:21851542

  8. Specific interaction between the bovine papillomavirus E5 transforming protein and the beta receptor for platelet-derived growth factor in stably transformed and acutely transfected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Petti, L; DiMaio, D

    1994-01-01

    The E5 protein of bovine papillomavirus is a 44-amino-acid membrane protein which induces morphologic and tumorigenic transformation of fibroblasts. We previously showed that the E5 protein activates and forms a complex with the endogenous beta receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in transformed rodent fibroblasts and that the PDGF beta receptor can mediate tumorigenic transformation by the E5 protein in a heterologous cell system. Other workers have identified the receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a potential target of the E5 protein in NIH 3T3 cells. Here, we investigate the specificity of the interaction of the E5 protein with various growth factor receptors, with particular emphasis on the PDGF beta receptor and the EGF receptor. Under conditions where both the PDGF beta receptor and the EGF receptor are stably expressed in E5-transformed mouse and bovine fibroblasts and in E5-transformed epithelial cells, the E5 protein specifically forms a complex with and activates the PDGF receptor and not the EGF receptor. Under conditions of transient overexpression in COS cells, the E5 protein has the potential to associate with several growth factor receptors, including the EGF receptor. However, upon coexpression of PDGF beta receptors and EGF receptors in COS cells, the E5 protein preferentially forms a complex with the PDGF receptor. Therefore, we conclude that the PDGF beta receptor is the primary target for the E5 protein in a variety of cell types, including bovine fibroblasts. Images PMID:8189497

  9. Maternal breast milk transforming growth factor beta and feeding intolerance in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Brandy L.; Jilling, Tamas; Lapin, Brittany; Maheshwari, Akhil; Caplan, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Feeding intolerance occurs commonly in the NICU. Breast milk contains a large pool of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Few studies describe TGF-beta levels in preterm milk, and the relationship to feeding intolerance (FI) remains unexplored. We measured TGF-beta levels in preterm breast milk to investigate a correlation with FI in preterm infants. Methods Prospective observational trial of 100 mother-infant pairs, enrolling infants born below 32 weeks gestation and less than 1500 grams, and mothers who planned to provide breast milk. TGF-beta levels were measured using ELISA. Infant charts were reviewed for outcomes. Results TGF-beta declined postnatally, most elevated in colostrum (p<0.01). TGF-beta 2 levels were higher than TGF-beta 1 at all time points (p<0.01). Colostrum TGF-beta levels correlated inversely with birth weight (p<0.01) and gestational age (p<0.05). One week TGF-beta 2 levels were reduced in growth-restricted infants with FI (p<0.01). Of infants with NEC, TGF-beta 2 levels appeared low, but small sample size precluded meaningful statistical comparisons. Conclusions TGF-beta levels decline temporally in preterm milk. TGF-beta 1 colostrum levels correlate inversely with birth weight and gestational age. TGF-beta 2 may play a role in FI in growth-restricted infants. The relationship of TGF-beta 2 and NEC merits future investigation. PMID:24995914

  10. Capsaicin Inhibits Preferentially the NADH Oxidase and Growth of Transformed Cells in Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morre, D. James; Chueh, Pin-Ju; Morre, Dorothy M.

    1995-03-01

    A hormone- and growth factor-stimulated NADH oxidase of the mammalian plasma membrane, constitutively activated in transformed cells, was inhibited preferentially in HeLa, ovarian carcinoma, mammary adenocarcinoma, and HL-60 cells, all of human origin, by the naturally occurring quinone analog capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-noneamide), compared with plasma membranes from human mammary epithelial, rat liver, normal rat kidney cells, or HL-60 cells induced to differentiate with dimethyl sulfoxide. With cells in culture, capsaicin preferentially inhibited growth of HeLa, ovarian carcinoma, mammary adenocarcinoma, and HL-60 cells but was largely without effect on the mammary epithelial cells, rat kidney cells, or HL-60 cells induced to differentiate with dimethyl sulfoxide. Inhibited cells became smaller and cell death was accompanied by a condensed and fragmented appearance of the nuclear DNA, as revealed by fluorescence microscopy with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, suggestive of apoptosis. The findings correlate capsaicin inhibition of cell surface NADH oxidase activity and inhibition of growth that correlate with capsaicin-induced apoptosis.

  11. Transactivation of the TIEG1 confers growth inhibition of transforming growth factor-β-susceptible hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lei; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Zhang, Jin-Fang; Chan, Chu-Yan; Lu, Gang; Lin, Marie CM; He, Ming-Liang; Li, Ji-Cheng; Kung, Hsiang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-inducible early gene 1 (TIEG1) in TGF-β-induced growth inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. METHODS: Human hepatocyte and HCC cell lines with varied susceptibilities to TGF-β1 were tested by methylthiazoletetrazolium (MTT) assay. The expression changes of Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, Smad7, TIEG1 and TIEG2 gene following treatment with TGF-β1 in a TGF-β-sensitive hepatocyte cell line (MIHA), a TGF-β-sensitive hepatoma cell line (Hep3B) and two TGF-β-insensitive hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 and Bel7404) were examined. SiRNA targeting TIEG1 was transfected into Hep3B cells and the sensitivity of cells to TGF-β1 was examined. Overexpression of TIEG1 was induced by lentiviral-mediated transduction in TGF-β1-resistant hepatoma cell lines (Bel7404 and HepG2). MTT assay and 4’,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole staining were used to identify cell viability and apoptosis, respectively. The expression level of stathmin was measured by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western-blotting analysis, and stathmin promoter activity by TIEG1 was monitored by a luciferase reporter gene system. RESULTS: TIEG1 was significantly upregulated by TGF-β1 in the TGF-β1-sensitive HCC cell line, Hep3B, but not in the resistant cell lines. The suppression of TIEG1 by siRNAs decreased the sensitivity of Hep3B cells to TGF-β1, whereas the overexpression of TIEG1 mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis in TGF-β1-resistant HCC cell lines, which resembled those of TGF-β1-sensitive HCC cells treated with TGF-β1. Our data further suggested that stathmin was a direct target of TIEG1, as stathmin was significantly downregulated by TIEG1 overexpression, and stathmin promoter activity was inhibited by TIEG1 in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that transactivation of TIEG1 conferred growth inhibition of TGF-β-susceptible human HCC cells. PMID:22563190

  12. The pleiotropic roles of transforming growth factor beta inhomeostasis and carcinogenesis of endocrine organs.

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisch, Markus C.; Maxwell, Christopher A.; Barcellos-Hoff,Mary-Helen

    2006-01-13

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a ubiquitous cytokine that plays a critical role in numerous pathways regulating cellular and tissue homeostasis. TGF-beta is regulated by hormones and is a primary mediator of hormone response in uterus, prostate and mammary gland. This review will address the role of TGF-beta in regulating hormone dependent proliferation and morphogenesis. The subversion of TGF-beta regulation during the processes of carcinogenesis, with particular emphasis on its effects on genetic stability and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), will also be examined. An understanding of the multiple and complex mechanisms of TGF-beta regulation of epithelial function, andmore » the ultimate loss of TGF-beta function during carcinogenesis, will be critical in the design of novel therapeutic interventions for endocrine-related cancers.« less

  13. The Role of Transforming Growth Factor β1 in the Regulation of Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Matsuki, Kota; Hathaway, Catherine K.; Lawrence, Marlon G.; Smithies, Oliver; Kakoki, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Although human association studies suggest a link between polymorphisms in the gene encoding transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 and differing blood pressure levels, a causative mechanism for this correlation remains elusive. Recently we have generated a series of mice with graded expression of TGFβ1, ranging from approximately 10% to 300% compared to normal. We have found that blood pressure and plasma volume are negatively regulated by TGFβ1. Of note, the 10% hypomorph exhibits primary aldosteronism and markedly impaired urinary excretion of water and electrolytes. We here review previous literature highlighting the importance of TGFβ signaling as a natriuretic system, which we postulate is a causative mechanism explaining how polymorphisms in TGFβ1 could influence blood pressure levels. PMID:25801626

  14. Transforming growth factor Beta2 is required for valve remodeling during heart development

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Mohamad; Brown, Kristen; Gard, Connie; Chen, Hwudaurw; Rajan, Sudarsan; Elliott, David A.; Stevens, Mark V.; Camenisch, Todd D.; Conway, Simon J.; Doetschman, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Although the function of transforming growth factor beta2 (TGFβ2) in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is well studied, its role in valve remodeling remains to be fully explored. Here, we used histological, morphometric, immunohistochemical and molecular approaches and showed that significant dysregulation of major extracellular matrix (ECM) components contributed to valve remodeling defects in Tgfb2-/- embryos. The data indicated that cushion mesenchymal cell differentiation was impaired in Tgfb2-/- embryos. Hyaluronan and cartilage link protein-1 (CRTL1) were increased in hyperplastic valves of Tgfb2-/- embryos, indicating increased expansion and diversification of cushion mesenchyme into the cartilage cell lineage during heart development. Finally, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses indicate that the activation of SMAD2/3 was decreased in Tgfb2-/- embryos during valve remodeling. Collectively, the data indicate that TGFβ2 promotes valve remodeling and differentiation by inducing matrix organization and suppressing cushion mesenchyme differentiation into cartilage cell lineage during heart development. PMID:21780244

  15. Decreased tumorigenicity in vivo when transforming growth factor beta treatment causes cancer cell senescence.

    PubMed

    Katakura, Yoshinori; Nakata, Eriko; Tabira, Yukiko; Miura, Takumi; Teruya, Kiichiro; Tsuchiya, Toshie; Shirahata, Sanetaka

    2003-04-01

    We have previously reported that transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) triggers two independent senescence programs, 1) replicative senescence dependent upon telomere shortening and 2) premature senescence independent of telomere shortening, in the cell line of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma. In this study, we examined the possibility that cancer cell tumor phenotypes could be suppressed by forced senescence. We used A549 cells treated with TGF-beta for a long time (over 50 days), where senescence was induced in a telomere-shortening-dependent or an independent way. Fully senescent A549 cells were elongated, acquired contact inhibition capabilities when reaching confluence, and secreted the senescence-associated cytokine IL-6. Furthermore, senescent A549 cells had no tumorigenicity in nude mice. These results indicate that the forced induction of senescence in cancer cells may be a novel and potentially powerful method for advancing anti-cancer therapy.

  16. SNP detection in transforming growth factor-beta1 gene using bacterial magnetic particles.

    PubMed

    Ota, Hiroyuki; Takeyama, Haruko; Nakayama, Hideki; Katoh, Takahiko; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2003-05-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) gene was detected by hybridization-based method using bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs). TGF-beta1 is commonly associated with a single base change resulting in a Leu(10)-->Pro (T(869)-->C) polymorphism and is a genetic marker for susceptibility to osteoporosis. Short (9 bases) and specific probes were designed to detect SNP in TGF-beta1. Detection probes were immobilized on BMPs using cross-linking reagents. TGF-beta1 PCR products (139 bp) were labeled with the fluorescent dye coumarin and hybridized with detection probes on BMPs. Complementary hybridized targets gave over four times higher fluorescent intensities, compared with one base mismatched hybridizations. The SNP genotype was successfully discriminated using this technique.

  17. Roles of transforming growth factor β in hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Mao, Y F; Zheng, J; Liu, K; Han, C H; Liu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Hyperoxia induced lung injury (HILI) refers to the acute lung injury secondary to prolonged exposure to hyperoxia at elevated partial pressure. With the advent of efficient systems for delivery of high concentrations of oxygen in hospitals, the population at risk for this condition has been markedly increased. Although numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the pathogenesis of HILI, the specific mechanism is still poorly understood and some hypotheses have been proposed. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a secreted protein that controls proliferation, cellular differentiation and other functions in most cells and is a type of cytokine that plays a role in many diseases. In this mini-review, we summarize the role of TGF-β in HILI according to its relationships with reactive oxygen species (ROS), pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell apoptosis and pulmonary fibrosis. We hope it may help the understanding of pathogenesis of HILI and provide a greater understanding for the target therapy of HILI.

  18. Transforming growth factor-beta1 mediates cellular response to DNA damage in situ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewan, Kenneth B.; Henshall-Powell, Rhonda L.; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Pajares, Maria Jose; Arteaga, Carlos; Warters, Ray; Akhurst, Rosemary J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2002-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 is rapidly activated after ionizing radiation, but its specific role in cellular responses to DNA damage is not known. Here we use Tgfbeta1 knockout mice to show that radiation-induced apoptotic response is TGF-beta1 dependent in the mammary epithelium, and that both apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in response to DNA damage decrease as a function of TGF-beta1 gene dose in embryonic epithelial tissues. Because apoptosis in these tissues has been shown previously to be p53 dependent, we then examined p53 protein activation. TGF-beta1 depletion, by either gene knockout or by using TGF-beta neutralizing antibodies, resulted in decreased p53 Ser-18 phosphorylation in irradiated mammary gland. These data indicate that TGF-beta1 is essential for rapid p53-mediated cellular responses that mediate cell fate decisions in situ.

  19. Mammalian Transforming Growth Factor β1 Activated after Ingestion by Anopheles stephensi Modulates Mosquito Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Luckhart, Shirley; Crampton, Andrea L.; Zamora, Ruben; Lieber, Matthew J.; Dos Santos, Patricia C.; Peterson, Tina M. L.; Emmith, Nicole; Lim, Junghwa; Wink, David A.; Vodovotz, Yoram

    2003-01-01

    During the process of bloodfeeding by Anopheles stephensi, mammalian latent transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is ingested and activated rapidly in the mosquito midgut. Activation may involve heme and nitric oxide (NO), agents released in the midgut during blood digestion and catalysis of l-arginine oxidation by A. stephensi NO synthase (AsNOS). Active TGF-β1 persists in the mosquito midgut to extended times postingestion and is recognized by mosquito cells as a cytokine. In a manner analogous to the regulation of vertebrate inducible NO synthase and malaria parasite (Plasmodium) infection in mammals by TGF-β1, TGF-β1 regulates AsNOS expression and Plasmodium development in A. stephensi. Together, these observations indicate that, through conserved immunological cross talk, mammalian and mosquito immune systems interface with each other to influence the cycle of Plasmodium development. PMID:12761076

  20. Overexpression of hepatoma-derived growth factor in melanocytes does not lead to oncogenic transformation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background HDGF is a growth factor which is overexpressed in a wide range of tumors. Importantly, expression levels were identified as a prognostic marker in some types of cancer such as melanoma. Methods To investigate the presumed oncogenic/transforming capacity of HDGF, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing HDGF in melanocytes. These mice were bred with mice heterozygous for a defective copy of the Ink4a tumor suppressor gene and were exposed to UV light to increase the risk for tumor development both genetically and physiochemically. Mice were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Furthermore, primary melanocytes were isolated from different strains created. Results Transgenic animals overexpressed HDGF in hair follicle melanocytes. Interestingly, primary melanocytes isolated from transgenic animals were not able to differentiate in vitro whereas cells isolated from wild type and HDGF-deficient animals were. Although, HDGF-/-/Ink4a+/- mice displayed an increased number of epidermoid cysts after exposure to UV light, no melanomas or premelanocytic alterations could be detected in this mouse model. Conclusions The results therefore provide no evidence that HDGF has a transforming capacity in tumor development. Our results in combination with previous findings point to a possible role in cell differentiation and suggest that HDGF promotes tumor progression after secondary upregulation and may represent another protein fitting into the concept of non-oncogene addiction of tumor tissue. PMID:22014102

  1. Role of transforming growth factor beta in corneal function, biology and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Ashish; Tovey, Jonathan C. K.; Sharma, Ajay; Gupta, Rangan; Mohan, Rajiv R.

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) is a pleiotropic multifunctional cytokine that regulates several essential cellular processes in many parts of the body including the cornea. Three isoforms of TGFβ are known in mammals and the human cornea expresses all of them. TGFβ1 has been shown to play a central role in scar formation in adult corneas whereas TGFβ2 and TGFβ3 have been implicated to play a critical role in corneal development and scarless wound healing during embryogenesis. The biological effects of TGFβ in the cornea have been shown to follow SMAD dependent as well as SMAD-independent signaling pathways depending upon cellular responses and microenvironment. Corneal TGFβ expression is necessary for maintaining corneal integrity and corneal wound healing. On the other hand, TGFβ is perhaps the most important cytokine in the pathogenesis of fibrotic disease in the cornea. Although the transformation of keratocytes to myofibroblasts induced by TGFβ is largely believed to cause corneal fibrosis or scarring, the precise molecular mechanism(s) involved in this process is still unknown. Currently no drugs are available to treat corneal scarring effectively without causing significant side effects. Many approaches to treat TGFβ-mediated corneal scarring are under investigation. These include blocking of TGFβ, TGFβ receptor, TGFβ function and/or TGFβ maturation. Other strategies such as modulating keratocyte proliferation, apoptosis, transcription and DNA condensation are also being investigated. The potential of gene therapy to neutralize the pathologic effects of TGFβ has also been demonstrated recently. PMID:20642439

  2. Serum transforming growth factor-beta levels in patients with vitamin D deficiency.

    PubMed

    Isik, Serhat; Ozuguz, Ufuk; Tutuncu, Yasemin Ates; Erden, Gonul; Berker, Dilek; Acar, Kadir; Aydin, Yusuf; Akbaba, Gulhan; Helvaci, Nafiye; Guler, Serdar

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) contributes to tissue repair by promoting tissue fibrosis, and elevations have been reported in patients with bone marrow fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between TGF-β1 levels and vitamin D deficiency. All patients presenting to the outpatient Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases clinic between June and September of 2008 were approached, and consenting patients who were deemed suitable candidates were enrolled. Hematological parameters were measured, along with serum levels of total and ionized calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, iron, folic acid vitamin B12 levels, 25 OH vitamin D3 (25OHD(3)) and TGF-β1. A total of 132 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into 4 groups based on levels of 25OHD(3) [group 1 (<5 ng/ml), 20 patients; group 2 (5-15 ng/ml), 38 patients; group 3 (16-30 ng/ml); and group 4 (>30 ng/ml), 28 patients]. TGF-β1 levels were higher in patients in group 1 compared to the other groups. Transforming growth factor-beta levels correlated negatively with vitamin D3 and positively with leukocyte count, platelet count, of MCV and MCH. Multiple regression analyses revealed TGF-β1 levels to be associated with 25OHD(3) as well as with platelet count. Results of this study are suggestive of the presence of a significant relationship between TGF-β and vitamin D deficiency. Increased TGF-β1 and platelet count may be an early indicator of bone marrow fibrosis in patients with vitamin D deficiency. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Redirection of B cell responsiveness by transforming growth factor beta receptor.

    PubMed

    Roes, Jurgen; Choi, B Ken; Cazac, Balthazar B

    2003-06-10

    The multifunctional transforming growth factor beta receptor (TbetaR) ligand pair plays a central role in the regulation of lymphocyte homeostasis and prevention of autoimmunity. Although the mechanisms underlying the induction of transcriptional modulators by TbetaR have been studied in considerable detail, relatively little is known about the regulatory pathways targeted. To shed light on the mechanisms involved in negative regulation of B cell responses we identified TbetaR-dependent transcriptome changes by comparative gene expression profiling of normal and TbetaR-deficient primary B cells. The data reveal TbetaR-mediated induction of inhibitors of antigen receptor signaling (Ship-1, CD72) as well as inhibitors of the Jak/Stat pathway and signaling by means of Toll-like receptors (SOCS1,3). These inhibitory effects are complemented by induction of antiproliferative transcription factors. In contrast to this inhibition, G protein-coupled receptors such as CXCR4 and agonists mediating Ca2+ flux (inositol trisphosphate receptor subtype 2) are induced by TbetaR, indicating enhancement of the Ca2+ storage/ release system and chemotactic responses. Suppression of proapoptotic genes suggests support of cell survival. Confirming the shift in B cell responsiveness, antigen-receptor-mediated activation of Syk and phospholipase C-gamma2, as well as Stat6 phosphorylation, is inhibited, whereas chemotaxis, Ca2+ release, and cell survival are enhanced in transforming growth factor-beta-sensitive B cells. The data provide a molecular basis for TbetaR-mediated inhibition of B cell responsiveness and indicate that TbetaR maintains homeostasis not only through inhibition of the cell cycle but also by delivering a coherent instructive signal that redirects responsiveness to microenvironmental cues.

  4. Degradation of type IV collagen by neoplastic human skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Sheela, S.; Barrett, J.C.

    1985-02-01

    An assay for the degradation of type IV (basement membrane) collagen was developed as a biochemical marker for neoplastic cells from chemically transformed human skin fibroblasts. Type IV collagen was isolated from basement membrane of Syrian hamster lung and type I collagen was isolated from rat tails; the collagens were radioactively labelled by reductive alkylation. The abilities of normal (KD) and chemically transformed (Hut-11A) human skin fibroblasts to degrade the collagens were studied. A cell-associated assay was performed by growing either normal or transformed cells in the presence of radioactively labelled type IV collagen and measuring the released soluble peptidesmore » in the medium. This assay also demonstrated that KD cells failed to synthesize an activity capable of degrading type IV collagen whereas Hut-11A cells degraded type IV collagen in a linear manner for up to 4 h. Human serum at very low concentrations, EDTA and L-cysteine inhibited the enzyme activity, whereas protease inhibitors like phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride, N-ethyl maleimide or soybean trypsin inhibitor did not inhibit the enzyme from Hut-11A cells. These results suggest that the ability to degrade specifically type IV collagen may be an important marker for neoplastic human fibroblasts and supports a role for this collagenase in tumor cell invasion.« less

  5. MMP1, MMP9, and COX2 Expressions in Promonocytes Are Induced by Breast Cancer Cells and Correlate with Collagen Degradation, Transformation-Like Morphological Changes in MCF-10A Acini, and Tumor Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Chimal-Ramírez, G. K.; Espinoza-Sánchez, N. A.; Utrera-Barillas, D.; Benítez-Bribiesca, L.; Velázquez, J. R.; Arriaga-Pizano, L. A.; Monroy-García, A.; Reyes-Maldonado, E.; Domínguez-López, M. L.; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Fuentes-Pananá, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-associated immune cells often lack immune effector activities, and instead they present protumoral functions. To understand how tumors promote this immunological switch, invasive and noninvasive breast cancer cell (BRC) lines were cocultured with a promonocytic cell line in a Matrigel-based 3D system. We hypothesized that if communication exists between tumor and immune cells, coculturing would result in augmented expression of genes associated with tumor malignancy. Upregulation of proteases MMP1 and MMP9 and inflammatory COX2 genes was found likely in response to soluble factors. Interestingly, changes were more apparent in promonocytes and correlated with the aggressiveness of the BRC line. Increased gene expression was confirmed by collagen degradation assays and immunocytochemistry of prostaglandin 2, a product of COX2 activity. Untransformed MCF-10A cells were then used as a sensor of soluble factors with transformation-like capabilities, finding that acini formed in the presence of supernatants of the highly aggressive BRC/promonocyte cocultures often exhibited total loss of the normal architecture. These data support that tumor cells can modify immune cell gene expression and tumor aggressiveness may importantly reside in this capacity. Modeling interactions in the tumor stroma will allow the identification of genes useful as cancer prognostic markers and therapy targets. PMID:23762835

  6. FK506-binding protein 10 (FKBP10) regulates lung fibroblast migration via collagen VI synthesis.

    PubMed

    Knüppel, Larissa; Heinzelmann, Katharina; Lindner, Michael; Hatz, Rudolf; Behr, Jürgen; Eickelberg, Oliver; Staab-Weijnitz, Claudia A

    2018-04-19

    In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), fibroblasts gain a more migratory phenotype and excessively secrete extracellular matrix (ECM), ultimately leading to alveolar scarring and progressive dyspnea. Here, we analyzed the effects of deficiency of FK506-binding protein 10 (FKBP10), a potential IPF drug target, on primary human lung fibroblast (phLF) adhesion and migration. Using siRNA, FKBP10 expression was inhibited in phLF in absence or presence of 2ng/ml transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and 0.1mM 2-phosphoascorbate. Effects on cell adhesion and migration were monitored by an immunofluorescence (IF)-based attachment assay, a conventional scratch assay, and single cell tracking by time-lapse microscopy. Effects on expression of key players in adhesion dynamics and migration were analyzed by qPCR and Western Blot. Colocalization was evaluated by IF microscopy and by proximity ligation assays. FKBP10 knockdown significantly attenuated adhesion and migration of phLF. Expression of collagen VI was decreased, while expression of key components of the focal adhesion complex was mostly upregulated. The effects on migration were 2-phosphoascorbate-dependent, suggesting collagen synthesis as the underlying mechanism. FKBP10 colocalized with collagen VI and coating culture dishes with collagen VI, and to a lesser extent with collagen I, abolished the effect of FKBP10 deficiency on migration. These findings show, to our knowledge for the first time, that FKBP10 interacts with collagen VI and that deficiency of FKBP10 reduces phLF migration mainly by downregulation of collagen VI synthesis. The results strengthen FKBP10 as an important intracellular regulator of ECM remodeling and support the concept of FKBP10 as drug target in IPF.

  7. Preparation of collagen/polyurethane/knitted silk as a composite scaffold for tendon tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Aghdam, Maryam; Faridi-Majidi, Reza; Derakhshan, Mohammad Ali; Chegeni, Arash; Azami, Mahmoud

    2017-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to prepare a hybrid three-dimensional scaffold that mimics natural tendon tissues. It has been found that a knitted silk shows good mechanical strength; however, cell growth on the bare silk is not desirable. Hence, electrospun collagen/polyurethane combination was used to cover knitted silk. A series of collagen and polyurethane solutions (4%-7% w/v) in aqueous acetic acid were prepared and electrospun. According to obtained scanning electron microscopy images from pure collagen and polyurethane nanofibers, concentration was set constant at 5% (w/v) for blend solutions of collagen/polyurethane. Afterward, blend solutions with the weight ratios of 75/25, 50/50 and 25/75 were electrospun. Scanning electron microscopy images demonstrated the smooth and uniform morphology for the optimized nanofibers. The least fibers diameter among three weight ratios was found for collagen/polyurethane (25/75) which was 100.86 ± 40 nm and therefore was selected to be electrospun on the knitted silk. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed the chemical composition of obtained electrospun nanofibers on the knitted silk. Tensile test of the specimens including blend nanofiber, knitted silk and commercial tendon substitute examined and indicated that collagen/polyurethane-coated knitted silk has appropriate mechanical properties as a scaffold for tendon tissue engineering. Then, Alamar Blue assay of the L929 fibroblast cell line seeded on the prepared scaffolds demonstrated appropriate viability of the cells with a significant proliferation on the scaffold containing more collagen content. The results illustrate that the designed structure would be promising for being used as a temporary substitute for tendon repair.

  8. Structure and polymorphism analysis of transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 (TGFBR1) in pigs.

    PubMed

    Shimanuki, Shin-Ichi; Mikawa, Ayumi; Miyake, Yuko; Hamasima, Noriyuki; Mikawa, Satoshi; Awata, Takashi

    2005-10-01

    Many quantitative trait loci (QTL) for growth and reproductive traits have been detected on the porcine chromosome region 1qter (SSC1qter), making it one of the most important genomic regions for pig breeding. SSC1q corresponds to human chromosome 9, on which lies transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 (TGFBR1). We cloned the porcine TGFBR1 cDNA and gene (as a candidate for QTL) and analyzed the gene structure and polymorphism. Porcine TGFBR1 consists of 9 exons and 8 introns. Intron 2 is alternatively spliced at the acceptor site, resulting in two kinds of mRNA, with putative open reading frames of 1500 and 1512 bp in length. The shorter one encodes 499 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence has 96.2 and 97.2% sequence similarity to those of human and bovine TGFBR1, respectively. The sequence similarity between porcine and murine TGFBR1 is 95.6%. We detected three single-nucleotide substitutions in exons 1, 2, and 7. Those in exons 1 and 7 are nonsynonymous substitutions resulting in Pro8Ser and Ile413Val substitutions, respectively.

  9. Demonstration of single crystal growth via solid-solid transformation of a glass

    DOE PAGES

    Savytskii, Dmytro; Knorr, Brian; Dierolf, Volkmar; ...

    2016-03-18

    Many advanced technologies have relied on the availability of single crystals of appropriate material such as silicon for microelectronics or superalloys for turbine blades. Similarly, many promising materials could unleash their full potential if they were available in a single crystal form. However, the current methods are unsuitable for growing single crystals of these oftentimes incongruently melting, unstable or metastable materials. Here we demonstrate a strategy to overcome this hurdle by avoiding the gaseous or liquid phase, and directly converting glass into a single crystal. Specifically, Sb 2S 3 single crystals are grown in Sb-S-I glasses as an example ofmore » this approach. In this first unambiguous demonstration of an all-solid-state glass → crystal transformation, extraneous nucleation is avoided relative to crystal growth via spatially localized laser heating and inclusion of a suitable glass former in the composition. Lastly, the ability to fabricate patterned single-crystal architecture on a glass surface is demonstrated, providing a new class of micro-structured substrate for low cost epitaxial growth, active planar devices, etc.« less

  10. Transforming Growth Factor-β Receptors and Smads: Regulatory Complexity and Functional Versatility.

    PubMed

    Budi, Erine H; Duan, Dana; Derynck, Rik

    2017-09-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family proteins control cell physiology, proliferation, and growth, and direct cell differentiation, thus playing key roles in normal development and disease. The mechanisms of how TGF-β family ligands interact with heteromeric complexes of cell surface receptors to then activate Smad signaling that directs changes in gene expression are often seen as established. Even though TGF-β-induced Smad signaling may be seen as a linear signaling pathway with predictable outcomes, this pathway provides cells with a versatile means to induce different cellular responses. Fundamental questions remain as to how, at the molecular level, TGF-β and TGF-β family proteins activate the receptor complexes and induce a context-dependent diversity of cell responses. Among the areas of progress, we summarize new insights into how cells control TGF-β responsiveness by controlling the TGF-β receptors, and into the key roles and versatility of Smads in directing cell differentiation and cell fate selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and stochastic modeling of surface chemistry of amorphous silicon growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterauer, U.; Knobloch, J.; Hess, P.; Houle, F. A.

    1998-06-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the formation of silicon hydride surface species during the F2 laser (157 nm) chemical vapor deposition of amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H). A one-dimensional stochastic model has been applied to simulate the growing surface. The predictions of the model were compared to the results of Fourier transform infrared transmission spectroscopy providing submonolayer resolution. We present a qualitative analysis of the bonding configuration in the initial stage of film growth on H-terminated Si(111). The high sensitivity and resolution of the spectroscopic method allowed us to distinguish between four surface species by a deconvolution of the observed feature around 2100 cm-1 during the deposition process. The theoretical results for the evolution of the different surface species and bulk hydrogen are in close agreement with these spectra. Consistence between mass spectrometric data and simulation was also achieved for the growth rate and bulk hydrogen content as a function of disilane partial pressure and laser intensity. The good agreement between experiment and simulation obtained in this work indicates that it is possible to describe the main features of the complex chemical system of the growing film with a model based on a few dominant surface reactions.

  12. Zili Inhibits Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling by Interacting with Smad4*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Huaqin; Li, Dan; Chen, Shu; Liu, Yanyan; Liao, Xiaolin; Deng, Wenqian; Li, Na; Zeng, Mei; Tao, Dachang; Ma, Yongxin

    2010-01-01

    Piwi proteins are required for germ cell proliferation, differentiation, and germ line stem cell maintenance. In normal tissues, human and mouse Piwil2 are primarily expressed in testis but widely expressed in tumors. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In vertebrates, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling plays an important role in patterning embryo and control of cell growth and differentiation. A previous study has shown a role for Zili, a Piwil2 gene in zebrafish, in germ cells in zebrafish. Here we report that zili functions in patterning the early embryo and inhibits TGF-β signaling. Whole mount expression analysis shows that zili expresses not only in PGCs but also in axis. Ectopic expression of zili causes fusion of the eyes and reduction of mesodermal marker genes expression, suggesting that zili functions to inhibit Nodal signaling and mesoderm formation. Genetic interaction shows that zili inhibits Nodal and bone morphogenetic protein signaling. The results of protein interaction assays identify that Zili binds to Smad4 via its N-terminal domain and prevents the formation of Smad2/3/4 and Smad1/5/9/4 complexes to antagonize TGF-β signaling. This work shows that zili plays a role in early embryogenesis beyond germ line as a novel negative regulator of TGF-β signaling, extending the function of Piwi proteins in vertebrates. PMID:20007318

  13. Increased collagen production in fibroblasts cultured from irradiated skin and effect of TGF beta(1)- clinical study.

    PubMed

    Illsley, M C; Peacock, J H; McAnulty, R J; Yarnold, J R

    2000-09-01

    Fibrosis in normal tissues is a common and dose-limiting late complication of radiotherapy at many cancer sites, but its pathogenesis is poorly understood. We undertook a controlled study of the effect of irradiation on the collagen production of fibroblasts cultured from skin biopsies taken from patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment. Eight weeks after a single 8 Gy fraction using 300 kV X-rays, five patients treated at the Royal Marsden Hospital underwent biopsy of the irradiated site and of the contralateral, unirradiated body site. Fibroblasts from irradiated and control, unirradiated sites were cultured in vitro, and collagen production rates were measured during a 48-hour incubation under standardized conditions and in the presence and absence of transforming growth factor beta(1)(TGF beta(1)), 1 ng/ml, using HPLC. Collagen production was elevated in cells cultured from irradiated skin; median collagen production rates 61.16 pmoles hydroxyproline/10(5)cells/hour in irradiated cells, 39.78 pmoles hydroxyproline/10(5)cells/hour in unirradiated cells, P = 0.016 (Mann-Whitney U-test). In fibroblasts from unirradiated sites, collagen production rates were increased by the addition of TGF beta(1); however, in three of the cell lines cultured from irradiated sites this effect of TGF beta(1)on collagen production was not observed. Copyright 2000 Cancer Research Campaign.

  14. Limitations of using aggrecan and type X collagen as markers of chondrogenesis in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mwale, Fackson; Stachura, Dorothy; Roughley, Peter; Antoniou, John

    2006-08-01

    The study was initially designed to differentiate human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into chondrocyte-like cells, for use in tissue engineering. We cultured MSCs in defined chondrogenic medium as pellet cultures supplemented with transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 or -beta3 and dexamethazone, as they are commonly used to promote in vitro chondrogenesis. Markers of chondrogenesis used were type II collagen and aggrecan, with type X collagen being used as a marker of late-stage chondrocyte hypertrophy (associated with endochondral ossification). Our results show that aggrecan is constitutively expressed by MSCs and that type X collagen is expressed as an early event. Furthermore, we found that type X collagen was expressed before type II collagen in some cases. This is surprising because it is understood that stem cells have to be differentiated into chondrocytes before they can become hypertrophic. Thus, caution must be exercised when using aggrecan and type X collagen as markers for chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy, respectively, in association with stem cell differentiation from this source.

  15. Interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor beta 1 in canine steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis.

    PubMed

    Maiolini, Arianna; Otten, Meike; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Carlson, Regina; Tipold, Andrea

    2013-02-04

    Steroid Responsive Meningitis-Arteritis (SRMA) is a common cause of inflammation of the canine central nervous system (CNS). To investigate if transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are involved in the production of excessive immunoglobulin A (IgA), the induction of acute phase proteins and in the development of a systemic necrotizing vasculitis, characteristic of SRMA, these three signalling proteins were evaluated. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples of dogs during the acute phase of SRMA (SRMA) were tested for IL-6, VEGF and TGF- β1. Results were compared to those of dogs affected with SRMA during treatment (SRMA Th) and during relapse (SRMA R), to dogs with other meningoencephalomyelitides (ME), with miscellaneous non-inflammatory diseases of the CNS (CNS-Mix), with idiopathic epilepsy (IE), with systemic inflammatory diseases (Syst. Infl.) and with healthy dogs (Healthy). Concentrations of IL-6 and VEGF in CSF were significantly elevated in the SRMA group compared to the other disease categories (p<0.05). The CSF concentrations of TGF-β1 were increased in SRMA group, but statistically significant differences were found only in comparison with Healthy and CNS-Mix groups. No differences were detected in the serum concentrations of TGF-β1 between the different groups. In untreated SRMA patients, a positive correlation (rSpear = 0.3549; P=0.0337) between concentrations of TGF-β1 and IgA concentration was found in CSF, while concentrations of IL-6 and VEGF in CSF positively correlated with the degree of pleocytosis (rSpear=0.8323; P<0.0001 and rSpear=0.5711; P=0.0166, respectively). Our results suggest that these three signalling proteins are biomarkers of disease activity in SRMA. VEGF might play an important role in the development of a systemic arteritis. TGF-β1 is considered to be involved in the excessive IgA production, while IL-6 in the pleocytosis. The combined

  16. Interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor beta 1 in canine steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Steroid Responsive Meningitis-Arteritis (SRMA) is a common cause of inflammation of the canine central nervous system (CNS). To investigate if transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are involved in the production of excessive immunoglobulin A (IgA), the induction of acute phase proteins and in the development of a systemic necrotizing vasculitis, characteristic of SRMA, these three signalling proteins were evaluated. Results Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples of dogs during the acute phase of SRMA (SRMA) were tested for IL-6, VEGF and TGF- β1. Results were compared to those of dogs affected with SRMA during treatment (SRMA Th) and during relapse (SRMA R), to dogs with other meningoencephalomyelitides (ME), with miscellaneous non-inflammatory diseases of the CNS (CNS-Mix), with idiopathic epilepsy (IE), with systemic inflammatory diseases (Syst. Infl.) and with healthy dogs (Healthy). Concentrations of IL-6 and VEGF in CSF were significantly elevated in the SRMA group compared to the other disease categories (p < 0.05). The CSF concentrations of TGF-β1 were increased in SRMA group, but statistically significant differences were found only in comparison with Healthy and CNS-Mix groups. No differences were detected in the serum concentrations of TGF-β1 between the different groups. In untreated SRMA patients, a positive correlation (rSpear = 0.3549; P = 0.0337) between concentrations of TGF-β1 and IgA concentration was found in CSF, while concentrations of IL-6 and VEGF in CSF positively correlated with the degree of pleocytosis (rSpear = 0.8323; P < 0.0001 and rSpear = 0.5711; P = 0.0166, respectively). Conclusions Our results suggest that these three signalling proteins are biomarkers of disease activity in SRMA. VEGF might play an important role in the development of a systemic arteritis. TGF-β1 is considered to be involved in the excessive

  17. Transforming Growth Factor-β and Nitrates in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, Ali; Kassim, Samar K.; Ahmed, Maha I.; Fayed, Salah T.

    1999-01-01

    The role of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and nitric oxide (NO) in ovarian neoplasia is still not clear. We studied the expression of TGF-β by enzyme immunoassay, and nitrates (as a stable end product of NO) in 127 ovarian tissues (36 normal, 37 benign, and 54 malignant). Ploidy status and synthetic phase fraction (SPF) were also assessed by flow cytometry. Mean ranks of TGF-β, nitrate, and SPF were significant among different groups (X2 = 12.01, P = 0.0025, X2 = 67.42, P = 0.000, X2 = 9.06, P = 0.011 respectively). Nitrate mean ranks were significant among different FIGO stages of the disease (X2 = 17.6, P = 0.000). A significant correlation was shown between TGF-â, and nitrate levels in all tissues (r = 0.24, P = 0.01), as well as in malignant tissues (r = 0.3, P = 0.026). Cutoff values were determined for both TGF-β (290 pg/mg protein), and nitrates (310 nmole/mg non protein nitrogenous substances). At these cut-offs, nitrates showed a sensitivity of 93% and 84% specificity for malignant versus normal cases, while TGF-β had 76% sensitivity, and 82.4% specificity for poor versus good outcome. Patients with epithelial ovarian cancer were followed up for a total of 40 months. Survival analysis showed that patients with TGF-β above the cut-off had worse prognosis (X2 = 12.69, P = 0.004). The present results suggest that malignant transformation of ovarian tissues is associated with increased TGF-β and NO production. NO level is related to the development and progression of epithelial ovarian cancer, while high levels of TGF-β could be of prognostic significance. PMID:10689548

  18. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 Regulates Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube-induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice via Suppression of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Production and Signaling.

    PubMed

    Duke, Katherine S; Taylor, Alexia J; Ihrie, Mark D; Shipkowski, Kelly A; Needham, Erinn C; Bonner, James C

    2018-04-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are a potential risk for pulmonary fibrosis because of their fiber-like shape; other physicochemical features, such as rigidity, could also confer fibrogenicity. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is an important antifibrogenic transcription factor that promotes fibroblast growth arrest. STAT1-deficient (Stat1 -/- ) mice are susceptible to pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we hypothesized that Stat1 -/- mice exhibit a differential fibrogenic response to tangled MWCNTs versus rigid MWCNTs above that seen with wild-type (Stat1 +/+ ) mice. Stat1 +/+ and Stat1 -/- mice were exposed to tangled MWCNTs or rigid MWCNTs (4 mg/kg) via oropharyngeal aspiration, and lung tissues were collected after 1 and 21 days to measure messenger RNA and protein levels of fibrogenic mediators. Compared with tangled MWCNTs, rigid MWCNTs caused mucous cell metaplasia, epithelial cell proliferation, increased fibrosis, and larger granulomas in the lungs of mice. Both MWCNT types induced acute neutrophilia; however, only rigid MWCNTs induced chronic neutrophilia. Stat1 -/- mice exhibited higher serum levels of immunoglobin E and even higher levels when treated with rigid MWCNTs. Twenty-one days after treatment with rigid MWCNTs, compared with Stat1 +/+ mice, Stat1 -/- mice had higher levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, increased transforming growth factor-β1 signaling activation, and higher airway collagen deposition. Some of the results of this study were previously reported in the form of an abstract and a paper ( 1 , 2 ). Our data emphasize that rigid MWCNTs produce much stronger immune and fibrogenic responses than tangled MWCNTs and that these effects are exaggerated by STAT1 deficiency, highlighting the importance of tube rigidity and genetic susceptibility. The mechanism of STAT1 susceptibility to MWCNTs-induced fibrosis appears to be through dysregulated

  19. The Mineral–Collagen Interface in Bone

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The interface between collagen and the mineral reinforcement phase, carbonated hydroxyapatite (cAp), is essential for bone’s remarkable functionality as a biological composite material. The very small dimensions of the cAp phase and the disparate natures of the reinforcement and matrix are essential to the material’s performance but also complicate study of this interface. This article summarizes what is known about the cAp-collagen interface in bone and begins with descriptions of the matrix and reinforcement roles in composites, of the phases bounding the interface, of growth of cAp growing within the collagen matrix, and of the effect of intra- and extrafibrilar mineral on determinations of interfacial properties. Different observed interfacial interactions with cAp (collagen, water, non-collagenous proteins) are reviewed; experimental results on interface interactions during loading are reported as are their influence on macroscopic mechanical properties; conclusions of numerical modeling of interfacial interactions are also presented. The data suggest interfacial interlocking (bending of collagen molecules around cAp nanoplatelets) and water-mediated bonding between collagen and cAp are essential to load transfer. The review concludes with descriptions of areas where new research is needed to improve understanding of how the interface functions. PMID:25824581

  20. Astrocyte Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Protects Synapses against Aβ Oligomers in Alzheimer's Disease Model.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Luan Pereira; Tortelli, Vanessa; Matias, Isadora; Morgado, Juliana; Bérgamo Araujo, Ana Paula; Melo, Helen M; Seixas da Silva, Gisele S; Alves-Leon, Soniza V; de Souza, Jorge M; Ferreira, Sergio T; De Felice, Fernanda G; Gomes, Flávia Carvalho Alcantara

    2017-07-12

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline, increasingly attributed to neuronal dysfunction induced by amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs). Although the impact of AβOs on neurons has been extensively studied, only recently have the possible effects of AβOs on astrocytes begun to be investigated. Given the key roles of astrocytes in synapse formation, plasticity, and function, we sought to investigate the impact of AβOs on astrocytes, and to determine whether this impact is related to the deleterious actions of AβOs on synapses. We found that AβOs interact with astrocytes, cause astrocyte activation and trigger abnormal generation of reactive oxygen species, which is accompanied by impairment of astrocyte neuroprotective potential in vitro We further show that both murine and human astrocyte conditioned media (CM) increase synapse density, reduce AβOs binding, and prevent AβO-induced synapse loss in cultured hippocampal neurons. Both a neutralizing anti-transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) antibody and siRNA-mediated knockdown of TGF-β1, previously identified as an important synaptogenic factor secreted by astrocytes, abrogated the protective action of astrocyte CM against AβO-induced synapse loss. Notably, TGF-β1 prevented hippocampal dendritic spine loss and memory impairment in mice that received an intracerebroventricular infusion of AβOs. Results suggest that astrocyte-derived TGF-β1 is part of an endogenous mechanism that protects synapses against AβOs. By demonstrating that AβOs decrease astrocyte ability to protect synapses, our results unravel a new mechanism underlying the synaptotoxic action of AβOs in AD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alzheimer's disease is characterized by progressive cognitive decline, mainly attributed to synaptotoxicity of the amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs). Here, we investigated the impact of AβOs in astrocytes, a less known subject. We show that astrocytes prevent synapse loss induced by A

  1. Increased susceptibility to atrial fibrillation secondary to atrial fibrosis in transgenic goats expressing transforming growth factor - B1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in people with significant morbidity and mortality. There is a strong association between atrial fibrosis and AF. Transforming growth factor B1 (TGF-B1) is an essential mediator of atrial fibrosis in animal models and human pat...

  2. Critical Role of Transforming Growth Factor Beta in Different Phases of Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Pakyari, Mohammadreza; Farrokhi, Ali; Maharlooei, Mohsen Khosravi; Ghahary, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Significance This review highlights the critical role of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)1–3 within different phases of wound healing, in particular, late-stage wound healing. It is also very important to identify the TGF-β1–controlling factors involved in slowing down the healing process upon wound epithelialization. Recent Advances TGF-β1, as a growth factor, is a known proponent of dermal fibrosis. Several strategies to modulate or regulate TGF's actions have been thoroughly investigated in an effort to create successful therapies. This study reviews current discourse regarding the many roles of TGF-β1 in wound healing by modulating infiltrated immune cells and the extracellular matrix. Critical Issues It is well established that TGF-β1 functions as a wound-healing promoting factor, and thereby if in excess it may lead to overhealing outcomes, such as hypertrophic scarring and keloid. Thus, the regulation of TGF-β1 in the later stages of the healing process remains as critical issue of which to better understand. Future Directions One hypothesis is that cell communication is the key to regulate later stages of wound healing. To elucidate the role of keratinocyte/fibroblast cross talk in controlling the later stages of wound healing we need to: (1) identify those keratinocyte-released factors which would function as wound-healing stop signals, (2) evaluate the functionality of these factors in controlling the outcome of the healing process, and (3) formulate topical vehicles for these antifibrogenic factors to improve or even prevent the development of hypertrophic scarring and keloids as a result of deep trauma, burn injuries, and any type of surgical incision. PMID:24527344

  3. Dihydromyricetin induces mouse hepatoma Hepal-6 cell apoptosis via the transforming growth factor-β pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Xiaofeng; Xu, Fengming; Chen, Yinqin; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Qingyu; Bao, Shiting; Chen, Nianping; Li, Mingyi; Zhu, Runzhi

    2015-03-01

    Dihydromyricetin (DHM) is a flavonoid compound which possesses potent antitumor activity. In the present study, it was demonstrated that DHM significantly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in mouse hepatocellular carcinoma Hepal‑6 cells. Transforming growth factor β (TGF‑β) is recognized as a major profibrogenic cytokine and is therefore a common target for drugs in the treatment of liver disease. The present study aimed to investigate whether TGF‑β was involved in DHM‑triggered cell‑viability inhibition and apoptosis induction. An MTT assay was used to evaluate the viability of Hepal‑6 cells following DHM treatment. TGF‑β signalling is mediated by Smads and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4) is a crucial regulator of reactive oxygen species ROS production. TGF‑β, Smad3, phosphorylated (p)‑Smad2/3 and NOX4 protein expression levels were evaluated by western blot analysis. TGF‑β and NOX4 gene expression levels were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that DHM downregulated TGF‑β, Smad3, p‑Smad2/3 and NOX4 in a concentration‑dependent manner. A cell counting assay indicated that DHM also inhibited Hepal‑6 cell growth in a concentration‑dependent manner. TGF‑β expression was significantly decreased following DHM treatment. In conclusion, the results of the present study defined and supported a novel function for DHM, indicating that it induced cell apoptosis by downregulating ROS production via the TGF‑β/Smad3 signaling pathway in mouse hepatocellular carcinoma Hepal‑6 cells.

  4. Dihydromyricetin induces mouse hepatoma Hepal-6 cell apoptosis via the transforming growth factor-β pathway

    PubMed Central

    LIU, BIN; ZHOU, WEI; CHEN, XIAOFENG; XU, FENGMING; CHEN, YINQIN; LIU, JIE; ZHANG, QINGYU; BAO, SHITING; CHEN, NIANPING; LI, MINGYI; ZHU, RUNZHI

    2015-01-01

    Dihydromyricetin (DHM) is a flavonoid compound which possesses potent antitumor activity. In the present study, it was demonstrated that DHM significantly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in mouse hepatocellular carcinoma Hepal-6 cells. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is recognized as a major profibrogenic cytokine and is therefore a common target for drugs in the treatment of liver disease. The present study aimed to investigate whether TGF-β was involved in DHM-triggered cell-viability inhibition and apoptosis induction. An MTT assay was used to evaluate the viability of Hepal-6 cells following DHM treatment. TGF-β signalling is mediated by Smads and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4) is a crucial regulator of reactive oxygen species ROS production. TGF-β, Smad3, phosphorylated (p)-Smad2/3 and NOX4 protein expression levels were evaluated by western blot analysis. TGF-β and NOX4 gene expression levels were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that DHM downregulated TGF-β, Smad3, p-Smad2/3 and NOX4 in a concentration-dependent manner. A cell counting assay indicated that DHM also inhibited Hepal-6 cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner. TGF-β expression was significantly decreased following DHM treatment. In conclusion, the results of the present study defined and supported a novel function for DHM, indicating that it induced cell apoptosis by downregulating ROS production via the TGF-β/Smad3 signaling pathway in mouse hepatocellular carcinoma Hepal-6 cells. PMID:25376731

  5. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) induces the expression of chondrogenesis-related genes through TGF-β receptor II (TGFRII)-AKT-mTOR signaling in primary cultured mouse precartilaginous stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Jun-Fang

    2014-07-18

    Precartilaginous stem cells (PSCs) are adult stem cells which could initiate chondrocytes and bone growth. In the current study, we purified PSCs from the neonate mice' perichondrial mesenchyme through immunomagnetic beads with the fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR-3) antibody. Mouse PSCs were seeded and cultured, and their phenotype was confirmed by FGFR-3 over-expression. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was added to induce PSCs differentiation. TGF-β increased mRNA expression of chondrogenesis-related genes (collagen type II, Sox 9, and aggrecan) in the cultured PSCs, which was abolished by TGF-β receptor II (TGFRII) lentiviral shRNA depletion. TGF-β induced AKT activation in mouse PSCs, while the PI3K/AKT inhibitor (LY294002) and the AKT specific inhibitors (perifosine and MK-2206) largely suppressed TGF-β-induced collagen II, Sox 9, and aggrecan mRNA expression. Meanwhile, the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) blocker RAD001 or the mTORC1/2 dual inhibitor AZD-2014 also alleviated TGF-β-induced chondrogenesis-associated genes expression. Further, lentiviral shRNA depletion of SIN1 (a mTORC2 component) or mTOR inhibited TGF-β's effect in the mouse PSCs. In conclusion, our evidence suggests that TGF-β induces the expression of chondrogenesis-related genes through TGFRII-AKT-mTOR signaling in cultured mouse PSCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Transforming growth factor beta-1 expression in macrophages of human chronic periapical diseases.

    PubMed

    Liang, Z-Z; Li, J; Huang, S-G

    2017-03-30

    The objective of this study was to observe the distribution of macrophages (MPs) expressing transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) in tissue samples from patients with different human chronic periapical diseases. In this study, samples were collected from 75 volunteers, who were divided into three groups according to classified standards, namely, healthy control (N = 25), periapical granuloma (N = 25), and periapical cyst (N = 25). The samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for more than 48 h, dehydrated, embedded, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathology. Double immunofluorescence was conducted to analyze the expression of TGF-β-CD14 double-positive MPs in periapical tissues. The number of double-positive cells (cells/mm 2 ) were significantly higher in the chronic periapical disease tissues (P < 0.01) compared to that in the control tissue; in addition, the density of TGF-β1-CD14 double positive cells was significantly higher in the periapical cyst group than in the periapical granuloma group (P < 0.01). The number of TGF-β1 expressing macrophages varied with human chronic periapical diseases. The TGF-β1-CD14 double-positive cells might play an important role in the pathology of human chronic periapical diseases.

  7. Breast-feeding regulates immune system development via transforming growth factor-β in mice pups.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Keita; Koyanagi, Akemi; Kamachi, Fumitaka; Harauma, Akiko; Chiba, Asako; Hisata, Ken; Moriguchi, Toru; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Miyake, Sachiko

    2018-03-01

    Breast milk contains important nutrients and immunoregulatory factors that are essential for newborn infants. Recently, epidemiological studies suggested that breast-feeding prevents a wide range of infectious diseases and lowers the incidence of infant allergic diseases. To examine the effects of breast milk on immunological development in infancy, we established an artificial rearing system for hand-feeding mice and compared mouse pups fed with either breast milk or milk substitute. All mice were killed at 14 days of age and immune cells in the thymus, spleen, and small intestine were examined on flow cytometry. The number of thymocytes was higher whereas that of total immune cells of peripheral lymphoid tissues was lower in mice fed breast milk compared with milk substitute-fed mice. In peripheral lymphoid tissues, the proportion of B cells was higher and that of CD8 + T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes was significantly lower in breast milk-fed mice. The same alteration in immune cells of the thymus and peripheral lymphoid tissues in milk substitute-fed mice was also observed in pups reared by mother mice treated with anti-transforming growth factor-β (anti-TGF-β) monoclonal antibody. Breast milk regulates the differentiation and expansion of innate and adaptive immune cells partly due to TGF-β. Hence, TGF-β in breast milk may be a new therapeutic target for innate immune system-mediated diseases of infancy. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. The nematode parasite Onchocerca volvulus generates the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta).

    PubMed

    Korten, Simone; Büttner, Dietrich W; Schmetz, Christel; Hoerauf, Achim; Mand, Sabine; Brattig, Norbert

    2009-09-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a highly conserved cytokine that has a well-known regulatory role in immunity, but also in organ development of most animal species including helminths. Homologous tgf-b genes and mRNA have been detected in the filaria Brugia malayi. The in situ protein expression is unknown for filariae. Therefore, we examined several filariae for the expression and localization of latent (stable) TGF-beta in adult and larval stages. A specific goat anti-human latency associated protein (LAP, TGF-beta 1) antibody, purified by affinity chromatography, was used for light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry. Adult Onchocerca volvulus, Onchocerca gibsoni, Onchocerca ochengi, Onchocerca armillata, Onchocerca fasciata, Onchocerca flexuosa, Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria sp., B. malayi, and infective larvae of W. bancrofti reacted with the antibody. Labeling of worm tissues varied between negative and all degrees of positive reactions. Latent TGF-beta was strongly expressed adjacent to the cell membranes of the hypodermis, epithelia, and muscles and adjacent to many nuclei in all organs. TGF-beta was well expressed in worms without Wolbachia endobacteria eliminated by doxycycline treatment. Pleomorphic neoplasms in O. volvulus were also labeled. We conclude that latent TGF-beta protein is expressed by filariae independently of Wolbachia, possibly regulating worm tissue homeostasis.

  9. Association of interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β gene polymorphisms with chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Tavakol, Marzieh; Movahedi, Masoud; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar; Aryan, Zahra; Bidoki, Alireza Zare; Heidari, Kimia; Soltani, Samaneh; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Nabavi, Mohammad; Nasiri, Rasoul; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Rezaei, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) are two anti-inflammatory cytokines that are implicated in the pathogenesis of urticaria. The goal of this study was to examine the possible association of polymorphisms of TGF-β and IL-10 genes with susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). This study was conducted on 90 patients with CIU. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done to determine the genotype at 5 polymorphic sites; TGF-β (codon10C/T and codon25G/C) and IL-10 (-1082G/A, -819C/T, and -592C/A). The C allele at codon 25 of TGF-β was more prevalent in CIU patients compared to controls (OR = 9.5, 95% CI = 5.4-16.8, P<0.001). Genotypes of CT and CG at 10 and 25 codons of TGF-β gene, respectively, and AG, CT, and CA for loci of -1082, -819, and -592 of IL-10 gene were significantly higher in CIU patients (P<0.001). In haplotype analysis, frequency of TGF-β haplotypes differed between patients with CIU and controls; CC haplotype was overrepresented, while CG and TG haplotypes were underrepresented (P<0.001). These results suggest that TGF-β and IL-10 genetic variability could contribute to susceptibility to CIU. Additionally, patients with CIU seem to have genotypes leading to high production of TGF-β and IL-10.

  10. Transforming growth factor-β1 gene polymorphisms with liver cirrhosis risk: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Pengfei; Sun, Xiangru; Feng, Xiufang; Zhang, Chaolong

    2018-03-01

    Although several epidemiological studies have investigated the association of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-ß1) gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility to liver cirrhosis (LC), controversial results exist. Consequently, we performed a meta-analysis to accurately evaluate the relationship of TGF-ß1-509C/T and codon 10T/C polymorphisms with the risk of LC introduced by chronic hepatitis B/V virus (HBV/HCV) infection. A total of 9 case-control studies, involving 985 LC patients and 909 controls, were recruited for meta-analysis. The results suggested a significant association between the -509C/T polymorphism and LC risk in the total population. Stratification by ethnicity revealed similar associations in Egyptian and Caucasian populations, but not in Asian populations. Subgroup analyses by different etiologies also showed similar associations in HCV-induced LC, but not in HBV-induced LC. However, the overall data failed to show a significant association between codon 10T/C polymorphism and the risk of LC in the study. We concluded that TGF-ß1-509C/T polymorphism was significantly associated with LC susceptibility, while the codon 10T/C polymorphism seemed to have a limited role in predicting the occurrence of LC induced by HBV/HCV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Intracranial administration of transforming growth factor-beta3 increases fat oxidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hanae; Arai, Masanao; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2002-09-01

    The effects of intracranial transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta3 on spontaneous motor activity and energy metabolism were examined in rats. After injection of TGF-beta3 into the cisterna magna of the rat, spontaneous motor activity decreased significantly for 1 h. The intracranial injection of TGF-beta3 produced an immediate decrease in respiratory exchange ratio (RER). No significant changes were observed in energy expenditure. TGF-beta3 induced a significant increase in total fat oxidation and a decrease in total carbohydrate oxidation. Furthermore, the serum substrates associated with fat metabolism were significantly altered in rats injected with TGF-beta3. Both lipoprotein lipase activity in skeletal muscle and the concentration of serum ketone bodies increased, suggesting that the increase in fat oxidation caused by TGF-beta3 may have occurred in the liver and muscle. Intracranial injection of TGF-beta3 appeared to evoke a switch in the energy substrates accessed in energy expenditure. These results suggest that the release of TGF-beta3 in the brain by exercise is a signal for regulating energy consumption.

  12. Effects of exogenous transforming growth factor beta on Trypanosoma congolense infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Namangala, Boniface; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Inoue, Noboru

    2007-04-01

    The socioeconomic implications of trypanosomosis in sub-Saharan Africa and the limitations of its current control regimes have stimulated research into alternative control methods. Considering the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and its potential to enhance immunity against protozoan parasites, we examined the effects of intraperitoneally delivered TGF-beta1 in C57BL/6 mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense, the hemoprotozoan parasite causing nagana in cattle. A triple dose of 10 ng TGF-beta1 significantly reduced the first parasitemic peak and delayed mortality of infected mice. Furthermore, exogenous TGF-beta1 significantly decreased the development of trypanosome-induced anemia and splenomegaly. The apparent TGF-beta1-induced antitrypanosome protection, occurring mainly during the early stage of infection, correlated with an enhanced parasite antigen-specific Th1 cell response characterized by a skewed type I cytokine response and a concomitant stronger antitrypanosome immunoglobulin G2a antibody response. Infected TGF-beta1-pretreated mice exhibited a significant reduction in the trypanosome-induced hyperexpansion of B cells. Furthermore, evidence is provided herein that exogenous TGF-beta1 activates macrophages that may contribute to parasite control. Collectively, these data indicate that exogenous TGF-beta1 is immunostimulative, inducing partial protection against T. congolense infection, possibly through mechanisms involving innate immune responses.

  13. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) mediates cardiac fibrosis and induces diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yiyang; Meng, Ke; Pu, Yuejie; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-11-01

    Cardiovascular diseases account for the major cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with diabetes. The diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a type of diabetic cardiovascular disease, which further directs to the heart failure. The researchers found that diabetes induced cardiac fibrosis plays a vital role in several of the pathological changes that associated with DCM, causing left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), diastolic dysfunction and systolic dysfunction. However, the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of DCM are still elusive. Many studies have demonstrated that the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is one of the molecular mediators implicated in the progression of fibrogenesis. In diabetes, hyperglycemia causes the expression changes of microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), TGF-β genes, TGF-β proteins and their receptors. Activated TGF-β further leads to cardiac fibrosis, which in turn inducing DCM through the SMAD-dependent and independent pathways. Here, we reviewed the the molecular pathways that activate TGF-β then leading to cardiac fibrosis, which induced the pathological changes of DCM. Illustrating the pathways of TGF-ß would propose an efficient way for the management of diabetic cardiomyopathy (see Fig. 1). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Loss of transforming growth factor-beta 2 leads to impairment of central synapse function

    PubMed Central

    Heupel, Katharina; Sargsyan, Vardanush; Plomp, Jaap J; Rickmann, Michael; Varoqueaux, Frédérique; Zhang, Weiqi; Krieglstein, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    Background The formation of functional synapses is a crucial event in neuronal network formation, and with regard to regulation of breathing it is essential for life. Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily act as intercellular signaling molecules during synaptogenesis of the neuromuscular junction of Drosophila and are involved in synaptic function of sensory neurons of Aplysia. Results Here we show that while TGF-β2 is not crucial for the morphology and function of the neuromuscular junction of the diaphragm muscle of mice, it is essential for proper synaptic function in the pre-Bötzinger complex, a central rhythm organizer located in the brainstem. Genetic deletion of TGF-β2 in mice strongly impaired both GABA/glycinergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the pre-Bötzinger complex area, while numbers and morphology of central synapses of knock-out animals were indistinguishable from their wild-type littermates at embryonic day 18.5. Conclusion The results demonstrate that TGF-β2 influences synaptic function, rather than synaptogenesis, specifically at central synapses. The functional alterations in the respiratory center of the brain are probably the underlying cause of the perinatal death of the TGF-β2 knock-out mice. PMID:18854036

  15. Uptake of Host Cell Transforming Growth Factor-β by Trypanosoma cruzi Amastigotes in Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Waghabi, Mariana C.; Keramidas, Michelle; Bailly, Sabine; Degrave, Wim; Mendonça-Lima, Leila; Soeiro, Maria de Nazaré C.; Meirelles, Maria de Nazareth L.; Paciornik, Sidnei; Araújo-Jorge, Tania C.; Feige, Jean-Jacques

    2005-01-01

    The cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays various functions in the control of Trypanosoma cruzi infectivity and in the progression of Chagas’ disease. When we immunostained T. cruzi-infected cardiomyocytes (after either in vivo or in vitro infections) for TGF-β, we observed stronger immunoreactivity in parasites than in host cells. TGF-β immunoreactivity evolved during parasite cycle progression, with intense staining in amastigotes versus very faint staining in trypomastigotes. TGF-β was present on the surface of amastigotes, in the flagellar pocket, and in intraparasitic vesicles as revealed by electron microscopy. However, no ortholog TGF-β gene could be identified in the genome of T. cruzi by in silico analysis or by extensive polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction studies. Immunoreactive TGF-β was most probably taken up by the parasite from the host cell cytoplasm because such an internalization process of biotinylated TGF-β could be observed in axenic amastigotes in vitro. These observations represent the first example of a novel mechanism by which a primitive unicellular protozoan can use host cell TGF-β to control its own intracellular life cycle. PMID:16192635

  16. Inhibition of the growth of transformed and neoplastic cells by the dipeptide carnosine.

    PubMed Central

    Holliday, R.; McFarland, G. A.

    1996-01-01

    Human diploid fibroblasts growth normally in medium containing physiological concentrations of the naturally occurring dipeptide carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine). These concentrations are cytotoxic to transformed and neoplastic cells lines in modified Eagle medium (MEM), whereas these cells grow vigorously in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) containing carnosine. This difference is due to the presence of 1 mM sodium pyruvate in DMEM. Seven human cell lines and two rodent cell lines were tested and all are strongly inhibited by carnosine in the absence of pyruvate. Experiments with HeLa cells show that anserine is similar to carnosine, but D-carnosine and homocarnosine are without effect. Also, the non-essential amino acids alanine and glutamic acid contribute to the effect of pyruvate in preventing carnosine toxicity, and oxaloacetate and alpha-ketoglutarate can substitute for pyruvate. We have used mixtures of normal MRC-5 fibroblasts and HeLa cells to demonstrate that 20 mM carnosine can selectively eliminate the tumour cells. This has obvious implications which might be exploited in in vivo and in vitro studies. Carnosine is known to react strongly with aldehyde and keto groups of sugars by Amadori reaction, and we propose that it depletes certain glycolysis intermediates. It is well known that tumour cells are more dependent on glycolysis than normal cells. A reduction of glycolysis intermediates by carnosine may deplete their energy supply, but this effect is totally reversed by pyruvate. Images Figure 5 PMID:8611433

  17. Differential Expression and Clinical Significance of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Isoforms in GBM Tumors.

    PubMed

    Roy, Laurent-Olivier; Poirier, Marie-Belle; Fortin, David

    2018-04-08

    Glioblastoma (GBM) represents the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumors in adults. Response to standard treatment is transitory and the survival of clinical trial cohorts are little more than 14 months. GBM are characterized by excessive proliferation, invasiveness, and radio-/chemoresistance features; which are strongly upregulated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β). We hypothesized that TGF-β gene expression could correlate with overall survival (OS) and serve as a prognostic biomarker. TGF-β₁ and -β₂ expression were analyzed by qPCR in 159 GBM tumor specimens. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analyses were used to correlate expression with OS and progression-free survival (PFS). In GBM, TGF-β₁ and -β₂ levels were 33- and 11-fold higher respectively than in non-tumoral samples. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analyses revealed that high to moderate expressions of TGF-β₁ significantly conferred a strikingly poorer OS and PFS in newly diagnosed patients. Interestingly, at relapse, neither isoforms had meaningful impact on clinical evolution. We demonstrate that TGF-β₁ is the dominant isoform in newly diagnosed GBM rather than the previously acknowledged TGF-β₂. We believe our study is the first to unveil a significant relationship between TGF-β₁ expression and OS or PFS in newly diagnosed GBM. TGF-β₁ could serve as a prognostic biomarker or target affecting treatment planning and patient follow-up.

  18. Plasma levels of Transforming Growth Factor Beta in HIV-1 patients with oral candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, A; Asadikaram, G; Nakhaee, N; Hadizadeh, S; Ayatollahi Mousavi, A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: TGF-β is a potent regulator and suppressor of the immune system and overproduction of this cytokine may contribute to immunosuppression in HIV-infected patients. Increasing population of immunosuppressed patients has resulted in increasingly frequent of fungal infections, including oral candidiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma levels of TGF-β under in vivo conditions. Materials and Methods: Seventy- two samples were obtained from the oral cavities of HIV-positive Iranian patients and cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar and CHROMagar. Also blood samples were obtained to assess TGF-β levels using ELISA technique. Results: Thirty-three out of 72 oral samples yielded candida isolates, Candida albicans in 14 and non-albicans candida in 19.Fungal infection decreased significantly more TGF-β level than non-fungal infection also HIV negative were significantly more TGF-β than HIV positive. Conclusion: Our findings suggest a significant interaction between fungal infection and HIV on expression of Transforming Growth Factor Beta. PMID:28680977

  19. Estrogen Protects Lenses against Cataract Induced by Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGFβ)

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Angela M.; Chamberlain, Coral G.; Murphy, Christopher R.; McAvoy, John W.

    1997-01-01

    Cataract, already a major cause of visual impairment and blindness, is likely to become an increasing problem as the world population ages. In a previous study, we showed that transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) induces rat lenses in culture to develop opacities and other changes that have many features of human subcapsular cataracts. Here we show that estrogen protects against cataract. Lenses from female rats are more resistant to TGFβ-induced cataract than those from males. Furthermore, lenses from ovariectomized females show increased sensitivity to the damaging effects of TGFβ and estrogen replacement in vivo, or exposure to estrogen in vitro, restores resistance. Sex-dependent and estrogen-related differences in susceptibility to cataract formation, consistent with a protective role for estrogen, have been noted in some epidemiological studies. The present study in the rat indicates that estrogen provides protection against cataract by countering the damaging effects of TGFβ. It also adds to an increasing body of evidence that hormone replacement therapy protects postmenopausal women against various diseases. PMID:9016876

  20. Immunocytochemical Localization of Latent Transforming Growth Factor-B1 Activation by Stimulated Macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, Hyonkyong; Vodovotz, Yoram; Cox, G.W.

    1998-09-22

    Transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}) is secreted in a latent form consisting of mature TGF-{beta} noncovalently associated with its amino-terminal propeptide, which is called latency associated peptide (LAP). Biological activity depends upon the release of TGF-{beta} from the latent complex following extracellular activation, which appears to be the key regulatory mechanism controlling TGF-{beta} action. We have identified two events associated with latent TGF-{beta} (LTGF-{beta}) activation in vivo: increased immunoreactivity of certain antibodies that specifically detect TGF-{beta} concomitant with decreased immunoreactivity of antibodies to LAP. Macrophages stimulated in vitro with interferon-{gamma} and lipopolysaccharide reportedly activate LTGF-{beta} via cell membrane-bound protease activity. Wemore » show through dual immunostaining of paraformaldehyde-fixed macrophages that such physiological TGF-{beta} activation is accompanied by a loss of LAP immunoreactivity with concomitant revelation of TGF-{beta} epitopes. The induction of TGF-{beta} immunoreactivity colocalized with immunoreactive betaglycan/RIII in activated macrophages, suggesting that LTGF-{beta} activation occurs on the cell surface. Confocal microscopy of metabolically active macrophages incubated with antibodies to TGF-{beta} and betaglycan/RIII prior to fixation supported the localization of activation to the cell surface. The ability to specifically detect and localize LTGF-{beta} activation provides an important tool for studies of its regulation.« less

  1. Embryonic expression of the transforming growth factor beta ligand and receptor genes in chicken.

    PubMed

    Cooley, James R; Yatskievych, Tatiana A; Antin, Parker B

    2014-03-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) signaling regulates a myriad of biological processes during embryogenesis, in the adult, and during the manifestation of disease. TGFβ signaling is propagated through one of three TGFβ ligands interacting with Type I and Type II receptors, and Type III co-receptors. Although TGFβ signaling is regulated partly by the combinatorial expression patterns of TGFβ receptors and ligands, a comprehensive gene expression analysis has not been published. Here we report the embryonic mRNA expression patterns in chicken embryos of the canonical TGFβ ligands (TGFB1, TGFB2, and TGFB3) and receptors (TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFBR3), plus the Activin A receptor, type 1 (ACVR1) and co receptor Endoglin (ENG) that also transduce TGFβ signaling. TGFB ligands and receptors show dynamic and frequently overlapping expression patterns in numerous embryonic cell layers and structures. Integrating expression information identifies combinations of ligands and receptors that are involved in specific developmental processes including somitogenesis, cardiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Localization of transforming growth factor-alpha in human appendageal tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Finzi, E.; Ho, T.; Anhalt, G.; Hawkins, W.; Harkins, R.; Horn, T.

    1992-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha) is a potent mitogen for epithelial cells that has been localized to normal human appendageal epithelia. To further understand the role of TGF alpha in human appendages, we examined TGF alpha expression immunohistochemically in 17 types of human appendageal tumors differentiating toward hair follicles, eccrine, apocrine, and sebaceous glands. In order of decreasing degrees of differentiation, tumors could be divided into hyperplasias, adenomas, benign epitheliomas, and primordial epitheliomas. Using an antibody that recognizes primarily the 6-kd and 13-kd forms of TGF alpha, TGF alpha immunostaining in 16 of 17 tumor types analyzed was found to follow a similar pattern, with expression in hyperplasias greater than adenomas greater than benign epitheliomas greater than primordial epitheliomas. Within a given tumor, TGF alpha expression also correlated well with the known differentiation state of the tumor cell types. The results suggest that TGF alpha expression is directly correlated with the differentiation state of hair follicle, eccrine, apocrine, and sebaceous tumors in human skin, and raises the possibility that TGF alpha may play a role in the differentiation of appendageal epithelia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1519669

  3. Overexpressed homeobox B9 regulates oncogenic activities by transforming growth factor-β1 in gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Liping; Xu, Yinghui; Zou, Lijuan, E-mail: zoulijuantg@126.com

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • HOXB9 is overexpressed in gliomas. • HOXB9 over expression had shorter survival time than down expression in gliomas. • HOXB9 stimulated the proliferation, migration and sphere formation of glioma cells. • Activation of TGF-β1 contributed to HOXB9-induced oncogenic activities. - Abstract: Glioma is the leading cause of deaths related to tumors in the central nervous system. The mechanisms of gliomagenesis remain elusive to date. Homeobox B9 (HOXB9) has a crucial function in the regulation of gene expression and cell survival, but its functions in glioma formation and development have yet to be elucidated. This study showed that HOXB9more » expression in glioma tissues was significantly higher than that in nontumor tissues. Higher HOXB9 expression was also significantly associated with advanced clinical stage in glioma patients. HOXB9 overexpression stimulated the proliferation, migration, and sphere formation of glioma cells, whereas HOXB9 knockdown elicited an opposite effect. HOXB9 overexpression also increased the tumorigenicity of glioma cells in vivo. Moreover, the activation of transforming growth factor-β1 contributed to HOXB9-induced oncogenic activities. HOXB9 could be used as a predictable biomarker to be detected in different pathological and histological subtypes in glioma for diagnosis or prognosis.« less

  4. Transforming growth factor-beta expression in macrophages during hypercholesterolemic states.

    PubMed

    Ding, G; van Goor, H; Frye, J; Diamond, J R

    1994-12-01

    Macrophage infiltration into the glomerular mesangium is a prominent feature of various glomerulopathies. Recent evidence suggests that infiltrating macrophages may play a role in propagating initial glomerular injury to the development of glomerulosclerosis via transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-stimulating matrix accumulation. Rats with the acute puromycin aminonucleoside (PA) nephrosis exhibit an elevated gene expression of glomerular TGF-beta 1; however, the cellular origin of this upregulation is unknown. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we detected that the TGF-beta 1 isoform is expressed in glomerular macrophages isolated from experimental rats made hypercholesterolemic by either diet or by induction of PA nephrosis. Peritoneal macrophages from nephrotic or dietary-hypercholesterolemic animals also exhibited a significant increment in the expression of TGF-beta 1 mRNA on Northern analysis, in contrast to similar cells obtained from normal control rats. PCR analysis of glomerular RNA also detected the expression of the TGF-beta 2 mRNA isoform. TGF-beta 2 mRNA expression was not observed in isolated glomerular macrophages from either glomeruli of PA-nephrotic rats or from glomeruli of animals with dietary hypercholesterolemia. Expression of the TGF-beta 3 mRNA isoform was only observed by PCR in J774 A.1 cells. Thus the as a cellular source for the enhanced expression of TGF-beta 1 during the acute nephrotic phase of our toxic, progressive glomerulopathy model and within several days of inducing only hypercholesterolemia by dietary means.

  5. Immunocytochemical localization of latent transforming growth factor-beta1 activation by stimulated macrophages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chong, H.; Vodovotz, Y.; Cox, G. W.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta) is secreted in a latent form consisting of mature TGF-beta noncovalently associated with its amino-terminal propeptide, which is called latency associated peptide (LAP). Biological activity depends upon the release of TGF-beta from the latent complex following extracellular activation, which appears to be the key regulatory mechanism controlling TGF-beta action. We have identified two events associated with latent TGF-beta (LTGF-beta) activation in vivo: increased immunoreactivity of certain antibodies that specifically detect TGF-beta concomitant with decreased immunoreactivity of antibodies to LAP. Macrophages stimulated in vitro with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide reportedly activate LTGF-beta via cell membrane-bound protease activity. We show through dual immunostaining of paraformaldehyde-fixed macrophages that such physiological TGF-beta activation is accompanied by a loss of LAP immunoreactivity with concomitant revelation of TGF-beta epitopes. The induction of TGF-beta immunoreactivity colocalized with immunoreactive betaglycan/RIII in activated macrophages, suggesting that LTGF-beta activation occurs on the cell surface. Confocal microscopy of metabolically active macrophages incubated with antibodies to TGF-beta and betaglycan/RIII prior to fixation supported the localization of activation to the cell surface. The ability to specifically detect and localize LTGF-beta activation provides an important tool for studies of its regulation.

  6. Transforming growth factor beta signaling in adult cardiovascular diseases and repair

    PubMed Central

    Doetschman, Thomas; Barnett, Joey V.; Runyan, Raymond B.; Camenisch, Todd D.; Heimark, Ronald L.; Granzier, Henk L.; Conway, Simon J.; Azhar, Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    The majority of children with congenital heart disease now live into adulthood due to the remarkable surgical and medical advances that have taken place over the past half century. Because of this, the adults now represent the largest age group with adult cardiovascular diseases. They include patients with heart diseases that were not detected or not treated during childhood, those whose defects were surgically corrected but now need revision due to maladaptive responses to the procedure, those with exercise problems, and those with age-related degenerative diseases. Because adult cardiovascular diseases in this population are relatively new, they are not well understood. It is therefore necessary to understand the molecular and physiological pathways involved if we are to improve treatments. Since there is a developmental basis to adult cardiovascular disease, transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling pathways that are essential for proper cardiovascular development may also play critical roles in the homeostatic, repair and stress response processes involved in adult cardiovascular diseases. Consequently, we have chosen to summarize the current information on a subset of TGFβ ligand and receptor genes and related effector genes that when dysregulated are known to lead to cardiovascular diseases and adult cardiovascular deficiencies and/or pathologies. A better understanding of the TGFβ signaling network in cardiovascular disease and repair will impact genetic and physiologic investigations of cardiovascular diseases in elderly patients and lead to an improvement in clinical interventions. PMID:21953136

  7. Dynamics and feedback loops in the transforming growth factor β signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Katja; Bachmann, Anastasia; Schad, Jan-Ulrich; Lucarelli, Philippe; Sahle, Sven; Nickel, Peter; Meyer, Christoph; Klingmüller, Ursula; Dooley, Steven; Kummer, Ursula

    2012-03-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) ligands activate a signaling cascade with multiple cell context dependent outcomes. Disruption or disturbance leads to variant clinical disorders. To develop strategies for disease intervention, delineation of the pathway in further detail is required. Current theoretical models of this pathway describe production and degradation of signal mediating proteins and signal transduction from the cell surface into the nucleus, whereas feedback loops have not exhaustively been included. In this study we present a mathematical model to determine the relevance of feedback regulators (Arkadia, Smad7, Smurf1, Smurf2, SnoN and Ski) on TGF-β target gene expression and the potential to initiate stable oscillations within a realistic parameter space. We employed massive sampling of the parameters space to pinpoint crucial players for potential oscillations as well as transcriptional product levels. We identified Smad7 and Smurf2 with the highest impact on the dynamics. Based on these findings, we conducted preliminary time course experiments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Metformin is a novel suppressor for transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Han; Zhang, Jianshu; Xu, Zhonghe; Feng, Yenan; Zhang, Mingliang; Liu, Jianli; Chen, Ruifei; Shen, Jing; Wu, Jimin; Lu, Zhizhen; Fang, Xiaohong; Li, Jingyuan; Zhang, Youyi

    2016-06-01

    Metformin is a widely used first-line antidiabetic drug that has been shown to protect against a variety of specific diseases in addition to diabetes, including cardiovascular disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome, and cancer. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the diverse therapeutic effects of metformin remain elusive. Here, we report that transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), which is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, is a novel target of metformin. Using a surface plasmon resonance-based assay, we identified the direct binding of metformin to TGF-β1 and found that metformin inhibits [125I]-TGF-β1 binding to its receptor. Furthermore, based on molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations, metformin was predicted to interact with TGF-β1 at its receptor-binding domain. Single-molecule force spectroscopy revealed that metformin reduces the binding probability but not the binding force of TGF-β1 to its type II receptor. Consequently, metformin suppresses type II TGF-β1 receptor dimerization upon exposure to TGF-β1, which is essential for downstream signal transduction. Thus, our results indicate that metformin is a novel TGF-β suppressor with therapeutic potential for numerous diseases in which TGF-β1 hyperfunction is indicated.

  9. Analysis of the transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene promoter polymorphisms in early osseointegrated implant failure.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Maria Cristina Leme Godoy; Campos, Maria Isabela Guimarães; Souza, Ana Paula; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel Mantuaneli; Mazzonetto, Renato; Line, Sergio Roberto Peres

    2004-09-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta 1 is a multifunctional cytokine involved in extracellular matrix deposition, reduction of inflammation, and promotion of wound healing. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter region of human transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene, C-509T and G-800A, have been shown to increase the transcriptional activity of this cytokine and have been associated with a variety of diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible association between these single nucleotide polymorphisms and the early implant failure. A sample of 68 nonsmoking patients was divided into two groups: a test group comprising 28 patients with one or more early failed implants and a control group consisting of 40 individuals with one or more healthy implants. Genomic DNA from oral mucosa was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The significance of the differences in observed frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms was assessed using the chi square test and Fisher's exact test. The cited single nucleotide polymorphisms in transforming growth factor-beta 1 were analyzed in combination as haplotype using the computer program ARLEQUIN. The authors did not observe significant differences in the allele and genotypes to both single nucleotide polymorphisms of transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene (C-509T and G-800A) between control and early implant failure groups. The distribution of the haplotypes arranged as allele and genotypes were similar between control and test groups. These results indicate that C-509T and G-800A polymorphisms in the transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene are not associated separately or in haplotype combinations with early implant failure, suggesting that the presence of those single nucleotide polymorphisms alone do not constitute a genetic risk factor for early implant failure in the Brazilian population.

  10. Age of collagen in intracranial saccular aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Etminan, Nima; Dreier, Rita; Buchholz, Bruce A; Beseoglu, Kerim; Bruckner, Peter; Matzenauer, Christian; Torner, James C; Brown, Robert D; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel; Macdonald, R Loch

    2014-06-01

    The chronological development and natural history of cerebral aneurysms (CAs) remain incompletely understood. We used (14)C birth dating of a main constituent of CAs, that is, collagen type I, as an indicator for biosynthesis and turnover of collagen in CAs in relation to human cerebral arteries to investigate this further. Forty-six ruptured and unruptured CA samples from 43 patients and 10 cadaveric human cerebral arteries were obtained. The age of collagen, extracted and purified from excised CAs, was estimated using (14)C birth dating and correlated with CA and patient characteristics, including the history of risk factors associated with atherosclerosis and potentially aneurysm growth and rupture. Nearly all CA samples contained collagen type I, which was <5 years old, irrespective of patient age, aneurysm size, morphology, or rupture status. However, CAs from patients with a history of risk factors (smoking or hypertension) contained significantly younger collagen than CAs from patients with no risk factors (mean, 1.6±1.2 versus 3.9±3.3 years, respectively; P=0.012). CAs and cerebral arteries did not share a dominant structural protein, such as collagen type I, which would allow comparison of their collagen turnover. The abundant amount of relatively young collagen type I in CAs suggests that there is an ongoing collagen remodeling in aneurysms, which is significantly more rapid in patients with risk factors. These findings challenge the concept that CAs are present for decades and that they undergo only sporadic episodes of structural change. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I and pro-collagen type III N-terminal peptide in adolescent elite athletes: implications for the detection of growth hormone abuse in sport.

    PubMed

    Guha, Nishan; Erotokritou-Mulligan, Ioulietta; Burford, Caroline; Strobridge, Gail; Brigg, Joanna; Drake, Tamsin; Bassett, E Eryl; Cowan, David; Bartlett, Christiaan; Sönksen, Peter H; Holt, Richard I G

    2010-06-01

    A method based on two GH-dependent markers, IGF-I and pro-collagen type III N-terminal peptide (P-III-P), has been devised to detect exogenously administered GH. Because previous studies on the detection of GH abuse involved predominantly adult athletes, the method must be validated in adolescent athletes. The aim of the study was to examine serum IGF-I and P-III-P concentrations in elite adolescent athletes and to determine whether the method developed in adults is appropriate to detect GH abuse in this population. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study at national sporting organization training events. A total of 157 (85 males, 72 females) elite athletes between 12 and 20 yr of age participated in the study. Serum IGF-I and P-III-P were each measured by two commercially available immunoassays. GH-2000 discriminant function scores were calculated. Both IGF-I and P-III-P rose to a peak during adolescence, which was earlier in girls than in boys. All GH-2000 scores lay below the proposed cutoff limit of 3.7 (although some scores were close to this value), indicating that none of these athletes would be accused of GH doping if the GH-2000 discriminant formulae were used. The results between the two immunoassays for IGF-I and P-III-P were closely aligned. The GH-2000 score rises in early adolescence, reaches a peak in athletes aged 13-16 yr, and then falls. We have found no evidence that the proposed GH-2000 score developed in adults would lead to an unacceptable rate of false-positive results in adolescent athletes, but caution may be required around the time of peak growth velocity.

  12. Thalidomide Accelerates the Degradation of Extracellular Matrix in Rat Hepatic Cirrhosis via Down-Regulation of Transforming Growth Factor-β1.

    PubMed

    Lv, Peng; Meng, Qingshun; Liu, Jie; Wang, Chuanfang

    2015-11-01

    The degradation of the extracellular matrix has been shown to play an important role in the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis. In this study, the effect of thalidomide on the degradation of extracellular matrix was evaluated in a rat model of hepatic cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) three times weekly for 8 weeks. Then CCl₄ was discontinued and thalidomide (100 mg/kg) or its vehicle was administered daily by gavage for 6 weeks. Serum hyaluronic acid, laminin, procollagen type III, and collagen type IV were examined by using a radioimmunoassay. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) protein in the liver, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) protein in cytoplasm by using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, and MMP-13, TIMP-1, and TGF-β1 mRNA levels in the liver were studied using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Liver histopathology was significantly better in rats given thalidomide than in the untreated model group. The levels of TIMP-1 and TGF-β1 mRNA and protein expressions were decreased significantly and MMP-13 mRNA and protein in the liver were significantly elevated in the thalidomide-treated group. Thalidomide may exert its effects on the regulation of MMP-13 and TIMP-1 via inhibition of the TGF-β1 signaling pathway, which enhances the degradation of extracellular matrix and accelerates the regression of hepatic cirrhosis in rats.

  13. Astragaloside IV suppresses transforming growth factor-β1 induced fibrosis of cultured mouse renal fibroblasts via inhibition of the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Che, Xiajing; Wang, Qin; Xie, Yuanyuan

    2015-09-04

    Renal fibrosis, a progressive process characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) leading to organ dysfunction, is a characteristic of chronic kidney diseases. Among fibrogenic factors known to regulate the renal fibrotic process, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a central role. In the present study, we examined the effect of Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), a component of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Astragalus membranaceus, on the processes associated with renal fibrosis in cultured mouse renal fibroblasts treated with TGF-β1. RT-PCR, western blotting, immunofluorescence staining and collagen assays showed that AS-IV suppressed TGF-β1 induced fibroblast proliferation, transdifferentiation, and ECM production inmore » a dose-dependent manner. Examination of the underlying mechanisms showed that the effect of AS-IV on the inhibition of fibroblast differentiation and ECM formation were mediated by its modulation of the activity of the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Taken together, our results indicate that AS-IV alleviates renal interstitial fibrosis via a mechanism involving the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of AS-IV for the treatment of chronic kidney diseases. - Highlights: • AS-IV suppressed TGF-β1 induced renal fibroblast proliferation. • AS-IV suppressed TGF-β1 induced renal fibroblast transdifferentiation. • AS-IV suppressed TGF-β1 induced ECM production. • AS-IV alleviates renal fibrosis via the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.« less

  14. Visualization of collagen regeneration in mouse dorsal skin using second harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, T.; Chen, J. X.; Zhuo, S. M.; Lu, K. C.; Jiang, X. S.; Liu, Q. G.

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to highlight a clearer understanding of the process of collagen regeneration during wound healing. By means of second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, the changes of collagen arrangement at the wound margin were analyzed at 0, 3, 5, 7, 11 and 13 days post injury. The degree of collagen disorders associated with the healing process was quantitatively obtained using the aspect ratio of polar plot image of collagen azimuthal angles and the healing status of collagen could be estimated by arithmetical mean deviation ( Ra) of the collagen SHG images. Our results suggest that SHG microscopy has potential advances in the collagen studies during wound healing and the arrangement of collagen fibers gradually transformed from disorder to order so as to contract the wound. It is capable of promoting clinical application of the noninvasive imaging tool and the analysis methods of collagen disorder as an effective scar management for prevention and treatment about aberrant healing.

  15. Transforming growth factor beta 1 expression in the endometrium of the mare during placentation.

    PubMed

    Lennard, S N; Stewart, F; Allen, W R

    1995-10-01

    In situ hybridization, Northern blotting, and immunohistochemical techniques were used to study the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta 1) in the endometrium of the mare during the first 150 days of pregnancy (term = 330-340 days). In situ hybridization using an oligonucleotide (45mer) probe, based on a homologous region within all known mammalian TGF beta 1 DNA sequences, demonstrated TGF beta 1 mRNA accumulation in the glandular and lumenal epithelial cells of the endometrium from day 33 onwards which corresponds to the time of implantation (day 33-45). Expression in the endometrium remained at a high level to the end of the sampling period (day 150). There was also marked expression of TGF beta 1 in the mononuclear cells accumulated around the periphery of the specialized trophoblast cells of the endometrial cup within the endometrium and in the mononuclear cells accumulated in the endometrial stroma of mares carrying failing donkey-in-horse pregnancies created by embryo transfer. The sense (control) oligonucleotide probe exhibited no hybridization to any tissue at any stage. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the oligonucleotide probe and a porcine TGF beta 1 cDNA clone hybridized to a single 2.5 kb transcript in horse endometrial and lymphocyte RNA, thus validating the oligonucleotide probe for detection of horse TGF beta 1 mRNA. Furthermore, both probes demonstrated an increased signal in the pregnant endometrium from day 33 onwards, thereby confirming the in situ hybridization results. Immunostaining with a specific anti-bovine TGF beta 1 serum also showed increasing TGF beta 1 accumulation in endometrial epithelia during pregnancy, and localization of the protein in endometrial stroma and in the trophoblast layer of the placenta after day 60 of pregnancy. These results show that TGF beta 1 expression increases in the maternal endometrium of the mare at the time of implantation and that it may play a role in regulating endometrial

  16. Increased renal collagen cross-linking and lipid accumulation in nephropathy of Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhao; Qi, Yanfei; Kim, Moon Sun; Xu, Kevin Zhe-Yang; Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Rong, Xianglu; Murray, Michael; Yamahara, Johji

    2008-09-01

    Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat is a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity. The mechanism underlying nephropathy in ZDF rats, however, remains unclear. ZDF rats were compared to age-matched Zucker lean (ZL) rats. Physiological and blood biochemical parameters, renal glomerular cross-sectional area (hematoxylin-eosin staining), fibrosis (van Giesen staining), collagen composition (Sircol Collagen Assay), lipids (enzymatic method) and mRNA expression (RT-PCR) were determined. ZDF rats showed an increase in renal-insoluble collagen content and the ratio of renal-insoluble to salt-soluble collagen (2- and 1.5-fold of the control animals). There were increases in renal glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis in ZDF rats (increased to 2-fold) in the glomerular mesangium and tubulointerstitium, and increased glomerular area. Renal triglyceride accumulated to greater than 2-fold of those levels in ZL rats. These changes were accompanied by hypoalbuminemia, and elevated plasma blood urea nitrogen and uric acid levels. Gene profiling showed increased expression of transcripts encoding the glomerulosclerotic mediator collagens I and IV, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, transforming growth factor-beta1, and angiotensin II type 1 receptor in ZDF rat kidney. Moreover, renal expression of mRNAs encoding sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, a nuclear transcription factor that activates genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a key enzyme that mediates fatty acid synthesis, was increased in ZDF rats. Our findings suggest that dysregulated gene expression may result in increased renal collagen cross-linking and lipid accumulation, that may be associated with development of nephropathy in the animal model of type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  17. Momordica charantia ointment accelerates diabetic wound healing and enhances transforming growth factor-β expression.

    PubMed

    Hussan, F; Teoh, S Lin; Muhamad, N; Mazlan, M; Latiff, A A

    2014-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays an important role in wound healing. Delayed wound healing is a consequence of diabetes, leading to high morbidity and poor quality of life. Momordica charantia (MC) fruit possesses anti-diabetic and wound healing properties. This study aimed to explore the changes in TGF-β expression in diabetic wounds treated with topical MC fruit extract. Fifty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a normal control group and five diabetic groups of ten rats each. Intravenous streptozotocin (50mg/kg) was given to induce diabetes in the diabetic groups. Full thickness excision wounds were created on the thoracodorsal region of the animals, and these wounds were then treated with vehicle, MC powder, MC ointment and povidone ointment or ointment base for ten days. Wound healing was determined by the rate of wound closure, total protein content and TGF-β expression in the wounds, and histological observation. Diabetic groups showed delayed wound closure rates compared to the control group. The wound closure rate in the MC ointment group was significantly faster than that of the untreated diabetic group (p<0.05). The MC ointment group also showed intense TGF-β expression and a high level of total protein content. MC ointment has a promising potential for use as an alternative topical medication for diabetic wounds. This work has shown that it accelerates wound healing in diabetic rats, and it is suggested here that this occurs by enhancing TGF-β expression. Further work is recommended to explore this effect.

  18. Transforming growth factor β activated kinase 1: a potential therapeutic target for rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Fechtner, Sabrina; Fox, David A; Ahmed, Salahuddin

    2017-07-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α are central regulators of autoinflammatory diseases. While targeting these cytokines has proven to be a successful clinical strategy, the long-term challenges such as drug resistance, lack of efficacy and poor clinical outcomes in some patients are some of the limitations faced by these therapies. This has ignited strategies to reduce inflammation by potentially targeting a variety of molecules, including cell surface receptors, signalling proteins and/or transcription factors to minimize cytokine-induced inflammation and tissue injury. In this regard, transforming growth factor β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is activated in the inflammatory signal transduction pathways in response to IL-1β, TNF-α or toll-like receptor stimulation. Because of its ideal position upstream of mitogen-activated protein kinases and the IκB kinase complex in signalling cascades, targeting TAK1 may be an attractive strategy for treating diseases characterized by chronic inflammation. Here, we discuss the emerging role of TAK1 in mediating the IL-1β, TNF-α and toll-like receptor mediated inflammatory responses in diseases such as RA, OA, gout and SS. We also review evidence suggesting that TAK1 inhibition may have potential therapeutic value. Finally, we focus on the current status of the development of TAK1 inhibitors and suggest further opportunities for testing TAK1 inhibitors in rheumatic diseases. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The role of transforming growth factor beta 1 in communicating and non-communicating hydrocele.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, S A; Larijani, L V; Mousavi, S J; Kenari, S A; Darvish, A

    2016-08-01

    Repair of inguinal hernia and hydrocele are one of the most common operations performed by surgeons. However, the exact biological mechanism responsible for the closure of processus vaginalis (PV) is not completely understood. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a potent fibrogenic agent and probably stimulate fibrosis and disappearing of PV. From September 2012 to December 2014, all boys from 1 to 5 years who were referred for surgery of hydrocele were divided into two groups of communicating (HC) or non-communicating hydrocele (HNC). During surgery, the fluid in the sac was aspirated and sent for biochemical evaluation including calcium, phosphorus, total protein, and TGF-β1. Finally, a biopsy of the sac was sent to the pathology. The results obtained were considered statistically significant (P < 0.05). The patients were categorized into two groups of non-communicating hydrocele, including 43 patients and communicating, including 33. The patients studied were aged 1-5 years (mean 33.6 months). Biochemical tests on hydrocele fluid showed no significant difference in the levels of calcium, phosphorus, total protein, and bilirubin between two groups. However, mean TGF-β1 in NHC was found to be 53.45-114.28 pg/ml in HC group. A statistically significant difference (P = 0.04) was obtained. Furthermore, the study showed higher amounts of muscles in NHC (P < 0.001). The amount of TGF-β1 was higher in HC fluid than in non-communicating. To investigate the role of cytokine in the closure of PV, further studies will be required.

  20. Latent transforming growth factor-β binding proteins (LTBP-1 and LTBP-2) and gingiva keratinization.

    PubMed

    Chiang, M-S; Yang, J-R; Liao, S-C; Hsu, C-C; Hsu, C-W; Yuan, K

    2015-09-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) proteins are involved in epithelial keratinization. The major function of latent TGF-β binding proteins (LTBPs) is modulating TGF-β activity. However, whether LTBP-1 and LTBP-2 play roles in gingiva keratinization remains unclear. Human keratinized gingiva and non-keratinized alveolar mucosa were processed for LTBP-1, LTBP-2, cytokeratin-1 (K1), cytokeratin-4 (K4), and TGF-β immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Porcine heterotopically transplanted connective tissues and newly grown epithelia were harvested for IHC staining. The expression levels of LTBP-1 and LTBP-2 were compared between differentiated and undifferentiated human normal oral keratinocytes (hNOK). The expression of LTBP-1 and LTBP-2 was knocked down in a cell line (OEC-M1) to evaluate the effects on the expression of K1, K4, and involucrin (INV). In human and porcine specimens, LTBP-2 expression patterns distinguished keratinized and non-keratinized oral epithelia. Western blotting results showed that K1, LTBP-1, and INV proteins were upregulated in differentiated hNOK. In OEC-M1 cells, LTBP-2 knockdown resulted in upregulated the expression of K1 and INV and downregulated the expression of K4. LTBP-1 knockdown resulted in opposite effects. The expression patterns of LTBP-2 differ in keratinized gingiva and non-keratinized mucosa. LTBP-1 and LTBP-2 are involved in the keratinization of oral epithelium; however, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Transforming growth factor-beta in the brain regulates fat metabolism during endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Toma; Mizunoya, Wataru; Shibakusa, Tetsuro; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2006-12-01

    We have previously reported that the concentration of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) increases in the cerebrospinal fluid of rats during exercise and that there is an increase in whole body fat oxidation following the intracisternal administration of TGF-beta. These results led us to postulate that TGF-beta in the brain regulates the enhancement of fatty acid oxidation during exercise. To test this hypothesis, we carried out respiratory gas analysis during treadmill running following the inhibition of TGF-beta activity in rat brain by intracisternal administration of anti-TGF-beta antibody or SB-431542, an inhibitor of the type 1 TGF-beta receptor. We found that each reagent partially blocked the increase in the fatty acid oxidation. We also compared the plasma concentrations of energy substrates in the group administered anti-TGF-beta antibody and the control group during running. We found that the plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and ketone bodies in the group administered anti-TGF-beta antibody were lower than in the control group at the end of running. In the same way, we carried out respiratory gas analysis during treadmill running after depressing corticotropin-releasing factor activity in the brain using intracisternal administration of astressin, an inhibitor of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor. However, there were no significant differences in respiratory exchange ratio or oxygen consumption in moderate running (60% maximum oxygen consumption). These results suggest that brain TGF-beta has a role in enhancing fatty acid oxidation during endurance exercise and that this regulation is executed at least partly via the type 1 TGF-beta receptor signal transduction system.

  2. Exogenous transforming growth factor-β1 enhances smooth muscle differentiation in embryonic mouse jejunal explants.

    PubMed

    Coletta, Riccardo; Roberts, Neil A; Randles, Michael J; Morabito, Antonino; Woolf, Adrian S

    2017-01-13

    An ex vivo experimental strategy that replicates in vivo intestinal development would in theory provide an accessible setting with which to study normal and dysmorphic gut biology. The current authors recently described a system in which mouse embryonic jejunal segments were explanted onto semipermeable platforms and fed with chemically defined serum-free media. Over 3 days in organ culture, explants formed villi and they began to undergo spontaneous peristalsis. As defined in the current study, the wall of the explanted gut failed to form a robust longitudinal smooth muscle (SM) layer as it would do in vivo over the same time period. Given the role of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) in SM differentiation in other organs, it was hypothesized that exogenous TGFβ1 would enhance SM differentiation in these explants. In vivo, TGFβ receptors I and II were both detected in embryonic longitudinal jejunal SM cells and, in organ culture, exogenous TGFβ1 induced robust differentiation of longitudinal SM. Microarray profiling showed that TGFβ1 increased SM specific transcripts in a dose dependent manner. TGFβ1 proteins were detected in amniotic fluid at a time when the intestine was physiologically herniated. By analogy with the requirement for exogenous TGFβ1 for SM differentiation in organ culture, the TGFβ1 protein that was demonstrated to be present in the amniotic fluid may enhance intestinal development when it is physiologically herniated in early gestation. Future studies of embryonic intestinal cultures should include TGFβ1 in the defined media to produce a more faithful model of in vivo muscle differentiation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Genetic polymorphisms in transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1) and childhood asthma and atopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiling; Romieu, Isabelle; Wu, Hao; Sienra-Monge, Juan-Jose; Ramírez-Aguilar, Matiana; del Río-Navarro, Blanca Estela; Lara-Sánchez, Irma del Carmen; Kistner, Emily O.; Gjessing, Håkon K.; London, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1) may influence asthma by modulating allergic airway inflammation and airway remodeling. The role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TGFB1 in asthma remains inconclusive. We examined TGFB1 SNPs in relation to asthma risk and degree of atopy among 546 case-parent triads, consisting of asthmatics aged 4 to 17 years and their parents in Mexico City. Atopy to 24 aeroallergens was determined by skin prick tests. We genotyped five TGFB1 SNPs, including two known functional SNPs [C-509T (rs1800469), T869C (rs1982073)] and three others (rs7258445, rs1800472, rs8179181), using TaqMan and Masscode assays. We analyzed the data using log-linear and polytomous logistic methods. Three associated SNPs, including the two known functional SNPs, were statistically significantly related to asthma risk. Individuals carrying the T allele of C-509T had an increased risk of asthma [relative risk (RR) = 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08–1.87 for one copy; RR (95%CI) = 1.95 (1.36–2.78) for two copies]. For T869C, the RRs (95%CI) were 1.47 (1.09–1.98) for one and 2.00 (1.38–2.90) for two copies of the C allele. Similar results were found for rs7258445. The haplotype containing all three risk alleles conferred an increased risk of asthma (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.11–1.95 for one copy; RR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.22–2.57 for two copies). These three SNPs were also related to the degree of atopy. This largest study to date of genetic variation in TGFB1 and asthma and atopy adds to increasing evidence for a role in these disorders. PMID:17333284

  4. Transforming growth factor-β inhibits cystogenesis in human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Elberg, Dorit; Jayaraman, Siddarth; Turman, Martin A; Elberg, Gerard

    2012-08-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited cause of kidney failure and characterized by the formation of multiple fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys. It is believed that environmental factors may play an important role in the disease progression. However, the molecular identity of autocrine/paracrine factors influencing cyst formation is largely unknown. In this study, we identified transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) secreted by normal human kidney (NHK) and ADPKD cells as an inhibitor of cystogenesis in 3D culture system using ADPKD cells from human kidneys. TGF-β2 was identified in conditioned media (CM) of NHK and ADPKD cells as a latent factor activated by heat in vitro. While all TGF-β isoforms recombinant proteins (TGF-β1, -β2, or -β3) displayed a similar inhibitory effect on cyst formation, TGF-β2 was the predominant isoform detected in CM. The involvement of TGF-β2 in the suppression of cyst formation was demonstrated by using a TGF-β2 specific blocking antibody and a TGF-β receptor I kinase inhibitor. TGF-β2 inhibited cyst formation by a mechanism other than activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase that mediated cell death in ADPKD cells. Further, we found that TGF-β2 modulated expression of various genes involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and extracellular matrix proteins that may play a role in the regulation of cystogenesis. Collectively, our results suggest that TGF-β2 secreted by renal epithelial cells may be an inhibitor of cystogenesis influencing the progression of ADPKD. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Orofacial clefts, parental cigarette smoking, and transforming growth factor-alpha gene variants

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, G.M.; Wasserman, C.R.; O`Malley, C.D.

    1996-03-01

    Results of studies determine whether women who smoke during early pregnancy are at increased risk of delivering infants with orofacial clefts have been mixed, and recently a gene-environment interaction between maternal smoking, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFa), and clefting has been reported. Using a large population-based case-control study, we investigated whether parental periconceptional cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk for having offspring with orofacial clefts. We also investigated the influence of genetic variation of the TGFa locus on the relation between smoking and clefting. Parental smoking information was obtained from telephone interviews with mothers of 731 (84.7% of eligible)more » orofacial cleft case infants and with mothers of 734 (78.2%) nonmalformed control infants. DNA was obtained from newborn screening blood spots and genotyped for the allelic variants of TGFa. We found that risks associated with maternal smoking were most elevated for isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate, (odds ratio 2.1 [95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6]) and for isolated cleft palate (odds ratio 2.2 [1.1-4.5]) when mothers smoked {ge} 20 cigarrettes/d. These risks for white infants ranged from 3-fold to 11-fold across phenotypic groups. Paternal smoking was not associated with clefting among the offspring of nonsmoking mothers, and passive smoke exposures were associated with at most slightly increased risks. This study offers evidence that the risk for orofacial clefting in infants may be influenced by maternal smoke exposures alone as well as in combination (gene-environment interaction) with the presence of the uncommon TGFa allele. 56 refs., 5 tabs.« less

  6. Exogenous transforming growth factor beta1 replacement and fertility in male Tgfb1 null mutant mice.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Leanne J; Ingman, Wendy V; Robker, Rebecca L; Robertson, Sarah A

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of Tgfb1 null mutant mice has demonstrated that the cytokine transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFB1) has essential non-redundant roles in fertility. The present study attempted to alleviate the infertility phenotype of Tgfb1 null mutant male mice by administration of exogenous TGFB1, either orally by colostrum feeding or subcutaneously by delivery of recombinant human latent TGFB1 (rhLTGFB1) via osmotic mini-pumps. Bovine colostrum and fresh unpasteurised bovine milk were found to be rich sources of TGFB1 and TGFB2; however, feeding Tgfb1 null mutant mice colostrum for 2 days failed to raise serum levels of TGFB1. Administration of rhLTGFB1 (approximately 150 microg in total) over 14 days to Tgfb1 null mutant mice resulted in detectable TGFB1 in serum; however, mean levels remained 10-fold less than in Tgfb1 heterozygous mice. After 7 days and 14 days of rhLTGFB1 administration, serum testosterone, spontaneous non-contact erections and mating behaviour were assessed. Despite the increased serum TGFB1, administration of rhLTGFB1 to Tgfb1 null mutant mice failed to improve these fertility parameters. It is concluded that sustained restoration of circulating latent TGFB1 to levels approaching the normal physiological range does not rescue the infertility phenotype caused by TGFB1 deficiency. Reproductive function in male Tgfb1 null mutant mice may not respond to systemic TGFB1 supplementation due to a requirement for local sources of TGFB1 at the site of action in the reproductive tract, or perturbed development during the neonatal period or puberty such that adult reproductive function is permanently impaired.

  7. Redox-mediated activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Dix, T. A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta) is a multifunctional cytokine that orchestrates response to injury via ubiquitous cell surface receptors. The biological activity of TGF beta is restrained by its secretion as a latent complex (LTGF beta) such that activation determines the extent of TGF beta activity during physiological and pathological events. TGF beta action has been implicated in a variety of reactive oxygen-mediated tissue processes, particularly inflammation, and in pathologies such as reperfusion injury, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis. It was recently shown to be rapidly activated after in vivo radiation exposure, which also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present studies, the potential for redox-mediated LTGF beta activation was investigated using a cell-free system in which ROS were generated in solution by ionizing radiation or metal ion-catalyzed ascorbate reaction. Irradiation (100 Gray) of recombinant human LTGF beta in solution induced 26% activation compared with that elicited by standard thermal activation. Metal-catalyzed ascorbate oxidation elicited extremely efficient recombinant LTGF beta activation that matched or exceeded thermal activation. The efficiency of ascorbate activation depended on ascorbate concentrations and the presence of transition metal ions. We postulate that oxidation of specific amino acids in the latency-conferring peptide leads to a conformation change in the latent complex that allows release of TGF beta. Oxidative activation offers a novel route for the involvement of TGF beta in tissue processes in which ROS are implicated and endows LTGF beta with the ability to act as a sensor of oxidative stress and, by releasing TGF beta, to function as a signal for orchestrating the response of multiple cell types. LTGF beta redox sensitivity is presumably directed toward recovery of homeostasis; however, oxidation may also be a mechanism of LTGF beta activation that can be deleterious during

  8. Association of transforming growth factor-β1 gene variants with risk of coal workers' pneumoconiosis☆

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Haiyang; Song, Zhifang; Wang, Meilin; Jia, Xiaomin; Li, Aiping; Yang, Ye; Shen, Lianlian; Wang, Shasha; Ni, Chunhui; Zhou, Jianwei

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this case-control study was to explore whether five tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) within the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) gene were involved in manifestation of inflammatory and fibrotic processes associated with coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). Methods The study included 508 CWP patients and 526 controls who were underground coal miners from Xuzhou Mining Business Group. Five tSNPs were selected from the HapMap and detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results The single SNP analysis showed that the genotype frequencies of SNP2 (rs1800470, +869T/C, extron 1) and SNP5 (rs11466345, intron 5) in CWP cases were significantly different from those in controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that SNP2 (rs1800470) CC genotype was associated with decreased risk of CWP (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.32-0.78), which was evident among subgroups of those never smoke (OR = 0.40, 95%CI = 0.24-0.66), cases with stage II (OR = 0.41, 95%CI = 0.22-0.76) and exposure period (< 28 y: OR = 0.54, 95%CI = 0.31-0.95; ≥28 y: OR = 0.52, 95%CI = 0.32-0.96). However, the SNP5 (rs11466345) GG genotype was associated with an increased risk of CWP (OR = 2.5, 95%CI = 1.36-4.57), and further stratification analysis showed that the risk of CWP was increased in both smoking and nonsmoking groups, shorter and longer exposure groups, while the risk of CWP was only increased in patients with stage I and II. Conclusion This study suggests that TGF-β1 polymorphisms may contribute to susceptibility of CWP. PMID:23554640

  9. Urinary Transforming Growth Factor β-1 as a Marker of Renal Dysfunction in Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Ghobrial, Emad E; Abdel-Aziz, Hanan A; Kaddah, Ahmed M; Mubarak, Nesma A

    2016-06-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder that results in deformity of red blood cells. Renal dysfunction affects 5-18% of patients with SCD. To date, few studies have described urinary levels of transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1), which is a marker of fibrosis, as a biomarker in identifying patients at risk of developing renal disease in SCD. The aim of this study is to determine prevalence of sickle cell nephropathy in Egyptian SCD patients. We aimed also to evaluate the association of urinary TGF-β1 with other conventional biomarkers of renal damage in SCD patients to identify a novel renal biomarker for early diagnosis of sickle nephropathy. We examined 40 SCD patients, 21 with sickle cell anemia, 16 sickle thalassemia, and three with sickle trait. We compared them to 20 control children with matched age and sex. The study was held in the time period between May 2013 and December 2013 in the Hematology Clinic, New Cairo University Children Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. Urinary excretion of TGF-β1 was 7.07 ± 1.91 ng/mL in SCD patients versus 2.23 ± 0.76 ng/mL in control children (p < 0.001). SCD patients had elevated estimated glomerular filtration rate (177.44 ± 35.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), denoting a state of glomerular hyperfiltration. 47.5% of SCD patients had microalbuminuria. Urinary TGF-β1 correlated positively with microalbuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.001 and p = 0.018, respectively). We concluded that urinary TGF-β1 may serve as a marker of early renal injury in SCD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Induction of endometrial epithelial cell invasion and c-fms expression by transforming growth factor beta.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Guang; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R; Binkley, Peter A; Nair, Hareesh B; Schenken, Robert S; Kirma, Nameer B

    2009-10-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) levels are increased in the peritoneal fluid of endometriosis patients, and endometrial cells express TGF-beta signaling components; however, little is known regarding the role of TGF-beta in endometriosis. Our objective was to examine the effects of TGF-beta1 on (i) the expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor encoded by the c-fms gene, (ii) transmesothelial invasiveness of endometrial cells, (iii) cellular proliferation and (iv) attachment to peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs). Effects of TGF-beta1 on c-fms mRNA expression were determined by real-time RT-PCR and c-fms cell-surface expression by flow cytometry. Effects of TGF-beta1 on the invasiveness of the immortalized endometrial epithelial cell (EEC) line EM42 and primary EECs were examined using a three-dimensional in vitro system modeling the peritoneum. Cellular proliferation and attachment to PMCs were also examined using established techniques. TGF-beta1 had little or no effect on cellular proliferation and endometrial cell attachment to PMCs. TGF-beta1 significantly induced the expression of c-fms mRNA and c-fms cell-surface expression. TGF-beta1 enhanced transmesothelial invasion by EM42 cells and EECs. Antagonists of TGF-beta1 signaling significantly inhibited both the induction of c-fms expression and cellular invasiveness, suggesting that additional studies are warranted to assess the therapeutic potential of TGF-beta antagonists in endometriosis.

  11. Mechanism of apoptotic cell death of human gastric carcinoma cells mediated by transforming growth factor beta.

    PubMed

    Ohta, S; Yanagihara, K; Nagata, K

    1997-06-15

    Human gastric carcinoma cell line HSC-39 has been shown to undergo apoptotic cell death in response to treatment with transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1). To understand better the cell death mechanism in this TGF-beta1-mediated apoptosis, we investigated the effect of the expression of TGF-beta-stimulated clone 22 (TSC-22) on cell death events. TGF-beta1 induced TSC-22 gene expression in HSC-39 cells only when the cells had previously been adapted to the serum-free culture conditions required to undergo TGF-beta1-mediated apoptosis. HSC-39 cells transfected with a TSC-22 expression vector showed a significant decrease in cell viability compared with those transfected with a control vector. The cellular events characteristic of apoptosis, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation were observed only in cells transfected with a TSC-22 expression vector. On immunostaining of the transfected cells, almost every cell that expressed TSC-22 tagged with influenza virus haemagglutinin exhibited the morphology of an apoptotic cell. Partial protection from the cell death effect of TGF-beta1 on HSC-39 cells was observed when cells were treated with acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamyl-L-valyl-L-aspart-1-al (Ac-DEVD-CHO, an inhibitor specific for CPP32-type protease). Protection against cell death by the transfection of a TSC-22 expression vector was also offered by Ac-DEVD-CHO addition. These results suggest that TSC-22 elicits the apoptotic cell death of human gastric carcinoma cells through the activation of CPP32-like protease and mediates the TGF-beta1 signalling pathway to apoptosis.

  12. Reduced Transforming Growth Factor-β Activity in the Endometrium of Women With Heavy Menstrual Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Maybin, Jacqueline A; Boswell, Lyndsey; Young, Vicky J; Duncan, William C; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-04-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is common and incapacitating. Aberrant menstrual endometrial repair may result in HMB. The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily contributes to tissue repair, but its role in HMB is unknown. We hypothesized that TGF-β1 is important for endometrial repair, and women with HMB have aberrant TGF-β1 activity at menses. Endometrial biopsies were collected from women, and menstrual blood loss objectively measured [HMB >80 mL/cycle; normal menstrual bleeding (NMB) <80 mL]. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction examined endometrial TGF-β1 ligand, receptors, and downstream SMADs in women with NMB and HMB. The function and regulation of TGF-β1 were examined using cell culture. TGFB1 mRNA was maximal immediately prior to menses, but no differences detected between women with NMB and HMB at any cycle stage. Histoscoring of TGFB1 revealed reduced staining in the stroma during menses in women with HMB (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in TGFBR1/2 or TGFBR1/2 immunostaining. Cortisol increased activation of TGFB1 in the supernatant of human endometrial stromal cells (HES; P < 0.05) via thrombospondin-1. Endometrial SMAD2 and SMAD3 were lower in women with HMB during menstruation (P < 0.05), and decreased phosphorylated SMAD2/3 immunostaining was seen in glandular epithelial cells during the late secretory phase (P < 0.05). Wound scratch assays revealed increased repair in HES cells treated with TGF-β1 versus control (P < 0.05). Women with HMB had decreased TGF-β1 and SMADs perimenstrually. Cortisol activated latent TGF-β1 to enhance endometrial stromal cell repair. Decreased TGF-β1 activity may hinder repair of the denuded menstrual endometrium, resulting in HMB. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  13. Reduced Transforming Growth Factor-β Activity in the Endometrium of Women With Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, Lyndsey; Young, Vicky J.; Duncan, William C.; Critchley, Hilary O. D.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is common and incapacitating. Aberrant menstrual endometrial repair may result in HMB. The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily contributes to tissue repair, but its role in HMB is unknown. Objective: We hypothesized that TGF-β1 is important for endometrial repair, and women with HMB have aberrant TGF-β1 activity at menses. Participants/Setting: Endometrial biopsies were collected from women, and menstrual blood loss objectively measured [HMB >80 mL/cycle; normal menstrual bleeding (NMB) <80 mL]. Design: Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction examined endometrial TGF-β1 ligand, receptors, and downstream SMADs in women with NMB and HMB. The function and regulation of TGF-β1 were examined using cell culture. Results: TGFB1 mRNA was maximal immediately prior to menses, but no differences detected between women with NMB and HMB at any cycle stage. Histoscoring of TGFB1 revealed reduced staining in the stroma during menses in women with HMB (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in TGFBR1/2 or TGFBR1/2 immunostaining. Cortisol increased activation of TGFB1 in the supernatant of human endometrial stromal cells (HES; P < 0.05) via thrombospondin-1. Endometrial SMAD2 and SMAD3 were lower in women with HMB during menstruation (P < 0.05), and decreased phosphorylated SMAD2/3 immunostaining was seen in glandular epithelial cells during the late secretory phase (P < 0.05). Wound scratch assays revealed increased repair in HES cells treated with TGF-β1 versus control (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Women with HMB had decreased TGF-β1 and SMADs perimenstrually. Cortisol activated latent TGF-β1 to enhance endometrial stromal cell repair. Decreased TGF-β1 activity may hinder repair of the denuded menstrual endometrium, resulting in HMB. PMID:28324043

  14. Transforming growth factor-β2 is sequestered in preterm human milk by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Namachivayam, Kopperuncholan; Coffing, Hayley P.; Sankaranarayanan, Nehru Viji; Jin, Yingzi; MohanKumar, Krishnan; Frost, Brandy L.; Blanco, Cynthia L.; Patel, Aloka L.; Meier, Paula P.; Garzon, Steven A.; Desai, Umesh R.

    2015-01-01

    Human milk contains biologically important amounts of transforming growth factor-β2 isoform (TGF-β2), which is presumed to protect against inflammatory gut mucosal injury in the neonate. In preclinical models, enterally administered TGF-β2 can protect against experimental necrotizing enterocolitis, an inflammatory bowel necrosis of premature infants. In this study, we investigated whether TGF-β bioactivity in human preterm milk could be enhanced for therapeutic purposes by adding recombinant TGF-β2 (rTGF-β2) to milk prior to feeding. Milk-borne TGF-β bioactivity was measured by established luciferase reporter assays. Molecular interactions of TGF-β2 were investigated by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis and immunoblots, computational molecular modeling, and affinity capillary electrophoresis. Addition of rTGF-β2 (20–40 nM) to human preterm milk samples failed to increase TGF-β bioactivity in milk. Milk-borne TGF-β2 was bound to chondroitin sulfate (CS) containing proteoglycan(s) such as biglycan, which are expressed in high concentrations in milk. Chondroitinase treatment of milk increased the bioactivity of both endogenous and rTGF-β2, and consequently, enhanced the ability of preterm milk to suppress LPS-induced NF-κB activation in macrophages. These findings provide a mechanism for the normally low bioavailability of milk-borne TGF-β2 and identify chondroitinase digestion of milk as a potential therapeutic strategy to enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of preterm milk. PMID:26045614

  15. The lens influences aqueous humor levels of transforming growth factor-beta 2.

    PubMed

    Allen, J B; Davidson, M G; Nasisse, M P; Fleisher, L N; McGahan, M C

    1998-04-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-beta 2) is a pluripotent cytokine which has been suggested to play a number of roles in ocular physiologic and pathologic states. Intraocular fluid (i.o.f.) levels of TGF-beta 2 are quite high. Although the sources of ocular TGF-beta are not completely defined, the retinal pigment epithelium, the epithelium of the ciliary body and trabecular meshwork cells all secrete it. In this study we utilized canine lens and rabbit ciliary pigmented epithelial cell cultures to quantitate the in vitro secretion of TGF-beta 2. In addition, the effects of aphakia or the presence of cataractous lenses on IOF TGF-beta 2 levels were determined. Lens and ciliary body epithelial cell culture supernatants and aqueous humors were assayed for total TGF-beta 2 levels by ELISA and bioassay. TGF-beta 2 accumulated in the media bathing lens epithelial cell cultures (0.7 +/- 0.03 ng/ml at day 2) and ciliary pigmented epithelial cell cultures (0.8 +/- 0.06 ng/ml at day 2) in a time-dependent manner. Surprisingly, aqueous humor from aphakic rabbit eyes contained significantly higher levels of TGF-beta 2 than their contralateral phakic controls. Furthermore, aqueous humor from canine eyes with cataracts also contained significantly higher levels of TGF-beta 2 than normal eyes. These results suggest that the lens secretes TGF-beta 2 and that the presence and status of the lens may influence IOF TGF-beta 2 levels.

  16. Aqueous transforming growth factor-beta-I levels in rabbit eyes after excimer laser photoablation.

    PubMed

    Bilgihan, K; Gürelik, G; Okur, H; Bilgihan, A; Hasanreisoglu, B; Imir, T

    1997-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) plays an important role in anterior segment wound healing, by controlling the cell proliferation and differentiation, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix composition and mediating the immunosuppressive properties of the aqueous humor. The present study was undertaken to clarify the possible changes of aqueous humor TGF-betaI levels after excimer laser photoablation. Twenty-eight New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups of 7 rabbits each. Group 1 served as control, the central 7 mm of corneal epithelium was removed in groups 2, 3 and 4. We performed 50-microm corneal photoablation in group 3, and 100-microm ablation in group 4. After 48 h we measured the TGF-betaI levels of the aqueous humor by ELISA method. The mean TGF-betaI value of the aqueous humor was found to be 162.94+/-13.73 pg/ml in the control group. Mechanical deepithelialization did not change the TGF-betaI levels of the aqueous humor (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between the 50-microm photoablated group and the controls (p > 0.05), but the TGF-betaI levels of the 100-microm photoablated group were found to be significantly higher than those of both the control group and 50-microm photoablated group (p < 0.05). Many factors and cytokines may induce corneal haze and myopic regression after excimer laser photoablation; our study demonstrated that TGF-betaI is one of these factors and there is a positive correlation between the depth of corneal photoablation and aqueous TGF-betaI concentrations.

  17. Is podoplanin expression associated with transforming growth factor-β signaling in odontogenic cysts and tumors?

    PubMed

    Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo; Alaeddini, Mojgan

    2018-03-26

    Induction of podoplanin by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been shown in a number of lesions but not in odontogenic tumors (OTs). We evaluated the association between these markers in OTs for the first time and compared their expression among the different neoplasms. Immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody against podoplanin and TGF-β was performed on 76 odontogenic cysts and tumors. Spearman's correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U tests followed by adjustment with Bonferroni were used for statistical analysis (P < .05). A significant difference in podoplanin expression was found among the lesions consisting of solid ameloblastomas, adenomatoid odontogenic tumors, ameloblastic fibromas, odontogenic myxomas (OMs), odontogenic keratocysts, and calcifying odontogenic cysts. Significant differences were observed only between OMs and each of the other neoplasms. Podoplanin immunostaining in the connective tissue was absent in most lesions. TGF-β was significantly different among the study sample but not between the lesions in paired comparisons. None of the studied OTs showed significant correlations between podoplanin-TGF-β, in either the epithelium or the stroma. These markers were also descriptively reported in calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors. The inductive effect of TGF-β on podoplanin seems to be limited, if any, in odontogenic lesions. Podoplanin appears to play a role in some aspects of OTs with epithelial or mixed origins. Despite the possible participation of podoplanin in tumorigenesis, it may not necessarily be involved in the aggressive behavior of OTs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Immunohistochemical detection of active transforming growth factor-beta in situ using engineered tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Ehrhart, E. J.; Kalia, M.; Jirtle, R.; Flanders, K.; Tsang, M. L.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The biological activity of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta) is governed by dissociation from its latent complex. Immunohistochemical discrimination of active and latent TGF-beta could provide insight into TGF-beta activation in physiological and pathological processes. However, evaluation of immunoreactivity specificity in situ has been hindered by the lack of tissue in which TGF-beta status is known. To provide in situ analysis of antibodies to differentiate between these functional forms, we used xenografts of human tumor cells modified by transfection to overexpress latent TGF-beta or constitutively active TGF-beta. This comparison revealed that, whereas most antibodies did not differentiate between TGF-beta activation status, the immunoreactivity of some antibodies was activation dependent. Two widely used peptide antibodies to the amino-terminus of TGF-beta, LC(1-30) and CC(1-30) showed marked preferential immunoreactivity with active TGF-beta versus latent TGF-beta in cryosections. However, in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, discrimination of active TGF-beta by CC(1-30) was lost and immunoreactivity was distinctly extracellular, as previously reported for this antibody. Similar processing-dependent extracellular localization was found with a neutralizing antibody raised to recombinant TGF-beta. Antigen retrieval recovered cell-associated immunoreactivity of both antibodies. Two antibodies to peptides 78-109 showed mild to moderate preferential immunoreactivity with active TGF-beta only in paraffin sections. LC(1-30) was the only antibody tested that discriminated active from latent TGF-beta in both frozen and paraffin-embedded tissue. Thus, in situ discrimination of active versus latent TGF-beta depends on both the antibody and tissue preparation. We propose that tissues engineered to express a specific form of a given protein provide a physiological setting in which to evaluate antibody reactivity with specific functional forms of a

  19. Serotonin Potentiates Transforming Growth Factor-beta3 Induced Biomechanical Remodeling in Avian Embryonic Atrioventricular Valves

    PubMed Central

    Buskohl, Philip R.; Sun, Michelle L.; Thompson, Robert P.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic heart valve primordia (cushions) maintain unidirectional blood flow during development despite an increasingly demanding mechanical environment. Recent studies demonstrate that atrioventricular (AV) cushions stiffen over gestation, but the molecular mechanisms of this process are unknown. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) and serotonin (5-HT) signaling modulate tissue biomechanics of postnatal valves, but less is known of their role in the biomechanical remodeling of embryonic valves. In this study, we demonstrate that exogenous TGFβ3 increases AV cushion biomechanical stiffness and residual stress, but paradoxically reduces matrix compaction. We then show that TGFβ3 induces contractile gene expression (RhoA, aSMA) and extracellular matrix expression (col1α2) in cushion mesenchyme, while simultaneously stimulating a two-fold increase in proliferation. Local compaction increased due to an elevated contractile phenotype, but global compaction appeared reduced due to proliferation and ECM synthesis. Blockade of TGFβ type I receptors via SB431542 inhibited the TGFβ3 effects. We next showed that exogenous 5-HT does not influence cushion stiffness by itself, but synergistically increases cushion stiffness with TGFβ3 co-treatment. 5-HT increased TGFβ3 gene expression and also potentiated TGFβ3 induced gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. Blockade of the 5HT2b receptor, but not 5-HT2a receptor or serotonin transporter (SERT), resulted in complete cessation of TGFβ3 induced mechanical strengthening. Finally, systemic 5-HT administration in ovo induced cushion remodeling related defects, including thinned/atretic AV valves, ventricular septal defects, and outflow rotation defects. Elevated 5-HT in ovo resulted in elevated remodeling gene expression and increased TGFβ signaling activity, supporting our ex-vivo findings. Collectively, these results highlight TGFβ/5-HT signaling as a potent mechanism for control of biomechanical remodeling of

  20. Transforming growth factor-β2 is sequestered in preterm human milk by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Namachivayam, Kopperuncholan; Coffing, Hayley P; Sankaranarayanan, Nehru Viji; Jin, Yingzi; MohanKumar, Krishnan; Frost, Brandy L; Blanco, Cynthia L; Patel, Aloka L; Meier, Paula P; Garzon, Steven A; Desai, Umesh R; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2015-08-01

    Human milk contains biologically important amounts of transforming growth factor-β2 isoform (TGF-β2), which is presumed to protect against inflammatory gut mucosal injury in the neonate. In preclinical models, enterally administered TGF-β2 can protect against experimental necrotizing enterocolitis, an inflammatory bowel necrosis of premature infants. In this study, we investigated whether TGF-β bioactivity in human preterm milk could be enhanced for therapeutic purposes by adding recombinant TGF-β2 (rTGF-β2) to milk prior to feeding. Milk-borne TGF-β bioactivity was measured by established luciferase reporter assays. Molecular interactions of TGF-β2 were investigated by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis and immunoblots, computational molecular modeling, and affinity capillary electrophoresis. Addition of rTGF-β2 (20-40 nM) to human preterm milk samples failed to increase TGF-β bioactivity in milk. Milk-borne TGF-β2 was bound to chondroitin sulfate (CS) containing proteoglycan(s) such as biglycan, which are expressed in high concentrations in milk. Chondroitinase treatment of milk increased the bioactivity of both endogenous and rTGF-β2, and consequently, enhanced the ability of preterm milk to suppress LPS-induced NF-κB activation in macrophages. These findings provide a mechanism for the normally low bioavailability of milk-borne TGF-β2 and identify chondroitinase digestion of milk as a potential therapeutic strategy to enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of preterm milk. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Collagen Structural Hierarchy and Susceptibility to Degradation by Ultraviolet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Collagen type I is the most abundant extracellular matrix protein in the human body, providing the basis for tissue structure and directing cellular functions. Collagen has complex structural hierarchy, organized at different length scales, including the characteristic triple helical feature. In the present study, the relationship between collagen structure (native vs. denatured) and sensitivity to UV radiation was assessed, with a focus on changes in primary structure, changes in conformation, microstructure and material properties. A brief review of free radical reactions involved in collagen degradation is also provided as a mechanistic basis for the changes observed in the study. Structural and functional changes in the collagens were related to the initial conformation (native vs. denatured) and the energy of irradiation. These changes were tracked using SDS-PAGE to assess molecular weight, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to study changes in the secondary structure, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize changes in mechanical properties. The results correlate differences in sensitivity to irradiation with initial collagen structural state: collagen in native conformation vs. heat-treated (denatured) collagen. Changes in collagen were found at all levels of the hierarchical structural organization. In general, the native collagen triple helix is most sensitive to UV-254nm radiation. The triple helix delays single chain degradation. The loss of the triple helix in collagen is accompanied by hydrogen abstraction through free radical mechanisms. The results received suggest that the effects of electromagnetic radiation on biologically relevant extracellular matrices (collagen in the present study) are important to assess in the context of the state of collagen structure. The results have implications in tissue remodeling, wound repair and disease progression. PMID:22199459

  2. Collagen Structural Hierarchy and Susceptibility to Degradation by Ultraviolet Radiation.

    PubMed

    Rabotyagova, Olena S; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L

    2008-12-01

    Collagen type I is the most abundant extracellular matrix protein in the human body, providing the basis for tissue structure and directing cellular functions. Collagen has complex structural hierarchy, organized at different length scales, including the characteristic triple helical feature. In the present study, the relationship between collagen structure (native vs. denatured) and sensitivity to UV radiation was assessed, with a focus on changes in primary structure, changes in conformation, microstructure and material properties. A brief review of free radical reactions involved in collagen degradation is also provided as a mechanistic basis for the changes observed in the study. Structural and functional changes in the collagens were related to the initial conformation (native vs. denatured) and the energy of irradiation. These changes were tracked using SDS-PAGE to assess molecular weight, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to study changes in the secondary structure, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize changes in mechanical properties. The results correlate differences in sensitivity to irradiation with initial collagen structural state: collagen in native conformation vs. heat-treated (denatured) collagen. Changes in collagen were found at all levels of the hierarchical structural organization. In general, the native collagen triple helix is most sensitive to UV-254nm radiation. The triple helix delays single chain degradation. The loss of the triple helix in collagen is accompanied by hydrogen abstraction through free radical mechanisms. The results received suggest that the effects of electromagnetic radiation on biologically relevant extracellular matrices (collagen in the present study) are important to assess in the context of the state of collagen structure. The results have implications in tissue remodeling, wound repair and disease progression.

  3. Factors influencing collagen biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, O; Thampan, Raghava Varman

    2008-07-01

    The importance of collagen, the major structural protein of animal kingdom, in maintaining the normal structure and function of the skin is well known. The same property is exploited widely in medical and industrial fields in finding agents, which could influence the synthesis of this protein. In this context in vitro production of collagen is of high significance. A literature survey has been made to analyze the various factors that influence collagen biosynthesis. There are various physical and biological factors that can either induce or inhibit collagen biosynthesis at various levels of gene expression. However reports concentrating on the effects of plants-derived compounds in stimulating collagen synthesis are scanty. Since extracts of many plants are known to be beneficial in the wound healing process, plants-derived compounds will have a definite role in the regulation of collagen synthesis. The present study emphasizes the need for unearthing the role of these plant derived factors on collagen synthesis which will be of immense application in the medical field. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. [Intergenus natural genetic transformation between Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis at different growth phase].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Mei-Ju; Chen, Xiang-Dong; Xie, Zhi-Xiong; Shen, Ping

    2007-12-01

    The culture fluids of Escheriachia coli with shuttle plasmid and Bacillus subtilis strains were mixed and coincubated for 40 minutes after culturing respectively in LB and minimal media. The steadily plasmid transfer by natural genetic transformation between these two gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria has been demonstrated by the methods of selective medium screening, DNase I sensitivity test and plasmid detection. In contrast to MM culture B. subtilis LB culture can be competent and has equivalent transformation frequency. Furthermore, the maximal transformation frequency was obtained when cells in exponential phase served as donors or recipients. It is suggested that B. subtilis solid transformation is different from liquid plasmid transformation including the whole process of DNA plasmid competence producing. Understanding the mechanisms of gene transfer between bacteria may aid in assessing the potential risk associated with the release of recombinant organisms into the environment.

  5. The discoidin domain receptor DDR2 is a receptor for type X collagen.

    PubMed

    Leitinger, Birgit; Kwan, Alvin P L

    2006-08-01

    During endochondral ossification, collagen X is deposited in the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate. Our previous results have shown that collagen X is capable of interacting directly with chondrocytes, primarily via integrin alpha2beta1. In this study, we determined whether collagen X could also interact with the non-integrin collagen receptors, discoidin domain receptors (DDRs), DDR1 or DDR2. The widely expressed DDRs are receptor tyrosine kinases that are activated by a number of different collagen types. Collagen X was found to be a much better ligand for DDR2 than for DDR1. Collagen X bound to the DDR2 extracellular domain with high affinity and stimulated DDR2 autophosphorylation, the first step in transmembrane signalling. Expression of DDR2 in the epiphyseal plate was confirmed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The spatial expression of DDR2 in the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate is consistent with a physiological interaction of DDR2 with collagen X. Surprisingly, the discoidin domain of DDR2, which fully contains the binding sites for the fibrillar collagens I and II, was not sufficient for collagen X binding. The nature of the DDR2 binding site(s) within collagen X was further analysed. In addition to a collagenous domain, collagen X contains a C-terminal NC1 domain. DDR2 was found to recognise the triple-helical region of collagen X as well as the NC1 domain. Binding to the collagenous region was dependent on the triple-helical conformation. DDR2 autophosphorylation was induced by the collagen X triple-helical region but not the NC1 domain, indicating that the triple-helical region of collagen X contains a specific DDR2 binding site that is capable of receptor activation. Our study is the first to describe a non-fibrillar collagen ligand for DDR2 and will form the basis for further studies into the biological function of collagen X during endochondral ossification.

  6. AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits transforming growth factor-β-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell growth: implications for a Smad-3-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Stone, Joshua D; Holt, Andrew W; Vuncannon, Jackson R; Brault, Jeffrey J; Tulis, David A

    2015-10-01

    Dysfunctional vascular growth is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Growth factor-induced activation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) results in a phenotypic switch from a quiescent, contractile state to a proliferative state foundational to vessel pathology. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a multifunctional signaling protein capable of growth stimulation via Smad signaling. Although Smad signaling is well characterized in many tissues, its role in VSM growth disorders remains controversial. Recent data from our lab and others implicate the metabolic regulator AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in VSM growth inhibition. We hypothesized that AMPK inhibits VSMC proliferation by reducing TGF-β-mediated growth in a Smad-dependent fashion. Treatment of rat VSMCs with the AMPK agonist AICAR significantly decreased TGF-β-mediated activation of synthetic Smad2 and Smad3 and increased inhibitory Smad7. Flow cytometry and automated cell counting revealed that AICAR reversed TGF-β-mediated cell cycle progression at 24 h and elevated cell numbers at 48 h. TGF-β/Smad signaling increased the G0/G1 inducers cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and cyclin E/CDK2; however, AICAR reversed these events while increasing cytostatic p21. The specific role of Smad3 in AMPK-mediated reversal of TGF-β-induced growth was then explored using adenovirus-mediated Smad3 overexpression (Ad-Smad3). Ad-Smad3 cells increased cell cycle progression and cell numbers compared with Ad-GFP control cells, and these were restored to basal levels with concomitant AICAR treatment. These findings support a novel AMPK target in TGF-β/Smad3 for VSMC growth control and support continued investigation of AMPK as a possible therapeutic target for reducing vascular growth disorders. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Collagen type II modification by hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Olszowski, Sławomir; Mak, Paweł; Olszowska, Ewa; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz

    2003-01-01

    Oxidation of proteins is a common phenomenon in the inflammatory process mediated by highly reactive agents such as hypochlorite (HOCl/OCl(-)) produced by activated neutrophils. For instance, in rheumatoid arthritis hypochlorite plays an important role in joint destruction. One of the major targets for HOCl/OCl(-) is collagen type II (CII) - the primary cartilage protein. In our study, HOCl/OCl(-) mediated collagen II modifications were tested using various methods: circular dichroism (CD), HPLC, ELISA, dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorimetry and spectrophotometry. It was shown that hypochlorite action causes deamination with consecutive carbonyl group formation and transformation of tyrosine residues to dichlorotyrosine. Moreover, it was shown that ammonium chloramine (NH(2)Cl) formed in the reaction mixture reacts with CII. However, in this case the yield of carbonyl groups and dichlorotyrosine is lower than that observed for HOCl/OCl(-) by 50%. CD data revealed that collagen II exists as a random coil in the samples and that chlorination is followed by CII fragmentation. In the range of low HOCl/OCl(-) concentrations (up to 1 mM) 10-90 kDa peptides are predominant whereas massive production of shorter peptides was observed for high (5 mM) hypochlorite concentration. DLS measurements showed that chlorination with HOCl/OCl(-) decreases the radius of collagen II aggregates from 30 to 6.8 nm. Taking into account the fact that chlorinated collagen is partially degraded, the DLS results suggest that smaller micelles are formed of the 10-90 kDa peptide fraction. Moreover, collagen chlorination results in epitope modification which affects CII recognition by anti-CII antibodies. Finally, since in the synovial fluid the plausible hypochlorite concentration is smaller than that used in the model the change of size of molecular aggregates seems to be the best marker of hypochlorite-mediated collagen oxidation.

  8. Comparison of transforming growth factor beta expression in healthy and diseased human tendon.

    PubMed

    Goodier, Henry C J; Carr, Andrew J; Snelling, Sarah J B; Roche, Lucy; Wheway, Kim; Watkins, Bridget; Dakin, Stephanie G

    2016-02-17

    Diseased tendons are characterised by fibrotic scar tissue, which adversely affects tendon structure and function and increases the likelihood of re-injury. The mechanisms and expression profiles of fibrosis in diseased tendon is understudied compared to pulmonary and renal tissues, where transforming growth factor (TGF)β and its associated superfamily are known to be key drivers of fibrosis and modulate extracellular matrix homeostasis. We hypothesised that differential expression of TGFβ superfamily members would exist between samples of human rotator cuff tendons with established disease compared to healthy control tendons. Healthy and diseased rotator cuff tendons were collected from patients presenting to an orthopaedic referral centre. Diseased tendinopathic (intact) and healthy rotator cuff tendons were collected via ultrasound-guided biopsy and torn tendons were collected during routine surgical debridement. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to investigate the protein and gene expression profiles of TGFβ superfamily members in these healthy and diseased tendons. TGFβ superfamily members were dysregulated in diseased compared to healthy tendons. Specifically, TGFβ-1, TGFβ receptor (R)1 and TGFβ R2 proteins were reduced (p < 0.01) in diseased compared to healthy tendons. At the mRNA level, TGFβ R1 was significantly reduced in samples of diseased tendons, whereas TGFβ R2 was increased (p < 0.01). BMP-2, BMP-7 and CTGF mRNA remained unchanged with tendon disease. We propose that downregulation of TGFβ pathways in established tendon disease may be a protective response to limit disease-associated fibrosis. The disruption of the TGFβ axis with disease suggests associated downstream pathways may be important for maintaining healthy tendon homeostasis. The findings from our study suggest that patients with established tendon disease would be unlikely to benefit from therapeutic TGFβ blockade, which has

  9. Uncoupling of ER-mitochondrial calcium communication by transforming growth factor-β

    PubMed Central

    Pacher, Pál; Sharma, Kumar; Csordás, György; Zhu, Yanqing; Hajnóczky, György

    2008-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been implicated as a key factor in mediating many cellular processes germane to disease pathogenesis, including diabetic vascular complications. TGF-β alters cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]c) signals, which in some cases may result from the downregulation of the IP3 receptor Ca2+ channels (IP3R). Ca2+ released by IP3Rs is effectively transferred from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the mitochondria to stimulate ATP production and to allow feedback control of the Ca2+ mobilization. To assess the effect of TGF-β on the ER-mitochondrial Ca2+ transfer, we first studied the [Ca2+]c and mitochondrial matrix Ca2+ ([Ca2+]m) signals in single preglomerular afferent arteriolar smooth muscle cells (PGASMC). TGF-β pretreatment (24 h) decreased both the [Ca2+]c and [Ca2+]m responses evoked by angiotensin II or endothelin. Strikingly, the [Ca2+]m signal was more depressed than the [Ca2+]c signal and was delayed. In permeabilized cells, TGF-β pretreatment attenuated the rate but not the magnitude of the IP3-induced [Ca2+]c rise, yet caused massive depression of the [Ca2+]m responses. ER Ca2+ storage and mitochondrial uptake of added Ca2+ were not affected by TGF-β. Also, TGF-β had no effect on mitochondrial distribution and on the ER-mitochondrial contacts assessed by two-photon NAD(P)H imaging and electron microscopy. Downregulation of both IP3R1 and IP3R3 was found in TGF-β-treated PGASMC. Thus, TGF-β causes uncoupling of mitochondria from the ER Ca2+ release. The sole source of this would be suppression of the IP3R-mediated Ca2+ efflux, indicating that the ER-mitochondrial Ca2+ transfer depends on the maximal rate of Ca2+ release. The impaired ER-mitochondrial coupling may contribute to the vascular pathophysiology associated with TGF-β production. PMID:18653477

  10. Transforming Growth Factor β Activation Primes Canonical Wnt Signaling Through Down-Regulation of Axin-2.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Justin; Ross, Rebecca L; Corinaldesi, Clarissa; Esteves, Filomena; Derrett-Smith, Emma; McDermott, Michael F; Doody, Gina M; Denton, Christopher P; Emery, Paul; Del Galdo, Francesco

    2018-02-06

    Aberrant activation of Wnt signaling has been observed in tissues from patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). This study aimed to determine the role of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) in driving the increased Wnt signaling, through modulation of axis inhibition protein 2 (Axin-2), a critical regulator of the Wnt canonical pathway. Canonical Wnt signaling activation was analyzed by TOPflash T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor promoter assays. Axin-2 was evaluated in vitro by analysis of Axin-2 primary/mature transcript expression and decay, TGFβ receptor type I (TGFβRI) blockade, small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of tristetraprolin 1, and XAV-939-mediated Axin-2 stabilization. In vivo, Axin-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression was determined in skin and lung biopsy samples from mice that express a kinase-deficient TGFβRII specifically on fibroblasts (TβRIIΔk-fib-transgenic mice) and from littermate controls. SSc fibroblasts displayed an increased response to canonical Wnt ligands despite basal levels of Wnt signaling that were comparable to those in healthy control fibroblasts in vitro. Notably, we showed that SSc fibroblasts had reduced basal expression of Axin-2, which was caused by an endogenous TGFβ-dependent increase in Axin-2 mRNA decay. Accordingly, we observed that TGFβ decreased Axin-2 expression both in vitro in healthy control fibroblasts and in vivo in TβRIIΔk-fib-transgenic mice. Additionally, using Axin-2 gain- and loss-of-function experiments, we demonstrated that the TGFβ-induced increased response to Wnt activation characteristic of SSc fibroblasts depended on reduced bioavailability of Axin-2. This study highlights the importance of reduced bioavailability of Axin-2 in mediating the increased canonical Wnt response observed in SSc fibroblasts. This novel mechanism extends our understanding of the processes involved in Wnt/β-catenin-driven pathology and supports the rationale for targeting the TGFβ pathway

  11. Transforming growth factor β inducible apoptotic cascade in epithelial cells during rat molar tooth eruptions.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Mitsuko; Yamada, Marie; Miake, Yasuo; Yanagisawa, Takaaki

    2010-06-01

    In tooth eruptions, the presence of apoptotic epithelial cells at the eruption site has been reported, but the factors that induce apoptosis in these cells remain to be elucidated, as do the induction pathways. In this study, we focused our attention on transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), which is known to induce apoptosis during embryonic development. Oral epithelium and dental lamina of maxillary first molars in 8- and 15-day-old rats were used to investigate the induction pathway of apoptosis by performing the immunohistochemical tests outlined below and assessing the characteristics of cells that undergo apoptosis by transmission electron microscopy in rats 8 and 15 days after birth. We examined TGF-beta-receptor 1, TGF-beta inducible transcription factor 1 (TIEG1), NADPHoxidase 4 (Nox4), cytochrome c, caspase-3 (active form and pro-enzyme), apoptosis-inducing protein Daxx, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta phosphorylated on serine 9 (p-GSK-3beta), and beta-catenin. We also performed periodic acid Schiff (PAS) reaction and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTD nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. At eruption sites 8 days after birth, reactions to TGF-beta-receptor 1, TIEG1, Nox4, cytochrome c, caspase-3, p-GSK-3beta, and beta-catenin, and PAS-positive cells were observed in areas close to the basal layer of oral epithelium through to the center of the dental lamina, but no reaction to Daxx or ASK1 was noted at these sites. Electron microscopy revealed the accumulation of glycogen granules in the cells that showed reactions to the above-mentioned markers as well as in the spaces among them. In the rats 15 days after birth (immediately before tooth eruption), the PAS-positive cells that showed reactions to the above antibodies remained on the buccal side of the epithelium, and high-electron-density apoptotic bodies and TUNEL-positive bodies were noted. Therefore, during tooth eruption, TGF-beta may

  12. Seminal plasma transforming growth factor-β, activin A and follistatin fluctuate within men over time.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, David J; Tremellen, Kelton P; Briggs, Nancy E; Dekker, Gustaaf A; Robertson, Sarah A

    2016-10-01

    Do seminal plasma transforming growth factor-β (TGFB) cytokines vary within individuals over time, and does this relate to sperm parameters, age or prior abstinence? Activin A and follistatin, and to a lesser extent TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3, vary within individuals over time, in association with duration of abstinence. Seminal plasma TGFB cytokines can influence sperm function and reproductive success through interactions with the female reproductive tract after coitus. Over time, individual sperm parameters fluctuate considerably. Whether seminal fluid TGFB cytokines vary similarly, and the determinants of any variance, is unknown. Between two and seven semen samples were collected from each of 14 fertile donors at 6-10 week intervals over the course of 12 months, then seminal plasma cytokines and sperm parameters were measured. The concentrations and total amounts per ejaculate of TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, activin A and follistatin were determined using commercial assays. Sperm parameters were assessed according to WHO IV standards. Mixed model analysis was utilised to determine the relative contribution of between- and within-individual factors to the variance. Relationships between cytokines and sperm parameters, as well as effect of age and duration of abstinence, were investigated by correlation analysis. Within-individual variability contributed to the total variance for all cytokines and sperm parameters, and was a stronger determinant than between-individual variability for activin A and follistatin as well as for total sperm concentration and sperm motility. Positive correlations between each of the three TGFB isoforms, and activin and follistatin, suggest co-regulation of synthesis. Duration of abstinence influenced total content of TGFB1, TGFB2, activin A and follistatin. TGFB1 correlated inversely with age. A limited number of donors from a single clinic were investigated. Clinical information on BMI, nutrition, smoking and other lifestyle factors was

  13. Structural changes in the cells of some bacteria during population growth: a Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance study.

    PubMed

    Ede, Sarah M; Hafner, Louise M; Fredericks, Peter M

    2004-03-01

    Structural changes occurring in the cells of several bacteria during their growth curves have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy using the sampling technique of attenuated total reflectance (ATR). Spectra reflect all of the components of the cells, including the cell walls, cell membranes, internal structures, and the cytoplasm. The bacteria studied were Bacillus stearothermophilus, Halobacterium salinarum, Halococcus morrhuae, and Acetobacter aceti. All species showed significant spectral changes during their growth curves, indicating structural changes in the cells during increases in cell numbers. The major change for B. stearothermophilus was in the lipid content, which was at a maximum during the exponential phase of the growth curve. For the halophiles H. salinarum and H. morrhuae, the major change was that the concentration of sulfate ion in the cells varied during the growth curve and was at a maximum during the mid-part of the exponential phase of the growth curve. A. aceti cells showed increasing polysaccharide content during the growth curve as well as maximum lipid content during the exponential phase of growth.

  14. In Situ Evaluation of Calcium Phosphate Nucleation Kinetics and Pathways during Intra- and Extrafibrillar Mineralization of Collagen Matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Doyoon; Lee, Byeongdu; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2016-08-04

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) nanocrystals nucleate and grow in intrafibrillar and/or extrafibrillar spaces of collagen fibrils during the mineralization of bones and teeth. Little is known about the early stages of CaP nucleation and distribution in fibrillar matrices, despite their significant influence on the physical and chemical structures of tissue-level constructs. Using in situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we examined the nucleation and growth of CaP within collagen matrices and elucidated how a nucleation inhibitor, polyaspartic acid (pAsp), governs mineralization kinetics and pathways at multiple length scales. In situ SAXS analysis clearly revealed that nucleation sites, kinetically-controlled by the nucleationmore » inhibitor, determined the pathways of CaP morphological transformation. Mineralization with pAsp led to intrafibrillar CaP plates with a spatial distribution gradient through the depth of the matrix. Mineralization without pAsp led initially to spherical aggregates of CaP in the entire extrafibrillar spaces. With time, the spherical aggregates transformed into plates at the outermost surface of the collagen matrix, preventing intrafibrillar mineralization inside. The results illuminate mineral nucleation kinetics and real-time nanoparticle distributions within organic matrices in solutions containing body fluid components. Because the macroscale mechanical properties of collagen matrices depend on their mineral content, phase, and arrangement at the nanoscale, this study contributes to better design and fabrication of biomaterials for regenerative medicine.« less

  15. Low-Level Light Therapy with 410 nm Light Emitting Diode Suppresses Collagen Synthesis in Human Keloid Fibroblasts: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Soo; Jung, Soo-Eun; Kim, Sue Kyung; Kim, You-Sun; Sohn, Seonghyang; Kim, You Chan

    2017-04-01

    Keloids are characterized by excessive collagen deposition in the dermis, in which transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling plays an important role. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) is reported as effective in preventing keloids in clinical reports, recently. To date, studies investigating the effect of LLLT on keloid fibroblasts are extremely rare. We investigated the effect of LLLT with blue (410 nm), red (630 nm), and infrared (830 nm) light on the collagen synthesis in keloid fibroblasts. Keloid fibroblasts were isolated from keloid-revision surgery samples and irradiated using 410-, 630-, 830-nm light emitting diode twice, with a 24-hour interval at 10 J/cm 2 . After irradiation, cells were incubated for 24 and 48 hours and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed. Western blot analysis was also performed in 48 hours after last irradiation. The genes and proteins of collagen type I, TGF-β1, Smad3, and Smad7 were analyzed. We observed no statistically significant change in the viability of keloid fibroblasts after irradiation. Collagen type I was the only gene whose expression significantly decreased after irradiation at 410 nm when compared to the non-irradiated control. Western blot analysis showed that LLLT at 410 nm lowered the protein levels of collagen type I compared to the control. LLLT at 410 nm decreased the expression of collagen type I in keloid fibroblasts and might be effective in preventing keloid formation in their initial stage.

  16. MicroRNA-26a modulates transforming growth factor beta-1-induced proliferation in human fetal lung fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaoou; Department of Respiratory Medicine, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan; Liu, Lian

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • Endogenous miR-26a inhibits TGF-beta 1 induced proliferation of lung fibroblasts. • miR-26a induces G1 arrest through directly targeting 3′-UTR of CCND2. • TGF indispensable receptor, TGF-beta R I, is regulated by miR-26a. • miR-26a acts through inhibiting TGF-beta 2 feedback loop to reduce TGF-beta 1. • Collagen type I and connective tissue growth factor are suppressed by miR-26a. - Abstract: MicroRNA-26a is a newly discovered microRNA that has a strong anti-tumorigenic capacity and is capable of suppressing cell proliferation and activating tumor-specific apoptosis. However, whether miR-26a can inhibit the over-growth of lung fibroblasts remains unclear. The relationship betweenmore » miR-26a and lung fibrosis was explored in the current study. We first investigated the effect of miR-26a on the proliferative activity of human lung fibroblasts with or without TGF-beta1 treatment. We found that the inhibition of endogenous miR-26a promoted proliferation and restoration of mature miR-26a inhibited the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts. We also examined that miR-26a can block the G1/S phase transition via directly targeting 3′-UTR of CCND2, degrading mRNA and decreasing protein expression of Cyclin D2. Furthermore, we showed that miR-26a mediated a TGF-beta 2-TGF-beta 1 feedback loop and inhibited TGF-beta R I activation. In addition, the overexpression of miR-26a also significantly suppressed the TGF-beta 1-interacting-CTGF–collagen fibrotic pathway. In summary, our studies indicated an essential role of miR-26a in the anti-fibrotic mechanism in TGF-beta1-induced proliferation in human lung fibroblasts, by directly targeting Cyclin D2, regulating TGF-beta R I as well as TGF-beta 2, and suggested the therapeutic potential of miR-26a in ameliorating lung fibrosis.« less

  17. Antibody-mediated blockade of integrin alpha v beta 6 inhibits tumor progression in vivo by a transforming growth factor-beta-regulated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Van Aarsen, Louise A Koopman; Leone, Diane R; Ho, Steffan; Dolinski, Brian M; McCoon, Patricia E; LePage, Doreen J; Kelly, Rebecca; Heaney, Glenna; Rayhorn, Paul; Reid, Carl; Simon, Kenneth J; Horan, Gerald S; Tao, Nianjun; Gardner, Humphrey A; Skelly, Marilyn M; Gown, Allen M; Thomas, Gareth J; Weinreb, Paul H; Fawell, Stephen E; Violette, Shelia M

    2008-01-15

    The alpha(v)beta(6) integrin is up-regulated on epithelial malignancies and has been implicated in various aspects of cancer progression. Immunohistochemical analysis of alpha(v)beta(6) expression in 10 human tumor types showed increased expression relative to normal tissues. Squamous carcinomas of the cervix, skin, esophagus, and head and neck exhibited the highest frequency of expression, with positive immunostaining in 92% (n = 46), 84% (n = 49), 68% (n = 56), and 64% (n = 100) of cases, respectively. We studied the role of alpha(v)beta(6) in Detroit 562 human pharyngeal carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Prominent alpha(v)beta(6) expression was detected on tumor xenografts at the tumor-stroma interface resembling the expression on human head and neck carcinomas. Nonetheless, coculturing cells in vitro with matrix proteins did not up-regulate alpha(v)beta(6) expression. Detroit 562 cells showed alpha(v)beta(6)-dependent adhesion and activation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) that was inhibited >90% with an alpha(v)beta(6) blocking antibody, 6.3G9. Although both recombinant soluble TGF-beta receptor type-II (rsTGF-beta RII-Fc) and 6.3G9 inhibited TGF-beta-mediated Smad2/3 phosphorylation in vitro, there was no effect on proliferation. Conversely, in vivo, 6.3G9 and rsTGF-beta RII-Fc inhibited xenograft tumor growth by 50% (n = 10, P < 0.05) and >90% (n = 10, P < 0.001), respectively, suggesting a role for the microenvironment in this response. However, stromal collagen and smooth muscle actin content in xenograft sections were unchanged with treatments. Although further studies are required to consolidate in vitro and in vivo results and define the mechanisms of tumor inhibition by alpha(v)beta(6) antibodies, our findings support a role for alpha(v)beta(6) in human cancer and underscore the therapeutic potential of function blocking alpha(v)beta(6) antibodies.

  18. Inhibition of transforming growth factor α (TGF-α)-mediated growth effects in ovarian cancer cell lines by a tyrosine kinase inhibitor ZM 252868

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, B J B; Bartlett, J M S; Macleod, K G; Rabiasz, G; Miller, E P; Rae, A L; Gordge, P; Leake, R E; Miller, W R; Smyth, J; Langdon, S P

    1999-01-01

    The modulating effects of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor ZM 252868 on cell growth and signalling have been evaluated in four ovarian carcinoma cell lines PE01, PE04, SKOV-3 and PE01CDDP. Transforming growth factor α (TGF-α)-stimulated growth was completely inhibited by concentrations ≥ 0.3 μM in the PE01 and PE04 cell lines and by ≥ 0.1 μM in SKOV-3 cells. TGF-α inhibition of PE01CDDP growth was reversed by concentrations ≥ 0.1 μM ZM 252868. TGF-α-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of both the EGF receptor and c-erbB2 receptor in all four cell lines. The inhibitor ZM 252868, at concentrations ≥ 0.3 μM, completely inhibited TGF-α-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGF receptor and reduced phosphorylation of the c-erbB2 protein. EGF-activated EGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity was completely inhibited by 3 μM ZM 252868 in PE01, SKOV-3 and PE01CDDP cells. These data indicate that the EGF receptor-targeted TK inhibitor ZM 252868 can inhibit growth of ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro consistent with inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation at the EGF receptor. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10098742

  19. Cloning the promoter for transforming growth factor-beta type III receptor. Basal and conditional expression in fetal rat osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ji, C.; Chen, Y.; McCarthy, T. L.; Centrella, M.

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta binds to three high affinity cell surface molecules that directly or indirectly regulate its biological effects. The type III receptor (TRIII) is a proteoglycan that lacks significant intracellular signaling or enzymatic motifs but may facilitate transforming growth factor-beta binding to other receptors, stabilize multimeric receptor complexes, or segregate growth factor from activating receptors. Because various agents or events that regulate osteoblast function rapidly modulate TRIII expression, we cloned the 5' region of the rat TRIII gene to assess possible control elements. DNA fragments from this region directed high reporter gene expression in osteoblasts. Sequencing showed no consensus TATA or CCAAT boxes, whereas several nuclear factors binding sequences within the 3' region of the promoter co-mapped with multiple transcription initiation sites, DNase I footprints, gel mobility shift analysis, or loss of activity by deletion or mutation. An upstream enhancer was evident 5' proximal to nucleotide -979, and a silencer region occurred between nucleotides -2014 and -2194. Glucocorticoid sensitivity mapped between nucleotides -687 and -253, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 2 sensitivity co-mapped within the silencer region. Thus, the TRIII promoter contains cooperative basal elements and dispersed growth factor- and hormone-sensitive regulatory regions that can control TRIII expression by osteoblasts.

  20. Type I collagen influences cartilage calcification: an immunoblocking study in differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Boskey, A L; Stiner, D; Binderman, I; Doty, S B

    2000-07-19

    Chick limb-bud mesenchymal cells, plated in high-density micro-mass culture, differentiate and form a matrix resembling chick epiphyseal cartilage. In the presence of 4 mM inorganic phosphate or 2.5 mM beta-glycerophosphate mineral deposits upon this matrix forming a mineralized tissue that, based on electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared microspectoscopy, is like that of chick calcified cartilage. In this culture system the initial mineral deposits are found on the periphery of the chondrocyte nodules. During differentiation of the cells in the high-density micro-mass cultures there is a switch from expression of type I collagen to type II, and then to type X collagen. However, type I collagen persists in the matrix. Because there is some debate about whether type I collagen influences cartilage calcification, an immunoblocking technique was used to determine the importance of type I collagen on the mineralization process in this system. Studies using nonspecific goat anti-chick IgG demonstrated that 1-100 ng/ml antibody added with the media after the cartilage nodules had developed (day 7) had no effect on the accumulation of mineral in the cultures. Nonspecific antibody added before day 7 blocked development of the cultures. Parallel solution based cell-free studies showed that IgG did not have a strong affinity for apatite crystals, and had no significant effect on apatite crystal growth. Type I collagen antibodies (1-200 ng/ml) added to cultures one time on day 9 (before mineralization started), or on day 11 (at the start of mineralization), slightly inhibited the accumulation of mineral. There was a statistically significant decrease in mineral accretion with 100 or 200 ng/ml collagen antibody addition continuously after these times. Fab' fragments of nonspecific and type I collagen antibodies had effects parallel to those of the intact antibodies, indicating that the decreased mineralization was not attributable to the presence

  1. TGF-β-independent CTGF induction regulates cell adhesion mediated drug resistance by increasing collagen I in HCC.

    PubMed

    Song, Yeonhwa; Kim, Jin-Sun; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Joon; Kim, Kang Mo; Seo, Haeng Ran

    2017-03-28

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is resistant to conventional chemotherapeutic agents and remains an unmet medical need. Here, we demonstrate a mechanism of cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance using a variety of HCC spheroid models to overcome environment-mediated drug resistance in HCC. We classified spheroids into two groups, tightly compacted and loosely compacted aggregates, based on investigation of dynamics of spheroid formation. Our results show that compactness of HCC spheroids correlated with fibroblast-like characteristics, collagen 1A1 (COL1A1) content, and capacity for chemoresistance. We also showed that ablation of COL1A1 attenuated not only the capacity for compact-spheroid formation, but also chemoresistance. Generally, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) acts downstream of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and promotes collagen I fiber deposition in the tumor microenvironment. Importantly, we found that TGF-β-independent CTGF is upregulated and regulates cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance by inducing COL1A1 in tightly compacted HCC spheroids. Furthermore, losartan, which inhibits collagen I synthesis, impaired the compactness of spheroids via disruption of cell-cell contacts and increased the efficacy of anticancer therapeutics in HCC cell line- and HCC patient-derived tumor spheroids. These results strongly suggest functional roles for CTGF-induced collagen I expression in formation of compact spheroids and in evading anticancer therapies in HCC, and suggest that losartan, administered in combination with conventional chemotherapy, might be an effective treatment for liver cancer.

  2. Transformation rules and degradation of CAHs by Fentonlike oxidation in growth ring of water distribution network-A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, D.; Ma, W. C.; Jiang, X. Q.; Yuan, Y. X.; Yuan, Y.; Wang, Z. Q.; Fang, T. T.; Huang, W. Y.

    2017-08-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons are widely used as organic solvent and chemical raw materials. After treatment, water polluted with trichloroethylene (TCE)/tetrachloroethylene (PCE) can reach the water quality requirements, while water with trace amounts of TCE/PCE is still harmful to humans, which will cause cancers. Water distribution network is an extremely complicated system, in which adsorption, desorption, flocculation, movement, transformation and reduction will occur, leading to changes of TCE/PCE concentrations and products. Therefore, it is important to investigate the transformation rules of TCE/PCE in water distribution network. What’s more, growth-ring, including drinking water pipes deposits, can act as catalysts in Fenton-like reagent (H2O2). This review summarizes the status of transformation rules of CAHs in water distribution network. It also evaluates the effectiveness and fruit of CAHs degradation by Fenton-like reagent based on growth-ring. This review is important in solving the potential safety problems caused by TCE/PCE in water distribution network.

  3. v-Src-driven transformation is due to chromosome abnormalities but not Src-mediated growth signaling.

    PubMed

    Honda, Takuya; Morii, Mariko; Nakayama, Yuji; Suzuki, Ko; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2018-01-18

    v-Src is the first identified oncogene product and has a strong tyrosine kinase activity. Much of the literature indicates that v-Src expression induces anchorage-independent and infinite cell proliferation through continuous stimulation of growth signaling by v-Src activity. Although all of v-Src-expressing cells are supposed to form transformed colonies, low frequencies of v-Src-induced colony formation have been observed so far. Using cells that exhibit high expression efficiencies of inducible v-Src, we show that v-Src expression causes cell-cycle arrest through p21 up-regulation despite ERK activation. v-Src expression also induces chromosome abnormalities and unexpected suppression of v-Src expression, leading to p21 down-regulation and ERK inactivation. Importantly, among v-Src-suppressed cells, only a limited number of cells gain the ability to re-proliferate and form transformed colonies. Our findings provide the first evidence that v-Src-driven transformation is attributed to chromosome abnormalities, but not continuous stimulation of growth signaling, possibly through stochastic genetic alterations.

  4. Progression of lymphomatoid papulosis to systemic lymphoma is associated with escape from growth inhibition by transforming growth factor-beta and CD30 ligand.

    PubMed

    Kadin, M E; Levi, E; Kempf, W

    2001-09-01

    Our objective is to understand the mechanism of progression of lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) to CD30+ systemic lymphoma. LyP lesions appear in recurrent crops that regress, only to reappear at a later date in the same or different locations. About 10% of patients develop systemic lymphoma. Because transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and CD30 ligand inhibit the growth of normal lymphocytes and can be detected in regressing lesions of LyP, we tested the effect of these cytokines on cell lines clonally derived from LyP in the progression to systemic lymphoma. TGF-beta failed to inhibit the growth of lymphoma cells from advanced disease due to mutations of the TGF-beta receptor complex that prevented binding of the ligand to tumor cells. A CD30 ligand agonist antibody caused proliferation of tumor cells from one patient and had no effect on tumor cells of another. In contrast, a Fas agonist antibody caused significant growth inhibition of all cell lines. The results suggest that progression of LyP to lymphoma is associated with escape of lymphoma cells from growth regulation by TGF-beta and CD30 ligand.

  5. Althaea rosea Cavanil and Plantago major L. suppress neoplastic cell transformation through the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Sun; Cho, Sung-Dae; Shin, Ji-Ae; Kwon, Ki Han; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Shim, Jung-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    For thousands of years in Asia, Althaea rosea Cavanil (ARC) and Plantago major L. (PML) have been used as powerful non-toxic therapeutic agents that inhibit inflammation. However, the anticancer mechanisms and molecular targets of ARC and PML are poorly understood, particularly in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced neoplastic cell transformation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive effects and mechanisms of the methanol extracts from ARC (MARC) and PML (MPML) in EGF-induced neoplastic cell transformation of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells using an MTS assay, anchorage-independent cell transformation assay and western blotting. Our results showed that MARC and MPML significantly suppressed neoplastic cell transformation by inhibiting the kinase activity of the EGF receptor (EGFR). The activation of EGFR by EGF was suppressed by MARC and MPML treatment in EGFR(+/+) cells, but not in EGFR(-/-) cells. In addition, MARC and MPML inhibited EGF-induced cell proliferation in EGFR-expressing murine embryonic fibroblasts (EGFR(+/+)). These results strongly indicate that EGFR targeting by MARC and MPML may be a good strategy for chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic applications.

  6. Metastable crystal growth of acetaminophen using solution-mediated phase transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yoichiro; Maruyama, Mihoko; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y.; Okada, Shino; Adachi, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    We report a new method of obtaining the metastable phase form II crystals of acetaminophen. Solution-mediated phase transformation (SMPT) from trihydrate into form II is utilized to obtain form II crystals. SMPT is triggered by seeding form II crystals into a saturated solution including trihydrate crystals, which are less stable than form II crystals. Form II seed crystals gradually grew at the expense of the dissolving trihydrate crystals, and finally, all the trihydrate crystals in solution were transformed into form II crystals in about 4 h. Thus, we conclude that SMPT is effective for the production of form II crystals.

  7. RhoA/Rho kinase signaling regulates transforming growth factor-β1-induced chondrogenesis and actin organization of synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells through interaction with the Smad pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ting; Wu, Mengjie; Feng, Jianying; Lin, Xinping; Gu, Zhiyuan

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) may be promising candidates for tissue engineering and play an important role in cartilage regeneration. However, the mechanisms of SMSC chondrogenesis remain to be identified and characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activation of the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway, as well as the manner by which it may contribute to chondrogenesis and the actin cytoskeletal organization of rat temporomandibular SMSCs in response to transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Primary isolated SMSCs were treated with TGF-β1, and their actin organization was examined by fluorescein isothiocyanate-phalloidin staining. The specific biochemical inhibitors, C3 transferase, Y27632 and SB431542, were employed to evaluate the function of RhoA/ROCK and Smads. The effect of C3 transferase and Y27632 on the gene expression of chondrocyte-specific markers was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. To examine the effect of Y27632 on Smad2/3 phosphorylation induced by TGF-β1, western blot analysis was also performed. The stimulation of TGF-β1 in SMSCs resulted in the activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway and concomitantly induced cytoskeletal reorganization, which was specifically blocked by C3 transferase and Y27632. The TGF-β-induced gene expression of Sox9, type I collagen, type II collagen and aggrecan was also inhibited by both C3 transferase and Y27632, at different levels. Y27632 treatment reduced the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in a concentration-dependent manner. These results demonstrate the RhoA/ROCK activation regulates chondrocyte-specific gene transcription and cytoskeletal organization induced by TGF-β1 by interacting with the Smad pathway. This may have significant implications for the successful utilization of SMSCs as a cell source for articular cartilage tissue engineering.

  8. Evaluation of transforming growth factor beta1 gene in oral submucous fibrosis induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by injections of areca nut and pan masala (commercial areca nut product) extracts.

    PubMed

    Maria, Shilpa; Kamath, Venkatesh V; Satelur, Krishnanand; Rajkumar, Komali

    2016-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a potentially malignant oral disorder causally linked to the habit of chewing arecanut. The pathogenesis of the disorder is multifactorial and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a prominent player in the induction of fibrosis. The alkaloids of the arecanut seem to target the TGF-beta and the deposition of collagen is predominantly mediated through this cytokine. The present study attempts to induce OSF in Sprague-Dawley rats by injections with solutions of arecanut and pan masala extracts. The tissues were then analysed for the TGF-beta1 gene by real time polymerase chain reaction. (rtPCR). Buccal mucosa of Sprague-Dawley rats were injectedwith arecanut and pan masala solutions on alternate days over a period of 48. weeks. Quantitative real time PCR was done to assess the expression of TGF-beta1 in the tissues. OSF-like lesions were seen in both the arecanut and pan masala.treated groups. The histological changes included atrophic epithelium, partial or complete loss of rete ridges, juxta-epithelial hyalinization, inflammation and accumulation of dense bundles of collagen fibers subepithelially. Quantitative real-time PCR showed a significant upregulation of TGF beta1. A. peak fold change of 4.74 in the 18th. week was observed for the arecanut group while the pan masala group recorded a peak change of 4.9 in the 24th. week. The study provides further evidence that arecanut and pan masala induce oral submucous fibrosisvia the TGF beta1 pathway.

  9. Collagen-anti-collagen complexes in rheumatoid arthritis sera.

    PubMed

    Wozniczko-Orlowska, G; Milgrom, F

    1982-01-01

    Immune complexes (IC) were detected in rheumatoid sera by means of anti-antibody (AA) neutralization tests. The sera with rheumatoid factor (RF) that did not agglutinate human Rh+ erythrocytes sensitized by incomplete Rh antibodies, Ripley, could be tested in an AA neutralization test without any further treatment. On the other hand, 'Ripley-positive' sera had to be treated with 2-mercaptoethanol or dithiothreitol in order to destroy RF. IC-containing sera were further studied for dispersion of IC by collagen. Surprisingly, roughly 50% of IC-containing sera were affected by collagen in that they lost AA-neutralizing activity completely or partially. Significantly, very similar results were obtained with collagen type I, collagen type II and denatured collagen type II. It was concluded that these sera contained IC formed by denatured collagen and its antibodies. Further experiments were devoted to the study of the effect of collagen on reactions of RF with Ripley-sensitized erythrocytes. In several sera, the addition of collagen eliminated the prozone. This was interpreted as deblocking of RF due to the dispersion of the blocking IC by an excess of collagen. In other sera, the addition of collagen seemed to remove or block RF. This blocking effect was interpreted as a neutralization of multispecific RF by collagen. An alternative explanation proposed that collagen formed IC with free anti-collagen antibodies and that these IC blocked the RF.

  10. Assessing spiritual growth and spiritual decline following a diagnosis of cancer: reliability and validity of the spiritual transformation scale.

    PubMed

    Cole, Brenda S; Hopkins, Clare M; Tisak, John; Steel, Jennifer L; Carr, Brian I

    2008-02-01

    This study assessed the factor structure, reliability, and validity of an instrument designed to assess spiritual transformations following a diagnosis of cancer-the Spiritual Transformation Scale (STS). The instrument was administering to 253 people diagnosed with cancer within the previous 2 years. Two underlying factors emerged (spiritual growth (SG) and spiritual decline (SD)) with adequate internal reliability (alpha = 0.98 and 0.86, respectively) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.85 and 0.73, respectively). Validity was supported by correlations between SG and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) Positive Affect Subscale (r = 0.23, p < 0.001), the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (r = 0.57, p < 0.001), and the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). SD was associated with higher scores on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (r = 0.38, p < 0.001) and PANAS-Negative Affect Subscale (r = 0.40, p < 0.001), and lower scores on the PANAS-Positive Affect Subscale (r = -0.23, p < 0.001), and the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (r = -0.30, p < 0.001). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the subscales uniquely predicted adjustment beyond related constructs (intrinsic religiousness, spiritual coping, and general post-traumatic growth). The results indicate that the STS is psychometrically sound, with SG predicting better, and SD predicting poorer, mental and spiritual well-being following a diagnosis of cancer.

  11. Potency of Fish Collagen as a Scaffold for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kohei; Yanagiguchi, Kajiro

    2014-01-01

    Cells, growth factors, and scaffold are the crucial factors for tissue engineering. Recently, scaffolds consisting of natural polymers, such as collagen and gelatin, bioabsorbable synthetic polymers, such as polylactic acid and polyglycolic acid, and inorganic materials, such as hydroxyapatite, as well as composite materials have been rapidly developed. In particular, collagen is the most promising material for tissue engineering due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. Collagen contains specific cell adhesion domains, including the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif. After the integrin receptor on the cell surface binds to the RGD motif on the collagen molecule, cell adhesion is actively induced. This interaction contributes to the promotion of cell growth and differentiation and the regulation of various cell functions. However, it is difficult to use a pure collagen scaffold as a tissue engineering material due to its low mechanical strength. In order to make up for this disadvantage, collagen scaffolds are often modified using a cross-linker, such as gamma irradiation and carbodiimide. Taking into account the possibility of zoonosis, a variety of recent reports have been documented using fish collagen scaffolds. We herein review the potency of fish collagen scaffolds as well as associated problems to be addressed for use in regenerative medicine. PMID:24982861

  12. Creating Sacred Experiences for Children as Pathways to Healing, Growth and Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhagwan, Raisuyah

    2009-01-01

    Spiritual well-being forms an important dimension of children's lives globally. They are vulnerable to a range of difficulties as they grow and develop. Recently there has been a strong awareness that spirituality not only enables their healing but is critical to spiritual transformation. This paper briefly explores children's spirituality and…

  13. Transformation from atypical chronic myeloid leukemia to chronic myelomonocytic leukemia as progression of myeloid neoplasm with platelet-derived growth factor ß rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xue; Su, Zhan; Zhao, Chunting; Feng, Xianqi

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid neoplasms associated with platelet-derived growth factor b (PDGFRB) rearrangement usually keep only one morphologic type unless blast crisis. We describe a unique case of hematological features transformation from atypical chronic myeloid leukemia to chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and imatinib showed no clinical therapeutic effects. The phenomenon indicates that different types of myeloid neoplasms associated with PDGFRB rearrangement can transform into one another with the progression of the disease, and to some extent, this transformation suggests the aggravation of disease.

  14. Arsenic transformation and plant growth promotion characteristics of As-resistant endophytic bacteria from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia-Yi; Han, Yong-He; Chen, Yanshan; Zhu, Ling-Jia; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-02-01

    The ability of As-resistant endophytic bacteria in As transformation and plant growth promotion was determined. The endophytes were isolated from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV) after growing for 60 d in a soil containing 200 mg kg(-1) arsenate (AsV). They were isolated in presence of 10 mM AsV from PV roots, stems, and leaflets, representing 4 phyla and 17 genera. All endophytes showed at least one plant growth promoting characteristics including IAA synthesis, siderophore production and P solubilization. The root endophytes had higher P solubilization ability than the leaflet (60.0 vs. 18.3 mg L(-1)). In presence of 10 mM AsV, 6 endophytes had greater growth than the control, suggesting As-stimulated growth. Furthermore, root endophytes were more resistant to AsV while the leaflet endophytes were more tolerant to arsenite (AsIII), which corresponded to the dominant As species in PV tissues. Bacterial As resistance was positively correlated to their ability in AsV reduction but not AsIII oxidation. The roles of those endophytes in promoting plant growth and As resistance in P. vittata warrant further investigation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Multilayered peptide incorporated collagen tubules for peripheral nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M Rafiuddin; Venkateshwarlu, U; Jayakumar, R

    2004-06-01

    Successful nerve regeneration process was achieved with improved mechanical strength by crosslinking tubular nerve guides made up of collagen. The multilayered collagen sheets were prepared from laminar evaporation of collagen solution. Scanning electron micrograph of the collagen tubes crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GTA), microwave irradiation showed porous, fibrillar structures of collagen filaments in these matrices. The mechanical property of the crosslinked collagen tubes was carried out by tensile strength measurements. Fourier transform infrared spectra of the collagen films show that the native triple helicity was unaltered during multilayered preparation. It was observed that the structural integrity is unaltered during the multilayer preparation. Microscopic analysis indicates that the tubule surface acts as a surface of adherence and proliferation for the sprouting axons from the cut proximal nerve stumps. Solute diffusion studies on these tubes indicate that they are highly porous to wide range of molecular sizes during regeneration. Among the two types of crosslinking, the microwave irradiated collagen conduits results in ample myelinated axons compared with GTA group, where we observed more unmyelinated axons.

  16. Effect of Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF Beta) and Vitamin D3 Metabolites on Protein Kinase C Mediated Signal Transduction in Rat Costochondral Chondrocyte Cultures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-05-01

    EFFECT OF TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA (TGFP) AND VITAMIN D3 METABOLITES ON PROTEIN KINASE C MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION IN RAT COSTOCHONDRAL...AND VITAMIN D3 METABOLITES ON PROTEIN KINASE C MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION IN RAT COSTOCHONDRAL CHONDROCYTE CULTURES Scott Arthur Mackey APPROVED...laboratory expertise. iv EFFECT OF TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA (TGFO3) AND VITAMIN D3 METABOLITES ON PROTEIN KINASE C MEDIATED SIGNAL

  17. Genetic variation in the transforming growth factor-β-signaling pathway, lifestyle factors, and risk of colon or rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Martha L; Lundgreen, Abbie; Wolff, Roger K; Herrick, Jennifer S; Caan, Bette J

    2012-05-01

    The transforming growth factor-β-signaling pathway has been identified as being involved in colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to determine how diet and lifestyle factors in combination with genetic variation in the transforming growth factor-β-signaling pathway alters colorectal cancer risk. We used data from 2 population-based case-control studies. Participants included patients with colon cancer (n = 1574) and controls (n = 1970) and patients with rectal cancer ( n = 791) and controls (n = 999). The primary outcomes measured were newly diagnosed cases of colon or rectal cancer. Colon and rectal cancer risk increased with the number of at-risk genotypes within the transforming growth factor-β-signaling pathway (OR 3.68, 95% CI 2.74,4.94 for colon cancer; OR 3.89, 95% CI 2.66,5.69 for rectal cancer). A high at-risk lifestyle score also resulted in significant increased risk with number of at-risk lifestyle factors (OR 2.99, 95% CI 2.32,3.85 for colon cancer; OR 3.37, 95% CI 2.24,5.07 for rectal cancer). The combination of high-risk genotype and high-risk lifestyle results in the greatest increase in risk (OR 7.89, 95% CI 4.45,13.96 for colon cancer; OR 8.75, 95% CI 3.66,20.89 for rectal cancer). The study results need validation in other large studies of colon and rectal cancer. In summary, our data suggest that there is increased colon and rectal cancer risk with increasing number of at-risk genotypes and at-risk lifestyle factors. Although the integrity of the pathway can be diminished by a number of high-risk genotypes, this risk can be offset, in part, by maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

  18. The roles of transforming growth factor-β, Wnt, Notch and hypoxia on liver progenitor cells in primary liver tumours

    PubMed Central

    BOGAERTS, ELIENE; HEINDRYCKX, FEMKE; VANDEWYNCKEL, YVES-PAUL; VAN GRUNSVEN, LEO A.; VAN VLIERBERGHE, HANS

    2014-01-01

    Primary liver tumours have a high incidence and mortality. The most important forms are hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, both can occur together in the mixed phenotype hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma. Liver progenitor cells (LPCs) are bipotential stem cells activated in case of severe liver damage and are capable of forming both cholangiocytes and hepatocytes. Possibly, alterations in Wnt, transforming growth factor-β, Notch and hypoxia pathways in these LPCs can cause them to give rise to cancer stem cells, capable of driving tumourigenesis. In this review, we summarize and discuss current knowledge on the role of these pathways in LPC activation and differentiation during hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:24504124

  19. Uniform spatial distribution of collagen fibril radii within tendon implies local activation of pC-collagen at individual fibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutenberg, Andrew D.; Brown, Aidan I.; Kreplak, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    Collagen fibril cross-sectional radii show no systematic variation between the interior and the periphery of fibril bundles, indicating an effectively constant rate of collagen incorporation into fibrils throughout the bundle. Such spatially homogeneous incorporation constrains the extracellular diffusion of collagen precursors from sources at the bundle boundary to sinks at the growing fibrils. With a coarse-grained diffusion equation we determine stringent bounds, using parameters extracted from published experimental measurements of tendon development. From the lack of new fibril formation after birth, we further require that the concentration of diffusing precursors stays below the critical concentration for fibril nucleation. We find that the combination of the diffusive bound, which requires larger concentrations to ensure homogeneous fibril radii, and lack of nucleation, which requires lower concentrations, is only marginally consistent with fully processed collagen using conservative bounds. More realistic bounds may leave no consistent concentrations. Therefore, we propose that unprocessed pC-collagen diffuses from the bundle periphery followed by local C-proteinase activity and subsequent collagen incorporation at each fibril. We suggest that C-proteinase is localized within bundles, at fibril surfaces, during radial fibrillar growth. The much greater critical concentration of pC-collagen, as compared to fully processed collagen, then provides broad consistency between homogeneous fibril radii and the lack of fibril nucleation during fibril growth.

  20. Arterial Stiffening in Western Diet-Fed Mice Is Associated with Increased Vascular Elastin, Transforming Growth Factor-β, and Plasma Neuraminidase

    PubMed Central

    Foote, Christopher A.; Castorena-Gonzalez, Jorge A.; Ramirez-Perez, Francisco I.; Jia, Guanghong; Hill, Michael A.; Reyes-Aldasoro, Constantino C.; Sowers, James R.; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of excess fat and carbohydrate (Western diet, WD) is associated with alterations in the structural characteristics of blood vessels. This vascular remodeling contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease, particularly as it affects conduit and resistance arteries. Vascular remodeling is often associated with changes in the elastin-rich internal elastic lamina (IEL) and the activation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. In addition, obesity and type II diabetes have been associated with increased serum neuraminidase, an enzyme known to increase TGF-β cellular output. Therefore, we hypothesized that WD-feeding would induce structural modifications to the IEL of mesenteric resistance arteries in mice, and that these changes would be associated with increased levels of circulating neuraminidase and the up-regulation of elastin and TGF-β in the arterial wall. To test this hypothesis, a WD, high in fat and sugar, was used to induce obesity in mice, and the effect of this diet on the structure of mesenteric resistance arteries was investigated. 4-week old, Post-weaning mice were fed either a normal diet (ND) or WD for 16 weeks. Mechanically, arteries from WD-fed mice were stiffer and less distensible, with marginally increased wall stress for a given strain, and a significantly increased Young's modulus of elasticity. Structurally, the wall cross-sectional area and the number of fenestrae found in the internal elastic lamina (IEL) of mesenteric arteries from mice fed a WD were significantly smaller than those of arteries from the ND-fed mice. There was also a significant increase in the volume of elastin, but not collagen in arteries from the WD cohort. Plasma levels of neuraminidase and the amount of TGF-β in mesenteric arteries were elevated in mice fed a WD, while ex vivo, cultured vascular smooth muscle cells exposed to neuraminidase secreted greater amounts of tropoelastin and TGF-β than those exposed to vehicle. These data suggest that

  1. Angiotensin type 2 receptor stimulation ameliorates left ventricular fibrosis and dysfunction via regulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1/matrix metalloproteinase 9 axis and transforming growth factor β1 in the rat heart.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Dilyara; Slavic, Svetlana; Sommerfeld, Manuela; Thöne-Reineke, Christa; Sharkovska, Yuliya; Hallberg, Anders; Dahlöf, Bjorn; Kintscher, Ulrich; Unger, Thomas; Steckelings, Ulrike Muscha; Kaschina, Elena

    2014-03-01

    Left ventricular (LV) remodeling is the main reason for the development of progressive cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI). This study investigated whether stimulation of the angiotensin type 2 receptor is able to ameliorate post-MI cardiac remodeling and what the underlying mechanisms may be. MI was induced in Wistar rats by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery. Treatment with the angiotensin type 2 receptor agonist compound 21 (0.03 mg/kg) was started 6 hours post-MI and continued for 6 weeks. Hemodynamic parameters were measured by echocardiography and intracardiac catheter. Effects on proteolysis were studied in heart tissue and primary cardiac fibroblasts. Compound 21 significantly improved systolic and diastolic functions, resulting in improved ejection fraction (71.2±4.7% versus 53.4±7.0%; P<0.001), fractional shortening (P<0.05), LV internal dimension in systole (P<0.05), LV end-diastolic pressure (16.9±1.2 versus 22.1±1.4 mm Hg; P<0.05), ratio of early (E) to late (A) ventricular filling velocities, and maximum and minimum rate of LV pressure rise (P<0.05). Compound 21 improved arterial stiffness parameters and reduced collagen content in peri-infarct myocardium. Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 was strongly upregulated, whereas matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 and transforming growth factor β1 were diminished in LV of treated animals. In cardiac fibroblasts, compound 21 initially induced tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 expression followed by attenuated matrix metalloproteinase 9 and transforming growth factor β1 secretion. In conclusion, angiotensin type 2 receptor stimulation improves cardiac function and prevents cardiac remodeling in the late stage after MI, suggesting that angiotensin type 2 receptor agonists may be considered a future pharmacological approach for the improvement of post-MI cardiac dysfunction.

  2. Scleroderma keratinocytes promote fibroblast activation independent of transforming growth factor beta.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Sara S; Reed, Tamra J; Berthier, Celine C; Tsou, Pei-Suen; Liu, Jianhua; Gudjonsson, Johann E; Khanna, Dinesh; Kahlenberg, J Michelle

    2017-11-01

    SSc is a devastating disease that results in fibrosis of the skin and other organs. Fibroblasts are a key driver of the fibrotic process through deposition of extracellular matrix. The mechanisms by which fibroblasts are induced to become pro-fibrotic remain unclear. Thus, we examined the ability of SSc keratinocytes to promote fibroblast activation and the source of this effect. Keratinocytes were isolated from skin biopsies of 9 lcSSc, 10 dcSSc and 13 control patients. Conditioned media was saved from the cultures. Normal fresh primary fibroblasts were exposed to healthy control and SSc keratinocyte conditioned media in the presence or absence of neutralizing antibodies for TGF-β. Gene expression was assessed by microarrays and real-time PCR. Immunocytochemistry was performed for α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen type 1 (COL1A1) and CCL5 expression. SSc keratinocyte conditioned media promoted fibroblast activation, characterized by increased α-SMA and COL1A1 mRNA and protein expression. This effect was independent of TGF-β. Microarray analysis identified upregulation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) pathways in both SSc subtypes. Scleroderma keratinocytes exhibited increased expression of NF-κB-regulated cytokines and chemokines and lesional skin staining confirmed upregulation of CCL5 in basal keratinocytes. Scleroderma keratinocytes promote the activation of fibroblasts in a TGF-β-independent manner and demonstrate an imbalance in NF-κB1 and PPAR-γ expression leading to increased cytokine and CCL5 production. Further study of keratinocyte mediators of fibrosis, including CCL5, may provide novel targets for skin fibrosis therapy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. OSCILLATOR: A system for analysis of diurnal leaf growth using infrared photography combined with wavelet transformation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Quantification of leaf movement is an important tool for characterising the effects of environmental signals and the circadian clock on plant development. Analysis of leaf movement is currently restricted by the attachment of sensors to the plant or dependent upon visible light for time-lapse photography. The study of leaf growth movement rhythms in mature plants under biological relevant conditions, e.g. diurnal light and dark conditions, is therefore problematic. Results Here we present OSCILLATOR, an affordable system for the analysis of rhythmic leaf growth movement in mature plants. The system contains three modules: (1) Infrared time-lapse imaging of growing mature plants (2) measurement of projected distances between leaf tip and plant apex (leaf tip tracking growth-curves) and (3) extraction of phase, period and amplitude of leaf growth oscillations using wavelet analysis. A proof-of-principle is provided by characterising parameters of rhythmic leaf growth movement of different Arabidopsis thaliana accessions as well as of Petunia hybrida and Solanum lycopersicum plants under diurnal conditions. The amplitude of leaf oscillations correlated to published data on leaf angles, while amplitude and leaf length did not correlate, suggesting a distinct leaf growth profile for each accession. Arabidopsis mutant accession Landsberg erecta displayed a late phase (timing of peak oscillation) compared to other accessions and this trait appears unrelated to the ERECTA locus. Conclusions OSCILLATOR is a low cost and easy to implement system that can accurately and reproducibly quantify rhythmic growth of mature plants for different species under diurnal light/dark cycling. PMID:22867627

  4. Effects of endogenous cysteine proteinases on structures of collagen fibres from dermis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Ma, Dong-Dong; Liu, Zi-Qiang; Liu, Yan-Fei; Song, Liang; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Li, Dong-Mei; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Konno, Kunihiko; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-10-01

    Autolysis of sea cucumber, caused by endogenous enzymes, leads to postharvest quality deterioration of sea cucumber. However, the effects of endogenous proteinases on structures of collagen fibres, the major biologically relevant substrates in the body wall of sea cucumber, are less clear. Collagen fibres were prepared from the dermis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus), and the structural consequences of degradation of the collagen fibres caused by endogenous cysteine proteinases (ECP) from Stichopus japonicus were examined. Scanning electron microscopic images showed that ECP caused partial disaggregation of collagen fibres into collagen fibrils by disrupting interfibrillar proteoglycan bridges. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed increased structural disorder of fibrillar collagen caused by ECP. SDS-PAGE and chemical analysis indicated that ECP can liberate glycosaminoglycan, hydroxyproline and collagen fragments from collagen fibres. Thus ECP can cause disintegration of collagen fibres by degrading interfibrillar proteoglycan bridges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Noncanonical transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling in cranial neural crest cells causes tongue muscle developmental defects.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Akiko; Pelikan, Richard C; Ho, Thach-Vu; Chai, Yang

    2013-10-11

    Microglossia is a congenital birth defect in humans and adversely impacts quality of life. In vertebrates, tongue muscle derives from the cranial mesoderm, whereas tendons and connective tissues in the craniofacial region originate from cranial neural crest (CNC) cells. Loss of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) type II receptor in CNC cells in mice (Tgfbr2(fl/fl);Wnt1-Cre) causes microglossia due to a failure of cell-cell communication between cranial mesoderm and CNC cells during tongue development. However, it is still unclear how TGFβ signaling in CNC cells regulates the fate of mesoderm-derived myoblasts during tongue development. Here we show that activation of the cytoplasmic and nuclear tyrosine kinase 1 (ABL1) cascade in Tgfbr2(fl/fl);Wnt1-Cre mice results in a failure of CNC-derived cell differentiation followed by a disruption of TGFβ-mediated induction of growth factors and reduction of myogenic cell proliferation and differentiation activities. Among the affected growth factors, the addition of fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) and neutralizing antibody for follistatin (FST; an antagonist of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)) could most efficiently restore cell proliferation, differentiation, and organization of muscle cells in the tongue of Tgfbr2(fl/fl);Wnt1-Cre mice. Thus, our data indicate that CNC-derived fibroblasts regulate the fate of mesoderm-derived myoblasts through TGFβ-mediated regulation of FGF and BMP signaling during tongue development.

  6. Bioactive molecules in milk and their role in health and disease: the role of transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed

    Donnet-Hughes, A; Duc, N; Serrant, P; Vidal, K; Schiffrin, E J

    2000-02-01

    Human breast milk is rich in nutrients, hormones, growth factors and immunoactive molecules, which influence the growth, development and immune status of the newborn infant. Although several of these factors are also present in bovine milk, the greater susceptibility of the formula-fed infant to infection and disease and the development of allergy is often attributed to the reduced level of protective factors in milk formulas. Nevertheless, modifying manufacturing processes may preserve the biological activity of some bioactive molecules in end products. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta is one such molecule. TGF-beta is a polypeptide, which has been described in both human and bovine milk. It is implicated in many processes, including epithelial cell growth and differentiation, development, carcinogenesis and immune regulation. The present article discusses the biological activity of TGF-beta2 that has been preserved and activated in a cow's milk-based product. More specifically, it addresses possible mechanisms of action in the intestinal lumen and speculates on how milk products containing naturally occurring TGF-beta2 could be exploited in functional foods for the infant or as therapies for specific intestinal diseases.

  7. Plant Lectin Can Target Receptors Containing Sialic Acid, Exemplified by Podoplanin, to Inhibit Transformed Cell Growth and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yongquan; Acharya, Nimish K.; Han, Min; McNulty, Dean E.; Hasegawa, Hitoki; Hyodo, Toshinori; Senga, Takeshi; Geng, Jian-Guo; Kosciuk, Mary; Shin, Seung S.; Goydos, James S.; Temiakov, Dmitry; Nagele, Robert G.; Goldberg, Gary S.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death of men and women worldwide. Tumor cell motility contributes to metastatic invasion that causes the vast majority of cancer deaths. Extracellular receptors modified by α2,3-sialic acids that promote this motility can serve as ideal chemotherapeutic targets. For example, the extracellular domain of the mucin receptor podoplanin (PDPN) is highly O-glycosylated with α2,3-sialic acid linked to galactose. PDPN is activated by endogenous ligands to induce tumor cell motility and metastasis. Dietary lectins that target proteins containing α2,3-sialic acid inhibit tumor cell growth. However, anti-cancer lectins that have been examined thus far target receptors that have not been identified. We report here that a lectin from the seeds of Maackia amurensis (MASL) with affinity for O-linked carbohydrate chains containing sialic acid targets PDPN to inhibit transformed cell growth and motility at nanomolar concentrations. Interestingly, the biological activity of this lectin survives gastrointestinal proteolysis and enters the cardiovascular system to inhibit melanoma cell growth, migration, and tumorigenesis. These studies demonstrate how lectins may be used to help develop dietary agents that target specific receptors to combat malignant cell growth. PMID:22844530

  8. Plant lectin can target receptors containing sialic acid, exemplified by podoplanin, to inhibit transformed cell growth and migration.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Alvarez, Jhon Alberto; Krishnan, Harini; Shen, Yongquan; Acharya, Nimish K; Han, Min; McNulty, Dean E; Hasegawa, Hitoki; Hyodo, Toshinori; Senga, Takeshi; Geng, Jian-Guo; Kosciuk, Mary; Shin, Seung S; Goydos, James S; Temiakov, Dmitry; Nagele, Robert G; Goldberg, Gary S

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death of men and women worldwide. Tumor cell motility contributes to metastatic invasion that causes the vast majority of cancer deaths. Extracellular receptors modified by α2,3-sialic acids that promote this motility can serve as ideal chemotherapeutic targets. For example, the extracellular domain of the mucin receptor podoplanin (PDPN) is highly O-glycosylated with α2,3-sialic acid linked to galactose. PDPN is activated by endogenous ligands to induce tumor cell motility and metastasis. Dietary lectins that target proteins containing α2,3-sialic acid inhibit tumor cell growth. However, anti-cancer lectins that have been examined thus far target receptors that have not been identified. We report here that a lectin from the seeds of Maackia amurensis (MASL) with affinity for O-linked carbohydrate chains containing sialic acid targets PDPN to inhibit transformed cell growth and motility at nanomolar concentrations. Interestingly, the biological activity of this lectin survives gastrointestinal proteolysis and enters the cardiovascular system to inhibit melanoma cell growth, migration, and tumorigenesis. These studies demonstrate how lectins may be used to help develop dietary agents that target specific receptors to combat malignant cell growth.

  9. Regulation of c-MYC transcriptional activity by transforming growth factor-beta 1-stimulated clone 22.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ling; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Nakajo, Yuka; Nakano, Akinobu; Kato, Mitsuyasu

    2018-02-01

    c-MYC stimulates cell proliferation through the suppression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors including P15 (CDKN2B) and P21 (CDKN1A). It also activates E-box-mediated transcription of various target genes including telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) that is involved in cellular immortality and tumorigenesis. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)-stimulated clone 22 (TSC-22/TSC22D1) encodes a highly conserved leucine zipper protein that is induced by various stimuli, including TGF-β. TSC-22 inhibits cell growth in mammalian cells and in Xenopus embryos. However, underlying mechanisms of growth inhibition by TSC-22 remain unclear. Here, we show that TSC-22 physically interacts with c-MYC to inhibit the recruitment of c-MYC on the P15 (CDKN2B) and P21 (CDKN1A) promoters, effectively inhibiting c-MYC-mediated suppression of P15 (CDKN2B) and also P21 (CDKN1A) promoter activities. In contrast, TSC-22 enhances c-MYC-mediated activation of the TERT promoter. Additionally, the expression of TSC-22 in embryonic stem cells inhibits cell growth without affecting its pluripotency-related gene expression. These results indicate that TSC-22 differentially regulates c-MYC-mediated transcriptional activity to regulate cell proliferation. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  10. Transforming growth factor β (CiTGF-β) gene expression is induced in the inflammatory reaction of Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Vizzini, Aiti; Di Falco, Felicia; Parrinello, Daniela; Sanfratello, Maria Antonietta; Cammarata, Matteo

    2016-02-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF-β) is a well-known component of a regulatory cytokines superfamily that has pleiotropic functions in a broad range of cell types and is involved, in vertebrates, in numerous physiological and pathological processes. In the current study, we report on Ciona intestinalis molecular characterisation and expression of a transforming growth factor β homologue (CiTGF-β). The gene organisation, phylogenetic tree and modelling supported the close relationship with the mammalian TGF suggesting that the C. intestinalis TGF-β gene shares a common ancestor in the chordate lineages. Functionally, real-time PCR analysis showed that CiTGF-β was transcriptionally upregulated in the inflammatory process induced by LPS inoculation, suggesting that is involved in the first phase and significant in the secondary phase of the inflammatory response in which cell differentiation occurs. In situ hybridisation assays revealed that the genes transcription was upregulated in the pharynx, the main organ of the ascidian immune system, and expressed by cluster of hemocytes inside the pharynx vessels. These data supported the view that CiTGF-β is a potential molecule in immune defence systems against bacterial infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exercise-induced lactate accumulation regulates intramuscular triglyceride metabolism via transforming growth factor-β1 mediated pathways.

    PubMed

    Nikooie, Rohollah; Samaneh, Sajadian

    2016-01-05

    The mechanism regulating the utilization of intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTG) during high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and post-exercise recovery period remains elusive. In this study, the acute and long-term effects of HIIT on transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) abundance in rat skeletal muscle and role of lactate and TGF-β1 in IMTG lipolysis during post-exercise recovery period were examined. TGF-β1 and Adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) abundance as well as total lipase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle significantly increased to a maximum value 10 h after acute bout of HIIT. Inhibition of TGF-β1 signaling by intramuscular injection of SB431542 30 min prior to the acute exercise attenuated ATGL abundance and total lipase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle in response to acute exercise. Intramuscular acute injection of lactate increased TGF-β1 and ATGL abundance in the gastrocnemius muscle and there were a significant increase in Muscle TGF-β1 and ATGL abundance after 5 weeks of HIIT/lactate treatment. These results indicate that exercise-induced lactate accumulation regulates intramuscular triglyceride metabolism via transforming growth factor-β1 mediated pathways during post-exercise recovery from strenuous exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Elevation of transforming growth factor alpha and its relationship to the epidermal growth factor and alpha-fetoprotein levels in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Y C; Tsai, J F; Chuang, L Y; Yeh, H W; Tsai, J H; Florine, D L; Tam, J P

    1987-02-01

    A radioimmunoassay for transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) using synthetic rat sarcoma transforming growth factor and its rabbit polyclonal antibody has been developed. Using radioimmunoassays, the urinary TGF-alpha and epidermal growth factor (EGF) concentrations in 31 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 15 probable HCC, four metastatic liver cancer, and 33 age, sex-matched healthy controls were determined. For the first time, we have shown that the average TGF-alpha concentration for HCC patients was 21.5 +/- 20.3 micrograms per g creatinine, significantly higher than that of healthy subjects, 4.9 +/- 2.8 micrograms per g creatinine (P less than 0.001). There was no statistical difference in the level of EGF between HCC patients and controls (40.9 +/- 29.3 versus 46.2 +/- 16.6 micrograms per g creatinine; P greater than 0.05). The ratio of EGF/TGF-alpha between HCC patients (3.37 +/- 4.42) and controls (15.5 +/- 13.0) was significantly different (P less than 0.001). Among patients, 65% (20 of 31) of HCC cases and 87% (13 of 15) of probable HCC cases showed a marked elevation of TGF-alpha levels. We found only 16% (five of 31) of HCC cases with increased EGF level. EGF excretion was inversely age related. Serum total protein concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity were positively correlated to EGF concentration (r = 0.522, P less than 0.01 and rt = 0.393, P less than 0.05, respectively). There was no correlation between biochemical functions of liver and TGF-alpha concentration in HCC patients. Our results also suggested that TGF-alpha may be a useful complementary tumor marker for management of patients with clinical manifestation of HCC who have low alpha-fetoprotein levels.

  13. Survival and growth of newly transformed Lampsilis cardium and Lampsilis siliquoidea in a flow-through, continuous feeding test system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Hess, Karina R.; Bartsch, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    A test system was evaluated for assessing chronic toxicity of waterborne chemicals with early life stage mussels. To determine if the test system could result in ≥80% survival in a control (unexposed) group, fat mucket mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea Barnes, 1823) and plain pocketbook mussels (L. cardium Rafinesque, 1820) 1 day post transformation were stocked into test chambers (250 mL beakers, water volume, 200 mL, 21 °C, 40 mussels of 1 species per chamber) within a test system constructed for conducting chronic, continuous exposure, flow-through toxicity tests. The test system contained 60 chambers containing silica sand, 30 chambers with L. siliquoidea, and 30 with L. cardium. Each chamber in the continuous feeding system received 1 of 6 food types prepared with concentrated algal products. After 28 days, mussels were harvested from chambers to assess survival and growth. For L. siliquoidea, mean survival ranged from 34 to 80% and mean shell length ranged from 464 to 643 µm. For L. cardium, mean survival ranged from 12 to 66% and mean shell length ranged from 437 to 612 µm. The maximum mean growth rate for L. siliquoidea was 12.7 µm/d and for L. cardium was 11.8 µm/d. When offered a continuous diet of Nannochloropsis, Tetraselmis, and Chlorella for 28 days in the test system, the survival of 1 day post transformation L. siliquoidea was 80%. The test system can be easily enhanced with a pumping system continuously delivering test chemical to the test system's flow stream allowing for chronic toxicity tests with 1 day post transformation mussels.

  14. Engineering, expression, and renaturation of a collagen-targeted human bFGF fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Andrades, J A; Wu, L T; Hall, F L; Nimni, M E; Becerra, J

    2001-01-01

    that biologically active rhbFGF fusion proteins can be recovered from transformed bacteria by oxidative refolding; thus, providing a means for its high-yield production, purification, and renaturation from microorganisms. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the auxiliary collagen-binding domain effectively targets the recombinant growth factor to type I collagen. The clinical effect of rhbFGF-F2 on wound healing is also studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and evaluated by histological examination comparing with rhbFGF-F1 and commercial bFGF effects. The highly beneficial effects of rhbFGF-F2 on wound healing is suggested to be due to its extremely potent angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation activities, leading to a rapid reepithelialization of the wound. Topical application of rhbFGF-F2 mixed with type I collagen is a more effective method in accelerating closure of full-thickness excisional skin-wound in diabetic rats when compared with the fusion protein alone or commercial hbFGF at the same doses. These studies advance the technology necessary to generate large quantities of targeted bFGF fusion proteins as well as to develop new strategies for specific biomedical applications.

  15. Biomineralization of Natural Collagenous Nanofibrous Membranes and Their Potential Use in Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mingying; Zhou, Guanshan; Castano-Izquierdo, Harold; Zhu, Ye; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-01-01

    Small intestinal submucosa (SIS) membranes as a decellularized tissue are known to be a natural nanofibrous biomaterial mainly made of type I collagen fibers and containing some growth factors (fibroblast growth factor 2 and transforming growth factor β) desired in tissue engineering. Here we show that the SIS membranes can promote the formation of bone mineral hydroxylapatite (HAP) crystals along the collagen fibers constituting the membranes from a HAP-supersaturated solution. The resultant biomineralized HAP-SIS scaffolds were found to promote the attachment, growth and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in both basal and osteogenic media by the evaluation of osteogenic marker formation. More importantly, the HAP-SIS scaffolds could induce the osteogenic differentiation in the basal media without osteogenic supplements due to the presence of HAP crystals in the scaffolds. Histological characterization of the MSC-seeded scaffolds showed that HAP-SIS scaffolds are biocompatible and promote the formation of new tissue in vitro. The biomineralized SIS membranes mimic some aspects of natural bone in terms of the composition and nanostructures and can find potential use in bone tissue engineering. PMID:25883539

  16. Theory and modeling of microstructural evolution in polycrystalline materials: Solute segregation, grain growth and phase transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ning

    2005-11-01

    To accurately predict microstructure evolution and, hence, to synthesis metal and ceramic alloys with desirable properties involves many fundamental as well as practical issues. In the present study, novel theoretical and phase field approaches have been developed to address some of these issues including solute drag and segregation transition at grain boundaries and dislocations, grain growth in systems of anisotropic boundary properties, and precipitate microstructure development in polycrystalline materials. The segregation model has allowed for the prediction of a first-order segregation transition, which could be related to the sharp transition of solute concentration of grain boundary as a function of temperature. The incorporating of interfacial energy and mobility as functions of misorientation and inclination in the phase field model has allowed for the study of concurrent grain growth and texture evolution. The simulation results were analyzed using the concept of local grain boundary energy density, which simplified significantly the development of governing equations for texture controlled grain growth in Ti-6Al-4V. Quantitative phase field modeling techniques have been developed by incorporating thermodynamic and diffusivity databases. The models have been validated against DICTRA simulations in simple 1D problems and applied to simulate realistic microstructural evolutions in Ti-6Al-4V, including grain boundary a and globular a growth and sideplate development under both isothermal aging and continuous cooling conditions. The simulation predictions agree well with experimental observations.

  17. Collagencin, an antibacterial peptide from fish collagen: Activity, structure and interaction dynamics with membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Ennaas, Nadia; Hammami, Riadh, E-mail: riadh.hammami@fsaa.ulaval.ca; Gomaa, Ahmed

    2016-04-29

    In this study, we first report characterization of collagencin, an antimicrobial peptide identified from fish collagen hydrolysate. The peptide completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus at 1.88 mM. Although non-toxic up to 470 μM, collagencin was hemolytic at higher concentrations. The secondary structure of collagencin was mainly composed by β-sheet and β-turn as determined by CD measurements and molecular dynamics. The peptide is likely to form β-sheet structure under hydrophobic environments and interacts with both anionic (phosphatidylglycerol) and zwitterionic (phosphoethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine) lipids as shown with CD spectroscopy and molecular dynamics. The peptide formed several hydrogen bonds with both POPG andmore » POPE lipids and remained at membrane–water interface, suggesting that collagencin antibacterial action follows a carpet mechanism. Collagenous fish wastes could be processed by enzymatic hydrolysis and transformed into products of high value having functional or biological properties. Marine collagens are a promising source of antimicrobial peptides with new implications in food safety and human health. - Highlights: • Collagencin, an antibacterial (G+ & G-) peptide identified from fish collagen hydrolysate. • The peptide completely inhibited the growth of S. aureus at 1.88 mM and non-toxic at 470 μM. • The secondary structure was mainly composed by β-sheet and turn as determined by CD and MD. • Collagencin interacts with both anionic and zwitterionic lipids as shown with CD and MD. • Collagencin antibacterial action probably follows a carpet mechanism.« less

  18. Increased and correlated expression of connective tissue growth factor and transforming growth factor beta 1 in surgically removed periodontal tissues with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Mize, T W; Sundararaj, K P; Leite, R S; Huang, Y

    2015-06-01

    Both gingival tissue destruction and regeneration are associated with chronic periodontitis, although the former overwhelms the latter. Studies have shown that transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), a growth factor largely involved in tissue regeneration and remodeling, is upregulated in chronic periodontitis. However, the gingival expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF or CCN2), a TGF-β1-upregulated gene, in patients with periodontitis remains undetermined. Although both CTGF/CCN2 and TGF-b1 increase the production of extracellular matrix, they have many different biological functions. Therefore, it is important to delineate the impact of periodontitis on gingival CTGF/CCN2 expression. Periodontal tissue specimens were collected from seven individuals without periodontitis (group 1) and from 14 with periodontitis (group 2). The expression of CTGF and TGFβ1 mRNAs were quantified using real-time PCR. Analysis using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test showed that the levels of expression of both CTGF/CCN2 and TGFβ1 mRNAs were significantly increased in individuals with periodontitis compared with individuals without periodontitis. Furthermore, analysis using a nonparametric correlation (Spearman r) test showed a positive correlation between TGFβ1 and CTGF/CCN2 mRNAs. The gingival expression levels of CTGF/CCN2 and TGFβ1 mRNAs in individuals with periodontitis are upregulated and correlated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Synergistic and multidimensional regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 expression by transforming growth factor type β and epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Xiaoling; Thalacker, F.W.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2012-04-06

    The major physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activator, type I plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), controls blood clotting and tissue remodeling events that involve cell migration. Transforming growth factor type β (TGFβ) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) interact synergistically to increase PAI-1 mRNA and protein levels in human HepG2 and mink Mv1Lu cells. Other growth factors that activate tyrosine kinase receptors can substitute for EGF. EGF and TGFβ regulate PAI-1 by synergistically activating transcription, which is further amplified by a decrease in the rate of mRNA degradation, the latter being regulated only by EGF. The combined effect of transcriptional activation and mRNAmore » stabilization results in a rapid 2-order of magnitude increase in the level of PAI-1. TGFβ also increases the sensitivity of the cells to EGF, thereby recruiting the cooperation of EGF at lower than normally effective concentrations. The contribution of EGF to the regulation of PAI-1 involves the MAPK pathway, and the synergistic interface with the TGFβ pathway is downstream of MEK1/2 and involves phosphorylation of neither ERK1/2 nor Smad2/3. Synergism requires the presence of both Smad and AP-1 recognition sites in the promoter. This work demonstrates the existence of a multidimensional cellular mechanism by which EGF and TGFβ are able to promote large and rapid changes in PAI-1 expression.« less

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis induces astrocyte proliferation through the activation of transforming-growth factor-α/epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Rousselet, Estelle; Traver, Sabine; Monnet, Yann; Perrin, Aline; Mandjee, Nathalie; Hild, Audrey; Hirsch, Etienne C; Zheng, Timothy S; Hunot, Stéphane

    2012-11-01

    Reactive astrogliosis is beneficial in many aspects; however, it is also detrimental in some pathological states such as the development of lethal brain tumors. It is therefore crucial to understand the mechanisms regulating astrocyte proliferation. Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), a member of the tumor necrosis factor family, was shown to stimulate astrocyte proliferation in vitro. Herein, we further characterize the mitogenic potential of TWEAK on central nervous system cells. Among these cells, astrocytes express the highest level of TWEAK and Fn14 transcripts, suggesting that they are particularly sensitive to TWEAK stimulation. Using in vitro model systems, we found that TWEAK was as potent as epidermal growth factor (EGF) (a prototypical astrocyte mitogen) in mediating astrocyte proliferation. However, its mitogenic activity was delayed compared with that of EGF, suggesting distinct mechanisms of action. Using cell signaling pathway inhibitors, neutralizing antibodies, and protein assays, we further show that the mitogenic activity of TWEAK on primary astrocytes requires stimulation of the transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) and of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway through extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. In aggregates, our data demonstrate that TWEAK acts as a potent astrocyte mitogen through the induction of a TGF-α/EGFR signaling pathway. We anticipate that description of such a mechanism may allow novel approaches to human pathologies associated with astrocyte proliferation.

  1. Low-level transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the auricular branch of vagus nerve ameliorates left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction by downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and transforming growth factor β1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Lilei; Huang, Bing; Wang, Songyun; Liao, Kai; Saren, Gaowa; Zhou, Xiaoya; Jiang, Hong

    2015-04-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation improves left ventricular (LV) remodeling by downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Our previous study found that low-level transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (LL-TS) could be substituted for vagus nerve stimulation to reverse cardiac remodeling. So, we hypothesize that LL-TS could ameliorate LV remodeling by regulation of MMP-9 and TGF-β1 after myocardial infarction (MI). Twenty-two beagle dogs were randomly divided into a control group (MI was induced by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery, n = 8), an LL-TS group (MI with long-term intermittent LL-TS, n = 8), and a normal group (sham ligation without stimulation, n = 6). At the end of 6 weeks follow-up, LL-TS significantly reduced LV end-systolic and end-diastolic dimensions, improved ejection fraction and ratio of early (E) to late (A) peak mitral inflow velocity. LL-TS attenuated interstitial fibrosis and collagen degradation in the noninfarcted myocardium compared with the control group. Elevated level of MMP-9 and TGF-β1 in LV tissue and peripheral plasma were diminished in the LL-TS treated dogs. LL-TS improves cardiac function and prevents cardiac remodeling in the late stages after MI by downregulation of MMP-9 and TGF-β1 expression.

  2. Interstitial space and collagen alterations of the developing rat diaphragm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosselin, L. E.; Martinez, D. A.; Vailas, A. C.; Sieck, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of growth on the relative interstitial space [%total cross-sectional area (CSA)] and collagen content of the rat diaphragm muscle was examined at postnatal ages of 0, 7, 14, and 21 days as well as in adult males. The proportion of interstitial space relative to total muscle CSA was determined by computerized image analysis of lectin-stained cross sections of diaphragm muscle. To assess collagen content and extent of collagen maturation (i.e., cross-linking), high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis was used to measure hydroxyproline concentration and the nonreducible collagen cross-link hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), respectively. At birth, interstitial space accounted for approximately 47% of total diaphragm muscle CSA. During postnatal growth, the relative contribution of interstitial space decreased such that by adulthood the interstitial space accounted for approximately 18% of total muscle CSA. The change in relative interstitial space occurred without a concomitant change in hydroxyproline concentration. However, the concentration of HP markedly increased with age such that the adult diaphragm contained approximately 17 times more HP than at birth. These results indicate that during development the relative CSA occupied by interstitial space decreases as muscle fiber size increases. However, the reduction in relative interstitial space is not associated with a change in collagen concentration. Thus collagen density in the interstitial space may increase with age. It is possible that the observed changes in relative interstitial space and collagen influence the passive length-force properties of the diaphragm.

  3. Role of Merlin in the Growth and Transformation of Arachnoidal Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Cellular targets of the oncoproteins encoded by the cancer associated human papillomaviruses . Princess Takamatsu Symp 22: 239–248, 1991 18. Bostrom J, Meyer...strategy is to isolate and immortalize human meningioma and arachnoidal cell lines, characterize the expression of merlin in these in vitro systems and to...with the human papillomavirus E6/E7 oncogene (Months 1-6). Meningioma cell lines are very resilient to growth in culture, undergoing irreversible

  4. Mechanisms of Integrin-Mediated Growth Control in Normal, Transformed, and Neoplastic Breast Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    in these processes may permit development of therapeutics which will inhibit the growth or metastasis of breast cancer cells. C. Purpose of the...isolation of breast cells (BC). These samples were removed from patients undergoing surgery at Swedish Hospital solely for diagnostic or therapeutic ... mammoplasty tissue supplied by Dr. Ron Tickman. Breast epithelial cells were isolated according to published protocols (Taylor-Papadimitriou and Stampfer, 7

  5. Abietane diterpenoids from Salvia sclarea transformed roots as growth inhibitors of pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp.

    PubMed

    Kuźma, Łukasz; Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward; Wysokińska, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Amoebae from the genus Acanthamoeba are known agents leading to various diseases such as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system, amoebic keratitis (AK), chronic eye infection, amoebic pneumitis (AP), chronic lung infection, and skin infections. It is known that various synthetic anti-Acanthamoeba substances are ineffective. Therefore, other substances, e.g., natural plant compounds, are the focus of biological investigations regarding anti-parasite activity. In this work, the ability of four abietane diterpenoids (ferruginol, salvipisone, aethiopinone, and 1-oxo-aethiopinone) to inhibit Acanthamoeba growth is reported. All investigated compounds were active against Acanthamoeba growing in vitro. Among them, ferruginol demonstrated the highest activity against Acanthamoeba. This compound inhibited Acanthamoeba growth by about 72% in a 3-day exposure period (IC50 17.45 μM), while aethiopinone and 1-oxo-aethiopinone demonstrated this activity at the level of 55-56%. Salvipisone reduced the growth of Acanthamoeba in vitro culture by 39%. For this compound, the value of IC50 was 701.94 μM after 72 h of exposure.

  6. Is an immune reaction required for malignant transformation and cancer growth?

    PubMed

    Prehn, Richmond T; Prehn, Liisa M

    2012-07-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that probably all malignant mouse cells, even those of spontaneous sporadic cancers, are endowed with tumor-specific antigens. Stimulation of cancer growth, rather than inhibition by the immune reaction, is seemingly the prevalent effect in the animal of origin (the autochthonous animal). Small initial dosages of even strong tumor antigens tend to produce stimulatory immune reactions rather than tumor inhibition in any animal. Thus, an immune response at a low level may be an essential growth-driving feature of nascent cancers, and this may be why all cancers apparently have tumor-specific antigens. Inasmuch as a low level of immunity is stimulatory to tumor growth while larger dosages are inhibitory, immuno-selection via this low response may tend to keep the antitumor immune reaction weak and at a nearly maximal stimulatory level throughout most of a tumor's existence. These facts suggest that both suppression of tumor immunity and a heightened immune reaction might each be therapeutic although very contrasting modalities.

  7. R7 Photoreceptor Axon Growth Is Temporally Controlled by the Transcription Factor Ttk69, Which Inhibits Growth in Part by Promoting Transforming Growth Factor-β/Activin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kniss, Jonathan S.; Holbrook, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Work on axon growth has classically focused on understanding how extrinsic cues control growth cone dynamics independent of the cell body. However, more recently, neuron-intrinsic transcription factors have been shown to influence both normal and regenerative axon growth, suggesting that understanding their mechanism of action is of clinical importance. We are studying axon targeting in the Drosophila visual system and here show that the BTB/POZ zinc-finger transcription factor Tramtrack69 (Ttk69) plays an instructive role in inhibiting the growth of R7 photoreceptor axon terminals. Although ttk69 mutant R7 axons project to the correct medullar target layer, M6, their terminals fail to remain retinotopically restricted and instead grow laterally within M6. This overgrowth is not caused by an inability to be repelled by neighboring R7 axons or by an inability to recognize and initiate synapse formation with postsynaptic targets. The overgrowth is progressive and occurs even if contact between ttk69 mutant R7 axons and their normal target layer is disrupted. Ttk69 is first expressed in wild-type R7s after their axons have reached the medulla; ttk69 mutant R7 axon terminal overgrowth begins shortly after this time point. We find that expressing Ttk69 prematurely in R7s collapses their growth cones and disrupts axon extension, indicating that Ttk69 plays an instructive role in this process. A TGF-β/Activin pathway was shown previously to inhibit R7 axon terminal growth. We find that Ttk69 is required for normal activation of this pathway but that Ttk69 likely also inhibits R7 axon growth by a TGF-β/Activin-independent mechanism. PMID:23345225

  8. Calcium concentration dependent collagen mineralization.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xufeng; Fan, Rui; Tian, Feng; Guo, Xiaolin; Li, Ping; Feng, Qingling; Fan, Yubo

    2017-04-01

    Mineralization of collagen fibrils is a regular combination process of organic and mineral components mainly involving calcium, phosphate and collagen. We report the influence of calcium to the self-assembly of collagen by changing the concentration of calcium ion in the process of mineralization. Low concentration of calcium results in the well collagen self-assembly while poor mineral crystallization. Relatively, high concentration of calcium can hinder collagen self-assembly, whereas it is benefited to mineral crystallization. We also reveal that collagen self-assembly happens in advance of the formation of better mineral crystals. These results interpret the mechanism of collagen mineralization further. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Strain transformation between tectonic extrusion and crustal thickening in the growth of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Li, Y.; Sun, Y.; Shen, X.

    2017-12-01

    The Indo-Eurasian continental collision since 50 Ma has thickened the crust to raise the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau and driven lateral extrusion of Asian lithospheric blocks to affect Cenozoic tectonics in central and east Asia. The relative roles of crustal thickening and tectonic extrusion, and the strain partitioning between them over time and space, remain controversial. We have analyzed the strain rates using GPS velocities, and correlated the results with vertical motion derived from precise leveling. We found that tectonic extrusion largely transforms to crustal thickening near the margins of the Tibetan Plateau. Near the NW margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the shear stain transforms to compressive strain, consistent with neotectonic studies that indicate crustal shortening and uplift. Around the SE margin, shear stain largely terminates in the southern Yunnan province of China. The present-day crustal motion in SE Tibetan Plateau can be well explained by gravitational spreading without invoking plate-edge push as envisioned in the tectonic extrusion model. Using data collected from local seismic arrays, we derived receiver functions to image the lithospheric structures across the Tibetan Plateau and the Alashan block to its north and the Ordos block to its east. Our results indicate that the mantle lithosphere of these bounding Asian blocks has not been reworked by Tibetan tectonics; instead they have acted as restrictive walls to the growing Tibetan Plateau. Our finite element modeling shows that crustal deformation along the margins of the Tibetan Plateau are consistent with the notion that the east- and southeastward extrusion of the Tibetan lithosphere is largely confined to the Tibetan Plateau because of the restrictive bounding blocks of the Asian lithosphere. Thus the tectonic impact of the Indo-Eurasian collision on the Cenozoic Asian tectonics may not be as extensive as previously thought.

  10. Phosphorylation of NFAT3 by CDK3 induces cell transformation and promotes tumor growth in skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, T; Zhu, J J; Huang, S; Peng, C; He, S; Du, J; Hong, R; Chen, X; Bode, A M; Jiang, W; Dong, Z; Zheng, D

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family proteins are transcription factors that regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other genes during the immune response. Although the NFAT proteins have been extensively investigated in the immune system, their role in cancer progression remains controversial. Here, we report that NFAT3 is highly expressed in various skin cancer cell lines and tumor tissues. Knockdown of endogenous NFAT3 expression by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation, colony formation and anchorage-independent cell growth. Furthermore, results of the mammalian two-hybrid assay showed that cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (CDK3) directly interacted with NFAT3 and phosphorylated NFAT3 at serine 259 (Ser259), which enhanced the transactivation and transcriptional activity of NFAT3. The phosphorylation site of NFAT3 was critical for epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated cell transformation of the HaCaT immortalized skin cell line and mutation of NFAT3 at Ser259 led to a reduction of colony formation in soft agar. We also found that overexpressing wildtype NFAT3, but not mutant NFAT3-S259A, promoted A431 xenograft tumor growth. Importantly, we showed that CDK3, NFAT3 and phosphorylated NFAT3-Ser259 were highly expressed in skin cancer compared with normal skin tissues. These results provided evidence supporting the oncogenic potential of NFAT3 and suggested that CDK3-mediated phosphorylation of NFAT3 has an important role in skin tumorigenesis. PMID:27893713

  11. Generation and activity of a humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively neutralizes the epidermal growth factor receptor ligands transforming growth factor-α and epiregulin.

    PubMed

    Beidler, Catherine B; Petrovan, Ramona J; Conner, Elaine M; Boyles, Jeffrey S; Yang, Derek D; Harlan, Shannon M; Chu, Shaoyou; Ellis, Bernice; Datta-Mannan, Amita; Johnson, Robert L; Stauber, Anja; Witcher, Derrick R; Breyer, Matthew D; Heuer, Josef G

    2014-05-01

    At least seven distinct epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligands bind to and activate the EGF receptor (EGFR). This activation plays an important role in the embryo and in the maintenance of adult tissues. Importantly, pharmacologic EGFR inhibition also plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of diverse disease states, especially cancer. The roles of specific EGFR ligands are poorly defined in these disease states. Accumulating evidence suggests a role for transforming growth factor α (TGFα) in skin, lung, and kidney disease. To explore the role of Tgfa, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb41) that binds to and neutralizes human Tgfa with high affinity (KD = 36.5 pM). The antibody also binds human epiregulin (Ereg) (KD = 346.6 pM) and inhibits ligand induced myofibroblast cell proliferation (IC50 values of 0.52 and 1.12 nM for human Tgfa and Ereg, respectively). In vivo, a single administration of the antibody to pregnant mice (30 mg/kg s.c. at day 14 after plug) or weekly administration to neonate mice (20 mg/kg s.c. for 4 weeks) phenocopy Tgfa knockout mice with curly whiskers, stunted growth, and expansion of the hypertrophic zone of growth plate cartilage. Humanization of this monoclonal antibody to a human IgG4 antibody (LY3016859) enables clinical development. Importantly, administration of the humanized antibody to cynomolgus monkeys is absent of the skin toxicity observed with current EGFR inhibitors used clinically and no other pathologies were noted, indicating that neutralization of Tgfa could provide a relatively safe profile as it advances in clinical development.

  12. Platelet-derived growth factor β-receptor, transforming growth factor β type I receptor, and CD44 protein modulate each other's signaling and stability.

    PubMed

    Porsch, Helena; Mehić, Merima; Olofsson, Berit; Heldin, Paraskevi; Heldin, Carl-Henrik

    2014-07-11

    Growth factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), are key regulators of cellular functions, including proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Growth factor signaling is modulated by context-dependent cross-talk between different signaling pathways. We demonstrate in this study that PDGF-BB induces phosphorylation of Smad2, a downstream mediator of the canonical TGFβ pathway, in primary dermal fibroblasts. The PDGF-BB-mediated Smad2 phosphorylation was dependent on the kinase activities of both TGFβ type I receptor (TβRI) and PDGF β-receptor (PDGFRβ), and it was prevented by inhibitory antibodies against TGFβ. Inhibition of the activity of the TβRI kinase greatly reduced the PDGF-BB-dependent migration in dermal fibroblasts. Moreover, we demonstrate that the receptors for PDGF-BB and TGFβ interact physically in primary dermal fibroblasts and that stimulation with PDGF-BB induces internalization not only of PDGFRβ but also of TβRI. In addition, silencing of PDGFRβ by siRNA decreased the stability of TβRI and delayed TGFβ-induced signaling. We further show that the hyaluronan receptor CD44 interacts with both PDGFRβ and TβRI. Depletion of CD44 by siRNA increased signaling via PDGFRβ and TβRI by stabilizing the receptor proteins. Our data suggest that cross-talk between PDGFRβ and TβRI occurs in dermal fibroblasts and that CD44 negatively modulates signaling via these receptors. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Platelet-derived Growth Factor β-Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor β Type I Receptor, and CD44 Protein Modulate Each Other's Signaling and Stability*

    PubMed Central

    Porsch, Helena; Mehić, Merima; Olofsson, Berit; Heldin, Paraskevi; Heldin, Carl-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Growth factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), are key regulators of cellular functions, including proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Growth factor signaling is modulated by context-dependent cross-talk between different signaling pathways. We demonstrate in this study that PDGF-BB induces phosphorylation of Smad2, a downstream mediator of the canonical TGFβ pathway, in primary dermal fibroblasts. The PDGF-BB-mediated Smad2 phosphorylation was dependent on the kinase activities of both TGFβ type I receptor (TβRI) and PDGF β-receptor (PDGFRβ), and it was prevented by inhibitory antibodies against TGFβ. Inhibition of the activity of the TβRI kinase greatly reduced the PDGF-BB-dependent migration in dermal fibroblasts. Moreover, we demonstrate that the receptors for PDGF-BB and TGFβ interact physically in primary dermal fibroblasts and that stimulation with PDGF-BB induces internalization not only of PDGFRβ but also of TβRI. In addition, silencing of PDGFRβ by siRNA decreased the stability of TβRI and delayed TGFβ-induced signaling. We further show that the hyaluronan receptor CD44 interacts with both PDGFRβ and TβRI. Depletion of CD44 by siRNA increased signaling via PDGFRβ and TβRI by stabilizing the receptor proteins. Our data suggest that cross-talk between PDGFRβ and TβRI occurs in dermal fibroblasts and that CD44 negatively modulates signaling via these receptors. PMID:24860093

  14. Collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rosloniec, Edward F; Cremer, Michael; Kang, Andrew H; Myers, Linda K; Brand, David D

    2010-04-01

    The mouse model collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a widely studied autoimmune model of rheumatoid arthritis. In this model, autoimmune arthritis is induced by immunization with type II collagen (CII) emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant. This unit describes the steps necessary for the acquisition, handling, and preparation of CII, in addition to the selection of mouse strains, proper immunization technique, and methods for evaluation of the incidence and severity of arthritis. In this model, the first signs of arthritis appear approximately 21 to 28 days after immunization. The protocols in this unit should provide the investigator with all the necessary information required to reproducibly induce a high incidence of CIA in genetically susceptible strains of mice, and to critically evaluate the pathology of the disease. (c) 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. ROLES OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF-A) IN MEDIATION OF DIOXIN (TCDD)-INDUCED DELAYS IN DEVELOPMENT OF THE MOUSE MAMMARY GLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Roles of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Transforming Growth Factor-alpha (TGF-a) in Mediation of Dioxin (TCDD)-Induced Delays in Development of the Mouse Mammary Gland.
    Suzanne E. Fenton, Barbara Abbott, Lamont Bryant, and Angela Buckalew. U.S. EPA, NHEERL, Reproductive Tox...

  16. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) in physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Marek, Bogdan; Borgiel-Marek, Halina; Kos-Kudła, Beata

    2013-01-01

    This review describes precisely the consequence of TGFβ1 prevalence in the organism, and its significant influence on physiological and pathophysiological processes. Organ and tissue distinctiveness hinder unambiguous characterisation of the cytokine. However, there are constant functions of TGFβ1 inducing no controversy: it participates in foetal development, control of cell growth and differentiation, induces fibrosis and scar formation (the process of 'wound healing'), causes the suppression of immune response, is involved in angiogenesis, the development of tumours, and inflammatory processes. Thus, TGFβ1 is a multifunctional cytokine. There are three fundamental directions of its activities: I. TGFβ1 regulates cell proliferation, growth, differentiation and cells movement. II. TGFβ1 has immunomodulatory effects. III. TGFβ1 has profibrogenic effects. TGFβ1 action can be local and systemic. This review describes TGFβ1 in pathology: colitis ulcerosa, Crohn's disease, coeliac disease, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy and diabetic foot, pulmonary hypertension, and Alzheimer's disease. TGFβ1 and its receptors are also of interest to endocrinologists. Lack of TGFβ1-dependent growth control may result in oncogenesis: papillary, follicular and anaplastic thyroid cancers, prostate, breast and uterine cervical cancer, oesophagus, gastric, colorectal and liver cancers, NSCLC, and malignant melanoma. Excessive TGFβ1 activity is an integral part of the fibrotic processes occurring in the response to injury. An increased TGFβ1 expression has been observed in patients with pulmonary, kidney, and liver fibrosis. In chronic hepatitis, the prolonged stimulation of hepatic stellate cells being the result of chronic damage to hepatocytes results in the release of profibrogenic abundant factors such as TGFβ1 and leads to the development of liver cirrhosis. The results of experimental procedures and treatment known as anti-TGFβ1 strategy acting against the

  17. Biological safety of fish (tilapia) collagen.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kohei; Igawa, Kazunari; Sugimoto, Kouji; Yoshizawa, Yuu; Yanagiguchi, Kajiro; Ikeda, Takeshi; Yamada, Shizuka; Hayashi, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Marine collagen derived from fish scales, skin, and bone has been widely investigated for application as a scaffold and carrier due to its bioactive properties, including excellent biocompatibility, low antigenicity, and high biodegradability and cell growth potential. Fish type I collagen is an effective material as a biodegradable scaffold or spacer replicating the natural extracellular matrix, which serves to spatially organize cells, providing them with environmental signals and directing site-specific cellular regulation. This study was conducted to confirm the safety of fish (tilapia) atelocollagen for use in clinical application. We performed in vitro and in vivo biological studies of medical materials to investigate the safety of fish collagen. The extract of fish collagen gel was examined to clarify its sterility. All present sterility tests concerning bacteria and viruses (including endotoxin) yielded negative results, and all evaluations of cell toxicity, sensitization, chromosomal aberrations, intracutaneous reactions, acute systemic toxicity, pyrogenic reactions, and hemolysis were negative according to the criteria of the ISO and the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. The present study demonstrated that atelocollagen prepared from tilapia is a promising biomaterial for use as a scaffold in regenerative medicine.

  18. Biological Safety of Fish (Tilapia) Collagen

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kohei; Sugimoto, Kouji; Yoshizawa, Yuu; Yanagiguchi, Kajiro

    2014-01-01

    Marine collagen derived from fish scales, skin, and bone has been widely investigated for application as a scaffold and carrier due to its bioactive properties, including excellent biocompatibility, low antigenicity, and high biodegradability and cell growth potential. Fish type I collagen is an effective material as a biodegradable scaffold or spacer replicating the natural extracellular matrix, which serves to spatially organize cells, providing them with environmental signals and directing site-specific cellular regulation. This study was conducted to confirm the safety of fish (tilapia) atelocollagen for use in clinical application. We performed in vitro and in vivo biological studies of medical materials to investigate the safety of fish collagen. The extract of fish collagen gel was examined to clarify its sterility. All present sterility tests concerning bacteria and viruses (including endotoxin) yielded negative results, and all evaluations of cell toxicity, sensitization, chromosomal aberrations, intracutaneous reactions, acute systemic toxicity, pyrogenic reactions, and hemolysis were negative according to the criteria of the ISO and the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. The present study demonstrated that atelocollagen prepared from tilapia is a promising biomaterial for use as a scaffold in regenerative medicine. PMID:24809058

  19. Unique Collagen Fibers for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Benayahu, Dafna; Sharabi, Mirit; Pomeraniec, Leslie; Awad, Lama; Haj-Ali, Rami; Benayahu, Yehuda

    2018-01-01

    The challenge to develop grafts for tissue regeneration lies in the need to obtain a scaffold that will promote cell growth in order to form new tissue at a trauma-damaged site. Scaffolds also need to provide compatible mechanical properties that will support the new tissue and facilitate the desired physiological activity. Here, we used natural materials to develop a bio-composite made of unique collagen embedded in an alginate hydrogel material. The collagen fibers used to create the building blocks exhibited a unique hyper-elastic behavior similar to that of natural human tissue. The prominent mechanical properties, along with the support of cell adhesion affects cell shape and supports their proliferation, consequently facilitating the formation of a new tissue-like structure. The current study elaborates on these unique collagen fibers, focusing on their structure and biocompatibility, in an in vitro model. The findings suggest it as a highly appropriate material for biomedical applications. The promising in vitro results indicate that the distinctive collagen fibers could serve as a scaffold that can be adapted for tissue regeneration, in support of healing processes, along with maintaining tissue mechanical properties for the new regenerate tissue formation. PMID:29570651

  20. Transforming growth factors-β are not good biomarkers of chemopreventive efficacy in a preclinical breast cancer model system

    PubMed Central

    Zujewski, JoAnne; Vaughn-Cooke, Anika; Flanders, Kathleen C; Eckhaus, Michael A; Lubet, Ronald A; Wakefield, Lalage M

    2001-01-01

    Using a carcinogen-initiated rat model of mammary tumorigenesis, we tested the hypothesis that transforming growth factor (TGF)-βs are useful biomarkers of chemopreventive efficacy in the breast. The chemopreventive agents tested were tamoxifen and the retinoids 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA) and N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR), because both antiestrogens and retinoids have previously been shown to upregulate TGF-βs in vitro. Despite demonstrable chemopreventive efficacy in this model, none of these agents, alone or in combination, had any significant impact on the expression of TGF-βs in the mammary ductal epithelium or periductal stroma as determined by immunohistochemistry. These data suggest that TGF-βs are not likely to be useful biomarkers of chemopreventive efficacy in a clinical setting. PMID:11250748

  1. Preliminary studies on the effects of orally-administered Transforming Growth Factor-beta on protozoan diseases in mice.

    PubMed

    Namangala, Boniface; Inoue, Noboru; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2009-08-01

    Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1) is a pleiotropic cytokine with both pro- and antiinflammatory properties, depending on its environment and concentration. The present study evaluated the effects of orally-delivered TGF-beta1 on mice parenterally-infected with various protozoan parasites. We report that while orally-administered TGF-beta1 seems to confer partial protection against murine chronic babesiosis and acute trypanosomosis, no beneficial clinical effects were observed against acute babesiosis, malaria or toxoplasmosis. Taken together, these preliminary data suggest that the systemic effects conferred by exogenous TGF-beta1 could be parasite species-specific. The variations in different parasitic infections could be due to (i) intrinsic differences between parasite species and/or strains in their ability to induce production of immunosuppressive molecules and/or (ii) differences in mechanisms governing host protection against different parasitic infections.

  2. Uric acid and transforming growth factor in fructose-induced production of reactive oxygen species in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Maarman, Gerald J.; Ojuka, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of fructose, a major constituent of the modern diet, has raised increasing concern about the effects of fructose on health. Research suggests that excessive intake of fructose (>50 g/d) causes hyperuricemia, insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysfunction, de novo lipogenesis by the liver, and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in muscle. In a number of tissues, uric acid has been shown to stimulate the production of ROS via activation of transforming growth factor β1 and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 4. The role of uric acid in fructose-induced production of ROS in skeletal muscle, however, has not been investigated. This review examines the evidence for fructose-induced production of ROS in skeletal muscle, highlights proposed mechanisms, and identifies gaps in current knowledge. PMID:26946251

  3. In situ electron microscope study of the phase transformation, structure and growth of thin Te1-xSex films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermaak, J. S.; Raubenheimer, D.

    1988-01-01

    An in-situ electron microscope technique was utilized to observe directly the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transformation, the isothermal growth rates, as well as the orientation and structure of the recrystallized films for the Te1-xSex alloy system for x=0.2, 0.3 and 0.4. Activation energies of E=0.91, 0.93 and 0.96 eV and crystallization temperatures of Tc=-14, 81.5 and 85°C for the three alloys, respectively, were found. In all three cases the crystallization process originated from single crystalline nuclei with a hexagonal structure and with the c-axis in general parallel to the substrate surface.

  4. Does Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Predict for Radiation-Induced Pneumonitis in Patients Treated for Lung Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Elizabeth S.; Kocak, Zafer; Zhou, Su-Min; Kahn, Daniel A.; Huang, Hong; Hollis, Donna R.; Light, Kim L.; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to reassess the utility of transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1) together with dosimetric and tumor parameters as a predictor for radiation pneumonitis (RP). Of the 121 patients studied, 32 (26.4%) developed grade ≥ 1 RP, and 27 (22.3%) developed grade ≥ 2 RP. For the endpoint of grade ≥ 1 RP, those with V30 > 30% and an end-RT/baseline TGF-β1 ratio ≥ 1 had a significantly higher incidence of RP than did those with V30 > 30% and an end-RT/baseline TGF-β1 ratio < 1. For most other patient groups, there were no clear associations between TGF-β1 values and rates of RP. These findings suggest that TGF-β1 is generally not predictive for RP except for the group of patients with a high V30. PMID:16979900

  5. Transforming growth factor β family members in regulation of vascular function: in the light of vascular conditional knockouts.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Lars; van Meeteren, Laurens A

    2013-05-15

    Blood vessels are composed of endothelial cells, mural cells (smooth muscle cells and pericytes) and their shared basement membrane. During embryonic development a multitude of signaling components orchestrate the formation of new vessels. The process is highly dependent on correct dosage, spacing and timing of these signaling molecules. As vessels mature some cascades remain active, albeit at very low levels, and may be reactivated upon demand. Members of the Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) protein family are strongly engaged in developmental angiogenesis but are also regulators of vascular integrity in the adult. In humans various genetic alterations within this protein family cause vascular disorders, involving disintegration of vascular integrity. Here we summarize and discuss recent data gathered from conditional and endothelial cell specific genetic loss-of-function of members of the TGF-β family in the mouse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Temporal and Spatial Expression of Transforming Growth Factor-β after Airway Remodeling to Tobacco Smoke in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Laura L.; Nguyen, Yen P.; Aspeé, Rayza; Bolton, Sarah J.; Shen, Yi-hsin; Wang, Lei; Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Smiley-Jewell, Suzette

    2016-01-01

    Airway remodeling is strongly correlated with the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, our goal was to characterize progressive structural changes in site-specific airways, along with the temporal and spatial expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in the lungs of male spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to tobacco smoke (TS). Our studies demonstrated that TS-induced changes of the airways is dependent on airway generation and exposure duration for proximal, midlevel, and distal airways. Stratified squamous epithelial cell metaplasia was evident in the most proximal airways after 4 and 12 weeks but with minimal levels of TGF-β–positive epithelial cells after only 4 weeks of exposure. In contrast, epithelial cells in midlevel and distal airways were strongly TGF-β positive at both 4 and 12 weeks of TS exposure. Airway smooth muscle volume increased significantly at 4 and 12 weeks in midlevel airways. Immunohistochemistry of TGF-β was also found to be significantly increased at 4 and 12 weeks in lymphoid tissues and alveolar macrophages. ELISA of whole-lung homogenate demonstrated that TGF-β2 was increased after 4 and 12 weeks of TS exposure, whereas TGF-β1 was decreased at 12 weeks of TS exposure. Airway levels of messenger RNA for TGF-β2, as well as platelet-derived growth factor-A, granulocyte-macrophage colony–stimulating factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor-α, growth factors regulated by TGF-β, were significantly decreased in animals after 12 weeks of TS exposure. Our data indicate that TS increases TGF-β in epithelial and inflammatory cells in connection with airway remodeling, although the specific role of each TGF-β isoform remains to be defined in TS-induced airway injury and disease. PMID:26637070

  7. Recombinant collagen for animal product-free dextran microcarriers.

    PubMed

    Dame, Michael K; Varani, James

    2008-01-01

    Manufacturers of vaccines and other biologicals are under increasing pressure from regulatory agencies to develop production methods that are completely animal-component-free. In order to comply with this demand, alternative cell culture substrates to those now on the market, primarily collagen or gelatin, must be found. In this paper, we have tested a number of possible substitutes including recombinant collagen, a 100-kDa recombinant gelatin fragment and a peptide derived from a cell-binding region of type I collagen. The small 15-amino acid peptide did not support attachment of human fibroblasts in monolayer culture. The 100-kDa gelatin fragment supported cell attachment in monolayer culture, but was significantly less active than intact porcine gelatin. Recombinant type I collagen was as successful in promoting cell attachment as native collagen, and both were more effective than porcine gelatin. Based on these data, dextran microspheres were treated with the same attachment proteins--porcine gelatin, native collagen, or recombinant collagen. The same trends were observed as in monolayer culture. Concentrations of the recombinant collagen (as well as native collagen) supported cell attachment on dextran microspheres at concentrations as low as 0.01 microg/cm(2). Treatment of the dextran with a low level of polyethylenimine, a cationic moiety, further enhanced attachment when used in conjunction with the low concentration of recombinant collagen. Where there was increased cell attachment, increased proliferation followed. We are confident, based on these findings, that a fully recombinant substitute could replace gelatin in current microcarrier preparations without losing the cell growth benefits provided by the native protein.

  8. Understanding hygroscopic growth and phase transformation of aerosols using single particle Raman spectroscopy in an electrodynamic balance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alex K Y; Ling, T Y; Chan, Chak K

    2008-01-01

    Hygroscopic growth is one of the most fundamental properties of atmospheric aerosols. By absorbing or evaporating water, an aerosol particle changes its size, morphology, phase, chemical composition and reactivity and other parameters such as its refractive index. These changes affect the fate and the environmental impacts of atmospheric aerosols, including global climate change. The ElectroDynamic Balance (EDB) has been widely accepted as a unique tool for measuring hygroscopic properties and for investigating phase transformation of aerosols via single particle levitation. Coupled with Raman spectroscopy, an EDB/Raman system is a powerful tool that can be used to investigate both physical and chemical changes associated with the hygroscopic properties of individually levitated particles under controlled environments. In this paper, we report the use of an EDB/Raman system to investigate (1) contact ion pairs formation in supersaturated magnesium sulfate solutions; (2) phase transformation in ammonium nitrate/ammonium sulfate mixed particles; (3) hygroscopicity of organically coated inorganic aerosols; and (4) heterogeneous reactions altering the hygroscopicity of organic aerosols.

  9. Increased Growth of a Newly Established Mouse Epithelial Cell Line Transformed with HPV-16 E7 in Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    He, Lan; Law, Priscilla T Y; Boon, Siaw Shi; Zhang, Chuqing; Ho, Wendy C S; Banks, Lawrence; Wong, C K; Chan, Juliana C N; Chan, Paul K S

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence supports that infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) can interact with host and environmental risk factors to contribute to the development of cervical, oropharyngeal, and other anogenital cancers. In this study, we established a mouse epithelial cancer cell line, designated as Chinese University Papillomavirus-1 (CUP-1), from C57BL/KsJ mice through persistent expression of HPV-16 E7 oncogene. After continuous culturing of up to 200 days with over 60 passages, we showed that CUP-1 became an immortalized and transformed epithelial cell line with continuous E7 expression and persistent reduction of retinoblastoma protein (a known target of E7). This model allowed in-vivo study of interaction between HPV and co-factors of tumorigenesis in syngeneic mice. Diabetes has been shown to increase HPV pathogenicity in different pathological context. Herein, with this newly-established cell line, we uncovered that diabetes promoted CUP-1 xenograft growth in syngeneic db/db mice. In sum, we successfully established a HPV-16 E7 transformed mouse epithelial cell line, which allowed subsequent studies of co-factors in multistep HPV carcinogenesis in an immunocompetent host. More importantly, this study is the very first to demonstrate the promoting effect of diabetes on HPV-associated carcinogenesis in vivo, implicating the importance of cancer surveillance in diabetic environment.

  10. A Putatively Functional Haplotype in the Gene Encoding Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1 as a Potential Biomarker for Radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, Markus A., E-mail: mschirmer@med.uni-goettingen.d; Brockmoeller, Juergen; Rave-Fraenk, Margret

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To determine whether genetic variability in TGFB1 is related to circulating transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) plasma concentrations after radiotherapy and to radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells. Patients and Methods: Transforming growth factor-{beta}1 plasma concentrations (n = 79) were measured in patients 1 year after radiotherapy and chromosomal aberrations (n = 71) ex vivo before therapy start. Furthermore, TGF-{beta}1 secretion and apoptosis were measured in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 55 healthy volunteers. These phenotypes were analyzed in relation to five germline polymorphisms in the 5' region of the TGFB1 gene. Because of high linkage disequilibrium, these five polymorphisms reflectmore » frequent genetic variation in this region. A presumed impact of TGF-{beta}1 on DNA damage or repair was measured as micronucleus formation in 30 lymphoblastoid cell lines. Results: We identified a hypofunctional genetic haplotype termed H3 tagging the 5' region of the TGFB1 gene encoding TGF-{beta}1. H3 was associated with lower TGF-{beta}1 plasma concentrations in patients (p = 0.01) and reduced TGF-{beta}1 secretion in irradiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (p = 0.003). Furthermore, cells with H3 were less prone to induction of chromosomal aberrations (p = 0.001) and apoptosis (p = 0.003) by irradiation. The hypothesis that high TGF-{beta}1 could sensitize cells to DNA damage was further supported by increased micronuclei formation in 30 lymphoblastoid cell lines when preincubated with TGF-{beta}1 before irradiation (p = 0.04). Conclusions: On the basis of TGF-{beta}1 plasma levels and radiation sensitivity of lymphoid cells, this study revealed a putatively hypofunctional TGFB1 haplotype. The significance of this haplotype and the suggested link between TGF-{beta}1 function and DNA integrity should be further explored in other cell types, as well as other experimental and clinical conditions.« less

  11. A putatively functional haplotype in the gene encoding transforming growth factor beta-1 as a potential biomarker for radiosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Markus A; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Virsik, Patricia; Wilken, Barbara; Kühnle, Elna; Campean, Radu; Hoffmann, Arne O; Müller, Katarina; Goetze, Robert G; Neumann, Michael; Janke, Jörg H; Nasser, Fatima; Wolff, Hendrik A; Ghadimi, B Michael; Schmidberger, Heinz; Hess, Clemens F; Christiansen, Hans; Hille, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    To determine whether genetic variability in TGFB1 is related to circulating transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plasma concentrations after radiotherapy and to radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells. Transforming growth factor-β1 plasma concentrations (n=79) were measured in patients 1 year after radiotherapy and chromosomal aberrations (n=71) ex vivo before therapy start. Furthermore, TGF-β1 secretion and apoptosis were measured in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 55 healthy volunteers. These phenotypes were analyzed in relation to five germline polymorphisms in the 5' region of the TGFB1 gene. Because of high linkage disequilibrium, these five polymorphisms reflect frequent genetic variation in this region. A presumed impact of TGF-β1 on DNA damage or repair was measured as micronucleus formation in 30 lymphoblastoid cell lines. We identified a hypofunctional genetic haplotype termed H3 tagging the 5' region of the TGFB1 gene encoding TGF-β1. H3 was associated with lower TGF-β1 plasma concentrations in patients (p=0.01) and reduced TGF-β1 secretion in irradiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (p=0.003). Furthermore, cells with H3 were less prone to induction of chromosomal aberrations (p=0.001) and apoptosis (p=0.003) by irradiation. The hypothesis that high TGF-β1 could sensitize cells to DNA damage was further supported by increased micronuclei formation in 30 lymphoblastoid cell lines when preincubated with TGF-β1 before irradiation (p=0.04). On the basis of TGF-β1 plasma levels and radiation sensitivity of lymphoid cells, this study revealed a putatively hypofunctional TGFB1 haplotype. The significance of this haplotype and the suggested link between TGF-β1 function and DNA integrity should be further explored in other cell types, as well as other experimental and clinical conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sustained Delivery of Transforming Growth Factor β1 by Use of Absorbable Alginate Scaffold Enhances Rotator Cuff Healing in a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Pil; Lee, Chang-Hwa; Jung, Jae Wook; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Yong-Soo; Kim, Ja-Yeon; Park, Ga Young; Choi, Jin Hyun; Chung, Seok Won

    2018-03-01

    The failure rate for healing after rotator cuff repair is relatively high. To establish a system for sustained release of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) using an alginate scaffold and evaluate the effects of the sustained release of TGF-β1 on rotator cuff healing in a rabbit model. Controlled laboratory study. Before the in vivo animal study, a standard MTS assay was performed to evaluate cell proliferation and metabolic activity on the alginate scaffold. Additionally, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to confirm the capacity of the sustained release of TGF-β1-containing alginate scaffold. Once the in vitro studies were completed, bilateral supraspinatus tendon repairs were performed in 48 rabbits that were allocated to 3 groups (n = 16 each) (group 1, supraspinatus repair only; group 2, supraspinatus repair with TGF-β1 single injection; group 3, supraspinatus repair with TGF-β1 sustained release via an alginate-based delivery system). Biomechanical and histological analyses were performed to evaluate the quality of tendon-to-bone healing at 12 weeks after rotator cuff repair. The cell proliferation rate of the alginate scaffold was 122.30% compared with the control (fresh medium) group, which confirmed that the alginate sheet had no cytotoxicity and enhanced cell proliferation. Additionally, the level of TGF-β1 was found to increase with time on the alginate scaffold. Biomechanically, group 3 exhibited a significantly heightened ultimate failure load compared with groups 1 and 2 (group 1, 74.89 ± 29.82 N; group 2, 80.02 ± 34.42 N; group 3, 108.32 ± 32.48 N; P = .011) and more prevalent midsubstance tear compared with group 1 ( P = .028). However, no statistical differences were found in the cross-sectional area of the supraspinatus tendon (group 1, 32.74 ± 9.38; group 2, 33.76 ± 8.89; group 3, 34.80 ± 14.52; P = .882) and ultimate stress (group 1, 2.62 ± 1.13 MPa; group 2, 2.99 ± 1.81 MPa; group 3, 3.62 ± 2.24 MPa; P = .317

  13. ROLES OF THE RAF/MEK/ERK PATHWAY IN CELL GROWTH, MALIGNANT TRANSFORMATION AND DRUG RESISTANCE

    PubMed Central

    McCubrey, James A.; Steelman, Linda S.; Chappell, William H.; Abrams, Steven L.; Wong, Ellis WT.; Chang, Fumin; Lehmann, Brian; Terrian, David M.; Milella, Michele; Tafuri, Agostino; Stivala, Franca; Libra, Massimo; Basecke, Jorg; Evangelisti, Camilla; Martelli, Alberto M.; Franklin, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Growth factors and mitogens use the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade to transmit signals from their receptors to regulate gene expression and prevent apoptosis. Some components of these pathways are mutated or aberrantly expressed in human cancer (e.g., Ras, B-Raf). Mutations also occur at genes encoding upstream receptors (e.g., EGFR and Flt-3) and chimeric chromosomal translocations (e.g., BCR-ABL) which transmit their signals through these cascades. Even in the absence of obvious genetic mutations, this pathway has been reported to be activated in over 50% of acute myelogenous leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia and is also frequently activated in other cancer types (e.g., breast and prostate cancers). Importantly, this increased expression is associated with a poor prognosis. The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and Ras/PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathways interact with each other to regulate growth and in some cases tumorigenesis. For example, in some cells, PTEN mutation may contribute to suppression of the Raf/MEK/ERK cascade due to the ability of activated Akt to phosphorylate and inactivate different Rafs. Although both of these pathways are commonly thought to have anti-apoptotic and drug resistance effects on cells, they display different cell lineage specific effects. For example, Raf/MEK/ERK is usually associated with proliferation and drug resistance of hematopoietic cells, while activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK cascade is suppressed in some prostate cancer cell lines which have mutations at PTEN and express high levels of activated Akt. Furthermore the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and Ras/PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathways also interact with the p53 pathway. Some of these interactions can result in controlling the activity and subcellular localization of Bim, Bak, Bax, Puma and Noxa. Raf/MEK/ERK may promote cell cycle arrest in prostate cells and this may be regulated by p53 as restoration of wild-type p53 in p53 deficient prostate cancer cells results in their enhanced sensitivity to

  14. Stage-Specific Profiling of Transforming Growth Factor-β, Fibroblast Growth Factor and Wingless-int Signaling Pathways during Early Embryo Development in The Goat.

    PubMed

    HosseinNia, Pouria; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Hosseini, Sayyed Morteza; Hajian, Mehdi; Ostadhosseini, Somayeh; Nasiri, Mohammad Reza; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This research intends to unravel the temporal expression profiles of genes in- volved in three developmentally important signaling pathways [transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and wingless/int (WNT)] during preand peri-implan- tation goat embryo development. In this experimental study, we examined the transcripts that encoded the ligand, receptor, intracellular signal transducer and modifier, and the down- stream effector, for each signaling pathway. In vitro mature MII oocytes and embryos at three distinctive stages [8-16 cell stage, day-7 (D7) blastocysts and day-14 (D14) blas- tocysts] were separately prepared in triplicate for comparative real-time reverse tran- scriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using the selected gene sets. Most components of the three signaling pathways were present at more or less stable levels throughout the assessed oocyte and embryo developmental stages. The transcripts for TGF-β, FGF and WNT signaling pathways were all induced in unfertilized MII-oocytes. However, developing embryos showed gradual patterns of decrease in the activities of TGF-β, FGF and WNT components with renewal thereafter. The results suggested that TGF-β, FGF and WNT are maternally active signaling pathways required during earlier, rather than later, stages of preand peri- implantation goat embryo development.

  15. Augmentative effect of cyclosporin A on rat liver regeneration: influence on hepatocyte growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta(1).

    PubMed

    Morii, Y; Kawano, K; Kim, Y I; Aramaki, M; Yoshida, T; Kitano, S

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the effect of cyclosporin A (CsA) on rat liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy with reference to cytokine production. Rats were divided into two groups: those without CsA pretreatment (group 1) and those with CsA pretreatment (group 2). Animals were given olive oil vehicle or CsA (10 mg/kg) dissolved in olive oil daily by gavage from 4 to 1 days before hepatectomy. The ratio of regenerating liver weight to initial body weight in group 2 was significantly higher than that in group 1 at 72 h. Although a peak 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine labeling index was found at 24 h after hepatectomy in both groups, the peak value in the CsA-treated animals was significantly higher than in controls. In both groups, hepatocyte growth factor concentrations in both plasma and liver tissue showed maximal values at 12 h. Liver tissue values in group 2, however, were significantly higher from 1 to 12 h compared to group 1. Transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) concentrations showed minimal serial changes in group 1, while those in liver tissue of group 2 rats were significantly lower than in group 1. Plasma TGF-beta(1) concentrations did not differ. These results suggest that upregulation of hepatic regeneration with CsA pretreatment might be attributed in part to changes in production of these mitogenic and mitoinhibitory cytokines.

  16. Effects of Non-Collagenous Proteins, TGF-β1, and PDGF-BB on Viability and Proliferation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei, Fahimeh Sadat; Torshabi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    The dentin matrix servers as a reservoir of growth factors, sequestered during dentinogenesis. The aim of this study was to assess the viability and proliferation of dental pulp stem cells in the presence of dentin matrix-derived non-collagenous proteins and two growth factors; platelet-derived growth factor BB and transforming growth factor beta 1. The dental pulp cells were isolated and cultured. The dentin proteins were extracted and purified. The MTT assay was performed for assessment of cell viability and proliferation in the presence of different concentrations of dentin proteins and growth factors during 24 - 72 h post-treatment. The cells treated with 250 ng/mL dentin proteins had the best viability and proliferation ability in comparison with other concentrations (P < 0.05). The MTT assay demonstrated that cells cultured with 5 ng/mL platelet-derived growth factor BB had the highest viability at each time point as compared to other groups (P < 0.05). However, in presence of platelet-derived growth factor BB alone and in combination with transforming growth factor beta 1 and dentin proteins (10 ng/mL), significant higher viability was seen at all time points (P < 0.05). The least viability and proliferation at each growth factor concentration was seen in cells treated with combination of transforming growth factor beta 1 and dentin proteins at 72 h (P < 0.05). The results indicated that the triple combination of growth factors and matrix-derived non-collagenous proteins (especially at 10 ng/mL concentration) has mitogenic effect on dental pulp stem cells.

  17. Preparation, cell compatibility and degradability of collagen-modified poly(lactic acid).

    PubMed

    Cui, Miaomiao; Liu, Leili; Guo, Ning; Su, Ruixia; Ma, Feng

    2015-01-05

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was modified using collagen through a grafting method to improve its biocompatibility and degradability. The carboxylic group at the open end of PLA was transferred into the reactive acylchlorided group by a reaction with phosphorus pentachloride. Then, collagen-modified PLA (collagen-PLA) was prepared by the reaction between the reactive acylchlorided group and amino/hydroxyl groups on collagen. Subsequently, the structure of collagen-PLA was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and DSC analyses. Finally, some properties of collagen-PLA, such as hydrophilicity, cell compatibility and degradability were characterized. Results showed that collagen had been grafted onto the PLA with 5% graft ratio. Water contact angle and water absorption behavior tests indicated that the hydrophilicity of collagen-PLA was significantly higher than that of PLA. The cell compatibility of collagen-PLA with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (3T3) was also significantly better than PLA in terms of cell morphology and cell proliferation, and the degradability of PLA was also improved after introducing collagen. Results suggested that collagen-PLA was a promising candidate for biomedical applications.

  18. Primary hepatocyte culture in collagen gel mixture and collagen sandwich.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Jie; Liu, Hong-Ling; Guo, Hai-Tao; Wen, Hong-Wei; Liu, Jun

    2004-03-01

    To explore the methods of hepatocytes culture in a collagen gel mixture or between double layers of collagen sandwich configuration and to examine the functional and cytomorphological characteristics of cultured hepatocytes. A two-step collagenase perfusion technique was used to isolate the hepatocytes from Wistar rats or newborn Chinese experimental piglets. The isolated hepatocytes were cultured in a collagen gel mixture or between double layers of collagen sandwich configuration respectively. The former was that rat hepatocytes were mixed with type I rat tail collagen solution till gelled, and the medium was added onto the gel. The latter was that swine hepatocytes were seeded on a plate precoated with collagen gel for 24 h, then another layer of collagen gel was overlaid, resulting in a sandwich configuration. The cytomorphological characteristics, albumin secretion, and LDH-release of the hepatocytes cultured in these two models were examined. Freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were successfully mixed and fixed in collagen gel, and cultured in the gel condition. During the culture period, the urea synthesized and secreted by rat hepatocytes was detected throughout the period. Likewise, newborn experimental piglet hepatocytes were successfully fixed between the double layers of collagen gel, forming a sandwich configuration. Within a week of culture, the albumin secreted by swine hepatocytes was detected by SDS/PAGE analysis. The typical cytomorphological characteristics of the hepatocytes cultured by the above two culture models were found under a phase-contrast microscope. There was little LDH-release during the culture period. Both collagen gel mixture and double layers of collagen sandwich configuration can provide cultural conditions much closer to in vivo environment, and are helpful for maintaining specific hepatic functions and cytomorphological characteristics. A collagen gel mixture culture may be more eligible for the study of bioartificial livers.

  19. Alk5-Mediated Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling Acts Upstream of Fibroblast Growth Factor 10 To Regulate the Proliferation and Maintenance of Dental Epithelial Stem Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hu; Li, Sha; Han, Dong; Kaartinen, Vesa; Chai, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Mouse incisors grow continuously throughout life. This growth is supported by the division of dental epithelial stem cells that reside in the cervical loop region. Little is known about the maintenance and regulatory mechanisms of dental epithelial stem cells. In the present study, we investigated how transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling-mediated mesenchymal-epithelial cell interactions control dental epithelial stem cells. We designed two approaches using incisor organ culture and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse-chase experiments to identify and evaluate stem cell functions. We show that the loss of the TGF-β type I receptor (Alk5) in the cranial neural crest-derived dental mesenchyme severely affects the proliferation of TA (transit-amplifying) cells and the maintenance of dental epithelial stem cells. Incisors of Wnt1-Cre; Alk5fl/fl mice lost their ability to continue to grow in vitro. The number of BrdU label-retaining cells (LRCs) was dramatically reduced in Alk5 mutant mice. Fgf10, Fgf3, and Fgf9 signals in the dental mesenchyme were downregulated in Wnt1-Cre; Alk5fl/fl incisors. Strikingly, the addition of exogenous fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) into cultured incisors rescued dental epithelial stem cells in Wnt1-Cre; Alk5fl/fl mice. Therefore, we propose that Alk5 functions upstream of Fgf10 to regulate TA cell proliferation and stem cell maintenance and that this signaling mechanism is crucial for stem cell-mediated tooth regeneration. PMID:21402782

  20. Prominent expression of transforming growth factor beta2 gene in the chicken embryonic gonad as revealed by suppressive subtraction cloning.

    PubMed

    Hattori Ma, Masa-aki; Furuta, Hiroki; Hiyama, Yoshio; Kato, Yukio; Fujihara, Noboru

    2002-02-01

    cDNA cloning from chicken embryonic gonad subtracted from tissues of the brain, heart, liver, gizzard, mesonephros, and muscle was performed to identify growth factor genes with expression unique to embryonic ovary and testis. We obtained several cDNA clones encoding known and many unknown genes. We found for the first time that the transforming growth factor beta2 (TGF-beta2) is preferentially expressed in the chicken embryonic ovary and testis. cDNA subtraction cloning with respect to the selective expression of TGF-beta2 in the ovary and testis was further analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses of other embryonic tissues. The ontogeny of TGF-beta2 was evaluated in chicken embryonic ovary and testis. In both testis and ovary, the levels of TGF-beta2 transcripts were high during the early period of embryonic development (E7), gradually decreased until the late embryonic days (E14--E17), and then slightly increased at the last embryonic day (E21). There was no difference in the TGF-beta2 transcripts per RNA between the left and the right ovaries. TGF-beta2 may have a critical role in the regulation of the development of chicken ovarian and testicular germ cells during the embryonic period.

  1. Experimental Manipulation of Transforming Growth Factor-β Isoforms Significantly Affects Adhesion Formation in a Murine Surgical Model

    PubMed Central

    Gorvy, Dylan A.; Herrick, Sarah E.; Shah, Mamta; Ferguson, Mark W.J.

    2005-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), a multifunctional growth factor, represents three mammalian isoforms, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3. In cutaneous wound healing, combined neutralization of TGF-β1 and -β2 or addition of TGF-β3 reduces scar formation. Here, we investigated whether experimental manipulation of TGF-β isoforms reduced adhesion formation after injury to the peritoneum. Adhesions were produced in mice by surgical abrasion of adjacent serosa followed by close apposition. In the first part of this study, a detailed analysis of TGF-β isoform distribution was performed through immunolocalization. TGF-β isoforms clearly showed a unique temporal and spatial pattern of expression after peritoneal wounding. Based on this pharmacokinetic data, we next administered neutralizing antibodies to TGF-β1 and -β2 or exogenous TGF-β3 peptide by local application and intraperitoneal injection at various times before and after surgery. At day 7 after surgery, addition of neutralizing antibodies to both TGF-β1 and -β2 significantly reduced the number and size of adhesions (P < 0.05) compared with the vehicle control. By contrast, exogenous addition of TGF-β3 either had no effect or increased adhesion formation compared to the vehicle control. In conclusion, these results show that by blocking both TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 using neutralizing antibodies, it is possible to prevent abdominal adhesion formation. PMID:16192636

  2. Transforming growth factor β recruits persistent MAPK signaling to regulate long-term memory consolidation in Aplysia californica

    PubMed Central

    Shobe, Justin; Philips, Gary T.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we explore the mechanistic relationship between growth factor signaling and kinase activity that supports the protein synthesis-dependent phase of long-term memory (LTM) consolidation for sensitization of Aplysia. Specifically, we examine LTM for tail shock-induced sensitization of the tail-elicited siphon withdrawal (T-SW) reflex, a form of memory that requires both (i) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2; MAPK) activity within identified sensory neurons (SNs) that mediate the T-SW and (ii) the activation of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. We now report that repeated tail shocks that induce intermediate-term (ITM) and LTM for sensitization, also induce a sustained post-training phase of MAPK activity in SNs (lasting at least 1 h). We identified two mechanistically distinct phases of post-training MAPK: (i) an immediate phase that does not require ongoing protein synthesis or TGFβ signaling, and (ii) a sustained phase that requires both protein synthesis and extracellular TGFβ signaling. We find that LTM consolidation requires sustained MAPK, and is disrupted by inhibitors of protein synthesis and TGFβ signaling during the consolidation window. These results provide strong evidence that TGFβ signaling sustains MAPK activity as an essential mechanistic step for LTM consolidation. PMID:27084925

  3. Effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) on satellite cell activation and survival during oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Rathbone, Christopher R; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Chen, Xiaoyu K; Nevoret-Bell, Cedrine J; Rhoads, Robert P; Allen, Ronald E

    2011-09-01

    The regulation of adult skeletal muscle repair and regeneration is largely due to the contribution of resident adult myogenic precursor cells called satellite cells. The events preceding their participation in muscle repair include activation (exit from quiescence), proliferation, and differentiation. This study examined the effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) on satellite cell activation, determined whether TGF-β1 could maintain quiescence in the presence of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and whether the regulation of satellite cell activation with TGF-β1 improves the ability of satellite cells to withstand oxidative stress. The addition of TGF-β1 during early satellite cell activation (0-48 h) or during the proliferative phase (48-96 h) maintained and induced satellite cell quiescence, respectively, as determined by myogenic differentiation (MyoD) protein expression. TGF-β1 also attenuated satellite cell activation when used with HGF. Finally, the role of quiescence in protecting cells against oxidative stress was examined. TGF-β1 treatment and the low pH satellite cell preparation procedure, a technique that forestalls spontaneous activation in vitro, both enhanced survival of cultured satellite cells following hydrogen peroxide treatment. These findings indicate that TGF-β1 is capable of maintaining a