Constraints on cosmic strings due to black holes formed from collapsed cosmic string loops
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caldwell, R. R.; Gates, Evalyn
1993-01-01
The cosmological features of primordial black holes formed from collapsed cosmic string loops are studied. Observational restrictions on a population of primordial black holes are used to restrict f, the fraction of cosmic string loops which collapse to form black holes, and mu, the cosmic string mass-per-unit length. Using a realistic model of cosmic strings, we find the strongest restriction on the parameters f and mu is due to the energy density in 100MeV photons radiated by the black holes. We also find that inert black hole remnants cannot serve as the dark matter. If earlier, crude estimates of f are reliable, our results severely restrict mu, and therefore limit the viability of the cosmic string large-scale structure scenario.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bennett, David P.
1988-01-01
Cosmic strings are linear topological defects which are predicted by some grand unified theories to form during a spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition in the early universe. They are the basis for the only theories of galaxy formation aside from quantum fluctuations from inflation based on fundamental physics. In contrast to inflation, they can also be observed directly through gravitational lensing and their characterisitc microwave background anisotropy. It was recently discovered that details of cosmic string evolution are very differnt from the so-called standard model that was assumed in most of the string-induced galaxy formation calculations. Therefore, the details of galaxy formation in the cosmic string models are currently very uncertain.
Bennett, D.P.
1988-07-01
Cosmic strings are linear topological defects that are predicted by some grand unified theories to form during a spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition in the early universe. They are the basis for the only theories of galaxy formation aside from quantum fluctuations from inflation that are based on fundamental physics. In contrast to inflation, they can also be observed directly through gravitational lensing and their characteristic microwave background anistropy. It has recently been discovered by F. Bouchet and myself that details of cosmic string evolution are very different from the so-called ''standard model'' that has been assumed in most of the string induced galaxy formation calculations. Therefore, the details of galaxy formation in the cosmic string models are currently very uncertain. 29 refs., 9 figs.
Cosmic strings and superconducting cosmic strings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Copeland, Edmund
1988-01-01
The possible consequences of forming cosmic strings and superconducting cosmic strings in the early universe are discussed. Lecture 1 describes the group theoretic reasons for and the field theoretic reasons why cosmic strings can form in spontaneously broken gauge theories. Lecture 2 discusses the accretion of matter onto string loops, emphasizing the scenario with a cold dark matter dominated universe. In lecture 3 superconducting cosmic strings are discussed, as is a mechanism which leads to the formation of structure from such strings.
Steer, Daniele A.; Vachaspati, Tanmay
2011-02-15
The time-dependent metric of a cosmic string leads to an effective interaction between the string and photons--the ''gravitational Aharonov-Bohm'' effect--and causes cosmic strings to emit light. We evaluate the radiation of pairs of photons from cosmic strings and find that the emission from cusps, kinks and kink-kink collisions occurs with a flat spectrum at all frequencies up to the string scale. Further, cusps emit a beam of photons, kinks emit along a curve, and the emission at a kink-kink collision is in all directions. The emission of light from cosmic strings could provide an important new observational signature of cosmic strings that is within reach of current experiments for a range of string tensions.
Donaire, M.; Rajantie, A.
2006-03-15
We argue that cosmic strings with high winding numbers generally form in first-order gauge symmetry breaking phase transitions, and we demonstrate this using computer simulations. These strings are heavier than single-winding strings and therefore more easily observable. Their cosmological evolution may also be very different.
Semilocal cosmic string networks
Achucarro, Ana; Salmi, Petja; Urrestilla, Jon
2007-06-15
We report on a large-scale numerical study of networks of semilocal cosmic strings in flat space in the parameter regime in which they are perturbatively stable. We find a population of segments with an exponential length distribution and indications of a scaling network without significant loop formation. Very deep in the stability regime strings of superhorizon size grow rapidly and ''percolate'' through the box. We believe these should lead at late times to a population of infinite strings similar to topologically stable strings. However, the strings are very light; scalar gradients dominate the energy density, and the network has thus a global texturelike signature. As a result, the observational constraints, at least from the temperature power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background, on models predicting semilocal strings should be closer to those on global textures or monopoles, rather than on topologically stable gauged cosmic strings.
The current status of observational constraints on cosmic strings
Caldwell, R.R.
1993-10-01
The observational restrictions on the cosmic string scenario for the formation of large scale structure are evaluated. this restrictions are due to the spectrum of gravitational radiation emitted by oscillating string loops, anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background caused by the strings, and evaporating black holes formed from collapsed cosmic string loops. It is shown that the only free parameter of the scenario, the cosmic string mass-per-unit-length, {mu}, is severely restricted.
Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Krause, Axel
2006-08-15
We show that all three conditions for the cosmological relevance of heterotic cosmic strings, the right tension, stability and a production mechanism at the end of inflation, can be met in the strongly coupled M-theory regime. Whereas cosmic strings generated from weakly coupled heterotic strings have the well-known problems posed by Witten in 1985, we show that strings arising from M5-branes wrapped around 4-cycles (divisors) of a Calabi-Yau in heterotic M-theory compactifications solve these problems in an elegant fashion.
Supermassive cosmic string compactifications
Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Reina, Borja; Sousa, Kepa; Urrestilla, Jon E-mail: borja.reina@ehu.es E-mail: jon.urrestilla@ehu.es
2014-06-01
The space-time dimensions transverse to a static straight cosmic string with a sufficiently large tension (supermassive cosmic strings) are compact and typically have a singularity at a finite distance form the core. In this paper, we discuss how the presence of multiple supermassive cosmic strings in the 4d Abelian-Higgs model can induce the spontaneous compactification of the transverse space and explicitly construct solutions where the gravitational background becomes regular everywhere. We discuss the embedding of this model in N = 1 supergravity and show that some of these solutions are half-BPS, in the sense that they leave unbroken half of the supersymmetries of the model.
Weigel, H.; Quandt, M.; Graham, N.
2011-03-11
We study the quantum stabilization of a cosmic string by a heavy fermion doublet in a reduced version of the standard model. We show that charged strings, obtained by populating fermionic bound state levels, become stable if the electroweak bosons are coupled to a fermion that is less than twice as heavy as the top quark. This result suggests that extraordinarily large fermion masses or unrealistic couplings are not required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Numerically we find the most favorable string profile to be a simple trough in the Higgs vacuum expectation value of radius {approx_equal}10{sup -18} m. The vacuum remains stable in our model, because neutral strings are not energetically favored.
Stable charged cosmic strings.
Weigel, H; Quandt, M; Graham, N
2011-03-11
We study the quantum stabilization of a cosmic string by a heavy fermion doublet in a reduced version of the standard model. We show that charged strings, obtained by populating fermionic bound state levels, become stable if the electroweak bosons are coupled to a fermion that is less than twice as heavy as the top quark. This result suggests that extraordinarily large fermion masses or unrealistic couplings are not required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Numerically we find the most favorable string profile to be a simple trough in the Higgs vacuum expectation value of radius ≈10(-18) m. The vacuum remains stable in our model, because neutral strings are not energetically favored. PMID:21469786
Quantum stabilization of cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weigel, H.; Quandt, M.; Graham, N.
2015-07-01
In the standard model, stabilization of a classically unstable cosmic string may occur through the quantum fluctuations of a heavy fermion doublet. We review numerical results from a semiclassical expansion in a reduced version of the standard model. In this expansion, the leading quantum corrections emerge at one loop level for many internal degrees of freedom. The resulting vacuum polarization energy and the binding energies of occupied fermion energy levels are of the same order, and must therefore be treated on equal footing. Populating these bound states lowers the total energy compared to the same number of free fermions and assigns a charge to the string. Charged strings are already stabilized for a fermion mass only somewhat larger than the top quark mass. Though obtained in a reduced version, these results suggest that neither extraordinarily large fermion masses nor unrealistic couplings are required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Furthermore, we also review results for a quantum stabilization mechanism that prevents closed Nielsen-Olesen-type strings from collapsing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gregory, Ruth
1988-01-01
The effect of an infinite cosmic string on a cosmological background is investigated. It is found that the metric is approximately a scaled version of the empty space string metric, i.e., conical in nature. Results are used to place bounds on the amount of cylindrical gravitational radiation currently emitted by such a string. The gravitational radiation equations are then analyzed explicitly and it is shown that even initially large disturbances are rapidly damped as the expansion proceeds. The implications of the gravitational radiation background and the limitations of the quadrupole formula are discussed.
Cosmic rays from cosmic strings with condensates
Vachaspati, Tanmay
2010-02-15
We revisit the production of cosmic rays by cusps on cosmic strings. If a scalar field ('Higgs') has a linear interaction with the string world sheet, such as would occur if there is a bosonic condensate on the string, cusps on string loops emit narrow beams of very high energy Higgses which then decay to give a flux of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. The ultrahigh energy flux and the gamma to proton ratio agree with observations if the string scale is {approx}10{sup 13} GeV. The diffuse gamma ray and proton fluxes are well below current bounds. Strings that are lighter and have linear interactions with scalars produce an excess of direct and diffuse cosmic rays and are ruled out by observations, while heavier strings ({approx}10{sup 15} GeV) are constrained by their gravitational signatures. This leaves a narrow window of parameter space for the existence of cosmic strings with bosonic condensates.
Cosmic strings and galaxy formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertschinger, Edmund
1989-01-01
The cosmogonical model proposed by Zel'dovich and Vilenkin (1981), in which superconducting cosmic strings act as seeds for the origin of structure in the universe, is discussed, summarizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. Consideration is given to the formation of cosmic strings, the microscopic structure of strings, gravitational effects, cosmic string evolution, and the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Simulation results are presented in graphs, and several outstanding issues are listed and briefly characterized.
String vertex operators and cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skliros, Dimitri; Hindmarsh, Mark
2011-12-01
We construct complete sets of (open and closed string) covariant coherent state and mass eigenstate vertex operators in bosonic string theory. This construction can be used to study the evolution of fundamental cosmic strings as predicted by string theory, and is expected to serve as a self-contained prototype toy model on which realistic cosmic superstring vertex operators can be based. It is also expected to be useful for other applications where massive string vertex operators are of interest. We pay particular attention to all the normalization constants, so that these vertices lead directly to unitary S-matrix elements.
Slagter, R. J.
2010-06-23
We present a cosmic string solution in Einstein-Yang-Mills Gauss-Bonnet theory on a warped 5 dimensional space-time conform the Randall-Sundrum-2 theory. In a simplipied model, we find an exact solutions with exponential decreasing or periodic warp function. In a more general setting, where the metric- and Yang-Mills components depend on both scales and one of the YM components resides in the bulk, we find a time dependent numerical solution.
Effects of anisotropic dynamics on cosmic strings
Kunze, Kerstin E.
2011-08-01
The dynamics of cosmic strings is considered in anisotropic backgrounds. In particular, the behaviour of infinitely long straight cosmic strings and of cosmic string loops is determined. Small perturbations of a straight cosmic string are calculated. The relevance of these results is discussed with respect to the possible observational imprints of an anisotropic phase on the behaviour of a cosmic string network.
Superconducting Cosmic Strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gangui, Alejandro
2000-06-01
In the eventful early moments of the Big Bang, the emerging universe expanded and cooled rapidly. Was this great phase transition perfectly smooth? There are indications that it cannot have been--that topological defects must have formed, just as ice on a freezing pond forms plates with zig-zag boundaries between them. The leading theory holds that these defects would have been cosmic strings, curiously microscopic and massive at the same time. The theory has the rare advantage that its processes can be simulated in the laboratory; also, as astronomical measurements are refined, its predictions can be tested by observation. Alejandro Gangui describes the huge hypothetical strings and recent work that indicates that they may conduct great amounts of electrical current.
Flat wormholes from cosmic strings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clement, G.
1997-11-01
The author describes the analytical extension of certain cylindrical multi-cosmic string metrics to wormhole spacetimes with only one region at spatial infinity, and investigates in detail the geometry of asymptotically Minkowskian wormhole spacetimes generated by one or two cosmic strings. It is found that such wormholes tend to lengthen rather than shorten space travel. Possible signatures of these wormholes are briefly discussed.
Cosmic sparks from superconducting strings.
Vachaspati, Tanmay
2008-10-01
We investigate cosmic sparks from cusps on superconducting cosmic strings in light of the recently discovered millisecond radio burst by Lorimer et al.. We find that the observed duration, fluence, spectrum, and event rate can be reasonably explained by grand unification scale superconducting cosmic strings that carry currents approximately 10{5} GeV. The superconducting string model predicts an event rate that falls off only as S{-1/2}, where S is the energy flux, and hence predicts a population of very bright bursts. Other surveys, with different observational parameters, are shown to impose tight constraints on the superconducting string model. PMID:18851517
Cosmic Sparks from Superconducting Strings
Vachaspati, Tanmay
2008-10-03
We investigate cosmic sparks from cusps on superconducting cosmic strings in light of the recently discovered millisecond radio burst by Lorimer et al.. We find that the observed duration, fluence, spectrum, and event rate can be reasonably explained by grand unification scale superconducting cosmic strings that carry currents {approx}10{sup 5} GeV. The superconducting string model predicts an event rate that falls off only as S{sup -1/2}, where S is the energy flux, and hence predicts a population of very bright bursts. Other surveys, with different observational parameters, are shown to impose tight constraints on the superconducting string model.
Cosmic string induced CMB maps
Landriau, M.; Shellard, E. P. S.
2011-02-15
We compute maps of CMB temperature fluctuations seeded by cosmic strings using high resolution simulations of cosmic strings in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We create full-sky, 18 deg. and 3 deg. CMB maps, including the relevant string contribution at each resolution from before recombination to today. We extract the angular power spectrum from these maps, demonstrating the importance of recombination effects. We briefly discuss the probability density function of the pixel temperatures, their skewness, and kurtosis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba; Silk, Joseph; Brandenberger, Robert; Turok, Neil
1987-01-01
Accretion of matter onto wakes left behind by horizon-sized pieces of cosmic string is investigated, and the effects of wakes on the large-scale structure of the universe are determined. Accretion of cold matter onto wakes, the effects of a long string on fluids with finite velocity dispersion or sound speeds, the interactions between loops and wakes, and the conditions for wakes to survive disruption by loops are discussed. It is concluded that the most important wakes are those which were formed at the time of equal matter and radiation density. This leads to sheetlike overdense regions of galaxies with a mean separation in agreement with the scale of the bubbles of de Lapparent, Geller, and Huchra (1986). However, for the value of G(mu) favored from galaxy formation considerations in a universe with cold dark matter, a wake accretes matter from a distance of only about 1.5 Mpc, which is much less than the distance between the wakes.
Evolution of cosmic string networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albrecht, Andreas; Turok, Neil
1989-01-01
Results on cosmic strings are summarized including: (1) the application of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics to cosmic string evolution; (2) a simple one scale model for the long strings which has a great deal of predictive power; (3) results from large scale numerical simulations; and (4) a discussion of the observational consequences of our results. An upper bound on G mu of approximately 10(-7) emerges from the millisecond pulsar gravity wave bound. How numerical uncertainties affect this are discussed. Any changes which weaken the bound would probably also give the long strings the dominant role in producing observational consequences.
Evolution of cosmic string networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albrecht, Andreas; Turok, Neil
1989-01-01
A discussion of the evolution and observable consequences of a network of cosmic strings is given. A simple model for the evolution of the string network is presented, and related to the statistical mechanics of string networks. The model predicts the long string density throughout the history of the universe from a single parameter, which researchers calculate in radiation era simulations. The statistical mechanics arguments indicate a particular thermal form for the spectrum of loops chopped off the network. Detailed numerical simulations of string networks in expanding backgrounds are performed to test the model. Consequences for large scale structure, the microwave and gravity wave backgrounds, nucleosynthesis and gravitational lensing are calculated.
Cosmic necklaces from string theory
Leblond, Louis; Wyman, Mark
2007-06-15
We present the properties of a cosmic superstring network in the scenario of flux compactification. An infinite family of strings, the (p,q) strings, are allowed to exist. The flux compactification leads to a string tension that is periodic in p. Monopoles, appearing here as beads on a string, are formed in certain interactions in such networks. This allows bare strings to become cosmic necklaces. We study network evolution in this scenario, outlining what conditions are necessary to reach a cosmologically viable scaling solution. We also analyze the physics of the beads on a cosmic necklace, and present general conditions for which they will be cosmologically safe, leaving the network's scaling undisturbed. In particular, we find that a large average loop size is sufficient for the beads to be cosmologically safe. Finally, we argue that loop formation will promote a scaling solution for the interbead distance in some situations.
CMB temperature bispectrum induced by cosmic strings
Hindmarsh, Mark; Ringeval, Christophe; Suyama, Teruaki
2009-10-15
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) bispectrum of the temperature anisotropies induced by a network of cosmic strings is derived for small angular scales, under the assumption that the principal cause of temperature fluctuations is the Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect. We provide analytical expressions for all isosceles triangle configurations in Fourier space. Their overall amplitude is amplified as the inverse cube of the angle and diverges for flat triangles. The isosceles configurations generically lead to a negative bispectrum with a power-law decay l{sup -6} for large multipole l. However, collapsed triangles are found to be associated with a positive bispectrum whereas the squeezed triangles still exhibit negative values. We then compare our analytical estimates to a direct computation of the bispectrum from a set of 300 statistically independent temperature maps obtained from Nambu-Goto cosmic string simulations in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe. We find good agreement for the overall amplitude, the power-law behavior, and the angle dependency of the various triangle configurations. At l{approx}500 the cosmic string Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect contributes approximately the same equilateral CMB bispectrum amplitude as an inflationary model with |f{sub NL}{sup loc}|{approx_equal}10{sup 3}, if the strings contribute about 10% of the temperature power spectrum at l=10. Current bounds on f{sub NL} are not derived using cosmic string bispectrum templates, and so our f{sub NL} estimate cannot be used to derive bounds on strings. However it does suggest that string bispectrum templates should be included in the search of CMB non-Gaussianities.
CMB temperature bispectrum induced by cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hindmarsh, Mark; Ringeval, Christophe; Suyama, Teruaki
2009-10-01
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) bispectrum of the temperature anisotropies induced by a network of cosmic strings is derived for small angular scales, under the assumption that the principal cause of temperature fluctuations is the Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect. We provide analytical expressions for all isosceles triangle configurations in Fourier space. Their overall amplitude is amplified as the inverse cube of the angle and diverges for flat triangles. The isosceles configurations generically lead to a negative bispectrum with a power-law decay ℓ-6 for large multipole ℓ. However, collapsed triangles are found to be associated with a positive bispectrum whereas the squeezed triangles still exhibit negative values. We then compare our analytical estimates to a direct computation of the bispectrum from a set of 300 statistically independent temperature maps obtained from Nambu-Goto cosmic string simulations in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe. We find good agreement for the overall amplitude, the power-law behavior, and the angle dependency of the various triangle configurations. At ℓ˜500 the cosmic string Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect contributes approximately the same equilateral CMB bispectrum amplitude as an inflationary model with |fNLloc|≃103, if the strings contribute about 10% of the temperature power spectrum at ℓ=10. Current bounds on fNL are not derived using cosmic string bispectrum templates, and so our fNL estimate cannot be used to derive bounds on strings. However it does suggest that string bispectrum templates should be included in the search of CMB non-Gaussianities.
Ultrahigh-energy particles from cosmic strings
Bhattacharjee, P. . Astronomy and Astrophysics Center Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )
1991-02-01
The idea of production of ultrahigh-energy particles in the present universe due to annihilation or collapse of topological defects is discussed. Topological defects, formed in symmetry-breaking phase transitions in the early universe, can survive till today owing to their topological stability. However, under certain circumstances, topological defects may be physically destroyed. When topological defects are destroyed, the energy contained in the defects can be released in the form of massive gauge- and Higgs bosons of the underlying spontaneously broken gauge theory. Subsequent decay of these massive particles can give rise to energetic particles ranging up to an energy on the order of the mass of the original particles released from the defects. This may give us a natural'' mechanism of production of extremely energetic cosmic ray particles in the universe today, without the need for any acceleration mechanism. To illustrate this idea, I describe in detail the calculation of the expected ultrahigh-energy proton spectrum due to a specific process which involves collapse or multiple self-intersections of a class of closed cosmic string loops formed in a phase transition at a grand unification energy scale. I discuss the possibility that some of the highest-energy cosmic ray particles are of this origin. By comparing with the observational results on the ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, we derive an upper limit to the average fraction of the total energy in all primary'' cosmic string loops that may be released in the form of particles due to collapse or multiple self-intersections of these loops. No nuclei such as {alpha}'s or Fe's are in the spectrum. 43 refs., 3 figs.
Cosmic string catalysis of skyrmion decay
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gregory, Ruth; Davis, Anne-Christine; Brandenberger, Robert
1988-01-01
The Callan-Witten picture is developed for monopole catalyzed skyrmion decay in order to analyze the corresponding cosmic string scenario. It is discovered that cosmic strings (both ordinary and superconducting) can catalyze proton decay, but that this catalysis only occurs on the scale of the core of the string. In order to do this we have to develop a vortex model for the superconducting string. An argument is also given for the difference in the enhancement factors for monopoles and strings.
Cosmic strings from supersymmetric flat directions
Cui Yanou; Morrissey, David E.; Martin, Stephen P.; Wells, James D.
2008-02-15
Flat directions are a generic feature of the scalar potential in supersymmetric gauge field theories. They can arise, for example, from D-terms associated with an extra Abelian gauge symmetry. Even when supersymmetry is broken softly, there often remain directions in the scalar field space along which the potential is almost flat. Upon breaking a gauge symmetry along one of these almost-flat directions, cosmic strings may form. Relative to the standard cosmic string picture based on the Abelian Higgs model, these flat-direction cosmic strings have the extreme type-I properties of a thin gauge core surrounded by a much wider scalar field profile. We perform a comprehensive study of the microscopic, macroscopic, and observational characteristics of this class of strings. We find many differences from the standard string scenario, including stable higher winding-mode strings, the dynamical formation of higher mode strings from lower ones, and a resultant multitension scaling string network in the early universe. These strings are only moderately constrained by current observations, and their gravitational wave signatures may be detectable at future gravity wave detectors. Furthermore, there is the interesting but speculative prospect that the decays of cosmic string loops in the early universe could be a source of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays or nonthermal dark matter. We also compare the observational signatures of flat-direction cosmic strings with those of ordinary cosmic strings as well as (p,q) cosmic strings motivated by superstring theory.
Dynamical evolution of cosmic strings
Bouchet, F.R.
1988-05-11
The author have studied by means of numerical simulations the dynamical evolution of a network of cosmic strings, both in the radiation and matter era. Our basic conclusion is that a scaling solution exists, i.e., the string energy density evolves as t/sup -2/. This means that the process by which long strings dump their energy into closed loops (which can gravitationally radiate away) is efficient enough to prevent the string domination over other forms of energy. This conclusion does not depend on the initial string energy density, nor on the various numerical parameters. On the other hand, the generated spectrum of loop sizes does depend on the value of our numerical lower cutoff (i.e., the minimum length of loop we allow to be chopped off the network). Furthermore, the network evolution is very different from what was assumed before), namely the creation of a few horizon sized loops per horizon volume and per hubble time, which subsequently fragment into about 10 smaller daughter loops. Rather, many tiny loops are directly cut from the network of infinite strings, and it appears that the only fundamental scale (the horizon) has been lost. This is probably because a fundamental ingredient had been overlooked, namely the kinks. These kinks are created in pairs at each intercommutation, and very rapidly, the long strings appear to be very kinky. Thus the number of long strings per horizon is still of the order of a few, but their total length is fairly large. Furthermore, a large number of kinks favors the formation of small loops, and their sizes might well be governed by the kink density along the long strings. Finally, we computed the two-point correlation function of the loops and found significant differences from the work of Turok.
Are cosmic strings gravitationally stable topological defects?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gleiser, Reinaldo; Pullin, Jorge
1989-08-01
A possible mechanism for the dissapearance of an open cosmic string into gravitational radiation is described. This involves the splitting of an infinite straight cosmic string into two pieces whose ends are traveling outward at the speed of light with the associated emission of a gravitational shock wave. This model can also be used to describe the following situations: (1) the development of a growing region of different string tension within a cosmic string, and (2) the creation of a cosmic string in an otherwise flat background.
D-term inflation without cosmic strings.
Urrestilla, J; Achúcarro, A; Davis, A C
2004-06-25
We present a superstring-inspired version of D-term inflation that does not lead to cosmic string formation and appears to satisfy the current cosmic microwave background constraints. It differs from minimal D-term inflation by a second pair of charged superfields that makes the strings nontopological (semilocal). The strings are also Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield strings, so the scenario is expected to survive supergravity corrections. The second pair of charged superfields arises naturally in several brane and conifold scenarios, but its effect on cosmic string formation had not been noticed so far. PMID:15244993
CMB constraints on cosmic strings and superstrings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charnock, Tom; Avgoustidis, Anastasios; Copeland, Edmund J.; Moss, Adam
2016-06-01
We present the first complete Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of cosmological models with evolving cosmic (super)string networks, using the unconnected segment model in the unequal-time correlator formalism. For ordinary cosmic string networks, we derive joint constraints on Λ cold dark matter (CDM) and string network parameters, namely the string tension G μ , the loop-chopping efficiency cr, and the string wiggliness α . For cosmic superstrings, we obtain joint constraints on the fundamental string tension G μF, the string coupling gs, the self-interaction coefficient cs, and the volume of compact extra dimensions w . This constitutes the most comprehensive CMB analysis of Λ CDM cosmology+strings to date. For ordinary cosmic string networks our updated constraint on the string tension, obtained using Planck2015 temperature and polarization data, is G μ <1.1 ×10-7 in relativistic units, while for cosmic superstrings our constraint on the fundamental string tension after marginalizing over gs, cs, and w is G μF<2.8 ×10-8.
Gravitational scattering of photons off cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Yi-Zen; Vachaspati, Tanmay
2013-04-01
Photons can gravitationally scatter off a cosmic string loop and gain or lose energy. We consider the spectral distortion induced by cosmic string loops placed in an ambient thermal bath of photons. The fractional deviation from a thermal spectrum caused by cosmic strings is estimated to scale as (GNμ)2z2, where GN is Newton’s constant, μ is the string tension, and z is the cosmological redshift after which spectral distortions can survive. This effect is large enough to potentially be of observational interest.
Brane Inflation: From Superstring to Cosmic Strings
Tye, S.-H. Henry
2004-12-10
Brane inflation, where branes move towards each other in the brane world, has been shown to be quite natural in superstring theory. Inflation ends when branes collide and heat the universe, initiating the hot big bang. Cosmic strings (but not domain walls or monopoles) are copiously produced during the brane collision. Using the COBE data on the temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, the cosmic string tension {mu} is estimated to be around 10 -6 > G{mu} > 10-11, while the present observational bound is 7 x 10 -7 > G{mu}. This implies that the anisotropy that seeds structure formation comes mostly from inflation, but with a small component (< 10%) from cosmic string effects. This cosmic string effect should be testable in the near future via gravitational lensing, the cosmic microwave background radiation, and/or gravitational wave detectors like LIGO II/VIRGO.
Fitting cosmic microwave background data with cosmic strings and inflation.
Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin; Urrestilla, Jon
2008-01-18
We perform a multiparameter likelihood analysis to compare measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra with predictions from models involving cosmic strings. Adding strings to the standard case of a primordial spectrum with power-law tilt ns, we find a 2sigma detection of strings: f10=0.11+/-0.05, where f10 is the fractional contribution made by strings in the temperature power spectrum (at l=10). CMB data give moderate preference to the model ns=1 with cosmic strings over the standard zero-strings model with variable tilt. When additional non-CMB data are incorporated, the two models become on a par. With variable ns and these extra data, we find that f10<0.11, which corresponds to Gmicro<0.7x10(-6) (where micro is the string tension and G is the gravitational constant). PMID:18232848
Cosmic string induced peculiar velocities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Van Dalen, Anthony; Schramm, David N.
1988-01-01
This paper considers the scenario of a flat universe with a network of heavy cosmic strings as the primordial fluctuation spectrum. The joint probability of finding streaming velocities of at least 600 km/s on large scales and local peculiar velocities of less than 800 km/s is calculated. It is shown how the effects of loops breaking up and being born with a spectrum of sizes can be estimated. It is found that to obtain large-scale streaming velocities of at least 600 km/s, it is necessary that either a large value for beta G mu exist or the effect of loop fissioning and production details be considerable.
Cosmic strings and chronology protection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grant, James D. E.
1993-03-01
A space consisting of two rapidly moving cosmic strings has recently been constructed by Gott that contains closed timelike curves. The global structure of this space is analyzed and it is found that, away from the strings, the space is identical to a generalized Misner space. The vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor for a conformally coupled scalar field is calculated on this generalized Misner space. It is found to diverge very weakly on the chronology horizon, but more strongly on the polarized hypersurfaces. The divergence on the polarized hypersurfaces is strong enough that when the proper geodesic interval around any polarized hypersurface is of the order of the Planck length squared, the perturbation to the metric caused by the back reaction will be of the order one. Thus we expect the structure of the space will be radically altered by the back reaction before quantum gravitational effects become important. This suggests that Hawking's ``chronology protection conjecture'' holds for spaces with a noncompactly generated chronology horizon.
Cosmic string lensing and closed timelike curves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shlaer, Benjamin; Tye, S.-H. Henry
2005-08-01
In an analysis of the gravitational lensing by two relativistic cosmic strings, we argue that the formation of closed timelike curves proposed by Gott is unstable in the presence of particles (e.g. the cosmic microwave background radiation). Because of the attractorlike behavior of the closed timelike curve, we argue that this instability is very generic. A single graviton or photon in the vicinity, no matter how soft, is sufficient to bend the strings and prevent the formation of closed timelike curves. We also show that the gravitational lensing due to a moving cosmic string is enhanced by its motion, not suppressed.
Cosmic strings with curvature corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boisseau, Bruno; Letelier, Patricio S.
1992-08-01
A generic model of string described by a Lagrangian density that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the string worldsheet is studied. Using a system of coordinates adapted to the string world sheet the equation of motion and the energy-momentum tensor are derived for strings evolving in curved spacetime. We find that the curvature corrections may change the relation between the string energy density and the tension. It can also introduce heat propagation along the string. We also find for the Polyakov as well as Nambu strings with a topological term that the open string end points can travel with a speed less than the velocity of light.
Gravitational lensing by straight cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotvytskiy, A. T.
2015-07-01
We consider effects due to gravitational lensing by hypothetical cosmic strings. We briefly review facts concerning infinite straight strings, obtain the equation for a gravitational lens produced by an infinite string in the classical form, and analyze features of the gravitational lensing for a given object in detail. We consider a finite straight string. We present caustics and critical curves for strings with different lengths and also some images produced by the considered gravitational lens. We propose a method for constructing brightness curves numerically. As an example of the working capacity of this method, we construct a concrete brightness curve for certain gravitational lens parameters.
Cosmic string scaling in flat space
Vanchurin, Vitaly; Olum, Ken; Vilenkin, Alexander
2005-09-15
We investigate the evolution of infinite strings as a part of a complete cosmic string network in flat space. We perform a simulation of the network which uses functional forms for the string position and thus is exact to the limits of computer arithmetic. Our results confirm that the wiggles on the strings obey a scaling law described by universal power spectrum. The average distance between long strings also scales accurately with the time. These results suggest that small-scale structure will also scale in an expanding universe, even in the absence of gravitational damping.
Cosmic strings - A problem or a solution?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bennett, David P.; Bouchet, Francois R.
1988-01-01
The most fundamental issue in the theory of cosmic strings is addressed by means of Numerical Simulations: the existence of a scaling solution. The resolution of this question will determine whether cosmic strings can form the basis of an attractive theory of galaxy formation or prove to be a cosmological disaster like magnetic monopoles or domain walls. After a brief discussion of our numerical technique, results are presented which, though still preliminary, offer the best support to date of this scaling hypothesis.
Cosmic microwave anisotropies from BPS semilocal strings
Urrestilla, Jon; Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R E-mail: n.bevis@imperial.ac.uk E-mail: martin.kunz@physics.unige.ch
2008-07-15
We present the first ever calculation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectra from semilocal cosmic strings, obtained via simulations of a classical field theory. Semilocal strings are a type of non-topological defect arising in some models of inflation motivated by fundamental physics, and are thought to relax the constraints on the symmetry breaking scale as compared to models with (topological) cosmic strings. We derive constraints on the model parameters, including the string tension parameter {mu}, from fits to cosmological data, and find that in this regard Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) semilocal strings resemble global textures more than topological strings. The observed microwave anisotropy at l=10 is reproduced if G{mu} = 5.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} (G is Newton's constant). However as with other defects the spectral shape does not match observations, and in models with inflationary perturbations plus semilocal strings the 95% confidence level upper bound is G{mu}<2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} when CMB, Hubble key project and big bang nucleosynthesis data are used (cf G{mu}<0.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} for cosmic strings). We additionally carry out a Bayesian model comparison of several models with and without defects, showing that models with defects are neither conclusively favoured nor disfavoured at present.
Wave diffraction by a cosmic string
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández-Núñez, Isabel; Bulashenko, Oleg
2016-08-01
We show that if a cosmic string exists, it may be identified through characteristic diffraction pattern in the energy spectrum of the observed signal. In particular, if the string is on the line of sight, the wave field is shown to fit the Cornu spiral. We suggest a simple procedure, based on Keller's geometrical theory of diffraction, which allows to explain wave effects in conical spacetime of a cosmic string in terms of interference of four characteristic rays. Our results are supposed to be valid for scalar massless waves, including gravitational waves, electromagnetic waves, or even sound in case of condensed matter systems with analogous topological defects.
Pogosian, Levon; Wyman, Mark
2008-04-15
Detecting the parity-odd, or B-mode, polarization pattern in the cosmic microwave background radiation due to primordial gravity waves is considered to be the final observational key to confirming the inflationary paradigm. The search for viable models of inflation from particle physics and string theory has (re)discovered another source for B-modes: cosmic strings. Strings naturally generate as much vector-mode perturbation as they do scalar, producing B-mode polarization with a spectrum distinct from that expected from inflation itself. In a large set of models, B-modes arising from cosmic strings are more prominent than those expected from primordial gravity waves. In light of this, we study the physical underpinnings of string-sourced B-modes and the model dependence of the amplitude and shape of the C{sub l}{sup BB} power spectrum. Observational detection of a string-sourced B-mode spectrum would be a direct probe of post-inflationary physics near the grand unified theory (GUT) scale. Conversely, nondetection would put an upper limit on a possible cosmic string tension of G{mu} < or approx. 10{sup -7} within the next three years.
Nonthermal dark matter from cosmic strings
Cui Yanou; Morrissey, David E.
2009-04-15
Cosmic strings can be created in the early universe during symmetry-breaking phase transitions, such as might arise if the gauge structure of the standard model is extended by additional U(1) factors at high energies. Cosmic strings presented in the early universe form a network of long horizon-length segments, as well as a population of closed string loops. The closed loops are unstable against decay, and can be a source of nonthermal particle production. In this work we compute the density of weakly-interacting massive particle dark matter formed by the decay of gauge theory cosmic string loops derived from a network of long strings in the scaling regime or under the influence of frictional forces. We find that for symmetry-breaking scales larger than 10{sup 10} GeV, this mechanism has the potential to account for the observed relic density of dark matter. For symmetry-breaking scales lower than this, the density of dark matter created by loop decays from a scaling string network lies below the observed value. In particular, the cosmic strings originating from a U(1) gauge symmetry broken near the electroweak scale, that could lead to a massive Z{sup '} gauge boson observable at the LHC, produces a negligibly small dark matter relic density by this mechanism.
CMB temperature trispectrum of cosmic strings
Hindmarsh, Mark; Ringeval, Christophe; Suyama, Teruaki
2010-03-15
We provide an analytical expression for the trispectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies induced by cosmic strings. Our result is derived for the small angular scales under the assumption that the temperature anisotropy is induced by the Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect. The trispectrum is predicted to decay with a noninteger power-law exponent l{sup -{rho}}with 6<{rho}<7, depending on the string microstructure, and thus on the string model. For Nambu-Goto strings, this exponent is related to the string mean square velocity and the loop distribution function. We then explore two classes of wave number configuration in Fourier space, the kite and trapezium quadrilaterals. The trispectrum can be of any sign and appears to be strongly enhanced for all squeezed quadrilaterals.
CMB temperature trispectrum of cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hindmarsh, Mark; Ringeval, Christophe; Suyama, Teruaki
2010-03-01
We provide an analytical expression for the trispectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies induced by cosmic strings. Our result is derived for the small angular scales under the assumption that the temperature anisotropy is induced by the Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect. The trispectrum is predicted to decay with a noninteger power-law exponent ℓ-ρ with 6<ρ<7, depending on the string microstructure, and thus on the string model. For Nambu-Goto strings, this exponent is related to the string mean square velocity and the loop distribution function. We then explore two classes of wave number configuration in Fourier space, the kite and trapezium quadrilaterals. The trispectrum can be of any sign and appears to be strongly enhanced for all squeezed quadrilaterals.
Is it really naked? On cosmic censorship in string theory
Frolov, Andrei V.
2004-11-15
We investigate the possibility of cosmic censorship violation in string theory using a characteristic double-null code, which penetrates horizons and is capable of resolving the spacetime all the way to the singularity. We perform high-resolution numerical simulations of the evolution of negative mass initial scalar field profiles, which were argued to provide a counterexample to cosmic censorship conjecture for AdS-asymptotic spacetimes in five-dimensional supergravity. In no instances formation of naked singularity is seen. Instead, numerical evidence indicates that black holes form in the collapse. Our results are consistent with earlier numerical studies, and explicitly show where the 'no black hole' argument breaks.
Is it Really Naked? On Cosmic Censorship in String Theory
Frolov, A
2004-09-30
We investigate the possibility of cosmic censorship violation in string theory using a characteristic double-null code, which penetrates horizons and is capable of resolving the spacetime all the way to the singularity. We perform high-resolution numerical simulations of the evolution of negative mass initial scalar field profiles, which were argued to provide a counter example to cosmic censorship conjecture for AdS-asymptotic spacetimes in five-dimensional supergravity. In no instances formation of naked singularity is seen. Instead, numerical evidence indicates that black holes form in the collapse. Our results are consistent with earlier numerical studies, and explicitly show where the ''no black hole'' argument breaks.
Effects of cosmic strings on free streaming
Takahashi, Tomo; Yamaguchi, Masahide
2006-09-15
We study the effect of free streaming in a universe with cosmic strings with time-varying tension as well as with constant tension. Although current cosmological observations suggest that fluctuation seeded by cosmic strings cannot be the primary source of cosmic density fluctuation, some contributions from them are still allowed. Since cosmic strings actively produce isocurvature fluctuation, the damping of small scale structure via free streaming by dark matter particles with large velocity dispersion at the epoch of radiation-matter equality is less efficient than that in models with conventional adiabatic fluctuation. We discuss its implications to the constraints on the properties of particles such as massive neutrinos and warm dark matter.
Cosmic string evolution in higher dimensions
Avgoustidis, A.; Shellard, E.P.S.
2005-06-15
We obtain the equations of motion for cosmic strings in extensions of the 3+1 Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) model with extra dimensions. From these we derive a generalization of the velocity-dependent one-scale model for cosmic string network evolution which we apply, first, to a higher-dimensional isotropic D+1 FRW model and, second, to a 3+1 FRW model with static flat extra dimensions. In the former case the string network does not achieve a scaling regime because of the diminishing rate of string intersections (D>3), but this can be avoided in the latter case by considering compact, small extra dimensions, for which there is a reduced but still appreciable string intercommuting probability. We note that the velocity components lying in the three expanding dimensions are Hubble damped, whereas those in the static extra dimensions are only very weakly damped. This leads to the pathological possibility, in principle, that string motion in the three infinite dimensions can come to a halt preventing the strings from intersecting, with the result that scaling is not achieved and the strings irreversibly dominate the early universe. We note criteria by which this can be avoided, notably if the spatial structure of the network becomes essentially three-dimensional, as is expected for string networks produced in brane inflation. Applying our model to a brane inflation setting, we find scaling solutions in which the effective 3D string motion does not necessarily stop, but it is slowed down because of the excitations trapped in the extra dimensions. These effects are likely to influence cosmic string network evolution for a long period after formation and we discuss their more general implications.
Cosmic Microwave Background spectral distortions from cosmic string loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anthonisen, Madeleine; Brandenberger, Robert; Laguë, Alex; Morrison, Ian A.; Xia, Daixi
2016-02-01
Cosmic string loops contain cusps which decay by emitting bursts of particles. A significant fraction of the released energy is in the form of photons. These photons are injected non-thermally and can hence cause spectral distortions of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Under the assumption that cusps are robust against gravitational back-reaction, we compute the fractional energy density released as photons in the redshift interval where such non-thermal photon injection causes CMB spectral distortions. Whereas current constraints on such spectral distortions are not strong enough to constrain the string tension, future missions such as the PIXIE experiment will be able to provide limits which rule out a range of string tensions between G μ ~ 10-15 and G μ ~ 10-12, thus ruling out particle physics models yielding these kind of intermediate-scale cosmic strings.
Magnetic fields from heterotic cosmic strings
Gwyn, Rhiannon; Alexander, Stephon H.; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Dasgupta, Keshav
2009-04-15
Large-scale magnetic fields are observed today to be coherent on galactic scales. While there exists an explanation for their amplification and their specific configuration in spiral galaxies--the dynamo mechanism--a satisfying explanation for the original seed fields required is still lacking. Cosmic strings are compelling candidates because of their scaling properties, which would guarantee the coherence on cosmological scales of any resultant magnetic fields at the time of galaxy formation. We present a mechanism for the production of primordial seed magnetic fields from heterotic cosmic strings arising from M theory. More specifically, we make use of heterotic cosmic strings stemming from M5-branes wrapped around four of the compact internal dimensions. These objects are stable on cosmological time scales and carry charged zero modes. Therefore a scaling solution of such defects will generate seed magnetic fields which are coherent on galactic scales today.
Cosmic string with a light massive neutrino
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albrecht, Andreas; Stebbins, Albert
1992-01-01
We have estimated the power spectra of density fluctuations produced by cosmic strings with neutrino hot dark matter (HDM). Normalizing at 8/h Mpc, we find that the spectrum has more power on small scales than HDM + inflation, less than cold dark matter (CDM) + inflation, and significantly less the CDM + strings. With HDM, large wakes give significant contribution to the power on the galaxy scale and may give rise to large sheets of galaxies.
Rapidly moving cosmic strings and chronology protection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ori, Amos
1991-10-01
Recently, Gott has provided a family of solutions of the Einstein equations describing pairs of parallel cosmic strings in motion. He has shown that if the strings' relative velocity is sufficiently high, there exist closed timelike curves (CTC's) in the spacetime. Here we show that if there are CTC's in such a solution, then every t=const hypersurface in the spacetime intersects CTC's. Therefore, these solutions do not contradict the chronology protection conjecture of Hawking.
Cosmic string structure at the gravitational radiation scale
Polchinski, Joseph; Rocha, Jorge V.
2007-06-15
We use our model of the small scale structure on cosmic strings to develop further the result of Siemens, Olum, and Vilenkin that the gravitational radiation length scale on cosmic strings is smaller than the previously assumed {gamma}G{mu}t. We discuss some of the properties of cosmic string loops at this cutoff scale, and we argue that recent network simulations point to two populations of cosmic string loops, one near the horizon scale and one near the gravitational radiation cutoff.
Cosmic string collision in cosmological backgrounds
Firouzjahi, Hassan; Khoeini-Moghaddam, Salomeh; Khosravi, Shahram
2010-06-15
The collisions of cosmic string loops and the dynamics of junction formations in expanding backgrounds are studied. The key parameter controlling the dynamics of junction formation, the cosmic strings zipping and unzipping, is the relative size of the loops compared to the Hubble radius at the time of collision. We study analytically and numerically these processes for large superhorizon size loops, for small subhorizon size loops as well as for loops with the radii comparable to the Hubble radius at the time of collision.
Cosmic strings: A problem or a solution
Bennett, D.P.; Bouchet, F.R.
1987-10-01
The most fundamental issue in the theory of cosmic strings is addressed by means of Numerical Simulations: the existence of a scaling solution. The resolution of this question will determine whether cosmic strings can form the basis of an attractive theory of galaxy formation or prove to be a cosmological disaster like magnetic monopoles or domain walls. After a brief discussion of our numerical technique, results are presented which, though still preliminary, offer the best support to date of this scaling hypothesis. 6 refs., 2 figs.
The String and the Cosmic Bounce
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bozza, V.
2014-04-01
String theory introduces a new fundamental scale (the string length) that is expected to regularize the singularities of classical general relativity. In a cosmological context, the Big Bang is no longer regarded as the beginning of time, but just a transition between a Pre-Big Bang collapse phase and the current expansion. We will review old and recent attempts to build consistent bouncing cosmologies inspired to string theories, discussing their solved and unsolved problems, focussing on the observables that may distinguish them from standard inflationary scenarios.
Current discontinuities on superconducting cosmic strings
Troyan, E. Vlasov, Yu. V.
2011-07-15
The propagation of current perturbations on superconducting cosmic strings is considered. The conditions for the existence of discontinuities similar to shock waves have been found. The formulas relating the string parameters and the discontinuity propagation speed are derived. The current growth law in a shock wave is deduced. The propagation speeds of shock waves with arbitrary amplitudes are calculated. The reason why there are no shock waves in the case of time-like currents (in the 'electric' regime) is explained; this is attributable to the shock wave instability with respect to perturbations of the string world sheet.
Invariant length of a cosmic string
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Malcolm R.
1990-06-01
The world sheet of a cosmic string is characterized by a function l, invariant under both coordinate and gauge transformations, which can be interpreted as the ``invariant length'' of the string. In flat space, l reduces to the invariant length of Vachaspati and Vilenkin, and gives an upper bound for the actual length of the string, and a lower bound for its energy, as measured by any inertial observer. In curved spacetime, time variations in the invariant length divide naturally into two parts: one due to the tidal tensor at points exterior to the world sheet and one due to the tidal tensor at points on the world sheet itself.
Searching for Cosmic Strings in the Cosmic Microwave Background:
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty
The role of cosmic defects in cosmology is entering its new phase—as a test for several fundamental physics, including unification theories and inflation. We discuss how to use the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) to detect cosmic strings, a type of cosmic defects, and how to use this result to constrain the underlying physics. In particular, we use the simulations for the Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) to demonstrate the power of this approach. The required resolution and sensitivity in such a method are discussed, and so is the possible scientific impact.
Jackson, Mark G.
2007-04-15
The spectrum of (p,q) bound states of F- and D-strings has a distinctive square-root tension formula that is hoped to be a hallmark of fundamental cosmic strings. We point out that the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) bound for vortices in N=2 supersymmetric Abelian-Higgs models also takes the square-root form. In contrast to string theory, the most general supersymmetric field theoretic model allows for (p,q,r) strings, with three classes of strings rather than two. Unfortunately, we find that there do not exist BPS solutions except in the trivial case. The issue of whether there exist non-BPS solutions which may closely resemble the square-root form is left as an open question.
Bogomol'nyi bounds for cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Comtet, A.; Gibbons, G. W.
1988-04-01
We establish Bogomol'nyi inequalities for the deficit angle of some cylindrically symmetric asymptotically local flat (CALF) spacetimes containing cosmic strings. These results prove the stability against arbitrary cylindrical deformations of those configurations which saturate the bound. Such configuration satisfy first order equations which can, in some cases, be solved exactly. Postal address: 24, rue Lhomond, 75230, Paris Cedex 05, France.
Small scale structure on cosmic strings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albrecht, Andreas
1989-01-01
The current understanding of cosmic string evolution is discussed, and the focus placed on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. A physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms is presented. In this picture it can be seen how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. It is also argued that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small scale structure, which argued in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in the present understanding of cosmic string evolution.
Small scale structure on cosmic strings
Albrecht, A.
1989-10-30
I discuss our current understanding of cosmic string evolution, and focus on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. I present a physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms. In this picture one can see how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. I also argue that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small structure, which I argue in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in our resent understanding of cosmic string evolution. 24 refs., 8 figs.
Early structure formation from cosmic string loops
Shlaer, Benjamin; Vilenkin, Alexander; Loeb, Abraham E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu
2012-05-01
We examine the effects of cosmic strings on structure formation and on the ionization history of the universe. While Gaussian perturbations from inflation are known to provide the dominant contribution to the large scale structure of the universe, density perturbations due to strings are highly non-Gaussian and can produce nonlinear structures at very early times. This could lead to early star formation and reionization of the universe. We improve on earlier studies of these effects by accounting for high loop velocities and for the filamentary shape of the resulting halos. We find that for string energy scales Gμ∼>10{sup −7}, the effect of strings on the CMB temperature and polarization power spectra can be significant and is likely to be detectable by the Planck satellite. We mention shortcomings of the standard cosmological model of galaxy formation which may be remedied with the addition of cosmic strings, and comment on other possible observational implications of early structure formation by strings.
Cosmic string power spectrum, bispectrum, and trispectrum
Regan, D. M.; Shellard, E. P. S.
2010-09-15
We use analytic calculations of the post-recombination gravitational effects of cosmic strings to estimate the resulting CMB power spectrum, bispectrum and trispectrum. We place a particular emphasis on multipole regimes relevant for forthcoming CMB experiments, notably the Planck satellite. These calculations use a flat-sky approximation, generalizing previous work by integrating string contributions from last scattering to the present day, finding the dominant contributions to the correlators for multipoles l>50. We find a well-behaved shape for the string bispectrum (without divergences) which is easily distinguishable from the inflationary bispectra which possess significant acoustic peaks. We estimate that the nonlinearity parameter characterizing the bispectrum is approximately 0 > or approx. f{sub NL} > or approx. -40 (given present string constraints from the CMB power spectrum). We also apply these unequal time correlator methods to calculate the trispectrum for parrallelogram configurations, again valid over a large range of angular scales relevant for WMAP and Planck, as well as on very small angular scales. We find that, unlike the bispectrum which is suppressed by symmetry considerations, the trispectrum for cosmic strings is large. Our current estimate for the trispectrum parameter is {tau}{sub NL{approx}}10{sup 5}, which may provide one of the strongest constraints on the string model in future analysis.
Vanchurin, Vitaly
2010-11-01
We develop a model of string dynamics with back-reaction from both scaling and non-scaling loops taken into account. The evolution of a string network is described by the distribution functions of coherence segments and kinks. We derive two non-linear equations which govern the evolution of the two distributions and solve them analytically in the limit of late times. We also show that the correlation function is an exponential, and solve the dynamics for the corresponding spectrum of scaling loops.
Time evolution of a warped cosmic string
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slagter, Reinoud Jan
2014-06-01
The time evolution of a self-gravitating U(1) cosmic string on a warped five-dimensional (5D) axially symmetric spacetime is numerically investigated. Although cosmic strings are theoretically predicted in four-dimensional (4D) general relativistic models, there is still no observational evidence of their existence. From recent observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), it is concluded that these cosmic strings cannot provide a satisfactory explanation for the bulk of density perturbations. They even could not survive inflation. It is conjectured that only in a 5D warped braneworld model there will be observable imprint of these so-called cosmic superstrings on the induced effective 4D brane metric for values of the symmetry breaking scale larger than the grand unified theory (GUT) values. The warp factor makes these strings consistent with the predicted mass per unit length on the brane. However, in a time-dependent setting, it seems that there is a wavelike energy-momentum transfer to infinity on the brane, a high-energy braneworld behavior. This in contrast to earlier results in approximation models. Evidence of this information from the bulk geometry could be found in the gravitational cosmic background radiation via gravitational wave energy-momentum affecting the brane evolution. Fluctuations of the brane when there is a U(1) gauge field present, are comparable with the proposed brane tension fluctuations, or branons, whose relic abundance can be a dark matter candidate. We briefly made a connection with the critical behavior at the threshold of black hole formation found by Choptuik several decades ago in self-gravitating time-dependent scalar field models. The critical distinction between dispersion of the scalar waves and singular behavior fade away when a time-dependent warp factor is present.
Effect of a positive cosmological constant on cosmic strings
Bhattacharya, Sourav; Lahiri, Amitabha
2008-09-15
We study cosmic Nielsen-Olesen strings in space-times with a positive cosmological constant. For the free cosmic string in a cylindrically symmetric space-time, we calculate the contribution of the cosmological constant to the angle deficit, and to the bending of null geodesics. For a cosmic string in a Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time, we use Kruskal patches around the inner and outer horizons to show that a thin string can pierce them.
Cosmic string formation by flux trapping
Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Olum, Ken D.; Vilenkin, Alexander
2007-11-15
We study the formation of cosmic strings by confining a stochastic magnetic field into flux tubes in a numerical simulation. We use overdamped evolution in a potential that is minimized when the flux through each face in the simulation lattice is a multiple of the fundamental flux quantum. When the typical number of flux quanta through a correlation-length-sized region is initially about 1, we find a string network similar to that generated by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. With larger initial flux, the loop distribution and the Brownian shape of the infinite strings remain unchanged, but the fraction of length in infinite strings is increased. A 2D slice of the network exhibits bundles of strings pointing in the same direction, as in earlier 2D simulations. We find, however, that strings belonging to the same bundle do not stay together in 3D for much longer than the correlation length. As the initial flux per correlation length is decreased, there is a point at which infinite strings disappear, as in the Hagedorn transition.
Volterra distortions, spinning strings, and cosmic defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puntigam, Roland A.; Soleng, Harald H.
1997-05-01
Cosmic strings, as topological spacetime defects, show striking resemblance to defects in solid continua: distortions, which can be classified into disclinations and dislocations, are line-like defects characterized by a delta-function-valued curvature and torsion distribution giving rise to rotational and translational holonomy. We exploit this analogy and investigate how distortions can be adapted in a systematic manner from solid-state systems to Einstein - Cartan gravity. As distortions are efficiently described within the framework of an 0264-9381/14/5/017/img5 gauge theory of solid continua with line defects, we are led in a straightforward way to a Poincaré gauge approach to gravity which is a natural framework for introducing the notion of distorted spacetimes. Constructing all ten possible distorted spacetimes, we recover, inter alia, the well known exterior spacetime of a spin-polarized cosmic string as a special case of such a geometry. In a second step, we search for matter distributions which, in Einstein - Cartan gravity, act as sources of distorted spacetimes. The resulting solutions, appropriately matched to the distorted vacua, are cylindrically symmetric and are interpreted as spin-polarized cosmic strings and cosmic dislocations.
Gravitational wave bursts from cosmic strings
Damour; Vilenkin
2000-10-30
Cusps of cosmic strings emit strong beams of high-frequency gravitational waves (GW). As a consequence of these beams, the stochastic ensemble of gravitational waves generated by a cosmological network of oscillating loops is strongly non-Gaussian, and includes occasional sharp bursts that stand above the rms GW background. These bursts might be detectable by the planned GW detectors LIGO/VIRGO and LISA for string tensions as small as G&mgr; approximately 10(-13). The GW bursts discussed here might be accompanied by gamma ray bursts. PMID:11041921
Zipping and unzipping of cosmic string loops in collision
Firouzjahi, H.; Karouby, J.; Khosravi, S.; Brandenberger, R.
2009-10-15
In this paper the collision of two cosmic string loops is studied. After collision junctions are formed and the loops are entangled. We show that after their formation the junctions start to unzip and the loops disentangle. This analysis provides a theoretical understanding of the unzipping effect observed in numerical simulations of a network of cosmic strings with more than one type of cosmic strings. The unzipping phenomena have important effects in the evolution of cosmic string networks when junctions are formed upon collision, such as in a network of cosmic superstrings.
Cosmic strings and ultra-high energy cosmic rays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhattacharjee, Pijushpani
1989-01-01
The flux is calculated of ultrahigh energy protons due to the process of cusp evaporation from cosmic string loops. For the standard value of the dimensionless cosmic string parameter epsilon is identical to G(sub mu) approx. = 10(exp -6), the flux is several orders of magnitude below the observed cosmic ray flux of ultrahigh energy protons. However, the flux at any energy initially increases as the value of epsilon is decreased. This at first suggests that there may be a lower limit on the value of epsilon, which would imply a lower limit on the temperature of a cosmic string forming phase transition in the early universe. However, the calculation shows that this is not the case -- the particle flux at any energy reaches its highest value at epsilon approx. = 10(exp -15) and it then decreases for further decrease of the value of epsilon. This is due to the fact that for too small values of epsilon (less than 10(exp -15)), the energy loss of the loops through the cusp evaporation process itself (rather than gravitational energy loss of the loops) becomes the dominant factor that controls the behavior of the number density of the loops at the relevant times of emission of the particles. The highest flux at any energy remains at least four orders of magnitude below the observed flux. There is thus no lower limit on epsilon.
Cosmic strings and baryon decay catalysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gregory, Ruth; Perkins, W. B.; Davis, A.-C.; Brandenberger, R. H.
1989-01-01
Cosmic strings, like monopoles, can catalyze proton decay. For integer charged fermions, the cross section for catalysis is not amplified, unlike in the case of monopoles. The catalysis processes are reviewed both in the free quark and skyrmion pictures and the implications for baryogenesis are discussed. A computation of the cross section for monopole catalyzed skyrmion decay is presented using classical physics. Also discussed are some effects which can screen catalysis processes.
Fragmentation of cosmic-string loops
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
York, Thomas
1989-01-01
The fragmentation of cosmic string loops is discussed, and the results of a simulation of this process are presented. The simulation can evolve any of a large class of loops essentially exactly, including allowing fragments that collide to join together. Such reconnection enhances the production of small fragments, but not drastically. With or without reconnections, the fragmentation process produces a collection of nonself-intersecting loops whose typical length is on the order of the persistence length of the initial loop.
Search for Cosmic Strings in Cosmic Microwave BackgroundAnisotropies
Jeong, E.; Smoot, GF
2004-06-01
We have searched the 1st-year WMAP W-Band CMB anisotropy map for evidence of cosmic strings. We have set a limit of delta = 8 pi G mu/ c2 < 8.2 times 10-6 at 95 percent CL for statistical search for a significant number of strings in the map. We also have set a limit using the uniform distribution of strings model in the WMAP data with delta = 8pi G mu/c2 < 7.34 times 10-5 at 95 percent CL. And the pattern search technique we developed here set a limit delta = 8 pi G mu/c2 < 1.54 times 10-5 at 95 percent CL.
Cosmological evolution of cosmic strings with time-dependent tension
Yamaguchi, Masahide
2005-08-15
We discuss the cosmological evolution of cosmic strings with time-dependent tension. We show that, in the case that the tension changes as a power of time, the cosmic string network obeys the scaling solution: the characteristic scale of the string network grows with the time. But due to the time dependence of the tension, the ratio of the energy density of infinite strings to that of the background universe is not necessarily constant.
Cosmic Strings in the Universe: Achievements and prospects of research
Sazhina, O. S. Sazhin, M. V.
2011-11-15
Cosmic strings are linear structures of cosmological scales whose search has been actively conducted in recent years. Progress in constructing theoretical models and investigating the properties of cosmic strings and a significant growth of observational resources provide extensive possibilities for the search of such objects by several independent observational methods. These methods include searching for the events of gravitational lensing of distant background sources by strings and searching for the distinctive cosmic micro-wave background anisotropy structures induced by strings. We discuss these techniques and propose the methods of searching for strings oriented toward the latest spacecraft, including the Planck project.
The Hubble Web: The Dark Matter Problem and Cosmic Strings
Alexander, Stephon
2009-07-06
I propose a reinterpretation of cosmic dark matter in which a rigid network of cosmic strings formed at the end of inflation. The cosmic strings fulfill three functions: At recombination they provide an accretion mechanism for virializing baryonic and warm dark matter into disks. These cosmic strings survive as configurations which thread spiral and elliptical galaxies leading to the observed flatness of rotation curves and the Tully-Fisher relation. We find a relationship between the rotational velocity of the galaxy and the string tension and discuss the testability of this model.
Probing cosmic strings with satellite CMB measurements
Jeong, E.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Smoot, G.F. E-mail: bacci@sissa.it
2010-09-01
We study the problem of searching for cosmic string signal patterns in the present high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This article discusses a technique capable of recognizing Kaiser-Stebbins effect signatures in total intensity anisotropy maps from isolated strings. We derive the statistical distributions of null detections from purely Gaussian fluctuations and instrumental performances of the operating satellites, and show that the biggest factor that produces confusion is represented by the acoustic oscillation features of the scale comparable to the size of horizon at recombination. Simulations show that the distribution of null detections converges to a χ{sup 2} distribution, with detectability threshold at 99% confidence level corresponding to a string induced step signal with an amplitude of about 100 μK which corresponds to a limit of roughly Gμ ∼ 1.5 × 10{sup −6}. We implement simulations for deriving the statistics of spurious detections caused by extra-Galactic and Galactic foregrounds. For diffuse Galactic foregrounds, which represents the dominant source of contamination, we construct sky masks outlining the available region of the sky where the Galactic confusion is sub-dominant, specializing our analysis to the case represented by the frequency coverage and nominal sensitivity and resolution of the Planck experiment. As for other CMB measurements, the maximum available area, corresponding to 7%, is reached where the foreground emission is expected to be minimum, in the 70–100 GHz interval.
Observing cosmic string loops with gravitational lensing surveys
Mack, Katherine J.; Wesley, Daniel H.; King, Lindsay J.
2007-12-15
We show that the existence of cosmic strings can be strongly constrained by the next generation of gravitational lensing surveys at radio frequencies. We focus on cosmic string loops, which simulations suggest would be far more numerous than long (horizon-sized) strings. Using simple models of the loop population and minimal assumptions about the lensing cross section per loop, we estimate the optical depth to lensing and show that extant radio surveys such as CLASS have already ruled out a portion of the cosmic string model parameter space. Future radio interferometers, such as LOFAR and especially SKA, may constrain G{mu}/c{sup 2}<10{sup -9} in some regions of parameter space, outperforming current constraints from pulsar timing and the cosmic microwave backgound by up to two orders of magnitude. This method relies on direct detections of cosmic strings, and so is less sensitive to the theoretical uncertainties in string network evolution that weaken other constraints.
Detecting cosmic strings in the CMB with the Canny algorithm
Amsel, Stephen; Brandenberger, Robert H; Berger, Joshua E-mail: jb454@cornell.edu
2008-04-15
Line discontinuities in cosmic microwave background anisotropy maps are a distinctive prediction of models with cosmic strings. These signatures are visible in anisotropy maps with good angular resolution and should be identifiable using edge-detection algorithms. One such algorithm is the Canny algorithm. We study the potential of this algorithm to pick out the line discontinuities generated by cosmic strings. By applying the algorithm to small-scale microwave anisotropy maps generated from theoretical models with and without cosmic strings, we find that, given an angular resolution of several minutes of arc, cosmic strings can be detected down to a limit of the mass per unit length of the string which is one order of magnitude lower than the current upper bounds.
Bounds on cosmic strings from WMAP and SDSS
Wyman, Mark; Wasserman, Ira; Pogosian, Levon
2005-07-15
We find the constraints from Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) and Sloan digital sky survey (SDSS) data on the fraction of cosmological fluctuations sourced by local cosmic strings using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis. In addition to varying the usual 6 cosmological parameters and the string tension ({mu}), we also varied the amount of small-scale structure on the strings. Our results indicate that cosmic strings can account for up to 7 (14)% of the total power of the microwave anisotropy at 68 (95)% confidence level. The corresponding bound on the string mass per unit length, within our string model, is G{mu}<3.4(5)x10{sup -7} at 68 (95)% C.L. We also calculate the B-type polarization spectra sourced by cosmic strings and discuss the prospects of their detection.
Cosmic string and formation of large scale structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, L.-Z.; Xiang, S.-P.
Cosmic string formed due to phase transition in the early universe may be the cause of galaxy formation and clustering. The advantage of string model is that it can give a consistent explanation of all observed results related to large scale structure, such as correlation functions of galaxies, clusters and superclusters, the existence of voids and/or bubbles, anisotropy of cosmic background radiation. A systematic review on string model has been done.
Patterns of the cosmic microwave background from evolving string networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bouchet, Francois R.; Bennett, David P.; Stebbins, Albert
1988-01-01
A network of cosmic strings generated in the early universe may still exist today. As the strings move across the sky, they produce, by gravitational lensing, a characteristic pattern of anisotropies in the temperature of the cosmic microwave background. The observed absence of such anisotropies places constraints on theories in which galaxy formation is seeded by strings, but it is anticipated that the next generation of experiments will detect them.
Gravitational radiation by cosmic strings in a junction
Brandenberger, R.; Karouby, J.; Firouzjahi, H.; Khosravi, S.
2009-01-15
The formalism for computing the gravitational power radiation from excitations on cosmic strings forming a junction is presented and applied to the simple case of co-planar strings at a junction when the excitations are generated along one string leg. The effects of polarization of the excitations and of the back-reaction of the gravitational radiation on the small scale structure of the strings are studied.
Racetrack inflation with matter fields and cosmic strings
Brax, Ph; De Bruck, C van; Davis, A C; Davis, S C; Jeannerot, R; Postma, M E-mail: c.vandebruck@shef.ac.uk E-mail: S.C.Davis@damtp.cam.ac.uk E-mail: postma@mail.desy.de
2008-07-15
We consider the coupling of racetrack inflation to matter fields as realized in the D3/D7 brane system. In particular, we investigate the possibility of cosmic string formation in this system. We find that strings can form before or at the onset of racetrack inflation is possible, but they are then inflated away. Furthermore, string formation at the end of inflation is prevented by the presence of the moduli sector. As a consequence, no strings survive racetrack inflation.
Updated constraints on the cosmic string tension
Battye, Richard; Moss, Adam
2010-07-15
We reexamine the constraints on the cosmic string tension from cosmic microwave background (CMB) and matter power spectra, and also from limits on a stochastic background of gravitational waves provided by pulsar timing. We discuss the different approaches to modeling string evolution and radiation. In particular, we show that the unconnected segment model can describe CMB spectra expected from thin string (Nambu) and field theory (Abelian-Higgs) simulations using the computed values for the correlation length, rms string velocity and small-scale structure relevant to each variety of simulation. Applying the computed spectra in a fit to CMB and SDSS data we find that G{mu}/c{sup 2}<2.6x10{sup -7} (2{sigma}) if the Nambu simulations are correct and G{mu}/c{sup 2}<6.4x10{sup -7} in the Abelian-Higgs case. The degeneracy between G{mu}/c{sup 2} and the power spectrum slope n{sub S} is substantially reduced from previous work. Inclusion of constraints on the baryon density from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) imply that n{sub S}<1 at around the 4{sigma} level for both the Nambu and Abelian-Higgs cases. As a by-product of our results, we find there is ''moderate-to-strong'' Bayesian evidence that the Harrison-Zel'dovich spectrum is excluded (odds ratio of {approx}100 ratio 1) by the combination of CMB, SDSS, and BBN when compared to the standard 6 parameter fit. Using the contribution to the gravitational wave background from radiation era loops as a conservative lower bound on the signal for specific values of G{mu}/c{sup 2} and loop production size, {alpha}, we find that G{mu}/c{sup 2}<7x10{sup -7} for {alpha}c{sup 2}/({Gamma}G{mu})<<1 and G{mu}/c{sup 2}<5x10{sup -11}/{alpha} for {alpha}c{sup 2}/({Gamma}G{mu})>>1.
Cosmic strings in hidden sectors: 2. Cosmological and astrophysical signatures
Long, Andrew J.; Vachaspati, Tanmay
2014-12-18
Cosmic strings can arise in hidden sector models with a spontaneously broken Abelian symmetry group. We have studied the couplings of the Standard Model fields to these so-called dark strings in the companion paper. Here we survey the cosmological and astrophysical observables that could be associated with the presence of dark strings in our universe with an emphasis on low-scale models, perhaps TeV. Specifically, we consider constraints from nucleosynthesis and CMB spectral distortions, and we calculate the predicted fluxes of diffuse gamma ray cascade photons and cosmic rays. For strings as light as TeV, we find that the predicted level of these signatures is well below the sensitivity of the current experiments, and therefore low scale cosmic strings in hidden sectors remain unconstrained. Heavier strings with a mass scale in the range 10{sup 13} GeV to 10{sup 15} GeV are at tension with nucleosynthesis constraints.
Cosmic strings in hidden sectors: 2. Cosmological and astrophysical signatures
Long, Andrew J.; Vachaspati, Tanmay E-mail: tvachasp@asu.edu
2014-12-01
Cosmic strings can arise in hidden sector models with a spontaneously broken Abelian symmetry group. We have studied the couplings of the Standard Model fields to these so-called dark strings in the companion paper. Here we survey the cosmological and astrophysical observables that could be associated with the presence of dark strings in our universe with an emphasis on low-scale models, perhaps TeV . Specifically, we consider constraints from nucleosynthesis and CMB spectral distortions, and we calculate the predicted fluxes of diffuse gamma ray cascade photons and cosmic rays. For strings as light as TeV, we find that the predicted level of these signatures is well below the sensitivity of the current experiments, and therefore low scale cosmic strings in hidden sectors remain unconstrained. Heavier strings with a mass scale in the range 10{sup 13} GeV to 10{sup 15} GeV are at tension with nucleosynthesis constraints.
Extremely high energy neutrinos from cosmic strings
Berezinsky, Veniamin; Sabancilar, Eray; Vilenkin, Alexander
2011-10-15
Superstring theory and other supersymmetric theories predict the existence of relatively light, weakly interacting scalar particles, called moduli, with a universal form of coupling to matter. Such particles can be emitted from cusps of cosmic strings, where extremely large Lorentz factors are achieved momentarily. Highly boosted modulus bursts emanating from cusps subsequently decay into gluons; they generate parton cascades which in turn produce large numbers of pions and then neutrinos. Because of very large Lorentz factors, extremely high energy neutrinos, up to the Planck scale and above, are produced. For some model parameters, the predicted flux of neutrinos with energies > or approx. 10{sup 21} eV is observable by JEM-EUSO and by the future large radio detectors LOFAR and SKA.
Higher order intercommutations in cosmic string collisions.
Achúcarro, A; Verbiest, G J
2010-07-01
We report the first observation of multiple intercommutation (more than two successive reconnections) of Abelian Higgs cosmic strings at ultrahigh collision speeds, and the formation of "kink trains" with up to four closely spaced left- or right-moving kinks, in the deep type-II regime 16 ≤ β ≤ 64 (where β=m(scalar)2/m(gauge)2). The minimum critical speed for double reconnection goes down from ∼0.98c at β = 1 to ∼0.86c for β = 64. The process leading to the second intercommutation changes with β: it involves an expanding loop if β ≥ 16, but only a radiation blob if 1 < β ≤ 8. Triple reconnections are generic in the loop-mediated regime for collision parameters on the boundary between single and double reconnection. For β = 16 we observe quadruple events. We comment on the effect of strongly repulsive core interactions on the small scale structure on the strings and their gravitational wave emission. PMID:20867697
Higher Order Intercommutations in Cosmic String Collisions
Achucarro, A.; Verbiest, G. J.
2010-07-09
We report the first observation of multiple intercommutation (more than two successive reconnections) of Abelian Higgs cosmic strings at ultrahigh collision speeds, and the formation of ''kink trains'' with up to four closely spaced left- or right-moving kinks, in the deep type-II regime 16{<=}{beta}{<=}64 (where {beta}=m{sub scalar}{sup 2}/m{sub gauge}{sup 2}). The minimum critical speed for double reconnection goes down from {approx}0.98c at {beta}=1 to {approx}0.86c for {beta}=64. The process leading to the second intercommutation changes with {beta}: it involves an expanding loop if {beta}{>=}16, but only a radiation blob if 1<{beta}{<=}8. Triple reconnections are generic in the loop-mediated regime for collision parameters on the boundary between single and double reconnection. For {beta}=16 we observe quadruple events. We comment on the effect of strongly repulsive core interactions on the small scale structure on the strings and their gravitational wave emission.
Adiabatic fluctuations from cosmic strings in a contracting universe
Brandenberger, Robert H.; Takahashi, Tomo; Yamaguchi, Masahide E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp
2009-07-01
We show that adiabatic, super-Hubble, and almost scale invariant density fluctuations are produced by cosmic strings in a contracting universe. An essential point is that isocurvature perturbations produced by topological defects such as cosmic strings on super-Hubble scales lead to a source term which seeds the growth of curvature fluctuations on these scales. Once the symmetry has been restored at high temperatures, the isocurvature seeds disappear, and the fluctuations evolve as adiabatic ones in the expanding phase. Thus, cosmic strings may be resurrected as a mechanism for generating the primordial density fluctuations observed today.
Two-point correlation function of cosmic-string loops
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bennett, David P.; Bouchet, Francois R.
1989-01-01
The two-point correlations of cosmic-string loops are studied with numerical simulations of the evolution of a cosmic-string network in an expanding universe. It is found that the initial positions of loops that are chopped off the network have a correlation function that is quite similar to the highest estimates of the Abell-cluster correlation function, but these correlations are rapidly washed out by the motion of the loops. The implications for the cosmic-string galaxy-formation scenario are briefly discussed.
The bispectrum of matter perturbations from cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regan, Donough; Hindmarsh, Mark
2015-03-01
We present the first calculation of the bispectrum of the matter perturbations induced by cosmic strings. The calculation is performed in two different ways: the first uses the unequal time correlators (UETCs) of the string network - computed using a Gaussian model previously employed for cosmic string power spectra. The second approach uses the wake model, where string density perturbations are concentrated in sheet-like structures whose surface density grows with time. The qualitative and quantitative agreement of the two gives confidence to the results. An essential ingredient in the UETC approach is the inclusion of compensation factors in the integration with the Green's function of the matter and radiation fluids, and we show that these compensation factors must be included in the wake model also. We also present a comparison of the UETCs computed in the Gaussian model, and those computed in the unconnected segment model (USM) used by the standard cosmic string perturbation package CMBACT. We compare numerical estimates for the bispectrum of cosmic strings to those produced by perturbations from an inflationary era, and discover that, despite the intrinsically non-Gaussian nature of string-induced perturbations, the matter bispectrum is unlikely to produce competitive constraints on a population of cosmic strings.
Bosonic (meta)stabilization of cosmic string loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morris, J. R.
2013-02-01
We consider the possibility of a bosonic (meta)stabilization of a cosmic gauge string loop due to the presence of a gas of low-mass bosonic particles which become trapped within the string core. This boson gas exerts a pressure which tends to counteract the string tension, allowing a circular string loop to find a finite equilibrium radius, provided that gas particles do not escape the string core. However, high-energy bosons do escape, and, consequently, the loop shrinks, and the temperature rises. Estimates indicate that the bosonic stabilization mechanism is ineffective, and the loop is unstable against decay.
Scaling properties of cosmic (super)string networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martins, C. J. A. P.
2014-10-01
I use a combination of state-of-the-art numerical simulations and analytic modelling to discuss the scaling properties of cosmic defect networks, including superstrings. Particular attention is given to the role of extra degrees of freedom in the evolution of these networks. Compared to the 'plain vanilla' case of Goto-Nambu strings, three such extensions play important but distinct roles in the network dynamics: the presence of charges/currents on the string worldsheet, the existence of junctions, and the possibility of a hierarchy of string tensions. I also comment on insights gained from studying simpler defect networks, including Goto-Nambu strings themselves, domain walls and semilocal strings.
Will cosmic strings be discovered using the Space Telescope?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pacynski, B.
1986-01-01
Cosmic strings are topologically stable defects in the vacuum of space which may be produced by a phase transition in the early universe. Here, it is suggested that observations of very distant galaxies are a more useful means of discovering strings than quasar observations. It is argued that if there is only one string out to redshift z - about 1 the probability that it crosses a random image obtained using the Wide Field Camera (WFC) of the Space Telescope is about 0.0001. In order to discover a cosmic string the Space Telescope WFC will be required to operate almost continuously in primary and serendipity modes, and a cosmic string, if it exists, may be discovered within the first few years of operation.
Dynamical cosmic strings from a gauge theory of gravity
Furlong, R.C.
1988-09-15
A new dynamical realization of O(5) gauge Euclidean gravity is proposed and shown to possess topologically nontrivial features, cosmic-string flux tubes and dark-matter solitons, of a purely gravitational origin (no Higgs particle needed).
CMB ISW-lensing bispectrum from cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamauchi, Daisuke; Sendouda, Yuuiti; Takahashi, Keitaro
2014-02-01
We study the effect of weak lensing by cosmic (super-)strings on the higher-order statistics of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). A cosmic string segment is expected to cause weak lensing as well as an integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, the so-called Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins (GKS) effect, to the CMB temperature fluctuation, which are thus naturally cross-correlated. We point out that, in the presence of such a correlation, yet another kind of the post-recombination CMB temperature bispectra, the ISW-lensing bispectra, will arise in the form of products of the auto- and cross-power spectra. We first present an analytic method to calculate the autocorrelation of the temperature fluctuations induced by the strings, and the cross-correlation between the temperature fluctuation and the lensing potential both due to the string network. In our formulation, the evolution of the string network is assumed to be characterized by the simple analytic model, the velocity-dependent one scale model, and the intercommutation probability is properly incorporated in order to characterize the possible superstringy nature. Furthermore, the obtained power spectra are dominated by the Poisson-distributed string segments, whose correlations are assumed to satisfy the simple relations. We then estimate the signal-to-noise ratios of the string-induced ISW-lensing bispectra and discuss the detectability of such CMB signals from the cosmic string network. It is found that in the case of the smaller string tension, Gμ << 10-7, the ISW-lensing bispectrum induced by a cosmic string network can constrain the string-model parameters even more tightly than the purely GKS-induced bispectrum in the ongoing and future CMB observations on small scales.
The 21 cm signature of cosmic string wakes
Brandenberger, Robert H.; Danos, Rebecca J.; Hernández, Oscar F.; Holder, Gilbert P. E-mail: rjdanos@physics.mcgill.ca E-mail: holder@physics.mcgill.ca
2010-12-01
We discuss the signature of a cosmic string wake in 21cm redshift surveys. Since 21cm surveys probe higher redshifts than optical large-scale structure surveys, the signatures of cosmic strings are more manifest in 21cm maps than they are in optical galaxy surveys. We find that, provided the tension of the cosmic string exceeds a critical value (which depends on both the redshift when the string wake is created and the redshift of observation), a cosmic string wake will generate an emission signal with a brightness temperature which approaches a limiting value which at a redshift of z+1 = 30 is close to 400 mK in the limit of large string tension. The signal will have a specific signature in position space: the excess 21cm radiation will be confined to a wedge-shaped region whose tip corresponds to the position of the string, whose planar dimensions are set by the planar dimensions of the string wake, and whose thickness (in redshift direction) depends on the string tension. For wakes created at z{sub i}+1 = 10{sup 3}, then at a redshift of z+1 = 30 the critical value of the string tension μ is Gμ = 6 × 10{sup −7}, and it decreases linearly with redshift (for wakes created at the time of equal matter and radiation, the critical value is a factor of two lower at the same redshift). For smaller tensions, cosmic strings lead to an observable absorption signal with the same wedge geometry.
CMB ISW-lensing bispectrum from cosmic strings
Yamauchi, Daisuke; Sendouda, Yuuiti; Takahashi, Keitaro E-mail: sendouda@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp
2014-02-01
We study the effect of weak lensing by cosmic (super-)strings on the higher-order statistics of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). A cosmic string segment is expected to cause weak lensing as well as an integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, the so-called Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins (GKS) effect, to the CMB temperature fluctuation, which are thus naturally cross-correlated. We point out that, in the presence of such a correlation, yet another kind of the post-recombination CMB temperature bispectra, the ISW-lensing bispectra, will arise in the form of products of the auto- and cross-power spectra. We first present an analytic method to calculate the autocorrelation of the temperature fluctuations induced by the strings, and the cross-correlation between the temperature fluctuation and the lensing potential both due to the string network. In our formulation, the evolution of the string network is assumed to be characterized by the simple analytic model, the velocity-dependent one scale model, and the intercommutation probability is properly incorporated in order to characterize the possible superstringy nature. Furthermore, the obtained power spectra are dominated by the Poisson-distributed string segments, whose correlations are assumed to satisfy the simple relations. We then estimate the signal-to-noise ratios of the string-induced ISW-lensing bispectra and discuss the detectability of such CMB signals from the cosmic string network. It is found that in the case of the smaller string tension, Gμ << 10{sup -7}, the ISW-lensing bispectrum induced by a cosmic string network can constrain the string-model parameters even more tightly than the purely GKS-induced bispectrum in the ongoing and future CMB observations on small scales.
Cosmic D-strings as axionic D-term strings
Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Dvali, Gia; Redi, Michele
2005-11-15
In this work we derive nonsingular BPS string solutions from an action that captures the essential features of a D-brane-anti-D-brane system compactified to four dimensions. The model we consider is a supersymmetric Abelian Higgs model with a D-term potential coupled to an axion-dilaton multiplet. The strings in question are axionic D-term strings which we identify with the D-strings of type II string theory. In this picture the Higgs field represents the open string tachyon of the D-D pair and the axion is dual to a Ramond-Ramond form. The crucial term allowing the existence of nonsingular BPS strings is the Fayet-Iliopoulos term, which is related to the tensions of the D-string and of the parent branes. Despite the presence of the axion, the strings are BPS and carry finite energy, due to the fact that the space gets very slowly decompactified away from the core, screening the long range axion field (or equivalently the theory approaches an infinitely weak 4D coupling). Within our 4D effective action we also identify another class of BPS string solutions (s-strings) which have no ten-dimensional analog, and can only exist after compactification.
Pair Production of Black Holes on Cosmic Strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawking, S. W.; Ross, Simon F.
1995-11-01
We discuss the pair creation of black holes by the breaking of a cosmic string. We obtain an instanton describing this process from the C metric, and calculate its probability. This is very low for the strings that have been suggested for galaxy formation.
Signature of cosmic string wakes in the CMB polarization
Danos, Rebecca J.; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Holder, Gil
2010-07-15
We calculate a signature of cosmic strings in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. We find that ionization in the wakes behind moving strings gives rise to extra polarization in a set of rectangular patches in the sky whose length distribution is scale-invariant. The length of an individual patch is set by the comoving Hubble radius at the time the string is perturbing the cosmic microwave background. The polarization signal is largest for string wakes produced at the earliest post-recombination time, and for an alignment in which the photons cross the wake close to the time the wake is created. The maximal amplitude of the polarization relative to the temperature quadrupole is set by the overdensity of free electrons inside a wake which depends on the ionization fraction f inside the wake. For a cosmic string wake coming from an idealized string segment, the signal can be as high as 0.06 {mu}K in degree scale polarization for a string at high redshift (near recombination) and a string tension {mu} given by G{mu}=10{sup -7}.
Cosmic strings and the large-scale structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stebbins, Albert
1988-01-01
A possible problem for cosmic string models of galaxy formation is presented. If very large voids are common and if loop fragmentation is not much more efficient than presently believed, then it may be impossible for string scenarios to produce the observed large-scale structure with Omega sub 0 = 1 and without strong environmental biasing.
Exact gravitational lensing by cosmic strings with junctions
Suyama, Teruaki
2008-08-15
We point out that the results by Brandenberger et al. [Phys. Rev. D 77, 083502 (2008)] that the geometry around the straight cosmic strings with stationary junctions is flat to linear order in the string tension can be immediately extended to any order.
New regimes in the initial cosmic string network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allega, A. M.; Fernández, L. A.; Tarancón, A.
1989-08-01
We present a study of a network of strings on a torus by using a high computer statistics. Two different phases are found. The statistical properties of the configurational ensembles of the two phases and comparisons with polymer science and cosmic strings physics are reported. Partially supported by CAICYT and CAI (Zaragoza, Spain).
Perturbations from cosmic strings in cold dark matter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albrecht, Andreas; Stebbins, Albert
1992-01-01
A systematic linear analysis of the perturbations induced by cosmic strings in cold dark matter is presented. The power spectrum is calculated and it is found that the strings produce a great deal of power on small scales. It is shown that the perturbations on interesting scales are the result of many uncorrelated string motions, which indicates a much more Gaussian distribution than was previously supposed.
Perturbations from cosmic strings in cold dark matter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albrecht, Andreas; Stebbins, Albert
1991-01-01
A systematic linear analysis of the perturbations induced by cosmic strings in cold dark matter is presented. The power spectrum is calculated and it is found that the strings produce a great deal of power on small scales. It is shown that the perturbations on interesting scales are the result of many uncorrelated string motions, which indicates a much more Gaussian distribution than was previously supposed.
Cosmic (Super)String Constraints from 21 cm Radiation
Khatri, Rishi; Wandelt, Benjamin D.
2008-03-07
We calculate the contribution of cosmic strings arising from a phase transition in the early Universe, or cosmic superstrings arising from brane inflation, to the cosmic 21 cm power spectrum at redshifts z{>=}30. Future experiments can exploit this effect to constrain the cosmic string tension G{mu} and probe virtually the entire brane inflation model space allowed by current observations. Although current experiments with a collecting area of {approx}1 km{sup 2} will not provide any useful constraints, future experiments with a collecting area of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} km{sup 2} covering the cleanest 10% of the sky can, in principle, constrain cosmic strings with tension G{mu} > or approx. 10{sup -10}-10{sup -12} (superstring/phase transition mass scale >10{sup 13} GeV)
Cosmic (Super)String Constraints from 21 cm Radiation.
Khatri, Rishi; Wandelt, Benjamin D
2008-03-01
We calculate the contribution of cosmic strings arising from a phase transition in the early Universe, or cosmic superstrings arising from brane inflation, to the cosmic 21 cm power spectrum at redshifts z > or =30. Future experiments can exploit this effect to constrain the cosmic string tension G mu and probe virtually the entire brane inflation model space allowed by current observations. Although current experiments with a collecting area of approximately 1 km2 will not provide any useful constraints, future experiments with a collecting area of 10(4)-10(6) km2 covering the cleanest 10% of the sky can, in principle, constrain cosmic strings with tension G mu > or = 10(-10)-10(-12) (superstring/phase transition mass scale >10(13) GeV). PMID:18352691
General Relativity, Scalar Fields and Cosmic Strings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burd, Adrian Benedict
1987-09-01
in the Appendix. Most of the models exhibit power-law inflation and we examine the limits on the potential imposed by the constraints on the inflationary period. The last section of the thesis involves a review of the cosmic string picture of galaxy formation. We examine the structure of the string from the viewpoint of the fields. We conjecture that the solutions are stable against small time-dependent perturbations and minimise the energy. We extend this analysis to straight strings in expanding space -times and find that at late times the fields settle down to a steady solution. At early times the fields oscillate and the stress-tensor of the fields is non-diagonal. The oscillations are probably not important since they die away rapidly but the form of the stress-tensor may have to be taken into account when considering the back reaction of the string on the space-time shortly after the string is formed.
D-term inflation, cosmic strings, and consistency with cosmic microwave background measurements.
Rocher, Jonathan; Sakellariadou, Mairi
2005-01-14
Standard D-term inflation is studied in the framework of supergravity. D-term inflation produces cosmic strings; however, it can still be compatible with cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements without invoking any new physics. The cosmic strings contribution to the CMB data is not constant, nor dominant, contrary to some previous results. Using current CMB measurements, the free parameters (gauge and superpotential couplings, as well as the Fayet-Iliopoulos term) of D-term inflation are constrained. PMID:15698061
Evidence for a scaling solution in cosmic-string evolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bennett, David P.; Bouchet, Francois R.
1988-01-01
Numerical simulations are used to study the most fundamental issue of cosmic-string evolution: the existence of a scaling solution. Strong evidence is found that a scaling solution does indeed exist. This justifies the main assumption on which the cosmic-string theories of galaxy formation is based. The main conclusion coincides with that of Albrecht and Turok (1985) but the results are not consistent with theirs. In fact, the results indicate that the details of string evolution are very different from the standard dogma.
Causal Structure around Spinning 5-DIMENSIONAL Cosmic Strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slagter, Reinoud Jan
2008-09-01
We present a numerical solution of a stationary 5-dimensional spinning cosmic string in the Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) model, where the extra bulk coordinate ψ is periodic. It turns out that when gψψ approaches zero, i.e., a closed time-like curve (CTC) would appear, the solution becomes singular. We also investigated the geometrical structure of the static 5D cosmic string. Two opposite moving 5D strings could, in contrast with the 4D case, fulfil the Gott condition for CTC formation.
Lensing and CMB anisotropies by cosmic strings at a junction
Brandenberger, Robert; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Karouby, Johanna
2008-04-15
The metric around straight arbitrarily oriented cosmic strings forming a stationary junction is obtained at the linearized level. It is shown that the geometry is flat. The sum rules for lensing by this configuration and the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background are obtained.
Metastable cosmic strings in realistic models
Holman, R.; Hsu, S.; Vachaspati, T.; Watkins, R. |
1992-11-01
The stability of the electroweak Z-string is investigated at high temperatures. The results show that, while finite temperature corrections can improve the stability of the Z-string, their effect is not strong enough to stabilize the Z-string in the standard electroweak model. Consequently, the Z-string will be unstable even under the conditions present during the electroweak phase transition. Phenomenologically viable models based on the gauge group SU(2){sub L} {times} SU(2) {sub R} {times} U(1){sub B-L} are then considered, and it is shown that metastable strings exist and are stable to small perturbations for a large region of the parameter space for these models. It is also shown that these strings are superconducting with bosonic charge carriers. The string superconductivity may be able to stabilize segments and loops against dynamical contraction. Possible implications of these strings for cosmology are discussed.
Metastable cosmic strings in realistic models
Holman, R. . Dept. of Physics); Hsu, S. . Lyman Lab. of Physics); Vachaspati, T. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Watkins, R. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )
1992-01-01
The stability of the electroweak Z-string is investigated at high temperatures. The results show that, while finite temperature corrections can improve the stability of the Z-string, their effect is not strong enough to stabilize the Z-string in the standard electroweak model. Consequently, the Z-string will be unstable even under the conditions present during the electroweak phase transition. Phenomenologically viable models based on the gauge group SU(2)[sub L] [times] SU(2) [sub R] [times] U(1)[sub B-L] are then considered, and it is shown that metastable strings exist and are stable to small perturbations for a large region of the parameter space for these models. It is also shown that these strings are superconducting with bosonic charge carriers. The string superconductivity may be able to stabilize segments and loops against dynamical contraction. Possible implications of these strings for cosmology are discussed.
Gravitational-wave stochastic background from cosmic strings.
Siemens, Xavier; Mandic, Vuk; Creighton, Jolien
2007-03-16
We consider the stochastic background of gravitational waves produced by a network of cosmic strings and assess their accessibility to current and planned gravitational wave detectors, as well as to big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), cosmic microwave background (CMB), and pulsar timing constraints. We find that current data from interferometric gravitational wave detectors, such as Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), are sensitive to areas of parameter space of cosmic string models complementary to those accessible to pulsar, BBN, and CMB bounds. Future more sensitive LIGO runs and interferometers such as Advanced LIGO and Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be able to explore substantial parts of the parameter space. PMID:17501038
Stability, causality, and quasinormal modes of cosmic strings and cylinders
Pavan, Alan B.; Abdalla, E.; Molina, C.
2010-02-15
In this work we consider the evolution of a massive scalar field in cylindrically symmetric space-times. Quasinormal modes have been calculated for static and rotating cosmic cylinders. We found unstable modes in some cases. Rotating as well as static cosmic strings, i.e., without regular interior solutions, do not display quasinormal oscillation modes. We conclude that rotating cosmic cylinder space-times that present closed timelike curves are unstable against scalar perturbations.
Stochastic gravitational wave background from light cosmic strings
DePies, Matthew R.; Hogan, Craig J.
2007-06-15
Spectra of the stochastic gravitational wave backgrounds from cosmic strings are calculated and compared with present and future experimental limits. Motivated by theoretical expectations of light cosmic strings in superstring cosmology, improvements in experimental sensitivity, and recent demonstrations of large, stable loop formation from a primordial network, this study explores a new range of string parameters with masses lighter than previously investigated. A standard 'one-scale' model for string loop formation is assumed. Background spectra are calculated numerically for dimensionless string tensions G{mu}/c{sup 2} between 10{sup -7} and 10{sup -18}, and initial loop sizes as a fraction of the Hubble radius {alpha} from 0.1 to 10{sup -6}. The spectra show a low frequency power-law tail, a broad spectral peak due to loops decaying at the present epoch (including frequencies higher than their fundamental mode, and radiation associated with cusps), and a flat (constant energy density) spectrum at high frequencies due to radiation from loops that decayed during the radiation-dominated era. The string spectrum is distinctive and unlike any other known source. The peak of the spectrum for light strings appears at high frequencies, significantly affecting predicted signals. The spectra of the cosmic string backgrounds are compared with current millisecond pulsar limits and Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) sensitivity curves. For models with large stable loops ({alpha}=0.1), current pulsar-timing limits exclude G{mu}/c{sup 2}>10{sup -9}, a much tighter limit on string tension than achievable with other techniques, and within the range of current models based on brane inflation. LISA may detect a background from strings as light as G{mu}/c{sup 2}{approx_equal}10{sup -16}, corresponding to field theory strings formed at roughly 10{sup 11} GeV.
StringFast: Fast Code to Compute CMB Power Spectra induced by Cosmic Strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foreman, Simon; Moss, Adam; Scott, Douglas
2011-06-01
StringFast implements a method for efficient computation of the C_l spectra induced by a network of strings, which is fast enough to be used in Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses of future data. This code allows the user to calculate TT, EE, and BB power spectra (scalar [for TT and EE], vector, and tensor modes) for "wiggly" cosmic strings. StringFast uses the output of the public code CMBACT. The properties of the strings are described by four parameters: Gμ: dimensionless string tensionv: rms transverse velocity (as fraction of c)α: "wiggliness"ξ: comoving correlation length of the string network It is written as a Fortran 90 module.
Cosmic string dynamics and evolution in warped spacetime
Avgoustidis, A.
2008-07-15
We study the dynamics and evolution of Nambu-Goto strings in a warped spacetime, where the warp factor is a function of the internal coordinates giving rise to a ''throat'' region. The microscopic equations of motion for strings in this background include potential and friction terms, which attract the strings towards the bottom of the warping throat. However, by considering the resulting macroscopic equations for the velocities of strings in the vicinity of the throat, we note the absence of enough classical damping to guarantee that the strings actually reach the warped minimum and stabilize there. Instead, our classical analysis supports a picture in which the strings experience mere deflections and bounces around the tip, rather than strongly damped oscillations. Indeed, 4D Hubble friction is inefficient in the internal dimensions and there is no other classical mechanism known, which could provide efficient damping. These results have potentially important implications for the intercommuting probabilities of cosmic superstrings.
Cosmic super-strings and Kaluza-Klein modes
Dufaux, Jean-François
2012-09-01
Cosmic super-strings interact generically with a tower of relatively light and/or strongly coupled Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes associated with the geometry of the internal space. In this paper, we study the production of spin-2 KK particles by cusps on loops of cosmic F- and D-strings. We consider cosmic super-strings localized either at the bottom of a warped throat or in a flat internal space with large volume. The total energy emitted by cusps in KK modes is comparable in both cases, although the number of produced KK modes may differ significantly. We then show that KK emission is constrained by the photo-dissociation of light elements and by observations of the diffuse gamma ray background. We show that this rules out regions of the parameter space of cosmic super-strings that are complementary to the regions that can be probed by current and upcoming gravitational wave experiments. KK modes are also expected to play an important role in the friction-dominated epoch of cosmic super-string evolution.
Wouthuysen-Field absorption trough in cosmic string wakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernández, Oscar F.
2014-12-01
The baryon density enhancement in cosmic string wakes leads to a stronger coupling of the spin temperature to the gas kinetic temperate inside these string wakes than in the intergalactic medium (IGM). The Wouthuysen-Field (WF) effect has the potential to enhance this coupling to such an extent that it may result in the strongest and cleanest cosmic string signature in the currently planned radio telescope projects. Here we consider this enhancement under the assumption that x-ray heating is not significant. We show that the size of this effect in a cosmic string wake leads to a brightness temperature at least two times more negative than in the surrounding IGM. If the SCI-HI [T. C. Voytek et al., Astrophys. J. 782, L9 (2014), J. B. Peterson et al., arXiv:1409.2774] or EDGES [J. D. Bowman and A. E. E. Rogers Nature (London) 468, 796 (2010), J. D. Bowman et al., Astrophys. J. 676, 1 (2008)] experiments confirm a WF absorption trough in the cosmic gas, then cosmic string wakes should appear clearly in 21 cm redshift surveys of z =10 to 30.
Landau quantization in the spinning cosmic string spacetime
Muniz, C.R.; Bezerra, V.B.; Cunha, M.S.
2014-11-15
We analyze the quantum phenomenon arising from the interaction of a spinless charged particle with a rotating cosmic string, under the action of a static and uniform magnetic field parallel to the string. We calculate the energy levels of the particle in the non-relativistic approach, showing how these energies depend on the parameters involved in the problem. In order to do this, we solve the time independent Schrödinger equation in the geometry of the spinning cosmic string, taking into account that the coupling between the rotation of the spacetime and the angular momentum of the particle is very weak, such that makes sense to apply the Schrödinger equation in a curved background whose metric has an off diagonal term which involves time and space. It is also assumed that the particle orbits sufficiently far from the boundary of the region of closed timelike curves which exist around this topological defect. Finally, we find the Landau levels of the particle in the presence of a spinning cosmic string endowed with internal structure, i.e., having a finite width and uniformly filled with both material and vacuum energies. - Highlights: • Solution of the wave equation characterizing the problem. • Energy levels of the particle in spacetime of the structureless string. • Expression for an analogous of the quadratic Zeeman effect. • Energy levels of the particle in spacetime of the string with internal structure. • Evidence of the string structure by the internal existence of the vacuum energy.
Quantum fluctuations of the superconducting cosmic string
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, Shoucheng
1987-01-01
Quantum fluctuations of the proposed superconducting string with Bose charge carriers are studied in terms of the vortices on the string world sheet. In the thermodynamical limit, it is found that they appear in the form of free vortices rather than as bound pairs. This fluctuation mode violates the topological conservation law on which superconductivity is based. However, this limit may not be reached. The critical size of the superconducting string is estimated as a function of the coupling constants involved.
Movahed, M. Sadegh; Khosravi, Shahram E-mail: khosravi@ipm.ir
2011-03-01
In this paper we study the footprint of cosmic string as the topological defects in the very early universe on the cosmic microwave background radiation. We develop the method of level crossing analysis in the context of the well-known Kaiser-Stebbins phenomenon for exploring the signature of cosmic strings. We simulate a Gaussian map by using the best fit parameter given by WMAP-7 and then superimpose cosmic strings effects on it as an incoherent and active fluctuations. In order to investigate the capability of our method to detect the cosmic strings for the various values of tension, Gμ, a simulated pure Gaussian map is compared with that of including cosmic strings. Based on the level crossing analysis, the superimposed cosmic string with Gμ∼>4 × 10{sup −9} in the simulated map without instrumental noise and the resolution R = 1' could be detected. In the presence of anticipated instrumental noise the lower bound increases just up to Gμ∼>5.8 × 10{sup −9}.
Bosonic structure of realistic SO(10) supersymmetric cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allys, Erwan
2016-05-01
We study the bosonic structure of F -term Nambu-Goto cosmic strings forming in a realistic SO(10) implementation, assuming standard hybrid inflation. We describe the supersymmetric grand unified theory, and its spontaneous symmetry breaking scheme in parallel with the inflationary process. We also write the explicit tensor formulation of its scalar sector, focusing on the subrepresentations singlet under the standard model, which is sufficient to describe the string structure. We then introduce an ansatz for Abelian cosmic strings, discussing in details the hypothesis, and write down the field equations and boundary conditions. Finally, after doing a perturbative study of the model, we present and discuss the results obtained with numerical solutions of the string structure.
Vortex scattering and intercommuting cosmic strings on a noncommutative spacetime
Joseph, Anosh; Trodden, Mark
2010-02-15
We study the scattering of noncommutative vortices, based on the noncommutative field theory developed in [A. P. Balachandran, T. R. Govindarajan, G. Mangano, A. Pinzul, B. A. Qureshi, and ?>S. Vaidya, Phys. Rev. D 75, 045009 (2007).], as a way to understand the interaction of cosmic strings. In the center-of-mass frame, the effects of noncommutativity vanish, and therefore the reconnection of cosmic strings occurs in an identical manner to the commutative case. However, when scattering occurs in a frame other than the center-of-mass frame, strings still reconnect but the well-known 90 deg. scattering no longer need correspond to the head-on collision of the strings, due to the breakdown of Lorentz invariance in the underlying noncommutative field theory.
Cosmic-string-induced hot dark matter perturbations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Van Dalen, Anthony
1990-01-01
This paper investigates the evolution of initially relativistic matter, radiation, and baryons around cosmic string seed perturbations. A detailed analysis of the linear evolution of spherical perturbations in a universe is carried out, and this formalism is used to study the evolution of perturbations around a sphere of uniform density and fixed radius, approximating a loop of cosmic string. It was found that, on scales less than a few megaparsec, the results agree with the nonrelativistic calculation of previous authors. On greater scales, there is a deviation approaching a factor of 2-3 in the perturbation mass. It is shown that a scenario with cosmic strings, hot dark matter, and a Hubble constant greater than 75 km/sec per Mpc can generally produce structure on the observed mass scales and at the appropriate time: 1 + z = about 4 for galaxies and 1 + z = about 1.5 for Abell clusters.
Light-cone fluctuations in the cosmic string spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mota, H. F.; Bezerra de Mello, E. R.; Bessa, C. H. G.; Bezerra, V. B.
2016-07-01
In this paper we consider light-cone fluctuations arising as a consequence of the nontrivial topology of the locally flat cosmic string spacetime. By setting the light-cone along the z -direction we are able to develop a full analysis to calculate the renormalized graviton two-point function, as well as the mean square fluctuation in the geodesic interval function and the time delay (or advance) in the propagation of a light pulse. We found that all these expressions depend upon the parameter characterizing the conical topology of the cosmic string spacetime and vanish in the absence of it. We also point out that at large distances from the cosmic string the mean square fluctuation in the geodesic interval function is extremely small while in the opposite limit it logarithmically increases.
Effects of inflation on a cosmic string loop population
Avelino, P. P.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Shellard, E. P. S.
2007-10-15
We study the evolution of simple cosmic string loop solutions in an inflationary universe. We show, for the particular case of circular loops, that periodic solutions do exist in a de Sitter universe, below a critical loop radius R{sub c}H=1/2. On the other hand, larger loops freeze in comoving coordinates, and we explicitly show that they can survive more e-foldings of inflation than pointlike objects. We discuss the implications of these findings for the survival of realistic cosmic string loops during inflation and for the general characteristics of post-inflationary cosmic string networks. We also consider the analogous solutions for domain walls, in which case the critical radius is R{sub c}H=2/3.
Cosmic superstring gravitational lensing phenomena: Predictions for networks of (p,q) strings
Shlaer, Benjamin; Wyman, Mark
2005-12-15
The unique, conical space-time created by cosmic strings brings about distinctive gravitational lensing phenomena. The variety of these distinctive phenomena is increased when the strings have nontrivial mutual interactions. In particular, when strings bind and create junctions, rather than intercommute, the resulting configurations can lead to novel gravitational lensing patterns. In this brief note, we use exact solutions to characterize these phenomena, the detection of which would be strong evidence for the existence of complex cosmic string networks of the kind predicted by string theory-motivated cosmic string models. We also correct some common errors in the lensing phenomenology of straight cosmic strings.
Note on structure formation from cosmic string wakes
Duplessis, Francis; Brandenberger, Robert E-mail: rhb@physics.mcgill.ca
2013-04-01
The search for cosmic strings has been of renewed interest with the advent of precision cosmology. In this note we give a quantitative description of the nonlinear matter density fluctuations that can form from a scaling network of cosmic string wakes. Specifically, we compute the distribution of dark matter halos. These halos would possess strong correlations in position space that should have survived until today. We also discuss the challenges involved in their detection due to their small size and the complex dynamics of their formation.
Bosonic condensates in realistic supersymmetric GUT cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allys, Erwan
2016-04-01
We study the realistic structure of F-term Nambu-Goto cosmic strings forming in a general supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory implementation, assuming standard hybrid inflation. Examining the symmetry breaking of the unification gauge group down to the Standard Model, we discuss the minimal field content necessary to describe abelian cosmic strings appearing at the end of inflation. We find that several fields will condense in most theories, questioning the plausible occurrence of associated currents (bosonic and fermionic). We perturbatively evaluate the modification of their energy per unit length due to the condensates. We provide a criterion for comparing the usual abelian Higgs approximation used in cosmology to realistic situations.
Edge detection, cosmic strings and the south pole telescope
Stewart, Andrew; Brandenberger, Robert E-mail: rhb@physics.mcgill.ca
2009-02-15
We develop a method of constraining the cosmic string tension G{mu} which uses the Canny edge detection algorithm as a means of searching CMB temperature maps for the signature of the Kaiser-Stebbins effect. We test the potential of this method using high resolution, simulated CMB temperature maps. By modeling the future output from the South Pole Telescope project (including anticipated instrumental noise), we find that cosmic strings with G{mu} > 5.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} could be detected.
Distortion of the cosmic background radiation by superconducting strings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ostriker, J. P.; Thompson, C.
1987-01-01
Superconducting cosmic strings can be significant energy sources, keeping the universe ionized past the commonly assumed epoch of recombination. As a result, the spectrum of the cosmic background radiation is distorted in the presence of heated primordial gas via the Suniaev-Zel'dovich effect. Thiis distortion can be relatively large: the Compton y parameter attains a maximum in the range 0.001-0.005, with these values depending on the mass scale of the string. A significant contribution to y comes from loops decaying at high redshift when the universe is optically thick to Thomson scattering. Moreover, the isotropic spectral distortion is large compared to fluctuations at all angular scales.
Cosmic strings and the microwave sky. I - Anisotropy from moving strings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stebbins, Albert
1988-01-01
A method is developed for calculating the component of the microwave anisotropy around cosmic string loops due to their rapidly changing gravitational fields. The method is only valid for impact parameters from the string much smaller than the horizon size at the time the photon passes the string. The method makes it possible to calculate the temperature pattern around arbitrary string configurations numerically in terms of one-dimensional integrals. This method is applied to temperature jump across a string, confirming and extending previous work. It is also applied to cusps and kinks on strings, and to determining the temperature pattern far from a strong loop. The temperature pattern around a few loop configurations is explicitly calculated. Comparisons with the work of Brandenberger et al. (1986) indicates that they have overestimated the MBR anisotropy from gravitational radiation emitted from loops.
Static cosmic strings in space–time with torsion, and strings with electromagnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hammond, Richard T.
2016-06-01
Cosmic strings are considered in space–time with torsion derived from a two-form potential, and in Minkowski space–time with electromagnetism. Using the curvature scalar as the geometrical part of the Lagrangian density, and the natural coupling to strings, the field equations are derived. It is shown a static string loop may satisfy the string equations of motion in the presence of an external torsion field. The gravitational field of the static string are derived in the weak field limit, and it is shown the gravitational field is repulsive exterior to the string. In Minkowski space–time, it is shown an external magnetic field can also give rise to a static loop.
Effects of ordinary and superconducting cosmic strings on primordial nucleosynthesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodges, Hardy M.; Turner, Michael S.
1988-01-01
A precise calculation is done of the primordial nucleosynthesis constraint on the energy per length of ordinary and superconducting cosmic strings. A general formula is provided for the constraint on the string tension for ordinary strings. Using the current values for the various parameters that describe the evolution of loops, the constraint for ordinary strings is G mu less than 2.2 x 10 to the minus 5 power. Our constraint is weaker than previously quoted limits by a factor of approximately 5. For superconducting loops, with currents generated by primordial magnetic fields, the constraint can be less or more stringent than this limit, depending on the strength of the magnetic field. It is also found in this case that there is a negligible amount of entropy production if the electromagnetic radiation from strings thermalizes with the radiation background.
Quasar variability limits on cosmological density of cosmic strings
Tuntsov, A. V.; Pshirkov, M. S.
2010-03-15
We put robust upper limits on the average cosmological density {Omega}{sub s} of cosmic strings based on the variability properties of a large homogeneous sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars. We search for an excess of characteristic variations of quasar brightness that are associated with string lensing and use the observed distribution of these variations to constrain the density of strings. The limits obtained do not invoke any clustering of strings. They apply to both open segments and closed loops of strings, usefully extend over a wide range of tensions 10{sup -13}
Black strings, low viscosity fluids, and violation of cosmic censorship.
Lehner, Luis; Pretorius, Frans
2010-09-01
We describe the behavior of 5-dimensional black strings, subject to the Gregory-Laflamme instability. Beyond the linear level, the evolving strings exhibit a rich dynamics, where at intermediate stages the horizon can be described as a sequence of 3-dimensional spherical black holes joined by black string segments. These segments are themselves subject to a Gregory-Laflamme instability, resulting in a self-similar cascade, where ever-smaller satellite black holes form connected by ever-thinner string segments. This behavior is akin to satellite formation in low-viscosity fluid streams subject to the Rayleigh-Plateau instability. The simulation results imply that the string segments will reach zero radius in finite asymptotic time, whence the classical space-time terminates in a naked singularity. Since no fine-tuning is required to excite the instability, this constitutes a generic violation of cosmic censorship. PMID:20867508
A Note on Cosmic (p,q,r) Strings
Jackson, Mark G.; /Fermilab
2006-10-01
The spectrum of (p, q) bound states of F- and D-strings has a distinctive square-root tension formula that is hoped to be a hallmark of fundamental cosmic strings. We point out that the BPS bound for vortices in N = 2 supersymmetric Abelian-Higgs models also takes the square-root form. In contrast to string theory, the most general supersymmetric field theoretic model allows for (p, q, r) strings, with three classes of strings rather than two. Unfortunately, we find that there do not exist BPS solutions except in the trivial case. The issue of whether there exist non-BPS solutions which may closely resemble the square-root form is left as an open question.
Probabilistic estimates of the number of cosmic strings
Sazhina, O. S.
2013-01-15
The dependences of the mean expected number of cosmic strings on their redshift up to the surface of last scattering have been derived. The calculations are based on the geometric probability of a straight string segment crossing a given field and on information about the absence of strings when they are searched for via their gravitational lensing effects in optical catalogs. It is shown that there are no strings for redshifts 0 < z < 1.954, but the expected number of strings for 0 < z < 5 can be no more than 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} at the 95% confidence level. The expected number of strings for redshifts up to z = 1100 can be no more than 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} at the 95% confidence level. The latter estimate is sensitive to a priori information about the absence of cosmic strings in the redshift range 0 < z < 1.954 in a field of 4.48 square degrees in optical catalogs; it is smaller than the estimate without allowance for this information by 6%.
Axions from cosmic string and wall decay
Hagmann, Chris
2010-08-30
If inflation occurred with a reheat temperature > T{sub PQ}, axions from the decay of global axion strings and domain walls would make an important contribution to the cosmological energy density, comparable to that from vacuum misalignment. Several groups have numerically studied the evolution of axion strings and walls in the past, however substantial uncertainties remain in their contribution to the present density {Omega}{sub a,string+wall{approx}}1-100(f{sub a}/10{sup 12} GeV){sup 7/6}, where f{sub a} is the axion decay constant. I will describe the numerical methods used in our simulations and show results for several string and wall configurations.
Axions from cosmic string and wall decay
Hagmann, C A
2010-03-10
If inflation occurred with a reheat temperature > T{sub PQ}, axions from the decay of global axion strings and domain walls would make an important contribution to the cosmological energy density, comparable to that from vacuum misalignment. Several groups have numerically studied the evolution of axion strings and walls in the past, however substantial uncertainties remain in their contribution to the present density {Omega}{sub a,string+wall} {approx} 1-100 (f{sub a}/10{sup 12} GeV){sup 7/6}, where f{sub a} is the axion decay constant. I will describe the numerical methods used in our simulations and show results for several string and wall configurations.
Cosmic strings in the real sky
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hogan, Craig J.
1987-01-01
Observational strategies for finding effects associated with the gravitational lensing of distant objects by strings are discussed. In particular, a proposed search program at Steward Observatory to find chains of Galaxy image pairs is described.
Urrestilla, Jon; Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin E-mail: n.bevis@imperial.ac.uk E-mail: martin.kunz@physics.unige.ch
2011-12-01
We present a significant update of the constraints on the Abelian Higgs cosmic string tension by cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, enabled both by the use of new high-resolution CMB data from suborbital experiments as well as the latest results of the WMAP satellite, and by improved predictions for the impact of Abelian Higgs cosmic strings on the CMB power spectra. The new cosmic string spectra [1] were improved especially for small angular scales, through the use of larger Abelian Higgs string simulations and careful extrapolation. If Abelian Higgs strings are present then we find improved bounds on their contribution to the CMB anisotropies, fd{sup AH} < 0.095, and on their tension, Gμ{sub AH} < 0.57 × 10{sup −6}, both at 95% confidence level using WMAP7 data; and fd{sup AH} < 0.048 and Gμ{sub AH} < 0.42 × 10{sup −6} using all the CMB data. We also find that using all the CMB data, a scale invariant initial perturbation spectrum, n{sub s} = 1, is now disfavoured at 2.4σ even if strings are present. A Bayesian model selection analysis no longer indicates a preference for strings.
Large scale CMB anomalies from thawing cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ringeval, Christophe; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi; Bouchet, François R.
2016-02-01
Cosmic strings formed during inflation are expected to be either diluted over super-Hubble distances, i.e., invisible today, or to have crossed our past light cone very recently. We discuss the latter situation in which a few strings imprint their signature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies after recombination. Being almost frozen in the Hubble flow, these strings are quasi static and evade almost all of the previously derived constraints on their tension while being able to source large scale anisotropies in the CMB sky. Using a local variance estimator on thousand of numerically simulated Nambu-Goto all sky maps, we compute the expected signal and show that it can mimic a dipole modulation at large angular scales while being negligible at small angles. Interestingly, such a scenario generically produces one cold spot from the thawing of a cosmic string loop. Mixed with anisotropies of inflationary origin, we find that a few strings of tension GU = Script O(1) × 10-6 match the amplitude of the dipole modulation reported in the Planck satellite measurements and could be at the origin of other large scale anomalies.
More about thin-shell wormholes associated to cosmic strings
Richarte, Martin G.; Simeone, Claudio
2009-06-15
Previous analysis about thin-shell wormholes associated to cosmic strings are extended. More evidence is found supporting the conjecture that, under reasonable assumptions about the equations of state of matter on the shell, the configurations are not stable under radial velocity perturbations.
Cosmological constraints on strongly coupled moduli from cosmic strings
Sabancilar, Eray
2010-06-15
Cosmic (super)string loops emit moduli as they oscillate under the effect of their tension. Abundance of such moduli is constrained by diffuse gamma ray background, dark matter, and primordial element abundances if their lifetime is of the order of the relevant cosmic time. It is shown that the constraints on string tension G{mu} and modulus mass m are significantly relaxed for moduli coupling to matter stronger than gravitational strength which appears to be quite generic in large volume and warped compactification scenarios in string theory. It is also shown that thermal production of strongly coupled moduli is not efficient, hence free from constraints. In particular, the strongly coupled moduli in warped and large volume compactification scenarios and the radial modulus in the Randall-Sundrum model are found to be free from the constraints when their coupling constant is sufficiently large.
Cosmic strings in an expanding spacetime
Stein-Schabes, J.A.; Burd, A.B.
1987-04-01
We investigate the stability of a static, infinitely long and straight vacuum string solution under inhomogeneous axisymmetric time-dependent perturbations. We find it to be perturbatively stable. We further extend our work by finding a string solutions in an expanding Universe. The back reaction of the string on the gravitational field has been ignored. The background is assumed to be a Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. By numerically integrating the field equations in a radiation and matter dominated models, we discover oscillatory solutions. The possible damping of these oscillations is discussed. For late times the solution becomes identical to the static one studied in the first part of the paper. 19 refs., 8 figs.
Skyrme-Einstein closed cosmic chiral strings
Rybakov, Yu. P. Ivanova, I. S.
2007-07-15
Within the theory of general relativity, the configuration of a closed string (vortex) characterized by a topological charge of the degree type is described for the Skyrme-Einstein SU (2) chiral model. In the approximation of a large vortex-closure radius (a), a solution to equations of motion is obtained, along with estimates for the vortex energy and radius.
The structure of cosmic string wakes
Sornborger, A.; Brandenberger, R.; Fryxell, B.; Olson, K.
1997-06-01
The clustering of baryons and cold dark matter induced by a single moving string is analyzed numerically, making use of the new three-dimensional Eulerian cosmological hydrocode of Sornborger {ital et al.}, which uses the piecewise parabolic method to track the baryons and the particle-in-cell method to evolve the dark matter particles. A long straight string moving with a speed comparable to c induces a planar overdensity (a {open_quotes}wake{close_quotes}). Since the initial perturbation is a velocity kick toward the plane behind the string and there is no initial Newtonian gravitational line source, the baryons are trapped in the center of the wake, leading to an enhanced baryon to dark matter ratio. The cold coherent flow leads to very low postshock temperatures of the baryonic fluid. In contrast, long strings with small-scale structure (which can be described by adding a Newtonian gravitational line source) move slowly and form filamentary objects. The large central pressure due to the gravitational potential causes the baryons to be expelled from the central regions and leads to a relative deficit in the baryon to dark matter ratio. In this case, the velocity of the baryons is larger, leading to high postshock temperatures. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Astronomical Society}
The cosmological microwave background radiation, cosmic and superconducting strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchez, N.; Signore, M.
1989-03-01
We study different kinds of anisotropies and distortions in the cosmological background radiation due to cosmic and superconducting strings: (i) temperature angular anisotropy by loop decay into gravitational waves and (ii) spectral distortions due to electromagnetic energy emission. We relate distortions produced by loops indifferent epochs of their evolution. We confront these predictions with observations, in particular with the submillimeter excess recently observed by the Nagoya-Berkeley experiment. This allows us to place constraints both of the string parameter Gμ and on the parameters governing loop evolution. UA 336 Laboratoire Associé au CNRS, Observatoire de Meudon et Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 reu Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05, France.
Kinks and small-scale structure on cosmic strings
Copeland, E. J.; Kibble, T. W. B.
2009-12-15
We discuss some hitherto puzzling features of the small-scale structure of cosmic strings. We argue that kinks play a key role, and that an important quantity to study is their sharpness distribution. In particular we suggest that for very small scales the two-point correlation function of the string tangent vector varies linearly with the separation and not as a fractional power, as proposed by Polchinski and Rocha [Phys. Rev. D 74, 083504 (2006)]. However, our results are consistent with theirs, because the range of scales to which this linearity applies shrinks as evolution proceeds.
Dynamics of cosmic strings with higher-dimensional windings
Yamauchi, Daisuke; Lake, Matthew J.
2015-06-11
We consider F-strings with arbitrary configurations in the Minkowski directions of a higher-dimensional spacetime, which also wrap and spin around S{sup 1} subcycles of constant radius in an arbitrary internal manifold, and determine the relation between the higher-dimensional and the effective four-dimensional quantities that govern the string dynamics. We show that, for any such configuration, the motion of the windings in the compact space may render the string effectively tensionless from a four-dimensional perspective, so that it remains static with respect to the large dimensions. Such a critical configuration occurs when (locally) exactly half the square of the string length lies in the large dimensions and half lies in the compact space. The critical solution is then seen to arise as a special case, in which the wavelength of the windings is equal to their circumference. As examples, long straight strings and circular loops are considered in detail, and the solutions to the equations of motion that satisfy the tensionless condition are presented. These solutions are then generalized to planar loops and arbitrary three-dimensional configurations. Under the process of dimensional reduction, in which higher-dimensional motion is equivalent to an effective worldsheet current (giving rise to a conserved charge), this phenomenon may be seen as the analogue of the tensionless condition which arises for superconducting and chiral-current carrying cosmic strings.
Cosmic R-string, R-tube and vacuum instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eto, Minoru; Hamada, Yuta; Kamada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Ohashi, Keisuke; Ookouchi, Yutaka
2013-03-01
We show that a cosmic string associated with spontaneous U(1) R symmetry breaking gives a constraint for supersymmetric model building. In some models, the string can be viewed as a tube-like domain wall with a winding number interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. Such string causes inhomogeneous decay of the false vacuum to the true vacuum via rapid expansion of the radius of the tube and hence its formation would be inconsistent with the present Universe. However, we demonstrate that there exist metastable solutions which do not expand rapidly. Furthermore, when the true vacua are degenerate, the structure inside the tube becomes involved. As an example, we show a "bamboo"-like solution, which suggests a possibility observing an information of true vacua from outside of the tube through the shape and the tension of the tube.
Disruption of cosmic string wakes by Gaussian fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Cunha, Disrael Camargo Neves; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Hernández, Oscar F.
2016-06-01
We study the stability of cosmic string wakes against the disruption by the dominant Gaussian fluctuations which are present in cosmological models. We find that for a string tension given by G μ =10-7 wakes remain locally stable until a redshift of z =6 , and for a value of G μ =10-14 they are stable beyond a redshift of z =20 . We study a global stability criterion which shows that wakes created by strings at times after teq are identifiable up to the present time, independent of the value of G μ . Taking into account our criteria it is possible to develop strategies to search for the distinctive position space signals in cosmological maps which are induced by wakes.
Nonlinear dynamics of cosmic strings with nonscaling loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanchurin, Vitaly
2010-09-01
At early stages the dynamics of cosmic string networks is expected to be influenced by an excessive production of small loops at the scales of initial conditions lmin. To understand the late time behavior we propose a very simple analytical model of strings with a nonscaling population of loops. The complicated nonlinear dynamics is described by only a single parameter Ñ2/(1-C(lmin)) where C(l) is a correlation function of the string tangent vectors. The model predicts an appearance of two new length scales: the coherence length ξ˜t/N2 and the cross-correlation length χ˜t/N. At the onset of evolution Ñ10 and at late times N is expected to grow logarithmically due to cosmological stretching and emission of small loops. The very late time evolution might be modified further when the gravitational back-reaction scale grows larger than lmin.
Induced vacuum bosonic current in a compactified cosmic string spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bragança, E. A. F.; Santana Mota, H. F.; de Mello, E. R. Bezerra
2016-03-01
We analyze the bosonic current densities induced by a magnetic flux running along an idealized cosmic string considering that the coordinate along its axis is compactified. We also consider the presence of a magnetic flux enclosed by the compactificatified axis. To develop this analysis, we calculate the complete set of normalized bosonic wave functions obeying a quasiperiodicity condition along the compactified dimension. We show that in this context only the azimuthal and axial currents take place.
Stability of false vacuum in supersymmetric theories with cosmic strings
Kumar, Brijesh; Yajnik, Urjit A.
2009-03-15
We study the stability of supersymmetry breaking vacuum in the presence of cosmic strings arising in the messenger sector. For certain ranges of the couplings, the desired supersymmetry breaking vacua become unstable against decay into phenomenologically unacceptable vacua. This sets constraints on the range of allowed values of the coupling constants appearing in the models and more generally on the chosen dynamics of gauge symmetry breaking.
CMB distortions from damping of acoustic waves produced by cosmic strings
Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sabancilar, Eray; Vachaspati, Tanmay E-mail: Eray.Sabancilar@asu.edu
2013-08-01
We study diffusion damping of acoustic waves in the photon-baryon fluid due to cosmic strings, and calculate the induced μ- and y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background. For cosmic strings with tension within current bounds, their contribution to the spectral distortions is subdominant compared to the distortions from primordial density perturbations.
The COBE cosmic 3 K anisotropy experiment: A gravity wave and cosmic string probe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bennett, Charles L.; Smoot, George F.
1989-01-01
Among the experiments to be carried into orbit next year, by the COBE satellite, are differential microwave radiometers. They will make sensitive all-sky maps of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation at three frequencies, giving dipole, quadrupole, and higher order multipole measurements of the background radiation. The experiment will either detect, or place significant constraints on, the existence of cosmic strings and long wavelength gravity waves.
Constraints on Cosmic Strings from the LIGO-Virgo Gravitational-Wave Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, R. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Austin, L.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S. H.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Belopolski, I.; Bergmann, G.; Berliner, J. M.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Bessis, D.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhadbhade, T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bowers, J.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brannen, C. A.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brückner, F.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castiglia, A.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Canton, T. Dal; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Del Pozzo, W.; Deleeuw, E.; Deléglise, S.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Dmitry, K.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Endrőczi, G.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W.; Favata, M.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R.; Flaminio, R.; Foley, E.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Griffo, C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B.; Hall, E.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Horrom, T.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y.; Hua, Z.; Huang, V.; Huerta, E. A.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Iafrate, J.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, H.; Jang, Y. J.; Jaranowski, P.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kasprzack, M.; Kasturi, R.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufman, K.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, B. K.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Koranda, S.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D.; Kremin, A.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Kucharczyk, C.; Kudla, S.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kurdyumov, R.; Kwee, P.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lawrie, C.; Lazzarini, A.; Le Roux, A.; Leaci, P.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.-H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, J.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J. B.; Lhuillier, V.; Li, T. G. F.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Litvine, V.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lloyd, D.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Lodhia, D.; Loew, K.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J.; Luan, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Macarthur, J.; Macdonald, E.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Manca, G. M.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martinelli, L.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; May, G.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Meier, T.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyer, M. S.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Minenkov, Y.; Mingarelli, C. M. F.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Mokler, F.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morgado, N.; Mori, T.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Nanda Kumar, D.; Nardecchia, I.; Nash, T.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R.; Necula, V.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, I.; Neri, M.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nishida, E.; Nishizawa, A.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega Larcher, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Ou, J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Palomba, C.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoletti, R.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Pedraza, M.; Peiris, P.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pinard, L.; Pindor, B.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Poggiani, R.; Poole, V.; Poux, C.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramet, C.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Re, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reed, T.; Regimbau, T.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ricci, F.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, C.; Rodruck, M.; Roever, C.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Saracco, E.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulz, B.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Sintes, A. M.; Skelton, G. R.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Soden, K.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Sperandio, L.; Staley, A.; Steinert, E.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steplewski, S.; Stevens, D.; Stochino, A.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strigin, S.; Stroeer, A. S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Susmithan, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B.; Szeifert, G.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tang, L.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taylor, R.; ter Braack, A. P. M.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Verma, S.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vlcek, B.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vrinceanu, D.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Wade, A.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Waldman, S. J.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Wan, Y.; Wang, J.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wanner, A.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wibowo, S.; Wiesner, K.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williams, T.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkelmann, L.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, H.; Yeaton-Massey, D.; Yoshida, S.; Yum, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, X. J.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2014-04-01
Cosmic strings can give rise to a large variety of interesting astrophysical phenomena. Among them, powerful bursts of gravitational waves (GWs) produced by cusps are a promising observational signature. In this Letter we present a search for GWs from cosmic string cusps in data collected by the LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors between 2005 and 2010, with over 625 days of live time. We find no evidence of GW signals from cosmic strings. From this result, we derive new constraints on cosmic string parameters, which complement and improve existing limits from previous searches for a stochastic background of GWs from cosmic microwave background measurements and pulsar timing data. In particular, if the size of loops is given by the gravitational backreaction scale, we place upper limits on the string tension Gμ below 10-8 in some regions of the cosmic string parameter space.
Constraints on cosmic strings from the LIGO-Virgo gravitational-wave detectors.
Aasi, J; Abadie, J; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adams, T; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amador Ceron, E; Amariutei, D; Anderson, R A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J; Ast, S; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Austin, L; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barker, D; Barnum, S H; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Belopolski, I; Bergmann, G; Berliner, J M; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Bessis, D; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bhadbhade, T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bowers, J; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brannen, C A; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brückner, F; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Calderón Bustillo, J; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Castiglia, A; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S S Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, D E; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Dal Canton, T; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Del Pozzo, W; Deleeuw, E; Deléglise, S; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Díaz, M; Dietz, A; Dmitry, K; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dumas, J-C; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Endrőczi, G; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, K; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W; Favata, M; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R; Flaminio, R; Foley, E; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J-D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fujimoto, M-K; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Gammaitoni, L; Garcia, J; Garufi, F; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gil-Casanova, S; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Griffo, C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hall, B; Hall, E; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Holtrop, M; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Horrom, T; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hu, Y; Hua, Z; Huang, V; Huerta, E A; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Iafrate, J; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, H; Jang, Y J; Jaranowski, P; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kasprzack, M; Kasturi, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kaufman, K; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, B K; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, W; Kim, Y-M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Kremin, A; Kringel, V; Królak, A; Kucharczyk, C; Kudla, S; Kuehn, G; Kumar, A; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kurdyumov, R; Kwee, P; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Larson, S; Lasky, P D; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Le Roux, A; Leaci, P; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C-H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, J; Lee, J; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levine, B; Lewis, J B; Lhuillier, V; Li, T G F; Lin, A C; Littenberg, T B; Litvine, V; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lloyd, D; Lockerbie, N A; Lockett, V; Lodhia, D; Loew, K; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Luan, J; Lubinski, M J; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Macarthur, J; Macdonald, E; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Manca, G M; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martinelli, L; Martynov, D; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; May, G; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meidam, J; Meier, T; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyer, M S; Miao, H; Michel, C; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mingarelli, C M F; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Mokler, F; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Mori, T; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nagy, M F; Nanda Kumar, D; Nardecchia, I; Nash, T; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R; Necula, V; Nelemans, G; Neri, I; Neri, M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nishida, E; Nishizawa, A; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E; Nuttall, L K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oppermann, P; O'Reilly, B; Ortega Larcher, W; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Ou, J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Padilla, C; Pai, A; Palomba, C; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Paoletti, R; Papa, M A; Paris, H; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pedraza, M; Peiris, P; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pinard, L; Pindor, B; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J; Poggiani, R; Poole, V; Poux, C; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajalakshmi, G; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Reed, C M; Reed, T; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ricci, F; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Roddy, S; Rodriguez, C; Rodruck, M; Roever, C; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J; Sannibale, V; Santiago-Prieto, I; Saracco, E; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schulz, B; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Sintes, A M; Skelton, G R; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Soden, K; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Souradeep, T; Sperandio, L; Staley, A; Steinert, E; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steplewski, S; Stevens, D; Stochino, A; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Strigin, S; Stroeer, A S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Szeifert, G; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tang, L; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, R; ter Braack, A P M; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Vallisneri, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; van der Putten, S; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Verma, S; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vincent-Finley, R; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vlcek, B; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vrinceanu, D; Vyachanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Waldman, S J; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Wan, Y; Wang, J; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wanner, A; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wibowo, S; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Williams, L; Williams, R; Williams, T; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkelmann, L; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yeaton-Massey, D; Yoshida, S; Yum, H; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zhu, H; Zhu, X J; Zotov, N; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J
2014-04-01
Cosmic strings can give rise to a large variety of interesting astrophysical phenomena. Among them, powerful bursts of gravitational waves (GWs) produced by cusps are a promising observational signature. In this Letter we present a search for GWs from cosmic string cusps in data collected by the LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors between 2005 and 2010, with over 625 days of live time. We find no evidence of GW signals from cosmic strings. From this result, we derive new constraints on cosmic string parameters, which complement and improve existing limits from previous searches for a stochastic background of GWs from cosmic microwave background measurements and pulsar timing data. In particular, if the size of loops is given by the gravitational backreaction scale, we place upper limits on the string tension Gμ below 10(-8) in some regions of the cosmic string parameter space. PMID:24745400
Constraints on Cosmic Strings from the LIGO-Virgo Gravitational-Wave Detectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B.P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M.R.; Accadia, T.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Adhikari, R.X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O.D.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Ceron, E.A.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S.B.; Blackburn, L.; Camp, J.B.; Gehrels, N.; Graff, P.B.; Kanner, J.B.
2014-01-01
Cosmic strings can give rise to a large variety of interesting astrophysical phenomena. Among them, powerful bursts of gravitational waves (GWs) produced by cusps are a promising observational signature. In this Letter we present a search for GWs from cosmic string cusps in data collected by the LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors between 2005 and 2010, with over 625 days of live time. We find no evidence of GW signals from cosmic strings. From this result, we derive new constraints on cosmic string parameters, which complement and improve existing limits from previous searches for a stochastic background of GWs from cosmic microwave background measurements and pulsar timing data. In particular, if the size of loops is given by the gravitational backreaction scale, we place upper limits on the string tension (Newton's Constant x mass per unit length) below 10(exp -8) in some regions of the cosmic string parameter space.
The 21 cm signature of a cosmic string loop
Pagano, Michael; Brandenberger, Robert E-mail: rhb@physics.mcgill.ca
2012-05-01
Cosmic string loops lead to nonlinear baryon overdensities at early times, even before the time which in the standard LCDM model corresponds to the time of reionization. These overdense structures lead to signals in 21 cm redshift surveys at large redshifts. In this paper, we calculate the amplitude and shape of the string loop-induced 21 cm brightness temperature. We find that a string loop leads to a roughly elliptical region in redshift space with extra 21 cm emission. The excess brightness temperature for strings with a tension close to the current upper bound can be as high as 1deg K for string loops generated at early cosmological times (times comparable to the time of equal matter and radiation) and observed at a redshift of z+1 = 30. The angular extent of these predicted 'bright spots' is x{sup '}. These signals should be detectable in upcoming high redshift 21 cm surveys. We also discuss the application of our results to global monopoles and primordial black holes.
Wormhole at the core of an infinite cosmic string
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aros, Rodrigo O.; Zamorano, Nelson
1997-11-01
We study a solution of Einstein's equations that describes a straight cosmic string with a variable angular deficit, starting with a 2π deficit at the core. We show that the coordinate singularity associated with this defect can be interpreted as a traversable wormhole lodging at the core of the string. A negative energy density gradually decreases the angular deficit as the distance from the core increases, ending, at radial infinity, in a Minkowski spacetime. The negative energy density can be confined to a small transversal section of the string by gluing to it an exterior Gott-like solution that freezes the angular deficit existing at the matching border. The equation of state of the string is such that any massive particle may stay at rest anywhere in this spacetime. In this sense this is a 2+1 spacetime solution. A generalization that includes the existence of two interacting parallel wormholes is displayed. These wormholes are not traversable. Finally, we point out that a similar result, flat at infinity and with a 2π defect (or excess) at the core, has been recently published by Dyer and Marleau. Even though theirs is a local string fully coupled to gravity, our toy model captures important aspects of this solution.
Searching for signatures of cosmic string wakes in 21cm redshift surveys using Minkowski Functionals
McDonough, Evan; Brandenberger, Robert H. E-mail: rhb@hep.physics.mcgill.ca
2013-02-01
Minkowski Functionals are a powerful tool for analyzing large scale structure, in particular if the distribution of matter is highly non-Gaussian, as it is in models in which cosmic strings contribute to structure formation. Here we apply Minkowski functionals to 21cm maps which arise if structure is seeded by a scaling distribution of cosmic strings embeddded in background fluctuations, and then test for the statistical significance of the cosmic string signals using the Fisher combined probability test. We find that this method allows for detection of cosmic strings with Gμ > 5 × 10{sup −8}, which would be improvement over current limits by a factor of about 3.
Energy-momentum correlations for Abelian Higgs cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daverio, David; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin; Lizarraga, Joanes; Urrestilla, Jon
2016-04-01
We report on the energy-momentum correlators obtained with recent numerical simulations of the Abelian Higgs model, essential for the computation of cosmic microwave background and matter perturbations of cosmic strings. Due to significant improvements both in raw computing power and in our parallel simulation framework, the dynamical range of the simulations has increased fourfold both in space and time, and for the first time we are able to simulate strings with a constant physical width in both the radiation and matter eras. The new simulations improve the accuracy of the measurements of the correlation functions at the horizon scale and confirm the shape around the peak. The normalization is slightly higher in the high wave-number tails, due to a small increase in the string density. We study, for the first time, the behavior of the correlators across cosmological transitions and discover that the correlation functions evolve adiabatically; i.e., the network adapts quickly to changes in the expansion rate. We propose a new method for constructing source functions for Einstein-Boltzmann integrators, comparing it with two other methods previously used. The new method is more consistent, easier to implement, and significantly more accurate.
Casimir effect for parallel metallic plates in cosmic string spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezerra de Mello, E. R.; Saharian, A. A.; Grigoryan, A. Kh
2012-09-01
We evaluate the renormalized vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of electric and magnetic field squared and the energy-momentum tensor for the electromagnetic field in the geometry of two parallel conducting plates on the background of cosmic string spacetime. On the basis of these results, the Casimir-Polder force acting on a polarizable particle and the Casimir forces acting on the plates are investigated. The VEVs are decomposed into the pure string and plate-induced parts. The VEV of the electric field squared is negative for points with the radial distance to the string smaller than the distance to the plates, and positive for the opposite situation. On the other hand, the VEV for the magnetic field squared is negative everywhere. The boundary-induced part in the VEV of the energy-momentum tensor is different from zero in the region between the plates only. Moreover, this part only depends on the distance from the string. The boundary-induced part in the vacuum energy density is positive for points with a distance to the string smaller than the distance to the plates and negative in the opposite situation. The Casimir stresses on the plates depend non-monotonically on the distance from the string. We show that the Casimir forces acting on the plates are always attractive. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’.
CMB polarization power spectra contributions from a network of cosmic strings
Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Urrestilla, Jon; Kunz, Martin
2007-08-15
We present the first calculation of the possible (local) cosmic string contribution to the cosmic microwave background polarization spectra from simulations of a string network (rather than a stochastic collection of unconnected string segments). We use field-theory simulations of the Abelian Higgs model to represent local U(1) strings, including their radiative decay and microphysics. Relative to previous estimates, our calculations show a shift in power to larger angular scales, making the chance of a future cosmic string detection from the B-mode polarization slightly greater. We explore a future ground-based polarization detector, taking the CLOVER project as our example. In the null hypothesis (that cosmic strings make a zero contribution) we find that CLOVER should limit the string tension {mu} to G{mu}<0.12x10{sup -6} (where G is the gravitational constant), above which it is likely that a detection would be possible.
The implications of the COBE diffuse microwave radiation results for cosmic strings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bennett, David P.; Stebbins, Albert; Bouchet, Francois R.
1992-01-01
We compare the anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation measured by the COBE experiment to those predicted by cosmic string theories. We use an analytic model for the Delta T/T power spectrum that is based on our previous numerical simulations of strings, under the assumption that cosmic strings are the sole source of the measured anisotropy. This implies a value for the string mass per unit length of 1.5 +/- 0.5 x 10 exp -6 C-squared/G. This is within the range of values required for cosmic strings to successfully seed the formation of large-scale structures in the universe. These results clearly encourage further studies of Delta T/T and large-scale structure in the cosmic string model.
Semi-local cosmic strings and the cosmological constant problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edelstein, José D.
1997-02-01
We study the cosmological constant problem in a three-dimensional N = 2 supergravity theory with gauge group SU(2) global × U(1) local. The model we consider is known to admit string-like configurations, the so-called semi-local cosmic strings. We show that the stability of these solitonic solutions is provided by supersymmetry through the existence of a lower bound for the energy, even though the manifold of the Higgs vacuum does not contain non-contractible loops. Charged Killing spinors do exist over configurations that saturate the Bogomol'nyi bound, as a consequence of an Aharonov-Bohmlike effect. Nevertheless, there are no physical fermionic zero modes on these backgrounds. The exact vanishing of the cosmological constant does not imply, then, Bose-Fermi degeneracy. This provides a non-trivial example of the recent claim made by Witten on the vanishing of the cosmological constant in three dimensions without unphysical degeneracies.
Takahashi, Keitaro; Naruko, Atsushi; Sendouda, Yuuiti; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Sasaki, Misao; Yoo, Chul-Moon E-mail: naruko@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp E-mail: yamauchi@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp
2009-10-01
We compute analytically the small-scale temperature fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background from cosmic (super-)strings and study the dependence on the string intercommuting probability P. We develop an analytical model which describes the evolution of a string network and calculate the numbers of string segments and kinks in a horizon volume. Then we derive the probability distribution function (pdf) which takes account of finite angular resolution of observation. The resultant pdf consists of a Gaussian part due to frequent scatterings by long string segments and a non-Gaussian tail due to close encounters with kinks. The dispersion of the Gaussian part is reasonably consistent with that obtained by numerical simulations by Fraisse et al.. On the other hand, the non-Gaussian tail contains two phenomenological parameters which are determined by comparison with the numerical results for P = 1. Extrapolating the pdf to the cases with P < 1, we predict that the non-Gaussian feature is suppressed for small P.
Gravitational collapse with rotating thin shells and cosmic censorship
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delsate, Térence; Rocha, Jorge V.; Santarelli, Raphael
2015-04-01
The study of gravitational collapse is a subject of great importance, both from an astrophysical and a holographic point of view. In this respect, exact solutions can be very helpful but known solutions are very scarce, especially when considering dynamical processes with rotation. We describe a setup in which gravitational collapse of rotating matter shells can be addressed with analytic tools, at the expense of going to higher dimensions and considering equal angular momenta spacetimes. The framework for an exact treatment of the dynamics, relying on a thin shell approximation, is developed. Our analysis allows the inclusion of a non-vanishing cosmological constant. Finally, we discuss applications of this machinery to the construction of stationary solutions describing matter around rotating black holes and to the cosmic censorship conjecture.
Implications of fast radio bursts for superconducting cosmic strings
Yu, Yun-Wei; Cheng, Kwong-Sang; Shiu, Gary; Tye, Henry E-mail: hrspksc@hku.hk E-mail: iastye@ust.hk
2014-11-01
Highly beamed, short-duration electromagnetic bursts could be produced by superconducting cosmic string (SCS) loops oscillating in cosmic magnetic fields. We demonstrated that the basic characteristics of SCS bursts such as the electromagnetic frequency and the energy release could be consistently exhibited in the recently discovered fast radio bursts (FRBs). Moreover, it is first showed that the redshift distribution of the FRBs can also be well accounted for by the SCS burst model. Such agreements between the FRBs and SCS bursts suggest that the FRBs could originate from SCS bursts and thus they could provide an effective probe to study SCSs. The obtained values of model parameters indicate that the loops generating the FRBs have a small length scale and they are mostly formed in the radiation-dominated cosmological epoch.
Angular 21 cm power spectrum of a scaling distribution of cosmic string wakes
Hernández, Oscar F.; Wang, Yi; Brandenberger, Robert; Fong, José E-mail: wangyi@physics.mcgill.ca E-mail: jose.fong@ens-lyon.fr
2011-08-01
Cosmic string wakes lead to a large signal in 21 cm redshift maps at redshifts larger than that corresponding to reionization. Here, we compute the angular power spectrum of 21 cm radiation as predicted by a scaling distribution of cosmic strings whose wakes have undergone shock heating.
Closed timelike curves produced by pairs of moving cosmic strings - Exact solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gott, J. Richard, III
1991-01-01
Exact solutions of Einstein's field equations are presented for the general case of two moving straight cosmic strings that do not intersect. The solutions for parallel cosmic strings moving in opposite directions show closed timelike curves (CTCs) that circle the two strings as they pass, allowing observers to visit their own past. Similar results occur for nonparallel strings, and for masses in (2+1)-dimensional spacetime. For finite string loops the possibility that black-hole formation may prevent the formation of CTCs is discussed.
B-mode polarization induced by gravitational waves from kinks on infinite cosmic strings
Kawasaki, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Koichi; Nakayama, Kazunori
2010-11-15
We investigate the effect of the stochastic gravitational wave (GW) background produced by kinks on infinite cosmic strings, whose spectrum was derived in our previous work, on the B-mode power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy. We find that the B-mode polarization due to kinks is comparable to that induced by the motion of the string network and hence the contribution of GWs from kinks is important for estimating the B-mode power spectrum originating from cosmic strings. If the tension of cosmic strings {mu} is large enough, i.e., G{mu} > or approx. 10{sup -8}, B-mode polarization induced by cosmic strings can be detected by future CMB experiments.
Imprints of cosmic strings on the cosmological gravitational wave background
Kleidis, K; Papadopoulos, D B; Vlahos, L; Verdaguer, E
2008-07-15
The equation which governs the temporal evolution of a gravitational wave (GW) in curved space-time can be treated as the Schroedinger equation for a particle moving in the presence of an effective potential. When GWs propagate in an expanding universe with constant effective potential, there is a critical value (k{sub c}) of the comoving wave number which discriminates the metric perturbations into oscillating (k>k{sub c}) and nonoscillating (k
Duality relation between radiation thermodynamics and cosmic string loop thermodynamics
Jou, D.; Mongiovi, M. S.; Sciacca, M.
2011-05-15
We discuss thermodynamics of electromagnetic radiation, with p=(1/3){rho} and S{proportional_to}T{sup 3}V, and of cosmic string loops, with p=-(1/3){rho} and S{proportional_to}T{sup -3}V, where p stands for pressure, T temperature, {rho} energy density, S entropy, and V volume. We write the thermodynamic formalisms under a common framework that illustrates their formal relationship and allows us to go from one to the other through a smooth transformation. From a microscopic perspective, these relations arise from the energy relations u({lambda})=hc/{lambda} for the photons of electromagnetic radiation, and u(l)=(c{sup 4}/a{sup 2}G)l for cosmic string loops, a being a numerical (dimensionless) constant and {lambda} and l the radiation wavelength and the length of a loop; G, c, and h are the gravitational constant, the speed of light in vacuo, and the Planck constant, respectively. The corresponding thermodynamic behaviors are seen to be connected through a related thermal duality corresponding to the change of T by T*=T{sub c}{sup 2}/T, with T{sub c} a reference temperature related to h, c, and G.
Semishifted hybrid inflation with B-L cosmic strings
Lazarides, George; Peddie, Iain N. R.; Vamvasakis, Achilleas
2008-08-15
We discuss a new inflationary scenario that is realized within the extended supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which yields an acceptable b-quark mass for universal boundary conditions and {mu}>0 by modestly violating Yukawa unification and leads to new shifted, new smooth, or standard-smooth hybrid inflation. Inflation takes place along a ''semishifted'' classically flat direction on which the U(1){sub B-L} gauge group remains unbroken. After the end of inflation, U(1){sub B-L} breaks spontaneously and a network of local cosmic strings, which contribute a small amount to the curvature perturbation, is produced. We show that, in minimal supergravity, this semishifted inflationary scenario is compatible with a recent fit to data which uses field-theory simulations of a local string network. Taking into account the requirement of gauge unification, we find that, for spectral index n{sub s}=1, the predicted fractional contribution of strings to the temperature power spectrum at multipole l=10 is f{sub 10}{approx_equal}0.039. Also, for f{sub 10}=0.10, which is the best-fit value, we obtain n{sub s}{approx_equal}1.0254. Spectral indices lower than about 0.98 are excluded and blue spectra are slightly favored. Magnetic monopoles are not formed at the end of semishifted hybrid inflation.
Nonlinear dynamics of cosmic strings with nonscaling loops
Vanchurin, Vitaly
2010-09-15
At early stages the dynamics of cosmic string networks is expected to be influenced by an excessive production of small loops at the scales of initial conditions l{sub min}. To understand the late time behavior we propose a very simple analytical model of strings with a nonscaling population of loops. The complicated nonlinear dynamics is described by only a single parameter N{approx}2/(1-C(l{sub min})) where C(l) is a correlation function of the string tangent vectors. The model predicts an appearance of two new length scales: the coherence length {xi}{approx}t/N{sup 2} and the cross-correlation length {chi}{approx}t/N. At the onset of evolution N{approx}10 and at late times N is expected to grow logarithmically due to cosmological stretching and emission of small loops. The very late time evolution might be modified further when the gravitational back-reaction scale grows larger than l{sub min}.
Cosmic strings as the source of small-scale microwave background anisotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pogosian, Levon; Tye, S.-H. Henry; Wasserman, Ira; Wyman, Mark
2009-02-01
Cosmic string networks generate cosmological perturbations actively throughout the history of the universe. Thus, the string sourced anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background is not affected by Silk damping as much as the anisotropy seeded by inflation. The spectrum of perturbations generated by strings does not match the observed CMB spectrum on large angular scales (ell < 1000) and is bounded to contribute no more than 10% of the total power on those scales. However, when this bound is marginally saturated, the anisotropy created by cosmic strings on small angular scales ell gtrsim 2000 will dominate over that created by the primary inflationary perturbations. This range of angular scales in the CMB is presently being measured by a number of experiments; their results will test this prediction of cosmic string networks soon.
Cosmic strings as the source of small-scale microwave background anisotropy
Pogosian, Levon; Tye, S.-H. Henry; Wasserman, Ira; Wyman, Mark E-mail: tye@lepp.cornell.edu E-mail: mwyman@perimeterinstitute.ca
2009-02-15
Cosmic string networks generate cosmological perturbations actively throughout the history of the universe. Thus, the string sourced anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background is not affected by Silk damping as much as the anisotropy seeded by inflation. The spectrum of perturbations generated by strings does not match the observed CMB spectrum on large angular scales (l < 1000) and is bounded to contribute no more than 10% of the total power on those scales. However, when this bound is marginally saturated, the anisotropy created by cosmic strings on small angular scales l {approx}> 2000 will dominate over that created by the primary inflationary perturbations. This range of angular scales in the CMB is presently being measured by a number of experiments; their results will test this prediction of cosmic string networks soon.
Superconducting cosmic strings and one dimensional extended supersymmetric algebras
Oikonomou, V.K.
2014-11-15
In this article we study in detail the supersymmetric structures that underlie the system of fermionic zero modes around a superconducting cosmic string. Particularly, we extend the analysis existing in the literature on the one dimensional N=2 supersymmetry and we find multiple N=2, d=1 supersymmetries. In addition, compact perturbations of the Witten index of the system are performed and we find to which physical situations these perturbations correspond. More importantly, we demonstrate that there exists a much more rich supersymmetric structure underlying the system of fermions with N{sub f} flavors and these are N-extended supersymmetric structures with non-trivial topological charges, with “N” depending on the fermion flavors.
Cosmological and astrophysical constraints on superconducting cosmic strings
Miyamoto, Koichi; Nakayama, Kazunori E-mail: kazunori@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp
2013-07-01
We investigate the cosmological and astrophysical constraints on superconducting cosmic strings (SCSs). SCS loops emit strong bursts of electromagnetic waves, which might affect various cosmological and astrophysical observations. We take into account the effect on the CMB anisotropy, CMB blackbody spectrum, BBN, observational implications on radio wave burst and X-ray or γ-ray events, and stochastic gravitational wave background measured by pulsar timing experiments. We then derive constraints on the parameters of SCS from current observations and estimate prospects for detecting SCS signatures in on-going observations. As a result, we find that these constraints exclude broad parameter regions, and also that on-going radio wave observations can probe large parameter space.
Cosmic string wakes and large-scale structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Charlton, Jane C.
1988-01-01
The formation of structure from infinite cosmic string wakes is modeled for a universe dominated by cold dark matter (CDM). Cross-sectional slices through the wake distribution tend to outline empty regions with diameters which are not inconsistent with the range of sizes of the voids in the CfA slice of the universe. The topology of the wake distribution is found to be spongy rather than cell-like. Correlations between CDM wakes do not extend much beyond a horizon length, so it is unlikely that CDM wakes are responsible for the correlations between clusters of galaxies. An estimate of the fraction of matter to accrete onto CDM wakes indicates that wakes could be more important in galaxy formation than previously anticipated.
Logarithmic equation of state for superconducting cosmic strings
Hartmann, Betti; Carter, Brandon
2008-05-15
This investigation follows up the suggestion that the equation of state for superconducting cosmic strings provided by Witten's prototype biscalar field model can be well represented by an effective Lagrangian of simple logarithmic form depending on only 3 independent parameters. The numerical work described here confirms the validity of this approximation and initiates the evaluation of the 3 required parameters, as functions of the masses and other parameters specifying the underlying U(1)xU(1) scalar field model in the limit for which the relevant gauge coupling constants are small. In this limit, subject to calibration of the relevant length and mass scales, the scalar field model is characterized by just 3 dimensionless ratios which (in order to provide conducting strings) must be subject to three inequalities (of which two have obvious analytic expressions). It is found here that when all three of these inequalities are satisfied by a reasonably large margin, there is a simple empirical formula that can be used to provide a fairly accurate prescription for the algebraic dependence on these 3 dimensionless ratios of the 3 parameters required for the logarithmic equation of state.
Periodic gravitational waves from small cosmic string loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubath, Florian; Rocha, Jorge V.
2007-07-01
We consider a population of small, high-velocity cosmic string loops. We assume the typical length of these loops is determined by the gravitational radiation scale and use the results of Polchinski and Rocha which pointed out their highly relativistic nature. A study of the gravitational wave emission from such a population is carried out. The large Lorentz boost involved causes the lowest harmonics of the loops to fall within the frequency band of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory detector. Because of this feature the gravitational waves emitted by such loops can be detected in a periodic search rather than in burst or stochastic analysis. It is shown that, for interesting values of the string tension (10-10≲Gμ≲10-8), the detector can observe loops at reasonably high redshifts and that detection is, in principle, possible. We compute the number of expected observations produced by such a process. For a 10 h search we find that this number is of order O(10-4). This is a consequence of the low effective number density of the loops traveling along the line of sight. However, small probabilities of reconnection and longer observation times can improve the result.
A simple model for the evolution of a non-Abelian cosmic string network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cella, G.; Pieroni, M.
2016-06-01
In this paper we present the results of numerical simulations intended to study the behavior of non-Abelian cosmic strings networks. In particular we are interested in discussing the variations in the asymptotic behavior of the system as we variate the number of generators for the topological defects. A simple model which allows for cosmic strings is presented and its lattice discretization is discussed. The evolution of the generated cosmic string networks is then studied for different values for the number of generators for the topological defects. Scaling solution appears to be approached in most cases and we present an argument to justify the lack of scaling for the residual cases.
Urrestilla, Jon; Mukherjee, Pia; Liddle, Andrew R.; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin; Bevis, Neil
2008-06-15
While observations indicate that the predominant source of cosmic inhomogeneities are adiabatic perturbations, there are a variety of candidates to provide auxiliary trace effects, including inflation-generated primordial tensors and cosmic defects which both produce B-mode cosmic microwave background polarization. We investigate whether future experiments may suffer confusion as to the true origin of such effects, focusing on the ability of Planck to distinguish tensors from cosmic strings, and show that there is no significant degeneracy.
Implications of cosmic strings with time-varying tension on the CMB and large scale structure
Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Takahashi, Tomo; Yamaguchi, Masahide
2006-09-15
We investigate cosmological evolution and implications of cosmic strings with time-dependent tension. We derive basic equations of time development of the correlation length and the velocity of such strings, based on the one-scale model. Then, we find that, in the case where the tension depends on some power of the cosmic time, cosmic strings with time-dependent tension goes into the scaling solution if the power is lower than a critical value. We also discuss cosmic microwave background anisotropy and matter power spectra produced by these strings. The constraints on their tensions from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) 3 yr data and Sloan digital sky survey (SDSS) data are also given.
Local cosmic strings in Brans-Dicke theory with a cosmological constant
Delice, Oezguer
2006-09-15
It is known that Vilenkin's phenomenological equation of state for static straight cosmic strings is inconsistent with Brans-Dicke theory. We will prove that, in the presence of a cosmological constant, this equation of state is consistent with Brans-Dicke theory. The general solution of the full nonlinear field equations, representing the interior of a cosmic string with a cosmological constant, is also presented.
Self-force on an electric dipole in the spacetime of a cosmic string
Muniz, C.R.; Bezerra, V.B.
2014-01-15
We calculate the electrostatic self-force on an electric dipole in the spacetime generated by a static, thin, infinite and straight cosmic string. The electric dipole is held fixed in different configurations, namely, parallel, perpendicular to the cosmic string and oriented along the azimuthal direction around this topological defect, which is stretched along the z axis. We show that the self-force is equivalent to an interaction of the electric dipole with an effective dipole moment which depends on the linear mass density of the cosmic string and on the configuration. The plots of the self-forces as functions of the parameter which determines the angular deficit of the cosmic string are shown for those different configurations. -- Highlights: •Review of regularized Green’s function applied to the problem. •Self-force on an electric dipole in the string spacetime for some orientations. •Representation via graphs of the self-forces versus angular parameter of the cosmic string. •Self-force induced by the string seen as an interaction between two dipoles. •Discussion about the superposition principle in this non-trivial background.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuzurihara, Hirotaka; Kanda, Nobuyuki
Cosmic string is one dimensional topological defects which might be formed at the phase transition in the early universe. Gravitational Wave (GW) waveform and its power spectrum from structure in closed cosmic string loop that is called as "cusp" are theoretically predicted. Cosmic string is thought to be described with two characteristic parameters: string tension μ and initial loop size α. We demonstrate numerical simulation for GWs from closed comic string loops to study detectability and parameter decision with ground-based detectors, such as KAGRA, advanced LIGO, advanced Virgo and LIGO-India. We employ characteristic parameters 10 - 13 < Gμ < 10 - 7 and 10 - 16 < α < 10 - 1, assuming uniform distribution of cosmic string in isotropic direction, at time epochs of loop forming and GW emission according to the universe model. We calculate waveform numerically in time domain of each GW from these distributed cosmic strings, and superpose waveforms to generate continuously observational signal on the ground-based GW detectors, including detector responses. We consider data analysis for stochastic background type gravitational wave signatures in the observation.
The effect of extra dimensions on gravity wave bursts from cosmic string cusps
O'Callaghan, Eimear; Gregory, Ruth; Chadburn, Sarah; Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Zavala, Ivonne E-mail: ggeshnizjani@perimeterinstitute.ca E-mail: zavala@th.physik.uni-bonn.de
2010-09-01
We explore the kinematical effect of having extra dimensions on the gravitational wave emission from cosmic strings. Additional dimensions both round off cusps, and reduce the probability of their formation. We recompute the gravitational wave burst, taking into account these two factors, and find a potentially significant damping on the gravitational waves of the strings.
Evading the pulsar constraints on the cosmic string tension in supergravity inflation
Kamada, Kohei; Miyamoto, Yuhei; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi E-mail: miyamoto@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp
2012-10-01
The cosmic string is a useful probe of the early Universe and may give us a clue to physics at high energy scales which particle accelerators cannot reach. Although the most promising tool to observe it is the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the constraint from gravitational waves is becoming so stringent that detecting its signatures in CMB may be impossible. In this paper, we construct a scenario that contains cosmic strings observable in the cosmic microwave background while evading the constraint imposed by the recent pulsar timing data. We argue that cosmic strings with relatively large tension are allowed by diluting loops contributing to the relevant frequency range of the gravitational wave background. We also present a particle physics model to realize such dilution in the context of chaotic inflation in supergravity, where the phase transition occurs during inflation due to the time-dependence of the Hubble induced mass.
B polarization of the cosmic microwave background as a tracer of strings
Seljak, Uros; Slosar, Anze
2006-09-15
String models can produce successful inflationary scenarios in the context of brane collisions, and in many of these models cosmic strings may also be produced. In scenarios such as Kachru-Kallosh-Linde-Maldacena-McAllister-Trivedi (KKLMMT) scenario the string contribution is naturally predicted to be well below the inflationary signal for cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies, in agreement with the existing limits. We find that for B type polarization of CMB the situation is reversed and the dominant signal comes from vector modes generated by cosmic strings, which exceeds the gravity wave signal from both inflation and strings. The signal can be detected for a broad range of parameter space; future polarization experiments may be able to detect the string signal down to the string tension G{mu}=10{sup -9}, although foregrounds and lensing are likely to worsen these limits. We argue that the optimal scale to search for the string signature is at l{approx}1000, but in models with high optical depth the signal from reionization peak at large scales is also significant. The shape of the power spectrum allows one to distinguish the string signature from the gravity waves from inflation, but only with a sufficiently high angular resolution experiment.
Weak lensing generated by vector perturbations and detectability of cosmic strings
Yamauchi, Daisuke; Namikawa, Toshiya; Taruya, Atsushi E-mail: namikawa@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp
2012-10-01
We study the observational signature of vector metric perturbations through the effect of weak gravitational lensing. In the presence of vector perturbations, the non-vanishing signals for B-mode cosmic shear and curl-mode deflection angle, which have never appeared in the case of scalar metric perturbations, naturally arise. Solving the geodesic and geodesic deviation equations, we drive the full-sky formulas for angular power spectra of weak lensing signals, and give the explicit expressions for E-/B-mode cosmic shear and gradient-/curl-mode deflection angle. As a possible source for seeding vector perturbations, we then consider a cosmic string network, and discuss its detectability from upcoming weak lensing and CMB measurements. Based on the formulas and a simple model for cosmic string network, we calculate the angular power spectra and expected signal-to-noise ratios for the B-mode cosmic shear and curl-mode deflection angle. We find that the weak lensing signals are enhanced for a smaller intercommuting probability of the string network, P, and they are potentially detectable from the upcoming cosmic shear and CMB lensing observations. For P ∼ 10{sup −1}, the minimum detectable tension of the cosmic string will be down to Gμ ∼ 5 × 10{sup −8}. With a theoretically inferred smallest value P ∼ 10{sup −3}, we could even detect the string with Gμ ∼ 5 × 10{sup −10}.
Consequences of parton saturation and string percolation on the development of cosmic ray showers.
Pajares, C; Sousa, D; Vázquez, R A
2001-02-26
At high gluon or string densities, gluon saturation or the strong interaction among strings, either forming color ropes or giving rise to string percolation, induces a strong suppression in the particle multiplicities produced at high energy. This suppression implies important modifications on cosmic ray shower development. In particular, it is shown that it affects the depth of maximum, the elongation rate, and the behavior of the number of muons at energies about 10(17)--10(18) eV. The existing cosmic ray data point out in the same direction. PMID:11290221
Light deflection with torsion effects caused by a spinning cosmic string
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jusufi, Kimet
2016-06-01
Using a new geometrical method introduced by Werner, we find the deflection angle in the weak limit approximation by a spinning cosmic string in the context of the Einstein-Cartan (EC) theory of gravity. We begin by adopting the String-Randers optical metric, then we apply the Gauss-Bonnet theorem to the optical geometry and derive the leading terms of the deflection angle in the equatorial plane. Calculation shows that light deflection is affected by the intrinsic spin of the cosmic string and torsion.
Self-interaction in the von Kármán cosmic string street configuration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carvalho, J.; Furtado, C.; Moraes, F.
2008-11-01
We study the problem of electromagnetic self-interaction of line sources in the presence of an array of parallel cosmic strings akin to the von Kármán vortex street configuration. Keeping in mind possible applications in condensed matter physics we consider also a mixed array where both deficit angle and excess angle cosmic strings appear. We obtain explicit expressions for both the electric and magnetic self-energies for the cases studied and demonstrate that these results reproduce the known self-energies in the single-string limit.
Skewness in CMB temperature fluctuations from curved cosmic (super-)strings
Yamauchi, Daisuke; Sendouda, Yuuiti; Yoo, Chul-Moon; Naruko, Atsushi; Sasaki, Misao; Takahashi, Keitaro E-mail: sendouda@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp E-mail: keitaro@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp
2010-05-01
We compute the one-point probability distribution function of small-angle cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations due to curved cosmic (super-)strings with a simple model of string network by performing Monte Carlo simulations. Taking into account of the correlation between the curvature and the velocity of string segments, there appear non-Gaussian features, specifically non-Gaussian tails and a skewness, in the one-point pdf. The obtained sample skewness for the conventional field-theoretic cosmic strings is g{sub 1} ≈ −0.14, which is consistent with the result reported by Fraisse et al. We also discuss the dependence of the pdf on the intercommuting probability. We find that the standard deviation of the Gaussian part increases and non-Gaussian features are suppressed as the intercommuting probability decreases. For sufficiently small intercommuting probability, the skewness is given by ∼< (a few) × 10{sup −2}.
Gravitational-wave stochastic background from kinks and cusps on cosmic strings
Oelmez, S.; Mandic, V.; Siemens, X.
2010-05-15
We compute the contribution of kinks on cosmic string loops to stochastic background of gravitational waves (SBGW). We find that kinks contribute at the same order as cusps to the SBGW. We discuss the accessibility of the total background due to kinks as well as cusps to current and planned gravitational-wave detectors, as well as to the big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and pulsar timing constraints. As in the case of cusps, we find that current data from interferometric gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, are sensitive to areas of parameter space of cosmic string models complementary to those accessible to pulsar, BBN, and CMB bounds.
Gravitational wave bursts from cosmic (super)strings: Quantitative analysis and constraints
Siemens, Xavier; Creighton, Jolien; Majumder, Saikat Ray; Cannon, Kipp; Read, Jocelyn; Maor, Irit
2006-05-15
We discuss data analysis techniques that can be used in the search for gravitational wave bursts from cosmic strings. When data from multiple interferometers are available, we describe consistency checks that can be used to greatly reduce the false alarm rates. We construct an expression for the rate of bursts for arbitrary cosmic string loop distributions and apply it to simple known solutions. The cosmology is solved exactly and includes the effects of a late-time acceleration. We find substantially lower burst rates than previous estimates suggest and explain the disagreement. Initial LIGO is unlikely to detect field-theoretic cosmic strings with the usual loop sizes, though it may detect cosmic superstrings as well as cosmic strings and superstrings with nonstandard loop sizes (which may be more realistic). In the absence of a detection, we show how to set upper limits based on the loudest event. Using Initial LIGO sensitivity curves, we show that these upper limits may result in interesting constraints on the parameter space of theories that lead to the production of cosmic strings.
Spontaneous excitation of a static atom in a thermal bath in cosmic string spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Huabing; Yu, Hongwei; Zhou, Wenting
2015-10-01
We study the average rate of change of energy for a static atom immersed in a thermal bath of electromagnetic radiation in the cosmic string spacetime and separately calculate the contributions of thermal fluctuations and radiation reaction. We find that the transition rates are crucially dependent on the atom-string distance and polarization of the atom and they in general oscillate as the atom-string distance varies. Moreover, the atomic transition rates in the cosmic string spacetime can be larger or smaller than those in Minkowski spacetime contingent upon the atomic polarization and position. In particular, when located on the string, ground-state atoms can make a transition to excited states only if they are polarizable parallel to the string, whereas ground-state atoms polarizable only perpendicular to the string are stable as if they were in a vacuum, even if they are immersed in a thermal bath. Our results suggest that the influence of a cosmic string is very similar to that of a reflecting boundary in Minkowski spacetime.
High redshift signatures in the 21 cm forest due to cosmic string wakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Silk, Joseph
2014-01-01
Cosmic strings induce minihalo formation in the early universe. The resultant minihalos cluster in string wakes and create a ``21 cm forest'' against the cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectrum. Such a 21 cm forest can contribute to angular fluctuations of redshifted 21 cm signals integrated along the line of sight. We calculate the root-mean-square amplitude of the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings and show that these fluctuations can dominate signals from minihalos due to primordial density fluctuations at high redshift (zgtrsim10), even if the string tension is below the current upper bound, Gμ < 1.5 × 10-7. Our results also predict that the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) can potentially detect the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings with Gμ ≈ 7.5 × 10-8 for the single frequency band case and 4.0 × 10-8 for the multi-frequency band case.
High redshift signatures in the 21 cm forest due to cosmic string wakes
Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Silk, Joseph E-mail: toyokazu.sekiguchi@nagoya-u.jp
2014-01-01
Cosmic strings induce minihalo formation in the early universe. The resultant minihalos cluster in string wakes and create a ''21 cm forest'' against the cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectrum. Such a 21 cm forest can contribute to angular fluctuations of redshifted 21 cm signals integrated along the line of sight. We calculate the root-mean-square amplitude of the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings and show that these fluctuations can dominate signals from minihalos due to primordial density fluctuations at high redshift (z∼>10), even if the string tension is below the current upper bound, Gμ < 1.5 × 10{sup −7}. Our results also predict that the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) can potentially detect the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings with Gμ ≈ 7.5 × 10{sup −8} for the single frequency band case and 4.0 × 10{sup −8} for the multi-frequency band case.
Spontaneous excitation of a uniformly accelerated atom in the cosmic string spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Wenting; Yu, Hongwei
2016-04-01
We study, in the cosmic string spacetime, the average rate of change of energy for an atom coupled to massless scalar fields and uniformly accelerated in a direction parallel to the string in vacuum. We find that both the noninertial motion and the nontrivial global spacetime topology affect the atomic transition rates, so an accelerated atom (an Unruh detector) does feel the string contrary to claims in the literature. We demonstrate that the equivalence between the effect of uniform acceleration and that of thermal radiation on the transition rates of the atom, which is valid in the Minkowski spacetime, holds only on the string.
Cosmic string configuration in a five dimensional Brans-Dicke theory
Bezerra, V. B.; Ferreira, C. N.; Marques, G. de A
2010-01-15
We consider a scalar field interacting with a cosmic string configuration. The origin of the scalar field is given by a compactification mechanism in the context of a five-dimensional Brans-Dicke theory. We analyze the behavior of a charged cosmic string given by the Maxwell-Chern-Simons term on the 3-brane. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation constraint is used to analyze the possibility of optical activity effect in connection with the Brans-Dicke parameter {omega}. We show that the dilatons produced by a cosmic string can decay into gauge bosons with masses given by the compactification modes. The Brans-Dicke parameter {omega} imposes stringent constraints on the mass of the dilaton and help us to understand the energy scales. In this scenario the lifetime of the dilaton which decays into light gauge bosons as well as the dependence of this phenomenon with the Brans-Dicke parameter are estimated.
Analytical model for CMB temperature angular power spectrum from cosmic (super-)strings
Yamauchi, Daisuke; Yoo, Chul-Moon; Sasaki, Misao; Takahashi, Keitaro; Sendouda, Yuuiti
2010-09-15
We present a new analytical method to calculate the small angle cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature angular power spectrum due to cosmic (super-)string segments. In particular, using our method, we clarify the dependence on the intercommuting probability P. We find that the power spectrum is dominated by Poisson-distributed string segments. The power spectrum for a general value of P has a plateau on large angular scales and shows a power-law decrease on small angular scales. The resulting spectrum in the case of conventional cosmic strings is in very good agreement with the numerical result obtained by Fraisse et al.. Then we estimate the upper bound on the dimensionless tension of the string for various values of P by assuming that the fraction of the CMB power spectrum due to cosmic (super-)strings is less than ten percent at various angular scales up to l=2000. We find that the amplitude of the spectrum increases as the intercommuting probability. As a consequence, strings with smaller intercommuting probabilities are found to be more tightly constrained.
On the large-scale structures formed by wakes of open cosmic strings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hara, Tetsuya; Morioka, Shoji; Miyoshi, Shigeru
1990-01-01
Large-scale structures of the universe have been variously described as sheetlike, filamentary, cellular, bubbles or spongelike. Recently cosmic strings became one of viable candidates for a galaxy formation scenario, and some of the large-scale structures seem to be simply explained by the open cosmic strings. According to this scenario, sheets are wakes which are traces of moving open cosmic strings where dark matter and baryonic matter have accumulated. Filaments are intersections of such wakes and high density regions are places where three wakes intersect almost orthogonally. The wakes formed at t sub eq become the largest surface density among all wakes, where t sub eq is the epoch when matter density equals to radiation density. If we assume that there is one open cosmic string per each horizon, then it can be explained that the typical distances among wakes, filaments and clusters are also approx. 10(exp 2) Mpc. This model does not exclude a much more large scale structure. Open cosmic string may move even now and accumulate cold dark matter after its traces. However, the surface density is much smaller than the ones formed at t sub eq. From this model, it is expected that the typical high density region will have extended features such as six filaments and three sheets and be surrounded by eight empty regions (voids). Here, the authors are mainly concerned with such structures and have made numerical simulations for the formation of such large scale structures.
Gravitational waves from kinks on infinite cosmic strings
Kawasaki, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Koichi; Nakayama, Kazunori
2010-05-15
Gravitational waves emitted by kinks on infinite strings are investigated using detailed estimations of the kink distribution on infinite strings. We find that gravitational waves from kinks can be detected by future pulsar timing experiments such as SKA for an appropriate value of the string tension, if the typical size of string loops is much smaller than the horizon at their formation. Moreover, the gravitational wave spectrum depends on the thermal history of the Universe and hence it can be used as a probe into the early evolution of the Universe.
Cosmic string constraints from WMAP and the South Pole Telescope data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dvorkin, Cora; Wyman, Mark; Hu, Wayne
2011-12-01
The predictions of the inflationary ΛCDM paradigm match today’s high-precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy extremely well. The same data put tight limits on other sources of anisotropy. Cosmic strings are a particularly interesting alternate source to constrain. Strings are topological defects, remnants of inflationary-era physics that persist after the big bang. They are formed in a variety of models of inflation, including string theory models such as brane inflation. We assume a “Nambu-Goto” model for strings, approximated by a collection of unconnected segments with zero-width, and show that measurements of temperature anisotropy by the South Pole Telescope break a parameter degeneracy in the WMAP data, permitting us to place a strong upper limit on the possible string contribution to the CMB anisotropy: the power sourced by zero-width strings must be <1.75% (95% CL) of the total or the string tension Gμ<1.7×10-7. These limits imply that the best hope for detecting strings in the CMB will come from B-mode polarization measurements at arcminute scales rather than the degree scale measurements pursued for gravitational wave detection.
Cosmic string Y-junctions: A comparison between field theoretic and Nambu-Goto dynamics
Bevis, Neil; Saffin, Paul M.
2008-07-15
We explore the formation of cosmic string Y-junctions when strings of two different types collide, which has recently become important since string theory can yield cosmic strings of distinct types. Using a model containing two types of local U(1) string and stable composites, we simulate the collision of two straight strings and investigate whether the dynamics matches that previously obtained using the Nambu-Goto action, which is not strictly valid close to the junction. We find that the Nambu-Goto action performs only moderately well at predicting when the collision results in the formation of a pair of Y-junctions (with a composite string connecting them). However, we find that when they do form, the late-time dynamics matches those of the Nambu-Goto approximation very closely. We also see little radiative emission from the Y-junction system, which suggests that radiative decay due to bridge formation does not appear to be a means via which a cosmological network of such string would rapidly lose energy.
Warped Self-Gravitating U(1) Gauge Cosmic Strings in 5D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slagter, Reinoud J.
2015-01-01
We present a U(1) gauge cosmic string solution on a warped 5-dimensional space time, where we solved the effective 4-dimensional equations modified by the projection of the Weyl tensor on the brane together with the junction and boundary conditions. Where the mass per unit length of the string in the bulk can be of order of the Planck scale, in the brane it will be warped down to unobservable GUT scale. It turns out that the induced 4-dimensional space time does not show asymptotic conical behavior as in the 4D counterpart model. So there is no angle deficit and the space time seems to be unphysical at finite distance from the core of the string. This could explain the absence of observational evidence of the lensing effect cosmic strings would produce and could have consequences for the (2+1)-dimensional related models.
High-redshift gamma-ray bursts: observational signatures of superconducting cosmic strings?
Cheng, K S; Yu, Yun-Wei; Harko, T
2010-06-18
The high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), GRBs 080913 and 090423, challenge the conventional GRB progenitor models by their short durations, typical for short GRBs, and their high energy releases, typical for long GRBs. Meanwhile, the GRB rate inferred from high-redshift GRBs also remarkably exceeds the prediction of the collapsar model, with an ordinary star formation history. We show that all these contradictions could be eliminated naturally, if we ascribe some high-redshift GRBs to electromagnetic bursts of superconducting cosmic strings. High-redshift GRBs could become a reasonable way to test the superconducting cosmic string model because the event rate of cosmic string bursts increases rapidly with increasing redshifts, whereas the collapsar rate decreases. PMID:20867291
On the motion of a quantum particle in the spinning cosmic string space–time
Hassanabadi, H.; Afshardoost, A.; Zarrinkamar, S.
2015-05-15
We analyze the energy spectrum and the wave function of a particle subjected to magnetic field in the spinning cosmic string space–time and investigate the influence of the spinning reference frame and topological defect on the system. To do this we solve Schrödinger equation in the spinning cosmic string background. In our work, instead of using an approximation in the calculations, we use the quasi-exact ansatz approach which gives the exact solutions for some primary levels. - Highlights: • Solving the Schrödinger equation in the spinning cosmic string space time. • Proposing a quasi-exact analytical solution to the general form of the corresponding equation. • Generalizing the previous works.
Planck 2013 results. XXV. Searches for cosmic strings and other topological defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J. D.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Räth, C.; Rebolo, R.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
Planck data have been used to provide stringent new constraints on cosmic strings and other defects. We describe forecasts of the CMB power spectrum induced by cosmic strings, calculating these from network models and simulations using line-of-sight Boltzmann solvers. We have studied Nambu-Goto cosmic strings, as well as field theory strings for which radiative effects are important, thus spanning the range of theoretical uncertainty in the underlying strings models. We have added the angular power spectrum from strings to that for a simple adiabatic model, with the extra fraction defined as f10 at multipole ℓ = 10. This parameter has been added to the standard six parameter fit using COSMOMC with flat priors. For the Nambu-Goto string model, we have obtained a constraint on the string tension of Gμ/c2 < 1.5 × 10-7 and f10 < 0.015 at 95% confidence that can be improved to Gμ/c2 < 1.3 × 10-7 and f10 < 0.010 on inclusion of high-ℓ CMB data. For the Abelian-Higgs field theory model we find, GμAH/c2< 3.2 × 10-7 and f10 < 0.028. The marginalised likelihoods for f10 and in the f10-Ωbh2 plane are also presented. We have additionally obtained comparable constraints on f10 for models with semilocal strings and global textures. In terms of the effective defect energy scale these are somewhat weaker at Gμ/c2 < 1.1 × 10-6. We have made complementarity searches for the specific non-Gaussian signatures of cosmic strings, calibrating with all-sky Planck resolution CMB maps generated from networks of post-recombination strings. We have validated our non-Gaussian searches using these simulated maps in a Planck-realistic context, estimating sensitivities of up to ΔGμ/c2 ≈ 4 × 10-7. We have obtained upper limits on the string tension at 95% confidence of Gμ/c2 < 9.0 × 10-7 with modal bispectrum estimation and Gμ/c2 < 7.8 × 10-7 for real space searches with Minkowski functionals. These are conservative upper bounds because only post-recombination string
Cosmic strings with twisted magnetic flux lines and wound-strings in extra dimensions
Lake, Matthew; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi E-mail: yokoyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp
2012-09-01
We consider a generalization of the Nielsen-Olesen ansatz, in the abelian-Higgs model, which describes strings with twisted magnetic flux lines in the vortex core. The solution does not possess cylindrical symmetry, which leads to the existence of components of conserved momentum, both around the core-axis and along the length of the string. In addition, we consider a model of F-strings with rotating, geodesic windings in the compact space of the Klebanov-Strassler geometry and determine matching conditions which ensure energy and momentum conservation when loops chop off from the long-string network. We find that the expressions for the constants of motion, which determine the macroscopic string dynamics, can be made to coincide with those for the twisted flux line string, suggesting that extra-dimensional effects for F-strings may be mimicked by field-theoretic structure in topological defects.
Sanidas, Sotirios A.; Battye, Richard A.; Stappers, Benjamin W. E-mail: rbattye@jb.man.ac.uk
2013-02-10
We present projected constraints on the cosmic string tension, G{mu}/c {sup 2}, that could be achieved by future gravitational wave detection experiments and express our results as semi-analytic relations of the form G{mu}({Omega}{sub gw} h {sup 2})/c {sup 2}, to allow for direct computation of the tension constraints for future experiments. These results can be applied to new constraints on {Omega}{sub gw} h {sup 2} as they are imposed. Experiments operating in different frequency bands probe different parts of the gravitational wave spectrum of a cosmic string network and are sensitive to different uncertainties in the underlying cosmic string model parameters. We compute the gravitational wave spectra of cosmic string networks based on the one-scale model, covering all the parameter space accessed by each experiment that is strongly dependent on the birth scale of loops relative to the horizon, {alpha}. The upper limits on the string tension avoid any assumptions on the model parameters. We perform this investigation for Pulsar Timing Array experiments of different durations, as well as ground-based and space-borne interferometric detectors.
Gravitational waves from broken cosmic strings: The bursts and the beads
Leblond, Louis; Shlaer, Benjamin; Siemens, Xavier
2009-06-15
We analyze the gravitational wave signatures of a network of metastable cosmic strings. We consider the case of cosmic string instability to breakage, with no primordial population of monopoles. This scenario is well motivated from grand unified theories and string-theoretic models with an inflationary phase below the grand unified theories/string scale. The network initially evolves according to a scaling solution, but with breakage events resulting from confined monopoles (beads) being pair produced and accelerated apart. We find these ultrarelativistic beads to be a potent source of gravitational wave bursts, detectable by initial LIGO, advanced LIGO, and LISA. Indeed, advanced LIGO could observe bursts from strings with tensions as low as G{mu}{approx}10{sup -12}. In addition, we find that ultrarelativistic beads produce a scale-invariant stochastic background detectable by LIGO, LISA, and pulsar timing experiments. The stochastic background is scale invariant up to the Planckian frequencies. This phenomenology provides new constraints and signatures of cosmic strings that disappear long before the present day.
Battle of the bulge: Decay of the thin, false cosmic string
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han
2013-11-01
We consider the decay of cosmic strings that are trapped in the false vacuum in a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 3+1 dimensions. This paper is the 3+1-dimensional generalization of the 2+1-dimensional decay of false vortices which we have recently completed . We restrict our analysis to the case of thin-walled cosmic strings which occur when large magnetic flux is trapped inside the string. Thus the string looks like a tube of fixed radius, at which it is classically stable. The core of the string contains magnetic flux in the true vacuum, while outside the string, separated by a thin wall, is the false vacuum. The string decays by tunneling to a configuration which is represented by a bulge, where the region of true vacuum within is ostensibly enlarged. The bulge can be described as the meeting of a kink soliton-antisoliton pair along the length of the string. It can be described as a bulge appearing in the initial string, starting from the string of small, classically stable radius, expanding to a fat string of large, classically unstable (to expansion) radius and then returning back to the string of small radius along its length. This configuration is the bounce point of a corresponding O(2) symmetric instanton, which we can determine numerically. Once the bulge appears it explodes in real time. The paired soliton and antisoliton recede from each other along the length of the string with a velocity that quickly approaches the speed of light, leaving behind a fat tube. At the same time the radius of the fat tube that is being formed expands (transversely) as it is no longer classically stable, converting false vacuum to the true vacuum with ever-diluting magnetic field within. The rate of this expansion is determined by the energy difference between the true vacuum and the false vacuum. Our analysis could be applied to a network of cosmic strings formed in the very early Universe or vortex lines in a superheated superconductor.
Is QSO 1146 + 111B,C due to lensing by a cosmic string?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gott, J. R., III
1986-01-01
A newly discovered lens candidate, QSO 1146 + 111B,C, is discussed which appears to consist of two images of equal brightness of a quasar at redshift 1.01 separated by 2.6 arcmin. If this is produced by a cosmic string, its mass per unit length is about 4.0 x 10 to the 23rd g/cm or more. This value is large enough to be interesting for string-assisted galaxy formation and near the upper limits implied by the isotropy of the cosmic microwave background and constraints on gravitational radiation.
Geometric relativistic phase from Lorentz symmetry breaking effects in the cosmic string spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belich, H.; Bakke, K.
2016-04-01
In this paper, we have investigated the arising of geometric quantum phases in a relativistic quantum dynamics of a Dirac neutral particle from the spontaneous Lorentz symmetry violation effects in the cosmic string spacetime. We started by the Dirac equation in an effective metric, and we have observed a relativistic geometric phase which stems from the topology of the cosmic string spacetime and an intrinsic Lorentz symmetry breaking effects. It is shown that both Lorentz symmetry breaking effects and the topology of the defect yields a phase shift in the wave function of the nonrelativistic spin-1/2 particle.
Gamma-ray bursts from cusps on superconducting cosmic strings at large redshifts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paczynski, Bohdan
1988-01-01
Babul et al. (1987) proposed that some gamma-ray bursts may be caused by energy released at the cusps of oscillating loops made of superconducting cosmic strings. It is claimed that there were some errors and omissions in that work, which are claimed to be corrected in the present paper. Arguments are presented, that given certain assumptions, the cusps on oscillating superconducting cosmic strings produce highly collimated and energetic electromagnetic bursts and that a fair fraction of electromagnetic energy is likely to come out as gamma rays.
Effects of cosmic string velocities and the origin of globular clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Ling; Yamanouchi, Shoma; Brandenberger, Robert
2015-12-01
With the hypothesis that cosmic string loops act as seeds for globular clusters in mind, we study the role that velocities of these strings will play in determining the mass distribution of globular clusters. Loops with high enough velocities will not form compact and roughly spherical objects and can hence not be the seeds for globular clusters. We compute the expected number density and mass function of globular clusters as a function of both the string tension and the peak loop velocity, and compare the results with the observational data on the mass distribution of globular clusters in our Milky Way. We determine the critical peak string loop velocity above which the agreement between the string loop model for the origin of globular clusters (neglecting loop velocities) and observational data is lost.
Cosmic strings in hidden sectors: 1. Radiation of standard model particles
Long, Andrew J.; Hyde, Jeffrey M.; Vachaspati, Tanmay E-mail: jmhyde@asu.edu
2014-09-01
In hidden sector models with an extra U(1) gauge group, new fields can interact with the Standard Model only through gauge kinetic mixing and the Higgs portal. After the U(1) is spontaneously broken, these interactions couple the resultant cosmic strings to Standard Model particles. We calculate the spectrum of radiation emitted by these ''dark strings'' in the form of Higgs bosons, Z bosons, and Standard Model fermions assuming that string tension is above the TeV scale. We also calculate the scattering cross sections of Standard Model fermions on dark strings due to the Aharonov-Bohm interaction. These radiation and scattering calculations will be applied in a subsequent paper to study the cosmological evolution and observational signatures of dark strings.
Evolution of FLRW spacetime after the birth of a cosmic string
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lake, Matthew; Suyama, Teruaki
2012-04-01
We consider the evolution of an initially FLRW universe after the formation of a long, straight, cosmic string with arbitrary tension and mass per unit length. The birth of the string sources scalar and tensor-type perturbations in the background metric and both density and velocity perturbations in the background fluid, which compensate for the string mass and maintain energy conservation. The former generate the deficit angle within the light cone of the string and a gravitational shock front at the cosmological horizon, whereas the latter are confined within the sound cone. We study the properties of the metric within each region of the resulting spacetime and give the explicit coordinate transformations which demonstrate non-violation of causality. This paper generalizes the work of previous studies for the Nambu-Goto string.
511 keV photons from superconducting cosmic strings.
Ferrer, Francesc; Vachaspati, Tanmay
2005-12-31
We show that a tangle of light superconducting strings in the Milky Way could be the source of the observed 511 keV emission from electron-positron annihilation in the Galactic bulge. The scenario predicts a flux that is in agreement with observations if the strings are at the approximately 1 TeV scale, making the particle physics within reach of planned accelerator experiments. The emission is directly proportional to the galactic magnetic field, and future observations should be able to differentiate the superconducting string scenario from other proposals. PMID:16486335
Universal Reconnection of Non-Abelian Cosmic Strings
Eto, Minoru; Hashimoto, Koji; Marmorini, Giacomo; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Vinci, Walter
2007-03-02
We show that local and semilocal strings in Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories with critical couplings always reconnect classically in collision, by using moduli space approximation. The moduli matrix formalism explicitly identifies a well-defined set of the vortex moduli parameters. Our analysis of generic geodesic motion in terms of those shows right-angle scattering in head-on collision of two vortices, which is known to give the reconnection of the strings.
Universal reconnection of non-Abelian cosmic strings.
Eto, Minoru; Hashimoto, Koji; Marmorini, Giacomo; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Vinci, Walter
2007-03-01
We show that local and semilocal strings in Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories with critical couplings always reconnect classically in collision, by using moduli space approximation. The moduli matrix formalism explicitly identifies a well-defined set of the vortex moduli parameters. Our analysis of generic geodesic motion in terms of those shows right-angle scattering in head-on collision of two vortices, which is known to give the reconnection of the strings. PMID:17359147
Quantum field theory in the space-time of a cosmic string
Linet, B.
1987-01-15
For a massive scalar field in the static cylindrically symmetric space-time describing a cosmic string, we determine explicitly the Euclidean Green's function. We obtain also an alternative local form which allows us to calculate the vacuum energy-momentum tensor. In the case of a conformal scalar field, we carry out completely the calculations.
A discussion on supersymmetric cosmic strings with gauge-field mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, C. N.; Godinho, C. F.; Helayel-Neto, J. A.
2004-06-01
Following a stream of investigation on supersymmetric gauge theories with cosmic-string solutions, we contemplate the possibility of building up a D and F term cosmic string by means of a gauge-field mixing in connection with a U(1)×U(1)' symmetry. The spontaneous break of both gauge symmetry and supersymmetry are thoroughly analysed and the fermion zero modes are worked out. The role of the gauge-field mixing parameter is elucidated in connection with the string configuration that comes out. As an application of the model presented here, we propose the possibility that the supersymmetric cosmic-string yields the production of fermionic charge carriers that may eject, at their late stages, particles that subsequently decay to produce cosmic rays of ultra-high energy. In our work, it turns out that massive supersymmetric fermionic partners may be produced for a SUSY breaking scale in the range 1011 1013 GeV, which is compatible with the phenomenology of a gravitino mass at the TeV scale. We also determine the range of the gauge-field mixing parameter, agr, in connection with the mass scales of the present model.
Local constraints on cosmic string loops from photometry and pulsar timing
Pshirkov, M. S.; Tuntsov, A. V.
2010-04-15
We constrain the cosmological density of cosmic string loops using two observational signatures--gravitational microlensing and the Kaiser-Stebbins effect. Photometry from RXTE and CoRoT space missions and pulsar timing from Parkes Pulsar Timing Array, Arecibo and Green Bank radio telescopes allow us to probe cosmic strings in a wide range of tensions G{mu}/c{sup 2}=10{sup -16} divide 10{sup -10}. We find that pulsar timing data provide the most stringent constraints on the abundance of light strings at the level {Omega}{sub s{approx}}10{sup -3}. Future observational facilities such as the Square Kilometer Array will allow one to improve these constraints by orders of magnitude.
Non-Abelian bosonic currents in cosmic strings
Lilley, Marc; Di Marco, Fabrizio; Martin, Jerome; Peter, Patrick
2010-07-15
A non-Abelian generalization of the neutral Witten current-carrying string model is discussed in which the bosonic current carrier belongs to a two-dimensional representation of SU(2). We find that the current-carrying solutions can be of three different kinds: either the current spans a U(1) subgroup, and in which case one is left with an Abelian current-carrying string, or the three currents are all lightlike, traveling in the same direction (only left or right movers). The third, genuinely non-Abelian situation, cannot be handled within a cylindrically symmetric framework, but can be shown to depend on all possible string Lorentz invariant quantities that can be constructed out of the phase gradients.
Goldstone bosons versus domain walls bounded by cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dvali, G. R.
1991-08-01
It is shown that two possible schemes of string bounded domain wall formation are closely related. Walls can be avoided if a certain type of couplings between scalars, responsible for string and wall formation, is excluded from the potential. This enlarges the continous global symmetry of the model which, being broken, instead of domain walls gives rise to global strings and Gold-stone bosons. A realistic example of spontaneously broken family symmetry is considered. It is shown that the existence of the axion in the model with local chiral flavour symmetry SU(3)H can solve the domain wall problem. I would very much like to thank Z. Berezhiani, T. Bibilashvili, J. Chkareuli, E. Gurvich, O. Kancheli and S.M. Mahajan for very useful discussions.
Cosmic D- and DF-strings from D3D3: Black strings and BPS limit
Kim, Taekyung; Kim, Yoonbai; Kyae, Bumseok; Lee, Jungjai
2008-03-15
We study D- and DF-strings in a D3D3 system by using Dirac-Born-Infeld type action. In the presence of an electric flux from the transverse direction, we discuss gravitating thick D-string solutions of a spatial manifold, S{sup 2}xR{sup 1}, in which straight D-strings stretched along the R{sup 1} direction are attached to the south and north poles of the two-sphere. There is a horizon along its equator, which means the structure of black strings is formed. We also discuss the BPS limit for thin parallel D- and DF-strings in both flat and curved spacetime. We obtain the BPS sum rule for an arbitrarily-separated multistring configuration with a Gaussian type tachyon potential. At the site of each thin BPS D(F)-string, the pressure takes a finite value. We find that there exists a maximum deficit angle {pi} in the conical geometry induced by thin BPS D- and DF-strings.
Abelian cosmic string in the Starobinsky model of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morais Graça, J. P.
2016-03-01
In this paper, I analyze numerically the behaviour of the solutions corresponding to an Abelian string in the framework of the Starobinsky model. The role played by the quadratic term in the Lagrangian density f(R)=R+η {R}2 of this model is emphasized and the results are compared with the corresponding ones obtained in the framework of Einstein’s theory of gravity. I have found that the angular deficit generated by the string is lowered as the η parameter increases, allowing a well-behaved spacetime for a large range of values of the symmetry-breaking scale.
Generalized dilaton-Maxwell cosmic string and wall solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morris, John R.
2006-09-01
The class of static solutions found by Gibbons and Wells for dilaton-electrodynamics in flat spacetime, which describe nontopological strings and walls that trap magnetic flux, is extended to a class of dynamical solutions supporting arbitrarily large, nondissipative traveling waves, using techniques previously applied to global and local topological defects. These solutions can then be used in conjunction with S-duality to obtain more general solitonic solutions for various axidilaton-Maxwell theories. As an example, a set of dynamical solutions is found for axion, dilaton, and Maxwell fields in low energy heterotic string theory using the SL(2,R) invariance of the equations of motion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simatos, N.; Perivolaropoulos, L.
2001-01-01
We use the publicly available code CMBFAST, as modified by Pogosian and Vachaspati, to simulate the effects of wiggly cosmic strings on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Using the modified CMBFAST code, which takes into account vector modes and models wiggly cosmic strings by the one-scale model, we go beyond the angular power spectrum to construct CMB temperature maps with a resolution of a few degrees. The statistics of these maps are then studied using conventional and recently proposed statistical tests optimized for the detection of hidden temperature discontinuities induced by the Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect. We show, however, that these realistic maps cannot be distinguished in a statistically significant way from purely Gaussian maps with an identical power spectrum.
Gravitational waves from light cosmic strings: Backgrounds and bursts with large loops
Hogan, Craig J.
2006-08-15
The mean spectrum and burst statistics of gravitational waves produced by a cosmological population of cosmic string loops are estimated using analytic approximations, calibrated with earlier simulations. Formulas are derived showing the dependence of observables on the string tension G{mu}, in the regime where newly-formed loops are relatively large, not very much smaller than the horizon. Large loops form earlier, are more abundant, and generate a more intense stochastic background and more frequent bursts than assumed in earlier background estimates, enabling experiments to probe lighter cosmic strings of interest to string theory. Predictions are compared with instrument noise from current and future experiments, and with confusion noise from known astrophysical gravitational-wave sources such as stellar and massive black hole binaries. In these large-loop models, current data from millisecond pulsar timing already suggests that G{mu} is less than about 10{sup -10}, close to the minimum value where bursts might be detected by Advanced LIGO, and a typical value expected in strings from brane inflation. Because of confusion noise expected from massive black hole binaries, pulsar techniques will not be able to go below about G{mu}{approx_equal}10{sup -11}. LISA will be sensitive to stochastic backgrounds created by strings as light as G{mu}{approx_equal}10{sup -15}, at frequencies where it is limited by confusion noise of Galactic stellar populations; however, for those lightest detectable strings, bursts are rarely detectable. For G{mu}>10{sup -11}, the stochastic background from strings dominates the LISA noise by a large factor, and burst events may also be detectable by LISA, allowing detailed study of loop behavior. Astrophysical confusion might be low enough at 0.1 to 1 Hz to eventually reach G{mu}{approx_equal}10{sup -20} with future interferometer technology.
Search for cosmic strings in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey
Christiansen, J. L.; Albin, E.; James, K. A.; Goldman, J.; Maruyama, D.; Smoot, G. F.
2008-06-15
We search Hubble Space Telescope Treasury Program images collected as part of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey for pairs of galaxies consistent with the gravitational lensing signature of a cosmic string. Our technique includes estimates of the efficiency for finding the lensed galaxy pair. In the north (south) survey field we find no evidence out to a redshift of greater than 0.5 (0.3) for cosmic strings to a mass per unit length limit of G{mu}/c{sup 2}<3.0x10{sup -7} at 95% confidence limits (C.L.). In the combined 314.9 arcmin{sup 2} of the north and south survey fields this corresponds to a global limit on {omega}{sub strings}<0.02. Our limit on G{mu}/c{sup 2} is more than an order of magnitude lower than searches for individual strings in cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. Our limit is higher than other CMB and gravitational wave searches, however, we note that it is less model dependent than these other searches.
Rotation of galaxies as a signature of cosmic strings in weak lensing surveys.
Thomas, Daniel B; Contaldi, Carlo R; Magueijo, João
2009-10-30
Vector perturbations sourced by topological defects can generate rotations in the lensing of background galaxies. This is a potential smoking gun for the existence of defects since rotation generates a curl-like component in the weak lensing signal which is not generated by standard density perturbations at linear order. This rotation signal is calculated as generated by cosmic strings. Future large scale weak lensing surveys should be able to detect this signal even for string tensions an order of magnitude lower than current constraints. PMID:19905797
FINDING THE FIRST COSMIC EXPLOSIONS. II. CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE
Whalen, Daniel J.; Joggerst, Candace C.; Fryer, Chris L.; Stiavelli, Massimo; Heger, Alexander; Holz, Daniel E.
2013-05-01
Understanding the properties of Population III (Pop III) stars is prerequisite to elucidating the nature of primeval galaxies, the chemical enrichment and reionization of the early intergalactic medium, and the origin of supermassive black holes. While the primordial initial mass function (IMF) remains unknown, recent evidence from numerical simulations and stellar archaeology suggests that some Pop III stars may have had lower masses than previously thought, 15-50 M{sub Sun} in addition to 50-500 M{sub Sun }. The detection of Pop III supernovae (SNe) by JWST, WFIRST, or the TMT could directly probe the primordial IMF for the first time. We present numerical simulations of 15-40 M{sub Sun} Pop III core-collapse SNe performed with the Los Alamos radiation hydrodynamics code RAGE. We find that they will be visible in the earliest galaxies out to z {approx} 10-15, tracing their star formation rates and in some cases revealing their positions on the sky. Since the central engines of Pop III and solar-metallicity core-collapse SNe are quite similar, future detection of any Type II SNe by next-generation NIR instruments will in general be limited to this epoch.
Effect of Extra Dimensions on Gravitational Waves from Cosmic Strings
O'Callaghan, Eimear; Chadburn, Sarah; Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Gregory, Ruth; Zavala, Ivonne
2010-08-20
We show how the motion of cosmic superstrings in extra dimensions can modify the gravitational wave signal from cusps. Additional dimensions both round off cusps, as well as reducing the probability of their formation, and thus give a significant dimension dependent damping of the gravitational waves. We look at the implication of this effect for LIGO and LISA, as well as commenting on more general frequency bands.
Effect of extra dimensions on gravitational waves from cosmic strings.
O'Callaghan, Eimear; Chadburn, Sarah; Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Gregory, Ruth; Zavala, Ivonne
2010-08-20
We show how the motion of cosmic superstrings in extra dimensions can modify the gravitational wave signal from cusps. Additional dimensions both round off cusps, as well as reducing the probability of their formation, and thus give a significant dimension dependent damping of the gravitational waves. We look at the implication of this effect for LIGO and LISA, as well as commenting on more general frequency bands. PMID:20868089
Resurrecting hot dark matter - Large-scale structure from cosmic strings and massive neutrinos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scherrer, Robert J.
1988-01-01
These are the results of a numerical simulation of the formation of large-scale structure from cosmic-string loops in a universe dominated by massive neutrinos (hot dark matter). This model has several desirable features. The final matter distribution contains isolated density peaks embedded in a smooth background, producing a natural bias in the distribution of luminous matter. Because baryons can accrete onto the cosmic strings before the neutrinos, the galaxies will have baryon cores and dark neutrino halos. Galaxy formation in this model begins much earlier than in random-phase models. On large scales the distribution of clustered matter visually resembles the CfA survey, with large voids and filaments.
Large-scale structure from cosmic-string loops in a baryon-dominated universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melott, Adrian L.; Scherrer, Robert J.
1988-01-01
The results are presented of a numerical simulation of the formation of large-scale structure in a universe with Omega(0) = 0.2 and h = 0.5 dominated by baryons in which cosmic strings provide the initial density perturbations. The numerical model yields a power spectrum. Nonlinear evolution confirms that the model can account for 700 km/s bulk flows and a strong cluster-cluster correlation, but does rather poorly on smaller scales. There is no visual 'filamentary' structure, and the two-point correlation has too steep a logarithmic slope. The value of G mu = 4 x 10 to the -6th is significantly lower than previous estimates for the value of G mu in baryon-dominated cosmic string models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salazar-Ramírez, M.; Ojeda-Guillén, D.; Mota, R. D.
2016-09-01
We study a relativistic quantum particle in cosmic string spacetime in the presence of a magnetic field and a Coulomb-type scalar potential. It is shown that the radial part of this problem possesses the su(1 , 1) symmetry. We obtain the energy spectrum and eigenfunctions of this problem by using two algebraic methods: the Schrödinger factorization and the tilting transformation. Finally, we give the explicit form of the relativistic coherent states for this problem.
Formation of large-scale structure from cosmic strings and massive neutrinos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scherrer, Robert J.; Melott, Adrian L.; Bertschinger, Edmund
1989-01-01
Numerical simulations of large-scale structure formation from cosmic strings and massive neutrinos are described. The linear power spectrum in this model resembles the cold-dark-matter power spectrum. Galaxy formation begins early, and the final distribution consists of isolated density peaks embedded in a smooth background, leading to a natural bias in the distribution of luminous matter. The distribution of clustered matter has a filamentary appearance with large voids.
CMB power spectra from cosmic strings: Predictions for the Planck satellite and beyond
Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin; Urrestilla, Jon
2010-09-15
We present a significant improvement over our previous calculations of the cosmic string contribution to cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra, with particular focus on sub-WMAP angular scales. These smaller scales are relevant for the now-operational Planck satellite and additional suborbital CMB projects that have even finer resolutions. We employ larger Abelian Higgs string simulations than before and we additionally model and extrapolate the statistical measures from our simulations to smaller length scales. We then use an efficient means of including the extrapolations into our Einstein-Boltzmann calculations in order to yield accurate results over the multipole range 2{<=}l{<=}4000. Our results suggest that power-law behavior cuts in for l > or approx. 3000 in the case of the temperature power spectrum, which then allows cautious extrapolation to even smaller scales. We find that a string contribution to the temperature power spectrum making up 10% of power at l=10 would be larger than the Silk-damped primary adiabatic contribution for l > or approx. 3500. Astrophysical contributions such as the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect also become important at these scales and will reduce the sensitivity to strings, but these are potentially distinguishable by their frequency-dependence.
Stochastic background from cosmic (super)strings: Popcorn-like and (Gaussian) continuous regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regimbau, Tania; Giampanis, Stefanos; Siemens, Xavier; Mandic, Vuk
2012-03-01
In the era of the next generation of gravitational wave experiments a stochastic background from cusps of cosmic (super)strings is expected to be probed and, if not detected, to be significantly constrained. A popcornlike background can be, for part of the parameter space, as pronounced as the (Gaussian) continuous contribution from unresolved sources that overlap in frequency and time. We study both contributions from unresolved cosmic string cusps over a range of frequencies relevant to ground based interferometers, such as the LIGO/Virgo second generation and Einstein Telescope third generation detectors, the space antenna LISA, and pulsar timing arrays. We compute the sensitivity (at the 2σ level) in the parameter space for the LIGO/Virgo second generation detector, the Einstein Telescope detector, LISA, and pulsar timing arrays. We conclude that the popcorn regime is complementary to the continuous background. Its detection could therefore enhance confidence in a stochastic background detection and possibly help determine fundamental string parameters such as the string tension and the reconnection probability.
Searches for cosmic-string gravitational-wave bursts in Mock LISA Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, Michael I.; Cutler, Curt; Vallisneri, Michele
2010-09-01
A network of observable, macroscopic cosmic (super-)strings may well have formed in the early Universe. If so, the cusps that generically develop on cosmic-string loops emit bursts of gravitational radiation that could be detectable by gravitational-wave interferometers, such as the ground-based LIGO/Virgo detectors and the planned, space-based LISA detector. Here we report on two versions of a LISA-oriented string-burst search pipeline that we have developed and tested within the context of the Mock LISA Data Challenges. The two versions rely on the publicly available MultiNest and PyMC software packages, respectively. To reduce the effective dimensionality of the search space, our implementations use the F-statistic to analytically maximize over the signal's amplitude and polarization, \\mathcal {A} and ψ, and use the FFT to search quickly over burst arrival times tC. The standard F-statistic is essentially a frequentist statistic that maximizes the likelihood; we also demonstrate an approximate, Bayesian version of the F-statistic that incorporates realistic priors on \\mathcal {A} and ψ. We calculate how accurately LISA can expect to measure the physical parameters of string-burst sources, and compare to results based on the Fisher-matrix approximation. To understand LISA's angular resolution for string-burst sources, we draw maps of the waveform fitting factor (maximized over (\\mathcal {A}, \\psi, t_C)) as a function of the sky position; these maps dramatically illustrate why (for LISA) inferring the correct sky location of the emitting string loop will often be practically impossible. In addition, we identify and elucidate several symmetries that are imbedded in this search problem, and we derive the distribution of cut-off frequencies fmax for observable bursts.
Alignment of Quasar Polarizations on Large Scales Explained by Warped Cosmic Strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slagter, Reinoud Jan
The recently discovered alignment of quasar polarizations on very large scales could possibly explained by considering cosmic strings on a warped five dimensional spacetime. Compact objects, such as cosmic strings, could have tremendous mass in the bulk, while their warped manifestations in the brane can be consistent with general relativity in 4D. The self-gravitating cosmic string induces gravitational wavelike disturbances which could have effects felt on the brane, i.e., the massive effective 4D modes (Kaluza-Klein modes) of the perturbative 5D graviton. This effect is amplified by the time dependent part of the warp factor. Due to this warp factor, disturbances don't fade away during the expansion of the universe. From a non-linear perturbation analysis it is found that the effective Einstein 4D equations on an axially symmetric spacetime, contain a "back-reaction" term on the righthand side caused by the projected 5D Weyl tensor and can act as a dark energy term. The propagation equations to first order for the metric components and scalar-gauge fields contain $\\varphi$-dependent terms, so the approximate wave solutions are no longer axially symmetric. The disturbances, amplified by the warp factor, can possess extremal values for fixed polar angles. This could explain the two preferred polarization vectors mod $(\\varphi, 90^o)$.
Finite temperature bosonic charge and current densities in compactified cosmic string spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammadi, A.; Bezerra de Mello, E. R.
2016-06-01
In this paper, we study the expectation values of the induced charge and current densities for a massive bosonic field with nonzero chemical potential in the geometry of a higher-dimensional compactified cosmic string with magnetic fluxes along the string core and also enclosed by the compactified direction in thermal equilibrium at finite temperature T . These densities are calculated by decomposing them into the vacuum expectation values and finite temperature contributions coming from the particles and antiparticles. The only nonzero components correspond to the charge, azimuthal, and axial current densities. By using the Abel-Plana formula, we decompose the components of the densities into the part induced by the cosmic string and the one by the compactification. The charge density is an odd function of the chemical potential and even periodic function of the magnetic flux with a period equal to the quantum flux. Moreover, the azimuthal (axial) current density is an even function of the chemical potential and an odd (even) periodic function of the magnetic flux with the same period. In this paper, our main concern is the thermal effect on the charge and current densities, including some limiting cases, the low- and high-temperature approximations. We show that in all cases, the temperature enhances the induced densities.
Proliferation of sharp kinks on cosmic (super)string loops with junctions
Binetruy, P.; Bohe, A.; Hertog, T.; Steer, D. A.
2010-10-15
Motivated by their effect on the gravitational wave signal emitted by cosmic strings, we study the dynamics of kinks on strings of different tensions meeting at junctions. The propagation of a kink through a Y junction leads to the formation of three 'daughter' kinks. Assuming a uniform distribution of the incoming wave vectors at the junction, we find there is a significant region of configuration space in which the sharpness of at least one of the daughter kinks is enhanced relative to the sharpness of the initial kink. For closed loops with junctions we show this leads to an exponential growth in time of very sharp kinks. Using numerical simulations of realistic, evolving cosmic string loops with junctions to calculate the distribution of kink amplitudes as a function of time, we show that loops of this kind typically develop several orders of magnitude of very sharp kinks before the two junctions collide. This collision, or other effects such as gravitational backreaction, may end the proliferation.
Self-energy and self-force in the space-time of a thick cosmic string
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khusnutdinov, N. R.; Bezerra, V. B.
2001-10-01
We calculate the self-energy and self-force for an electrically charged particle at rest in the background of Gott-Hiscock cosmic string space-time. We find the general expression for the self-energy which is expressed in terms of the S matrix of the scattering problem. The self-energy continuously falls down outward from the string's center with the maximum at the origin of the string. The self-force is repulsive for an arbitrary position of the particle. It tends to zero in the string's center and also far from the string and it has a maximum value at the string's surface. The plots of the numerical calculations of the self-energy and self-force are shown.
Dense DM clumps seeded by cosmic string loops and DM annihilation
Berezinsky, V.S.; Dokuchaev, V.I.; Eroshenko, Yu.N. E-mail: dokuchaev@inr.ac.ru
2011-12-01
We develop a model of production of the very dense clumps of DM in RD epoch due to the accretion of DM on the loops of cosmic strings as the seeds. At some time the loops disappear, for example due to the gravitational radiation, and the remaining dense clumps produce the enhancement of the annihilation signal. We take into account the velocity distribution of the strings, and consider the two extreme regimes of DM annihilation: fast decay and continuous evaporation. The produced annihilation flux of gamma radiation is detectable, and for some parameters of DM particles and the strings can exceed the extragalactic flux of the gamma-radiation observed by Fermi. For the fixed parameters of DM particles (e.g. neutralino with fixed masses and cross-section of annihilation) one can obtain the limits on the basic string parameter, tension μ, which is stronger than (more general) limits obtained from WMAP observations, cosmological nucleosynthesis and gravitational lensing. In particular for the neutralino with 100 GeV mass we exclude the interval 5 × 10{sup −10} < Gμ/c{sup 2} < 5.1 × 10{sup −9}.
Dense DM clumps seeded by cosmic string loops and DM annihilation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berezinsky, V. S.; Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.
2011-12-01
We develop a model of production of the very dense clumps of DM in RD epoch due to the accretion of DM on the loops of cosmic strings as the seeds. At some time the loops disappear, for example due to the gravitational radiation, and the remaining dense clumps produce the enhancement of the annihilation signal. We take into account the velocity distribution of the strings, and consider the two extreme regimes of DM annihilation: fast decay and continuous evaporation. The produced annihilation flux of gamma radiation is detectable, and for some parameters of DM particles and the strings can exceed the extragalactic flux of the gamma-radiation observed by Fermi. For the fixed parameters of DM particles (e.g. neutralino with fixed masses and cross-section of annihilation) one can obtain the limits on the basic string parameter, tension μ, which is stronger than (more general) limits obtained from WMAP observations, cosmological nucleosynthesis and gravitational lensing. In particular for the neutralino with 100 GeV mass we exclude the interval 5 × 10-10 < Gμ/c2 < 5.1 × 10-9.
Propagation of cosmic rays through the atmosphere in the quark-gluon strings model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erlykin, A. D.; Krutikova, N. P.; Shabelski, Y. M.
1985-01-01
The quark-gluon strings model succeeds in the description of multiple hadron production in the central rapidity region of nucleon-nucleon interctions. This model was developed for hadron-nucleus interactions and used for calculation of the cosmic ray propagation through the atmosphere. It is shown that at energies 10 to the 11th power to the 12th power eV, this model gives a satisfactory description of experimental data. But with the increase of the energy up to approximately 10 to the 14th power eV, results of calculations and of experiments begin to differ and this difference rises with the energy. It may indicate that the scaling violation in the fragmentation region of inclusive spectra for hadron-nucleus interactions is stronger than in the quark-gluon strings model.
Formation of large-scale structure from cosmic-string loops and cold dark matter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melott, Adrian L.; Scherrer, Robert J.
1987-01-01
Some results from a numerical simulation of the formation of large-scale structure from cosmic-string loops are presented. It is found that even though G x mu is required to be lower than 2 x 10 to the -6th (where mu is the mass per unit length of the string) to give a low enough autocorrelation amplitude, there is excessive power on smaller scales, so that galaxies would be more dense than observed. The large-scale structure does not include a filamentary or connected appearance and shares with more conventional models based on Gaussian perturbations the lack of cluster-cluster correlation at the mean cluster separation scale as well as excessively small bulk velocities at these scales.
THE COSMIC CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA RATE DOES NOT MATCH THE MASSIVE-STAR FORMATION RATE
Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Beacom, John F.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Thompson, Todd A.; Prieto, Jose L.
2011-09-10
We identify a 'supernova rate problem': the measured cosmic core-collapse supernova rate is a factor of {approx}2 smaller (with significance {approx}2{sigma}) than that predicted from the measured cosmic massive-star formation rate. The comparison is critical for topics from galaxy evolution and enrichment to the abundance of neutron stars and black holes. We systematically explore possible resolutions. The accuracy and precision of the star formation rate data and conversion to the supernova rate are well supported, and proposed changes would have far-reaching consequences. The dominant effect is likely that many supernovae are missed because they are either optically dim (low-luminosity) or dark, whether intrinsically or due to obscuration. We investigate supernovae too dim to have been discovered in cosmic surveys by a detailed study of all supernova discoveries in the local volume. If possible supernova impostors are included, then dim supernovae are common enough by fraction to solve the supernova rate problem. If they are not included, then the rate of dark core collapses is likely substantial. Other alternatives are that there are surprising changes in our understanding of star formation or supernova rates, including that supernovae form differently in small galaxies than in normal galaxies. These possibilities can be distinguished by upcoming supernova surveys, star formation measurements, searches for disappearing massive stars, and measurements of supernova neutrinos.
Gamma-ray bursts from superconducting cosmic strings at large redshifts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Babul, Arif; Paczynski, Bohdan; Spergel, David
1987-01-01
The relation between cusp events and gamma-rays bursts is investigated. The optical depth of the universe to X-rays and gamma-rays of various energies is calculated and discussed. The cosmological evolution of cosmic strings is examined, and the energetics and time-scales related to the cusp phenomena are estimated. It is noted that it is possible to have energy bursts with a duration of a few seconds or less from cusps at z = 1000; the maximum amount of energy associated with such an event is limited to 10 to the 7th ergs/sq cm.
Comment on high resolution simulations of cosmic strings. 1: Network evoloution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turok, Neil; Albrecht, Andreas
1990-01-01
Comments are made on recent claims (Albrecht and Turok, 1989) regarding simulations of cosmic string evolution. Specially, it was claimed that results were dominated by a numerical artifact which rounds out kinks on a scale of the order of the correlation length on the network. This claim was based on an approximate analysis of an interpolation equation which is solved herein. The typical rounding scale is actually less than one fifth of the correlation length, and comparable with other numerical cutoffs. Results confirm previous estimates of numerical uncertainties, and show that the approximations poorly represent the real solutions to the interpolation equation.
Topics in Cosmic String Physics and Vacuum Stability of Field Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dasgupta, Indranil
1998-01-01
In this thesis I examine aspects of the vacuum state of quantum field theories. Namely, I study topological defects in the vacuum which appear as localized regions of non-zero energy density if the model system is unable to relax to a homogeneous and isotropic ground state because of topological constraints. I also examine the stability of the so called false vacua in theories that have multiple vacuum states with different energy densities. I first consider topological defects in the form of strings and independently the decay of false vacua in models of particle physics where the presence of either defects or of false vacua leads to interesting phenomenology. Then I describe a situation in which the defects arising from topological properties of the vacuum in turn affect the stability of the vacuum itself. In the first part of this work (chapters 2 and 3), I explore the phenomenology of cosmic strings. I introduce new string-like topological defects that resemble pairs of strings bound together. I give an existence proof of these 'binary strings' and then develop their cosmological properties in detail. I then propose a simple extension of the Standard Model in which cosmic strings may form and then decay through baryon number violating interactions leading to baryogenesis. I show that the model has distinct and testable signatures. In the second part of this work (chapters 4 and 5), I examine the vacua of several proposed models of gauge mediated dynamical supersymmetry breaking and show that the viable vacua are often unstable. I develop a rigorous theory for approximating vacuum tunneling rates in multi-scalar field theories and by computing bounds on the decay rate of the vacua in these models obtain useful constraints on the parameter space. In the final part of this work (chapter 6), I develop a theory of vacuum tunneling induced by topological defects. I show that defects can speed up vacuum tunneling rates by seeding new kinds of bubbles during a first
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lou, Yu-Qing; Hu, Xu-Yao
2016-06-01
We present a theoretical model framework for general polytropic (GP) hydrodynamic cylinder under self-gravity of infinite length with axial uniformity and axisymmetry. For self-similar dynamic solutions, we derive valuable integrals, analytic asymptotic solutions, sonic critical curves, shock conditions, and global numerical solutions with or without expansion shocks. Among others, we investigate various dynamic solutions featured with central free-fall asymptotic behaviours, corresponding to a collapsed mass string with a sustained dynamic accretion from a surrounding mass reservoir. Depending on the allowed ranges of a scaling index a < -1, such cylindrical dynamic mass accretion rate could be steady, increasing with time and decreasing with time. Physically, such a collapsed mass string or filament would break up into a sequence of sub-clumps and segments as induced by gravitational Jeans instabilities. Depending on the scales involved, such sub-clumps would evolve into collapsed objects or gravitationally bound systems. In diverse astrophysical and cosmological contexts, such a scenario can be adapted on various temporal, spatial and mass scales to form a chain of collapsed clumps and/or compact objects. Examples include the formation of chains of proto-stars, brown dwarfs and gaseous planets along molecular filaments; the formation of luminous massive stars along magnetized spiral arms and circum-nuclear starburst rings in barred spiral galaxies; the formation of chains of compact stellar objects such as white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes along a highly condensed mass string. On cosmological scales, one can perceive the formation of chains of galaxies, chains of galaxy clusters or even chains of supermassive and hypermassive black holes in the Universe including the early Universe. All these chains referred to above include possible binaries.
Role of angular momentum and cosmic censorship in (2+1)-dimensional rotating shell collapse
Mann, Robert B.; Oh, John J.; Park, Mu-In
2009-03-15
We study the gravitational collapse problem of rotating shells in three-dimensional Einstein gravity with and without a cosmological constant. Taking the exterior and interior metrics to be those of stationary metrics with asymptotically constant curvature, we solve the equations of motion for the shells from the Darmois-Israel junction conditions in the corotating frame. We study various collapse scenarios with arbitrary angular momentum for a variety of geometric configurations, including anti-de Sitter, de Sitter, and flat spaces. We find that the collapsing shells can form a BTZ black hole, a three-dimensional Kerr-dS spacetime, and an horizonless geometry of point masses under certain initial conditions. For pressureless dust shells, the curvature singularity is not formed due to the angular momentum barrier near the origin. However when the shell pressure is nonvanishing, we find that for all types of shells with polytropic-type equations of state (including the perfect fluid and the generalized Chaplygin gas), collapse to a naked singularity is possible under generic initial conditions. We conclude that in three dimensions angular momentum does not in general guard against violation of cosmic censorship.
Role of angular momentum and cosmic censorship in (2+1)-dimensional rotating shell collapse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mann, Robert B.; Oh, John J.; Park, Mu-In
2009-03-01
We study the gravitational collapse problem of rotating shells in three-dimensional Einstein gravity with and without a cosmological constant. Taking the exterior and interior metrics to be those of stationary metrics with asymptotically constant curvature, we solve the equations of motion for the shells from the Darmois-Israel junction conditions in the corotating frame. We study various collapse scenarios with arbitrary angular momentum for a variety of geometric configurations, including anti-de Sitter, de Sitter, and flat spaces. We find that the collapsing shells can form a BTZ black hole, a three-dimensional Kerr-dS spacetime, and an horizonless geometry of point masses under certain initial conditions. For pressureless dust shells, the curvature singularity is not formed due to the angular momentum barrier near the origin. However when the shell pressure is nonvanishing, we find that for all types of shells with polytropic-type equations of state (including the perfect fluid and the generalized Chaplygin gas), collapse to a naked singularity is possible under generic initial conditions. We conclude that in three dimensions angular momentum does not in general guard against violation of cosmic censorship.
Induced fermionic current by a magnetic tube in the cosmic string spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maior de Sousa, M. S.; Ribeiro, R. F.; Bezerra de Mello, E. R.
2016-02-01
In this paper, we consider a charged massive fermionic quantum field in the spacetime of an idealized cosmic string, in the presence of a magnetic field confined in a cylindrical tube of finite radius. Three distinct configurations for the magnetic field are taken into account: (i) a cylindrical shell of radius a , (ii) a magnetic field proportional to 1 /r , and (iii) a constant magnetic field. In these three cases, the axis of the infinitely long tube of radius a coincides with the cosmic string. Our main objective is to analyze the induced vacuum fermionic current densities outside the tube. In order to do that, we explicitly construct the wave functions inside and outside the tube for each case. Having the complete set of normalized wave functions, we use the summation method to develop our analysis. We show that, in the region outside the tube, the induced currents are decomposed into parts corresponding to a zero-thickness magnetic flux in addition to core-induced contributions. The latter presents a specific form depending on the magnetic field configuration considered. We also see that the only nonvanishing component of fermionic current corresponds to the azimuthal one. The zero-thickness contribution depends only on the fractional part of the ration of the magnetic flux inside the tube by the quantum one. As to the core-induced contribution, it depends on the total magnetic flux inside the tube and, consequently, it is not, in general, a periodic function of the flux.
Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin; Urrestilla, Jon
2007-03-15
We present the first field-theoretic calculations of the contribution made by cosmic strings to the temperature power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Unlike previous work, in which strings were modeled as idealized one-dimensional objects, we evolve the simplest example of an underlying field theory containing local U(1) strings, the Abelian Higgs model. Limitations imposed by finite computational volumes are overcome using the scaling property of string networks and a further extrapolation related to the lessening of the string width in comoving coordinates. The strings and their decay products, which are automatically included in the field theory approach, source metric perturbations via their energy-momentum tensor, the unequal-time correlation functions of which are used as input into the CMB calculation phase. These calculations involve the use of a modified version of CMBEASY, with results provided over the full range of relevant scales. We find that the string tension {mu} required to normalize to the WMAP 3-year data at multipole l=10 is G{mu}=[2.04{+-}0.06(stat.){+-}0.12(sys.)]x10{sup -6}, where we have quoted statistical and systematic errors separately, and G is Newton's constant. This is a factor 2-3 higher than values in current circulation.
Gamma-ray bursts and cosmic rays from accretion-induced collapse
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dar, Arnon; Kozlovsky, Ben Z.; Nussinov, Shmuel; Ramaty, Reuven
1992-01-01
It is shown that the birth of naked or nearly naked neutron stars in accretion-induced collapse or in the bare collapse of white dwarfs can produce cosmological gamma-ray bursts and can provide the required injection rate of cosmic rays into the interstellar space. It is estimated that most of the e(+)e(-) pairs annihilate in flight on a short time scale in the vicinity of the neutron star. It is shown that the gamma-ray bursts, the 0.511 MeV Galactic annihilation radiation, and the cosmic rays exclude the possibility that the large uncertainties in the Galactic pulsar birthrate and the Galactic SN II explosion rate would allow a significant contribution to the pulsar birthrate from naked or nearly naked neutron star formation. The upper bound on the Galactic birthrate of naked or nearly naked neutron stars of less than 1 in 1000 yr makes it very unlikely that a neutrino burst unaccompanied by optical emission from the birth of a naked or nearly naked neutron star will be detected in the near future by underground neutrino telescopes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazanu, Andrei; Shellard, Paul
2015-02-01
Cosmic strings generate vector and tensor modes in the B-channel of polarisation, as well as the usual temperature power spectrum and E-mode polarisation spectrum. We use the power spectrum obtained from high-resolution Nambu-Goto cosmic string simulations together with the Planck and BICEP2 likelihoods to explore the degeneracies appearing between cosmic strings and other cosmological parameters in different inflationary scenarios, as well as the constraints that can be imposed on cosmic strings in each of these situations. In standard ΛCDM, the Planck likelihood yields an upper limit Gμ<1.49 × 10-7 (95% confidence). We also analyse the possibility of explaining the BB power spectrum signal recently detected by the BICEP2 probe. We find that cosmic strings alone are able to explain only part of the B-mode polarisation signal. Apart from the standard ΛCDM model, we look at the following non-minimal parameters: the running of the spectral index, non-zero tensor-to-scalar ratio, additional degrees of freedom (Neff) and sterile neutrinos. We find that in both Planck and BICEP2 scenarios adding Neff induces degeneracies between cosmic strings and Neff and other ΛCDM parameters. With Neff a larger contribution from cosmic strings is allowed, even favoured, but after combining with large-scale structure data, such as BAOs, strings remain strongly constrained.
Induced fermionic current by a magnetic flux in a cosmic string spacetime at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezerra de Mello, Eugênio R.; Saharian, Aram A.; Mohammadi, Azadeh
2016-01-01
Here we analyze the finite temperature expectation values of the charge and current densities for a massive fermionic quantum field with nonzero chemical potential μ, induced by a magnetic flux running along the axis of an idealized cosmic string. These densities are decomposed into the vacuum expectation values and contributions coming from the particles and antiparticles. Specifically the charge density is an even periodic function of the magnetic flux with the period equal to the quantum flux and an odd function of the chemical potential. The only nonzero component of the current density corresponds to the azimuthal current and it is an odd periodic function of the magnetic flux and an even function of the chemical potential. Both analyzed are developed for the cases where |μ| is smaller than the mass of the field quanta m.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Borden, David; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Weinberg, David H.
1989-01-01
If galaxies form on shells, then clusters of galaxies should form at the vertices where three shells intersect. Weinberg, Ostriker, and Dekel (WOD, 1989) studied this picture quantitatively and found that an intersecting spherical shell model reproduces many of the properties of the observed distribution of galaxy clusters, but that too much superclustering is produced. In this paper, the WOD analysis is repeated with prolate spheroids that could be created by superconducting cosmic strings. It is found that most of the attractive features of the WOD model are maintained in the more general case and there is slight improvement in some aspects, but that the overall problem of excessive superclustering is not really alleviated.
Numerical Tests of the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture with Collisionless Matter Collapse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okounkova, Maria; Hemberger, Daniel; Scheel, Mark
2016-03-01
We present our results of numerical tests of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture (CCC), which states that generically, singularities of gravitational collapse are hidden within black holes, and the hoop conjecture, which states that black holes form when and only when a mass M gets compacted into a region whose circumference in every direction is C <= 4 πM . We built a smooth particle methods module in SpEC, the Spectral Einstein Code, to simultaneously evolve spacetime and collisionless matter configurations. We monitor RabcdRabcd for singularity formation, and probe for the existence of apparent horizons. We include in our simulations the prolate spheroid configurations considered in Shapiro and Teukolsky's 1991 numerical study of the CCC. This research was partially supported by the Dominic Orr Fellowship at Caltech.
Gasparini, Maria Alice; Marshall, Phil; Treu, Tommaso; Morganson, Eric; Dubath, Florian; /Santa Barbara, KITP
2007-11-14
We use current theoretical estimates for the density of long cosmic strings to predict the number of strong gravitational lensing events in astronomical imaging surveys as a function of angular resolution and survey area. We show that angular resolution is the single most important factor, and that interesting limits on the dimensionless string tension G{mu}/c{sup 2} can be obtained by existing and planned surveys. At the resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope (0'.14), it is sufficient to survey of order a square degree -- well within reach of the current HST archive -- to probe the regime G{mu}/c{sup 2} {approx} 10{sup -8}. If lensing by cosmic strings is not detected, such a survey would improve the limit on the string tension by an order of magnitude on that available from the cosmic microwave background. At the resolution (0'.028) attainable with the next generation of large ground based instruments, both in the radio and the infra-red with adaptive optics, surveying a sky area of order ten square degrees will allow us to probe the G{mu}/c{sup 2} {approx} 10{sup -9} regime. These limits will not be improved significantly by increasing the solid angle of the survey.
Statistical mechanics of strings with Y-junctions
Rivers, R. J.; Steer, D. A.
2008-07-15
We investigate the Hagedorn transitions of string networks with Y-junctions as may occur, for example, with (p,q) cosmic superstrings. In a simplified model with three different types of string, the partition function reduces to three generalized coupled XY models. We calculate the phase diagram and show that, as the system is heated, the lightest strings first undergo the Hagedorn transition despite the junctions. There is then a second, higher, critical temperature above which infinite strings of all tensions, and junctions, exist. Conversely, on cooling to low temperatures, only the lightest strings remain, but they collapse into small loops.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belich, H.; Bakke, K.
2016-03-01
The behavior of a relativistic scalar particle subject to a scalar potential under the effects of the violation of the Lorentz symmetry in the cosmic string space-time is discussed. It is considered two possible scenarios of the Lorentz symmetry breaking in the CPT-even gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension defined by a tensor (KF)μναβ. Then, by introducing a scalar potential as a modification of the mass term of the Klein-Gordon equation, it is shown that the Klein-Gordon equation in the cosmic string space-time is modified by the effects of the Lorentz symmetry violation backgrounds and bound state solution to the Klein-Gordon equation can be obtained.
COSMIC-LAB: Double BSS sequences as signatures of the Core Collapse phenomenon in star clusters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferraro, Francesco
2011-10-01
Globular Clusters {GCs} are old stellar systems tracing key stages of the star formation and chemical enrichment history of the early Universe and the galaxy assembly phase. As part of a project {COSMIC-LAB} aimed at using GCs as natural laboratories to study the complex interplay between dynamics and stellar evolution, here we present a proposal dealing with the role of Blue Straggler Stars {BSS}.BSS are core-hydrogen burning stars more massive than the main-sequence turnoff population. The canonical scenarios for BSS formation are either the mass transfer between binary companions, or stellar mergers induced by collisions. We have recently discovered two distinct and parallel sequences of BSS in the core of M30 {Ferraro et al. 2009, Nature 462, 1082}. We suggested that each of the two sequences is populated by BSS formed by one of the two processes, both triggered by the cluster core collapse, that, based on the observed BSS properties, must have occurred 1-2 Gyr ago. Following this scenario, we have identified a powerful "clock" to date the occurrence of this key event in the GC history.Here we propose to secure WFC3 images of 4 post-core collapse GCs, reaching S/N=200 at the BSS magnitude level, in order to determine the ubiquity of the BSS double sequence and calibrate the "dynamical clock". This requires very high spatial resolution and very high precision photometry capabilities that are unique to the HST. The modest amount of requested time will have a deep impact on the current and future generations of dynamical evolutionary models of collisional stellar systems.
Topological defects in alternative theories to cosmic inflation and string cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexander, Stephon H. S.
The physics of the Early Universe is described in terms of the inflationary paradigm, which is based on a marriage between Einstein's general theory of relativity minimally coupled to quantum field theory. Inflation was posed to solve some of the outstanding problems of the Standard Big Bang Cosmology (SBB) such as the horizon, formation of structure and monopole problems. Despite its observational and theoretical successes, inflation is plagued with fine tuning and initial singularity problems. On the other hand, superstring/M theory, a theory of quantum gravity, possesses symmetries which naturally avoid space-time singularities. This thesis investigates alternative theories to cosmic inflation for solving the initial singularity, horizon and monopole problems, making use of topological defects. It was proposed by Dvali, Liu and Vaschaspati that the monopole problem can be solved without inflation if domain walls "sweep" up the monopoles in the early universe, thus reducing their number density significantly. Necessary for this mechanism to work is the presence of an attractive force between the monopole and the domain wall as well as a channel for the monopole's unwinding. We show numerically and analytically in two field theory models that for global defects the attraction is a universal result but the unwinding is model specific. The second part of this thesis investigates a string/M theory inspired model for solving the horizon problem. It was proposed by Moffat, Albrecht and Magueijo that the horizon problem is solved with a "phase transition" associated with a varying speed of light before the surface of last scattering. We provide a string/M theory mechanism based on assuming that our space-time is a D-3 brane probing a bulk supergravity black hole bulk background. This mechanism provides the necessary time variation of the velocity of light to solve the horizon problem. We suggest a mechanism which stablilizes the speed of light on the D-3 brane. We
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deguchi, Tetsuo; Ranjan Giri, Pulak
2016-04-01
Every solution of the Bethe-ansatz equations (BAEs) is characterized by a set of quantum numbers, by which we can evaluate it numerically. However, no general rule is known how to give quantum numbers for the physical solutions of BAE. For the spin-1/2 XXX chain we rigorously derive all the quantum numbers for the complete set of the Bethe-ansatz eigenvectors in the two down-spin sector with any chain length N. Here we obtain them both for real and complex solutions. We also show that all the solutions associated with them are distinct. Consequently, we prove the completeness of the Bethe ansatz and give an exact expression for the number of real solutions which correspond to collapsed bound-state solutions (i.e., two-string solutions) in the sector: 2[(N-1)/2-(N/π ){{tan}}-1(\\sqrt{N-1})] in terms of Gauss’ symbol. Moreover, we prove in the sector the scheme conjectured by Takahashi for solving BAE systematically. We also suggest that by applying the present method we can derive the quantum numbers for the spin-1/2 XXZ chain.
String mediated phase transitions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Copeland, ED; Haws, D.; Rivers, R.; Holbraad, S.
1988-01-01
It is demonstrated from first principles how the existence of string-like structures can cause a system to undergo a phase transition. In particular, the role of topologically stable cosmic string in the restoration of spontaneously broken symmetries is emphasized. How the thermodynamic properties of strings alter when stiffness and nearest neighbor string-string interactions are included is discussed.
Binétruy, Pierre; Dufaux, Jean-François; Caprini, Chiara E-mail: bohe@iap.fr E-mail: dufaux@apc.univ-paris7.fr
2012-06-01
We review several cosmological backgrounds of gravitational waves accessible to direct-detection experiments, with a special emphasis on those backgrounds due to first-order phase transitions and networks of cosmic (super-)strings. For these two particular sources, we revisit in detail the computation of the gravitational wave background and improve the results of previous works in the literature. We apply our results to identify the scientific potential of the NGO/eLISA mission of ESA regarding the detectability of cosmological backgrounds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakke, K.
2015-07-01
The behaviour of the Landau-Aharonov-Casher system is discussed by showing a case where the external electric field cannot yield the Landau-Aharonov-Casher quantization under the influence of rotating effects in the cosmic string spacetime, but it can yield bound states solutions to the Schrödinger-Pauli equation analogous to having the Landau-Aharonov-Casher system confined to a hard-wall confining potential under the influence of rotating effects and the topology of the cosmic string spacetime (by assuming ω ρ≪1 and neglecting the effects of a gravitational self-force on the particle).
Vacuum Polarization by a Magnetic Flux Tube at Finite Temperature in the Cosmic String Space-Time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spinelly, J.; Bezerra de Mello, E. R.
In this paper, we analyze the effect produced by the temperature in the vacuum polarization associated with a charged massless scalar field in the presence of a magnetic flux tube in the cosmic string space-time. Three different configurations of magnetic fields are taken into account: (i) a homogeneous field inside the tube, (ii) a field proportional to 1/r, and (iii) a cylindrical shell with δ-function. In these three cases, the axis of the infinitely long tube of radius R coincides with the cosmic string. Because of the complexity of this analysis in the region inside the tube, we consider the thermal effect in the region outside. In order to develop this analysis, we construct the thermal Green function associated with this system for the three above-mentioned situations considering points in the region outside the tube. We explicitly calculate, in the high-temperature limit, the thermal average of the field square and the energy-momentum tensor.
Kinematic constraints on formation of bound states of cosmic strings: Field theoretical approach
Salmi, P.; Achucarro, A.; Copeland, E. J.; Kibble, T. W. B.; Putter, R. de; Steer, D. A.
2008-02-15
Superstring theory predicts the potential formation of string networks with bound states ending in junctions. Kinematic constraints for junction formation have been derived within the Nambu-Goto thin string approximation. Here we test these constraints numerically in the framework of the Abelian-Higgs model in the Type-I regime and report on good agreement with the analytical predictions. We also demonstrate that strings can effectively pass through each other when they meet at speeds slightly above the critical velocity permitting bound-state formation. This is due to reconnection effects that are beyond the scope of the Nambu-Goto approximation.
Covariant Closed String Coherent States
Hindmarsh, Mark; Skliros, Dimitri
2011-02-25
We give the first construction of covariant coherent closed string states, which may be identified with fundamental cosmic strings. We outline the requirements for a string state to describe a cosmic string, and provide an explicit and simple map that relates three different descriptions: classical strings, light cone gauge quantum states, and covariant vertex operators. The resulting coherent state vertex operators have a classical interpretation and are in one-to-one correspondence with arbitrary classical closed string loops.
Covariant closed string coherent states.
Hindmarsh, Mark; Skliros, Dimitri
2011-02-25
We give the first construction of covariant coherent closed string states, which may be identified with fundamental cosmic strings. We outline the requirements for a string state to describe a cosmic string, and provide an explicit and simple map that relates three different descriptions: classical strings, light cone gauge quantum states, and covariant vertex operators. The resulting coherent state vertex operators have a classical interpretation and are in one-to-one correspondence with arbitrary classical closed string loops. PMID:21405564
Field Theoretical Approach to the Formation of Junctions of Cosmic Strings
Salmi, Petja
2007-11-20
Superstring theory predicts the potential formation of string networks with junctions. Kinematic constraints for junction formation were derived in [1], based on Nambu-Goto action. Here we test these constraints numerically within the framework of Abelian-Higgs model and report on good agreement with the analytical predictions.
Interactions of cosmic superstrings
Jackson, Mark G.; /Fermilab
2007-06-01
We develop methods by which cosmic superstring interactions can be studied in detail. These include the reconnection probability and emission of radiation such as gravitons or small string loops. Loop corrections to these are discussed, as well as relationships to (p; q)-strings. These tools should allow a phenomenological study of string models in anticipation of upcoming experiments sensitive to cosmic string radiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Jianbo; Xu, Yanfeng; Wu, Yabo
2015-10-01
Observations indicate that most of the universal matter is invisible and the gravitational constant G( t) maybe depends on time. A theory of the variational G (VG) is explored in this paper, naturally producing the useful dark components in the universe. We utilize the following observational data: lookback time data, model-independent gamma ray bursts, growth function of matter linear perturbations, type Ia supernovae data with systematic errors, CMB, and BAO, to restrict the unified model (UM) of dark components in VG theory. Using the best-fit values of the parameters with the covariance matrix, constraints on the variation of G are ( G/G0) _{z=3.5}˜eq 1.0015^{+0.0071}_{-0.0075} and ( dot{G}/G) _{today}˜eq -0.7252^{+2.3645}_{-2.3645}× 10^{-13} year^{-1}, with small uncertainties around the constants. The limit on the equation of state of dark matter is w_{0dm}=0.0072^{+0.0170}_{-0.0170}, assuming w_{0de}=-1 in the unified model, and the dark energy is w_{0de}=-0.9986^{+0.0011}_{-0.0011}, assuming w_{0dm}=0 a priori. The restrictions on the UM parameters are Bs=0.7442^{+0.0137+0.0262}_{-0.0132-0.0292} and α =0.0002^{+0.0206+0.0441}_{-0.0209-0.0422} with 1σ and 2σ confidence level. In addition, the effects of a cosmic string fluid on the unified model in VG theory are investigated. In this case it is found that the Λ CDM (Ω s=0, β =0, and α =0) is included in this VG-UM model at 1σ confidence level, and larger errors are given: Ω s=-0.0106^{+0.0312+0.0582}_{-0.0305-0.0509} (dimensionless energy density of cosmic string), ( G/G0) _{z=3.5}˜eq 1.0008^{+0.0620}_{-0.0584}, and ( dot{G}/G) _{today}˜eq -0.3496^{+26.3135}_{-26.3135}× 10^{-13} year^{-1}.
Vachaspati, Tanmay
2009-09-15
Recent astrophysical observations have motivated novel theoretical models of the dark matter sector. A class of such models predicts the existence of GeV scale cosmic strings that communicate with the standard model sector by Aharonov-Bohm interactions with electrically charged particles. We discuss the cosmology of these 'dark strings' and investigate possible observational signatures. More elaborate dark sector models are argued to contain hybrid topological defects that may also have observational signatures.
Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Sudarsky, Daniel E-mail: sudarsky@nucleares.unam.mx
2012-07-01
Inflation plays a central role in our current understanding of the universe. According to the standard viewpoint, the homogeneous and isotropic mode of the inflaton field drove an early phase of nearly exponential expansion of the universe, while the quantum fluctuations (uncertainties) of the other modes gave rise to the seeds of cosmic structure. However, if we accept that the accelerated expansion led the universe into an essentially homogeneous and isotropic space-time, with the state of all the matter fields in their vacuum (except for the zero mode of the inflaton field), we can not escape the conclusion that the state of the universe as a whole would remain always homogeneous and isotropic. It was recently proposed in [A. Perez, H. Sahlmann and D. Sudarsky, {sup O}n the quantum origin of the seeds of cosmic structure{sup ,} Class. Quant. Grav. 23 (2006) 2317–2354] that a collapse (representing physics beyond the established paradigm, and presumably associated with a quantum-gravity effect à la Penrose) of the state function of the inflaton field might be the missing element, and thus would be responsible for the emergence of the primordial inhomogeneities. Here we will discuss a formalism that relies strongly on quantum field theory on curved space-times, and within which we can implement a detailed description of such a process. The picture that emerges clarifies many aspects of the problem, and is conceptually quite transparent. Nonetheless, we will find that the results lead us to argue that the resulting picture is not fully compatible with a purely geometric description of space-time.
Ultra high energy cosmic rays and possible signature of black strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
dos Anjos, Rita C.; Coimbra-Araújo, Carlos H.; da Rocha, Roldão; de Souza, Vitor
2016-03-01
Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) probably originate in extreme conditions in which extra dimension effects might be important. In this paper we calculate the correction in black hole accretion mechanisms due to extra dimension effects in the static and rotating cases. A parametrization of the external Kerr horizons in both cases is presented and analysed. We use previous calculations of upper limits on the UHECR flux to set limits on the UHECR production efficiency of nine sources. The upper limit on the UHECR luminosity calculation is based on GeV-TeV gamma-ray measurements. The total luminosity due to the accretion mechanism is compared to the upper limit on UHECRs. The dependence of the UHECR production efficiency upper limit on black hole mass is also presented and discussed.
String theories and millisecond pulsars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchez, N.; Signore, M.
1988-11-01
We discuss the two ways of connecting string theories (cosmic, fundamental and the connection between them) to the observational reality: (i) radioastronomy observations (millisecond pulsar timing), and (ii) elementary particle phenomenology (compactification schemes). We study the limits imposed on the string parameter Gμ by recent millisecond pulsar timings. Cosmic strings derived from GUTs agree with (i). For cosmic strings derived from fundamental strings themselves there is contradiction between (i) and (ii). One of these scenarios connecting string theory to reality must be revised (or the transition from fundamental into cosmic strings rejected). Meanwhile, millisecond pulsar can select one scenario, or reject both of them. UA 336 Laboratoire Associé au CNRS, Observatoire de Meudon et Ecole Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05, France.
Smolyaninov, Igor I; Smolyaninova, Vera N; Smolyaninov, Alexei I
2015-08-28
In the presence of an external magnetic field, cobalt nanoparticle-based ferrofluid forms a self-assembled hyperbolic metamaterial. The wave equation, which describes propagation of extraordinary light inside the ferrofluid, exhibits 2+1 dimensional Lorentz symmetry. The role of time in the corresponding effective three-dimensional Minkowski space-time is played by the spatial coordinate directed along the periodic nanoparticle chains aligned by the magnetic field. Here, we present a microscopic study of point, linear, planar and volume defects of the nanoparticle chain structure and demonstrate that they may exhibit strong similarities with such Minkowski space-time defects as magnetic monopoles, cosmic strings and the recently proposed space-time cloaks. Experimental observations of such defects are described. PMID:26217055
Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Smolyaninova, Vera N.; Smolyaninov, Alexei I.
2015-01-01
In the presence of an external magnetic field, cobalt nanoparticle-based ferrofluid forms a self-assembled hyperbolic metamaterial. The wave equation, which describes propagation of extraordinary light inside the ferrofluid, exhibits 2+1 dimensional Lorentz symmetry. The role of time in the corresponding effective three-dimensional Minkowski space–time is played by the spatial coordinate directed along the periodic nanoparticle chains aligned by the magnetic field. Here, we present a microscopic study of point, linear, planar and volume defects of the nanoparticle chain structure and demonstrate that they may exhibit strong similarities with such Minkowski space–time defects as magnetic monopoles, cosmic strings and the recently proposed space–time cloaks. Experimental observations of such defects are described. PMID:26217055
Polchinski, Joseph
2004-12-10
It is possible that superstrings, as well as other one-dimensional branes, could have been produced in the early universe and then expanded to cosmic size today. I discuss the conditions under which this will occur, and the signatures of these strings. Such cosmic superstrings could be the brightest objects visible in gravitational wave astronomy, and might be distinguishable from gauge theory cosmic strings by their network properties.
Cosmic superstrings and primordial magnetogenesis
Davis, Anne-Christine; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos
2005-08-15
Cosmic superstrings are produced at the end of brane inflation. Their properties are similar to cosmic strings arising in grand unified theories. Like cosmic strings they can give rise to a primordial magnetic field, as a result of vortical motions stirred in the ionized plasma by the gravitational pull of moving string segments. The resulting magnetic field is both strong enough and coherent enough to seed the galactic dynamo and explain the observed magnetic fields of the galaxies.
Sakellariadou, Mairi
2008-08-28
Cosmic superstrings are expected to be formed at the end of brane inflation, within the context of brane-world cosmological models inspired from string theory. By studying the properties of cosmic superstring networks and comparing their phenomenological consequences against observational data, we aim to pin down the successful and natural inflationary model and get an insight into the stringy description of our Universe. PMID:18534932
Perturbations from strings don't look like strings!
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albrecht, Andreas; Stebbins, Albert
1991-01-01
A systematic analysis is challenging popular ideas about perturbation from cosmic strings. One way in which the picture has changed is reviewed. It is concluded that, while the scaling properties of cosmic strings figure significantly in the analysis, care must be taken when thinking in terms of single time snapshots. The process of seeding density perturbations is not fundamentally localized in time, and this fact can wash out many of the details which appear in a single snapshot.
Ellison, Donald C.; Slane, Patrick; Patnaude, Daniel J.; Bykov, Andrei M. E-mail: byk@astro.ioffe.ru
2012-01-01
We present a spherically symmetric, core-collapse model of SNR RX J1713.7-3946 that includes a hydrodynamic simulation of the remnant evolution coupled to the efficient production of cosmic rays (CRs) by nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration. High-energy CRs that escape from the forward shock (FS) are propagated in surrounding dense material that simulates either a swept-up, pre-supernova shell or a nearby molecular cloud. The continuum emission from trapped and escaping CRs, along with the thermal X-ray emission from the shocked heated interstellar medium behind the FS, integrated over the remnant, is compared against broadband observations. Our results show conclusively that, overall, the GeV-TeV emission is dominated by inverse-Compton from CR electrons if the supernova is isolated regardless of its type, i.e., not interacting with a >>100 M{sub Sun} shell or cloud. If the supernova remnant is interacting with a much larger mass {approx}> 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }, pion decay from the escaping CRs may dominate the TeV emission, although a precise fit at high energy will depend on the still uncertain details of how the highest energy CRs are accelerated by, and escape from, the FS. Based on morphological and other constraints, we consider the 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} pion-decay scenario highly unlikely for SNR RX J1713.7-3946 regardless of the details of CR escape. Importantly, even though CR electrons dominate the GeV-TeV emission, the efficient production of CR ions is an essential part of our leptonic model.
Collisions of strings with Y junctions.
Copeland, E J; Kibble, T W B; Steer, D A
2006-07-14
We study the dynamics of Nambu-Goto strings with junctions at which three strings meet. In particular, we exhibit one simple exact solution and examine the process of intercommuting of two straight strings in which they exchange partners but become joined by a third string. We show that there are important kinematical constraints on this process. The exchange cannot occur if the strings meet with very large relative velocity. This may have important implications for the evolution of cosmic superstring networks and non-Abelian string networks. PMID:16907431
Cusps on cosmic superstrings with junctions
Davis, Anne-Christine; Rajamanoharan, Senthooran; Nelson, William; Sakellariadou, Mairi E-mail: william.nelson@kcl.ac.uk E-mail: mairi.sakellariadou@kcl.ac.uk
2008-11-15
The existence of cusps on non-periodic strings ending on D-branes is demonstrated and the conditions for which such cusps are generic are derived. The dynamics of F-strings, D-strings and FD-string junctions are investigated. It is shown that pairs of FD-string junctions, such as would form after intercommutations of F-strings and D-strings, generically contain cusps. This new feature of cosmic superstrings opens up the possibility of extra channels of energy loss from a string network. The phenomenology of cusps on such cosmic superstring networks is compared to that of cusps formed on networks of their field theory analogues, the standard cosmic strings.
Static, cylindrically symmetric strings in general relativity with cosmological constant
Linet, B.
1986-07-01
The static, cylindrically symmetric solutions to Einstein's equations with a cosmological term describing cosmic strings are determined. The discussion depends on the sign of the cosmological constant.
Monopole annihilation in cosmic necklaces
Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Olum, Ken D. E-mail: kdo@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu
2010-05-01
A sequence of two symmetry breaking transitions in the early universe may produce monopoles whose flux is confined into two strings each, which thus assemble into ''necklaces'' with monopoles as beads. Such ''cosmic necklaces'' have been proposed as a source of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. We analyze the evolution of these systems and show that essentially all monopoles annihilate or leave the string at early times, after which cosmic necklaces evolve in a similar way to a network of ordinary cosmic strings. We investigate several modifications to the basic picture, but in nearly all cases we find that too few monopoles remain on the necklaces to produce any observable cosmic rays. There may be a small window for superconducting condensates to prevent annihilations, but only if both the string and the condensate scale are very high.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garfinkle, David
1991-08-01
An attempt to solve Einstein's equations by assuming the existence of symmetries and by treating metrics that possess a Killing vector is presented. A spacetime with a null Killing field can be regarded as the history of a disturbance that propagates at the speed of light without changing its amplitude or shape. Such spacetimes are referred to as traveling waves. A new technique for generating solutions of Einstein's equations is then presented. The technique produces a new traveling wave spacetime given an old one. It applies to both the vacuum Einstein equations and Einstein's equations coupled to various types of matter.
Open strings on D-branes and Hagedorn regime in string gas cosmology
Arslanargin, Ayse; Kaya, Ali
2009-03-15
We consider early time cosmic evolution in string gas cosmology dominated by open strings attached to D-branes. After reviewing statistical properties of open strings in D-brane backgrounds, we use dilaton-gravity equations to determine the string frame fields. Although, there are distinctions in the Hagedorn regime thermodynamics and dilaton coupling as compared to closed strings, it seems difficult to avoid Jeans instability and assume thermal equilibrium simultaneously, which is already a known problem for closed strings. We also examine characteristics of a possible subsequent large radius regime in this setup.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Israel, W.
1984-11-01
A distinction is drawn between the event horizon conjecture (EHC), the conjecture that an event horizon forms in a gravitational collapse, and cosmic censorship, the idea that every singularity which develops in the course of collapse must be enclosed within a horizon. It is argued that a body of circumstantial evidence seems to favor EHC, but cosmic censorship seems contraindicated.
Collision of cosmic superstrings
Copeland, E. J.; Firouzjahi, H.; Kibble, T. W. B.; Steer, D. A.
2008-03-15
We study the formation of three-string junctions between (p,q)-cosmic superstrings, and collisions between such strings and show that kinematic constraints analogous to those found previously for collisions of Nambu-Goto strings apply here too, with suitable modifications to take account of the additional requirements of flux conservation. We examine in detail several examples involving collisions between strings with low values of p and q, and also examine the rates of growth or shrinkage of strings at a junction. Finally, we briefly discuss the formation of junctions for strings in a warped space, specifically with a Klebanov-Strassler throat, and show that similar constraints still apply with changes to the parameters taking account of the warping and the background flux.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Susskind, Leonard
2013-01-01
After reviewing the original motivation for the formulation of string theory and what we learned from it, I discuss some of the implications of the holographic principle and of string dualities for the question of the building blocks of nature.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mesa Public Schools, AZ.
Designed for music educators instructing grades 4 through 8 in string instruments, this Mesa (Arizona) public schools guide presents information on the string curriculum, orchestras, and practicing. The goals and objectives for string instruments delineate grade levels and how student skills will be verified. Following 17 curriculum goal tests,…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossing, Thomas D.
In the next three chapters we consider the science of hammered string instruments. In this chapter, we present a brief discussion of vibrating strings excited by a hard or soft hammer. Chapter 20 discusses the most important hammered string instrument, the piano - probably the most versatile and popular of all musical instruments. Chapter 21 discusses hammered dulcimers, especially the American folk dulcimer.
A collapsed lung happens when air enters the pleural space, the area between the lung and the chest wall. If it is a total collapse, it is called pneumothorax. If only part of the lung is affected, ...
Constraints on string networks with junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Copeland, E. J.; Kibble, T. W. B.; Steer, D. A.
2007-03-01
We consider the constraints on string networks with junctions in which the strings may all be different, as may be found, for example, in a network of (p,q) cosmic superstrings. We concentrate on three aspects of junction dynamics. First we consider the propagation of small-amplitude waves across a static three-string junction. Then, generalizing our earlier work, we determine the kinematic constraints on two colliding strings with different tensions. As before, the important conclusion is that strings do not always reconnect with a third string; they can pass straight through one another (or in the case of non-Abelian strings become stuck in an X configuration), the constraint depending on the angle at which the strings meet, on their relative velocity, and on the ratios of the string tensions. For example, if the two colliding strings have equal tensions, then for ultrarelativistic initial velocities they pass through one another. However, if their tensions are sufficiently different they can reconnect. Finally, we consider the global properties of junctions and strings in a network. Assuming that, in a network, the incoming waves at a junction are independently randomly distributed, we determine the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) velocities of strings and calculate the average speed at which a junction moves along each of the three strings from which it is formed. Our findings suggest that junction dynamics may be such as to preferentially remove the heavy strings from the network leaving a network of predominantly light strings. Furthermore the r.m.s. velocity of strings in a network with junctions is smaller than 1/2, the result for conventional Nambu-Goto strings without junctions in Minkowski space-time.
Constraints on string networks with junctions
Copeland, E. J.; Kibble, T. W. B.; Steer, D. A.
2007-03-15
We consider the constraints on string networks with junctions in which the strings may all be different, as may be found, for example, in a network of (p,q) cosmic superstrings. We concentrate on three aspects of junction dynamics. First we consider the propagation of small-amplitude waves across a static three-string junction. Then, generalizing our earlier work, we determine the kinematic constraints on two colliding strings with different tensions. As before, the important conclusion is that strings do not always reconnect with a third string; they can pass straight through one another (or in the case of non-Abelian strings become stuck in an X configuration), the constraint depending on the angle at which the strings meet, on their relative velocity, and on the ratios of the string tensions. For example, if the two colliding strings have equal tensions, then for ultrarelativistic initial velocities they pass through one another. However, if their tensions are sufficiently different they can reconnect. Finally, we consider the global properties of junctions and strings in a network. Assuming that, in a network, the incoming waves at a junction are independently randomly distributed, we determine the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) velocities of strings and calculate the average speed at which a junction moves along each of the three strings from which it is formed. Our findings suggest that junction dynamics may be such as to preferentially remove the heavy strings from the network leaving a network of predominantly light strings. Furthermore the r.m.s. velocity of strings in a network with junctions is smaller than 1/{radical}(2), the result for conventional Nambu-Goto strings without junctions in Minkowski space-time.
Comment on 'Stationary rotating strings as relativistic particle mechanics'
Burden, Conrad J.
2008-12-15
The set of rigidly rotating solutions to the relativistic string equation with subluminal azimuthal velocity has recently been reported by Ogawa et al. This set, together with a second set of rigidly rotating strings with superluminal azimuthal velocity, was reported in earlier papers by Burden and Tassie, and independently by Embacher. We believe the second set is also physically relevant to modelling cosmic strings. We write both sets of rigidly rotating string solutions in the aligned standard gauge and give a geometrical interpretation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossing, Thomas D.; Hanson, Roger J.
In the next eight chapters, we consider some aspects of the science of bowed string instruments, old and new. In this chapter, we present a brief discussion of bowed strings, a subject that will be developed much more thoroughly in Chap. 16. Chapters 13-15 discuss the violin, the cello, and the double bass. Chapter 17 discusses viols and other historic string instruments, and Chap. 18 discusses the Hutchins-Schelleng violin octet.
Searching for signatures of cosmic superstrings in the CMB
Danos, Rebecca J.; Brandenberger, Robert H. E-mail: rhb@physics.mcgill.ca
2010-02-01
Because cosmic superstrings generically form junctions and gauge theoretic strings typically do not, junctions may provide a signature to distinguish between cosmic superstrings and gauge theoretic cosmic strings. In cosmic microwave background anisotropy maps, cosmic strings lead to distinctive line discontinuities. String junctions lead to junctions in these line discontinuities. In turn, edge detection algorithms such as the Canny algorithm can be used to search for signatures of strings in anisotropy maps. We apply the Canny algorithm to simulated maps which contain the effects of cosmic strings with and without string junctions. The Canny algorithm produces edge maps. To distinguish between edge maps from string simulations with and without junctions, we examine the density distribution of edges and pixels crossed by edges. We find that in string simulations without Gaussian noise (such as produced by the dominant inflationary fluctuations) our analysis of the output data from the Canny algorithm can clearly distinguish between simulations with and without string junctions. In the presence of Gaussian noise at the level expected from the current bounds on the contribution of cosmic strings to the total power spectrum of density fluctuations, the distinction between models with and without junctions is more difficult. However, by carefully analyzing the data the models can still be differentiated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Kouji; Ishihara, Hideki
2001-06-01
The perturbative modes propagating along an infinite string are investigated within the framework of the gauge-invariant perturbation formalism on a space time containing a self-gravitating straight string with a finite thickness. These modes are not included in our previous analysis. We reconstruct the perturbation formalism to discuss these modes and solve the linearized Einstein equation within first order with respect to the string oscillation amplitude. In the thin string case, we show that the oscillations of an infinite string must involve the propagation of a cosmic string traveling wave.
The cosmic neutrino background
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dar, Arnon
1991-01-01
The cosmic neutrino background is expected to consist of relic neutrinos from the big bang, of neutrinos produced during nuclear burning in stars, of neutrinos released by gravitational stellar collapse, and of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions with matter and radiation in the interstellar and intergalactic medium. Formation of baryonic dark matter in the early universe, matter-antimatter annihilation in a baryonic symmetric universe, and dark matter annihilation could have also contributed significantly to the cosmic neutrino background. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties of these cosmic neutrino backgrounds, the indirect evidence for their existence, and the prospects for their detection.
Zero modes and anomalies in superconducting strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Widrow, Lawrence M.
1988-09-01
Superconductivity in cosmic strings occurs when electrically charged fermions are trapped as massless particles (Jackiw-Rossi zero modes) in the core of a string. Currents are generated when an electric field is applied along the string, or more realistically, when the string moves through a cosmic magnetic field. In realistic models (e.g., those inspired by grand unified theories), the fermion-vortex systems that arise can be quite complicated and the question of whether or not superconductivity occurs is very model dependent. For example, in certain models, mixing between right- and left-moving zero modes gives rise to an effective mass for the fermions on the string. The currents in this case, at least for reasonable values for cosmic magnetic fields, are uninterestingly small. In this paper, we present a simple method for determining the number of true zero modes in a special class of fermion-vortex systems. These results are then applied to a particular particle-physics model based on the gauge group E6. We also consider the possibility that ∑left moversq2≠∑right moversq2 where q is the electromagnetic charge of a zero mode. In this situation, which occurs in ``frustrated'' as well as global strings, there is a gauge anomaly (and therefore charge nonconservation) in the effective (1+1)-dimensional theory for the fermion-string system. In the presence of an electric field, the string acquires both charge and current. Charge nonconservation on the string is accounted for by an inflow of charge from the world outside the string. However, both charge and current can be screened, either by polarization of the vacuum or by the surrounding plasma.
A collapsed lung happens when air enters the pleural space, the area between the lung and the chest wall. If it is a ... is called pneumothorax. If only part of the lung is affected, it is called atelectasis. Causes of ...
LRS Bianchi type-I string cosmological models in f (R, T) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanakavalli, T.; Ananda Rao, G.
2016-07-01
Spatially homogeneous and anisotropic LRS Bianchi type-I space time is investigated in the presence of cosmic string source in a modified theory of gravitation formulated by Harko et al. (Phys. Rev. D 84:024020, 2011). We have solved the field equations using the equations of state for strings and presented cosmological models which describe geometric string, Takabayasi string and Reddy string in this particular theory. Some physical and kinematical parameters of the models are computed and discussed their physical significance.
String cosmology — Large-field inflation in string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Westphal, Alexander
2015-03-01
This is a short review of string cosmology. We wish to connect string-scale physics as closely as possible to observables accessible to current or near-future experiments. Our possible best hope to do so is a description of inflation in string theory. The energy scale of inflation can be as high as that of Grand Unification (GUT). If this is the case, this is the closest we can possibly get in energy scales to string-scale physics. Hence, GUT-scale inflation may be our best candidate phenomenon to preserve traces of string-scale dynamics. Our chance to look for such traces is the primordial gravitational wave, or tensor mode signal produced during inflation. For GUT-scale inflation this is strong enough to be potentially visible as a B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Moreover, a GUT-scale inflation model has a trans-Planckian excursion of the inflaton scalar field during the observable amount of inflation. Such large-field models of inflation have a clear need for symmetry protection against quantum corrections. This makes them ideal candidates for a description in a candidate fundamental theory like string theory. At the same time the need of large-field inflation models for UV completion makes them particularly susceptible to preserve imprints of their string-scale dynamics in the inflationary observables, the spectral index ns and the fractional tensor mode power r. Hence, we will focus this review on axion monodromy inflation as a mechanism of large-field inflation in string theory.
Computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings
Hagmann, C.; Sikivie, P.
1990-01-01
Computer simulations have been carried out of the motion and decay of global strings, including spectrum analysis of the energy stored in the scalar field which describes the global string and the radiated Nambu-Goldstone bosons. We simulated relaxing pieces of bent string and collapsing loops. We find, for the string sizes investigated, that the spectrum of field energy hardens rather than softens while the string decays into Nambu-Goldstone radiation. We argue on theoretical grounds that is indeed the most plausible general behaviour. 19 refs., 12 figs.
Hedlund, C S
1991-06-01
Tracheal collapse, one form of tracheal obstruction, is classically described as occurring in middle-aged or older toy breed dogs with a history of chronic "goose-honk" cough. Many dogs with tracheal collapse fit this description, but others are young and may wheeze, hack, or have no cough at all. Patients with a history and physical examination compatible with tracheal collapse are definitively diagnosed based on the findings of the following respiratory tract examinations: inspiratory/expiratory radiographs, fluoroscopy, culture and susceptibility, and a thorough endoscopic evaluation. Prosthetic ring tracheoplasty relieves many of the signs of tracheal obstruction but does not cure the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are expected to give the dog a better quality life. Following prosthetic ring tracheoplasty, most dogs are more active, breathe easier, cough less, and require less medical treatment for respiratory disease. PMID:1802250
Dynamics of localized Kaluza-Klein black holes in a collapsing universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kastor, David; Sorbo, Lorenzo; Traschen, Jennie
2012-03-01
The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 prohibits corporate mergers that would result in certain highly undesired end states. We study an exact solution of the Einstein equations describing localized, charged Kaluza-Klein black holes in a collapsing de Sitter universe and seek to demonstrate that a similar effect holds, preventing a potentially catastrophic black hole merger. As the collapse proceeds, it is natural to expect that the black hole undergoes a topological transition, wrapping around the shrinking compact dimension to merge with itself and form a black string. However, the putative uniform charged black string end state is singular and such a transition would violate (a reasonable notion of) cosmic censorship. We present analytic and numerical evidence that strongly suggests the absence of such a transition. Based on this evidence, we expect that the Kaluza-Klein black hole horizon stays localized, despite the increasingly constraining size of the compact dimension. On the other hand, the de Sitter horizon does change between spherical and cylindrical topologies in a simple way.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin
1994-01-01
Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarez, Enrique; Meessen, Patrick
1999-02-01
This is the written version of a set of introductory lectures to string theory. The lectures were given at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid in the semester 1997/98 and at the VI Escuela de Otoño de Física Teórica, held in Santiago de Compostela (10-23 september 1998).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.
Intended primarily for use by instrumental music teachers who do not have a major concentration in strings, this guide provides pertinent basic resources, materials, teaching--learning expectation, and a general overall guide to achievement levels at various stages of development. Discussions are presented of Choosing the Proper Method Book,…
The dynamics of domain walls and strings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gregory, Ruth; Haws, David; Garfinkle, David
1989-01-01
The leading order finite-width corrections to the equation of motion describing the motion of a domain wall are derived. The regime in which this equation of motion is invalid is discussed. Spherically and cylindrically symmetric solutions to this equation of motion are found. A misconception that has arisen in recent years regarding the rigidity (or otherwise) of cosmic strings is also clarified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraniotis, G. V.
In this work, we review recent work on string cosmology. The need for an inflationary era is well known. Problems of Standard Cosmology such as horizon, flatness, monopole and entropy find an elegant solution in the inflationary scenario. On the other hand no adequate inflationary model has been constructed so far. In this review we discuss the attempts that have been made in the field of string theory for obtaining an adequate Cosmological Inflationary Epoch. In particular, orbifold compactifications of string theory which are constrained by target-space duality symmetry offer as natural candidates for the role of inflatons the orbifold moduli. Orbifold moduli dynamics is very constrained by duality symmetry and offers a concrete framework for discussing Cosmological Inflation. We discuss the resulting cosmology assuming that nonperturbative dynamics generates a moduli potential which respects target-space modular invariance. Various modular forms for the nonperturbative superpotential and Kähler potential which include the absolute modular invariant j(T) besides the Dedekind eta function η(T) are discussed. We also review scale-factor duality and pre-Big-Bang scenarios in which inflation is driven by the kinetic terms of the dilaton modulus. In this context we discuss the problem of graceful exit and review recent attempts for solving the problem of exiting from inflation. The possibility of obtaining inflation through the D-terms in string models with anomalous UA(1) and other Abelian factors is reviewed. In this context we discuss how the slow-roll problem in supergravity models with F-term inflation can be solved by D-term inflation. We also briefly review the consequences of duality for a generalized Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the structure of space-time at short scales. The problem of the Cosmological Constant is also briefly discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoover, Todd F.
2010-01-01
The "Magic" String is a discrepant event that includes a canister with what appears to be the end of two strings protruding from opposite sides of it. Due to the way the strings are attached inside the canister, it appears as if the strings can magically switch the way they are connected. When one string end is pulled, the observer's expectation…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pearle, Philip
An introduction to the CSL (Continuous Spontaneous Localization) theory of dynamical wave function collapse is provided, including a derivation of CSL from two postulates, a new result. There follows a review of applications to a free particle, or to a `small' rigid cluster of free particles, in a single wave-packet and in interfering packets: the latter result is new. [Editors note: for a video of the talk given by Prof. Pearle at the Aharonov-80 conference in 2012 at Chapman University, see http://quantum.chapman.edu/talk-11.
Scaling of multitension cosmic superstring networks
Tye, S.-H. Henry; Wasserman, Ira; Wyman, Mark
2005-05-15
Brane inflation in superstring theory ends when branes collide, initiating the hot big bang. Cosmic superstrings are produced during the brane collision. The cosmic superstrings produced in a D3-brane-antibrane inflationary scenario have a spectrum: (p,q) bound states of p fundamental (F) strings and q D-strings, where p and q are coprime. By extending the velocity-dependent one-scale network evolution equations for Abelian Higgs cosmic strings to allow a spectrum of string tensions, we construct a coupled (infinite) set of equations for strings that interact through binding and self-interactions. We apply this model to a network of (p,q) superstrings. Our numerical solutions show that (p,q) networks rapidly approach a stable scaling solution. We also extract the relative densities of each string type from our solutions. Typically, only a small number of the lowest tension states are populated substantially once scaling is reached. The model we study also has an interesting new feature: the energy released in (p,q) string binding is by itself adequate to allow the network to reach scaling. This result suggests that the scaling solution is robust. To demonstrate that this result is not trivial, we show that choosing a different form for string interactions can lead to network frustration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2006-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02154 Collapse Tubes
The discontinuous channels in this image are collapsed lava tubes.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -19.7N, Longitude 317.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Gravitational wave bursts from cosmic superstrings with Y-junctions
Binetruy, P.; Bohe, A.; Hertog, T.; Steer, D. A.
2009-12-15
Cosmic superstring loops generically contain strings of different tensions that meet at Y-junctions. These loops evolve nonperiodically in time, and have cusps and kinks that interact with the junctions. We study the effect of junctions on the gravitational wave signal emanating from cosmic string cusps and kinks. We find that earlier results on the strength of individual bursts from cusps and kinks on strings without junctions remain largely unchanged, but junctions give rise to additional contributions to the gravitational wave signal coming from strings expanding at the speed of light at a junction and kinks passing through a junction.
Towards a kinetic theory of strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanchurin, Vitaly
2011-05-01
We study the dynamics of strings by means of a distribution function f(A,B,x,t), defined on a 9+1D phase space, where A and B are the correlation vectors of right- and left-moving waves. We derive a transport equation (analogous to a Boltzmann transport equation for particles) that governs the evolution of long strings with Nambu-Goto dynamics, as well as reconnections taken into account. We also derive a system of coupled transport equations (analogous to a Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy for particles) which can simultaneously describe long strings f˜(A,B,x,t) as well as simple loops f∘(A,B,x,t) made out of four correlation vectors. The formalism can be used to study nonlinear dynamics of fundamental strings, D-brane strings, or field theory strings. For example, the complicated semiscaling behavior of cosmic strings translates into a simple solution of the transport system at small energy densities.
Towards a kinetic theory of strings
Vanchurin, Vitaly
2011-05-15
We study the dynamics of strings by means of a distribution function f(A,B,x,t), defined on a 9+1D phase space, where A and B are the correlation vectors of right- and left-moving waves. We derive a transport equation (analogous to a Boltzmann transport equation for particles) that governs the evolution of long strings with Nambu-Goto dynamics, as well as reconnections taken into account. We also derive a system of coupled transport equations (analogous to a Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy for particles) which can simultaneously describe long strings f-tilde(A,B,x,t) as well as simple loops f(convolution sign)(A,B,x,t) made out of four correlation vectors. The formalism can be used to study nonlinear dynamics of fundamental strings, D-brane strings, or field theory strings. For example, the complicated semiscaling behavior of cosmic strings translates into a simple solution of the transport system at small energy densities.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wefel, J. P.
1981-01-01
A general overview of supernova astronomy is presented, followed by a discussion of the relationship between SN and galactic cosmic rays. Pre-supernova evolution is traced to core collapse, explosion, and mass ejection. The two types of SN light curves are discussed in terms of their causes, and the different nucleosynthetic processes inside SNs are reviewed. Physical events in SN remnants are discussed. The three main connections between cosmic rays and SNs, the energy requirement, the acceleration mechanism, and the detailed composition of CR, are detailed.
A rational characterization of proprietary High Collapse casing grades
Klementich, E.F.
1995-12-31
An increasing number of users are finding it necessary to utilize {open_quotes}High Collapse{close_quotes} casing grades for deep set and intermediate size drilling and production casing strings. Unfortunately, the great variety of proprietary (non-API) high collapse casing grades has made it extremely difficult for drilling and completion engineers to logically select the optimum size, weight, and grade of pipe meeting the design objective, due to the wide variation in collapse resistance claims and the guaranteed pipe dimensional and mechanical properties supporting that claim. This paper provides a technically sound method for selecting and safely using high collapse pipe.
Effect of dark strings on semilocal strings
Brihaye, Yves; Hartmann, Betti
2009-12-15
Dark strings have recently been suggested to exist in new models of dark matter that explain the excessive electronic production in the Galaxy. We study the interaction of these dark strings with semilocal strings which are solutions of the bosonic sector of the standard model in the limitsin{sup 2}{theta}{sub w}=1, where {theta}{sub w} is the Weinberg angle. While embedded Abelian-Higgs strings exist for generic values of the coupling constants, we show that semilocal solutions with nonvanishing condensate inside the string core exist only above a critical value of the Higgs to gauge boson mass ratio when interacting with dark strings. Above this critical value, which is greater than unity, the energy per unit length of the semilocal-dark string solutions is always smaller than that of the embedded Abelian-Higgs-dark string solutions and we show that Abelian-Higgs-dark strings become unstable above this critical value. Different from the noninteracting case, we would thus expect semilocal strings to be stable for values of the Higgs to gauge boson mass ratio larger than unity. Moreover, the one-parameter family of solutions present in the noninteracting case ceases to exist when semilocal strings interact with dark strings.
Evidence for string substructure
Bergman, O.
1996-06-01
The author argues that the behavior of string theory at high temperature and high longitudinal boosts, combined with the emergence of p-branes as necessary ingredients in various string dualities, point to a possible reformulation of strings, as well as p-branes, as composites of bits. He reviews the string-bit models, and suggests generalizations to incorporate p-branes.
Constraint Reasoning Over Strings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Golden, Keith; Pang, Wanlin
2003-01-01
This paper discusses an approach to representing and reasoning about constraints over strings. We discuss how many string domains can often be concisely represented using regular languages, and how constraints over strings, and domain operations on sets of strings, can be carried out using this representation.
Collapsing thin shells with rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delsate, Térence; Rocha, Jorge V.; Santarelli, Raphael
2014-06-01
We construct exact solutions describing the motion of rotating thin shells in a fully backreacted five-dimensional rotating black hole spacetime. The radial equation of motion follows from the Darmois-Israel junction conditions, where both interior and exterior geometries are taken to be equal angular momenta Myers-Perry solutions. We show that rotation generates anisotropic pressures and momentum along the shell. Gravitational collapse scenarios including rotation are analyzed and a new class of stationary solutions is introduced. Energy conditions for the anisotropic matter shell are briefly discussed. We find that the weak energy condition is not violated for the collapse scenario where the shell starts at rest from infinity, nor for the new class of stationary solutions in anti-de Sitter. We further prove that the cosmic censorship conjecture is always satisfied in our setup.
Collapse of vacuum bubbles in a vacuum
Ng, Kin-Wang; Wang, Shang-Yung
2011-02-15
We revisit the dynamics of a false vacuum bubble in a background de Sitter spacetime. We find that there exists a large parameter space that allows the bubble to collapse into a black hole or to form a wormhole. This may have interesting implications for the creation of a baby universe in the laboratory, the string landscape where the bubble nucleation takes place among a plenitude of metastable vacua, and the inflationary physics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turok, Neil
1988-01-01
It is argued that, in fundamental string theories, as one traces the universe back in time a point is reached when the expansion rate is so fast that the rate of string creation due to quantum effects balances the dilution of the string density due to the expansion. One is therefore led into a phase of constant string density and an exponentially expanding universe. Fundamental strings therefore seem to lead naturally to inflation.
Cosmological Consequences of String Axions
Kain, Ben
2005-12-15
Axion fluctuations generated during inflation lead to isocurvature and non-Gaussian temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation. Following a previous analysis for the model independent string axion we consider the consequences of a measurement of these fluctuations for two additional string axions. We do so independent of any cosmological assumptions except for the axions being massless during inflation. The first axion has been shown to solve the strong CP problem for most compactifications of the heterotic string while the second axion, which does not solve the strong CP problem, obeys a mass formula which is independent of the axion scale. We find that if gravitational waves interpreted as arising from inflation are observed by the PLANCK polarimetry experiment with a Hubble constant during inflation of H{sub inf} {approx}> 10{sup 13} GeV the existence of the first axion is ruled out and the second axion cannot obey the scale independent mass formula. In an appendix we quantitatively justify the often held assumption that temperature corrections to the zero temperature QCD axion mass may be ignored for temperatures T {approx}< {Lambda}{sub QCD}.
Vacuum polarization in gravitational and electromagnetic fields around a superconducting string
Mankiewicz, L. ); Misiak, M.
1989-09-15
We have calculated the polarization current induced in the physical vacuum around a superconducting cosmic string taking into account the gravitational field of the string. The current can be calculated as an expansion in powers of the inverse of the electron mass. In the region far from the string, where it is justified to keep only the lowest term of this expansion, the polarization current turns out to screen the original current in the string, but the effect is very weak. A direct calculation of terms due to the presence of the gravitational field shows that they are dominated, for realistic string parameters, by the purely electromagnetic contribution.
Primordial magnetic fields from the string network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horiguchi, Kouichirou; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Sugiyama, Naoshi
2016-08-01
Cosmic strings are a type of cosmic defect formed by a symmetry-breaking phase transition in the early universe. Individual strings would have gathered to build a network, and their dynamical motion would induce scalar-, vector-, and tensor-type perturbations. In this paper, we focus on the vector mode perturbations arising from the string network based on the one scale model and calculate the time evolution and the power spectrum of the associated magnetic fields. We show that the relative velocity between photon and baryon fluids induced by the string network can generate magnetic fields over a wide range of scales based on standard cosmology. We obtain the magnetic field spectrum before recombination as aB(k,z)~4×10Gμ/1k)3.5 gauss on super-horizon scales, and aB(k,z)~2.4×10Gμ/1k)2.5 gauss on sub-horizon scales in co-moving coordinates. This magnetic field grows up to the end of recombination, and has a final amplitude of approximately B~10Gμ gauss at the k~1 Mpc scale today. This field might serve as a seed for cosmological magnetic fields.
Large-D gravity and low-D strings.
Emparan, Roberto; Grumiller, Daniel; Tanabe, Kentaro
2013-06-21
We show that in the limit of a large number of dimensions a wide class of nonextremal neutral black holes has a universal near-horizon limit. The limiting geometry is the two-dimensional black hole of string theory with a two-dimensional target space. Its conformal symmetry explains the properties of massless scalars found recently in the large-D limit. For black branes with string charges, the near-horizon geometry is that of the three-dimensional black strings of Horne and Horowitz. The analogies between the α' expansion in string theory and the large-D expansion in gravity suggest a possible effective string description of the large-D limit of black holes. We comment on applications to several subjects, in particular to the problem of critical collapse. PMID:23829726
Global structure of Gott's two-string spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cutler, Curt
1992-01-01
Gott has recently obtained exact solutions to Einstein's equation representing two infinitely long, straight cosmic strings that gravitationally scatter off each other. A remarkable feature of these solutions is that they contain closed timelike curves when the relative velocity of the strings is sufficiently high. In this paper we elucidate the global structure of Gott's two-string spacetime. In particular, we prove that the closed timelike curves are confined to a certain region of the spacetime, and that the spacetime contains complete spacelike, edgeless, achronal hypersurfaces, from which the causality-violating regions may be said to evolve. We then explicitly determine the boundary of the region containing closed timelike curves.
String's Current Induced by the Dilatonic Coupling of Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guimarães, Maria E. X.
The nature of an ordinary cosmic string1 in the framework of a scalar-tensor extension of gravity is investigated. It is shown that in this case, the dilaton field can act as a timelike or a spacelike current traveling along the string, and localized into it2. Apart from the fact that the current can not be formed after the string forming phase transition but exactly at the same time, since the dilaton is not an ordinary scalar field but a component of the gravitational interaction configuration would resemble very much the usual superconducting strings first proposed by Witten3. This means that a network of strings here produced would suffer from the vorton excess problem4, leading to an actual cosmological catastrophe from which one can derive strong constraints on the relevant theories.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, A. Daniel (Inventor); Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)
2007-01-01
Method and system are disclosed for determining individual string resistance in a network of strings when the current through a parallel connected string is unknown and when the voltage across a series connected string is unknown. The method/system of the invention involves connecting one or more frequency-varying impedance components with known electrical characteristics to each string and applying a frequency-varying input signal to the network of strings. The frequency-varying impedance components may be one or more capacitors, inductors, or both, and are selected so that each string is uniquely identifiable in the output signal resulting from the frequency-varying input signal. Numerical methods, such as non-linear regression, may then be used to resolve the resistance associated with each string.
Cylindrically symmetric, static strings with a cosmological constant in Brans-Dicke theory
Delice, Oezguer
2006-12-15
The static cylindrically symmetric vacuum solutions with a cosmological constant in the framework of the Brans-Dicke theory are investigated. Some of these solutions admitting Lorentz boost invariance along the symmetry axis correspond to local, straight cosmic strings with a cosmological constant. Some physical properties of such solutions are studied. These strings apply attractive or repulsive forces on the test particles. A smooth matching is also performed with a recently introduced interior thick string solution with a cosmological constant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardona, Biel; Gomis, Joaquim; Pons, Josep M.
2016-07-01
We construct the canonical action of a Carroll string doing the Carroll limit of a canonical relativistic string. We also study the Killing symmetries of the Carroll string, which close under an infinite dimensional algebra. The tensionless limit and the Carroll p-brane action are also discussed.
Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.
1993-03-02
The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.
Jorgensen, Douglas K.; Kuhns, Douglass J.; Wiersholm, Otto; Miller, Timothy A.
1993-01-01
The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.
[The string of Einthoven's string galvanometer].
Wyers, P J
1996-01-01
The Dutch physiologist Willem Einthoven (1860-1927) published in 1901 his construction of a string galvanometer. With this apparatus he opened the era for electrocardiography. As the quality of his instrument largely depended on the string of the string galvanometer it is surprising to note that in his publications Einthoven never mentioned the exact way of producing the string. However, Einthoven's hand written laboratory notes are preserved at the Museum Boerhaave in Leiden. From these notes it comes clear what problems Einthoven had with the string. To get a very thin thread of quarts he first used the method of shooting the thread as was described by Boys (1887), later the blowing method of Nichols (1894). The silvering of the thread was done first chemically, later by cathode spray. In all cases premature breaking of the thread was a nuisance. Because of these failures Einthoven might have decided not to publish any details. PMID:11624925
Collapse of charged scalar field in dilaton gravity
Borkowska, Anna; Rogatko, Marek; Moderski, Rafal
2011-04-15
We elaborated the gravitational collapse of a self-gravitating complex charged scalar field in the context of the low-energy limit of the string theory, the so-called dilaton gravity. We begin with the regular spacetime and follow the evolution through the formation of an apparent horizon and the final central singularity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaldarriaga, Matias
The following sections are included: * Rapporteur Talk by R. Ellis: Massive Black Holes: Evidence, Demographics and Cosmic Evolution * Rapporteur Talk by S. Furlanetto: The Cosmic Dawn: Theoretical Models and the Future
Did BICEP2 see vector modes? First B-mode constraints on cosmic defects.
Moss, Adam; Pogosian, Levon
2014-05-01
Scaling networks of cosmic defects, such as strings and textures, actively generate scalar, vector, and tensor metric perturbations throughout the history of the Universe. In particular, vector modes sourced by defects are an efficient source of the cosmic microwave background B-mode polarization. We use the recently released BICEP2 and POLARBEAR B-mode polarization spectra to constrain properties of a wide range of different types of cosmic strings networks. We find that in order for strings to provide a satisfactory fit on their own, the effective interstring distance needs to be extremely large--spectra that fit the data best are more representative of global strings and textures. When a local string contribution is considered together with the inflationary B-mode spectrum, the fit is improved. We discuss implications of these results for theories that predict cosmic defects. PMID:24836232
A cosmic book. [of physics of early universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peebles, P. J. E.; Silk, Joseph
1988-01-01
A system of assigning odds to the basic elements of cosmological theories is proposed in order to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the theories. A figure of merit for the theories is obtained by counting and weighing the plausibility of each of the basic elements that is not substantially supported by observation or mature fundamental theory. The magnetized strong model is found to be the most probable. In order of decreasing probability, the ranking for the rest of the models is: (1) the magnetized string model with no exotic matter and the baryon adiabatic model; (2) the hot dark matter model and the model of cosmic string loops; (3) the canonical cold dark matter model, the cosmic string loops model with hot dark matter, and the baryonic isocurvature model; and (4) the cosmic string loops model with no exotic matter.
Graviton Spectra in String Cosmology
Galluccio, M.; Occhionero, F.; Litterio, M.
1997-08-01
We propose to uncover the signature of a stringy era in the primordial Universe by searching for a prominent peak in the relic graviton spectrum. This feature, which in our specific model terminates an {omega}{sup 3} increase and initiates an {omega}{sup {minus}7} decrease, is induced during the so far overlooked bounce of the scale factor between the collapsing deflationary era (or pre{endash}big bang) and the expanding inflationary era (or post{endash}big bang). The frequency and the intensity of the peak may likely fall in the realm of the new generation of interferometric detectors. The existence of a peak, at variance with ordinarily monotonic graviton spectra, would therefore offer strong support to string cosmology. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Graviton spectra in string cosmology
Galluccio, Massimo; Litterio, Marco; Occhionero, Franco
1996-08-01
We propose to uncover the signature of a stringy era in the primordial Universe by searching for a prominent peak in the relic graviton spectrum. This feature, which in our specific model terminates an ω³ increase and initiates an ω⁻⁷ decrease, is induced during the so far overlooked bounce of the scale factor between the collapsing deflationary era (or pre-Big Bang) and the expanding inflationary era (or post-Big Bang). We evaluate both analytically and numerically the frequency and the intensity of the peak and we show that they may likely fall in the realm of the new generation of interferometric detectors. The existence of a peak is at variance with ordinarily monotonic (either increasing or decreasing) graviton spectra of canonical cosmologies; its detection would therefore offer strong support to string cosmology.
String propagation through a big crunch to big bang transition
Tolley, Andrew J.
2006-06-15
We consider the propagation of classical and quantum strings on cosmological spacetimes which interpolate from a collapsing phase to an expanding phase. We begin by considering the classical propagation of strings on spacetimes with isotropic and anisotropic cosmological singularities. We find that cosmological singularities fall into two classes, in the first class the string evolution is well behaved all the way up to the singularity, while in the second class it becomes ill-defined. Then assuming the singularities are regulated by string scale corrections, we consider the implications of the propagation through a 'bounce'. It is known that as we evolve through a bounce, quantum strings will become excited giving rise to 'particle transmutation'. We reconsider this effect, giving qualitative arguments for the amount of excitation for each class. We find that strings whose physical wavelength at the bounce is less than {radical}({alpha}{sup '}) inevitably emerge in highly excited states, and that in this regime there is an interesting correspondence between strings on anisotropic cosmological spacetimes and plane waves. We argue that long wavelength modes, such as those describing cosmological perturbations, will also emerge in mildly excited string scale mass states. Finally we discuss the relevance of this to the propagation of cosmological perturbations in models such as the ekpyrotic/cyclic universe.
Straight strings and Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes
Unruh, W.G. )
1992-10-15
The embeddability of a straight cosmic string in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe is examined. Although previous suggestions that an exact embedding for a string with longitudinal tension equal to energy density is impossible are substantiated, it is shown that the deviations of either the external metric from the exact FRW metric or of the internal structure of the string from the exact tension equals energy density are expected to be very small, of the order of the square of the ratio of the string diameter (or the evacuated shell around the string) to the Hubble radius. Thus the lack of an exact mathematical embedding leads to negligible physical consequences. The problem with solving for an exact embedding of a string in the manner of the Swiss-cheese model is examined in detail, and it is shown that the metric in the evacuated region around the string is unique. That metric is determined to lowest order in the ratio of the evacuated region over the Hubble radius. The implications of this uniqueness for the Swiss-cheese embedding of a string are discussed.
Velocity-dependent models for non-Abelian/entangled string networks
Avgoustidis, A.; Shellard, E. P. S.
2008-11-15
We develop velocity-dependent models describing the evolution of string networks that involve several types of interacting strings, each with a different tension. These incorporate the formation of Y-type junctions with links stretching between colliding strings, while always ensuring energy conservation. These models can be used to describe network evolution for non-Abelian strings as well as cosmic superstrings. The application to Z{sub N} strings in which interactions are topologically constrained, demonstrates that a scaling regime is generally reached which involves a hierarchy of string densities with the lightest most abundant. We also study hybrid networks of cosmic superstrings, where energetic considerations are more important in determining interaction outcomes. We again find that networks tend towards scaling, with the three lightest network components being dominant and having comparable number densities, while the heavier string states are suppressed. A more quantitative analysis depends on the precise calculation of the string interaction matrix using the underlying string or field theory. Nevertheless, these results provide further evidence that the presence of junctions in a string network does not obstruct scaling.
String theory effective action; String loop corrections
Tseytlin, A.A. )
1988-01-01
The authors discuss the general ideology of the computation of string loop corrections to the effective action for the massless modes of the string. Both the S-matrix and the sigma-model approaches are presented. It is emphasized that the effective action is more general and better defined object than the S-matrix. In particular, it is finite in spite of modular infinities that may be present in loop amplitudes computed near a wrong vacuum. The case of the disc topology in the open-closed string theory is treated in some detail. Some issues concerning the soft dilation vertex operators related to the infinities of the string amplitudes are discussed.
Scaling configurations of cosmic superstring networks and their cosmological implications
Pourtsidou, A.; Avgoustidis, A.; Copeland, E. J.; Pogosian, L.; Steer, D. A.
2011-03-15
We study the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization spectra sourced by multitension cosmic-superstring networks. First, we obtain solutions for the characteristic length scales and velocities associated with the evolution of a network of F-D strings, allowing for the formation of junctions between strings of different tensions. We find two distinct regimes describing the resulting scaling distributions for the relative densities of the different types of strings, depending on the magnitude of the fundamental string coupling g{sub s}. In one of them, corresponding to the value of the coupling being of order unity, the network's stress-energy power spectrum is dominated by populous light F and D strings, while the other regime, at smaller values of g{sub s}, has the spectrum dominated by rare heavy D strings. These regimes are seen in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies associated with the network. We focus on the dependence of the shape of the B-mode polarization spectrum on g{sub s} and show that measuring the peak position of the B-mode spectrum can point to a particular value of the string coupling. Finally, we assess how this result, along with pulsar bounds on the production of gravitational waves from strings, can be used to constrain a combination of g{sub s} and the fundamental string tension {mu}{sub F}. Since CMB and pulsar bounds constrain different combinations of the string tensions and densities, they result in distinct shapes of bounding contours in the ({mu}{sub F},g{sub s}) parameter plane, thus providing complementary constraints on the properties of cosmic superstrings.
Which String Breaks? Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frye, Christopher
2011-03-01
Many have seen the common introductory physics demonstration in which a heavy ball hangs from a string, with another identical string hanging freely from the ball. When the instructor pulls the bottom string slowly, the top string breaks. However, when the instructor pulls the bottom string very rapidly, the bottom string breaks. This simple experiment is used to demonstrate inertia and Newton's laws. In The Physics Teacher of November 1996, there is an article in which the authors create a model of this problem in an attempt to explain the outcomes quantitatively. However, their analysis gave strange results. Using an improved model, I will show that the results of this demonstration can be obtained using only simple calculations. This work was funded by a RAMP grant from the University of Central Florida.
Hagmann, C., LLNL
1998-07-09
We have studied numerically the evolution and decay of axion strings. These global defects decay mainly by axion emission and thus contribute to the cosmological axion energy density. The relative importance of this source relative to misalignment production of axions depends on the spectrum. Radiation spectra for various string loop configurations are presented. They support the contention that the string decay contribution is of the same order of magnitude as the contribution from misalignment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clancy, Dominic; Feinstein, Alexander; Lidsey, James E.; Tavakol, Reza
1999-04-01
Global symmetries of the string effective action are employed to generate tilted, homogeneous Bianchi type VIh string cosmologies from a previously known stiff perfect fluid solution to Einstein gravity. The dilaton field is not constant on the surfaces of homogeneity. The future asymptotic state of the models is interpreted as a plane wave and is itself an exact solution to the string equations of motion to all orders in the inverse string tension. An inhomogeneous generalization of the Bianchi type III model is also found.
Radionic nonuniform black strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamaki, Takashi; Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro
2004-01-01
Nonuniform black strings in the two-brane system are investigated using the effective action approach. It is shown that the radion acts as a nontrivial hair of the black strings. From the brane point of view, the black string appears as the deformed dilatonic black hole which becomes a dilatonic black hole in the single brane limit and reduces to the Reissner-Nordström black hole in the close limit of two-branes. The stability of solutions is demonstrated using catastrophe theory. From the bulk point of view, the black strings are proved to be nonuniform. Nevertheless, the zeroth law of black hole thermodynamics still holds.
Introduction to string field theory
Lykken, J.; Raby, S.
1986-01-01
An action is proposed for an interacting closed bosonic string. Our formalism relies heavily on ideas discussed by Witten for the open bosonic string. The gauge fixed quantum action for the fully interacting open bosonic string is obtained.
Critical dimension in the black-string phase transition.
Sorkin, Evgeny
2004-07-16
In spacetimes with compact dimensions, there exist several black object solutions including the black hole and the black string. They may become unstable depending on their relative size and the length scales in the compact dimensions. The transition between these solutions raises puzzles and addresses fundamental questions such as topology change, uniquenesses, and cosmic censorship. Here, we consider black strings wrapped over the compact circle of a d-dimensional cylindrical spacetime. We construct static nonuniform strings around the marginally stable uniform string. First, we compute the instability mass for a large range of dimensions and find that it follows an exponential law gamma(d), where gamma<1 is a constant. Then we determine that there is a critical dimension, d(*)=13, such that for dd(*) it is, surprisingly, of higher order. PMID:15323811
k-strings as fundamental strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giataganas, Dimitrios
2015-05-01
It has been noticed that the k-string observables can be expressed in terms of the fundamental string ones. We identify a sufficient condition for a generic gravity dual background which when satisfied the mapping can be done. The condition is naturally related to a preserved quantity under the T-dualities acting on the Dp-brane describing the high representation Wilson loops. We also find the explicit relation between the observables of the heavy k-quark and the single quark states. As an application to our generic study and motivated by the fact that the anisotropic theories satisfy our condition, we compute the width of the k-string in these theories to find that the logarithmic broadening is still present, but the total result is affected by the anisotropy of the space.
Gravitational lensing effects of vacuum strings - Exact solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gott, J. R., III
1985-01-01
Exact interior and exterior solutions to Einstein's field equations are derived for vacuum strings. The exterior solution for a uniform density vacuum string corresponds to a conical space while the interior solution is that of a spherical cap. For Mu equals 0-1/4 the external metric is ds-squared = -dt-squared + dr-squared + (1-4 Mu)-squared r-squared dphi-squared + dz-squared, where Mu is the mass per unit length in the string in Planck masses per Planck length. A maximum mass per unit length for a string is 6.73 x 10 to the 27th g/cm. It is shown that strings cause temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background and produce equal brightness double QSO images separated by up to several minutes of arc. Formulae for lensing probabilities, image splittings, and time delays are derived for strings in a realistic cosmological setting. String searches using ST, the VLA, and the COBE satellite are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damour, T.
2003-10-01
We briefly review two aspects of string cosmology: 1) the presence of chaos in the generic cosmological solutions of the tree-level low-energy effective actions coming out of string theory, and 2) the remarkable link between the latter chaos and the Weyl groups of some hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebras.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damour, Thibault
We briefly review two aspects of string cosmology: (1) the presence of chaos in the generic cosmological solutions of the tree-level low-energy effective actions coming out of string theory, and (2) the remarkable link between the latter chaos and the Weyl groups of some hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebras.
Quasispherical gravitational collapse in 5D Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Ghosh, Sushant G.; Jhingan, S.
2010-07-15
We obtain a general five-dimensional quasispherical collapsing solutions of irrotational dust in Einstein gravity with the Gauss-Bonnet combination of quadratic curvature terms. These solutions are a generalization, to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity, of the five-dimensional quasispherical Szkeres like collapsing solutions in general relativity. It is found that the collapse proceeds in the same way as in the analogous spherical collapse, i.e., there exists regular initial data such that the collapse proceed to form naked singularities violating cosmic censorship conjecture. The effect of Gauss-Bonnet quadratic curvature terms on the formation and locations of the apparent horizon is deduced.
Sherrell, Dennis L.
1990-01-01
A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.
Sherrell, D.L.
1983-12-08
A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.
Closed string cohomology in open string field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moeller, Nicolas; Sachs, Ivo
2011-07-01
We show that closed string states in bosonic string field theory are encoded in the cyclic cohomology of cubic open string field theory (OSFT) which, in turn, classifies the deformations of OSFT. This cohomology is then shown to be independent of the open string background. Exact elements correspond to closed string gauge transformations, generic boundary deformations of Witten's 3-vertex and infinitesimal shifts of the open string background. Finally it is argued that the closed string cohomology and the cyclic cohomology of OSFT are isomorphic to each other.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lushnikov, Pavel M.
2010-04-01
A Keller-Segel model describes macroscopic dynamics of bacterial colonies and biological cells as well as dynamics of a gas of self-gravitating Brownian particles. Bacteria secret chemical which attracts other bacteria so that they move towards chemical gradient creating nonlocal attraction between bacteria. If bacterial (or Brownian particle) density exceeds a critical value then the density collapses (blows up) in a finite time which corresponds to bacterial aggregation or gravitational collapse. Collapse in the Keller-Segel model has striking qualitative similarities with a nonlinear Schrödinger equation including critical collapse in two dimensions and supercritical collapse in three dimensions. A self-similar solution near blow up point is studied in the critical two-dimensional case and it has a form of a rescaled steady state solution which contains a critical number of bacteria. Time dependence of scaling of that solution has square root scaling law with logarithmic modification.
Cosmic impacts, cosmic catastrophes. I
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapman, Clark R.; Morrison, David
1989-01-01
The discovery of cosmic impacts and their effects on the earth's surface are discussed. The manner in which the object impacts with the earth is described. The formation of crytovolcanic structures by craters is examined. Examples of cosmic debris collisions with earth, in particular the Tunguska explosion of 1908 and the Meteor Crater in Arizona, are provided.
Universality and string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bachlechner, Thomas Christian
The first run at the Large Hadron Collider has deeply challenged conventional notions of naturalness, and CMB polarization experiments are about to open a new window to early universe cosmology. As a compelling candidate for the ultraviolet completion of the standard model, string theory provides a prime opportunity to study both early universe cosmology and particle physics. However, relating low energy observations to ultraviolet physics requires knowledge of the metastable states of string theory through the study of vacua. While it is difficult to directly obtain infrared data from explicit string theory constructions, string theory imposes constraints on low energy physics. The study of ensembles of low energy theories consistent with ultra-violet constraints provides insight on generic features we might expect to occur in string compactifications. In this thesis we present a statistical treatment of vacuum stability and vacuum properties in the context of random supergravity theories motivated by string theory. Early universe cosmology provides another avenue to high energy physics. From the low energy perspective large field inflation is typically considered highly unnatural: the scale relevant for the diameter of flat regions in moduli space is sub-Planckian in regions of perturbative control. To approach this problem, we consider generic Calabi-Yau compactifications of string theory and find that super-Planckian diameters of axion fundamental domains in fact arise generically. We further demonstrate that such super-Planckian flat regions are plausibly consistent with theWeak Gravity Conjecture.
Supersymmetry and String Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dine, Michael
2016-01-01
Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; A note on choice of metric; Text website; Part I. Effective Field Theory: The Standard Model, Supersymmetry, Unification: 1. Before the Standard Model; 2. The Standard Model; 3. Phenomenology of the Standard Model; 4. The Standard Model as an effective field theory; 5. Anomalies, instantons and the strong CP problem; 6. Grand unification; 7. Magnetic monopoles and solitons; 8. Technicolor: a first attempt to explain hierarchies; Part II. Supersymmetry: 9. Supersymmetry; 10. A first look at supersymmetry breaking; 11. The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model; 12. Supersymmetric grand unification; 13. Supersymmetric dynamics; 14. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking; 15. Theories with more than four conserved supercharges; 16. More supersymmetric dynamics; 17. An introduction to general relativity; 18. Cosmology; 19. Astroparticle physics and inflation; Part III. String Theory: 20. Introduction; 21. The bosonic string; 22. The superstring; 23. The heterotic string; 24. Effective actions in ten dimensions; 25. Compactification of string theory I. Tori and orbifolds; 26. Compactification of string theory II. Calabi–Yau compactifications; 27. Dynamics of string theory at weak coupling; 28. Beyond weak coupling: non-perturbative string theory; 29. Large and warped extra dimensions; 30. The landscape: a challenge to the naturalness principle; 31. Coda: where are we headed?; Part IV. The Appendices: Appendix A. Two-component spinors; Appendix B. Goldstone's theorem and the pi mesons; Appendix C. Some practice with the path integral in field theory; Appendix D. The beta function in supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory; References; Index.
Observational Consequences of Eternal Ination, String Theory, and the Multiverse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schillo, Marjorie
This thesis details certain connections between string theory and an eternally inflating multiverse, and observational cosmology. It contains a non-trivial observational check of theories of an eternally inflating multiverse, whereby eternal inflation can be ruled out by a measurement of spatial curvature. It introduces a new model for inflation - Unwinding Inflation - which is motivated by string theory. Some possible realizations of Unwinding Inflation are described including their predictions for cosmological observables. Finally an effective field theory of Unwinding Inflation is presented and used to propose a mechanism to produce the anomalous measurements of the large scale cosmic microwave background.
A classical instability for black strings and p-branes
Gregory, R. . Enrico Fermi Inst.); Laflamme, R. )
1993-01-01
We investigate the evolution of small perturbations around black of strings and branes which are low energy solutions of string theory. For simplicity we focus attention on the zero charge case and show that there are unstable modes for a range of time frequency and wavelength in the extra 10 - D dimensions. These perturbations can be stabilized if the extra dimensions are compactified to a scale smaller than the minimum wavelength for which instability occurs and thus will not affect large astrophysical black holes in four dimensions. We comment on the implications of this result for the Cosmic Censorship Hypothesis
A classical instability for black strings and p-branes
Gregory, R.; Laflamme, R.
1993-06-01
We investigate the evolution of small perturbations around black of strings and branes which are low energy solutions of string theory. For simplicity we focus attention on the zero charge case and show that there are unstable modes for a range of time frequency and wavelength in the extra 10 - D dimensions. These perturbations can be stabilized if the extra dimensions are compactified to a scale smaller than the minimum wavelength for which instability occurs and thus will not affect large astrophysical black holes in four dimensions. We comment on the implications of this result for the Cosmic Censorship Hypothesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guettler, Knut
It is to the credit of François Tourte (Paris, ca. 1747-1835) that modern bows give a more direct impact on the string than their predecessors. This feature is of utmost importance when applying off-string, bouncing techniques such as spiccato and ricochet, but even for a stroke such as martelé, where quick reduction of bow force is required during the attack. With Tourte's concave-cambered bow, the bow force increases rapidly when the bow stick is falling or pressed against the string. With the old concave or straight bows, more movement, and thus time, was required for establishing comparable bow force.
Witten, Edward
2015-10-21
The Strings 2014 meeting was held at Princeton University June 23-27, 2014, co-sponsored by Princeton University and the Institute for Advanced Study. The goal of the meeting was to provide a stimulating and up-to-date overview of research in string theory and its relations to other areas of physics and mathematics, ranging from geometry to quantum field theory, condensed matter physics, and more. This brief report lists committee members and speakers but contains no scientific information. Note that the talks at Strings 2014 were videotaped and are available on the conference website: http://physics.princeton.edustrings2014/Talk_titles.shtml.
Dark matter from cosmic defects on galactic scales?
Guerreiro, N.; Carvalho, J. P. M. de; Avelino, P. P.; Martins, C. J. A. P.
2008-09-15
We discuss the possible dynamical role of extended cosmic defects on galactic scales, specifically focusing on the possibility that they may provide the dark matter suggested by the classical problem of galactic rotation curves. We emphasize that the more standard defects (such as Goto-Nambu strings) are unsuitable for this task but show that more general models (such as transonic wiggly strings) could in principle have a better chance. In any case, we show that observational data severely restricts any such scenarios.
Protostars: Forges of cosmic rays?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padovani, M.; Marcowith, A.; Hennebelle, P.; Ferrière, K.
2016-05-01
Context. Galactic cosmic rays are particles presumably accelerated in supernova remnant shocks that propagate in the interstellar medium up to the densest parts of molecular clouds, losing energy and their ionisation efficiency because of the presence of magnetic fields and collisions with molecular hydrogen. Recent observations hint at high levels of ionisation and at the presence of synchrotron emission in protostellar systems, which leads to an apparent contradiction. Aims: We want to explain the origin of these cosmic rays accelerated within young protostars as suggested by observations. Methods: Our modelling consists of a set of conditions that has to be satisfied in order to have an efficient cosmic-ray acceleration through diffusive shock acceleration. We analyse three main acceleration sites (shocks in accretion flows, along the jets, and on protostellar surfaces), then we follow the propagation of these particles through the protostellar system up to the hot spot region. Results: We find that jet shocks can be strong accelerators of cosmic-ray protons, which can be boosted up to relativistic energies. Other promising acceleration sites are protostellar surfaces, where shocks caused by impacting material during the collapse phase are strong enough to accelerate cosmic-ray protons. In contrast, accretion flow shocks are too weak to efficiently accelerate cosmic rays. Though cosmic-ray electrons are weakly accelerated, they can gain a strong boost to relativistic energies through re-acceleration in successive shocks. Conclusions: We suggest a mechanism able to accelerate both cosmic-ray protons and electrons through the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism, which can be used to explain the high ionisation rate and the synchrotron emission observed towards protostellar sources. The existence of an internal source of energetic particles can have a strong and unforeseen impact on the ionisation of the protostellar disc, on the star and planet formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pears, M. I.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Dobson, D. P.; Davies, R.
2013-12-01
Collapsing thermal plumes have been investigated through experimental and numerical simulations. Collapsing plumes are an uncommon fluid dynamical phenomenon, usually seen when the buoyancy source is turned off. A series of fluid dynamical experiments were conducted on thermal plumes at a variety of temperature and viscosity contrasts, in a 26.5 cm^3 cubic tank heated by a constant temperature heater 2 cm in diameter and no-slip bottom and top surfaces. Working fluids included Lyle's Golden Syrup and ADM's Liquidose 436 syrup, which have strongly-temperature dependent viscosity and high Pr number (10^3-10^7 at experimental conditions). Visualisation included white light shadowgraphs and PIV of the central plane. Temperature contrasts ranged from 3-60°C, and two differing forms of collapse were identified. At very low temperature differences 'no rise' collapse was discovered, where the plumes stagnate in the lower third of the tank before collapsing. At temperature differences between 10-23°C normal evolution occurred until 'lens shape' collapse developed between midway and two-thirds of the distance from the base. The lens shape originated in the top of the conduit and was present throughout collapse. At temperatures above ΔT=23°C the plumes follow the expected growth and shape and flatten out at the top of the tank. Thermal collapse remains difficult to explain given experimental conditions (continuous heating). Instead it is possible that small density differences arising from crystallization at ambient temperatures changes plume buoyancy-inducing collapse. We show results on the evolution of the refractive index of the syrup through time to ascertain this possibility. Preliminary numerical results using Fluidity will be presented to explore a greater parameter range of viscosity contrasts and tank aspect ratios.
Reheating for closed string inflation
Cicoli, Michele; Mazumdar, Anupam E-mail: a.mazumdar@lancaster.ac.uk
2010-09-01
We point out some of the outstanding challenges for embedding inflationary cosmology within string theory studying the process of reheating for models where the inflaton is a closed string mode parameterising the size of an internal cycle of the compactification manifold. A realistic model of inflation must explain the tiny perturbations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and also how to excite the ordinary matter degrees of freedom after inflation, required for the success of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study these issues focusing on two promising inflationary models embedded in LARGE volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that phenomenological requirements and consistency of the effective field theory treatment imply the presence at low energies of a hidden sector together with a visible sector, where the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model fields are residing. A detailed calculation of the inflaton coupling to the fields of the hidden sector, visible sector, and moduli sector, reveals that the inflaton fails to excite primarily the visible sector fields, instead hidden sector fields are excited copiously after the end of inflation. This sets severe constraints on hidden sector model building where the most promising scenario emerges as a pure N = 1 SYM theory, forbidding the kinematical decay of the inflaton to the hidden sector. In this case it is possible to reheat the Universe with the visible degrees of freedom even though in some cases we discover a new tension between TeV scale SUSY and reheating on top of the well-known tension between TeV scale SUSY and inflation.
Scalar field collapse with negative cosmological constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baier, R.; Nishimura, H.; Stricker, S. A.
2015-07-01
The formation of black holes or naked singularities is studied in a model in which a homogeneous time-dependent scalar field with an exponential potential couples to four-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant. An analytic solution is derived and its consequences are discussed. The model depends only on one free parameter, which determines the equation of state and decides the fate of the spacetime. Without fine tuning the value of this parameter the collapse ends in a generic formation of a black hole or a naked singularity. The latter case violates the cosmic censorship conjecture.
Casper, William L.; Clark, Don T.; Grover, Blair K.; Mathewson, Rodney O.; Seymour, Craig A.
2008-10-07
A drill string comprises a first drill string member having a male end; and a second drill string member having a female end configured to be joined to the male end of the first drill string member, the male end having a threaded portion including generally square threads, the male end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the threaded portion, and the male end further having a bearing surface, the female end having a female threaded portion having corresponding female threads, the female end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the female threaded portion, and the female end having a bearing surface. Installation methods, including methods of installing instrumented probes are also provided.
Arago C. de; Bazeia, D.; Eboli, O.J.P.; Marques, G.C.
1985-12-15
We obtain a semiclassical evaluation of the temperature for which the free energy of the strings of spontaneously broken scalar electrodynamics vanishes. We argue that, above this temperature, these objects should play a significant physical role.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frampton, Paul H.
2016-04-01
In this note, I recollect a two-week period in September 1968 when I factorized the Veneziano model using string variables in Chicago. Professor Yoichiro Nambu went on to calculate the N-particle dual resonance model and then to factorize it on an exponential degeneracy of states. That was in 1968 and the following year 1969 he discovered the string action. I also include some other reminiscences of Nambu who passed away on July 5, 2015.
Quantum Strings and Superstrings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigore, D. R.
In the first sections of this paper we give an elementary but rigorous approach to the construction of the quantum Bosonic and supersymmetric string system continuing the analysis of Dimock. This includes the construction of the DDF operators without using the vertex algebras. Next we give a rigorous proof of the equivalence between the light-cone and the covariant quantization methods. Finally, we provide a new and simple proof of the BRST quantization for these string models.
Ahlén, Olof
2015-12-17
These proceedings from the second Caesar Lattes meeting in Rio de Janeiro 2015 are a brief introduction to how automorphic forms appear in the low energy effective action of maximally supersymmetric string theory. The explicit example of the R{sup 4}-interaction of type IIB string theory in ten dimensions is discussed. Its Fourier expansion is interpreted in terms of perturbative and non-perturbative contributions to the four graviton amplitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahlén, Olof
2015-12-01
These proceedings from the second Caesar Lattes meeting in Rio de Janeiro 2015 are a brief introduction to how automorphic forms appear in the low energy effective action of maximally supersymmetric string theory. The explicit example of the R4-interaction of type IIB string theory in ten dimensions is discussed. Its Fourier expansion is interpreted in terms of perturbative and non-perturbative contributions to the four graviton amplitude.
Hydroball string sensing system
Hurwitz, Michael J.; Ekeroth, Douglas E.; Squarer, David
1991-01-01
A hydroball string sensing system for a nuclear reactor that includes stainless tubes positioned to guide hydroball strings into and out of the nuclear reactor core. A sensor such as an ultrasonic transducer transmitter and receiver is positioned outside of the nuclear reactor core and adjacent to the tube. The presence of an object such a bullet member positioned at an end a hydroball string, or any one of the hydroballs interrupts the transmission of ultrasound from the transmitter to the receiver. Alternatively, if the bullet member and hydroballs include a ferritic material, either a Hall effect sensor or other magnetic field sensors such as a magnetic field rate of change sensor can be used to detect the location and position of a hydroball string. Placing two sensors along the tube with a known distance between the sensors enables the velocity of a hydroball string to be determined. This determined velocity can be used to control the flow rate of a fluid within the tube so as to control the velocity of the hydroball string.
Magnetorotational iron core collapse
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Symbalisty, E. M. D.
1984-01-01
During its final evolutionary stages, a massive star, as considered in current astrophysical theory, undergoes rapid collapse, thereby triggering a sequence of a catastrophic event which results in a Type II supernova explosion. A remnant neutron star or a black hole is left after the explosion. Stellar collapse occurs, when thermonuclear fusion has consumed the lighter elements present. At this stage, the core consists of iron. Difficulties arise regarding an appropriate model with respect to the core collapse. The present investigation is concerned with the evolution of a Type II supernova core including the effects of rotation and magnetic fields. A simple neutrino model is developed which reproduced the spherically symmetric results of Bowers and Wilson (1982). Several two-dimensional computational models of stellar collapse are studied, taking into account a case in which a 15 solar masses iron core was artificially given rotational and magnetic energy.
Collapse of Surface Nanobubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Longquan; Chan, Chon U.; Arora, Manish; Ohl, Claus-Dieter
2014-11-01
Surface nanobubbles are nanoscopic gaseous domains that entrap on immersed solid surfaces in water. They are surprisingly stable and are difficult to be distinguished from polymeric/hydrophobic drops and solid particles (contamination). Here, we report a comparative study of contact line motion across surface nanobubbles, polymeric drops and solid particles. We show that surface nanobubbles spontaneously collapse once contact line touches them while a fast jump process and a pinning process are observed on polymeric drops and on solid particles, respectively. These distinct contact line dynamics provide a new approach to identify surface nanobubbles. The collapse of surface nanobubbles demonstrates their gaseous property and also indicates that they are metastable. The collapse process last few milliseconds with a characteristic speed of 0.1 mm/s, which is much longer and slower than that of hydrodynamic phenomena. We further show that the collapse phenomenon can be explained with a microscopic contact line dynamics.
Collapse transition in proteins.
Ziv, Guy; Thirumalai, D; Haran, Gilad
2009-01-01
The coil-globule transition, a tenet of the physics of polymers, has been identified in recent years as an important unresolved aspect of the initial stages of the folding of proteins. We describe the basics of the collapse transition, starting with homopolymers and continuing with proteins. Studies of denatured-state collapse under equilibrium are then presented. An emphasis is placed on single-molecule fluorescence experiments, which are particularly useful for measuring properties of the denatured state even under conditions of coexistence with the folded state. Attempts to understand the dynamics of collapse, both theoretically and experimentally, are then described. Only an upper limit for the rate of collapse has been obtained so far. Improvements in experimental and theoretical methodology are likely to continue to push our understanding of the importance of the denatured-state thermodynamics and dynamics for protein folding in the coming years. PMID:19081910
Countdown to Systems Collapse.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tysseling, John C.; Easton, Jeff; Weaks, Julie
2002-01-01
Describes how the University of New Mexico Albuquerque developed a strategic business plan for renewing its utility systems when faced with the imminent collapse of its entire energy infrastructure and a $75-100 million price tag for upgrades. (EV)
Air around the lung; Air outside the lung; Pneumothorax dropped lung; Spontaneous pneumothorax ... Collapsed lung can be caused by an injury to the lung. Injuries can include a gunshot or knife wound ...
Power suppression at large scales in string inflation
Cicoli, Michele; Downes, Sean; Dutta, Bhaskar E-mail: sddownes@physics.tamu.edu
2013-12-01
We study a possible origin of the anomalous suppression of the power spectrum at large angular scales in the cosmic microwave background within the framework of explicit string inflationary models where inflation is driven by a closed string modulus parameterizing the size of the extra dimensions. In this class of models the apparent power loss at large scales is caused by the background dynamics which involves a sharp transition from a fast-roll power law phase to a period of Starobinsky-like slow-roll inflation. An interesting feature of this class of string inflationary models is that the number of e-foldings of inflation is inversely proportional to the string coupling to a positive power. Therefore once the string coupling is tuned to small values in order to trust string perturbation theory, enough e-foldings of inflation are automatically obtained without the need of extra tuning. Moreover, in the less tuned cases the sharp transition responsible for the power loss takes place just before the last 50-60 e-foldings of inflation. We illustrate these general claims in the case of Fibre Inflation where we study the strength of this transition in terms of the attractor dynamics, finding that it induces a pivot from a blue to a redshifted power spectrum which can explain the apparent large scale power loss. We compute the effects of this pivot for example cases and demonstrate how magnitude and duration of this effect depend on model parameters.
Relativistic dynamical collapse model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pearle, Philip
2015-05-01
A model is discussed where all operators are constructed from a quantum scalar field whose energy spectrum takes on all real values. The Schrödinger picture wave function depends upon space and time coordinates for each particle, as well as an inexorably increasing evolution parameter s which labels a foliation of spacelike hypersurfaces. The model is constructed to be manifestly Lorentz invariant in the interaction picture. Free particle states and interactions are discussed in this framework. Then, the formalism of the continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) theory of dynamical collapse is applied. The collapse-generating operator is chosen to be the particle number space-time density. Unlike previous relativistically invariant models, the vacuum state is not excited. The collapse dynamics depends upon two parameters, a parameter Λ which represents the collapse rate/volume and a scale factor ℓ. A common example of collapse dynamics, involving a clump of matter in a superposition of two locations, is analyzed. The collapse rate is shown to be identical to that of nonrelativistic CSL when the GRW-CSL choice of ℓ=a =1 0-5 cm , is made, along with Λ =λ /a3 (GRW-CSL choice λ =1 0-16s-1). The collapse rate is also satisfactory with the choice ℓ as the size of the Universe, with Λ =λ /ℓa2. Because the collapse narrows wave functions in space and time, it increases a particle's momentum and energy, altering its mass. It is shown that, with ℓ=a , the change of mass of a nucleon is unacceptably large but, when ℓ is the size of the Universe, the change of mass over the age of the Universe is acceptably small.
Energy radiation by cosmic superstrings in brane inflation
Firouzjahi, Hassan
2008-01-15
The dominant method of energy loss by a loop of cosmic D-strings in models of warped brane inflation is studied. It is shown that the energy loss via Ramond-Ramond field radiation can dominate by many orders of magnitude over the energy radiation via gravitational wave emission. The ratio of these two energy loss mechanisms depends on the energy scale of inflation, the mass scale of string theory, and whether it is a single-throat or a multithroat inflationary scenario. This can have important consequences for the detection of cosmic superstrings in the near future. It is argued that the bounds from cosmic microwave background anisotropies and big bang nucleosynthesis are the dominant cosmological sources to constrain the physical parameters of the network of cosmic superstrings, whereas the role of the gravitational wave-based experiments may be secondary.
Open String on Symmetric Product
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuji, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Yutaka
We discuss some basic properties of the open string on the symmetric product which is supposed to describe the open string field theory in discrete light-cone quantization (DLCQ). We first derive the consistent twisted boundary conditions for Annulus/Möbius/Klein Bottle diagrams and give the explicit form of the corresponding amplitude. They have the interpretation as the long open (or closed) string amplitude but the world sheet topology viewed from the short string and from the long string is in general different. Boundary (cross-cap) states of the short string are classified into three categories, the boundary (cross-cap) states of the long string and the "joint" state which connects two strings. The partition function has the typical structure of the string field theory in DLCQ. Tadpole condition is also analyzed and gives a reasonable gauge group SO(213).
String melting in a photon bath
Karouby, Johanna
2013-10-01
We compute the decay rate of a metastable cosmic string in contact with a thermal bath by finding the instanton solution. The new feature is that this decay rate is found in the context of non thermal scalar fields in contact with a thermal bath of photons. In general, to make topologically unstable strings stable, one can couple them to such a bath. The resulting plasma effect creates metastable configurations which can decay from the false vacuum to the true vacuum. In our specific set-up, the instanton computation is realized for the case of two out-of-equilibrium complex scalar fields: one is charged and coupled to the photon field, and the other is neutral. New effects coming from the thermal bath of photons make the radius of the nucleated bubble and most of the relevant physical quantities temperature-dependent. However, the temperature appears in a different way than in the purely thermal case, where all scalar fields are in thermal equilibrium. As a result of the tunneling, the core of the initial string melts while bubbles of true vacuum expand at the speed of light.
Instability of black hole formation in gravitational collapse
Joshi, Pankaj S.; Malafarina, Daniele
2011-01-15
We consider here the classic scenario given by Oppenheimer, Snyder, and Datt, for the gravitational collapse of a massive matter cloud, and examine its stability under the introduction of small tangential stresses. We show, by offering an explicit class of physically valid tangential stress perturbations, that an introduction of tangential pressure, however small, can qualitatively change the final fate of collapse from a black hole final state to a naked singularity. This shows instability of black hole formation in collapse and sheds important light on the nature of cosmic censorship hypothesis and its possible formulations. The key effect of these perturbations is to alter the trapped surface formation pattern within the collapsing cloud and the apparent horizon structure. This allows the singularity to be visible, and implications are discussed.
Dilaton and off-shell (non-critical string) effects in Boltzmann equation for species abundances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lahanas, Ab; Mavromatos, Ne; Nanopoulos, Dv
In this work we derive the modifications to the Boltzmann equation governing the cosmic evolution of relic abundances induced by dilaton dissipative-source and non-critical-string terms in dilaton-driven non-equilibrium string Cosmologies. We also discuss briefly the most important phenomenological consequences, including modifications of the constraints on the available parameter space of cosmologically appealing particle physics models, imposed by recent precision data of astrophysical measurements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]
We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.
These collapse pits are found on the flank of Ascraeus Mons. The pits and channels are all related to lava tube formation and emptying.
Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 8, Longitude 253.9 East (106.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science
Constraints on cosmic superstrings from Kaluza-Klein emission.
Dufaux, Jean-François
2012-07-01
Cosmic superstrings interact generically with a tower of light and/or strongly coupled Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes associated with the geometry of the internal space. We study the production of KK particles by cosmic superstring loops, and show that it is constrained by big bang nucleosynthesis. We study the resulting constraints in the parameter space of the underlying string theory model and highlight their complementarity with the regions that can be probed by current and upcoming gravitational wave experiments. PMID:23031097
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cappelli, Andrea; Castellani, Elena; Colomo, Filippo; Di Vecchia, Paolo
2012-04-01
Part I. Overview: 1. Introduction and synopsis; 2. Rise and fall of the hadronic string G. Veneziano; 3. Gravity, unification, and the superstring J. H. Schwarz; 4. Early string theory as a challenging case study for philosophers E. Castellani; Part II. The Prehistory: The Analytic S-Matrix: 5. Introduction to Part II; 6. Particle theory in the sixties: from current algebra to the Veneziano amplitude M. Ademollo; 7. The path to the Veneziano model H. R. Rubinstein; 8. Two-component duality and strings P. G. O. Freund; 9. Note on the prehistory of string theory M. Gell-Mann; Part III. The Dual Resonance Model: 10. Introduction to Part III; 11. From the S-matrix to string theory P. Di Vecchia; 12. Reminiscence on the birth of string theory J. A. Shapiro; 13. Personal recollections D. Amati; 14. Early string theory at Fermilab and Rutgers L. Clavelli; 15. Dual amplitudes in higher dimensions: a personal view C. Lovelace; 16. Personal recollections on dual models R. Musto; 17. Remembering the 'supergroup' collaboration F. Nicodemi; 18. The '3-Reggeon vertex' S. Sciuto; Part IV. The String: 19. Introduction to Part IV; 20. From dual models to relativistic strings P. Goddard; 21. The first string theory: personal recollections L. Susskind; 22. The string picture of the Veneziano model H. B. Nielsen; 23. From the S-matrix to string theory Y. Nambu; 24. The analogue model for string amplitudes D. B. Fairlie; 25. Factorization in dual models and functional integration in string theory S. Mandelstam; 26. The hadronic origins of string theory R. C. Brower; Part V. Beyond the Bosonic String: 27. Introduction to Part V; 28. From dual fermion to superstring D. I. Olive; 29. Dual models with fermions: memoirs of an early string theorist P. Ramond; 30. Personal recollections A. Neveu; 31. Aspects of fermionic dual models E. Corrigan; 32. The dual quark models K. Bardakci and M. B. Halpern; 33. Remembering the dawn of relativistic strings J.-L. Gervais; 34. Early string theory in
Formation of vortex loops (strings) in continuous phase transitions.
Bowick, Mark J; Cacciuto, Angelo; Travesset, Alex
2002-02-01
The formation of vortex loops (global cosmic strings) in an O(2) linear sigma model in three spatial dimensions is analyzed numerically. For over-damped Langevin dynamics we find that defect production is suppressed by an interaction between correlated domains that reduces the effective spatial variation of the phase of the order field. The degree of suppression is sensitive to the quench rate. A detailed description of the numerical methods used to analyze the model is also reported. PMID:11863613
Thickening the string. I. The string perfect dust
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stachel, John
1980-04-01
The classical theory of the geometrical string is developed as the theory of a simple, surface-forming timelike bivector field in an arbitrary background space-time. The stress-energy tensor for a perfect dust of such strings is written down, and the conservation laws for such a dust, as well as the equations of motion of the string, are derived from the vanishing of the divergence of the stress-energy tensor. (The boundary conditions for the open string are also derived from the junction conditions for the stress-energy tensor in Appendix A.) The generalization of this model to null strings, and to a perfect fluid of strings, are discussed, and will form the subject of the second and third papers in this series. The problem of a fully general-relativistic string theory, and an alternate approach to the string, based upon defining an acceleration tensor for two- (and higher) dimensional subspaces, are also discussed.
Spherical gravitational collapse in N dimensions
Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S.
2007-10-15
We investigate here spherically symmetric gravitational collapse in a space-time with an arbitrary number of dimensions and with a general type I matter field, which is a broad class that includes most of the physically reasonable matter forms. We show that given the initial data for matter in terms of the initial density and pressure profiles at an initial surface t=t{sub i} from which the collapse evolves, there exist the rest of the initial data functions and classes of solutions of Einstein equations which we construct here, such that the space-time evolution goes to a final state which is either a black hole or a naked singularity, depending on the nature of initial data and evolutions chosen, and subject to validity of the weak energy condition. The results are discussed and analyzed in the light of the cosmic censorship hypothesis in black hole physics. The formalism here combines the earlier results on gravitational collapse in four dimensions in a unified treatment. Also the earlier work is generalized to higher-dimensional space-times to allow a study of the effect of the number of dimensions on the possible final outcome of the collapse in terms of either a black hole or naked singularity. No restriction is adopted on the number of dimensions, and other limiting assumptions such as self-similarity of space-time are avoided, in order to keep the treatment general. Our methodology allows us to consider to an extent the genericity and stability aspects related to the occurrence of naked singularities in gravitational collapse.
Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Garcia, Javier; Gutierrez, German
2014-04-15
We study both analytically and numerically the spectrum of inhomogeneous strings with PT-symmetric density. We discuss an exactly solvable model of PT-symmetric string which is isospectral to the uniform string; for more general strings, we calculate exactly the sum rules Z(p)≡∑{sub n=1}{sup ∞}1/E{sub n}{sup p}, with p=1,2,… and find explicit expressions which can be used to obtain bounds on the lowest eigenvalue. A detailed numerical calculation is carried out for two non-solvable models depending on a parameter, obtaining precise estimates of the critical values where pair of real eigenvalues become complex. -- Highlights: •PT-symmetric Hamiltonians exhibit real eigenvalues when PT symmetry is unbroken. •We study PT-symmetric strings with complex density. •They exhibit regions of unbroken PT symmetry. •We calculate the critical parameters at the boundaries of those regions. •There are exact real sum rules for some particular complex densities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Popov, Alexander D.
We study the action of picture-changing and spectral flow operators on a ground ring of ghost number zero operators in the chiral BRST cohomology of the closed N=2 string and describe an infinite set of symmetry charges acting on physical states. The transformations of physical string states are compared with symmetries of self-dual gravity which is the effective field theory of the closed N=2 string. We derive all infinitesimal symmetries of the self-dual gravity equations in (2+2)-dimensional space-time and introduce an infinite hierarchy of commuting flows on the moduli space of self-dual metrics. The dependence on moduli parameters can be recovered by solving the equations of the SDG hierarchy associated with an infinite set of Abelian symmetries generated recursively from translations. These nonlocal Abelian symmetries are shown to coincide with the hidden Abelian string symmetries responsible for the vanishing of most scattering amplitudes. Therefore, N=2 string theory ``predicts'' not only self-dual gravity but also the SDG hierarchy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haghighat, Babak; Iqbal, Amer; Kozçaz, Can; Lockhart, Guglielmo; Vafa, Cumrun
2015-03-01
M2 branes suspended between adjacent parallel M5 branes lead to light strings, the `M-strings'. In this paper we compute the elliptic genus of M-strings, twisted by maximally allowed symmetries that preserve 2 d (2, 0) supersymmetry. In a codimension one subspace of parameters this reduces to the elliptic genus of the (4, 4) supersymmetric A n-1 quiver theory in 2 d. We contrast the elliptic genus of N M-strings with the (4, 4) sigma model on the N-fold symmetric product of . For N = 1 they are the same, but for N > 1 they are close, but not identical. Instead the elliptic genus of (4, 4) N M-strings is the same as the elliptic genus of (4, 0) sigma models on the N-fold symmetric product of , but where the right-moving fermions couple to a modification of the tangent bundle. This construction arises from a dual A n-1 quiver 6 d gauge theory with U(1) gauge groups. Moreover, we compute the elliptic genus of domain walls which separate different numbers of M2 branes on the two sides of the wall.
Bianchi type-VIh string cloud cosmological models with bulk viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tripathy, Sunil K.; Behera, Dipanjali
2010-11-01
String cloud cosmological models are studied using spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type VIh metric in the frame work of general relativity. The field equations are solved for massive string cloud in presence of bulk viscosity. A general linear equation of state of the cosmic string tension density with the proper energy density of the universe is considered. The physical and kinematical properties of the models have been discussed in detail and the limits of the anisotropic parameter responsible for different phases of the universe are explored.
Tappin, S W
2016-01-01
Tracheal collapse occurs most commonly in middle-aged, small breed dogs. Clinical signs are usually proportional to the degree of collapse, ranging from mild airway irritation and paroxysmal coughing to respiratory distress and dyspnoea. Diagnosis is made by documenting dynamic airway collapse with radiographs, bronchoscopy or fluoroscopy. Most dogs respond well to medical management and treatment of any concurrent comorbidities. Surgical intervention may need to be considered in dogs that do not respond or have respiratory compromise. A variety of surgical techniques have been reported although extraluminal ring prostheses or intraluminal stenting are the most commonly used. Both techniques have numerous potential complications and require specialised training and experience but are associated with good short- and long-term outcomes. PMID:26780854
Battye, R.A.; Shellard, E.P. |
1995-12-01
We discuss radiative backreaction for global strings described by the Kalb-Ramond action with an analogous derivation to that for the point electron in classical electrodynamics. We show how local corrections to the equations of motion allow one to separate the self-field of the string from that of the radiation field. Modifications to this {open_quote}{open_quote}local backreaction approximation{close_quote}{close_quote} circumvent the runaway solutions, allowing these corrections to be used to evolve string trajectories numerically. Comparisons are made with analytic and numerical radiation calculations from previous work and the merits and limitations of this approach are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1995 The American Physical Society.}
Tensionless strings from worldsheet symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagchi, Arjun; Chakrabortty, Shankhadeep; Parekh, Pulastya
2016-01-01
We revisit the construction of the tensionless limit of closed bosonic string theory in the covariant formulation in the light of Galilean conformal symmetry that rises as the residual gauge symmetry on the tensionless worldsheet. We relate the analysis of the fundamentally tensionless theory to the tensionless limit that is viewed as a contraction of worldsheet coordinates. Analysis of the quantum regime uncovers interesting physics. The degrees of freedom that appear in the tensionless string are fundamentally different from the usual string states. Through a Bogoliubov transformation on the worldsheet, we link the tensionless vacuum to the usual tensile vacuum. As an application, we show that our analysis can be used to understand physics of strings at very high temperatures and propose that these new degrees of freedom are naturally connected with the long-string picture of the Hagedorn phase of free string theory. We also show that tensionless closed strings behave like open strings.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cribb, H. E. (Inventor)
1973-01-01
A lightweight small high gain antenna which is capable of being packaged in a collapsed form and automatically expanded when in use is described. The antenna includes a cylindrical housing having a rod with a piston adjacent to one end extending through it. Attached to the outer end of the rod in a normally collapsed state is a helical wire coil. When the gas producing means is activated the piston and rod are shifted outwardly to expand the wire coil. A latch is provided for holding the helical coil in the expanded position.
Dynamical collapse of trajectories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biemond, J. J. Benjamin; de Moura, Alessandro P. S.; Grebogi, Celso; van de Wouw, Nathan; Nijmeijer, Henk
2012-04-01
Friction induces unexpected dynamical behaviour. In the paradigmatic pendulum and double-well systems with friction, modelled with differential inclusions, distinct trajectories can collapse onto a single point. Transversal homoclinic orbits display collapse and generate chaotic saddles with forward dynamics that is qualitatively different from the backward dynamics. The space of initial conditions converging to the chaotic saddle is fractal, but the set of points diverging from it is not: friction destroys the complexity of the forward dynamics by generating a unique horseshoe-like topology.
Keith Dienes
2010-01-08
We are currently in the throes of a potentially huge paradigm shift in physics. Motivated by recent developments in string theory and the discovery of the so-called "string landscape", physicists are beginning to question the uniqueness of fundamental theories of physics and the methods by which such theories might be understood and investigated. In this colloquium, I will give a non-technical introduction to the nature of this paradigm shift and how it developed. I will also discuss some of the questions to which it has led, and the nature of the controversies it has spawned.
Keith Dienes
2009-12-01
We are currently in the throes of a potentially huge paradigm shift in physics. Motivated by recent developments in string theory and the discovery of the so-called "string landscape", physicists are beginning to question the uniqueness of fundamental theories of physics and the methods by which such theories might be understood and investigated. In this colloquium, I will give a non-technical introduction to the nature of this paradigm shift and how it developed. I will also discuss some of the questions to which it has led, and the nature of the controversies it has spawned.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jejjala, Vishnu; Minic, Djordje; Ng, Y. Jack; Tze, Chia-Hsiung
We propose a string theory of turbulence that explains the Kolmogorov scaling in 3+1 dimensions and the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov scalings in 2+1 dimensions. This string theory of turbulence should be understood in light of the AdS/CFT dictionary. Our argument is crucially based on the use of Migdal's loop variables and the self-consistent solutions of Migdal's loop equations for turbulence. In particular, there is an area law for turbulence in 2+1 dimensions related to the Kraichnan scaling.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
El Abed, Mohamed
2014-01-01
A team of French high-school students sent a weather balloon into the upper atmosphere to recreate Viktor Hess's historical experiment that demonstrated the existence of ionizing radiation from the sky--later called cosmic radiation. This discovery earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1936.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Abed, Mohamed
2014-11-01
A team of French high-school students sent a weather balloon into the upper atmosphere to recreate Viktor Hess’s historical experiment that demonstrated the existence of ionizing radiation from the sky—later called cosmic radiation. This discovery earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1936.
String Theory and Gauge Theories
Maldacena, Juan
2009-02-20
We will see how gauge theories, in the limit that the number of colors is large, give string theories. We will discuss some examples of particular gauge theories where the corresponding string theory is known precisely, starting with the case of the maximally supersymmetric theory in four dimensions which corresponds to ten dimensional string theory. We will discuss recent developments in this area.
Conformal Collineations in String Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baysal, Hüsnü; Camci, U.ğur; Tarhan, İsmail; Yilmaz, İhsan; Yavuz, İlhami; Dolgov, A.
In this paper, we study the consequences of the existence of conformal collineations (CC) for string cloud in the context of general relativity. Especially, we interest in special conformal collineation (SCC), generated by a special affine conformal collineation (SACC) in the string cloud. Some results on the restrictions imposed by a conformal collineation symmetry in the string cloud are obtained.
Collapsible Geostrut Structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robertson, Glen A.
1994-01-01
Portable truss structure collapsible into smaller volume for storage and transportation. At new site, reerected quickly, without need to reassemble parts. Structure could be tent, dome, tunnel, or platform. Key element in structure joint, called "geostrut joint," includes internal cable. Structure is network of struts attached to geostrut joints. Pulling cables taut in all joints makes structure rigid. Releasing cables relaxes structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2015-09-01
One of the big puzzles in astrophysics is how supermassive black holes (SMBHs) managed to grow to the large sizes weve observed in the very early universe. In a recent study, a team of researchers examines the possibility that they were formed by the direct collapse of supermassive stars.Formation MysterySMBHs billions of times as massive as the Sun have been observed at a time when the universe was less than a billion years old. But thats not enough time for a stellar-mass black hole to grow to SMBH-size by accreting material so another theory is needed to explain the presence of these monsters so early in the universes history. A new study, led by Tatsuya Matsumoto (Kyoto University, Japan), poses the following question: what if supermassive stars in the early universe collapsed directly into black holes?Previous studies of star formation in the early universe have suggested that, in the hot environment of these primordial times, stars might have been able to build up mass much faster than they can today. This could result in early supermassive stars roughly 100,000 times more massive than the Sun. But if these early stars end their lives by collapsing to become massive black holes in the same way that we believe massive stars can collapse to form stellar-mass black holes today this should result in enormously violent explosions. Matusmoto and collaborators set out to model this process, to determine what we would expect to see when it happens!Energetic BurstsThe authors modeled the supermassive stars prior to collapse and then calculated whether a jet, created as the black hole grows at the center of the collapsing star, would be able to punch out of the stellar envelope. They demonstrated that the process would work much like the widely-accepted collapsar model of massive-star death, in which a jet successfully punches out of a collapsing star, violently releasing energy in the form of a long gamma-ray burst (GRB).Because the length of a long GRB is thought to
Music: Instrumental Techniques, Strings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ryan, Philip
A course in music which emphasizes harmony is presented. The approach used is a laboratory one in which pupils will develop skill in playing orchestral string instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on elementary concepts of harmony. Course objectives include: (1) The student will select the title of a familiar melody…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damour, Thibault
We briefly review recent work which established the existence of chaos in the generic cosmological solutions of the tree-level low-energy effective actions coming out of string theory, and linked this chaos to the Weyl groups of some hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebras.
Casalbuoni, Roberto; Gomis, Joaquim; Longhi, Giorgio
2007-12-15
We construct a classical nonrelativistic string model in 3+1 dimensions. The model contains a spurion tensor field that is responsible for the noncommutative structure of the model. Under double-dimensional reduction the model reduces to the exotic nonrelativistic particle in 2+1 dimensions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsutsumanova, Gichka; Russev, Stoyan
2013-01-01
A simple experiment demonstrating the excitation of a standing wave in a metal string is presented here. Several tasks using the set-up are considered, which help the students to better understand the standing waves, the interaction between electric current and magnetic field and the resonance phenomena. This can serve also as a good lecture…
Bachas, C.P.
1988-01-01
We review the construction and properties of four dimensional string models, using free fermions on the world-sheet. We prove that as opposed to gauge symmetries, broken space-time supersymmetry can only be restored continuously by decompactification. 40 refs.
McAllister, Liam P.; Silverstein, Eva
2007-10-22
We give an overview of the status of string cosmology. We explain the motivation for the subject, outline the main problems, and assess some of the proposed solutions. Our focus is on those aspects of cosmology that benefit from the structure of an ultraviolet-complete theory.
Experimenting with Guitar Strings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LoPresto, Michael C.
2006-01-01
What follows is a description of a simple experiment developed in a non-mathematical general education science course on sound and light for fine arts students in which a guitar is used with data collection hardware and software to verify the properties of standing waves on a string.
Experimenting with Guitar Strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LoPresto, Michael C.
2006-11-01
What follows is a description of a simple experiment developed in a nonmathematical general education science course on sound and light for fine arts students in which a guitar is used with data collection hardware and software to verify the properties of standing waves on a string.
1. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE. COLLAPSED ADIT AND COLLAPSED WOODEN STRUCTURE. ...
1. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE. COLLAPSED ADIT AND COLLAPSED WOODEN STRUCTURE. CAMERA IS POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID
Current balancing for battery strings
Galloway, James H.
1985-01-01
A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.
Device for balancing parallel strings
Mashikian, Matthew S.
1985-01-01
A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means in association with each of the battery strings in the battery plant for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings by equalizing the voltage across each of the battery strings. Each of the magnetic circuit means generally comprises means for sensing the electrical current flow through one of the battery strings, and a saturable reactor having a main winding connected electrically in series with the battery string, a bias winding connected to a source of alternating current and a control winding connected to a variable source of direct current controlled by the sensing means. Each of the battery strings is formed by a plurality of batteries connected electrically in series, and these battery strings are connected electrically in parallel across common bus conductors.
Mechanics of collapsing cavitation bubbles.
van Wijngaarden, Leen
2016-03-01
A brief survey is given of the dynamical phenomena accompanying the collapse of cavitation bubbles. The discussion includes shock waves, microjets and the various ways in which collapsing bubbles produce damage. PMID:25890856
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rees, M. J.
1986-01-01
The evidence that active galactic nuclei produce collimated plasma jets is summarised. The strongest radio galaxies are probably energised by relativistic plasma jets generated by spinning black holes interacting with magnetic fields attached to infalling matter. Such objects can produce e(+)-e(-) plasma, and may be relevant to the acceleration of the highest-energy cosmic ray primaries. Small-scale counterparts of the jet phenomenon within our own galaxy are briefly reviewed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luminet, Jean-Pierre
2015-08-01
Cosmic Topology is the name given to the study of the overall shape of the universe, which involves both global topological features and more local geometrical properties such as curvature. Whether space is finite or infinite, simply-connected or multi-connected like a torus, smaller or greater than the portion of the universe that we can directly observe, are questions that refer to topology rather than curvature. A striking feature of some relativistic, multi-connected "small" universe models is to create multiples images of faraway cosmic sources. While the most recent cosmological data fit the simplest model of a zero-curvature, infinite space model, they are also consistent with compact topologies of the three homogeneous and isotropic geometries of constant curvature, such as, for instance, the spherical Poincaré Dodecahedral Space, the flat hypertorus or the hyperbolic Picard horn. After a "dark age" period, the field of Cosmic Topology has recently become one of the major concerns in cosmology, not only for theorists but also for observational astronomers, leaving open a number of unsolved issues.
Detection of cosmic superstrings by geodesic test particle motion
Hartmann, Betti; Sirimachan, Parinya; Laemmerzahl, Claus
2011-02-15
(p,q)-strings are bound states of p F-strings and q D-strings and are predicted to form at the end of brane inflation. As such, these cosmic superstrings should be detectable in the Universe. In this paper we argue that they can be detected by the way that massive and massless test particles move in the space-time of these cosmic superstrings. In particular, we study solutions to the geodesic equation in the space-time of field theoretical (p,q)-strings. The geodesics can be classified according to the test particles' energy, angular momentum and momentum in the direction of the string axis. We discuss how the change of the magnetic fluxes, the ratio between the symmetry-breaking scale and the Planck mass, the Higgs-to-gauge-boson mass ratios and the binding between the F- and D-strings, respectively, influence the motion of the test particles. While massless test particles can move only on escape orbits, a new feature as compared to the infinitely thin string limit is the existence of bound orbits for massive test particles. In particular, we observe that--in contrast to the space-time of a single Abelian-Higgs string--bound orbits for massive test particles in (p,q)-string space-times are possible if the Higgs boson mass is larger than the gauge boson mass. We also compute the effect of the binding between the p- and the q-string on observables such as the light deflection and the perihelion shift. While light deflection can also be caused by other matter distributions, the possibility of a negative perihelion shift seems to be a feature of finite width cosmic strings that could lead to the unmistakable identification of such objects. In Melvin space-times, which are asymptotically nonconical, massive test particles have to move on bound orbits, while massless test particles can escape to infinity only if their angular momentum vanishes.
Noyes, H.P.
1990-01-29
We construct discrete space-time coordinates separated by the Lorentz-invariant intervals h/mc in space and h/mc{sup 2} in time using discrimination (XOR) between pairs of independently generated bit-strings; we prove that if this space is homogeneous and isotropic, it can have only 1, 2 or 3 spacial dimensions once we have related time to a global ordering operator. On this space we construct exact combinatorial expressions for free particle wave functions taking proper account of the interference between indistinguishable alternative paths created by the construction. Because the end-points of the paths are fixed, they specify completed processes; our wave functions are born collapsed''. A convenient way to represent this model is in terms of complex amplitudes whose squares give the probability for a particular set of observable processes to be completed. For distances much greater than h/mc and times much greater than h/mc{sup 2} our wave functions can be approximated by solutions of the free particle Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations. Using a eight-counter paradigm we relate this construction to scattering experiments involving four distinguishable particles, and indicate how this can be used to calculate electromagnetic and weak scattering processes. We derive a non-perturbative formula relating relativistic bound and resonant state energies to mass ratios and coupling constants, equivalent to our earlier derivation of the Bohr relativistic formula for hydrogen. Using the Fermi-Yang model of the pion as a relativistic bound state containing a nucleon-antinucleon pair, we find that (G{sub {pi}N}{sup 2}){sup 2} = (2m{sub N}/m{sub {pi}}){sup 2} {minus} 1. 21 refs., 1 fig.
Rigid collapsible dish structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palmer, William B. (Inventor); Giebler, Martin M. (Inventor)
1982-01-01
A collapsible dish structure composed of a plurality of rows of rigid radial petal assemblies concentric with the axis of the dish. The petal assemblies consist of a center petal and two side petals, the center petal hinged on an axis tangent to a circle concentric with the axis of the dish and the side petals hinged to the center petal at their mating edge. The center petal is foldable inwardly and the side petals rotate about their hinges such that the collapsed dish structure occupies a much smaller volume than the deployed dish. Means of controlling the shape of the dish to compensate for differential expansion of the deployed dish are also provided.
Zou, Jun; Ji, Chen; Yuan, BaoGang; Ruan, XiaoDong; Fu, Xin
2013-06-01
In contrast to a soap bubble, an antibubble is a liquid globule surrounded by a thin film of air. The collapse behavior of an antibubble is studied using a high-speed video camera. It is found that the retraction velocity of the thin air film of antibubbles depends on the thickness of the air film, e, the surface tension coefficient σ, etc., and varies linearly with (σ/ρe)(1/2), according to theoretical analysis and experimental observations. During the collapse of the antibubble, many tiny bubbles can be formed at the rim of the air film due to the Rayleigh instability. In most cases, a larger bubble will emerge finally, which holds most of the volume of the air film. PMID:23848619
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Jun; Ji, Chen; Yuan, BaoGang; Ruan, XiaoDong; Fu, Xin
2013-06-01
In contrast to a soap bubble, an antibubble is a liquid globule surrounded by a thin film of air. The collapse behavior of an antibubble is studied using a high-speed video camera. It is found that the retraction velocity of the thin air film of antibubbles depends on the thickness of the air film, e, the surface tension coefficient σ, etc., and varies linearly with (σ/ρe)1/2, according to theoretical analysis and experimental observations. During the collapse of the antibubble, many tiny bubbles can be formed at the rim of the air film due to the Rayleigh instability. In most cases, a larger bubble will emerge finally, which holds most of the volume of the air film.
Dark energy from the string axiverse.
Kamionkowski, Marc; Pradler, Josef; Walker, Devin G E
2014-12-19
String theories suggest the existence of a plethora of axionlike fields with masses spread over a huge number of decades. Here, we show that these ideas lend themselves to a model of quintessence with no super-Planckian field excursions and in which all dimensionless numbers are order unity. The scenario addresses the "Why now?" problem-i.e., Why has accelerated expansion begun only recently?-by suggesting that the onset of dark-energy domination occurs randomly with a slowly decreasing probability per unit logarithmic interval in cosmic time. The standard axion potential requires us to postulate a rapid decay of most of the axion fields that do not become dark energy. The need for these decays is averted, though, with the introduction of a slightly modified axion potential. In either case, a universe like ours arises in roughly 1 in 100 universes. The scenario may have a host of observable consequences. PMID:25554872
Collapsing angiokeloidal dermatofibroma.
Schnebelen, Alicia M; Brown, J Ahmad; Cheung, Wang L; Hiatt, Kim M; Smoller, Bruce R
2012-10-01
A heterogeneous group of benign fibrohistiocytic lesions has been assembled under the umbrella term, dermatofibroma. These lesions share a morphology of bland spindled cells encompassed by and intercalating through thick dermal collagen; unique variants have been described based on secondary histologic features, some of which include aneurysmal, myxoid, lipidized, signet ring, angiomatous, and keloidal. Here, we present a distinct dermatofibroma variant henceforth known as collapsing angiokeloidal dermatofibroma identified in 2 patients with slowly growing nodules of the buttock and the arm. Microscopically, the lesions have a characteristic dermatofibroma appearance but are accompanied by unusual diffuse small caliber vessels whose walls are collapsed by a thick, eosinophilic, keloid-like substance. The eosinophilic material resembles the adjacent dermal collagen; however, it does not stain for type-4 collagen or type-1 procollagen, amyloid, or glycogen. Although the exact composition of the keloidal material remains ambiguous, the architectural novelty of collapsing angiokeloidal dermatofibroma serves to further expand the morphologic spectrum of benign fibrous histiocytomas, although highlighting the difficulty in distinguishing between it and similar lesions. PMID:22576077
Hix, William Raphael; Lentz, E. J.; Baird, Mark L; Chertkow, Merek A; Lee, Ching-Tsai; Blondin, J. M.; Bruenn, S. W.; Messer, Bronson; Mezzacappa, Anthony
2013-01-01
Marking the inevitable death of a massive star, and the birth of a neutron star or black hole, core-collapse supernovae bring together physics at a wide range in spatial scales, from kilometer-sized hydrodynamic motions (growing to gigameter scale) down to femtometer scale nuclear reactions. Carrying 10$^{51}$ ergs of kinetic energy and a rich-mix of newly synthesized atomic nuclei, core-collapse supernovae are the preeminent foundries of the nuclear species which make up ourselves and our solar system. We will discuss our emerging understanding of the convectively unstable, neutrino-driven explosion mechanism, based on increasingly realistic neutrino-radiation hydrodynamic simulations that include progressively better nuclear and particle physics. Recent multi-dimensional models with spectral neutrino transport from several research groups, which slowly develop successful explosions for a range of progenitors, have motivated changes in our understanding of the neutrino reheating mechanism. In a similar fashion, improvements in nuclear physics, most notably explorations of weak interactions on nuclei and the nuclear equation of state, continue to refine our understanding of how supernovae explode. Recent progress on both the macroscopic and microscopic effects that affect core-collapse supernovae are discussed.
Collapse, environment, and society
2012-01-01
Historical collapse of ancient states poses intriguing social-ecological questions, as well as potential applications to global change and contemporary strategies for sustainability. Five Old World case studies are developed to identify interactive inputs, triggers, and feedbacks in devolution. Collapse is multicausal and rarely abrupt. Political simplification undermines traditional structures of authority to favor militarization, whereas disintegration is preconditioned or triggered by acute stress (insecurity, environmental or economic crises, famine), with breakdown accompanied or followed by demographic decline. Undue attention to stressors risks underestimating the intricate interplay of environmental, political, and sociocultural resilience in limiting the damages of collapse or in facilitating reconstruction. The conceptual model emphasizes resilience, as well as the historical roles of leaders, elites, and ideology. However, a historical model cannot simply be applied to contemporary problems of sustainability without adjustment for cumulative information and increasing possibilities for popular participation. Between the 14th and 18th centuries, Western Europe responded to environmental crises by innovation and intensification; such modernization was decentralized, protracted, flexible, and broadly based. Much of the current alarmist literature that claims to draw from historical experience is poorly focused, simplistic, and unhelpful. It fails to appreciate that resilience and readaptation depend on identified options, improved understanding, cultural solidarity, enlightened leadership, and opportunities for participation and fresh ideas. PMID:22371579
Collapse, environment, and society.
Butzer, Karl W
2012-03-01
Historical collapse of ancient states poses intriguing social-ecological questions, as well as potential applications to global change and contemporary strategies for sustainability. Five Old World case studies are developed to identify interactive inputs, triggers, and feedbacks in devolution. Collapse is multicausal and rarely abrupt. Political simplification undermines traditional structures of authority to favor militarization, whereas disintegration is preconditioned or triggered by acute stress (insecurity, environmental or economic crises, famine), with breakdown accompanied or followed by demographic decline. Undue attention to stressors risks underestimating the intricate interplay of environmental, political, and sociocultural resilience in limiting the damages of collapse or in facilitating reconstruction. The conceptual model emphasizes resilience, as well as the historical roles of leaders, elites, and ideology. However, a historical model cannot simply be applied to contemporary problems of sustainability without adjustment for cumulative information and increasing possibilities for popular participation. Between the 14th and 18th centuries, Western Europe responded to environmental crises by innovation and intensification; such modernization was decentralized, protracted, flexible, and broadly based. Much of the current alarmist literature that claims to draw from historical experience is poorly focused, simplistic, and unhelpful. It fails to appreciate that resilience and readaptation depend on identified options, improved understanding, cultural solidarity, enlightened leadership, and opportunities for participation and fresh ideas. PMID:22371579
Cosmic impacts, cosmic catastrophes. II
Chapman, C.R.; Morrison, D. NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA )
1990-02-01
The role of extraterrestrial impacts in shaping the earth's history is discussed, arguing that cosmic impacts represent just one example of a general shift in thinking that has made the idea of catastrophes respectable in science. The origins of this view are presented and current catastrophic theory is discussed in the context of modern debate on the geological formation of the earth. Various conflicting theories are reviewed and prominent participants in the ongoing scientific controversy concerning catastrophism are introduced.
Cosmic impacts, cosmic catastrophes. II
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapman, Clark R.; Morrison, David
1990-01-01
The role of extraterrestrial impacts in shaping the earth's history is discussed, arguing that cosmic impacts represent just one example of a general shift in thinking that has made the idea of catastrophes respectable in science. The origins of this view are presented and current catastrophic theory is discussed in the context of modern debate on the geological formation of the earth. Various conflicting theories are reviewed and prominent participants in the ongoing scientific controversy concerning catastrophism are introduced.
Svrcek, Peter; Witten, Edward; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study
2006-06-09
In the context of string theory, axions appear to provide the most plausible solution of the strong CP problem. However, as has been known for a long time, in many string-based models, the axion coupling parameter Fa is several orders of magnitude higher than the standard cosmological bounds. We re-examine this problem in a variety of models, showing that Fa is close to the GUT scale or above in many models that have GUT-like phenomenology, as well as some that do not. On the other hand, in some models with Standard Model gauge fields supported on vanishing cycles, it is possible for Fa to be well below the GUT scale.
Is cosmic censorship restored in higher dimensions?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mkenyeleye, M. D.; Goswami, Rituparno; Maharaj, Sunil D.
2015-07-01
In this paper we extend the analysis of gravitational collapse of spherically symmetric generalized Vaidya spacetimes to higher dimensions, in the context of the cosmic censorship conjecture. We present the sufficient conditions on the generalized Vaidya mass function that will generate a locally naked singular end state. Our analysis here generalizes all the earlier works on collapsing higher dimensional generalized Vaidya spacetimes. With specific examples, we show the existence of classes of mass functions that lead to a naked singularity in four dimensions, which gets covered on transition to higher dimensions. Hence for these classes of mass function cosmic censorship gets restored in higher dimensions and the transition to higher dimensions restricts the set of initial data that results in a naked singularity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kallosh, R.
The scale-invariant superspace formulation of a d = 10 Einstein-Yang-Mills system is considered which gives a most economical and clear presentation of the full on-shell content of the theory. A geometrical formulation of the heterotic string theory in superspace with 10+496 bosonic and 16 fermionic coordinates is presented. The relation between this superspace and the anomaly-free d = 10 Einstein-Yang-Mills supergravity is discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fitzgerald, Mike; Brand, Lance
2004-01-01
In this article, the authors present an activity that shows students how flight occurs. The "wing on a string" is a simple teacher-made frame that consists of PVC pipe, fishing line, and rubber bands--all readily available hardware store items. The only other materials/tools involved are a sheet of paper, some pieces of a soda straw, a stapler,…
Mezincescu, Luca; Townsend, Paul K.
2010-11-05
The Nambu-Goto string in a three-dimensional (3D) Minkowski spacetime is quantized preserving Lorentz invariance and parity. The spectrum of massive states contains anyons. An ambiguity in the ground state energy is resolved by the 3D N=1 Green-Schwarz superstring, which has massless ground states describing a dilaton and dilatino, and first-excited states of spin 1/4.
2006-07-01
A team of collaborators within the Southwest Regional Partnership (SRP) on Carbon Sequestration developed an interactive software tool to help facilitate discussions involving the science, engineering, economic and policy considerations for a carbon sequestration pilot project. This model illustrates the "String of Pearls" algorithm used to develop a hypothetical carbon dioxide (CO2) transportation network in sequence with existing infrastructure. The "String of Pearls" model can assess geological sink combinations according to their distance from themore » point source (e.g., power plant), relative size (to maintain a useful fill lifetime for a project), relative distance from existing CO2 transportation infrastructure, and other salient project attributes. The results indicate that the cost to capture CO2 at point sources (e.g. power plants) is the largest component of the overall CO2 capture, transportation and storage system's initial cost estimate. The "String of Pearls" Integrated Assessment model can help planners assess these issues using an integrated, systems view when deciding where to develop future carbon sequestration pilot projects. Likely users of this model include partners within the SRP, other regional partnerships and interested individuals, and private industry interested in carbon sequestration systems. The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability and emission trade-offs associated with all stages of carbone sequestration systems analysis.« less
Borns, David J.; Kobos, Peter H.; Malczynski, Leonard A.
2006-07-01
A team of collaborators within the Southwest Regional Partnership (SRP) on Carbon Sequestration developed an interactive software tool to help facilitate discussions involving the science, engineering, economic and policy considerations for a carbon sequestration pilot project. This model illustrates the "String of Pearls" algorithm used to develop a hypothetical carbon dioxide (CO2) transportation network in sequence with existing infrastructure. The "String of Pearls" model can assess geological sink combinations according to their distance from the point source (e.g., power plant), relative size (to maintain a useful fill lifetime for a project), relative distance from existing CO2 transportation infrastructure, and other salient project attributes. The results indicate that the cost to capture CO2 at point sources (e.g. power plants) is the largest component of the overall CO2 capture, transportation and storage system's initial cost estimate. The "String of Pearls" Integrated Assessment model can help planners assess these issues using an integrated, systems view when deciding where to develop future carbon sequestration pilot projects. Likely users of this model include partners within the SRP, other regional partnerships and interested individuals, and private industry interested in carbon sequestration systems. The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability and emission trade-offs associated with all stages of carbone sequestration systems analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johanning, Michael
2016-04-01
We describe the statical and dynamical properties of strings of ions stored in segmented electrodynamical Paul traps with a uniform ion separation. In this work, this specific ion arrangement is achieved by a smooth anharmonic effective potential generated by suitable voltages applied to segmented dc electrodes or by appropriate electrode shaping. We find analytic expressions for the required field, potential and normal mode matrix and find that even finite systems closely reproduce the critical radial binding strength of an infinite size system at the transition from linear to zigzag configuration. From the normal mode matrix, we find that such strings exhibit a solid-state-like band of normal modes and determine the effective spin-spin coupling when the ion string is exposed to a magnetic gradient. We show how the potential, modes and couplings can be altered while still maintaining a homogeneous spacing and present numerical examples, for how this potential can be achieved in either segmented Paul traps or by using an optimized electrode geometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braun, M. A.; Pajares, C.; Vechernin, V. V.
2015-04-01
In the colour string picture with fusion and percolation it is shown that long-range azimuthal-rapidity correlations (ridge) can arise from the superposition of many events with exchange of clusters of different number of strings and not from a single event. Relation of the ridge with the flow harmonics coefficients is derived. By direct Monte Carlo simulations, in the technique previously used to calculate these coefficients, ridge correlations are calculated for AA, pA and pp collisions. The azimuthal anisotropy follows from the assumed quenching of the emitted particles in the strong colour fields inside string clusters. It is confirmed that in pp collisions the ridge structure only appears in rare events with abnormally high multiplicity. Comparison with the experimental data shows a good agreement. Good agreement is also found for pPb collisions. For AA collisions a reasonable agreement is found for both near-side and away-side angular correlations although it worsens at intermediate angles.
Stationary rotating strings as relativistic particle mechanics
Ogawa, Kouji; Ishihara, Hideki; Saito, Shinya; Kozaki, Hiroshi; Nakano, Hiroyuki
2008-07-15
Stationary rotating strings can be viewed as geodesic motions in appropriate metrics in two-dimensional space. We obtain all solutions describing stationary rotating strings in flat spacetime as an application. These rotating strings have infinite length with various wiggly shapes. Averaged value of the string energy, the angular momentum, and the linear momentum along the string are discussed.
Coulomb string tension, asymptotic string tension, and the gluon chain
Greensite, Jeff; Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2015-02-01
We compute, via numerical simulations, the non-perturbative Coulomb potential and position-space ghost propagator in pure SU(3) gauge theory in Coulomb gauge. We find that that the Coulomb potential scales nicely in accordance with asymptotic freedom, that the Coulomb potential is linear in the infrared, and that the Coulomb string tension is about four times larger than the asymptotic string tension. We explain how it is possible that the asymptotic string tension can be lower than the Coulomb string tension by a factor of four.
Gravitational waves from gravitational collapse
Fryer, Christopher L; New, Kimberly C
2008-01-01
Gravitational wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.
String fluid in local equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schubring, Daniel; Vanchurin, Vitaly
2014-10-01
We study the solutions of string fluid equations under the assumption of a local equilibrium which was previously obtained in the context of the kinetic theory. We show that the fluid can be foliated into noninteracting submanifolds whose equations of motion are exactly that of the wiggly strings considered previously by Vilenkin and Carter. In a special case of negligible statistical variance in either the left- or the right-moving directions of microscopic strings, the submanifolds are described by the action of a null-current-carrying chiral string. When both variances vanish the submanifolds are described by the Nambu-Goto action and the string fluid reduces to the string dust introduced by Stachel.
Comparing double string theory actions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Angelis, L.; Gionti S. J, G.; Marotta, R.; Pezzella, F.
2014-04-01
Aimed to a deeper comprehension of a manifestly T-dual invariant formulation of string theory, in this paper a detailed comparison between the non-covariant action proposed by Tseytlin and the covariant one proposed by Hull is done. These are obtained by making both the string coordinates and their duals explicitly appear, on the same footing, in the world-sheet action, so "doubling" the string coordinates along the compact dimensions. After a discussion on the nature of the constraints in both the models and the relative quantization, it results that the string coordinates and their duals behave like "non-commuting" phase space coordinates but their expressions in terms of Fourier modes generate the oscillator algebra of the standard bosonic string. A proof of the equivalence of the two formulations is given. Furthermore, open-string solutions are also discussed.
Gravitational waves from collapsing domain walls
Hiramatsu, Takashi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Saikawa, Ken'ichi E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp
2010-05-01
We study the production of gravitational waves from cosmic domain walls created during phase transition in the early universe. We investigate the process of formation and evolution of domain walls by running three dimensional lattice simulations. If we introduce an approximate discrete symmetry, walls become metastable and finally disappear. This process might occur by a pressure difference between two vacua if a quantum tunneling is neglected. We calculate the spectrum of gravitational waves produced by collapsing metastable domain walls. Extrapolating the numerical results, we find that the signal of gravitational waves produced by domain walls whose energy scale is around 10{sup 10}-10{sup 12}GeV will be observable in the next generation gravitational wave interferometers.
Domain Walls with Strings Attached
Shmakova, Marina
2001-08-20
We have constructed a bulk and brane action of IIA theory which describes a pair of BPS domain walls on S{sub 1}/Z{sub 2}, with strings attached. The walls are given by two orientifold O8-planes with coincident D8-branes and F1-D0-strings are stretched between the walls. This static configuration satisfies all matching conditions for the string and domain wall sources and has 1/4 of unbroken supersymmetry.