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Sample records for collateral branches preliminary

  1. The cytoskeletal and signaling mechanisms of axon collateral branching.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Gianluca

    2011-03-01

    During development, axons are guided to their appropriate targets by a variety of guidance factors. On arriving at their synaptic targets, or while en route, axons form branches. Branches generated de novo from the main axon are termed collateral branches. The generation of axon collateral branches allows individual neurons to make contacts with multiple neurons within a target and with multiple targets. In the adult nervous system, the formation of axon collateral branches is associated with injury and disease states and may contribute to normally occurring plasticity. Collateral branches are initiated by actin filament– based axonal protrusions that subsequently become invaded by microtubules, thereby allowing the branch to mature and continue extending. This article reviews the current knowledge of the cellular mechanisms of the formation of axon collateral branches. The major conclusions of this review are (1) the mechanisms of axon extension and branching are not identical; (2) active suppression of protrusive activity along the axon negatively regulates branching; (3) the earliest steps in the formation of axon branches involve focal activation of signaling pathways within axons, which in turn drive the formation of actin-based protrusions; and (4) regulation of the microtubule array by microtubule-associated and severing proteins underlies the development of branches. Linking the activation of signaling pathways to specific proteins that directly regulate the axonal cytoskeleton underlying the formation of collateral branches remains a frontier in the field.

  2. Collateral branching of long-distance cortical projections in monkey.

    PubMed

    Rockland, Kathleen S

    2013-12-15

    Collateralization of individual cortical axons is well documented for rodents but less so for monkeys, where double retrograde tracer experiments have tended to find only small numbers of neurons projecting to two different injection sites. Evidence from both double label and single axon studies, however, suggests that in specific projection systems the number of neurons with collateralized axons can be 10% or greater. These include feedback projections from temporal areas (but less so those from V4 and MT/V5). Single-axon analyses show that many parietal neurons branch to multiple targets. Except for giant Meynert cells in area V1, feedforward projections from early visual areas have only a small number of neurons with branching axons. Why only some neurons collateralize, what determines branch points and projection foci, and how this impacts network organization are largely unknown. Deciphering the branching code might offer new perspectives on space-time organization at the network level.

  3. Collateral Information for Equating in Small Samples: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Livingston, Samuel A.; Lewis, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a preliminary investigation of an empirical Bayes (EB) procedure for using collateral information to improve equating of scores on test forms taken by small numbers of examinees. Resampling studies were done on two different forms of the same test. In each study, EB and non-EB versions of two equating methods--chained linear…

  4. Collateral Information for Equating in Small Samples: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Livingston, Samuel A.; Lewis, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a preliminary investigation of an empirical Bayes (EB) procedure for using collateral information to improve equating of scores on test forms taken by small numbers of examinees. Resampling studies were done on two different forms of the same test. In each study, EB and non-EB versions of two equating methods--chained linear…

  5. Occlusion of the left main coronary artery and collateral circulation via the conus branch.

    PubMed

    de Agustin, Jose Alberto; Nunez-Gil, Ivan Javier; del Carmen Manzano, Maria; Vivas, David; Mateos, Borja Ruiz; Carda, Rocio; Vilacosta, Isidre; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Macaya, Carlos

    2009-05-01

    We report the case of a 71-year-old-man, a smoker, admitted for unstable angina. Subsequent investigation revealed complete proximal occlusion of the left main coronary with an unusual collateral circulation. The left coronary artery was filled by a large conus branch originating from the right sinus of Valsalva. This case shows the importance of looking for atypical collateral circulation in patients with chronic occlusion of the left main coronary artery and normal left ventricular function.

  6. Posterior intercostal artery tortuosity and collateral branch points: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Shurtleff, E; Olinger, A

    2012-11-01

    Publications report observing tortuosity in the posterior intercostal arteries of elderly patients. Studies also describe the size and course of the collateral intercostal arteries. This information is clinically significant when performing thoracentesis and video-assisted thorascopic surgery. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined arterial tortuosity or described collateral artery origins relative to bony landmarks. The purpose of this study was to define a safe surgical zone for thoracic access using palpable external bony landmarks. A total of 348 intercostal spaces (3rd-8th) of 29 male and female embalmed cadavers were dissected from the vertebral body to the mid-axillary line to observe the posterior intercostal artery and its collateral branch. The origins of the collateral intercostal arteries relative to the midline of thoracic spinous processes were measured. Mild to moderate tortuosity (arterial curves covering 25- -50% of the intercostal space) was observed in at least one posterior intercostal artery in the majority of cadavers. The origins of the collateral intercostal arteries were variable relative to the midline. Additional collateral intercostal arteries distal to the primary collateral branch were observed, most commonly in the 5th intercostal space, which is used in video-assisted thorascopic surgery and thoracentesis. Tortuosity is common in the 3rd to the 8th posterior intercostal arteries, especially in individuals over the age of 60 years. Given the findings of this study, we recommend that any procedure involving placement of a surgical instrument into these intercostal spaces does so at least 120 mm lateral to the midline of the spinous processes. We also recommend pre-procedure ultrasound (intercostal scan) of the posterior and collateral intercostal arteries when performing non-emergent thoracentesis and video-assisted thorascopic surgery, particularly in patients over 60 years of age.

  7. Nerve Growth Factor Promotes Reorganization of the Axonal Microtubule Array at Sites of Axon Collateral Branching

    PubMed Central

    Ketschek, Andrea; Jones, Steven; Spillane, Mirela; Korobova, Farida; Svitkina, Tatyana; Gallo, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    The localized debundling of the axonal microtubule array and the entry of microtubules into axonal filopodia are two defining features of collateral branching. We report that nerve growth factor (NGF), a branch inducing signal, increases the frequency of microtubule debundling along the axon shaft of chicken embryonic sensory neurons. Sites of debundling correlate strongly with the localized targeting of microtubules into filopodia. Platinum replica electron microscopy suggests physical interactions between debundled microtubules and axonal actin filaments. However, as evidenced by depolymerization of actin filaments and inhibition of myosin II, actomyosin force generation does not promote debundling. In contrast, loss of actin filaments or inhibition of myosin II activity promotes debundling, indicating that axonal actomyosin forces suppress debundling. MAP1B is a microtubule associated protein that represses axon branching. Following treatment with NGF, microtubules penetrating filopodia during the early stages of branching exhibited lower levels of associated MAP1B. NGF increased and decreased the levels of MAP1B phosphorylated at a GSK-3β site (pMAP1B) along the axon shaft and within axonal filopodia, respectively. The levels of MAP1B and pMAP1B were not altered at sites of debundling, relative to the rest of the axon. Unlike the previously determined effects of NGF on the axonal actin cytoskeleton, the effects of NGF on microtubule debundling were not affected by inhibition of protein synthesis. Collectively, these data indicate that NGF promotes localized axonal microtubule debundling, that actomyosin forces antagonize microtubule debundling and that NGF regulates pMAP1B in axonal filopodia during the early stages of collateral branch formation. PMID:25846486

  8. Intraocular BDNF promotes ectopic branching, alters motility and stimulates abnormal collaterals in regenerating optic fibers.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Amy J; Miotke, Jill A; Meyer, Ronald L

    2015-07-10

    A great deal of effort has been invested in using trophic factors and other bioactive molecules to promote cell survival and axonal regeneration in the adult central nervous system. Far less attention has been paid to investigating potential effects that trophic factors may have that might interfere with recovery. In the visual system, BDNF has been previously reported to prevent regeneration. To test if BDNF is inherently incompatible with regeneration, BDNF was given intraocularly during optic nerve regeneration in the adult goldfish. In vivo imaging and anatomical analysis of selectively labeled axons were used as a sensitive assay for effects on regeneration within the tectum. BDNF had no detectable inhibitory effect on the ability of axons to regenerate. Normal numbers of axons regenerated into the tectum, exhibited dynamic growth and retractions similar to controls, and were able to navigate to their correct target zone in the tectum. However, BDNF was found to have additional effects that adversely affected the quality of regeneration. It promoted premature branching at ectopic locations, diminished the growth rate of axons through the tectum, and resulted in the formation of ectopic collaterals. Thus, although BDNF has robust effects on axonal behavior, it is, nevertheless, compatible with axonal regeneration, axon navigation and the formation of terminal arbors.

  9. Collateral vessel presence in branch and central retinal vein occlusions and their impact on visual acuity and anatomical gains: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rishi P; Lee, Tamara J; Yau, Linda; Rubio, Roman G

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the incidence of collateral vessel formation and to determine their impact on best-corrected visual acuity and central foveal thickness in patients with branch or central retinal vein occlusion (BRVO, CRVO) receiving 0.3 mg or 0.5 mg of ranibizumab, or sham. This retrospective analysis was performed in patients with macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion who received 6 monthly intravitreal injections of ranibizumab (0.3 mg or 0.5 mg), or sham, followed by 6 months of as-needed treatment. Collateral vessel presence, change from baseline best-corrected visual acuity, and change from baseline central foveal thickness were assessed at baseline and months 3, 6, 9, and 12. At month 12, 19.6% of BRVO patients receiving sham/0.5 mg and 16.7% receiving ranibizumab (0.3 mg and 0.5 mg pooled) manifested collaterals at the disk, whereas 48.2% and 47.2% displayed collaterals within the retina, respectively. In CRVO patients, 57.9% and 59.2% of all groups manifested collaterals on the disk, respectively, whereas 12.1% and 15.1% displayed collaterals within the retina. Mean best-corrected visual acuity gain in ranibizumab-treated BRVO and CRVO patients was similar, irrespective of collaterals within the retina ( P > 0.05; CRVO: P > 0.05). The location of collaterals differed between retinal vein occlusion subtypes and ranibizumab treatment did not affect collateral vessel incidence. The presence of collaterals did not seem to impact best-corrected visual acuity gains at month 12 in both BRVO and CRVO patients receiving ranibizumab, whereas generally greater central foveal thickness reductions were observed with presence of collaterals in BRVO patients.

  10. Preliminary maps and preliminary reports released by the Geologic Branch and Alaskan Branch between January 1, 1945 and January 1, 1946

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckstein, Wenonah H.

    1946-01-01

    This pamplilet contains a complete list of all the preliminary maps and reports issued by the Geologic Branch and the Alaskan Branch of the Geological Survey during the period between January 1, 1945, and January 1, 1946. The listed reports embody the results of some of the work done by Survey geologists on mineral deposits in the United States, Alaska, Brazil, and Liberia. The material was released in preliminary form to avoid the delays necessarily attendant upon formal publication, and to make the information promptly available to property owners and mine operators concerned with the production of strategic and critical mineral commodities.

  11. Coronary collaterals.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, R

    1976-01-01

    Coronary collaterals are probably enlargements of pre-existing channels which respond to local vasodilators and which function whenever pressure differences exist across them. Thus, in human coronary atherosclerosis collaterals are only seen when there is a severe intervening arterial obstruction (in excess of 75%). Coronary collaterals follow epicardial and intramycardial pathways, and the intermediary connections may be at vessels of highly varying caliber. The flow potential of most collateral pathways in man is possibly adequate for segmental myocardial function at lower than normal demands but clearly is inadequate for most, if not all, stressful interventions. In the last analysis, coronary collaterals in man are more an indication of severe regional ischemia (present or potential) than a sign of biological "compensation'' for a perfusion deficit.

  12. Press releases, preliminary maps, and preliminary reports released by the Geologic Branch and Alaskan Branch between January 1, 1938 and January 1, 1945

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, Lois S.; Keroher, R.P.

    1945-01-01

    This pamphlet contains a complete list of all maps and reports issued by the Geologic Branch and Alaskan Branch of the Geological Survey whose release was announced by press notice during the period between January 1, 1938 and January 1, 1945. The Geologic Branch material was compiled by Lois S. Kent, and the Alaskan Branch material by R. P. Kerocher. It is expected that similar lists will be published annually hereafter. These reports and maps are the results of work carried out by Survey geologists on mineral deposits in the United States, Alaska, and Cuba during the war and the years immediately preceding the war. They were released in preliminary form as rapidly as possible in this period to avoid the delays necessarily attendant upon formal publication and to make the information contained in them promptly available to property owners and mine operators concerned with the production of strategic and critical mineral commodities.

  13. A preliminary investigation of the role of auxin and cytokinin in sylleptic branching of three hybrid poplar clones exhibiting contrasting degrees of sylleptic branching.

    PubMed

    Cline, Morris G; Dong-IL, Kim

    2002-09-01

    Sylleptic branches grow out from lateral buds during the same growing season in which the buds are formed. This type of branching is present in poplar and in many tropical species. It results in the production of more branches, more leaves and expanded photosynthetic capacity and is thought to assist in increasing the overall growth and biomass of the tree at a young age. However, very little is known about the physiology of sylleptic branching in poplar, which is an extremely important source of fibre and fuel. In the present study of three hybrid poplar clones (11-11, 47-174 and 49-177) of Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides exhibiting contrasting degrees of sylleptic branching, an analysis was carried out on parent shoot elongation and sylleptic branching, together with a preliminary comparison of the parent shoots' sensitivity to auxin (naphthaleneacetic acid) as a repressor of lateral bud outgrowth, and cytokinin (benzyladenine) as a promoter. Suggestive evidence was found for an inverse correlation between parent shoot sensitivity to auxin and the degree of sylleptic branching, as well as a partially positive correlation with respect to sensitivity to cytokinin. The present data are consistent with the hypothesis that auxin and cytokinin may play repressive and promotive roles, respectively, in the sylleptic branching of hybrid poplar.

  14. Pathophysiology of coronary collaterals.

    PubMed

    Stoller, Michael; Seiler, Christian

    2014-02-01

    While the existence of structural adaptation of coronary anastomoses is undisputed, the potential of coronary collaterals to be capable of functional adaptation has been questioned. For many years, collateral vessels were thought to be rigid tubes allowing only limited blood flow governed by the pressure gradient across them. This concept was consistent with the notion that although collaterals could provide adequate blood flow to maintain resting levels, they would be unable to increase blood flow sufficiently in situations of increased myocardial oxygen demand. However, more recent studies have demonstrated the capability of the collateral circulation to deliver sufficient blood flow even during exertion or pharmacologic stress. Moreover, it has been shown that increases in collateral flow could be attributed directly to collateral vasomotion. This review summarizes the pathophysiology of the coronary collateral circulation, ie the functional adapation of coronary collaterals to acute alterations in the coronary circulation.

  15. Pathophysiology of Coronary Collaterals#

    PubMed Central

    Stoller, Michael; Seiler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While the existence of structural adaptation of coronary anastomoses is undisputed, the potential of coronary collaterals to be capable of functional adaptation has been questioned. For many years, collateral vessels were thought to be rigid tubes allowing only limited blood flow governed by the pressure gradient across them. This concept was consistent with the notion that although collaterals could provide adequate blood flow to maintain resting levels, they would be unable to increase blood flow sufficiently in situations of increased myocardial oxygen demand. However, more recent studies have demonstrated the capability of the collateral circulation to deliver sufficient blood flow even during exertion or pharmacologic stress. Moreover, it has been shown that increases in collateral flow could be attributed directly to collateral vasomotion. This review summarizes the pathophysiology of the coronary collateral circulation, ie the functional adapation of coronary collaterals to acute alterations in the coronary circulation. PMID:23701025

  16. Axonal degeneration, distal collateral branching and neuromuscular junction architecture alterations occur prior to symptom onset in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jayden A; Southam, Katherine A; Blizzard, Catherine A; King, Anna E; Dickson, Tracey C

    2016-10-01

    Degeneration of the distal axon and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is considered a key and early feature of the pathology that accompanies motor neuron loss in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The mutant SOD1(G93A) mouse replicates many features of the disease, however the sequence of events resulting in degeneration of the neuromuscular circuitry remains unknown. Furthermore, despite widespread degenerative neuronal pathology throughout the spinal cord in this model, hindlimb motor function is lost before forelimb function. We investigated axons and NMJs in the hindlimb (gastrocnemius) and forelimb (extensor) muscles in the high copy number mutant SOD1(G93A)xYFP (yellow fluorescent protein) mouse. We found that distal axonal and NMJ alterations were present prior to previously reported functional symptom onset in this strain. Indeed, increased branch complexity as well as colocalisation between pre- and post-synaptic markers indicated widespread early axonal and NMJ alterations in the hindlimb. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the colocalisation of the scaffolding proteins nestin, LRP-4, dystrophin and rapsyn were diminished before post-synaptic receptors in the gastrocnemius, and the degree of loss differed between proteins. Analysis of the forelimb muscle revealed axonal and NMJ degeneration at a late, post symptomatic stage, as well as novel differences in NMJ morphology, with reduced complexity. Furthermore, post-synaptic scaffolding proteins were preserved in the forelimb compared with the hindlimb. Analysis of protein levels indicated an increase in LRP-4, dystrophin and rapsyn in post symptomatic skeletal muscle that may suggest ongoing attempts at repair. This study indicates that axonal and NMJ degeneration in the SOD1 model of ALS is a complex and evolving sequence of events. We provide evidence that YFP can detect morphological and plastic alterations in the SOD1(G93A) mouse, and that the pre- and post-synaptic integrity of

  17. Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries ... Treatment Coping With an MCL Injury About MCL Injuries A torn medial collateral ligament (MCL) is a ...

  18. The anatomy of the fundic branches of the stomach: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Gregorczyk, M; Dabkowska, A; Tarka, S; Ciszek, B

    2008-05-01

    The fundic branches of the stomach can be defined as a group of vessels that can arise either directly or indirectly from the following source arteries: the left inferior phrenic artery, the accessory left hepatic artery, the left gastric artery, the left middle suprarenal artery, the main trunk of the splenic artery, the posterior gastric artery, the superior polar artery, the gastrosplenic artery, the left gastroepiploic artery and the splenic artery with its inferior and superior terminal branches. It is worth mentioning that the fundic branches of the left gastroepiploic artery and the superior and inferior terminal branches of the splenic artery, like other vessels arising from these three source arteries and supplying the stomach, are defined as short gastric arteries. The anatomy of these fundic branches, particularly relevant to some surgical procedures, is not sufficiently described, and the current literature suffers from lack of publications on this particular topic. We therefore decided to explore in detail the arterial vascularisation of the gastric fundus. The research was carried out on material consisting of 15 human stomach specimens. The anatomical analysis comprised the following: the number of occurrences of fundic branches in each of the source arteries defined above, the distance between the origins of the source artery and its arising fundic branch, the way in which the fundic branches arose, the length, diameter at point of origin and morphology of the fundic branches, as well as the exact point of perforation of each fundic branch on the fundus. The highest incidence of the direct-branching pattern of fundic branches was in the left middle suprarenal artery, the gastrosplenic artery and the left gastrosplenic artery. The accessory left hepatic artery, the left gastric artery and the main trunk of the splenic artery were the most frequent site of the indirectly arising pattern of fundic branch. The highest median value of fundic branch

  19. Channel erosion and sediment transport in Pheasant Branch basin near Middleton, Wisconsin; a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, R. Stephen; Goddard, Gerald

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this 5-year study is to (1) evaluate the sediment transport, streamflow characteristics, and stream-channel morphology, (2) relate the above to land-use practices; and (3) evaluate the effect that changes in land-use practices will have on Pheasant Branch basin near Middleton, Wis. This report presents findings of sediment transport, streamflow characteristics, and stream-channel morphology from the first year of the study and documents historical erosion. The study is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the city of Middleton and the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey. Pheasant Branch, a tributary to Lake Mendota, drains 23.1 square miles of glacial drift. Channel erosion is severe within Middleton, requiring extensive use of erosion-control structures. Occasionally, channel dredging near the mouth and into Lake Mendota is required for boating. Comparison of stream-channel surveys of 1971 and 1977 shows the lowest part of the channel lowered 3 to 4 feet at some sites in the urban reach from U.S. Highway 12 downstream to Century Avenue. Downstream from Century Avenue, channel width increased from about 35 to 48 feet and channel cross-section area increased about 86 percent. A survey of Pheasant Branch in 1971 provided data for quantification of stream-channel changes since that time. Six erosion-control structures previously installed appear to have had some benefit in controlling head cutting in the channel. (USGS).

  20. Synthesis, preliminary characterization, and application of novel surfactants from highly branched xyloglucan oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Greffe, Lionel; Bessueille, Laurence; Bulone, Vincent; Brumer, Harry

    2005-04-01

    A novel class of nonionic, carbohydrate-based surfactants has been synthesized from the plant polysaccharide xyloglucan. Enzymatic hydrolysis of xyloglucan yielded a series of well-defined, highly branched oligosaccharides that, following reductive amination, were readily conjugated with fatty acids bearing C8 to C18 chains under mild conditions. The critical micelle concentration, determined by tensiometry and dye-inclusion measurements, showed a typical dependence on acyl chain length and was sensitive to the degree of galactosylation of the head group. Several compounds from this new group of surfactants, especially those with C14 and C16 chains, were useful for the extraction of membrane-bound enzyme markers from different plant cell compartments in catalytically active form.

  1. Branch enclosure BVOC flux measurements from Fagus sylvatica L. in a natural forest environment: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarcke, M.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Müller, J.-F.; Joo, E.; Dewulf, J.; van Langenhove, H.; Šimpraga, M.; Steppe, K.; Lemeur, R.; Samson, R.

    2009-04-01

    Natural ecosystems, such as forests, are known to be important sources of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). Oxidation of these biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) in the presence of nitrogen oxides can result in net ozone formation and the low-volatility oxidation products may contribute to secondary organic aerosol formation and/or growth. As a result BVOC emissions can have a negative effect on air quality and human health. In the commonly used emission algorithms [Guenther et al., 1995], leaf temperature and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) are the driving variables for BVOC emissions. However, in order to better explain the variability over time of BVOC emissions for a given tree species, the most recent emission algorithms, such as MEGAN [Guenther et al., 2006], also consider other driving variables such as phenology, temperature and light history. To validate these new emission algorithms, dynamic branch enclosure BVOC flux measurements have been performed on an adult Fagus sylvatica L. tree in a natural forest environment under ambient PPFD and temperature conditions. Branches at different levels in the canopy were accessible from a 35 m high measurement tower. The cuvette air was analysed on-line with a hs-PTR-MS instrument, which was located in a log cabin at the bottom of the tower. Ion signals related to monoterpenoid compounds (m/z 81 and 137), isoprene (m/z 69), acetone (m/z 59) and methanol (m/z 33) have been measured continuously with the PTR-MS during several phenological periods, from bud-break to senescence. The data show high monoterpenoid emission rates in spring which gradually decrease until leaf fall. Furthermore, monoterpenoid emissions from shaded leaves in the lower layers of the canopy were found to be negligible compared to those from sunlit leaves in the upper layer of the canopy. Effects of light and temperature history on monoterpenoid emissions from Fagus sylvatica L. will be discussed and compared with results obtained in

  2. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Harris, Joshua D.; Chalmers, Peter N.; Bach, Bernard R.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries lead to pain and loss of performance in the thrower’s elbow. Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is a reliable treatment option for the symptomatic, deficient UCL. Injury to the UCL usually occurs because of chronic accumulation of microtrauma, although acute ruptures occur and an acute-on-chronic presentation is also common. Evidence Acquisition: Computerized databases, references from pertinent articles, and research institutions were searched for all studies using the search terms ulnar collateral ligament from 1970 until 2015. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: All studies reporting outcomes for UCLR are level 4. Most modern fixation methodologies appear to be biomechanically and clinically equivalent. Viable graft choices include ipsilateral palmaris longus tendon autograft, gracilis or semitendinosus autograft, and allograft. Clinical studies report excellent outcomes of UCLR for both recreational and elite level athletes with regard to return to sport and postoperative performance. Complications, although rare, include graft rerupture or attenuation, ulnar nerve symptoms, stiffness, pain, and/or weakness leading to decreased performance. Conclusion: Injuries to the UCL have become commonplace among pitchers. Nonoperative treatment should be attempted, but the limited studies have not shown promising results. Operative treatment can be performed with several techniques, with retrospective studies showing promising results. Complications include ulnar neuropathy as well as failure to return to sport. Detailed preoperative planning, meticulous surgical technique, and a comprehensive rehabilitation program are essential components to achieving a satisfactory result. PMID:26502444

  3. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients with Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hee Jung; Kang, Eui Chun; Lee, Junwon; Han, Jinu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Our study aimed to determine whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common among branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) patients without systemic risk factors using a Watch PAT-100 portable monitoring device. Methods The study participants included consecutive patients with BRVO of less than 3 months duration without any risk factors known to be associated with OSA (diabetes, coronary artery disease, stroke, hematologic diseases, autoimmune disease, etc.) except for hypertension. All patients underwent full-night unattended polysomnography by means of a portable monitor Watch PAT-100 device. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was calculated as the average number of apnea and hypopnea events per hour of sleep, and an AHI score of five or more events was diagnosed as OSA. Results Among 19 patients (6 males and 13 females), 42.1% (8 of 19) had an AHI reflective of OSA. In the 13 patients who had no concurrent illness, including hypertension, 30.8% (4 of 13) had positive test results for OSA; three of these patients were ranked as mild OSA, while one had moderate OSA. The OSA group had an average AHI of 12.3 ± 7.8, and the average AHI was 2.0 ± 0.9 in the non-OSA group. Although it was not statistically proven, we found that OSA patients experienced a more severe form of BRVO. Conclusions We found a higher than expected rate of OSA in BRVO patients lacking concomitant diseases typically associated with OSA. Our findings suggest that OSA could be an additional risk factor in the pathogenesis of BRVO or at least a frequently associated condition that could function as a triggering factor. PMID:27051260

  4. [Thinking of literature studies of collaterals].

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Liang, Fan-Rong; Li, Ying

    2006-12-01

    Summarize recent 20 years' achievements in studying literature of channels and collaterals, analyze the problems in literature studies of collaterals and comment on literature studies of collaterals, and hold that systematical summarization and study of traditional theories of collaterals can explore collateral theory and its clinical application value, and summarization of literature should refine and raise theoretical structure and scientific connotation of the collateral theory, and serve for modern studies of collaterals and collateral diseases on the basis of systematical summarization and studies of traditional literature of collaterals.

  5. Preliminary Experience with the GORE(®) EXCLUDER(®) Iliac Branch Endoprosthesis for Common Iliac Aneurysm Endovascular Treatment.

    PubMed

    Millon, Antoine; Della Schiava, Nellie; Arsicot, Matthieu; De Lambert, Alberic; Feugier, Patrick; Magne, Jean Luc; Lermusiaux, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the safety and the short-term results of endovascular treatment of common iliac artery (CIA) aneurysms using the new GORE EXCLUDER iliac branch endoprosthesis (IBE) device. The study is a retrospective with prospective follow-up nonrandomized, single-arm evaluation. Patients with a CIA aneurysm (diameter >30 mm) extending to the iliac bifurcation underwent endovascular treatment with the Gore IBE. Anatomic and procedural data were collected. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) was performed within the 30 days after the procedure and every 6 month. Thirty-day and at least 6-months outcomes were investigated. From February 2014 to December 2014, 10 male patients with aneurysmal CIA (mean age 75 years old) underwent consecutive endovascular treatment with the Gore IBE. The CIA aneurysm (mean diameter 43.2 mm, range 32-49) treated with the Gore IBE was associated with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in 5 patients. One patient had a previous AAA open repair. CIA aneurysm was bilateral in 5 patients. Preliminary procedure of internal iliac artery embolization was performed in 3 patients. Technical success rate of the Gore IBE implantation was 100% with a median fluoroscopy time of 35 min (range 12-64, ±16) and median contrast load of 150 mL (range 100-250, ±45). No perioperative complications were observed. Median length of stay was 4 days (range 3-7, ±2). One aortic type Ia endoleak was observed on the postoperative CT scan requiring an aortic extension at day 3. Branch patency was observed in all 10 patients at 1 month and 9 patients at 6 month. All CIA aneurysms were excluded without type Ib or type III endoleak. The technical success and short-term results demonstrate encouraging results and clinical benefits of the new GORE EXCLUDER IBE. A longer follow-up is needed to assess midterm and long-term results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of intestinal collateral blood flow in the developing piglet.

    PubMed

    Crissinger, K D; Granger, D N

    1988-10-01

    Interest in the pathogenesis of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis has prompted study of the intestinal circulation in developing animals. It is conceivable that poorly developed collateral channels may predispose the neonatal intestine to ischemic insults. We therefore characterized intestinal collateral blood flow in anesthetized and ventilated 1-day and 1-month-old piglets. Intestinal blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres (15 micron diameter) before and after either 1) total occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) or 2) occlusion of a distal (jejunoileal) branch of the SMA. After total SMA occlusion in 1-day and 1-month-old piglets, perfusion of the intestine via collaterals from the celiac and inferior mesenteric arteries was not evident. Jejunal, ileal, and colonic (except rectal) blood flows fell to zero 30 min after ligation of the SMA. Ligation of a distal branch of the SMA in 1-month-old animals significantly reduced total wall (by 25%) and mucosal/submucosal (by 25%) blood flows in the occluded segment. Similar experiments in 1-day-old piglets produced significantly greater reduction in total (70%) and mucosa/submucosa (70%) blood flows. Muscle/serosa blood flows in both groups were not significantly different from control values. In conclusion, collateral perfusion of the intestine via the celiac and inferior mesenteric arteries is insignificant during acute SMA occlusion in the developing piglet. Although there is significant collateral blood flow within the SMA vascular network, perfusion between adjacent gut segments is less effective in preventing intestinal ischemia after occlusion of a branch of the SMA in neonates than in 1-month-old piglets.

  7. Military Robotics and Collateral Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Applications and Operations Military Robotics and Collateral Damage Robert Douglass (Primary POC) SET Associates 3811 N. Fairfax...2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Robotics and Collateral Damage 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Abstract We explore a concept of a combined force of air and ground combat robots

  8. Anatomic study of the collateral blood supply of the sternum.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, R A; Acland, R D

    1995-01-01

    A microdissection study was carried out on ten injected, cleared human sternal specimens. Three types of vessel were identified that have the potential to carry blood to the sternum after mobilization of the internal thoracic artery (ITA): (1) branches of the ITA that supply both the sternum and the pectoralis major ("sternal/perforating branches"), (2) branches of the ITA that supply both the sternum and an adjoining intercostal space ("sternal/intercostal branches"), and (3) posterior intercostal arteries that do not anastomose with an ITA branch but continue past the ITA to reach the sternum. All three types of vessel were found more frequently in the proximal than in the distal half of the sternum. For sternal/perforating and sternal/intercostal vessels to function as collaterals after ITA bypass grafting, their short common trunks of origin must remain intact. The data support the recommendation that the branches of the ITA be ligated as close as possible to the ITA itself to preserve collateral blood flow to the sternum.

  9. Nettleship collaterals: circumpapillary cilioretinal anastomoses after occlusion of the central retinal artery.

    PubMed

    Ragge, N K; Hoyt, W F

    1992-03-01

    In extremely rare cases, after occlusion of the central retinal artery, a complete ring of peripapillary anastomotic channels develops. One such case is described and a proposed term given to these channels--'Nettleship collaterals'--after the man who first described them. These collaterals are dilated pathways within the terminal capillary networks of the posterior ciliary arteries and the branches of the central retinal artery. Formation of the channels is believed to be promoted by prelaminar obstruction of the central retinal artery.

  10. Functional anatomy of the lateral collateral ligament of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Hackl, M; Bercher, M; Wegmann, K; Müller, L P; Dargel, J

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the functional anatomy of the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC) and the surrounding forearm extensors. Using 81 human cadaveric upper extremities, the anatomy of the forearm extensors-especially the anconeus, supinator and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU)-was analyzed. After removal of aforementioned extensors the functional anatomy of the LCLC was analyzed. The origin of the LCLC was evaluated for isometry. The insertion types of the lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL) were analyzed and classified. The ECU runs parallel to the RCL to dynamically preserve varus stability. The supinator and anconeus muscle fibers coalesce with the LCLC and lengthen during pronation. The anconeus fibers run parallel to the LUCL in full flexion. The LCLC consists of the annular ligament (AL) and the isometric radial collateral ligament (RCL). During elbow flexion, its posterior branches (LUCL) tighten while the anterior branches loosen. When performing a pivot shift test, the loosened LUCL fibers do not fully tighten in full extension. The LUCL inserts along with the AL at the supinator crest. Three different insertion types could be observed. The LUCL represents the posterior branch of the RCL rather than a distinct ligament. It is non-isometric and lengthens during elbow flexion. The RCL was found to be of vital importance for neutralization of posterolateral rotatory forces. Pronation of the forearm actively stabilizes the elbow joint as the supinator, anconeus and biceps muscle work in unison to increase posterolateral rotatory stability.

  11. Systematic and differential myelination of axon collaterals in the mammalian auditory brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Armin H.; Rubel, Edwin W

    2015-01-01

    A brainstem circuit for encoding the spatial location of sounds involves neurons in the cochlear nucleus that project to medial superior olivary (MSO) neurons on both sides of the brain via a single bifurcating axon. Neurons in MSO act as coincidence detectors, responding optimally when signals from the two ears arrive within a few microseconds. To achieve this, transmission of signals along the contralateral collateral must be faster than transmission of the same signals along the ipsilateral collateral. We demonstrate that this is achieved by differential regulation of myelination and axon caliber along the ipsilateral and contralateral branches of single axons; ipsilateral axon branches have shorter internode lengths and smaller caliber than contralateral branches. The myelination difference is established prior to the onset of hearing. We conclude that this differential myelination and axon caliber requires local interactions between axon collaterals and surrounding oligodendrocytes on the two sides of the brainstem. PMID:26556176

  12. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Bach, Bernard R.; Cohen, Mark S.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Cole, Brian J.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Nicholson, Gregory P.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is a common surgery performed in professional, collegiate, and high school athletes. Purpose: To report patient demographics, surgical techniques, and outcomes of all UCLRs performed at a single institution from 2004 to 2014. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: All patients who underwent UCLR from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2014, at a single institution were identified. Charts were reviewed to determine patient age, sex, date of surgery, sport played, athletic level, surgical technique, graft type, and complications. Data were collected prospectively, and patients were contacted via phone calls to obtain the return-to-sport rate, Conway-Jobe score, Andrews-Timmerman score, and Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) Shoulder and Elbow score. Continuous variable data were reported as weighted means, and categorical variable data were reported as frequencies with percentages. Results: A total of 187 patients (188 elbows) underwent UCLR during the study period (92% male; mean age, 19.6 ± 4.7 years; 78.2% right elbows). There were 165 baseball players (87.8% of all patients), 155 of whom were pitchers (82.5% of all patients). Ninety-seven (51.6%) were college athletes, 68 (36.2%) high school athletes, and 7 (3.7%) professional athletes at the time of surgery. The docking technique was used in 110 (58.5%) patients while the double-docking technique was used in 78 (41.5%). An ipsilateral palmaris longus graft was used in 110 (58.5%) patients while a hamstring autograft was used in 48 (25.5%) patients. The ulnar nerve was subcutaneously transposed in 79 (42%) patients. Clinical follow-up data were available on 85 patients. Mean follow-up was 60 ± 30.8 months. Overall, 94.1% of patients were able to return to sport and had a Conway-Jobe score of good/excellent while 4.3% had a score of fair. The mean KJOC score was 90.4 ± 6.7 and mean Andrews-Timmerman score was 92.5 ± 7

  13. Coronary collateral circulation: its relevance.

    PubMed

    Karrowni, Wassef; El Accaoui, Ramzi N; Chatterjee, Kanu

    2013-11-15

    The interest in coronary collateral circulation (CCC) as "natural bypasses" is growing, especially in patients in whom the extent of coronary atherosclerosis is too severe to allow for conventional revascularization. The anatomic foundation of CCC has been recognized for long time. Recently, reliable methods have become available for the assessment of the adequacy of collateral flow. However, the debate regarding the importance of CCC in the different clinical settings continues. In this article, we present the recent progress in the understanding of anatomy and physiology of the CCC and focus on the studies addressing their functional significance in acute, subacute, and chronic coronary artery disease. In addition, we provide a focused update on the essential role of collateral circulation in the management of coronary chronic total occlusions.

  14. 12 CFR 950.7 - Collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... can perfect a security interest in such collateral. (ii) Eligible other real estate-related collateral... for liquidation and other risks, and can be liquidated in due course; and (ii) The Bank can perfect a... course; and (ii) The Bank can perfect a security interest in such collateral....

  15. 31 CFR 202.6 - Collateral security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collateral security. 202.6 Section 202... GOVERNMENT 1 § 202.6 Collateral security. (a) Requirement. Prior to receiving deposits of public money, a depositary authorized to perform services under § 202.3(b) must pledge collateral security in the...

  16. 31 CFR 202.6 - Collateral security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collateral security. 202.6 Section... GOVERNMENT 1 § 202.6 Collateral security. (a) Requirement. Prior to receiving deposits of public money, a depositary authorized to perform services under § 202.3(b) must pledge collateral security in the...

  17. 31 CFR 202.6 - Collateral security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collateral security. 202.6 Section 202... GOVERNMENT 1 § 202.6 Collateral security. (a) Requirement. Prior to receiving deposits of public money, a depositary authorized to perform services under § 202.3(b) must pledge collateral security in the...

  18. 12 CFR 615.5050 - Collateral requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral requirements. 615.5050 Section 615.5050 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Collateral § 615.5050 Collateral requirements. (a) Each...

  19. Genetic variation in retinal vascular patterning predicts variation in pial collateral extent and stroke severity

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, Pranay; Zhang, Hua; Chen, De; Faber, James E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a native collateral circulation in tissues lessens injury in occlusive vascular diseases. However, differences in genetic background cause wide variation in collateral number and diameter in mice, resulting in large variation in protection. Indirect estimates of collateral perfusion suggest wide variation also exists in humans. Unfortunately, methods used to obtain these estimates are invasive and not widely available. We sought to determine if differences in genetic background in mice result in variation in branch-patterning of the retinal arterial circulation, and if these differences predict strain-dependent differences in pial collateral extent and severity of ischemic stroke. Retinal patterning metrics, collateral extent, and infarct volume were obtained for 10 strains known to differ widely in collateral extent. Multivariate regression was conducted and model performance assessed using K-fold cross-validation. Twenty-one metrics varied with strain (p<0.01). Ten metrics (eg, bifurcation angle, lacunarity, optimality) predicted collateral number and diameter across 7 regression models, with the best model closely predicting (p<0.0001) number (± 1.2-3.4 collaterals, K-fold R2=0.83-0.98), diameter (± 1.2-1.9μm, R2=0.73-0.88) and infarct volume (± 5.1 mm3, R2=0.85-0.87). These metrics obtained for the middle cerebral artery tree in a subset of the above strains also predicted (p<0.0001) collateral number and diameter and diameter, although with less strength (K-fold R2=0.61-0.78) and 0.60-0.86, respectively). Thus, differences in arterial branch-patterning in the retina and the MCA trees are specified by genetic background and predict variation in collateral extent and stroke severity. If also true in human retina, and since genetic variation in cerebral collaterals extends to other tissues at least in mice, a similar “retinal predictor index” could serve as a non-or minimally invasive biomarker for collateral extent in brain and other

  20. Noncoronary Collateral Myocardial Blood Flow: The Human Heart’s Forgotten Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Picichè, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The “noncoronary collateral circulation” (NCCC) or “noncoronary collateral myocardial blood flow” (NCCMBF), reaches the heart through a micro-vascular network arising from the bronchial, esophageal, pericardial, diaphragmatic, and aortic arteries. The left and right internal thoracic arteries (ITAs) along with their collateral branches also serve as a source of NCCMBF-a feature seen in other mammals. Under certain circumstances the ITAs have a high potential for developing collateral branches. In the case of severe Leriche syndrome or with chronic obstruction of the abdominal aorta, the ITAs can serve as the main or even sole source of blood supply to the lower limbs. It is also possible for the ITAs to develop angiographically visible branches that directly connect with the coronary arteries. In ischemic conditions there is a functional, ischemia-reducing extracardiac coronary artery supply via natural ipsilateral ITA anastomosis. To date we know little about NCCMBF and its potential benefits in clinical applications, which makes this a challenging and intriguing field of research. This paper reviews all available data on noncoronary collateral blood supply to the human heart. PMID:27006713

  1. [The significance of cervical collaterals in the subclavian steal phenomenon].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Uchiyama, S

    1993-09-01

    The subclavian steal syndrome (SSS) is often associated with occlusive disease involving the subclavian or innominate arteries, but an asymptomatic subclavian steal, called the "subclavian steal phenomenon" (SSP), is not uncommon. Though intracranial collaterals had been postulated as one of the etiologies for the SSP's being asymptomatic, little has been accomplished in the investigation of extracranial channels. To study the hemodynamic role of cervical collateral channels, an angiographical study was done in three cases with SSP. The three cases were admitted to the hospital because of carotid ischemic symptoms, such as right hemiplegia or sensory aphasia. Each case had a blood pressure difference between the two arms, but in all of them the past history or the exercise test was negative for vertebrobasilar or arm ischemia. On angiography, occlusions of the unilateral proximal subclavian artery, the left in case 1 and the right in case 2, or a tight stenosis of the innominate artery was found in case 3. In each case, the vertebral artery flow in the affected side was inverted, siphoning off from the opposite vertebral artery into the affected subclavian artery. In addition to the vertebral siphoning; muscular branches of ipsilateral external carotid origin in cases 1 and 2, or the thyrocervical trunk via the inferior thyroid artery in case 3 was also found to function as a collateral channel to the vertebral artery on the affected side.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. A protocol for characterizing the impact of collateral flow after distal middle cerebral artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    DeFazio, R. Anthony; Levy, Sean; Morales, Carmen L.; Levy, Rebecca V.; Dave, Kunjan R.; Lin, Hung W.; Abaffy, Tatjana; Watson, Brant D.; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.; Ohanna, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    I. SUMMARY In humans and in animal models of stroke, collateral blood flow between territories of the major pial arteries has a profound impact on cortical infarct size. However, there is a gap in our understanding of the genetic determinants of collateral formation and flow, as well as the signaling pathways and neurovascular interactions regulating this flow. Previous studies have demonstrated that collateral flow between branches of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA) can protect mouse cortex from infarction after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Because the number and diameter of collaterals varies among mouse strains and after transgenic manipulations, a combination of methods is required to control for these variations. Here, we report an inexpensive approach to characterizing the cerebrovascular anatomy, and in vivo monitoring of cerebral blood flow as well. Further, we introduce a new, minimally invasive method for the occlusion of distal MCA branches. These methods will permit a new generation of studies on the mechanisms regulating collateral remodeling and cortical blood flow after stroke. PMID:21593993

  3. Asymmetric dimethylarginine and coronary collateral vessel development.

    PubMed

    Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Sahinarslan, Asife; Biberoglu, Gursel; Hasanoglu, Alev; Akyel, Ahmet; Timurkaynak, Timur; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a major role in collateral vessel development. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) that is an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthesis may impair the effective coronary collateral vessel development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between plasma ADMA level and coronary collateral vessel development. The patients with a greater than or equal to 95% obstruction in at least one epicardial coronary artery were included in the study. Degree of coronary collateral development was determined according to Rentrop method. Patients with grade 2-3 collateral development were regarded as good collateral group and formed group I. The patients with grade 0-1 collateral development were regarded as poor collateral group and were included in group II. Group III that had been formed as a control group included the patients with a normal coronary angiogram. We compared the plasma ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine, L-arginine/ADMA ratio among three groups. Seventy-four patients have been included in the study. Patients with good collateral development had lower plasma ADMA level in comparison with patients with poor collateral development (0.41+/-0.25 micromol/l vs. 0.70+/-0.23 micromol/l, P=0.001) and had similar plasma ADMA levels with the patients who have normal coronary arteries. When we compared L-arginine/ADMA ratio between good and poor collateral groups, we found that the patients with higher L-arginine/ADMA ratio have significantly better collateral development (270.8+/-168.0 vs. 120.9+/-92.1, P<0.001). In the analyses comparing Rentrop score with ADMA level and L-arginine/ADMA ratio, there were significant correlations (r=-0.444, P=0.008 and r=0.553, P=0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, ADMA level (odds ratio, 0.009; 95% confidence interval, 0.000-0.466, P=0.020) and L-arginine/ADMA ratio (odds ratio, 1.010; 95% confidence interval, 1.001-1.020, P=0.032) were independent predictors of collateral development. Increased

  4. Intraoperative neuromonitoring of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve during robotic thyroid surgery: a preliminary prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-jin; Oh, Byung-Mo; Oh, Eun Mee; Bae, Dong Sik; Choi, June Young; Myong, Jun Pyo; Youn, Yeo-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) during robotic thyroid surgery. Methods A total of 10 patients undergoing bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) robotic thyroid surgery were enrolled. The nerve integrity monitor (NIM Response 2.0 System) was used for EBSLN monitoring. We performed voice assessments preoperatively and at 1 and 3 months postoperatively using Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10), maximal phonation time (MPT), phonation efficient index (PEI), and laryngeal electromyography (EMG). Results A total of 19 EBSLNs were at risk and 14 EBSLNs (73.7%) were identified using neuromonitoring. VHI-10 showed a change of voice over time (0.1 vs. 3.6 vs. 1.3); however, this was not statistically significant. VHI-10 scores normalized at 3 months postoperatively compared to the preoperative scores. MPT (a) (16.0 vs. 15.6 vs. 15.4), and MPT (e) (20.1 vs. 15.4 vs. 18.5) showed no significant differences preoperatively compared to the values obtained 1 and 3 months postoperatively. There was a significant change of PEI over time (4.8 vs. 1.1 vs. 4.6) (P = 0.036); however, the values normalized at 3 months postoperatively. Laryngeal EMG results showed 4 cases (21.2%) of neuropathy of EBSLNs at 1 month postoperatively, and electrodiagnostic studies revealed nearly complete recovery of the function of EBSLNs in 4 patients at 3 months postoperatively Conclusion It is suggested that neuromonitoring of EBSLNs during BABA robotic thyroid surgery is feasible and might be helpful to preserve voice quality. PMID:26576402

  5. Selective cortical control of information flow through different intraspinal collaterals of the same muscle afferent fiber.

    PubMed

    Eguibar, J R; Quevedo, J; Jiménez, I; Rudomin, P

    1994-04-18

    We have analyzed in the anesthetized cat the effects of electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex on the intraspinal threshold of two collaterals belonging to the same muscle spindle or tendon organ afferent fiber. The results obtained provide, for the first time, direct evidence showing that the motor cortex is able to modify, in a highly selective manner, the synaptic effectiveness of individual collaterals of the same primary afferent fiber. This presynaptic control could function as a mechanism that allows funneling of information to specific groups of spinal neurons in the presence of extensive intraspinal branching of the afferent fibers.

  6. Nettleship collaterals: circumpapillary cilioretinal anastomoses after occlusion of the central retinal artery.

    PubMed Central

    Ragge, N K; Hoyt, W F

    1992-01-01

    In extremely rare cases, after occlusion of the central retinal artery, a complete ring of peripapillary anastomotic channels develops. One such case is described and a proposed term given to these channels--'Nettleship collaterals'--after the man who first described them. These collaterals are dilated pathways within the terminal capillary networks of the posterior ciliary arteries and the branches of the central retinal artery. Formation of the channels is believed to be promoted by prelaminar obstruction of the central retinal artery. Images PMID:1540571

  7. Intracranial Arteries - Anatomy and Collaterals.

    PubMed

    Liebeskind, David S; Caplan, Louis R

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology are inextricably linked in patients with intracranial atherosclerosis. Knowledge of abnormal or pathological conditions such as intracranial atherosclerosis stems from detailed recognition of the normal pattern of vascular anatomy. The vascular anatomy of the intracranial arteries, both at the level of the vessel wall and as a larger structure or conduit, is a reflection of physiology over time, from in utero stages through adult life. The unique characteristics of arteries at the base of the brain may help our understanding of atherosclerotic lesions that tend to afflict specific arterial segments. Although much of the knowledge regarding intracranial arteries originates from pathology and angiography series over several centuries, evolving noninvasive techniques have rapidly expanded our perspective. As each imaging modality provides a depiction that combines anatomy and flow physiology, it is important to interpret each image with a solid understanding of typical arterial anatomy and corresponding collateral routes. Compensatory collateral perfusion and downstream flow status have recently emerged as pivotal variables in the clinical management of patients with atherosclerosis. Ongoing studies that illustrate the anatomy and pathophysiology of these proximal arterial segments across modalities will help refine our knowledge of the interplay between vascular anatomy and cerebral blood flow. Future studies may help elucidate pivotal arterial factors far beyond the degree of stenosis, examining downstream influences on cerebral perfusion, artery-to-artery thromboembolic potential, amenability to endovascular therapies and stent conformation, and the propensity for restenosis due to biophysical factors. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. 28 CFR 94.25 - Collateral sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collateral sources. 94.25 Section 94.25 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism... collateral source in connection with the same act of international terrorism. In cases in which a...

  9. 28 CFR 94.25 - Collateral sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collateral sources. 94.25 Section 94.25 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism... collateral source in connection with the same act of international terrorism. In cases in which a...

  10. 28 CFR 94.25 - Collateral sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collateral sources. 94.25 Section 94.25 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism... collateral source in connection with the same act of international terrorism. In cases in which a...

  11. 28 CFR 94.25 - Collateral sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collateral sources. 94.25 Section 94.25 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism... collateral source in connection with the same act of international terrorism. In cases in which a...

  12. 28 CFR 94.25 - Collateral sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collateral sources. 94.25 Section 94.25 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism... collateral source in connection with the same act of international terrorism. In cases in which a...

  13. 31 CFR 202.6 - Collateral security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collateral security. 202.6 Section 202.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... GOVERNMENT 1 § 202.6 Collateral security. (a) Requirement. Prior to receiving deposits of public money, a...

  14. 13 CFR 120.343 - Collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collateral. 120.343 Section 120.343 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans Export Working Capital Program (ewcp) § 120.343 Collateral. A Borrower must give SBA a first security...

  15. 13 CFR 120.343 - Collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral. 120.343 Section 120.343 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans Export Working Capital Program (ewcp) § 120.343 Collateral. A Borrower must give SBA a first security...

  16. 45 CFR 160.532 - Collateral estoppel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collateral estoppel. 160.532 Section 160.532 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.532 Collateral estoppel. When...

  17. 12 CFR 725.19 - Collateral requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral requirements. 725.19 Section 725.19 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.19 Collateral requirements. (a)...

  18. 7 CFR 2201.20 - Collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collateral. 2201.20 Section 2201.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.20 Collateral. (a) Existence of...

  19. 7 CFR 2201.20 - Collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collateral. 2201.20 Section 2201.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.20 Collateral. (a) Existence of...

  20. 7 CFR 2201.20 - Collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collateral. 2201.20 Section 2201.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.20 Collateral. (a) Existence of...

  1. 7 CFR 2201.20 - Collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Assets to be used in the delivery of the service for which the Loan is guaranteed. Such Assets may include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Tangible Assets, including current Assets (such as... Collateral. Collateral required by paragraph (a) of this section shall consist solely of Assets of...

  2. 31 CFR 202.6 - Collateral security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Service's web site at www.publicdebt.treas.gov. (c) Deposits of securities. Unless the Secretary of the... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collateral security. 202.6 Section... GOVERNMENT 1 § 202.6 Collateral security. (a) Requirement. Prior to receiving deposits of public money,...

  3. [Simple analysis on collateral therapy in Huangdi's Internal Classic].

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Liang, Fan-rong; Xia, Xiao-hong; Zhao, Zheng-yu

    2005-12-01

    Collateral therapy includes treatment of diseases of collaterals, and treatment of human other diseases with collaterals as treating subjects. In collateral therapy of Huangdi's Internal Classic, collaterals were used as treating subjects, and the treatment was directly given at the collaterals of lesion; for treatment methods, acupuncture and moxibustion were adopted as main method, including pricking blood therapy, moxibustion of collaterals, acupuncture; the diseases and syndromes of treatment included diseases and syndromes of channels and collaterals, and human other diseases and syndromes; the principles of reinforcing and reducing, and the principles of treatment varying from time to time were stressed, and it indicated contraindications for treatment.

  4. Cannabis, collaterals, and coronary occlusion.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Kalpa; Perera, Divaka

    2011-01-01

    A 51-year-old gentleman, who regularly smoked cannabis, presented with chest pain and diaphoresis. He was haemodynamically stable. ECG showed ST depression, inferiorly, and 1 mm ST elevation in lead aVR. Emergent coronary angiography showed thrombotic occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA), the dominant RCA provided Rentrop grade II collaterals to the LAD. The LMCA was successfully reopened by deployment of a bare-metal stent. Animal heart models suggest that endogenous cannibinoids may cause ischaemic preconditioning. This case suggests that the severity of ischaemia, and hence ECG changes and haemodynamic consequences following an acute occlusion of the LMCA, can be ameliorated by coronary collateralisation and possibly by preconditioning of the myocardium.

  5. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injuries of the Thumb

    PubMed Central

    McKeon, Kathleen E.; Gelberman, Richard H.; Calfee, Ryan P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The clinical diagnosis of thumb ulnar collateral ligament disruption has been based on joint angulation during valgus stress testing. This report describes a definitive method of distinguishing between complete and partial ulnar collateral ligament injuries by quantifying translation of the proximal phalanx on the metacarpal head during valgus stress testing. Methods: Sixty-two cadaveric thumbs underwent standardized valgus stress testing under fluoroscopy with the ulnar collateral ligament intact, following an isolated release of the proper ulnar collateral ligament, and following a combined release of both the proper and the accessory ulnar collateral ligament (complete ulnar collateral ligament release). Following complete ulnar collateral ligament release, the final thirty-seven thumbs were also analyzed after the application of a valgus force sufficient to cause 45° of valgus angulation at the metacarpophalangeal joint to model more severe soft-tissue injury. Two independent reviewers measured coronal plane joint angulation (in degrees), ulnar joint line gap formation (in millimeters), and radial translation of the proximal phalanx on the metacarpal head (in millimeters) on digital fluoroscopic images that had been randomized. Results: Coronal angulation across the stressed metacarpophalangeal joint progressively increased through the stages of the testing protocol: ulnar collateral ligament intact (average [and standard deviation], 20° ± 8.1°), release of the proper ulnar collateral ligament (average, 23° ± 8.3°), and complete ulnar collateral ligament release (average, 30° ± 8.9°) (p < 0.01 for each comparison). Similarly, gap formation increased from the measurement in the intact state (5.1 ± 1.3 mm), to that following proper ulnar collateral ligament release (5.7 ± 1.5 mm), to that following complete ulnar collateral ligament release (7.2 ± 1.5 mm) (p < 0.01 for each comparison). Radial translation of the proximal phalanx on the

  6. Collateralization and ischemia in hemodynamic cerebrovascular insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Czabanka, Marcus; Acker, Gueliz; Jussen, Daniel; Finger, Tobias; Pena-Tapia, Pablo; Schubert, Gerrit A; Scharf, Johann; Martus, Peter; Schmiedek, Peter; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Moyamoya disease and atherosclerotic cerebrovascular occlusive disease lead to hemodynamic impairment of cerebral blood flow. One major differentiation between both disease entities lies in the collateralization pathways. The clinical implications of the collateralization pathways for the development of hemodynamic ischemia remain unknown. The aim was to characterize collateralization and ischemia patterns in patients with chronic hemodynamic compromise. Hemodynamic compromise was verified using acetazolamide-stimulated xenon-CT or SPECT in 54 patients [30 moyamoya and 24 atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease (ACVD)]. All patients received MRI to differentiate hemodynamic ischemia into anterior/posterior cortical border zone infarction (CBI), inferior border zone infarction (IBI) or territorial infarction (TI). Digital subtraction angiography was applied to evaluate collateralization. Collateralization was compared and correlated with the localization of ischemia and number of vascular territories with impaired cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC). MM patients showed collateralization significantly more often via pericallosal anastomosis and the posterior communicating artery (flow in the anterior-posterior direction; MM: 95%/95% vs. ACVD: 23%/12%, p < 0.05). ACVD patients demonstrated collateralization via the anterior and posterior communicating arteries (flow in the posterior-anterior direction, MM: 6%/5% vs. ACVD: 62%/88%, p < 0.05). Patterns of infarction were comparable (aCBI: MM: 36% vs. ACVD: 35%; pCBI: MM: 10% vs. ACVD: 20%; IBI: MM: 35% vs. ACVD: 41%; TI: MM: 13% vs. ACVD: 18%). The number and localization of vascular territories with impaired CVRC were comparable. Despite significant differences in collateralization, the infarct patterns and severity of CVRC impairment do not differ between MMV and ACVD patients. Cerebral collateralization does not allow reaching conclusions about the localization of cerebral ischemia or severity of impaired

  7. The Effect of Placing Flow-Diverting Stents in Intracranial Collateral Arteries of Miniature Pig

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiwei; Ding, Yanan; Wang, Qiuxia; Wang, Yanan; Mu, Shiqing; Bi, Lixin; Li, Youxiang

    2017-01-01

    Background Flow-diverting stent (FDS) has been suggested as an effective intracranial aneurysm treatment. However, the effects of FDS on collateral branches of an aneurysm parent artery still remain unknown. Thus, the present study aimed to comprehensively evaluate the effects of placing a FDS in the intracranial collateral artery, using a miniature pig animal model. Material/Methods Ten healthy miniature pigs were included in the study: one pig was reserved as a control and the remaining nine pigs were placed in three experimental groups: FDS (i.e., Pipeline), LVIS, and Solitaier-AB stent groups. Pigs in the experimental groups were examined by cerebral angiography immediately after stent placement, followed by hemodynamic analyses. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain of pigs in the experimental groups was performed to inspect the brain for obstruction and blood flow. Stents were examined for the growth of neointimas. Results The results showed that neointimas, consisting of smooth muscle cells, collagenous fibers, and macrophages, were 0.67 mm thick on average and partially covered the stent wires. The thickness of neointimas in the FDS group was significantly higher than in the two conventional intracranial stent groups. There was no obvious obstruction identified in collateral arteries where the FDS was placed. Conclusions These results indicated that neointimas in collateral arteries of a miniature pig would be slightly thickened after one month of FDS placement; and FDS was shown to be safe for collateral arteries. PMID:28333907

  8. 12 CFR 950.10 - Collateral valuation; appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral valuation; appraisals. 950.10...-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 950.10 Collateral valuation; appraisals. (a) Collateral...) Appraisals. A Bank may require a member to obtain an appraisal of any item of collateral, and to perform...

  9. 12 CFR 615.5335 - Bank net collateral ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank net collateral ratio. 615.5335 Section 615... collateral ratio. (a) Each bank shall achieve and at all times maintain a net collateral ratio of at least 103 percent. (b) At a minimum, a bank shall compute its net collateral ratio as of the end of...

  10. 12 CFR 615.5335 - Bank net collateral ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank net collateral ratio. 615.5335 Section 615... collateral ratio. (a) Each bank shall achieve and at all times maintain a net collateral ratio of at least 103 percent. (b) At a minimum, a bank shall compute its net collateral ratio as of the end of...

  11. 12 CFR 615.5335 - Bank net collateral ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank net collateral ratio. 615.5335 Section 615... collateral ratio. (a) Each bank shall achieve and at all times maintain a net collateral ratio of at least 103 percent. (b) At a minimum, a bank shall compute its net collateral ratio as of the end of...

  12. 12 CFR 615.5335 - Bank net collateral ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank net collateral ratio. 615.5335 Section 615... collateral ratio. (a) Each bank shall achieve and at all times maintain a net collateral ratio of at least 103 percent. (b) At a minimum, a bank shall compute its net collateral ratio as of the end of...

  13. 12 CFR 615.5335 - Bank net collateral ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank net collateral ratio. 615.5335 Section 615... collateral ratio. (a) Each bank shall achieve and at all times maintain a net collateral ratio of at least 103 percent. (b) At a minimum, a bank shall compute its net collateral ratio as of the end of...

  14. Aortopulmonary collateral flow in cystic fibrosis assessed with phase-contrast MRI

    PubMed Central

    McPhail, Gary; VanDyke, Rhonda; Knowlton, Joshua; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Clancy, John; Amin, Raouf

    2013-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common genetic disease in Caucasians. Chronic pulmonary disease and progressive destruction of the pulmonary parenchyma are one of the major morbidities, but the relationship between clinical severity of CF and aortopulmonary collateral blood flow has not been assessed. Objective The purpose of this study is to measure changes in aortopulmonary collateral blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with CF across the spectrum of disease severity as measured by the forced expiratory volume in one second as percent predicted value (FEV1%). Materials and methods Sixteen patients with CF were prospectively evaluated. Eight were classified as having mild CF lung disease (FEV1 ≥80% predicted) and eight were classified as having moderate to severe CF lung disease (FEV1 <80% predicted). Seventeen age and gender matched non-CF subjects without cardiac or lung disease served as controls. Phase-contrast flow was measured at the ascending aorta, main pulmonary artery and both pulmonary arteries. Aortopulmonary collateral blood flow was calculated for each subject. The relationship between collateral flow and FEV1%P was modeled using nonparametric regression. Group differences were assessed by analysis of variance. Results Aortopulmonary collateral blood flow began to increase as FEV1%P in subjects with CF fell below 101.5% with significant further increase in the aortopulmonary collateral blood flow in the subjects with CF with moderate to severe lung disease compared to controls (0.89 vs. 0.20 L/min, (P<0.0001). Aortopulmonary collateral blood flow correlated negatively with FEV1%P (r, 0.70, P=0.0050) confirming its relationship to this established marker of disease severity. There was no statistically significant difference in results obtained from two independent observers. Conclusion These preliminary findings suggest that phase-contrast MRI can be performed reliably with consistent results and without

  15. 12 CFR 1266.7 - Collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... liquidated in due course; and (B) The Bank can perfect a security interest in such collateral. (ii) Eligible... for liquidation and other risks, and can be liquidated in due course; and (ii) The Bank can perfect...

  16. 12 CFR 1266.7 - Collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... liquidated in due course; and (B) The Bank can perfect a security interest in such collateral. (ii) Eligible... for liquidation and other risks, and can be liquidated in due course; and (ii) The Bank can perfect...

  17. 7 CFR 1779.48 - Collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.48 Collateral. (a) Lender... and ability of project management, soundness of the project, and the borrower's prospective earnings..., water rights, buildings, machinery, equipment, accounts receivable, contracts, cash, or other...

  18. The morphology of hair follicle afferent fibre collaterals in the spinal cord of the cat.

    PubMed

    Brown, A G; Rose, P K; Snow, P J

    1977-11-01

    1. The enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was injected into single axons that innervated hair follicle receptors to study the morphology of their collaterals in the dorsal horn of the cord. The axons were impaled near the dorsal root entrance zone in the lumbosacral spinal cord of anaesthetized cats and HRP injected by passing current through the intra-axonal micro-electrode. The morphology was revealed by subsequent histochemistry.2. Thirteen hair-follicle afferent fibres were stained including six that innervated tylotrichs (type T hair follicle afferent units) and one that innervated guard hairs (type G unit). The remaining six axons were not classified according to hair type, but, on the basis of their axonal conduction velocities, would have been either type G or T.3. Eleven axons could be traced back into the dorsal roots. Eight of these, upon entering the cord, turned and ran towards the brain. They did not divide into rostral and caudal branches. Three of the eleven did divide and gave rise to both rostral and caudal branches.4. Sixty-three collaterals were given off the thirteen stained axons. All well-filled collaterals had a strikingly similar morphology. They descended through laminae I-III of the dorsal horn into the deeper parts of lamina IV or into lamina V, before turning and ascending back into superficial lamina IV and lamina III where they branched profusely to give rise to their terminal arborizations. Terminal boutons, most commonly of the ;en passant' type, were numerous in lamina III, but were also seen in the dorsal part of lamina IV and in ventral lamina II. None were observed in dorsal lamina II or near the junction of the grey and white matter (lamina I) or in lamina V.5. The terminal arborizations of collaterals from a single hair follicle afferent fibre were in line with one another in the longitudinal axis of the cord. In the better-stained preparations the terminal arborizations of adjacent collaterals from a single axon formed a

  19. Morphology and organization of axon collaterals from afferent fibres of slowly adapting type I units in cat spinal cord.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A G; Rose, P K; Snow, P J

    1978-01-01

    1. The morphology of the collaterals of single axons innervating Type I slowly adapting receptors was studied by using the intra-axonal injection of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase in anaesthetized cats. The axons were impaled near their dorsal root entrance zone in the lumbosacral cord. The morphology was revealed by subsequent histochemistry. 2. Thirteen Type I axons were stained, nine with receptors in the hairy skin and four with receptors in the glabrous foot pad skin. Twelve axons could be traced back into their dorsal roots and 11 of these divided into rostral and caudal branches shortly after entering the spinal cord. 3. One hundred and twelve collaterals were given off the thirteen axons and all well filled collaterals had a similar morphology. In the dorsal horn they gave rise to wide elliptical areas of terminal arborization (in transverse sections of cord) that were limited to laminae III, IV and the dorsal part of lamina V. The terminal arborizations of collaterals from the same axon were in line in the saggittal plane, but only rarely did the terminal arborizations of adjacent collaterals overlap; usually there was a gap between adjacent terminal arborizations. 4. Synaptic boutons of Type I units from hairy skin were mainly of the "en passant" variety whereas those of Type I units from glabrous skin were generally "boutons terminaux" with very few boutons "de passage". 5. The morphology of axon collaterals of Type I units is compared with that of hair follicle units. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 PMID:650514

  20. Collateral vessel physiology and functional impact-in vivo assessment of collateral channels.

    PubMed

    Lim, M; Ziaee, A; Kern, Morten J

    2004-11-01

    The existence and recruitment of collateral vessels within the coronary circulation may account for the tremendous variability in presentation, symptoms and outcome in patients with coronary atherosclerosis. Multiple episodes of ischemia have been found to produce the stimuli necessary for the growth of new vessels which result in collateral blood flow. Furthermore, there is also a subset of patients with readily recruitable collateral vessels that function to limit myocardial necrosis during an acute ischemic event. Promising early studies have utilized angiogenic growth factors as a means to stimulate collateral growth, bringing a renewal interest in their assessment and significance. We review, in brief, the significance and understanding of the development of coronary collaterals as well as the available means to assess them.

  1. Axonal branching in lateral olfactory tract is promoted by Nogo signaling

    PubMed Central

    Iketani, Masumi; Yokoyama, Takaakira; Kurihara, Yuji; Strittmatter, Stephen M.; Goshima, Yoshio; Kawahara, Nobutaka; Takei, Kohtaro

    2016-01-01

    Mitral cells are major projection neurons of the olfactory bulb (OB) that form an axonal bundle known as the lateral olfactory tract (LOT). After axonal bundle formation, collateral branches sprout from primary axons of the LOT. Recently, we identified LOT usher substance (LOTUS) as an endogenous Nogo receptor-1 (NgR1) antagonist and demonstrated that LOTUS contributes to the formation of the LOT axonal bundle. Immunoblots revealed that the expression level of Nogo-A in the OB developmentally increased during axonal collateral formation. Next, we found that the axonal collateral branches were increased in cultured OB neurons from LOTUS-knockout (KO) mice, whereas they were decreased in cultured OB neurons from NgR1-KO mice. Knockdown of Nogo-A in cultured OB neurons reduced the number of axonal collateral branches, suggesting that endogenous Nogo-A induces axonal branching. Finally, the collateral branches of the LOT were increased in LOTUS-KO mice, whereas those in NgR1-KO mice were decreased. Moreover, the abnormal increase of axonal branching observed in LOTUS-KO mice was rescued in the double mutant of LOTUS- and NgR1-KO mice. These findings suggest that Nogo-A and NgR1 interactions may contribute to axonal branching in LOT development. PMID:28000762

  2. Mechanical Buckling of Arterioles in Collateral Development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qin; Han, Hai-Chao

    2012-01-01

    Collateral arterioles enlarge in both diameter and length, and develop corkscrew-like tortuous patterns during remodeling. Recent studies showed that artery buckling could lead to tortuosity. The objective of this study was to determine arteriole critical buckling pressure and buckling pattern during arteriole remodeling. Arterioles were modeled as elastic cylindrical vessels with an elastic matrix support and underwent axial and radial growth. Our results demonstrated that arteriole critical buckling pressure decreased with increasing axial growth ratio and radius growth ratio, but increased with increasing wall thickness. Arteriole buckling mode number increased (wave length decreased) with increasing axial growth ratio, but decreased with increasing radius growth ratio and wall thickness. Our study suggests that axial growth in arterioles makes them prone to buckling and that buckling leads to tortuous collaterals. These results shed light on the mechanism of collateral arteriole tortuosity. PMID:23034307

  3. Mechanical buckling of arterioles in collateral development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Han, Hai-Chao

    2013-01-07

    Collateral arterioles enlarge in both diameter and length, and develop corkscrew-like tortuous patterns during remodeling. Recent studies showed that artery buckling could lead to tortuosity. The objective of this study was to determine arteriole critical buckling pressure and buckling pattern during arteriole remodeling. Arterioles were modeled as elastic cylindrical vessels with an elastic matrix support and underwent axial and radial growth. Our results demonstrated that arteriole critical buckling pressure decreased with increasing axial growth ratio and radius growth ratio, but increased with increasing wall thickness. Arteriole buckling mode number increased (wavelength decreased) with increasing axial growth ratio, but decreased with increasing radius growth ratio and wall thickness. Our study suggests that axial growth in arterioles makes them prone to buckling and that buckling leads to tortuous collaterals. These results shed light on the mechanism of collateral arteriole tortuosity.

  4. Hybrid Coronary Artery Revascularization for Takayasu Arteritis with Major Visceral Collateral Circulation from the Left Internal Thoracic Artery

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Hyung Tae; Kim, Jeong-Won; Yoo, Jae Suk; Cho, Kwang Ree

    2017-01-01

    Coronary arterial involvement in Takayasu arteritis (TA) is not uncommon. Herein, we describe a case of TA with celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery occlusion combined with coronary artery disease. Bilateral huge internal thoracic arteries (ITAs) and the inferior mesenteric artery provided the major visceral collateral circulation. After percutaneous intervention to the right coronary artery, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting for the left coronary territory was done using a right ITA graft and its large side branch because of its relatively minor contribution to the visceral collateral circulation. PMID:28382269

  5. Transluminal Angioplasty of Peroneal Artery Branches in Diabetics: Initial Technical Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Graziani, Lanfroi Silvestro, Antonio; Monge, Luca; Boffano, Gian Mario; Kokaly, Francesco; Casadidio, Ilaria; Giannini, Francesco

    2008-01-15

    The present study aimed to report the technical feasibility of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of obstructed or insufficient collateral branches (anterior and posterior perforating branches) from distal peroneal to foot arteries in diabetic patients with chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI) and chronic noncrossable occlusion of the anterior and posterior tibial arteries. Twenty-four diabetic CLI patients (age, 67 {+-} 8 years; 87% males) undergoing collateral PTA were included. Baseline clinical angiographic and follow-up data were retrospectively reviewed. Collateral PTA was associated with a concomitant PTA of other sites in 21 (83%) cases. In 15 cases the treated collateral linked the peroneal with the plantaris communis; in 9 cases, the peroneal with the dorsalis pedis. Angiographic results of collateral PTA were good in 13 cases (<30% residual stenosis), whereas the result was considered moderate (30%-49% residual stenosis) in the remaining cases. Neither perforation nor acute occlusion of the treated collaterals or other relevant complications were observed. Mean follow-up was 32 {+-} 17 months. Major amputation was necessary for two (8.3%) patients. Cumulative limb salvage rates at 2 and 4 years were 96% and 87%, respectively. In conclusion, this initial experience shows that PTA of the collateral branches from distal peroneal to foot arteries is a feasible technique. Future studies are required to define the clinical role of this novel approach.

  6. Spinal cord collaterals from axons of type II slowly adapting units in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A G; Fyffe, R E; Rose, P K; Snow, P J

    1981-01-01

    1. The morphology of single axons, and their collaterals, of Type II slowly adapting mechanoreceptors situated at the claw bases was studied. Intra-axonal injections of horseradish peroxidase were made into the axons near their entrance to the lumbosacral spinal cord of anaesthetized cats. The morphology was revealed by subsequent histochemistry. 2. Nine Type II axons were stained. All but one bifurcated into ascending and descending branches upon entering the cord. Eighty-nine collaterals arose from the axons at a mean spacing of about 570 micrometers. 3. The collaterals formed plate-like arborizations usually about 500-600 micrometers wide in the transverse plane but only 100-300 micrometers thick in the longitudinal axis of the cord. The terminal arborizations were in laminae III-VI. 4. Synaptic boutons in laminae III and IV were more numerous than in laminae V and VI. Boutons en passant were common in laminae III and IV and arranged in series of three to six, whereas in deeper laminae only two or three boutons formed a series de passage. 5. The morphology of the slowly adapting Type II collateral is discussed. 6. Some general principles of the organization of cutaneous afferent fibres in the lumbosacral cord are presented. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:7320876

  7. Impact of Slow Blood Filling via Collaterals on Infarct Growth: Comparison of Mismatch and Collateral Status

    PubMed Central

    Son, Jeong Pyo; Lee, Mi Ji; Kim, Suk Jae; Chung, Jong-Won; Cha, Jihoon; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bang, Oh Young

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Perfusion-diffusion mismatch has been evaluated to determine whether the presence of a target mismatch helps to identify patients who respond favorably to recanalization therapies. We compared the impact on infarct growth of collateral status and the presence of a penumbra, using magnetic resonance perfusion (MRP) techniques. Methods Consecutive patients who were candidates for recanalization therapy and underwent serial diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and MRP were enrolled. A collateral flow map derived from MRP source data was generated by automatic post-processing. The impact of a target mismatch (Tmax>6 s/apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) volume≥1.8, ADC volume<70 mL; and Tmax>10 s for ADC volume<100 mL) on infarct growth was compared with MR-based collateral grading on day 7 DWI, using multivariate linear regression analysis. Results Among 73 patients, 55 (75%) showed a target mismatch, whereas collaterals were poor in 14 (19.2%), intermediate in 36 (49.3%), and good in 23 (31.5%) patients. After adjusting for initial severity of stroke, early recanalization (P<0.001) and the MR-based collateral grading (P=0.001), but not the presence of a target mismatch, were independently associated with infarct growth. Even in patients with a target mismatch and successful recanalization, the degree of infarct growth depended on the collateral status. Perfusion status at later Tmax time points (beyond the arterial phase) was more closely correlated with collateral status. Conclusions Patients with good collaterals show a favorable outcome in terms of infarct growth, regardless of the presence of a target mismatch pattern. The presence of slow blood filling predicts collateral status and infarct growth. PMID:28030891

  8. 75 FR 64710 - Public Roundtable on Individual Customer Collateral Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... collateral protection in the context of the CFTC's rulemaking efforts pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Wall Street... addressed at the discussion, or on any other topics related to customer collateral protection in the...

  9. Preliminary analysis of the hydrologic effects of temporary shutdowns of the Rondout-West Branch Water Tunnel on the groundwater-flow system in Wawarsing, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumm, Frederick; Chu, Anthony; Como, Michael D.; Noll, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Flooding of streets and residential basements, and bacterial contamination of private-supply wells with Escherichia coli (E. coli) are recurring problems in the Rondout Valley near the Town of Wawarsing, Ulster County, New York. Leakage from the Rondout-West Branch (RWB) Water Tunnel and above-normal precipitation have been suspected of causing elevated groundwater levels and basement flooding. The hydrology of a 12-square-mile study area within the Town of Wawarsing was studied during 2008-10. A network of 41 wells (23 unconsolidated-aquifer and 18 bedrock wells) and 2 surface-water sites was used to monitor the hydrologic effects of four RWB Water Tunnel shutdowns. The study area is underlain by a sequence of northeast-trending sedimentary rocks that include limestone, shale, and sandstone. The bedrock contains dissolution features, fractures, and faults. Inflows that ranged from less than 1 to more than 9,000 gallons per minute from the fractured bedrock were documented during construction of the 13.5-foot-diameter RWB Water Tunnel through the sedimentary-rock sequence 710 feet (ft) beneath the study-area valley. Glacial sediments infill the valley above the bedrock sequence and consist of clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The groundwater-flow system in the valley consists of both fractured-rock and unconsolidated aquifers. Water levels in both the bedrock and unconsolidated aquifers respond to variations in seasonal precipitation. During the past 9 years (2002-10), annual precipitation at Central Park, N.Y., has exceeded the 141-year mean. Potentiometric-surface maps indicate that groundwater in the bedrock flows from the surrounding hills on the east and west sides of the valley toward the center of the valley, and ultimately toward the northeast. On average, water levels in the bedrock aquifer had seasonal differences of 5.3 ft. Analysis of hydrographs of bedrock wells indicates that many of these wells are affected by the RWB Tunnel leakage. Tunnel

  10. 32 CFR 536.51 - Collateral source rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Collateral source rule. 536.51 Section 536.51... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.51 Collateral source rule. Where permitted by applicable state or maritime law, damages recovered from collateral sources are payable under...

  11. 32 CFR 536.51 - Collateral source rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collateral source rule. 536.51 Section 536.51... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.51 Collateral source rule. Where permitted by applicable state or maritime law, damages recovered from collateral sources are payable under...

  12. 32 CFR 536.51 - Collateral source rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Collateral source rule. 536.51 Section 536.51... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.51 Collateral source rule. Where permitted by applicable state or maritime law, damages recovered from collateral sources are payable under...

  13. 32 CFR 536.51 - Collateral source rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collateral source rule. 536.51 Section 536.51... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.51 Collateral source rule. Where permitted by applicable state or maritime law, damages recovered from collateral sources are payable under...

  14. Multimodal images of chronic branch retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Monroig, Armando; Flynn, Harry W

    2017-01-01

    Two illustrative cases of chronic branch retinal vein occlusion are presented with multimodal imaging, including commercially available optical coherence tomography angiography. In these two patients, retinal ischemia and collateral vessels were well imaged without the need to use traditional fluorescein angiography. Optical coherence tomography angiography provides useful information for the diagnosis and management of patients with branch retinal vein occlusion and other retinal vascular diseases. PMID:28496373

  15. Significance of establishing collateral circulation by leptomeningeal anastomoses in the occlusion of arteriae cerebri mediae.

    PubMed

    Kulenović, Amela; Dilberović, Faruk

    2004-05-01

    We have investigated establishment of collateral circulation in patients with cerebral circulation disorder. Thirty angiograms of patients treated at Neurological Department of Hospital Centre in Sarajevo suffering from arteriae cerebri mediae occlusion were used for this study. Cerebral anastomoses that included connections between arteriae cerebri anterior and arteriae cerebri mediae over leptomeningeal anastomoses occurred in some patients suffering from occlusion of this arteriae. It was concluded that the majority of anastomoses existed between big leptomeningeal branches of postcommunicant segment of a. cerebri anterior and branches of cerebri mediae. These collaterals are of great significance as their functional ability is sometimes of a high degree in cases of occlusion of one or the other artery. It can be concluded that anastomosing of the blood vessels increases their volume in the whole and therefore more blood can be provided, although physiological factors should not be neglected, as functional effectiveness of collateral circulation in postocclusive states depends also on the state of the whole cerebrovascular system, then on the speed of creation of occlusion (thrombosis or embolism), systemic arterial pressure, volume and viscosity of the blood.

  16. Local control of information flow in segmental and ascending collaterals of single afferents.

    PubMed

    Lomelí, J; Quevedo, J; Linares, P; Rudomin, P

    1998-10-08

    In the vertebrate spinal cord, the activation of GABA(gamma-amino-butyric acid)-releasing interneurons that synapse with intraspinal terminals of sensory fibres leading into the central nervous system (afferent fibres) produces primary afferent depolarization and presynaptic inhibition. It is not known to what extent these presynaptic mechanisms allow a selective control of information transmitted through specific sets of intraspinal branches of individual afferents. Here we study the local nature of the presynaptic control by measuring primary afferent depolarization simultaneously in two intraspinal collaterals of the same muscle spindle afferent. One of these collaterals ends at the L6-L7 segmental level in the intermediate nucleus, and the other ascends to segment L3 within Clarke's column, the site of origin of spinocerebellar neurons. Our results indicate that there are central mechanisms that are able to affect independently the synaptic effectiveness of segmental and ascending collaterals of individual muscle spindle afferents. Focal control of presynaptic inhibition thus allows the intraspinal branches of afferent fibres to function as a dynamic assembly that can be fractionated to convey information to selected neuronal targets. This may be a mechanism by which different spinal postsynaptic targets that are coupled by sensory input from a common source could be uncoupled.

  17. 28 CFR 104.47 - Collateral sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collateral sources. 104.47 Section 104.47 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001..., or local governments related to the terrorist-related aircraft crashes of September 11, 2001....

  18. 13 CFR 120.934 - Collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral. 120.934 Section 120.934 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company... must be insured against such hazards and risks as SBA may require, with provisions for notice to...

  19. Collateral Learning and Mathematical Education of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovich, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the notion of collateral learning in the context of classic ideas about the summation of powers of the first "n" counting numbers. Proceeding from the well-known legend about young Gauss, this article demonstrates the value of reflection under the guidance of "the more knowledgeable other" as a pedagogical method of making…

  20. 30 CFR 800.21 - Collateral bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.21 Collateral...

  1. 30 CFR 800.21 - Collateral bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.21 Collateral...

  2. 30 CFR 800.21 - Collateral bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.21 Collateral...

  3. 30 CFR 800.21 - Collateral bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.21 Collateral...

  4. 30 CFR 800.21 - Collateral bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.21 Collateral...

  5. Using Collateral Material To Improve Writing Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Monica E.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the extent to which the provision of selected collateral material can enhance students' enjoyment of their writing tasks, and their performance in a context where although English is the official language, it is little used and much resisted by students for whom the language of choice for social interaction is the local Creole.…

  6. 28 CFR 104.47 - Collateral sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compensation, including life insurance, pension funds, death benefits programs, and payments by Federal, State... determining the appropriate collateral source offset for future benefit payments, the Special Master may employ an appropriate methodology for determining the present value of such future benefits....

  7. Collateral Learning and Mathematical Education of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovich, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the notion of collateral learning in the context of classic ideas about the summation of powers of the first "n" counting numbers. Proceeding from the well-known legend about young Gauss, this article demonstrates the value of reflection under the guidance of "the more knowledgeable other" as a pedagogical method of making…

  8. 12 CFR 725.19 - Collateral requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collateral requirements. 725.19 Section 725.19 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL... applicable Facility advance or Agent loan, or by guarantee of the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund...

  9. 20 CFR 498.114 - Collateral estoppel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND RECOMMENDED EXCLUSIONS § 498.114 Collateral estoppel. In a proceeding under section 1129 of the Social Security Act that... guilty or nolo contendere) of a Federal or State crime; and (b) Involves the same transactions as in the...

  10. 20 CFR 498.114 - Collateral estoppel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND RECOMMENDED EXCLUSIONS § 498.114 Collateral estoppel. In a proceeding under section 1129 of the Social Security Act that... guilty or nolo contendere) of a Federal or State crime; and (b) Involves the same transactions as in the...

  11. Collateral response to activation of potassium channels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lamping, K G

    1998-04-01

    Activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels is involved in the coronary vascular response to decreases in perfusion pressure and ischemia. Since activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in collateral vessels may be important in determining flow to collateral-dependent myocardium, the ability of collaterals to respond to activation of the channel was tested. In the beating heart of dogs, we compared responses of non-collaterals less than 100 microns in diameter to collaterals of similar size using computer-controlled stroboscopic epi-illumination of the left ventricle coupled to a microscope-video system. Aprikalim, a selective activator of ATP-sensitive K+ channels (0.1-10 microM) produced similar dose-dependent dilation of non-collaterals and collaterals. Relaxation was decreased by inhibition of ATP-sensitive K+ channels with glibenclamide, but not by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with nitro-L-arginine. Bradykinin (10-100 microM) produced similar dilation of non-collaterals and collaterals which was decreased by nitro-L-arginine but not glibenclamide. Thus, in microvascular collaterals, relaxation to both nitric oxide and activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels is similar to non-collaterals.

  12. Collateral Circulation in Chronic Total Occlusions - an interventional perspective.

    PubMed

    Choo, Gim-Hooi

    2015-09-09

    Human coronary collaterals are inter-coronary communications that are believed to be present from birth. In the presence of chronic total occlusions, recruitment of flow via these collateral anastomoses to the arterial segment distal to occlusion provide an alternative source of blood flow to the myocardial segment at risk. This mitigates the ischemic injury. Clinical outcome of coronary occlusion ie. severity of myocardial infarction/ischemia, impairment of cardiac function and possibly survival depends not only on the acuity of the occlusion, extent of jeopardized myocardium, duration of ischemia but also to the adequacy of collateral circulation. Adequacy of collateral circulation can be assessed by various methods. These coronary collateral channels have been used successfully as a retrograde access route for percutaneous recanalization of chronic total occlusions. Factors that promote angiogenesis and further collateral remodeling ie. arteriogenesis have been identified. Promotion of collateral growth as a therapeutic target in patients with no suitable revascularization option is an exciting proposal.

  13. Collateral Circulation in Chronic Total Occlusions - An Interventional Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Gim-Hooi

    2015-01-01

    Human coronary collaterals are inter-coronary communications that are believed to be present from birth. In the presence of chronic total occlusions, recruitment of flow via these collateral anastomoses to the arterial segment distal to occlusion provide an alternative source of blood flow to the myocardial segment at risk. This mitigates the ischemic injury. Clinical outcome of coronary occlusion ie. severity of myocardial infarction/ischemia, impairment of cardiac function and possibly survival depends not only on the acuity of the occlusion, extent of jeopardized myocardium, duration of ischemia but also to the adequacy of collateral circulation. Adequacy of collateral circulation can be assessed by various methods. These coronary collateral channels have been used successfully as a retrograde access route for percutaneous recanalization of chronic total occlusions. Factors that promote angiogenesis and further collateral remodeling ie. arteriogenesis have been identified. Promotion of collateral growth as a therapeutic target in patients with no suitable revascularization option is an exciting proposal.

  14. Ligation of huge spontaneous porto-systemic collaterals to avoid portal inflow steal in adult living donor liver transplantation: A case-report.

    PubMed

    Elshobary, Mohamed; Shehta, Ahmed; Salah, Tarek; Sultan, Ahmed Mohamed; Shiha, Usama; Elghawalby, Ahmed Nabieh; Monier, Ahmed; Elsadany, Mohamed; AmrYassen; Fathy, Omar; Wahab, Mohamed Abdel

    2017-01-01

    In adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), maintenance of adequate portal inflow is essential for the graft regeneration. Portal inflow steal (PFS) may occur due to presence of huge spontaneous porto-systemic collaterals. A surgical procedure to increase the portal inflow is rarely necessary in adult LDLT. A 52 years male patient with end-stage liver disease due to chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Preoperative portography showed marked attenuated portal vein and its two main branches, patent tortuous splenic vein, multiple splenic hilar collaterals, and large lieno-renal collateral. He received a right hemi-liver graft from his nephew. Exploration revealed markedly cirrhotic liver, moderate splenomegaly with multiple collaterals and large lieno-renal collateral. Upon dissection of the hepato-duodenal ligament, a well-developed portal vein could be identified with a small mural thrombus. The recipient portal vein stump was anastomosed, in end to end fashion, to the graft portal vein. Doppler US showed reduced portal vein flow, so ligation of the huge lieno-renal collateral that allows steal of the portal inflow. After ligation of the lieno-renal collateral, improvement of the portal vein flow was observed in Doppler US. There is no accepted algorithm for managing spontaneous lieno-renal shunts before, during, or after liver transplantation, and evidence for efficacy of treatments remains limited. We report a case of surgical interruption of spontaneous huge porto-systemic collateral to prevent PFS during adult LDLT. Complete interruption of large collateral vessels might be needed as a part of adult LDLT procedure to avoid devastating postoperative PFS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging.

    PubMed

    Leite, Andréa Farias de Melo; Mota, Américo; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaeté; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common-increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations.

  16. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging*

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Andréa Farias de Melo; Mota Jr., Américo; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaeté; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common-increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. PMID:27777479

  17. Branching Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Arie; Simons, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tubular structures are a fundamental anatomical theme recurring in a wide range of animal species. In mammals, tubulogenesis underscores the development of several systems and organs, including the vascular system, the lungs, and the kidneys. All tubular systems are hierarchical, branching into segments of gradually diminishing diameter. There are only two cell types that form the lumen of tubular systems – either endothelial cells in the vascular system, or epithelial cells in all other organs. The most important feature in determining the morphology of the tubular systems is the frequency and geometry of branching. Hence, deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the sprouting of new branches from pre-existing ones is the key to understanding the formation of tubular systems. The morphological similarity between the various tubular systems is underscored by similarities between the signaling pathways which control their branching. A prominent feature common to these pathways is their duality – an agonist counterbalanced by an inhibitor. The formation of the tracheal system in Drosophila melanogaster is driven by fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and inhibited by Sprouty/Notch. In vertebrates, the analogous pathways are FGF and transforming growth factor β in epithelial tubular systems, or vascular endothelial growth factor and Notch in the vascular system. PMID:19179661

  18. The fundamental theorem of asset pricing under default and collateral in finite discrete time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Samaniego, Borys; Orrillo, Jaime

    2006-08-01

    We consider a financial market where time and uncertainty are modeled by a finite event-tree. The event-tree has a length of N, a unique initial node at the initial date, and a continuum of branches at each node of the tree. Prices and returns of J assets are modeled, respectively, by a R2JxR2J-valued stochastic process . In this framework we prove a version of the Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing which applies to defaultable securities backed by exogenous collateral suffering a contingent linear depreciation.

  19. Umbilical and paraumbilical veins in ligamentum teres. Their significance as collaterals in portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lin, G; Lunderquist, A; Hägerstrand, I

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-two postmortem specimens of the liver (18 normal livers, three with liver metastases, and one with liver cirrhosis) with attached ligamenta teres were investigated using silicone rubber injection technique. In all cases, the paraumbilical veins were demonstrated. They were usually divided into 2 groups, one on the right and one on the left side of the ligamentum teres, and they terminated in a variable manner into small peripheral portal vein branches in the liver parenchyma. A patent segment of the umbilical vein was found in 7 of the 22 cases. Connections between the umbilical vein and paraumbilical veins were supposed to represent one of the collateral channels in portal hypertension.

  20. [Significance of umbilical and paraumbilical veins as collaterals in portal hypertension].

    PubMed

    Lin, G

    1989-08-01

    Twenty-one postmortem specimens of the liver (18 normal livers, 3 liver metastases) with attached ligamentum teres were investigated using silicone rubber injection technique. In all cases, the paraumbilical veins were demonstrated. They were usually divided into 2 groups, one on the right and the other on the left side of the ligamentum teres, and they terminated in a variable manner into small peripheral portal vein branches in the liver parenchyma. A patent proximal segment of the umbilical vein was found in 7 of the 21 cases. Connections between the umbilical vein and paraumbilical veins were supposed to represent one of the collateral channels in portal hypertension.

  1. Dynamics of collateral circulation in progressive asymptomatic carotid disease.

    PubMed

    Moll, F L; Eikelboom, B C; Vermeulen, F E; van Lier, H J; Schulte, B P

    1986-03-01

    Inadequacy of collateral arterial flow is the major risk factor for hemispheric infarction in association with spontaneous occlusion of the ipsilateral carotid artery. This prospective study was designed to measure the adaptation of collateral cerebral circulation through the circle of Willis in patients in whom a unilateral carotid stenosis of hemodynamic consequence develops asymptomatically. The collateral cerebral potential is assessed by ocular pneumoplethysmography (OPG) during proximal common carotid artery compression, measuring the collateral ophthalmic artery pressure (COAP). During an average follow-up of almost 3 years (maximum more than 7 years), 45 patients showed asymptomatic development of a unilateral hemodynamically significant carotid stenosis according to OPG evidence. In these patients the mean index COAP/brachial artery pressure did not change on the side of stenosis progression (p greater than 0.05). The developed carotid stenosis had only reduced collateral circulation to the contralateral hemisphere. The risk of inadequate collateral cerebral circulation remained during progression of asymptomatic extracranial arterial obstructive disease.

  2. Coronary collateral vessels in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsuka, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ozaki, M.; Ogawa, H.; Moritani, K.; Khono, M.; Miura, T.; Shimizu, T.; Furutani, Y.; Kusukawa, R.

    1987-12-01

    To assess the degree of collateral vessels after myocardial infarction, coronary angiograms, left ventriculograms, and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams of 36 patients with previous myocardial infarction were reviewed. All 36 patients had total occlusion of infarct-related coronary artery and no more than 70% stenosis in other coronary arteries. In 19 of 36 patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group A), good collaterals were observed in 10 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 2 patients. In 17 of 36 patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group B), good collaterals were seen in 2 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 8 patients (p less than 0.025). Left ventricular contractions in the infarcted area were normal or hypokinetic in 10 patients and akinetic or dyskinetic in 9 patients in Group A. In Group B, 1 patient had hypokinetic contraction and 16 patients had akinetic or dyskinetic contraction (p less than 0.005). Thus, patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise had well developed collaterals and preserved left ventricular contraction, compared to those in patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise. These results suggest that the presence of viable myocardium in the infarcted area might be related to the degree of collateral vessels.

  3. Pial Collateral Reactivity During Hypertension and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Siu-Lung; Sweet, Julie G.; Bishop, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— We investigated vasoactive properties of leptomeningeal arterioles (LMAs) under normotensive conditions and during hypertension and aging that are known to have poor collateral flow and little salvageable tissue. Methods— LMAs, identified as distal anastomotic arterioles connecting middle and anterior cerebral arteries, were studied isolated and pressurized from young (18 weeks) or aged (48 weeks) normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY18, n=14; WKY48, n=6) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR18, n=16; SHR48, n=6). Myogenic tone and vasoactive responses to pressure as well as endothelial function and ion channel activity were measured. Results— LMAs from WKY18 had little myogenic tone at 40 mm Hg (8±3%) that increased in aged WKY48 (30±6%). However, LMAs from both WKY groups dilated to increased pressure and demonstrated little myogenic reactivity, a response that would be conducive to collateral flow. In contrast, LMAs from both SHR18 and SHR48 displayed considerable myogenic tone (56±8% and 43±7%; P<0.01 versus WKY) and constricted to increased pressure. LMAs from both WKY and SHR groups had similar basal endothelial nitric oxide and IK channel activity that opposed tone. However, dilation to sodium nitroprusside, diltiazem and 15 mmol/L KCl was impaired in LMAs from SHR18. Conclusions— This study shows for the first time that LMAs from young and aged SHR are vasoconstricted and have impaired vasodilatory responses that may contribute to greater perfusion deficit and little penumbral tissue. These results also suggest that therapeutic opening of pial collaterals is possible during middle cerebral artery occlusion to create penumbral tissue and prevent infarct expansion. PMID:27103017

  4. Collateral sensitivity of antibiotic-resistant microbes.

    PubMed

    Pál, Csaba; Papp, Balázs; Lázár, Viktória

    2015-07-01

    Understanding how evolution of microbial resistance towards a given antibiotic influences susceptibility to other drugs is a challenge of profound importance. By combining laboratory evolution, genome sequencing, and functional analyses, recent works have charted the map of evolutionary trade-offs between antibiotics and have explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Strikingly, mutations that caused multidrug resistance in bacteria simultaneously enhanced sensitivity to many other unrelated drugs (collateral sensitivity). Here, we explore how this emerging research sheds new light on resistance mechanisms and the way it could be exploited for the development of alternative antimicrobial strategies.

  5. The relationship of serum erythropoietin level with coronary collateral grade.

    PubMed

    Sahinarslan, Asife; Yalcin, Ridvan; Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Ercin, Ugur; Tanalp, Ali Cevat; Topal, Salih; Bukan, Neslihan; Boyaci, Bulent; Cengel, Atiye

    2011-01-01

    Erythropoietin has been shown to induce neovascularization and protect against ischemic vascular injury. We investigated whether a higher serum erythropoietin (EPO) level is related to better coronary collateral vessel grade. Ninety-nine patients with stable angina pectoris who have at least 1 coronary stenosis of equal to or greater than 70% at coronary angiography were prospectively enrolled. Serum EPO and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were studied. Coronary collateral degree was graded according to the Rentrop method. Patients with grade 2-3 collateral degree were included in the good collateral group and formed Group I. The patients with grade 0-1 collateral degree were included in the poor collateral group and formed Group II. The serum EPO level was significantly higher in the good collateral group (17.3 ± 9.3 mU/mL vs 11.7 ± 5.0 mU/mL; P < 0.001). There was also a positive correlation between serum EPO level and Rentrop score (r = 0.39; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, serum EPO level (odds ratio [OR] 1.336; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.120-1.593; P = 0.001), oxygen saturation (OR 0.638; 95% CI, 0.422-0.963; P = 0.033) and presence of chronic total occlusion (CTO) (OR 26.7; 95% CI, 3.874-184.6; P = 0.001) were independently related to well-developed coronary collaterals. Higher serum EPO level is related to better coronary collateral development. Erythropoietin may have a positive effect on the development of collaterals and may provide a new agent for the treatment strategies to enhance coronary collateral vessel development. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fault Branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.; Poliakov, A. N.

    2001-12-01

    Theoretical stress analysis for a propagating shear rupture suggests that the propensity of the rupture path to branch is determined by rupture speed and by the preexisting stress state. See Poliakov, Dmowska and Rice (JGR, submitted April 2001, URL below). Deviatoric stresses near a mode II rupture tip are found to be much higher to both sides of the fault plane than directly ahead, when rupture speed becomes close to the Rayleigh speed. However, the actual pattern of predicted Coulomb failure on secondary faults is strongly dependent on the angle between the fault and the direction of maximum compression Smax in the pre-stress field. Steep Smax angles lead to more extensive failure on the extensional side, whereas shallow angles give comparable failure regions on both. Here we test such concepts against natural examples. For crustal thrust faults we may assume that Smax is horizontal. Thus nucleation on a steeply dipping plane, like the 53 ° dip for the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, is consistent with rupture path kinking to the extensional side, as inferred. Nucleation on a shallow dip, like for the 12 ° -18 ° of the 1985 Kettleman Hills event, should activate both sides, as seems consistent with aftershock patterns. Similarly, in a strike slip example, Smax is inferred to be at approximately 60 ° with the Johnson Valley fault where it branched to the extensional side onto the Landers-Kickapoo fault in the 1992 event, and this too is consistent. Further, geological examination of the activation of secondary fault features along the Johnson Valley fault and the Homestead Valley fault consistently shows that most activity occurs on the extensional side. Another strike-slip example is the Imperial Valley 1979 earthquake. The approximate Smax direction is north-south, at around 35 ° with the main fault, where it branched, on the extensional side, onto Brawley fault, again interpretable with the concepts developed.

  7. Elevated Release of Beta-thromboglobulin and Platelet Factor 4 in Cerebral Infarction Patients with Branch Atheromatous Disease: A Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Yokote, Akiyoshi; Hashimoto, Kazutoshi; Bikei, Ryu; Nakamoto, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the levels of the platelet activation markers beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) and platelet factor 4 (PF4) in patients with branch atheromatous disease (BAD). Patients with newly diagnosed cerebral infarctions were recruited into the study; those with cardiogenic cerebral infarctions were excluded. Beta-TG and PF4 levels were measured before therapeutic intervention and compared between patients with and without BAD; Welch's t-test was used to determine significant differences between the groups. A total of 15 subjects were enrolled in the study, and 8 were diagnosed with BAD. Beta-TG (P = 0.031) and PF4 (P = 0.041) levels were significantly higher in the BAD patients than in the non-BAD patients. Platelet activity is normally elevated in patients with cerebral infarctions, but is elevated to an even greater extent in BAD patients. The evaluation of beta-TG and PF4 levels may be beneficial for the elucidation of BAD.

  8. 31 CFR 901.7 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... collateral through the exercise of a power of sale in the security instrument or a nonjudicial foreclosure... other sources, including liquidation of security or collateral, is not a prerequisite to requiring..., including, but not limited to, 11 U.S.C. 362, to determine the applicability of the automatic stay and the...

  9. 10 CFR 1015.210 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... liquidate security or collateral through the exercise of a power of sale in the security instrument or a... States. Collection from other sources, including liquidation of security or collateral, is not a..., including, but not limited to, 11 U.S.C. 362, to determine the applicability of the automatic stay and the...

  10. 31 CFR 901.7 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... collateral through the exercise of a power of sale in the security instrument or a nonjudicial foreclosure... other sources, including liquidation of security or collateral, is not a prerequisite to requiring..., including, but not limited to, 11 U.S.C. 362, to determine the applicability of the automatic stay and the...

  11. 10 CFR 1015.210 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... liquidate security or collateral through the exercise of a power of sale in the security instrument or a... States. Collection from other sources, including liquidation of security or collateral, is not a..., including, but not limited to, 11 U.S.C. 362, to determine the applicability of the automatic stay and the...

  12. 10 CFR 1015.210 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... liquidate security or collateral through the exercise of a power of sale in the security instrument or a... States. Collection from other sources, including liquidation of security or collateral, is not a..., including, but not limited to, 11 U.S.C. 362, to determine the applicability of the automatic stay and the...

  13. 38 CFR 1.913 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... security or collateral through the exercise of a power of sale in the security instrument or a nonjudicial... other sources, including liquidation of security or collateral, is not a prerequisite to requiring... Code, including, but not limited to, 11 U.S.C. 362, to determine the applicability of the automatic...

  14. 38 CFR 1.913 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... security or collateral through the exercise of a power of sale in the security instrument or a nonjudicial... other sources, including liquidation of security or collateral, is not a prerequisite to requiring... Code, including, but not limited to, 11 U.S.C. 362, to determine the applicability of the automatic...

  15. 38 CFR 1.913 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... security or collateral through the exercise of a power of sale in the security instrument or a nonjudicial... other sources, including liquidation of security or collateral, is not a prerequisite to requiring... Code, including, but not limited to, 11 U.S.C. 362, to determine the applicability of the automatic...

  16. 31 CFR 901.7 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... collateral through the exercise of a power of sale in the security instrument or a nonjudicial foreclosure... other sources, including liquidation of security or collateral, is not a prerequisite to requiring..., including, but not limited to, 11 U.S.C. 362, to determine the applicability of the automatic stay and the...

  17. 38 CFR 1.913 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... security or collateral through the exercise of a power of sale in the security instrument or a nonjudicial... other sources, including liquidation of security or collateral, is not a prerequisite to requiring... Code, including, but not limited to, 11 U.S.C. 362, to determine the applicability of the automatic...

  18. 45 CFR 30.16 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquidation of collateral. 30.16 Section 30.16 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS COLLECTION Standards... will liquidate security or collateral through the exercise of a power of sale in the security...

  19. 41 CFR 105-55.014 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liquidation of collateral. 105-55.014 Section 105-55.014 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Administration 55-COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES § 105-55.014 Liquidation of collateral. (a) The...

  20. 41 CFR 105-55.014 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquidation of collateral. 105-55.014 Section 105-55.014 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Administration 55-COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES § 105-55.014 Liquidation of collateral. (a) The...

  1. 41 CFR 105-55.014 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liquidation of collateral. 105-55.014 Section 105-55.014 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Administration 55-COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES § 105-55.014 Liquidation of collateral. (a) The...

  2. 41 CFR 105-55.014 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liquidation of collateral. 105-55.014 Section 105-55.014 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Administration 55-COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES § 105-55.014 Liquidation of collateral. (a) The...

  3. 41 CFR 105-55.014 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liquidation of collateral. 105-55.014 Section 105-55.014 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Administration 55-COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES § 105-55.014 Liquidation of collateral. (a) The...

  4. Endothelial function in well-developed canine coronary collateral vessels.

    PubMed

    Altman, J; Dulas, D; Pavek, T; Laxson, D D; Homans, D C; Bache, R J

    1993-02-01

    This study examined responses of coronary collateral blood flow to endothelial-dependent vasodilators. Studies were performed in 13 dogs 4-6 mo after embolic occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Collateral flow was determined as the sum of retrograde flow from the cannulated LAD, and continuing tissue flow was measured with microspheres administered during the retrograde flow collection. Agonists were introduced into the left main coronary artery to reach collaterals arising from the left coronary arterial system. The endothelial-dependent vasodilators acetylcholine and bradykinin caused 21 +/- 7 and 25 +/- 8% increases of collateral flow, respectively (each P < 0.05). This was not different from the 28 +/- 8% increase in collateral flow produced by nitroglycerin. To determine whether vasodilator prostaglandins contributed to the increased collateral flow, studies were performed after cyclooxygenase blockade with indomethacin (5 mg/kg iv). Indomethacin caused a 30 +/- 9% decrease of retrograde flow during basal conditions but did not blunt the maximum collateral flow rates produced by acetylcholine, bradykinin, or nitroglycerin. These data demonstrate intact endothelial-dependent vasodilator mechanisms in the well-developed coronary collateral circulation.

  5. 46 CFR 308.509 - Collateral deposit fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund. 308.509 Section 308.509 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.509 Collateral deposit fund....

  6. 48 CFR 48.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sharing collateral savings. 48.104-3 Section 48.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a) The...

  7. 48 CFR 2448.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Sharing collateral savings. 2448.104-3 Section 2448.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING 2448.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a) The authority of...

  8. 48 CFR 2448.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sharing collateral savings. 2448.104-3 Section 2448.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING 2448.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a) The authority of...

  9. 12 CFR 614.4250 - Collateral evaluation standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS Collateral Evaluation Requirements § 614.4250 Collateral evaluation standards. (a) When real... identification and description of the property) and depth of analysis to reflect the relevant characteristics and complexity of the subject property; (6) Analyze and report, as appropriate, for real, intangible, and/or...

  10. Collateral Informant Assessment in Alcohol Use Research Involving College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagman, Brett T.; Cohn, Amy M.; Noel, Nora E.; Clifford, Patrick R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the associations between college students' self-reported alcohol use and corresponding collateral reports and identified factors that influence agreement between both sets of reports. Participants/Methods: Subject-collateral pairs (N = 300) were recruited from undergraduate psychology courses. Results: Data yielded…

  11. 12 CFR 950.9 - Pledged collateral; verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 950.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE... collateral pledged to the Bank, provided that the Bank and such member have executed a written security... ensure that its security interest in all collateral pledged by non-depository institutions for an advance...

  12. 46 CFR 308.509 - Collateral deposit fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund. 308.509 Section 308.509 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.509 Collateral deposit fund....

  13. 46 CFR 308.509 - Collateral deposit fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund. 308.509 Section 308.509 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.509 Collateral deposit fund....

  14. 46 CFR 308.509 - Collateral deposit fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund. 308.509 Section 308.509 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.509 Collateral deposit fund....

  15. 46 CFR 308.509 - Collateral deposit fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund. 308.509 Section 308.509 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.509 Collateral deposit fund....

  16. 40 CFR 13.16 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... collateral and apply the proceeds to the overdue debt. EPA will exercise this right where the debtor fails to pay within a reasonable time after demand, unless the cost of disposing of the collateral is... the debtor reasonable notice of the sale and an accounting of any surplus proceeds and will comply...

  17. 48 CFR 48.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sharing collateral savings. 48.104-3 Section 48.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a)...

  18. 48 CFR 48.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sharing collateral savings. 48.104-3 Section 48.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a)...

  19. 48 CFR 48.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sharing collateral savings. 48.104-3 Section 48.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a)...

  20. 48 CFR 48.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sharing collateral savings. 48.104-3 Section 48.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a)...

  1. 48 CFR 2448.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sharing collateral savings. 2448.104-3 Section 2448.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING 2448.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a) The authority...

  2. 48 CFR 2448.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sharing collateral savings. 2448.104-3 Section 2448.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING 2448.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a) The authority...

  3. 48 CFR 2448.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sharing collateral savings. 2448.104-3 Section 2448.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING 2448.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a) The authority...

  4. 26 CFR 403.29 - Deposit of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deposit of collateral. 403.29 Section 403.29 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 403.29 Deposit of collateral...

  5. 12 CFR 614.4250 - Collateral evaluation standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and procedures. Such a collateral evaluation shall be identified as either a collateral valuation or a...) Potential liabilities, including those associated with any hazardous waste or other environmental concerns... requested minimum valuation or specific valuation or approval of a loan. (b) For purposes of...

  6. 12 CFR 615.5060 - Special collateral requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 615.5060 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Collateral § 615.5060 Special collateral... (2) The bank or association has obtained a title insurance policy insuring that it has a first lien...

  7. Transcriptional changes in sensory ganglia associated with primary afferent axon collateral sprouting in spared dermatome model

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Benjamin J.; Venkat, Gayathri; Hutson, Thomas; Rau, Kristofer K.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Mendell, Lorne M.; Gage, Fred H.; Johnson, Richard D.; Hill, Caitlin; Rouchka, Eric C.; Moon, Lawrence; Petruska, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Primary afferent collateral sprouting is a process whereby non-injured primary afferent neurons respond to some stimulus and extend new branches from existing axons. Neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous systems undergo this process, which contributes to both adaptive and maladaptive plasticity (e.g., [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9]). In the model used here (the “spared dermatome” model), the intact sensory neurons respond to the denervation of adjacent areas of skin by sprouting new axon branches into that adjacent denervated territory. Investigations of gene expression changes associated with collateral sprouting can provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Consequently, it can be used to develop treatments to promote functional recovery for spinal cord injury and other similar conditions. This report includes raw gene expression data files from microarray experiments in order to study the gene regulation in spared sensory ganglia in the initiation (7 days) and maintenance (14 days) phases of the spared dermatome model relative to intact (“naïve”) sensory ganglia. Data has been deposited into GEO (GSE72551). PMID:26697387

  8. Interaction between Axons and Specific Populations of Surrounding Cells Is Indispensable for Collateral Formation in the Mammillary System

    PubMed Central

    Çankaya, Murat; Stoykova, Anastassia; Zhou, Xunlei; Alvarez-Bolado, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    Background An essential phenomenon during brain development is the extension of long collateral branches by axons. How the local cellular environment contributes to the initial sprouting of these branches in specific points of an axonal shaft remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings The principal mammillary tract (pm) is a landmark axonal bundle connecting ventral diencephalon to brainstem (through the mammillotegmental tract, mtg). Late in development, the axons of the principal mammillary tract sprout collateral branches at a very specific point forming a large bundle whose target is the thalamus. Inspection of this model showed a number of distinct, identified cell populations originated in the dorsal and the ventral diencephalon and migrating during development to arrange themselves into several discrete groups around the branching point. Further analysis of this system in several mouse lines carrying mutant alleles of genes expressed in defined subpopulations (including Pax6, Foxb1, Lrp6 and Gbx2) together with the use of an unambiguous genetic marker of mammillary axons revealed: 1) a specific group of Pax6-expressing cells in close apposition with the prospective branching point is indispensable to elicit axonal branching in this system; and 2) cooperation of transcription factors Foxb1 and Pax6 to differentially regulate navigation and fasciculation of distinct branches of the principal mammillary tract. Conclusions/Significance Our results define for the first time a model system where interaction of the axonal shaft with a specific group of surrounding cells is essential to promote branching. Additionally, we provide insight on the cooperative transcriptional regulation necessary to promote and organize an intricate axonal tree. PMID:21625468

  9. Assessment of collateral flow in patients with cerebrovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Joseph; Sumer, Suna; Wintermark, Max

    2014-10-01

    The ability to maintain cerebral parenchymal perfusion during states of acute or chronic ischemic insult depends largely on the capacity of the cerebral collateral circulation. Perfusion techniques, including perfusion-CT and arterial spin labeling, may not only describe the overall status of the collateral network, but can also quantify the pathophysiologic collateral reserve, which is occult to conventional imaging techniques. The following review details advanced imaging modalities capable of resolving pathophysiologic collateral circulation in a functional and dynamic manner, with regards to the evaluation of both acute ischemic penumbra and chronic cerebral vascular reserve. Specifically, the applications of perfusion-CT, arterial spin labeling MRI techniques, and transcranial Doppler are reviewed in the context of collateral circulation with emphasis on perfusion techniques and proposed clinical utility.

  10. Balancing patient care and confidentiality: considerations in obtaining collateral information.

    PubMed

    Petrik, Megan L; Billera, Melodi; Kaplan, Yuliya; Matarazzo, Bridget; Wortzel, Hal

    2015-05-01

    Collateral information facilitates comprehensive mental health care and is consistent with recovery-oriented models of care. But providers are often faced with complex decisions about obtaining collateral information, particularly when patients do not consent to communication with third parties for information gathering. Such situations require a thoughtful balance of best clinical practices, legal and ethical responsibilities, and patient safety concerns. This column offers an overview of the clinical utility of collateral information as well as the ethical and legal regulations concerning confidentiality that guide the process of obtaining collateral information. The risk-benefit analysis process related to obtaining collateral information without patient permission is illustrated. Recommendations about clinical consultation and documentation that facilitate optimal and ethical patient care are offered.

  11. Pleiotrophin levels are associated with improved coronary collateral circulation.

    PubMed

    Türker Duyuler, Pinar; Duyuler, Serkan; Gök, Murat; Kundi, Harun; Topçuoğlu, Canan; Güray, Ümit

    2017-09-06

    Elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in coronary collateral formation is necessary for new therapies. Pleiotrophin is a secreted multifunctional cytokine and associated with the formation of functional cardiovascular neovascularization in a series of experimental animal models. We aimed to evaluate the serum levels of pleiotrophin in patients with chronic total coronary artery occlusion and poor or good collateral development. We included 88 consecutive patients (mean age of the entire population: 63.7±12.1 years, 68 male patients) with stable angina pectoris who underwent coronary angiography and had chronic total occlusion in at least one major coronary artery. Collateral grading was performed according to the Rentrop classification. After grading, patients were divided into poor collateral circulation (Rentrop grade 0 and 1) and good collateral circulation (Rentrop grades 2 and 3) groups. Serum pleiotrophin levels were measured using a commercial human ELISA kit. Fifty-eight patients had good and 30 patients had poor coronary collaterals. The good collateral group had higher serum pleiotrophin levels than the poor collateral group (690.1±187.9 vs. 415.3±165.9 ng/ml, P<0.001). Pleiotrophin levels were higher with higher Rentrop grade (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, increased pleiotrophin was associated independently with good collateral development (odds ratio: 1.007; confidence interval: 1.003-1.012; P=0.002). This study showed that increased serum pleiotrophin levels are associated with better developed coronary collateral circulation. Further studies are needed to better understand the relationship.

  12. Collateral learning and mathematical education of teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramovich, Sergei

    2012-04-01

    This article explores the notion of collateral learning in the context of classic ideas about the summation of powers of the first n counting numbers. Proceeding from the well-known legend about young Gauss, this article demonstrates the value of reflection under the guidance of 'the more knowledgeable other' as a pedagogical method of making one's mathematics learning experience educative. This includes learning about the efficacy of generalizing by induction and the perils of overgeneralization. Recourse to geometry and computing as support system in understanding concepts of algebra is emphasized towards the end of promoting an experiential approach to mathematics. This article stems from the author's work with prospective teachers of secondary mathematics in a capstone course. Their reflections on the course are shared and analysed.

  13. Collateral projections of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve to the stomach and the intestines in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Tetsu; Kuwahara-Otani, Sachi; Maeda, Seishi; Tanaka, Koichi; Seki, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The vagal motor neurons project to the gastrointestinal tract by way of the gastric, celiac and hepatic branches of the vagus trunk. We have examined whether single neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV) have collateral projections to the stomach, the duodenum and the intestines using a double-labeling tracing method. Following application of Fluorogold to the cut end of the accessory celiac branch and injection of cholera toxin subunit b (CTb) into the body of stomach, many Fluorogold- and CTb-labeled neurons were found throughout the DMV. Most CTb-labeled neurons (about 90%) were also labeled with Fluorogold. When Fluorogold was applied to the cut end of the accessory celiac or the gastric branch and CTb was injected into the duodenum, many Fluorogold-labeled neurons and CTb-labeled neurons were found in the DMV. About 20% of CTb-labeled neurons were also labeled with Fluorogold. These results indicate that many neurons in the DMV send collateral projections to both the stomach and the intestines innervated by way of the celiac branch. However, many neurons in the DMV projecting to the duodenum do not project to the stomach or the intestines caudal to the duodenum.

  14. Collateral lessons from recent acute ischemic stroke trials.

    PubMed

    Liebeskind, David S

    2014-05-01

    Numerous acute ischemic stroke trials have recently published detailed results, providing an opportunity to consider the role of collaterals in stroke pathophysiology and their influential effect on patient outcomes. Safety and Efficacy of NeuroFlo Technology in Ischemic Stroke (SENTIS), the largest randomized controlled trial of device therapy to date, tested the potential augmentation of collateral perfusion. SYNTHESIS Expansion, Mechanical Retrieval and Recanalization of Stroke Clots Using Embolectomy (MR RESCUE), and Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS) III chronicled the saga of endovascular therapy trialed against medical treatment for acute ischemic stroke. These recent randomized studies, however, largely neglect current device technology available for endovascular therapy as advanced by the TREVO2 and SOLITAIRE™(TM) FR With the Intention For Thrombectomy (SWIFT) studies. Such exhaustive efforts in recent trials have failed to introduce a new treatment for stroke that unequivocally improves patient outcomes. Collateral perfusion is widely recognized to vary across individuals in any population and exerts a dramatic effect on baseline variables including the time course of ischemic injury, stroke severity, imaging findings, and therapeutic opportunities. Similarly, collaterals have been recognized to influence recanalization, reperfusion, hemorrhagic transformation, and subsequent neurological outcomes after stroke. Collateral lessons may be gleaned from these trials, to expand consideration of overall study results and perhaps most importantly, alter ongoing and new trials in development. Detailed analyses of available information on collaterals from these trials demonstrate that collaterals may be more influential than the choice of treatment modality or intervention.

  15. COLLATERALS DRAMATICALLY ALTER STROKE RISK IN INTRACRANIAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Liebeskind, David S.; Cotsonis, George A.; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Lynn, Michael J.; Turan, Tanya N.; Cloft, Harry J.; Chimowitz, Marc I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Stroke risk due to intracranial atherosclerosis increases with degree of arterial stenosis. We evaluated the previously unexplored role of collaterals in modifying stroke risk in intracranial atherosclerosis and impact on subsequent stroke characteristics. Methods Collateral flow was graded in blind fashion on 287/569 baseline angiograms (stenoses of 50–99% and adequate collateral views) in the WASID trial. Statistical models predicted stroke in the symptomatic arterial territory based on collateral flow grade, percentage of stenosis, and previously demonstrated independent covariates. Results Across all stenoses, extent of collaterals was a predictor for subsequent stroke in the symptomatic arterial territory (HR none vs. good: 1.14, 95% CI 0.39 to 3.30, poor vs good: 4.36, 95% CI 1.46 to 13.07, p<0.0001). For 70–99% stenoses, more extensive collaterals diminished risk of subsequent territorial stroke (HR none vs. good: 4.60, 95% CI 1.03 to 20.56, poor vs good: 5.90, 95% CI 1.25 to 27.81, p=0.0427). At milder degrees of stenoses (50–69%), presence of collaterals was associated with greater likelihood of subsequent stroke (HR none vs. good: 0.18, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.82, poor vs good: 1.78, 95% CI 0.37 to 8.57, p<0.0001). In multivariate analyses, extent of collaterals was an independent predictor for subsequent stroke in the symptomatic arterial territory (HR none vs. good: 1.62, 95% CI 0.52 to 5.11, poor vs good: 4.78, 95% CI 1.55 to 14.7, p=0.0019). Interpretation Collateral circulation is a potent determinant of stroke risk in intracranial atherosclerosis, demonstrating a protective role with severe stenoses and identifying more unstable milder stenoses. PMID:21437932

  16. Use of collateral information to improve LANDSAT classification accuracies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Methods to improve LANDSAT classification accuracies were investigated including: (1) the use of prior probabilities in maximum likelihood classification as a methodology to integrate discrete collateral data with continuously measured image density variables; (2) the use of the logit classifier as an alternative to multivariate normal classification that permits mixing both continuous and categorical variables in a single model and fits empirical distributions of observations more closely than the multivariate normal density function; and (3) the use of collateral data in a geographic information system as exercised to model a desired output information layer as a function of input layers of raster format collateral and image data base layers.

  17. Pulmonary artery agenesis associated with coronary collaterals among adults.

    PubMed

    Darwazah, Ahmad K; Alhaddad, Imad A

    2016-07-16

    Unilateral agenesis of the pulmonary artery is a rare congenital anomaly, which commonly involves the right side. Cases are associated with systemic collaterals, that may also rarely arise from the coronary arteries.Two adult patients are presented with a right pulmonary artery agenesis associated with collaterals from the right coronary artery. The implications of such an anomaly on pulmonary artery pressure and lung pathology differs among both cases. The association of coronary collaterals is rare and its implication is variable among various patients.

  18. Anatomical study of the lateral collateral ligament and its circumference structures in the human knee joint.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Sasaki, Wataru; Hitomi, Jiro

    2010-02-01

    Thirty-six cadavers (55 sides) were used to observe the innervation of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) and its circumference structures with gross anatomical and histological methods to clarify the cause of indistinct pain in the lateral part of the knee joint. The innervating branches of the LCL could be divided into three types: (1) from the muscular branch of the biceps femoris muscle at lower 1/3 level of the thigh; (2) from the common fibular nerve (CFN) at the higher level of the fossa poplitea; (3) from the CFN at the level of the caput fibular. Furthermore, the three branches could singly or plurally distribute to the LCL (six types). Two of the connecting tissue membranes surrounding the surface of LCL formed an incomplete sheath structure, and a shutting "gap" was observed between the two membranes. Fine peripheral nervous branches were also observed in the two of the membranes. On the other hand, three types of nerve endings in the LCL (Type I/Ruffini mechanoreceptor; Type III/Golgi mechanoreceptor; Type IV/free nerve ending) were observed, and their presence was consistent with the ankle joint of humans. Therefore, the innervation of the two membranes (to form the shutting gap) in the surface of LCL may be associated with an indistinct pain when the knee joint is damaged.

  19. 13 CFR 120.1850 - Will the Collateral be held by SBA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will the Collateral be held by SBA... Loan Program) § 120.1850 Will the Collateral be held by SBA? Yes, SBA or its expressly authorized agent... all Collateral for SISMBD Loans in a custodial account. Certificates held as Collateral must be...

  20. Pen Branch Fault Program

    SciTech Connect

    Price, V.; Stieve, A.L.; Aadland, R.

    1990-09-28

    Evidence from subsurface mapping and seismic reflection surveys at Savannah River Site (SRS) suggests the presence of a fault which displaces Cretaceous through Tertiary (90--35 million years ago) sediments. This feature has been described and named the Pen Branch fault (PBF) in a recent Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) paper (DP-MS-88-219). Because the fault is located near operating nuclear facilities, public perception and federal regulations require a thorough investigation of the fault to determine whether any seismic hazard exists. A phased program with various elements has been established to investigate the PBF to address the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory guidelines represented in 10 CFR 100 Appendix A. The objective of the PBF program is to fully characterize the nature of the PBF (ESS-SRL-89-395). This report briefly presents current understanding of the Pen Branch fault based on shallow drilling activities completed the fall of 1989 (PBF well series) and subsequent core analyses (SRL-ESS-90-145). The results are preliminary and ongoing: however, investigations indicate that the fault is not capable. In conjunction with the shallow drilling, other activities are planned or in progress. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Intracranial pressure elevation reduces flow through collateral vessels and the penetrating arterioles they supply. A possible explanation for ‘collateral failure' and infarct expansion after ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Daniel J; McLeod, Damian D; Logan, Caitlin L; Murtha, Lucy A; Imtiaz, Mohammad S; van Helden, Dirk F; Spratt, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    Recent human imaging studies indicate that reduced blood flow through pial collateral vessels (‘collateral failure') is associated with late infarct expansion despite stable arterial occlusion. The cause for ‘collateral failure' is unknown. We recently showed that intracranial pressure (ICP) rises dramatically but transiently 24 hours after even minor experimental stroke. We hypothesized that ICP elevation would reduce collateral blood flow. First, we investigated the regulation of flow through collateral vessels and the penetrating arterioles arising from them during stroke reperfusion. Wistar rats were subjected to intraluminal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion (MCAo). Individual pial collateral and associated penetrating arteriole blood flow was quantified using fluorescent microspheres. Baseline bidirectional flow changed to MCA-directed flow and increased by >450% immediately after MCAo. Collateral diameter changed minimally. Second, we determined the effect of ICP elevation on collateral and watershed penetrating arteriole flow. Intracranial pressure was artificially raised in stepwise increments during MCAo. The ICP increase was strongly correlated with collateral and penetrating arteriole flow reductions. Changes in collateral flow post-stroke appear to be primarily driven by the pressure drop across the collateral vessel, not vessel diameter. The ICP elevation reduces cerebral perfusion pressure and collateral flow, and is the possible explanation for ‘collateral failure' in stroke-in-progression. PMID:25669909

  2. 7 CFR 4287.113 - Release of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... used to reduce the guaranteed loan or to buy replacement collateral must be requested in writing by the lender and concurred in by the Agency in writing in advance of the release. A written evaluation will...

  3. Clinical outcome of collateral ligament injuries of the tarsus

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Lauren; Zubrod, Chad; Hague, Brent; Brakenhoff, Jeff; Major, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The significance of collateral ligament desmitis of the tarsocrural joint is often clinically underestimated, because it is an uncommon injury with a guarded prognosis for athletic soundness. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome of 12 horses with collateral ligament desmitis, along with tarsocrural joint synovitis secondary to hemarthrosis. Criteria for inclusion in this study included clinical signs of tarsocrural joint synovitis and sonographic evidence of collateral ligament desmitis. This retrospective study evaluated horses over an 8-year period. Median follow-up after treatment was 5.5 years. Four horses in the study returned to their previous level of performance, 6 horses remained lame due to pain in the tarsus, 1 was euthanized, and 1 is in convalescence. This study highlights the importance of collateral ligament desmitis, and emphasizes the need for early, aggressive treatment to prevent the development of osteoarthritis. PMID:23115364

  4. Chronic stress impairs collateral blood flow recovery in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Lassance-Soares, Roberta M; Sood, Subeena; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Jhamnani, Sunny; Aghili, Nima; Nashin, Hajra; Hammamieh, Rasha; Jett, Marti; Epstein, Stephen E; Burnett, Mary Susan

    2014-11-01

    Chronic stress is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Aging is also associated with vascular dysfunction. We hypothesize that chronic stress accelerates collateral dysfunction in old mice. Mice were subjected to either chronic social defeat (CSD) or chronic cold stress (CCS). The CSD mice were housed in a box inside an aggressor's cage and exposed to the aggressor. The CCS group was placed in iced water. After chronic stress, mice underwent femoral artery ligation (FAL) and flow recovery was measured. For the CSD group, appearance and use scores of the foot and a behavioral test were performed. CSD impaired collateral flow recovery after FAL. Further, stressed mice had greater ischemic damage, impaired foot function, and altered behavior. The CCS mice also showed impaired collateral flow recovery. Chronic stress causes hind limb collateral dysfunction in old mice, a conclusion reinforced by the fact that two types of stress produced similar changes.

  5. Vasomotor responses of newly developed coronary collateral vessels.

    PubMed

    Kinn, J W; Altman, J D; Chang, M W; Bache, R J

    1996-08-01

    Well-developed coronary collateral vessels contain an abundant muscular media and can undergo active vasomotion. However, early after coronary occlusion, coronary collateral vessels are thin walled with little smooth muscle, suggesting that vasomotor capability might be limited. Consequently, this study determined whether newly developed coronary collateral vessels have active vasomotor activity and whether endothelial function in these newly developed vessels is impaired. Retrograde blood flow was measured as an index of coronary collateral blood flow approximately 2 wk after embolic occlusion of the anterior descending coronary artery of dogs. Agonists were administered into the left main coronary artery to reach collaterals originating from the left coronary system. Baseline retrograde blood flow was 25.1 +/- 2.7 ml/min and increased to 36.7 +/- 3.7 ml/min after nitroglycerin (6 micrograms.kg-1.min-1, P < 0.05). Cyclooxygenase blockade with indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.v.) decreased retrograde collateral blood flow to 16.8 +/- 2.3 ml/min (P < 0.05). Subsequent administration of acetylcholine increased retrograde flow to 29.4 +/- 3.7 ml/min (P < 0.05), indicating intact endothelium-mediated vasodilation. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with NG-nitro-L-arginine further decreased coronary collateral retrograde flow to 12.0 +/- 2.8 ml/min (P < 0.05) and markedly blunted the response to acetylcholine. These findings demonstrate substantial vasomotor capability even early during coronary collateral development and indicate that both nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase-dependent endothelial mechanisms are intact.

  6. The role of collateral circulation in preserving myocardial function.

    PubMed

    Hasanović, Aida; Kulenović, Amela; Sisić, Fuad

    2006-11-01

    The coronary collateral circulation is an alternative source of blood supply to the myocardium jeopardized by the failure of the original stenotic or occluded vessel to provide adequate blood flow to this region. One hundred coronary angiograms and left ventriculograms of patients with coronary artery disease from the Cardiology Department of University Clinics Centre in Sarajevo were reviewed. The role of collateral circulation in preserving myocardial function was assessed by comparing regional left ventricular contractility in 34 instances of total arterial occlusion and adequate colateral circulation with that in 34 instances of total arterial occlusion and inadequate collateral circulation. Among the group with adequate collaterals, regional left ventricular contraction was normal in 41%, hypokinetic in 53% and akinetic or dyskinetic in only 5%. Among the group with inadequate collaterals, regional contraction was normal in 9%, hypokinetic in 20 % and akinetic or dyskinetic in 70%. These data indicate that collateral circulation plays an important role in preserving myocardial contractility in patients with coronary artery disease.

  7. Serotonin, atherosclerosis, and collateral vessel spasm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenberg, N.

    1988-01-01

    Studies on animal models demonstrate that platelet products contribute to vascular spasm in ischemic syndromes and that this is reversible with administration of ketanserin and thromboxane synthesis inhibitors. Laboratory animals (dogs, rabbits, and rats) that had femoral artery ligations exhibited supersensitivity to serotonin within days in their collateral blood vessels. This supersensitivity lasted at least 6 months. The response to serotonin was reversed by ketanserin, but not by 5HT-1 antagonists. Supersensitivity does not extend to norepinephrine, and alpha blockers do not influence the response to serotonin. It appears that platelet activation by endothelial injury contributes to ischemia through blood vessel occlusion and vascular spasm. When platelet activation occurs in vivo, blood vessel occlusion and vascular spasm are reversible in part by using ketanserin or agents that block thromboxane synthesis or its action. Combining both classes of agents reverses spasm completely. These findings support existing evidence that platelet products contribute to vascular disease, and provide an approach to improved management with currently available pharmacologic agents.

  8. Action potentials initiate in the axon initial segment and propagate through axon collaterals reliably in cerebellar Purkinje neurons.

    PubMed

    Foust, Amanda; Popovic, Marko; Zecevic, Dejan; McCormick, David A

    2010-05-19

    Purkinje neurons are the output cells of the cerebellar cortex and generate spikes in two distinct modes, known as simple and complex spikes. Revealing the point of origin of these action potentials, and how they conduct into local axon collaterals, is important for understanding local and distal neuronal processing and communication. By using a recent improvement in voltage-sensitive dye imaging technique that provided exceptional spatial and temporal resolution, we were able to resolve the region of spike initiation as well as follow spike propagation into axon collaterals for each action potential initiated on single trials. All fast action potentials, for both simple and complex spikes, whether occurring spontaneously or in response to a somatic current pulse or synaptic input, initiated in the axon initial segment. At discharge frequencies of less than approximately 250 Hz, spikes propagated faithfully through the axon and axon collaterals, in a saltatory manner. Propagation failures were only observed for very high frequencies or for the spikelets associated with complex spikes. These results demonstrate that the axon initial segment is a critical decision point in Purkinje cell processing and that the properties of axon branch points are adjusted to maintain faithful transmission.

  9. 'Wellbeing': a collateral casualty of modernity?

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Sandra; Henderson, Gregor; Hanlon, Phil W

    2009-11-01

    In the now vast empirical and theoretical literature on wellbeing knowledge of the subject is provided mainly by psychology and economics, where understanding of the concept are framed in very different ways. We briefly rehearse these, before turning to some important critical points which can be made about this burgeoning research industry, including the tight connections between the meanings of the concept with the moral value systems of particular 'modern' societies. We then argue that both the 'science' of wellbeing and its critique are, despite their diversity, re-connected by and subsumed within the emerging environmental critique of modern consumer society. This places concerns for individual and social wellbeing within the broader context of global human problems and planetary wellbeing. A growing number of thinkers now suggest that Western society and culture are dominated by materialistic and individualistic values, made manifest at the political and social levels through the unending pursuit of economic growth, and at the individual level by the seemingly endless quest for consumer goods, regardless of global implications such as broader environmental harms. The escalating growth of such values is associated with a growing sense of individual alienation, social fragmentation and civic disengagement and with the decline of more spiritual, moral and ethical aspects of life. Taken together, these multiple discourses suggest that wellbeing can be understood as a collateral casualty of the economic, social and cultural changes associated with late modernity. However, increasing concerns for the environment have the potential to counter some of these trends, and in so doing could also contribute to our wellbeing as individuals and as social beings in a finite world.

  10. Genomic deletion of malic enzyme 2 confers collateral lethality in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Dey, Prasenjit; Baddour, Joelle; Muller, Florian; Wu, Chia Chin; Wang, Huamin; Liao, Wen-Ting; Lan, Zangdao; Chen, Alina; Gutschner, Tony; Kang, Yaan; Fleming, Jason; Satani, Nikunj; Zhao, Di; Achreja, Abhinav; Yang, Lifeng; Lee, Jiyoon; Chang, Edward; Genovese, Giannicola; Viale, Andrea; Ying, Haoqiang; Draetta, Giulio; Maitra, Anirban; Wang, Y Alan; Nagrath, Deepak; DePinho, Ronald A

    2017-02-02

    The genome of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) frequently contains deletions of tumour suppressor gene loci, most notably SMAD4, which is homozygously deleted in nearly one-third of cases. As loss of neighbouring housekeeping genes can confer collateral lethality, we sought to determine whether loss of the metabolic gene malic enzyme 2 (ME2) in the SMAD4 locus would create cancer-specific metabolic vulnerability upon targeting of its paralogous isoform ME3. The mitochondrial malic enzymes (ME2 and ME3) are oxidative decarboxylases that catalyse the conversion of malate to pyruvate and are essential for NADPH regeneration and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. Here we show that ME3 depletion selectively kills ME2-null PDAC cells in a manner consistent with an essential function for ME3 in ME2-null cancer cells. Mechanistically, integrated metabolomic and molecular investigation of cells deficient in mitochondrial malic enzymes revealed diminished NADPH production and consequent high levels of reactive oxygen species. These changes activate AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), which in turn directly suppresses sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1)-directed transcription of its direct targets including the BCAT2 branched-chain amino acid transaminase 2) gene. BCAT2 catalyses the transfer of the amino group from branched-chain amino acids to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) thereby regenerating glutamate, which functions in part to support de novo nucleotide synthesis. Thus, mitochondrial malic enzyme deficiency, which results in impaired NADPH production, provides a prime 'collateral lethality' therapeutic strategy for the treatment of a substantial fraction of patients diagnosed with this intractable disease.

  11. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction of the Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Chalmers, Peter N.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is a common procedure in both professional and high-level athletes. Purpose: To determine the effect of technique and level of play with UCLR on return to sport (RTS). Hypothesis: When comparing different surgical techniques or preoperative level of sports participation, there is no difference in rate of RTS after UCLR. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review was registered with PROSPERO and performed following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines using 3 publicly available free databases. Therapeutic clinical outcome investigations reporting UCLR outcomes with level of evidence 1 through 4 were eligible for inclusion. All study, subject, and surgical technique demographics were analyzed and compared between continents and countries. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and 2-proportion 2-sample z-test calculators with α = .05 were used to compare RTS between level of play and technique. Results: Twenty studies (2019 patients/elbows; mean age, 22.13 ± 4 years; 97% male; mean follow-up, 39.9 ± 16.2 months) were included. The majority of patients were baseball players (94.5%), specifically pitchers (80%). The most common level of play was collegiate (44.6%). Palmaris longus (71.2%) and the American Sports Medicine Institute (ASMI) technique (65.6%) were the most common graft choice and surgical technique, respectively. There was a pooled 86.2% RTS rate, and 90% of players scored excellent/good on the Conway-Jobe scale. RTS rates were higher among collegiate athletes (95.5%) than either high school (89.4%, P = .023) or professional athletes (86.4%, P < .0001). RTS rates were higher for the docking technique (97.0%, P = .001) and the ASMI technique (93.3%, P = .0034) than the Jobe technique (66.7%). Conclusion: UCLR is performed most commonly in collegiate athletes. Collegiate athletes have the highest RTS rate

  12. How temporal evolution of intracranial collaterals in acute stroke affects clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Paliwal, Prakash; Low, Adrian F.; Tay, Edgar L.W.; Gopinathan, Anil; Nadarajah, Mahendran; Ting, Eric; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Seet, Raymond C.S.; Ahmad, Aftab; Chan, Bernard P.L.; Teoh, Hock L.; Soon, Derek; Rathakrishnan, Rahul; Sharma, Vijay K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We compared intracranial collaterals on pretreatment and day 2 brain CT angiograms (CTA) to assess their evolution and relationship with functional outcomes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients treated with IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Methods: Consecutive AIS patients who underwent pretreatment and day 2 CTA and received IV tPA during 2010–2013 were included. Collaterals were evaluated by 2 independent neuroradiologists using 3 predefined criteria: the Miteff system, the Maas system, and 20-point collateral scale by the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score methodology. We stratified our cohort by baseline pre-tPA state of their collaterals and by recanalization status of the primary vessel for analysis. Good outcomes at 3 months were defined by a modified Rankin Scale score of 0–1. Results: This study included 209 patients. Delayed collateral recruitment by any grading system was not associated with good outcomes. All 3 scoring systems showed that collateral recruitment on the follow-up CTA from a baseline poor collateral state was significantly associated with poor outcome and increased bleeding risk. When the primary vessel remained persistently occluded, collateral recruitment was significantly associated with worse outcomes. Interestingly, collateral recruitment was significantly associated with increased mortality in 2 of the 3 grading systems. Conclusions: Not all collateral recruitment is beneficial; delayed collateral recruitment may be different from early recruitment and can result in worse outcomes and higher mortality. Prethrombolysis collateral status and recanalization are determinants of how intracranial collateral evolution affects functional outcomes. PMID:26740681

  13. A Moyamoya Patient with Bilateral Consecutive Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Güçlü, Hande; Gurlu, Vuslat Pelitli; Ozal, Sadık Altan; Esgin, Haluk

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We describe a moyamoya (MMD) patient with bilateral consecutive branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). The patient had a medical history of severe headache, cranial haemorrhage, bilateral supraclinoid carotid artery occlusion, and “puff of smoke” collaterals on cerebral angiography and an encephalomyosynangiosis operation. On ophthalmic examination, he had superior temporal branch vein occlusion with intraretinal haemorrhage and visual acuity of 20/25 in the right eye. Twelve years later, he presented with superior temporal branch vein occlusion in the left eye and visual acuity of 20/60. The patient was initially treated with a dexamethasone intravitreal implant, and later intravitreal ranibizumab injections. We describe the first reported case of bilateral consecutive BRVO and management in MMD. PMID:27928391

  14. [On structure characteristics and mechanisms of channels and collaterals].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-De

    2009-04-01

    Recognition of traditional Chinese medicine for the structures of channels and collaterals is possibly related with the tactics of human early general medical study, characterized by "inner", sub-micro, entirety, etc. The mechanisms are possibly involved in direct communication pathway of the cell junction (specially keeping the relevant cellular direct communication relation in individual development), the extra-cellular matrix stress network system and its biophysical message transmission--force--meridian signs transformation--inter-cellular massage integration, and "generalization" of the structures and activities of channels and collaterals in acupuncture serum phenomenon, etc. Thus, the hypothesis of multi-factors about channel structures-mechanisms is proposed.

  15. Vascular collateralization along ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheters in moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Singla, Amit; Lin, Ning; Ho, Allen L; Scott, R Michael; Smith, Edward R

    2013-06-01

    Surgically created openings such as bur holes can serve as avenues for the development of collateral blood supply to the brain in patients with moyamoya disease. When such collateralization occurs through preexisting shunt catheter sites, the potential exists for perioperative stroke if these vessels are damaged during revision of a ventricular catheter for shunt malfunction. In this paper the authors report on a series of patients with a history of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts who later developed moyamoya disease and were found to have spontaneous transdural collateral vessels at ventricular catheter sites readily visualized on diagnostic angiography. A consecutive surgical series of 412 patients with moyamoya disease treated at Boston Children's Hospital from 1990 to 2010 were reviewed to identify patients with concomitant moyamoya and a VP shunt. The clinical records and angiograms of these patients were reviewed to determine the extent of bur hole collaterals through the shunt site. Three patients were identified who had VP shunts placed for hydrocephalus and subsequently developed moyamoya disease. All 3 patients demonstrated spontaneous transdural collaterals at the ventricular catheter bur hole, as confirmed by angiography during the workup for moyamoya disease. No patients required subsequent revision of their ventricular catheters following the diagnosis of moyamoya. All patients have remained stroke free and clinically stable following pial synangiosis. Although the association of moyamoya and shunted hydrocephalus is rare, it may present a significant potential problem for the neurosurgeon treating a shunt malfunction in this patient population, because shunt bur holes may become entry sites for the ingrowth of significant cortical transdural collateral blood supply to the underlying brain. Shunt revision might therefore be associated with an increased risk of postoperative stroke or operative-site hemorrhage in this population if this

  16. Historical Aspects and Relevance of the Human Coronary Collateral Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Christian; Meier, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    In 1669, anastomoses between the right and left coronary artery were first documented by Richard Lower of Amsterdam. Using post-mortem imaging, a debate followed on the existence of structural inter-coronary anastomoses, which was not resolved before the first half of the 20ieth century in case of the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD), and not before the early 1960ies in case of the normal human coronary circulation by William Fulton. Functional coronary collateral measurements during coronary interventions were first performed only in the 1970ies, respectively in the early 1980ies. In humans, the existence of functional coronary collaterals in the absence of CAD has not been documented before 2003. Though the coronary collateral circulation has been recognized as an alternative source of blood supply to ischemic myocardium, its prognostic significance for the CAD population as a whole has been controversial until recently. The debate was due to different populations examined (acute versus chronic CAD, varying severity of CAD), to variable definitions of the term “prognosis”, to insufficient statistical power of the investigation with rare occurrence of prognostic endpoints, to short duration of follow-up and to blunt instruments employed for collateral assessment. Individually, it has been acknowledged that a well functioning collateral supply to a myocardial area at risk for necrosis reduces infarct size, preserves ventricular function, prevents ventricular remodelling and aneurysm formation. Collectively, evidence has accumulated only recently that an extensive coronary collateral circulation is a beneficial prognosticator quoad vitam. In a recent meta-analysis on the topic, the risk ratio to die from any cause for high vs low or absent collateralization in patients with subacute myocardial infarction was 0.53 (95% confidence interval 0.15–1.92; p=0.335), and for patients with acute myocardial infarction, it was 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.29

  17. Optimal management of ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E; Brown, J Rodney; Hoffer, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    The ulnar collateral ligament stabilizes the elbow joint from valgus stress associated with the throwing motion. During baseball pitching, this ligament is subjected to tremendous stress and injury if the force on the ulnar collateral ligament during pitching exceeds the physiological limits of the ligament. Injuries to the throwing elbow in baseball pitchers result in significant time loss and typically surgical intervention. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of current information to sports medicine clinicians on injury epidemiology, injury mechanics, injury risk factors, injury prevention, surgical interventions, nonsurgical interventions, rehabilitation, and return to play outcomes in baseball pitchers of all levels. PMID:26635490

  18. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a...

  19. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a...

  20. 76 FR 31518 - Public Roundtable on the Protection of Cleared Swaps Customer Collateral

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 22 and 190 Public Roundtable on the Protection of Cleared Swaps Customer Collateral... related to the protection of cleared swaps customer collateral described in the CFTC's notice of proposed rulemaking regarding the Protection of Cleared Swaps Customer Contracts and Collateral and...

  1. 7 CFR 1980.443 - Collateral, personal and corporate guarantees and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... successor agency under Public Law 103-354. (2) Collateral must be of such a nature that repayment of the.... (i) Release of collateral prior to payment-in-full of the FmHA or its successor agency under Public... (4) Assurance to FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 that the release of collateral...

  2. 7 CFR 1980.443 - Collateral, personal and corporate guarantees and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... successor agency under Public Law 103-354. (2) Collateral must be of such a nature that repayment of the.... (i) Release of collateral prior to payment-in-full of the FmHA or its successor agency under Public... (4) Assurance to FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 that the release of collateral...

  3. 7 CFR 1421.106 - Warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan collateral... Marketing Assistance Loans § 1421.106 Warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan collateral. (a) A commodity may be pledged as collateral for a warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan in the...

  4. Ultrasound imaging versus morphopathology in cardiovascular diseases. Coronary collateral circulation and atherosclerotic plaque

    PubMed Central

    Baroldi, Giorgio; Bigi, Riccardo; Cortigiani, Lauro

    2005-01-01

    This review article is aimed at comparing the results of histopathological and clinical imaging studies to assess coronary collateral circulation in humans. The role of collaterals, as emerging from morphological studies in both normal and atherosclerotic coronary vessels, is described; in addition, present role and future perpectives of echocardiographic techniques in assessing collateral circulation are briefly summarized. PMID:15740620

  5. 45 CFR 1336.67 - Security and collateral: Responsibilities of the Loan Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) As a Credit Factor. The availability of collateral security normally is considered an important factor in making loans. The types and amount of collateral security required should be governed by the relative strengths and weaknesses of other credit factors. The taking of collateral as security should...

  6. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a loan...

  7. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a loan...

  8. Slit and Receptor Tyrosine Phosphatase 69D Confer Spatial Specificity to Axon Branching via Dscam1

    PubMed Central

    Dascenco, Dan; Erfurth, Maria-Luise; Izadifar, Azadeh; Song, Minmin; Sachse, Sonja; Bortnick, Rachel; Urwyler, Olivier; Petrovic, Milan; Ayaz, Derya; He, Haihuai; Kise, Yoshiaki; Thomas, Franziska; Kidd, Thomas; Schmucker, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Axonal branching contributes substantially to neuronal circuit complexity. Studies in Drosophila have shown that loss of Dscam1 receptor diversity can fully block axon branching in mechanosensory neurons. Here we report that cell-autonomous loss of the Receptor-Tyrosine-Phosphatase 69D (RPTP69D) and loss of midline-localized Slit inhibit formation of specific axon collaterals through modulation of Dscam1 activity. Genetic and biochemical data support a model in which direct binding of Slit to Dscam1 enhances the interaction of Dscam1 with RPTP69D, stimulating Dscam1 dephosphorylation. Single growth cone imaging reveals that Slit/RPTP69D are not required for general branch initiation, but instead promote the extension of specific axon collaterals. Hence, while regulation of intrinsic Dscam1-Dscam1 isoform interactions is essential for formation of all mechanosensory-axon branches, the local ligand-induced alterations of Dscam1 phosphorylation in distinct growth cone compartments enable the spatial specificity of axon collateral formation. PMID:26317474

  9. Collateral effects of antibiotics on mammalian gut microbiomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antibiotics are an essential component of the modern lifestyle. They improve our lives by treating disease, preventing disease, and in the case of agricultural animals by improving feed efficiency. However, antibiotic usage is not without collateral effects. The development and spread of antibiot...

  10. 7 CFR 3.15 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liquidation of collateral. 3.15 Section 3.15 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Standards for the Administrative Collection.... (b) When an agency learns that a bankruptcy petition has been filed with respect to a debtor,...

  11. 7 CFR 3.15 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquidation of collateral. 3.15 Section 3.15 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Standards for the Administrative Collection.... (b) When an agency learns that a bankruptcy petition has been filed with respect to a debtor,...

  12. Embolization of nonvariceal portosystemic collaterals in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts

    SciTech Connect

    Bilbao, Jose Ignacio; Arias, Mercedes; Longo, Jesus Maria; Alejandre, Pedro Luis; Betes, Maria Teresa; Elizalde, Arlette Maria

    1997-03-15

    Percutaneous embolization of large portosystemic collaterals was performed in three patients following placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in order to improve hepatopetal portal flow. Improved hepatic portal perfusion was achieved in these cases, thereby theoretically reducing the risk of chronic hepatic encephalopathy.

  13. 12 CFR 614.4245 - Collateral evaluation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... descriptive and detailed to provide ample support to the institution's related credit decisions; (2) Performed... Section 614.4245 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND... directors of each Farm Credit System institution that engages in lending or leasing secured by collateral...

  14. 7 CFR 762.142 - Servicing related to collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Servicing related to collateral. 762.142 Section 762.142 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.142 Servicing related to...

  15. 12 CFR 950.9 - Pledged collateral; verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 950.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE... member have executed a written security agreement pursuant to § 950.2(c) of this part whereby such... Bank shall take any steps necessary to ensure that its security interest in all collateral pledged by...

  16. 12 CFR 1266.9 - Pledged collateral; verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 1266.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS ADVANCES Advances... Bank, provided that the Bank and such member have executed a written security agreement pursuant to... security interest in all collateral pledged by non-depository institutions for an advance is as secure as...

  17. 22 CFR 213.17 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquidation of collateral. 213.17 Section 213.17 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION Collection § 213.17... circumstances require judicial foreclosure. However, collection from other businesses, including liquidation...

  18. Chloride intracellular channel 4 is required for maturation of the cerebral collateral circulation.

    PubMed

    Lucitti, Jennifer L; Tarte, Natalie J; Faber, James E

    2015-10-01

    The number and diameter of native collaterals in tissues of healthy mice vary widely, resulting in large differences in tissue injury in occlusive diseases. Recent studies suggest similar variation may exist in humans. Collateral variation in mice is determined by genetic background-dependent differences in embryonic collateral formation, by variation in maturation of the nascent collaterals, and by environmental factors such as aging that cause collateral rarefaction in the adult. Recently, formation of the collateral circulation in the brain was found to involve a unique VEGF-A-dependent "arteriolar" angiogenic sprouting-like mechanism. Elsewhere, chloride intracellular protein 4 (CLIC4) was implicated but not investigated directly, prompting the present study. Deletion of Clic4 had no effect on embryonic collaterogenesis. However, during collateral maturation from embryonic day 18.5 to postnatal day 7, reduced mural cell investment was observed and excessive pruning of collaterals occurred. Growth in collateral diameter was reduced. This resulted in 50% fewer collaterals of smaller diameter in the adult and thus larger infarct volume after middle cerebral artery occlusion. During collateral maturation, CLIC4 deficiency resulted in reduced expression of Vegfr2, Vegfr1, Vegfc, and mural cell markers, but not notch-pathway genes. Overexpression of VEGF-A in Clic4(-/-) mice had no effect on collaterogenesis, but rescued the above defects in collateral maturation by preventing mural cell loss and collateral pruning, thus restoring collateral number and diameter and reducing stroke severity in the adult. CLIC4 is not required for collaterogenesis but is essential for perinatal maturation of nascent collaterals through a mechanism that supports VEGF signaling.

  19. Chloride intracellular channel 4 is required for maturation of the cerebral collateral circulation

    PubMed Central

    Lucitti, Jennifer L.; Tarte, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    The number and diameter of native collaterals in tissues of healthy mice vary widely, resulting in large differences in tissue injury in occlusive diseases. Recent studies suggest similar variation may exist in humans. Collateral variation in mice is determined by genetic background-dependent differences in embryonic collateral formation, by variation in maturation of the nascent collaterals, and by environmental factors such as aging that cause collateral rarefaction in the adult. Recently, formation of the collateral circulation in the brain was found to involve a unique VEGF-A-dependent “arteriolar” angiogenic sprouting-like mechanism. Elsewhere, chloride intracellular protein 4 (CLIC4) was implicated but not investigated directly, prompting the present study. Deletion of Clic4 had no effect on embryonic collaterogenesis. However, during collateral maturation from embryonic day 18.5 to postnatal day 7, reduced mural cell investment was observed and excessive pruning of collaterals occurred. Growth in collateral diameter was reduced. This resulted in 50% fewer collaterals of smaller diameter in the adult and thus larger infarct volume after middle cerebral artery occlusion. During collateral maturation, CLIC4 deficiency resulted in reduced expression of Vegfr2, Vegfr1, Vegfc, and mural cell markers, but not notch-pathway genes. Overexpression of VEGF-A in Clic4−/− mice had no effect on collaterogenesis, but rescued the above defects in collateral maturation by preventing mural cell loss and collateral pruning, thus restoring collateral number and diameter and reducing stroke severity in the adult. CLIC4 is not required for collaterogenesis but is essential for perinatal maturation of nascent collaterals through a mechanism that supports VEGF signaling. PMID:26276819

  20. Collateral blood vessels in acute ischemic stroke: a physiological window to predict future outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alves, Heitor Castelo Branco Rodrigues; Pacheco, Felipe Torres; Rocha, Antonio J

    2016-08-01

    Collateral circulation is a physiologic pathway that protects the brain against ischemic injury and can potentially bypass the effect of a blocked artery, thereby influencing ischemic lesion size and growth. Several recent stroke trials have provided information about the role of collaterals in stroke pathophysiology, and collateral perfusion has been recognized to influence arterial recanalization, reperfusion, hemorrhagic transformation, and neurological outcomes after stroke. Our current aim is to summarize the anatomy and physiology of the collateral circulation and to present and discuss a comprehensible review of the related knowledge, particularly the effects of collateral circulation on the time course of ischemic injury and stroke severity, as well as imaging findings and therapeutic implications.

  1. Intrahepatic Left to Right Portoportal Venous Collateral Vascular Formation in Patients Undergoing Right Portal Vein Ligation

    SciTech Connect

    Lienden, K. P. van; Hoekstra, L. T.; Bennink, R. J.; Gulik, T. M. van

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: We investigated intrahepatic vascular changes in patients undergoing right portal vein ligation (PVL) or portal vein embolization (PVE) in conjunction with the ensuing hypertrophic response and function of the left liver lobe. Methods: Between December 2008 and October 2011, 7 patients underwent right PVL and 14 patients PVE. Computed tomographic (CT) volumetry to assess future remnant liver (FRL) and functional hepatobiliary scintigraphy were performed in all patients before and 3 weeks after portal vein occlusion. In 18 patients an intraoperative portography was performed to assess perfusion through the occluded portal branches. Results: In all patients after initially successful PVL, reperfused portal veins were observed on CT scan 3 weeks after portal occlusion. This was confirmed in all cases during intraoperative portography. Intrahepatic portoportal collaterals were identified in all patients in the PVL group and in one patient in the PVE group. In all other PVE patients, complete occlusion of the embolized portal branches was observed on CT scan and on intraoperative portography. The median increase of FRL volume after PVE was 41.6 % (range 10-305 %), and after PVL was only 8.1 % (range 0-102 %) (p = 0.179). There were no differences in FRL function between both groups. Conclusion: Preoperative PVE and PVL are both methods to induce hypertrophy of the FRL in anticipation of major liver resection. Compared to PVE, PVL seems less efficient in inducing hypertrophy of the nonoccluded left lobe. This could be caused by the formation of intrahepatic portoportal neocollateral vessels, through which the ligated portal branches are reperfused within 3 weeks.

  2. Collateral Lethality: A new therapeutic strategy in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Florian L.; Aquilanti, Elisa A.; DePinho, Ronald A.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic deletion of tumor suppressor genes (TSG) is a rite of passage for virtually all human cancers. The synthetic lethal paradigm has provided a framework for the development of molecular targeted therapeutics that are functionally linked to the loss of specific TSG functions. In the course of genomic events that delete TSGs, a large number of genes with no apparent direct role in tumor promotion also sustain deletion as a result of chromosomal proximity to the target TSG. In this perspective, we review the novel concept of “collateral lethality”, which has served to identify cancer-specific therapeutic vulnerabilities resulting from co-deletion of passenger genes neighboring TSG. The large number of collaterally deleted genes, playing diverse functions in cell homeostasis, offers a rich repertoire of pharmacologically targetable vulnerabilities presenting novel opportunities for the development of personalized anti-neoplastic therapies. PMID:26870836

  3. Collateral Lethality: A new therapeutic strategy in oncology.

    PubMed

    Muller, Florian L; Aquilanti, Elisa A; DePinho, Ronald A

    2015-11-01

    Genomic deletion of tumor suppressor genes (TSG) is a rite of passage for virtually all human cancers. The synthetic lethal paradigm has provided a framework for the development of molecular targeted therapeutics that are functionally linked to the loss of specific TSG functions. In the course of genomic events that delete TSGs, a large number of genes with no apparent direct role in tumor promotion also sustain deletion as a result of chromosomal proximity to the target TSG. In this perspective, we review the novel concept of "collateral lethality", which has served to identify cancer-specific therapeutic vulnerabilities resulting from co-deletion of passenger genes neighboring TSG. The large number of collaterally deleted genes, playing diverse functions in cell homeostasis, offers a rich repertoire of pharmacologically targetable vulnerabilities presenting novel opportunities for the development of personalized anti-neoplastic therapies.

  4. Collateral circulation formation determines the characteristic profiles of contrast-enhanced MRI in the infarcted myocardium of pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Xiang, Bo; Lin, Hung-yu; Liu, Hong-yu; Freed, Darren; Arora, Rakesh C; Tian, Gang-hong

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between the collateral circulation and contrast-enhanced MR signal change for myocardial infarction (MI) in pigs. Methods: Pigs underwent permanent ligation of two diagonal branches of the left anterior descending artery. First-pass perfusion (FPP) MRI (for detecting myocardial perfusion abnormalities) and delayed enhancement (DE) MRI (for estimating myocardial infarction) using Gd-DTPA were performed at 2 h, 7 d and 4 weeks after the coronary occlusion. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was evaluated using nonradioactive red-colored microspheres. Histological examination was performed to characterize the infarcts. Results: Acute MI performed at 2 h afterwards was characterized by hypoenhancement in both FPP- and DE-MRI, with small and almost unchanged FPP-signal intensity (SI) and DE-SI due to negligible MBF. Subacute MI detected 7 d afterwards showed small but significantly increaseing FPP-SI, and was visible as a sluggish hyperenhancement in DE-MRI with considerably higher DE-SI compared to the normal myocardium; the MBF approached the half-normal value. Chronic MI detected at 4 weeks afterwards showed increasing FPP-SI comparable to the normal myocardium, and a rapid hyperenhancement in DE-MRI with even higher DE-SI; the MBF was close to the normal value. The MBF was correlated with FPP-SI (r=+0.94, P<0.01) and with the peak DE-SI (r=+0.92, P<0.01) at the three MI stages. Remodeled vessels were observed at intra-infarction and peri-infarction zones during the subacute and chronic periods. Conclusion: Progressive collateral recovery determines the characteristic profiles of contrast-enhanced MRI in acute, subacute and chronic myocardial infarction in pigs. The FPP- and DE-MRI signal profiles not only depend on the loss of tissue viability and enlarged interstitial space, but also on establishing a collateral circulation. PMID:25832427

  5. Collateral circulation formation determines the characteristic profiles of contrast-enhanced MRI in the infarcted myocardium of pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Xiang, Bo; Lin, Hung-yu; Liu, Hong-yu; Freed, Darren; Arora, Rakesh C; Tian, Gang-hong

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between the collateral circulation and contrast-enhanced MR signal change for myocardial infarction (MI) in pigs. Pigs underwent permanent ligation of two diagonal branches of the left anterior descending artery. First-pass perfusion (FPP) MRI (for detecting myocardial perfusion abnormalities) and delayed enhancement (DE) MRI (for estimating myocardial infarction) using Gd-DTPA were performed at 2 h, 7 d and 4 weeks after the coronary occlusion. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was evaluated using nonradioactive red-colored microspheres. Histological examination was performed to characterize the infarcts. Acute MI performed at 2 h afterwards was characterized by hypoenhancement in both FPP- and DE-MRI, with small and almost unchanged FPP-signal intensity (SI) and DE-SI due to negligible MBF. Subacute MI detected 7 d afterwards showed small but significantly increaseing FPP-SI, and was visible as a sluggish hyperenhancement in DE-MRI with considerably higher DE-SI compared to the normal myocardium; the MBF approached the half-normal value. Chronic MI detected at 4 weeks afterwards showed increasing FPP-SI comparable to the normal myocardium, and a rapid hyperenhancement in DE-MRI with even higher DE-SI; the MBF was close to the normal value. The MBF was correlated with FPP-SI (r=+0.94, P<0.01) and with the peak DE-SI (r=+0.92, P<0.01) at the three MI stages. Remodeled vessels were observed at intra-infarction and peri-infarction zones during the subacute and chronic periods. Progressive collateral recovery determines the characteristic profiles of contrast-enhanced MRI in acute, subacute and chronic myocardial infarction in pigs. The FPP- and DE-MRI signal profiles not only depend on the loss of tissue viability and enlarged interstitial space, but also on establishing a collateral circulation.

  6. Embryologicalic collateral venous channel on radionuclide liver/spleen study

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, R.H. Jr.; Johnson, D.G.

    1983-07-01

    Obstruction of normal venous portal blood flow generally results in collateral circulation. The obstruction may be intrinsic t the vasculature (e.g., hepatic vein thrombosis, vascular anomalies) or it may be extravascular (e.g., cirrhosis, hepatic masses) and may effect blood flow by deforming and compressing the intrahepatic or splenoportal axis vessels. A technetium-99m sulfur colloid liver/spleen study demonstrates what is thought to be a functional paraumbilical or umbilical vein in a cirrhotic patient with portal hypertension.

  7. Diagnosis and management of ulnar collateral ligament injuries in throwers.

    PubMed

    Freehill, Michael T; Safran, Marc R

    2011-01-01

    Although ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries are reported most commonly in baseball players (especially in pitchers), these also have been observed in other throwing sports including water polo, javelin throw, tennis, and volleyball. This article reviews the functional anatomy and biomechanics of the UCL with associated pathophysiology of UCL injuries of the elbow of the athlete participating in overhead throwing. Evaluation, including pertinent principles in history, physical examination, and imaging modalities, is discussed, along with the management options.

  8. Collateral Damage and the United States Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    when a resource rich coalition conducts an air campaign against an inferior adversary, that coalition can discriminate in its application of...resource rich coalition conducts an air campaign against an inferior adversary, that coalition can discriminate in its application of airpower by... campaign .8 For that reason, it is logical for the strategist to possess a thorough awareness of the effects of potential and actual collateral

  9. Intracoronary demonstration of adenosine-induced coronary collateral steal.

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, C.; Kaufmann, U.; Meier, B.

    1997-01-01

    A steal phenomenon was detected by intravascular Doppler guidewire in a patient with a well collateralised coronary vascular area supplied by a reopened left circumflex coronary artery. This phenomenon accounted for the fall in blood flow velocity reserve during hyperaemic conditions to 50% of the baseline value. The collaterals must have been the cause of the steal phenomenon because complete revascularisation of the lesion barely reversed it. Images PMID:9038700

  10. Regulation of native collateral vessel dilation after coronary occlusion in the dog.

    PubMed

    Lamping, K G; Bloom, E N; Harrison, D G

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine mechanisms involved in the response of native collaterals to coronary occlusion. In anesthetized dogs native collaterals were identified as vessels coursing between the left anterior descending and left circumflex arteries using fluorescence angiography. After a left anterior descending occlusion in 12 dogs, collaterals < 100 microns in diameter progressively dilated by 21 +/- 4% (n = 12) 1 min after occlusion and by 39 +/- 6% 15 min after occlusion. Collaterals > 100 microns in diameter did not dilate after coronary occlusion. NG-nitro-L-arginine (1 mg/min intracoronary) caused constriction under basal conditions in collaterals < 100 microns but did not prevent the dilation of collaterals after occlusion. In contrast, glibenclamide (10(-5) M), an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium channels, had no effect on baseline diameter of collaterals < 100 microns diameter but completely prevented dilation of collaterals after occlusion. We conclude that collaterals are not maximally dilated immediately after a coronary occlusion but rather progressively dilate for at least 15 min after an occlusion. This dilation of native collaterals after an occlusion is not mediated by release of an endothelium-derived relaxing factor derived from L-arginine but is mediated by activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels.

  11. The mechanism of coronary collateral vasoconstriction in response to cyclooxygenase blockade.

    PubMed

    Altman, J D; Bache, R J

    1994-02-01

    The present study was performed to examine the mechanism by which cyclooxygenase blockade produces vasoconstriction in well-developed coronary collateral vessels. Eight dogs were studied 4 to 6 months after occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) had been performed to stimulate collateral vessel growth. At the time of study, the LAD was cannulated at the site of occlusion for measurement of retrograde blood flow as an index of collateral blood flow. Levels of 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha were 32 +/- 13% higher in blood diverted from the collateral-dependent LAD than in aortic blood (P < .05); the increase in this stable product of prostacyclin metabolism indicated production of prostacyclin across the coronary collateral system. Administration of arachidonic acid into the left main coronary artery to reach collateral vessels entering the LAD resulted in a 21 +/- 6% increase in retrograde flow (P < .01), demonstrating cyclooxygenase activity with production of vasodilator prostaglandins in the collateral system. Ibuprofen (10 mg/kg IV) caused a 55 +/- 7% decrease in retrograde flow (P < .03), suggesting that cyclooxygenase blockade inhibited tonic production of vasodilator prostaglandins in the collateral system. In contrast, neither thromboxane synthase inhibition with dazmegrel nor thromboxane receptor blockade with SQ 30741 caused a significant change in collateral flow, thus failing to support thromboxane-induced collateral constriction. After cyclooxygenase blockade, prostacyclin infused into the left main coronary artery was able to restore retrograde flow to the preibuprofen level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Collateral flow averts hemorrhagic transformation after endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Bang, Oh Young; Saver, Jeffrey L; Kim, Suk Jae; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Lee, Kwang Ho; Liebeskind, David S

    2011-08-01

    Collaterals sustain the ischemic penumbra to limit growth of the infarct core before revascularization, yet the impact of baseline collateral flow on hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after endovascular therapy remains unknown. A collaborative study from 2 stroke centers in distinct geographic regions included 222 consecutive patients who received endovascular therapy for acute cerebral ischemia. The influence of collaterals on HT was analyzed in distinct case scenarios relative to baseline collateral grade at angiography (0 to 1 versus 2 to 4) and recanalization (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Ischemia scale, 0 to 1 versus 2 to 3): good collaterals and successful recanalization (n=98), poor collaterals with successful recanalization (n=43), good collaterals and no recanalization(n=46), and poor collaterals and no recanalization (n=35). HT after endovascular therapy occurred in 103 (46.4%) patients; 42 (18.9%) were symptomatic. HT was more frequently observed in patients with poor collaterals and recanalization than in other groups (P=0.048). When revascularization was achieved, patients with poorer collaterals were more likely to have symptomatic worsening with HT (r=-0.181, P=0.032). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified aggressive treatment (OR, 2.558 for Merci clot retrieval; 95% CI, 1.153 to 5.678; OR, 3.618 for combined fibrinolytics and mechanical therapy; 95% CI, 1.551 to 8.437; and OR, 2.085 for intravenous thrombolysis before endovascular therapy; 95% CI, 1.096 to 3.969), poor collaterals and recanalization (OR, 2.666; 95% CI, 1.163 to 6.113), and serum glucose levels (OR, 1.007; 95% CI, 1.000 to 1.014) as independent predictors of HT. Angiographic grade of collateral flow strongly influences the rate of HT after therapeutic recanalization for acute ischemic stroke. Collateral status readily available from baseline angiography may therefore refine therapeutic decision-making in acute cerebral ischemia.

  13. Bundle Branch Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... your heart to pump blood efficiently through your circulatory system. There's no specific treatment for bundle branch block itself. However, any underlying health condition that caused bundle branch block, such as heart disease, will need to be treated. In most people, ...

  14. Melons are Branched Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurau, Razvan; Ryan, James P.

    2014-11-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  15. Randomized branch sampling

    Treesearch

    Harry T. Valentine

    2002-01-01

    Randomized branch sampling (RBS) is a special application of multistage probability sampling (see Sampling, environmental), which was developed originally by Jessen [3] to estimate fruit counts on individual orchard trees. In general, the method can be used to obtain estimates of many different attributes of trees or other branched plants. The usual objective of RBS is...

  16. FGF-4 gene therapy GENERX--Collateral Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    2002-01-01

    Collateral Therapeutics and Schering AG in Germany are developing a gene therapy product, GENERX for coronary artery disease. Based on the terms of the agreement, Schering or its affliates will be responsible for conducting and financing phase II/III clinical trials which are currently underway in the US and Europe. In particular, Berlex Labs (the US subsidiary of Schering AG), is involved in developing the gene therapy in the US. GENERX is an angiogenic gene therapy which triggers the production of a protein that stimulates new blood vessel growth providing an alternative route for blood to bypass clogged and blocked arteries in the heart. GENERX involves a one-time, non-surgical delivery of an adenovirus vector containing the human fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4) into coronary arteries via a standard catheter. The FGF-4 gene was licensed from New York University. Collateral Therapeutics has been granted a US patent for "gene transfer-mediated angiogenesis therapy" for the nonsurgical administration of angiogenic genes for coronary and peripheral vascular disease. The patented technology has been licensed from the University of California. Collateral and Berlex have initiated pivotal phase IIb/III trials with GENERX in the US and Europe. The US-based study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of GENERX in patients with stable exertional angina due to coronary artery disease. The European-based study will evaluate patients with advanced coronary artery disease who are not considered candidates for interventions such as angioplasty and bypass surgery and/or patients who are unlikely to have positive outcomes from such interventions. Both studies, of a multicentre, randomised, double-blind and placebo-controlled design, will evaluate 2 dose levels of GENERX which will be non-surgically administered to the heart via intracoronary infusion through a standard cardiac catheter. Collateral also plans to develop a non-surgical gene therapy product using the FGF-4 gene

  17. [Analysis of the meridian-collateral theoretical framework and the conceptual annotation of YANG Shangshan].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianbin

    2016-02-01

    When classifying and compiling Huangdi Neijing (The Yellow Emperor's Inner Classic), YANG Shangshan had constructed the systematic framework of the meridian-collateral theory. It has been found in the investigation of Huangdi Neijing Taisu (Grand Simplicity of The Yellow Emperor's Inner Classic) that YANG Shangshan constructed the meridian-collateral systematic framework on the foundation of meridian theory. This framework includes two parts. One is the twelve meridians and the other one is the eight extra meridians, in which, the divergent meridians are derived from the regular meridians, and the collaterals, the cutaneous regions of meridians, genjie and biaoben are attributive to the regular meridians. The theory of the jingjin of meridians should be different from meridian-collateral system. YANG Shangshan constructed and annotated the meridian-collateral system, interpreting his unique thinking and analytic foundation. Being one of the forms of meridian-collateral theory at the early stage, YANG Shangshan's discovery deserves to be considered.

  18. Combined Retrograde-Antegrade Arterial Recanalization Through Collateral Vessels: Redefinition of the Technique for Below-the-Knee Arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Graziani, L. Morelli, L. G.

    2011-02-15

    The effectiveness of below-the-knee PTA to obtain successful revascularization in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) has been well established, and many centers have adopted endovascular intervention as the first-line treatment in patients with chronic lower-extremity disease. The well-known complex and multilevel arterial disease in patients with CLI have lead to interventionists to continuously implement different technologies and techniques. The aim of the present study was to standardize and redefine a technique characterized for combined retrograde-antegrade recanalization of a native leg artery through a collateral arterial branch by using a single access. This concept has been well described in coronary arteries and recently in pelvic and tibial arteries.

  19. Development of a NO biosensor and its application in research on channels and collaterals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yikai; Ren, Shu

    2001-09-01

    There are three parts in this paper. In the part 1 nitric oxide chemistry and the measurements of nitric oxide in biological models have been reviewed. In the part 2 the channels and collateral sand modern studies of the channels and collaterals have also ben reviewed and in part 3 a NO biosensor has been developed and it has been applied in the research of the channels and collaterals. Research results have confirmed that NO plays an important role in channel transmission.

  20. Effect of the Interaction between Recanalization and Collateral Circulation on Functional Outcome in Acute Ischaemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mangiafico, Salvatore; Saia, Valentina; Nencini, Patrizia; Romani, Ilaria; Palumbo, Vanessa; Pracucci, Giovanni; Consoli, Arturo; Rosi, Andrea; Renieri, Leonardo; Nappini, Sergio; Limbucci, Nicola; Inzitari, Domenico; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2014-01-01

    Summary Identification of patients with acute ischaemic stroke who could most benefit from arterial recanalization after endovascular treatment remains an unsettled issue. Although several classifications of collateral circulation have been proposed, the clinical role of collaterals is still debated. We evaluated the effect of the collateral circulation in relation to recanalization as a predictor of clinical outcome. Data were prospectively collected from 102 patients consecutively treated for proximal middle cerebral or internal carotid artery occlusion. The collateral circulation was evaluated with a novel semiquantitative-qualitative score, the Careggi collateral score (CCS), in six grades. Both CCS and recanalization grades (TICI) were analysed in relation to clinical outcome. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of interaction between recanalization and collateral circulation on clinical outcome. Out of the 102 patients, 37 (36.3%) had poor collaterals, and 65 (63.7%) had good collaterals. Patients with good collaterals had lower basal National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), more distal occlusion, smaller lesions at 24h CT scan and better functional outcome. After multivariate analysis, the interaction between recanalization and collateral grades was significantly stronger as a predictor of good outcome (OR 6.87, 95% CI 2.11 – 22.31) or death (OR 4.66, 95%CI 1.48 – 14.73) compared to the effect of the single variables. Collaterals showed an effect of interaction with the recanalization grade in determining a favourable clinical outcome. Assessment of the collateral circulation might help predict clinical results after recanalization in patients undergoing endovascular treatment for acute ischaemic stroke. PMID:25496680

  1. A Comprehensive Review of Portosystemic Collaterals in Cirrhosis: Historical Aspects, Anatomy, and Classifications.

    PubMed

    Philips, Cyriac Abby; Arora, Ankur; Shetty, Rajesh; Kasana, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic collateral formation in cirrhosis plays an important part in events that define the natural history in affected patients. A detailed understanding of collateral anatomy and hemodynamics in cirrhotics is essential to envisage diagnosis, management, and outcomes of portal hypertension. In this review, we provide detailed insights into the historical, anatomical, and hemodynamic aspects to portal hypertension and collateral pathways in cirrhosis with emphasis on the various classification systems.

  2. [Chronic arterial mesenteric ischemia: Doppler color ultrasonography demonstration of collateral flow].

    PubMed

    Danse, E M; Hammer, F; Matondo, H; Dardenne, A N; Geubel, A; Goffette, P

    2001-11-01

    Two cases of atypical mesenteric ischemia where color Doppler US demonstration of the underlying arterial abnormality and collateral supply was possible are presented. Significant stenosis of the celiac axis and thrombosis of the SMA were clearly depicted, along with the presence of collateral arterial supply. Endovascular treatment was successful in both cases. These cases confirm the possibility of detecting collateral flow at Doppler imaging in patients with mesenteric ischemia, both for diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia and endovascular treatment planning.

  3. Fate of coronary collateral circulation after aorto-coronary saphenous vein bypass grafts.

    PubMed Central

    Di Luzio, V; Roy, P R; Sowton, E; Dow, J

    1975-01-01

    The pre- and postoperative patterns of coronary artery collateral circulation have been studied in 34 patients who had saphenous vein bypass grafting. When the graft remained patent homocoronary collaterals could not be visualized after operation, but new intercoronary anastomoses frequently developed to other diseased arteries. When the graft and the bypassed artery were both obstructed there was a high incidence (5 out of 11) of myocardial infarction despite good preoperative collaterals. Images PMID:1079134

  4. A Comprehensive Review of Portosystemic Collaterals in Cirrhosis: Historical Aspects, Anatomy, and Classifications

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Rajesh; Kasana, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic collateral formation in cirrhosis plays an important part in events that define the natural history in affected patients. A detailed understanding of collateral anatomy and hemodynamics in cirrhotics is essential to envisage diagnosis, management, and outcomes of portal hypertension. In this review, we provide detailed insights into the historical, anatomical, and hemodynamic aspects to portal hypertension and collateral pathways in cirrhosis with emphasis on the various classification systems. PMID:28074159

  5. Infarction Distribution Pattern in Acute Stroke May Predict the Extent of Leptomeningeal Collaterals

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajeev Kumar; Gralla, Jan; Klinger-Gratz, Pascal Pedro; Schankath, Adrian; Jung, Simon; Mordasini, Pasquale; Zubler, Christoph; Arnold, Marcel; Buehlmann, Monika; Lang, Matthias F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the distribution pattern of early ischemic changes in the initial MRI allows a practical method for estimating leptomeningeal collateralization in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Methods Seventy-four patients with AIS underwent MRI followed by conventional angiogram and mechanical thrombectomy. Diffusion restriction in Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and correlated T2-hyperintensity of the infarct were retrospectively analyzed and subdivided in accordance with Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score (ASPECTS). Patients were angiographically graded in collateralization groups according to the method of Higashida, and dichotomized in 2 groups: 29 subjects with collateralization grade 3 or 4 (well-collateralized group) and 45 subjects with grade 1 or 2 (poorly-collateralized group). Individual ASPECTS areas were compared among the groups. Results Means for overall DWI-ASPECTS were 6.34 vs. 4.51 (well vs. poorly collateralized groups respectively), and for T2-ASPECTS 9.34 vs 8.96. A significant difference between groups was found for DWI-ASPECTS (p<0.001), but not for T2-ASPECTS (p = 0.088). Regarding the individual areas, only insula, M1-M4 and M6 showed significantly fewer infarctions in the well-collateralized group (p-values <0.001 to 0.015). 89% of patients in the well-collateralized group showed 0–2 infarctions in these six areas (44.8% with 0 infarctions), while 59.9% patients of the poor-collateralized group showed 3–6 infarctions. Conclusion Patients with poor leptomeningeal collateralization show more infarcts on the initial MRI, particularly in the ASPECTS areas M1 to M4, M6 and insula. Therefore DWI abnormalities in these areas may be a surrogate marker for poor leptomeningeal collaterals and may be useful for estimation of the collateral status in routine clinical evaluation. PMID:26327519

  6. Detection of human collateral circulation by vasodilation-thallium-201 tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Nienaber, C.A.; Salge, D.; Spielmann, R.P.; Montz, R.; Bleifeld, W. )

    1990-04-15

    Coronary arteriolar vasodilation may provoke redistribution of flow to collateral-dependent jeopardized myocardium. To assess the physiologic significance of collaterals, 80 consecutive post-infarction patients (age 58 +/- 8 years) underwent vasodilation-redistribution thallium-201 tomographic imaging after administration of 0.56 mg of intravenous dipyridamole/kg body weight. Circumferential profile analysis of thallium-201 uptake and redistribution in representative left ventricular tomograms provided quantitative assessment of transient and fixed defects and separation between periinfarctional and distant inducible hypoperfusion. Tomographic perfusion data were correlated to wall motion and collateral circulation between distinct anatomic perfusion territories. Patients were grouped according to presence (59%) or absence (41%) of angiographically visible collateral channels to jeopardized myocardium. In the presence of collaterals, distant reversible defects were larger than in absence of collaterals (p less than 0.05); the extent of combined periinfarctional and distant redistribution was also larger in collateralized patients (p less than 0.025), whereas the size of the persistent perfusion defect was similar in both groups. By prospective analysis the tomographic perfusion pattern of combined periinfarctional and distant redistribution revealed a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 78% for the detection of significant collateral circulation in this group of patients. Thus, using the exhausted flow reserve as a diagnostic tool, vasodilation-thallium-201 tomography has the potential to identify and quantitate collateralized myocardium in post-infarction patients and may guide diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making.

  7. [A hypothesis about component model of substances of channels and collaterals].

    PubMed

    Lu, Liu-Sha

    2008-10-01

    The theory of channels and collaterals is a very important "substance" prop for the basic theories of TCM. After component model of substances of channels and collaterals is raised, according to the principle, structure and function are dialectical unity, the author finds in deeply research on a great number of completed experimental investigations of corresponding anatomic position of channels and collaterals and similar physiology at home and abroad that the difficult to understand TCM concepts such as "interdependence between yin and yang", "defensive energy" all could be displayed by the substance of body liquid showing liquid crystalline state during living of channels and collaterals.

  8. Sprouting of axonal collaterals after spinal cord injury is prevented by delayed axonal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Collyer, E; Catenaccio, A; Lemaitre, D; Diaz, P; Valenzuela, V; Bronfman, F; Court, F A

    2014-11-01

    After an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), partial recovery of locomotion is accomplished with time. Previous studies have established a functional link between extension of axon collaterals from spared spinal tracts and locomotor recovery after SCI, but the tissular signals triggering collateral sprouting have not been identified. Here, we investigated whether axonal degeneration after SCI contributes to the sprouting of collaterals from axons spared after injury. To this end, we evaluated collateral sprouting from BDA-labeled uninjured corticospinal axons after spinal cord hemisection (SCI(H)) in wild type (WT) mouse and Wld(S) mouse strains, which shows a significant delay in Wallerian degeneration after injury. After SCI(H), spared fibers of WT mice extend collateral sprouts to both intact and denervated sides of the spinal cord distant from the injury site. On the contrary, in the Wld(S) mice collateral sprouting from spared fibers was greatly reduced after SCI(H). Consistent with a role for collateral sprouting in functional recovery after SCI, locomotor recovery after SCI(H) was impaired in Wld(S) mice compared to WT animals. In conclusion, our results identify axonal degeneration as one of the triggers for collateral sprouting from the contralesional uninjured fibers after an SCI(H). These results open the path for identifying molecular signals associated with tissular changes after SCI that promotes collateral sprouting and functional recovery.

  9. Arterial supply, venous drainage and collateral circulation in the nose of the anaesthetized dog.

    PubMed

    Lung, M A; Wang, J C

    1987-10-01

    1. In pentobarbitone-anaesthetized dogs, nasal blood flows were measured with electromagnetic flow sensors. 2. The terminal internal maxillary artery was found to supply 22 +/- 2.2 ml min-1 (one side) to the nasal mucosa via the sphenopalatine and major palatine branches; the artery was found to receive multiple supply routes from common carotid, vertebral and subclavian arteries. 3. Nasal mucosa was found to receive collateral flow from contralateral terminal internal maxillary artery (about 5 to 10% of normal flow) and branches of subclavian arteries (about 36% of normal flow). 4. Nasal mucosa was found to have two venous systems: the low-flow (12 +/- 1.0 ml min-1; both sides) and low-pressure (7 +/- 0.6 mmHg) sphenopalatine veins draining the posterior nasal cavity and the high-flow (30 +/- 1.4 ml min-1; both sides) and high-pressure (17 +/- 1.0 mmHg) dorsal nasal veins draining the anterior nasal cavity. 5. PO2 of nasal venous blood was found to range from 62 +/- 2.9 mmHg to 65 +/- 3.4 mmHg. During nitrogen challenge to the nose, the sphenopalatine venous PO2 dropped to 35 +/- 3.0 mmHg while the dorsal nasal venous PO2 remained unchanged, suggesting that the sphenopalatine veins were responsible for draining capillary flow and dorsal nasal veins arteriovenous anastomotic flow as well. 6. Microscopic examination of the vascular casts confirmed that arteriovenous anastomoses were located only in the anterior nasal cavity.

  10. Fine-Branched Ridges

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-14

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft shows numerous branching ridges with various degrees of sinuosity. These branching forms resemble tributaries funneling and draining into larger channel trunks towards the upper portion of the scene. The raised relief of these branching ridges suggests that these are ancient channels are inverted due to lithification and cementation of the riverbed sediment, which made it more resistant to erosion than the surrounding material. Wind-blown bedforms are abundant and resemble small ridges that are aligned in an approximately north-south direction. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20006

  11. Materials Test Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  12. Collateral ligament laxity in knees: what is normal?

    PubMed

    Deep, Kamal

    2014-11-01

    Proper alignment and balancing of soft tissues of the knee are important goals for TKA. Despite standardized techniques, there is no consensus regarding the optimum amount of collateral ligament laxity one should leave at the end of the TKA. I asked (1) what is the collateral laxity in young healthy volunteers, and (2) is there a difference in collateral laxity between males and females. The femorotibial mechanical angle (FTMA) was measured in 314 knees in healthy volunteers aged 19 to 35 years. Subjects with a history of pain, malalignment, dysplasia, or trauma were excluded. Twenty-five knees were excluded because the hip center could not be acquired, and 22 were excluded because of a history of pain and trauma, leaving 267 knees for inclusion in the study. Of these, 155 were from men and 112 were from women. A validated method using a computer navigation system was used to obtain the measurements. A 10-Nm torque was used to stress the knee in varus and valgus at 0° extension and 15° flexion. An independent t-test and ANOVA were applied to the data to calculate any significant difference between groups (p<0.05). The mean (SD) unstressed supine FTMA was varus of 1.2° (SD, 4°) in 0° extension and varus of 1.2° (SD, 4.4°) in 15° flexion (p=0.88). On varus torque of 10 Nm, the supine FTMA changed by a mean of 3.1° (SD, 2°) (95% CI, 2.4°-3.8°; p<0.001) in 0° extension and 6.9° (SD, 2.6°) (95% CI, 6.2°-7.7°; p<0.001) in 15° flexion. On valgus torque of 10 Nm, the FTMA changed by a mean of 4.6° (SD, 2.2°) (95% CI, 3.9°-5.3°; p<0.001) in 0° extension and 7.9° (SD, 3.4°) (95% CI, 7.1°-8.7°; p<0.001) in 15° flexion. The mean unstressed FTMA in 0° extension was varus of 1.7° (SD, 4°) in men and 0.4° (SD, 3.9°) in women (p=0.01). Differences in collateral ligament laxity were seen between men and women (p<0.001 for valgus torque and 0.035 for varus torque in 15° flexion). With valgus torque at 0° flexion, the supine FTMA change was valgus

  13. Investigation of cerebral hemodynamics and collateralization in asymptomatic carotid stenoses.

    PubMed

    AlMuhanna, Khalid; Zhao, Limin; Kowalewski, Gregory; Beach, Kirk W; Lal, Brajesh K; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2012-01-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death in the world, and one of the major causes of disability. Approximately 30% of ischemic strokes are due to plaque rupture in the carotid arteries. The most popular diagnostic method uses Doppler ultrasound to find the percent stenosis. However, other factors, such as the hemodynamics around the plaque may play a larger role in identifying the risk of plaque rupture. It has been shown previously in simulations that non-collateral flow in the circle of Willis (COW) could cause an increase of the intraluminal velocity around carotid plaque. This added strain may increase the vulnerability of the plaque to rupture. We investigated asymmetries in flow waveforms in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in asymptomatic patients with carotid artery stenosis. We compared clinical results of velocity waveforms in the MCA, acquired using transcranial Doppler (TCD), with a simple linear simulation model of the intra- and extracranial arterial network to investigate the relationship between contralateral and ipsilateral flow profiles in the MCA for patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. In 17 out of 23 patients we found waveforms consistent with those predicted for a collateralized COW, with minimal differences in delay, velocity magnitude and resistivity index. In 6 cases, some unexpected findings were noted, such as large delays for 2 patients ≤ 50% stenosis, and a large velocity difference with low delay for 4 patients. More studies are needed to elucidate the role of incomplete intracranial collateralization on the hemodynamics around carotid plaque and to use imaging of the COW to corroborate our results.

  14. Enhancement of canine coronary collateral flow by nafazatrom.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, V B; Mardin, M

    1986-11-04

    The ability of oral nafazatrom treatment (10 mg/kg) 2 h preceding occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 6 h to limit expansion of myocardial injury was studied in anaesthetized canine hearts. Collateral blood flow was obtained with a load line analysis, employing aortic pressure, post-stenotic coronary pressure, and retrograde coronary flow from the occluded vessel. Contractile changes in the subendocardial ischemic perfused muscles were measured with ultrasonic techniques. Infarct size was determined post-mortem by a biochemical staining method and excision of necrosis. Post-stenotic coronary pressure was slightly below aortic pressure in both groups before coronary occlusion, and fell to 29 and 27% of aortic pressure in vehicle- and drug-treated hearts, respectively, after the insult. Retrograde flow was 2.4 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.1 +/- 0.7 ml/min in tylose- or nafazatrom-treated hearts. Collateral flow amounted to 1.5 +/- 0.06 vs. 2.5 +/- 0.04 ml/min in controls and drug-protected hearts. Contractility (dP/dtmax) and the %-segment shortening were greater in the ischaemic myocardium after nafazatrom treatment. Infarct size was 38 +/- 5.2 vs. 17 +/- 3.4 g/100 g left ventricle in the vehicle controls and nafazatrom group, respectively. Nafazatrom reduced infarct size by 46%. Besides other mechanisms, this was due to improved %-segment shortening and increased periinfarction collateral blood supply to jeopardized but viable myocardium. The drug may be of value in ischaemic heart disease as shown by the enhanced regional myocardial perfusion and improved contractility.

  15. Restoration technology branch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The mission of Leetown Science Center (LSC), Restoration Technology Branch (RTB) is to conduct research needed to restore or protect the chemical, physical and biological integrity of desirable aquatic systems.

  16. The Olive Branch Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  17. The Olive Branch Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  18. Technical activities of the configuration aeroelasticity branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Stanley R. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    A number of recent technical activities of the Configuration Aeroelasticity Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center are discussed in detail. The information on the research branch is compiled in twelve separate papers. The first of these topics is a summary of the purpose of the branch, including a full description of the branch and its associated projects and program efforts. The next ten papers cover specific projects and are as follows: Experimental transonic flutter characteristics of supersonic cruise configurations; Aeroelastic effects of spoiler surfaces mounted on a low aspect ratio rectangular wing; Planform curvature effects on flutter of 56 degree swept wing determined in Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT); An introduction to rotorcraft testing in TDT; Rotorcraft vibration reduction research at the TDT; A preliminary study to determine the effects of tip geometry on the flutter of aft swept wings; Aeroelastic models program; NACA 0012 pressure model and test plan; Investigation of the use of extension twist coupling in composite rotor blades; and Improved finite element methods for rotorcraft structures. The final paper describes the primary facility operation by the branch, the Langley TDT.

  19. Return to Play Following Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cain, Edward Lyle; McGonigle, Owen

    2016-10-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament injury in the overhead athlete typically presents as activity-related pain with loss of velocity and control. Treatment options range from nonoperative rehabilitation to ligament reconstruction. Surgical reconstruction is frequently required to allow the athlete to return to competition and many surgical techniques have been described. The rehabilitation process to return back to overhead athletics, in particular pitching, is prolonged and requires progression through multiple phases. Despite this, surgical treatment has been shown by multiple investigators to be successful at returning athletes to their previous level of competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Plasma Catestatin: A Useful Biomarker for Coronary Collateral Development with Chronic Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weixian; Yu, Haiyi; Li, Weihong; Gao, Wei; Guo, Lijun; Wang, Guisong

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds Catestatin is an endogenous multifunctional neuroendocrinepeptide. Recently, catestatin was discovered as a novel angiogenic cytokine. The study was to investigate the associations between endogenous catestatin and coronary collateral development among the patients with chronic myocardial ischemia. Methods Thirty-eight patients with coronary artery chronic total occlusions (CTO) (CTO group) and 38 patients with normal coronary arteries (normal group) were enrolled in the series. Among the patients with CTO, coronary collateral development was graded according to the Rentrop score method. Rentrop score 0–1 collateral development was regarded as poor collateral group and 2–3 collateral development was regarded as good collateral group. Plasma catestatin level and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured by ELISA kits. Results The plasma catestatin levels in CTO group were significantly higher than that in normal group (1.97±1.01 vs 1.36±0.97ng/ml, p = 0.009). In the CTO group, the patients with good collateral development had significantly higher catestatin and VEGF levels than those with poor collateral development (2.36±0.73 vs 1.61±1.12 ng/ml, p = 0.018; 425.23±140.10 vs 238.48±101.00pg/mL, p<0.001). There is a positive correlation between plasma catestatin levels and Rentrop scores (r = 0.40, p = 0.013) among the patients with CTO. However, there is no correlations between plasma catestatin levels and VEGF (r = -0.06, p = 0.744). In the multiple linear regression models, plasma catestatin level was one of the independent factors of coronary collateral development after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions Plasma catestatin was associated with coronary collateral developments. It may be a useful biomarker for coronary collateral development and potential target for therapeutic angiogenesis in patients with CTO. PMID:27304618

  1. Nox2 and p47(phox) modulate compensatory growth of primary collateral arteries.

    PubMed

    DiStasi, Matthew R; Unthank, Joseph L; Miller, Steven J

    2014-05-15

    The role of NADPH oxidase (Nox) in both the promotion and impairment of compensatory collateral growth remains controversial because the specific Nox and reactive oxygen species involved are unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the primary Nox and reactive oxygen species associated with early stage compensatory collateral growth in young, healthy animals. Ligation of the feed arteries that form primary collateral pathways in rat mesentery and mouse hindlimb was used to assess the role of Nox during collateral growth. Changes in mesenteric collateral artery Nox mRNA expression determined by real-time PCR at 1, 3, and 7 days relative to same-animal control arteries suggested a role for Nox subunits Nox2 and p47(phox). Administration of apocynin or Nox2ds-tat suppressed collateral growth in both rat and mouse models, suggesting the Nox2/p47(phox) interaction was involved. Functional significance of p47(phox) expression was assessed by evaluation of collateral growth in rats administered p47(phox) small interfering RNA and in p47(phox-/-) mice. Diameter measurements of collateral mesenteric and gracilis arteries at 7 and 14 days, respectively, indicated no significant collateral growth compared with control rats or C57BL/6 mice. Chronic polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase administration significantly suppressed collateral development in rats and mice, implying a requirement for H2O2. Taken together, these results suggest that Nox2, modulated at least in part by p47(phox), mediates early stage compensatory collateral development via a process dependent upon peroxide generation. These results have important implications for the use of antioxidants and the development of therapies for peripheral arterial disease.

  2. Collaterals at angiography and outcomes in the Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS) III trial.

    PubMed

    Liebeskind, David S; Tomsick, Thomas A; Foster, Lydia D; Yeatts, Sharon D; Carrozzella, Janice; Demchuk, Andrew M; Jovin, Tudor G; Khatri, Pooja; von Kummer, Ruediger; Sugg, Rebecca M; Zaidat, Osama O; Hussain, Syed I; Goyal, Mayank; Menon, Bijoy K; Al Ali, Firas; Yan, Bernard; Palesch, Yuko Y; Broderick, Joseph P

    2014-03-01

    Endovascular strategies provide unique opportunity to correlate angiographic measures of collateral circulation at the time of endovascular therapy. We conducted systematic analyses of collaterals at conventional angiography on recanalization, reperfusion, and clinical outcomes in the endovascular treatment arm of the Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS) III trial. Prospective evaluation of angiographic collaterals was conducted via central review of subjects treated with endovascular therapy in IMS III (n=331). Collateral grade before endovascular therapy was assessed with the American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology scale, blinded to all other data. Statistical analyses investigated the association between collaterals with baseline clinical variables, angiographic measures of recanalization, reperfusion and clinical outcomes. Adequate views of collateral circulation to the ischemic territory were available in 276 of 331 (83%) subjects. Collateral grade was strongly related to both recanalization of the occluded arterial segment (P=0.0016) and downstream reperfusion (P<0.0001). Multivariable analyses confirmed that robust angiographic collateral grade was a significant predictor of good clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale score≤2) at 90 days (P=0.0353), adjusted for age, history of diabetes mellitus, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale strata, and Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score. The relationship between collateral flow and clinical outcome may depend on the degree of reperfusion. More robust collateral grade was associated with better recanalization, reperfusion, and subsequent better clinical outcomes. These data, from the largest endovascular trial to date, suggest that collaterals are an important consideration in future trial design. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00359424.

  3. Inferior Phrenic Arteries and Their Branches, Their Anatomy and Possible Clinical Importance: An Experimental Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Gürses, İlke Ali; Gayretli, Özcan; Kale, Ayşin; Öztürk, Adnan; Usta, Ahmet; Şahinoğlu, Kayıhan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization is a common treatment for patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma. If the carcinoma is advanced or the main arterial supply, the hepatic artery, is occluded, extrahepatic collateral arteries may develop. Both, right and left inferior phrenic arteries (RIPA and LIPA) are the most frequent and important among these collaterals. However, the topographic anatomy of these arteries has not been described in detail in anatomy textbooks, atlases and most previous reports. Aims: To investigate the anatomy and branching patterns of RIPA and LIPA on cadavers and compare our results with the literature. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: We bilaterally dissected 24 male and 2 female cadavers aged between 49 and 88 years for this study. Results: The RIPA and LIPA originated as a common trunk in 5 cadavers. The RIPA originated from the abdominal aorta in 13 sides, the renal artery in 2 sides, the coeliac trunk in 1 side and the left gastric artery in 1 side. The LIPA originated from the abdominal aorta in 9 sides and the coeliac trunk in 6 sides. In 6 cadavers, the ascending and posterior branches of the LIPA had different sources of origin. Conclusion: As both the RIPA and LIPA represent the half of all extrahepatic arterial collaterals to hepatocellular carcinomas, their anatomy gains importance not only for anatomists but interventional radiologists as well. PMID:26167344

  4. 7 CFR 1980.334 - Appraisal of property serving as collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Appraisal of property serving as collateral. 1980.334... Appraisal of property serving as collateral. An appraisal of all property serving as security for the... Lender may pass the cost of the appraisal on to the borrower. The appraisal must have been...

  5. 7 CFR 1980.444 - Appraisal of property serving as collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Appraisal of property serving as collateral. 1980.444... Program § 1980.444 Appraisal of property serving as collateral. (a) Appraisal reports prepared by... the appraisal to be made by a qualified appraiser on the lender's staff with experience appraising...

  6. 10 CFR 609.16 - Perfection of liens and preservation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Perfection of liens and preservation of collateral. 609.16 Section 609.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.16 Perfection of liens and preservation of collateral. (a...

  7. Excimer laser coronary atherectomy in septal collaterals during retrograde recanalization of a chronic total occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ohlow, Marc-Alexander; Lotze, Ullrich; Lauer, Bernward

    2011-01-01

    Management of chronic total occlusions has been refined through the development of a retrograde approach via collateral pathways. We describe here the use of excimer laser coronary atherectomy in the septal collaterals. This appraoch was not yet described in the literature. PMID:22355487

  8. Functional significance of coronary collateral circulation during dynamic exercise evaluated by thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy.

    PubMed Central

    Wainwright, R J; Maisey, M N; Edwards, A C; Sowton, E

    1980-01-01

    Sixty-five patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease were investigated by thallium-201 (201Tl) scintigraphy to determine the role of the collateral circulation during dynamic exercise. Fifty-three patients had complete proximal occlusion of at least one major coronary artery. One patient had total occlusion of all three major coronary arteries. Sixty-four collateral channels were identified, graded, and compared with corresponding regions of the myocardial scintigram. Tracer uptake was also graded and classified as various degrees of protection from ischaemia. A significant correlation between good collaterals with complete protection and poor or absent collaterals with no protection was noted. Seventeen patients (20 occluded vessels) had total coronary occlusion without myocardial infarction. Collaterals conferred protection in 9/15 occlusions whereas no protection was seen in five occlusions without collaterals. There was no difference in the protective role of homocoronary and heterocoronary collateral vessels. Hypertrophy of the first septal left anterior descending perforator conferred significant protection from ischaemia in contrast to bridging collaterals and ghosting. During exercise the right coronary bed is preferentially protected from ischaemia, in contrast to the left anterior descending territory. This probably reflects the direction of a transmural flow gradient between left and right ventricles during exercise. Images PMID:7356862

  9. 12 CFR 723.7 - What are the collateral and security requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What are the collateral and security requirements? 723.7 Section 723.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.7 What are the collateral and security requirements? (a)...

  10. 12 CFR 723.7 - What are the collateral and security requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the collateral and security requirements? 723.7 Section 723.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.7 What are the collateral and security requirements? (a)...

  11. 12 CFR 723.7 - What are the collateral and security requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are the collateral and security requirements? 723.7 Section 723.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.7 What are the collateral and security requirements? (a)...

  12. 12 CFR 723.7 - What are the collateral and security requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the collateral and security requirements? 723.7 Section 723.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.7 What are the collateral and security requirements? (a)...

  13. 10 CFR 609.15 - Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation. 609.15 Section 609.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.15 Default, demand, payment, and collateral...

  14. Noninvasive assessment of coronary collaterals in man by PET perfusion imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Demer, L.L.; Gould, K.L.; Goldstein, R.A.; Kirkeeide, R.L. )

    1990-03-01

    At present, coronary collateralization cannot be identified or assessed noninvasively in patients. In animal studies, coronary collaterals are associated with coronary steal, defined as a regional fall in perfusion during coronary arteriolar vasodilation. To determine the effect of coronary arteriolar vasodilation on collateral bed perfusion in man, myocardial perfusion imaging was performed before and after pharmacologic coronary vasodilation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Regional myocardial activity of {sup 82}Rb or {sup 13}N ammonia was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) at rest and with intravenous dipyridamole/handgrip stress in 28 patients with angiographic collaterals and in 25 control patients with similar CAD severity by quantitative arteriography. Regional myocardial activity decreased after dipyridamole, indicating coronary steal, in 25 of 28 patients with angiographic collaterals and in only 4 of 25 control patients without angiographic collaterals. These findings suggest that developed collaterals are associated with myocardial steal in patients with CAD, allowing potential use of PET for non-invasive identification of coronary collateralization.

  15. 10 CFR 611.108 - Perfection of liens and preservation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Perfection of liens and preservation of collateral. 611.108 Section 611.108 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY... determines are required to preserve the collateral. The cost of such contracts may be charged to the Borrower....

  16. Factors associated with client-collateral agreement in substance abuse post-treatment self-reports.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Satish; Perry, Stephanie W

    2005-07-01

    This study examined levels of agreement and directionality of disagreement between the post-treatment self-reports of substance abuse clients and their collaterals. The study population comprised 1252 clients with a primary or secondary diagnosis of substance abuse or dependence whose treatment was publicly funded in Tennessee. Client and collateral responses to 13 questions were analyzed for levels of agreement, revealing the following: (a) levels of client-collateral agreement were high, at least 75% agreement on all 13 questions and at least 88% agreement on 10 variables; (b) a Simple Kappa Test confirmed that 11 out of 13 items had moderate to excellent nonchance agreement; (c) there was no consistent trend in directionality, that is, clients neither reported information more positively nor more negatively than their collaterals did; (d) on average, those collaterals who were spouses, parents, and children agreed more with clients compared to other types of collaterals; and (e) those collaterals who saw the clients more frequently and more recently had higher agreement than those who saw the clients less frequently. This research reaffirms that collaterals are a valuable source for verifying the accuracy of clients' self-reports and that this approach continues to hold considerable promise for substance abuse post-treatment assessment.

  17. 12 CFR 615.5090 - Reduction in carrying value of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reduction in carrying value of collateral. 615.5090 Section 615.5090 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Collateral § 615.5090 Reduction in...

  18. 7 CFR 1980.443 - Collateral, personal and corporate guarantees and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Use of the net proceeds from the sale of collateral to purchase collateral of equal or greater value... its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 guaranteed debt equal to the net proceeds of the... requirements. (1) The lender will ascertain that no claim or liens of laborers, material men, contractors...

  19. Influence on collateral flow of recanalising chronic total coronary occlusions: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, T; Hochstrasser, P; Billinger, M; Fleisch, M; Meier, B; Seiler, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the effect of recanalisation on collateral flow in a case-control study in patients with and without chronic total coronary occlusions.
DESIGN—In 54 patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) (mean (SD) age 61 (6) years), coronary collateral flow was measured by intracoronary pressure or Doppler guide wires at the end of repeated balloon occlusions. Coronary collateral flow index (collateral flow relative to normal antegrade flow) during the first two balloon inflations in 27 patients with a chronic total occlusion (occlusion group) was compared with that of 27 patients matched for age, sex, and collateral flow index at the first occlusion and with a coronary artery diameter stenosis ⩽ 80% (stenosis group).
RESULTS—Following revascularisation, collateral flow index decreased in 17 of the patients in the occlusion group (63%) and in eight of the patients in the stenosis group (30%) (p = 0.03 between groups). The overall change of collateral flow index between the first and the second balloon occlusion was −0.04 (0.01) in the occlusion group (p = 0.07 for paired comparison; from 0.29 (0.17) to 0.25 (0.14)), and +0.02 (0.06) in the stenosis group (p = 0.06 for paired comparison; from 0.27 (0.13) to 0.30 (0.15)). The trend to collateral enhancement in the stenosis group differed significantly from the occlusion group (p = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS—While repeated coronary balloon occlusions induce collateral recruitment in the majority of patients with moderate stenoses, recanalisation of chronic total coronary occlusions is more often associated with collateral flow reduction. A later decrease in collateral flow by involution of collateral channels cannot be excluded by this study but has not been reported so far.


Keywords: coronary collateral circulation; coronary occlusion; revascularisation; collateral damage PMID:11559686

  20. Effect of collateral blood flow on patients undergoing endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Marks, Michael P; Lansberg, Maarten G; Mlynash, Michael; Olivot, Jean-Marc; Straka, Matus; Kemp, Stephanie; McTaggart, Ryan; Inoue, Manabu; Zaharchuk, Greg; Bammer, Roland; Albers, Gregory W

    2014-04-01

    Our aim was to determine the relationships between angiographic collaterals and diffusion/perfusion findings, subsequent infarct growth, and clinical outcome in patients undergoing endovascular therapy for ischemic stroke. Sixty patients with a thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) score of 0 or 1 and internal carotid artery/M1 occlusion at baseline were evaluated. A blinded reader assigned a collateral score using a previous 5-point scale, from 0 (no collateral flow) to 4 (complete/rapid collaterals to the entire ischemic territory). The analysis was dichotomized to poor flow (0-2) versus good flow (3-4). Collateral score was correlated with baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, diffusion-weighted imaging volume, perfusion-weighted imaging volume (Tmax ≥6 seconds), TICI reperfusion, infarct growth, and modified Rankin Scale score at day 90. Collateral score correlated with baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (P=0.002) and median volume of tissue at Tmax ≥6 seconds (P=0.009). Twenty-nine percent of patients with poor collateral flow had TICI 2B-3 reperfusion versus 65.5% with good flow (P=0.009). Patients with poor collaterals who reperfused (TICI 2B-3) were more likely to have a good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2 at 90 days) compared with patients who did not reperfuse (odds ratio, 12; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-98). There was no difference in the rate of good functional outcome after reperfusion in patients with poor collaterals versus good collaterals (P=1.0). Patients with poor reperfusion (TICI 0-2a) showed a trend toward greater infarct growth if they had poor collaterals versus good collaterals (P=0.06). Collaterals correlate with baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, perfusion-weighted imaging volume, and good reperfusion. However, target mismatch patients who reperfuse seem to have favorable outcomes at a similar rate, irrespective of the collateral score. http

  1. Clinicopathologic correlation of retinal to choroidal venous collaterals of the optic nerve head.

    PubMed

    Schatz, H; Green, W R; Talamo, J H; Hoyt, W F; Johnson, R N; McDonald, H R

    1991-08-01

    An optic nerve meningioma developed in an elderly woman and was followed for 13 years until her death. The optic nerve was initially normal. Over time it became swollen and then atrophic and developed retinal venous to choroidal venous collaterals. Five hundred serial sections were prepared through the optic nerve and for approximately 1.5 mm superiorly and inferiorly to the optic nerve to trace the course of the collaterals that were seen ophthalmoscopically and angiographically in the optic nerve head. This clinicopathologic study shows clearly that the abnormal channels are, in fact, retinal venous to choroidal venous collaterals (bypass channels). Four collaterals extended around the end of Bruch's membrane at the optic nerve head. Two more collaterals extended through the retinal pigment epithelium to become continuous with a subretinal pigment epithelial neovascular membrane, the vessels of which connected with the choroidal vessels through a defect in Bruch's membrane.

  2. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  3. Pen Branch delta expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.; Christensen, E.J.; Mackey, H.E.; Sharitz, R.R.; Jensen, J.R.; Hodgson, M.E.

    1984-02-01

    Since 1954, cooling water discharges from K Reactor ({anti X} = 370 cfs {at} 59 C) to Pen Branch have altered vegetation and deposited sediment in the Savannah River Swamp forming the Pen Branch delta. Currently, the delta covers over 300 acres and continues to expand at a rate of about 16 acres/yr. Examination of delta expansion can provide important information on environmental impacts to wetlands exposed to elevated temperature and flow conditions. To assess the current status and predict future expansion of the Pen Branch delta, historic aerial photographs were analyzed using both basic photo interpretation and computer techniques to provide the following information: (1) past and current expansion rates; (2) location and changes of impacted areas; (3) total acreage presently affected. Delta acreage changes were then compared to historic reactor discharge temperature and flow data to see if expansion rate variations could be related to reactor operations.

  4. Chloride intracellular channel-4 is a determinant of native collateral formation in skeletal muscle and brain.

    PubMed

    Chalothorn, Dan; Zhang, Hua; Smith, Jennifer E; Edwards, John C; Faber, James E

    2009-07-02

    The capacity of the collateral circulation to lessen injury in occlusive vascular disease depends on the density and caliber of native (preexisting) collaterals, as well as their ability to outwardly remodel in ischemia. Native collateral conductance varies widely among healthy individuals, yet little is known about what specifies collateral formation. Chloride intracellular channel (CLIC)4 protein is required for endothelial cell hollowing, a process necessary for vessel formation during embryogenesis and ischemia. Whether CLIC4 has other physiological roles in vascular biology is uncertain. We studied collateral formation and remodeling in mice deficient in CLIC1 and CLIC4. Vascular responses to femoral artery ligation were similar in Clic1(-/-) and wild-type mice. In contrast, immediately after ligation perfusion dropped more in Clic4(-/-) than wild-type mice, suggesting fewer preexisting collaterals, a finding confirmed by angiography, greater ischemia, and worse recovery of perfusion; however, collateral remodeling was unaffected. Likewise, native cerebral collateral density in Clic4(-/-) (but not Clic1(-/-)) mice was reduced, resulting in severe infarctions. This was associated with impaired perinatal formation and stabilization of nascent collaterals. Clic4 hemizygous mice had intermediate deficits in the above parameters, suggesting a gene-dose effect. Ischemia augmented CLIC1 and CLIC4 expression similarly in wild-type mice. However, CLIC1 increased 3-fold more in Clic4(-/-) mice, suggesting compensation. Despite greater ischemia in Clic4(-/-) mice, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-2 increased less compared to wild-type, suggesting CLIC4 exerts influences upstream of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha-VEGF signaling. Hence, CLIC4 represents the second gene that, along with VEGF shown by us previously, specifies native collateral formation.

  5. [As cardioprotective and angiogenic biomarker, can ghrelin predict coronary collateral development and severity of coronary atherosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Akboğa, Mehmet Kadri; Taçoy, Gülten; Yılmaz Demirtaş, Canan; Türkoğlu, Sedat; Boyacı, Bülent; Çengel, Atiye

    2017-06-01

    Ghrelin exerts protective effects on cardiovascular system by inhibiting progression of atherosclerosis, supression of vascular inflammation, and stimulating angiogenesis. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of serum ghrelin on coronary collateral development and SYNTAX score in patients with severe coronary artery disease. Total of 91 patients who had ≥90% stenosis in at least one major coronary artery were prospectively included in this cross-sectional, observational study. Collateral degree was graded according to Rentrop-Cohen classification. Patients with grade 2 or 3 collateral degree were allocated to Good Collateral Group and patients with grade 0 or 1 collateral degree were included in Poor Collateral Group. Ghrelin and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) levels were measured using radioimmunoassay and ELISA kits. Serum ghrelin and VEGF-A levels were significantly higher in Good Collateral Group. Furthermore, ghrelin level showed significant inverse correlation with SYNTAX score (r=0.348; p=0.001). In multivariable regression analysis, ghrelin (Odds ratio, 1.013; 95% confidence interval, 1.011-1.017; p=0.013), VEGF-A, fasting plasma glucose and presence of chronic total occlusion were independent predictors of good collateral development. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, ghrelin value cut-off point of ≥781 pg/mL predicted good collateral development with sensitivity of 73.1% and specificity of 67.7%. Findings suggested that ghrelin has antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties that protect endothelial functions and also stimulate angiogenesis, which results in development of good coronary collateral and inhibition of progression of coronary atherosclerosis.

  6. The association of circulating monocyte count with coronary collateral growth in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Sahinarslan, Asife; Akyel, Ahmet; Timurkaynak, Timur; Boyaci, Bulent; Cengel, Atiye

    2010-03-01

    The status of inflammation may affect the collateral development in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Monocytes were found to have an important role in collateral growth in animal studies. We aimed to investigate the possible association of circulating monocyte count with collateral development in patients with DM and severe coronary artery disease (CAD). We enrolled 134 consecutive patients with DM who had > or =95 stenosis in at least one major coronary artery and investigated the relationship between circulating monocyte count and collateral growth. When we analyzed the coronary angiograms of eligible patients, we found that 64 of them had good collateral growth and 70 had poor collateral growth according to the Cohen-Rentrop method. The monocyte count was significantly different between good and poor collateral growth groups (643 +/- 184 vs. 479 +/- 143 per mm(3), P < 0.001). In the analysis comparing the Rentrop score with the Gensini score and circulating monocyte count, we found significant correlations (r = 0.293, P = 0.001 and r = 0.455, P < 0.001, respectively). The duration of ischemic symptoms tended to be longer in the good collateral group (1.9 +/- 4.1 vs. 0.8 +/- 1.3 years, P = 0.079). The Gensini score was also correlated with the duration of myocardial ischemic symptoms (r = 0.299, P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis revealed an increased monocyte count in the good collateral group [odds ratio (OR), 5.726; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.817-18.040, P = 0.003, the cut-off value for monocyte was defined as 550 cell/mm(3)]. The increased circulating monocyte count in diabetic patients was evidently related to good coronary collateral growth. This finding may be potentially important in clinical and basic cardiovascular medicine.

  7. [Synopsis about the hypothesis of "information channel" of channel-collateral system].

    PubMed

    Chang, Xi-Lang

    2008-10-01

    The author of the present paper founded a theorem about the "incompleteness of single channel structure" (nerve, blood vessel, lymphatic, interspace, aperture, etc.) through quantitative and qualitative analysis about the economic information channel in the human body, which eliminates the probability of single channel structure in the information channel of channel (meridian)-collateral system. After comprehensive analysis on the current researches, the author puts forward a neodoxy, i.e., the body "information channel" structure of the channel-collateral system, mainly follows the distribution regularity of systemic statistics, and is not a single specific entity; various layers of the information channel in the main stems of the channel-collaterals are composed of optimized structure tissues. Hence, the structure of this information channel of channel-collateral system is an overall-optimized, sequential and compatible systemic structure. From this neodoxy, the author brings forward a working principle of channel-collaterals, which is supported theoretically by bio-auxology. The longitudinal distribution of the main stems of meridian-collaterals is considered to result from that in the process of the animal evolution, in the animals moving forward, the microscopic complicated movement of intracorporeal information and energy molecules is related to the forward macroscopic and non-uniform movement of organism in trans-measure. Its impulse and kinetic momentum forms a main vector in the longitudinal direction of the body (the direction of the main stem of channel-collaterals). In order to adapt to and utilize natural regularities, the main stems of the channel-collaterals gradually differentiate and evolve in the living organism, forming a whole system. The "hypothesis of biological origin of channel-collateral system" and "that of information channel of the channel-collaterals in the body" constitute a relatively complete theoretical system framework.

  8. Preoperative transdural collateral vessels in moyamoya as radiographic biomarkers of disease.

    PubMed

    Storey, Armide; Michael Scott, R; Robertson, Richard; Smith, Edward

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE The prevalence of angiographically evident preoperative transdural collateral vessels in moyamoya is not well documented. The authors hypothesized that transdural collaterals could be used as radiographic biomarkers of disease, and that their presence is associated with more advanced moyamoya arteriopathy at diagnosis, which is a harbinger of more frequent operative complications and a predictor of better long-term angiographic results following surgery. METHODS The study consists of a single-institution case series of patients with moyamoya who underwent pial synangiosis between 2005 and 2013. RESULTS Moyamoya was diagnosed in a total of 204 patients (n = 121 [59%] female, 83 [41%] male); the average age at surgery was 9.5 years (range 0.4-35 years). Radiographically, 154 (75%) had bilateral disease for a total of 308 affected hemispheres; 152 (75%) had radiographic stroke; and 190 (93%) had "ivy sign" on FLAIR MRI, indicating slow flow. Of the 358 hemispheres, 324 were treated operatively. On preoperative angiography, 107 patients (52%) had transdural collaterals in 176 affected hemispheres (49%). The Suzuki stage was higher in patients with collaterals (3.4 vs 3.0, p = 0.002). Of 324 treated hemispheres, 84 (26%) had collaterals within the surgical field. Complications included 12 strokes (3.7% stroke rate/hemisphere), with 5 (42%) directly attributable to interruption of transdural collaterals. On 1-year postoperative arteriograms available in 222 hemispheres, Matsushima grades trended better in patients with preoperative collaterals (1.5 vs 1.8 [A = 1, B = 2, C = 3]; p < 0.003). CONCLUSIONS Transdural collaterals are present in nearly half of all preoperative arteriograms in patients with moyamoya. These collaterals are more common in advanced disease, are associated with stroke as a perioperative complication, and may suggest increased capacity to produce surgical collaterals postoperatively. These data support the utility of preoperative

  9. Collateral vessel number, plaque burden, and functional decline in peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Mary M; Carr, James; Liu, Kiang; Kramer, Christopher M; Yuan, Chun; Tian, Lu; Criqui, Michael H; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zhao, Lihui; Xu, Dongxiang; Kibbe, Melina; Berry, Jarett; Carroll, Timothy J

    2014-08-01

    Associations of collateral vessels and lower extremity plaque with functional decline are unknown. Among people with peripheral artery disease (PAD), we determined whether greater superficial femoral artery (SFA) plaque burden combined with fewer lower extremity collateral vessels was associated with faster functional decline, compared to less plaque and/or more numerous collateral vessels. A total of 226 participants with ankle-brachial index (ABI) <1.00 underwent magnetic resonance imaging of lower extremity collateral vessels and cross-sectional imaging of the proximal SFA. Participants were categorized as follows: Group 1 (best), maximum plaque area < median and collateral vessel number ≥6 (median); Group 2, maximum plaque area < median and collateral vessel number <6; Group 3, maximum plaque area > median and collateral vessel number ≥6; Group 4 (worst), maximum plaque area > median and collateral vessel number <6. Functional measures were performed at baseline and annually for 2 years. Analyses adjust for age, sex, race, comorbidities, and other confounders. Annual changes in usual-paced walking velocity were: Group 1, +0.01 m/s; Group 2, -0.02 m/s; Group 3, -0.01 m/s; Group 4, -0.05 m/s (p-trend=0.008). Group 4 had greater decline than Group 1 (p<0.001), Group 2 (p=0.029), and Group 3 (p=0.010). Similar trends were observed for fastest-paced 4-meter walking velocity (p-trend=0.018). Results were not substantially changed when analyses were repeated with additional adjustment for ABI. However, there were no associations of SFA plaque burden and collateral vessel number with decline in 6-minute walk. In summary, a larger SFA plaque burden combined with fewer collateral vessels is associated with a faster decline in usual and fastest-paced walking velocity in PAD.

  10. Molecular basis for impaired collateral artery growth in the spontaneously hypertensive rat: insight from microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Unthank, Joseph L; McClintick, Jeanette N; Labarrere, Carlos A; Li, Lang; DiStasi, Matthew R; Miller, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of global gene expression in mesenteric control and collateral arteries was used to investigate potential molecules, pathways, and mechanisms responsible for impaired collateral growth in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR). A fundamental difference was observed in overall gene expression pattern in SHR versus Wistar Kyoto (WKY) collaterals; only 6% of genes altered in collaterals were similar between rat strains. Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified major differences between WKY and SHR in networks and biological functions related to cell growth and proliferation and gene expression. In SHR control arteries, several mechano-sensitive and redox-dependent transcription regulators were downregulated including JUN (−5.2×, P = 0.02), EGR1 (−4.1×, P = 0.01), and NFĸB1 (−1.95×, P = 0.04). Predicted binding sites for NFĸB and AP-1 were present in genes altered in WKY but not SHR collaterals. Immunostaining showed increased NFĸB nuclear translocation in collateral arteries of WKY and apocynin-treated SHR, but not in untreated SHR. siRNA for the p65 subunit suppressed collateral growth in WKY, confirming a functional role of NFkB. Canonical pathways identified by IPA in WKY but not SHR included nitric oxide and renin–angiotensin system signaling. The angiotensin type 1 receptor (AGTR1) exhibited upregulation in WKY collaterals, but downregulation in SHR; pharmacological blockade of AGTR1 with losartan prevented collateral luminal expansion in WKY. Together, these results suggest that collateral growth impairment results from an abnormality in a fundamental regulatory mechanism that occurs at a level between signal transduction and gene transcription and implicate redox-dependent modulation of mechano-sensitive transcription factors such as NFĸB as a potential mechanism. PMID:24303120

  11. Relationship Between Collateral Status, Contrast Transit, and Contrast Density in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Hiroyuki; Bivard, Andrew; Lin, Longting; Spratt, Neil J; Miteff, Ferdinand; Parsons, Mark W; Levi, Christopher R

    2016-03-01

    Collateral circulation is recognized to influence the life expectancy of the ischemic penumbra in acute ischemic stroke. The best method to quantify collateral status on acute imaging is uncertain. We aimed to determine the relationship between visual collateral status, quantitative collateral assessments, baseline computed tomographic perfusion measures, and tissue outcomes on follow-up imaging. Sixty-six consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke clinically eligible for recanalization therapy and with M1 or M2 middle cerebral artery occlusion were evaluated. We compared the visual collateral scoring with measures of contrast peak time delay and contrast peak density. We also compared these measures for their ability to predict perfusion lesion and infarct core volumes, final infarct, and infarct growth. Shorter contrast peak time delay (P=0.041) and higher contrast peak density (P=0.002) were associated with good collateral status. Shorter contrast peak time delay correlated with higher contrast peak density (β=-4.413; P=0.037). In logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age, sex, onset-computed tomographic time, and occlusion site, higher contrast peak density was independently associated with good collateral status (P=0.009). Multiple regression analysis showed that higher contrast peak density was an independent predictor of smaller perfusion lesion volume (P=0.029), smaller ischemic core volume (P=0.044), smaller follow-up infarct volume (P=0.005), and smaller infarct growth volume (P=0.010). Visual collateral status, contrast peak density, and contrast peak time delay were inter-related, and good collateral status was strongly associated with contrast peak density. Contrast peak density in collateral vessel may be an important factor in tissue fate in acute ischemic stroke. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Branched Hamiltonians and supersymmetry

    DOE PAGES

    Curtright, Thomas L.; Zachos, Cosmas K.

    2014-03-21

    Some examples of branched Hamiltonians are explored both classically and in the context of quantum mechanics, as recently advocated by Shapere and Wilczek. These are in fact cases of switchback potentials, albeit in momentum space, as previously analyzed for quasi-Hamiltonian chaotic dynamical systems in a classical setting, and as encountered in analogous renormalization group flows for quantum theories which exhibit RG cycles. In conclusion, a basic two-worlds model, with a pair of Hamiltonian branches related by supersymmetry, is considered in detail.

  13. 46 CFR 308.526 - Certificate for repayment of decrease of collateral deposit fund, Form MA-306.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certificate for repayment of decrease of collateral... Insurance § 308.526 Certificate for repayment of decrease of collateral deposit fund, Form MA-306. The standard form of certificate for repayment of the amount of the decrease of the collateral deposit fund...

  14. 46 CFR 308.525 - Application for decrease in amount of cash collateral fund, Form MA-305.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for decrease in amount of cash collateral... Insurance § 308.525 Application for decrease in amount of cash collateral fund, Form MA-305. Application for decrease in the amount of the cash collateral deposit fund shall be made on Form MA-305, which may be...

  15. 12 CFR 223.41 - What covered transactions are exempt from the quantitative limits and collateral requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... quantitative limits and collateral requirements? 223.41 Section 223.41 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... are exempt from the quantitative limits and collateral requirements? The following transactions are not subject to the quantitative limits of §§ 223.11 and 223.12 or the collateral requirements of §...

  16. 26 CFR 1.6049-7 - Returns of information with respect to REMIC regular interests and collateralized debt obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... regular interests and collateralized debt obligations. 1.6049-7 Section 1.6049-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... collateralized debt obligations. (a) Definition of interest—(1) In general. For purposes of section 6049(a), for... with respect to a collateralized debt obligation (as defined in paragraph (d)(2) of this section),...

  17. Branching in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonghong; Li, Jiayang

    2011-02-01

    Rice branching, including the formation of tillers and panicle branches, has been well investigated over the past several years because of its agronomic importance. A major breakthrough in elucidating rice tillering in the recent years was the discovery of strigolactones, a specific group of terpenoid lactones that can inhibit axillary bud outgrowth. Since that discovery, new tillering mutants, that is, dwarf 27 (d27) or dwarf14 (d14, also reported as d88 or htd2), have been identified with reduced strigolactone levels or strigolactone response. DWARF27 (D27) and DWARF14 (D14) probably act on strigolactone biosynthesis and signal transduction, respectively. Additionally, several genes controlling panicle branches have been identified recently. DEP1 and IPA1/WFP are essential dominant/semidominant regulators that determine rice panicle branches and thus affect the grain yields. More importantly, dep1 and ipa1 alleles have been shown to be applicable for the improvement of rice grain yields in molecular breeding. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. New branched DNA constructs.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Madhavaiah; Keller, Sascha; Gloeckner, Christian; Bornemann, Benjamin; Marx, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The Watson-Crick base pairing of DNA is an advantageous phenomenon that can be exploited when using DNA as a scaffold for directed self-organization of nanometer-sized objects. Several reports have appeared in the literature that describe the generation of branched DNA (bDNA) with variable numbers of arms that self-assembles into predesigned architectures. These bDNA units are generated by using cleverly designed rigid crossover DNA molecules. Alternatively, bDNA can be generated by using synthetic branch points derived from either nucleoside or non-nucleoside building blocks. Branched DNA has scarcely been explored for use in nanotechnology or from self-assembling perspectives. Herein, we wish to report our results for the synthesis, characterization, and assembling properties of asymmetrical bDNA molecules that are able to generate linear and circular bDNA constructs. Our strategy for the generation of bDNA is based on a branching point that makes use of a novel protecting-group strategy. The bDNA units were generated by means of automated DNA synthesis methods and were used to generate novel objects by employing chemical and biological techniques. The entities generated might be useful building blocks for DNA-based nanobiotechnology.

  19. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  20. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  1. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction: Current Philosophy in 2016.

    PubMed

    Cain, E Lyle; Mathis, Taylor P

    The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is the primary static restraint to valgus stress at the elbow. Since Jobe pioneered reconstruction in 1974, thousands of throwers have undergone UCL reconstruction, and good results have been achieved. The high-profile nature of the elite pitcher has brought this technique into the spotlight, and extensive research has been performed with new techniques emerging. The standard reconstruction, modified only slightly since Jobe's original description, remains the gold standard for treatment of UCL insufficiency. Throwers are able to return to the same or even higher levels of competition in the majority of cases. In this article, we present our standard technique and results and discuss emerging techniques for treatment of UCL injuries.

  2. Photoionization of Endohedral Atoms: Collective, Reflective and Collateral Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Himadri S.; McCune, Matthew A.; Madjet, Mohamed E.; Hopper, Dale E.; Manson, Steven T.

    2009-12-01

    The photoionization properties of a fullerene-confined atom differ dramatically from that of an isolated atom. In the low energy region, where the fullerene plasmons are active, the electrons of the confined atom emerge through a collective channel carrying a significant chunk of plasmon with it. The photoelectron angular distribution of the confined atom however shows far lesser impact of the effect. At higher energies, the interference between two single-electron ionization channels, one directly from the atom and another reflected off the fullerene cage, producuces oscillatory cross sections. But for the outermost atomic level, which transfers some electrons to the cage, oscillations are further modulated by the collateral emission from the part of the atomic charge density transferred to the cage. These various modes of emissions are studied for the photoionization of Ar endohedrally confined in C60.

  3. Anterior cruciate ligament and medial collateral ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    Bollier, Matthew; Smith, Patrick A

    2014-10-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries have evolved over the past 30 years. A detailed physical examination along with careful review of the magnetic resonance imaging and stress radiographs will guide decision making. Early ACL reconstruction and acute MCL repair are recommended when there is increased medial joint space opening with valgus stress in extension, a significant meniscotibial deep MCL injury (high-riding medial meniscus), or a displaced tibial-sided superficial MCL avulsion (stener lesion of the knee). Delayed ACL reconstruction to allow for MCL healing is advised when increased valgus laxity is present only at 30 degrees of flexion and not at 0 degree. However, at the time of ACL surgery, medial stability has to be re-assessed after the reconstruction is completed. In patients with neutral alignment in the chronic setting, graft reconstruction of both the ACL and MCL is recommended.

  4. Ulnar collateral ligament in the overhead athlete: a current review.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Jeffrey; Chronister, Justin; Cain, E Lyle; Andrews, James R

    2014-09-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries are most commonly reported in baseball players (particularly in pitchers) but have also been observed in other overhead athletes including javelin, softball, tennis, volleyball, water polo, and gymnastics. Partial injuries have been successfully treated with appropriate nonoperative measures but complete tears and chronic injuries have shown less benefit from conservative measures. In these cases, surgical reconstruction has become the treatment modality for overhead athlete who wishes to continue to play. This article discusses the functional anatomy and biomechanics of the UCL as related to the pathophysiology of overhead throwing, as well as the important clinical methods needed to make accurate and timely diagnosis. It also gives an updated review of the current clinical outcomes and complications of surgical reconstruction.

  5. Medial collateral ligament reconstruction in the baseball Pitcher's elbow.

    PubMed

    Erne, Holger C; Zouzias, Ioannis C; Rosenwasser, Melvin P

    2009-08-01

    Pitchers are prone to elbow injuries because of high and repetitive valgus stresses on the elbow. The anterior bundle of the medial ulnar collateral ligament (MCL) of the elbow is the primary restraint and is often attenuated with time, leading to functional incompetence and ultimate failure. Pitchers with a history of medial elbow pain, reduced velocity, and loss of command may have an MCL injury in evolution. Physical examination and imaging can confirm the diagnosis. Treatment begins with rest and activity modification. All medial elbow pain is not MCL injury. Surgery is considered only for talented athletes who wish to return to competitive play and may include elite scholastic and other collegiates and professionals. The technique for MCL reconstruction was first described in 1986. Many variations have been offered since then, which can result in predictable outcomes, allowing many to return to the same level of competitive play.

  6. Photoionization of Endohedral Atoms: Collective, Reflective and Collateral Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Himadri S.; McCune, Matthew A.; Hopper, Dale E.; Madjet, Mohamed E.; Manson, Steven T.

    2009-12-03

    The photoionization properties of a fullerene-confined atom differ dramatically from that of an isolated atom. In the low energy region, where the fullerene plasmons are active, the electrons of the confined atom emerge through a collective channel carrying a significant chunk of plasmon with it. The photoelectron angular distribution of the confined atom however shows far lesser impact of the effect. At higher energies, the interference between two single-electron ionization channels, one directly from the atom and another reflected off the fullerene cage, producuces oscillatory cross sections. But for the outermost atomic level, which transfers some electrons to the cage, oscillations are further modulated by the collateral emission from the part of the atomic charge density transferred to the cage. These various modes of emissions are studied for the photoionization of Ar endohedrally confined in C{sub 60}.

  7. Modeling and simulation for collateral damage estimation in combat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Steven C.; Martin, Douglas D.

    2005-05-01

    Modeling and simulation (M&S) is increasingly used for decision support during combat operations: M&S is going to war! One of the key operational uses of M&S in combat is collateral damage estimation (CDE). Reducing undesired collateral damage (CD) in war and in operations other than war is important to the United States of America. Injuries to noncombatants and damage to protected sites are uniformly avoided by our forces whenever possible in planning and executing combat operations. This desire to limit unwanted CD presents unique challenges to command and control (C2), especially for time-sensitive targeting (TST). The challenges begin the moment a target is identified because CD estimates must meet specified criteria before target approval is granted. Therefore, CDE tools must be accurate, responsive, and human-factored, with graphics that aid C2 decisions. This paper will describe how CDE tools are used to build three-dimensional models of potential target areas and select appropriate munitions, fusing, and delivery in order to minimize predicted CD. The paper will cover the evolution of CDE from using only range rings around the target to improvements through Operation Allied Force, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation Iraqi Freedom. Positive CDE feedback from various sources, including the Secretary of Defense, lessons learned, and warfighters will be presented. Current CDE tools in the field and CDE tools used in reachback are being improved, and short-term and long-term improvements in those tools and in the CDE methodology will be described in this paper.

  8. Caffeine ameliorates hemodynamic derangements and portosystemic collaterals in cirrhotic rats.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shao-Jung; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Wang, Sun-Sang; Hsin, I-Fang; Lin, Te-Yueh; Huang, Hui-Chun; Chang, Ching-Chih; Chuang, Chiao-Lin; Ho, Hsin-Ling; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2015-05-01

    Portal hypertension (PH), a pathophysiological derangement of liver cirrhosis, is characterized by hyperdynamic circulation, angiogenesis, and portosystemic collaterals. These may lead to lethal complications, such as variceal bleeding. Caffeine has been noted for its effects on liver inflammation, fibrogenesis, and vasoreactiveness. However, the relevant influences of caffeine in cirrhosis and PH have not been addressed. Spraque-Dawley rats with common bile duct ligation-induced cirrhosis or sham operation received prophylactic or therapeutic caffeine treatment (50 mg/kg/day, the first or 15th day since operation, respectively) for 28 days. Compared to vehicle (distilled water), caffeine decreased cardiac index, increased systemic vascular resistance, reduced portal pressure (PP), superior mesenteric artery flow, mesenteric vascular density, portosystemic shunting (PSS), intrahepatic angiogenesis, and fibrosis without affecting liver and renal biochemistry. The beneficial effects were reversed by selective adenosine A1 agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) or A2A agonist GCS21680. Both prophylactic and therapeutic caffeine treatment decreased portal resistance and PP in thioacetamide (200mg/kg, thrice-weekly for 8 weeks)-induced cirrhotic rats. Caffeine down-regulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), phospho-VEGFR2, and phospho-Akt mesenteric protein expression. Caffeine adversely affected viability of hepatic stellate and sinusoidal endothelial cells, which was reversed by CPA and GCS21680. On the other hand, caffeine did not modify vascular response to vasoconstrictors in splanchnic, hepatic, and collateral vascular beds. Caffeine decreased PP, ameliorated hyperdynamic circulation, PSS, mesenteric angiogenesis, hepatic angiogenesis, and fibrosis in cirrhotic rats. Caffeine may be a feasible candidate to ameliorate PH-related complications in cirrhosis. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver

  9. Impact of obstructive sleep apnea in recruitment of coronary collaterality during inaugural acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ben Ahmed, H; Boussaid, H; Longo, S; Tlili, R; Fazaa, S; Baccar, H; Boujnah, M R

    2015-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may lead to myocardial preconditioning by increasing coronary collateral vessel recruitment in patients with acute coronary occlusion. To determine the relationship between the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and coronary collaterality during acute myocardial infarction. This study prospectively included 71 patients with an inaugural myocardial infarction who had undergone a coronary angiography within 24h of onset. All patients underwent an overnight polygraph before discharge and were classified according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Coronary collaterals were scored by visual analyses and according to the Rentrop grading system. Mean age was 59±11years and 83% of patients were men. All patients had complete or subtotal occlusion of the infarct-related artery. After the sleep study, patients were divided into two groups: 25 were suffering from OSA (AHI>15/h). Patients with OSA showed better collateral vessel development (Rentrop score≥1) compared to non-OSA patients (68 vs. 41%, P=0.032). AHI was significantly higher in patients with developed coronary collaterals (Rentrop≥1) compared to those without collaterality (17.74±13.2 vs. 12.24±10.9, P=0.025). Coronary collateral development may be increased in OSA patients who are presenting with a first myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of cyclooxygenase blockade on blood flow through well-developed coronary collateral vessels.

    PubMed

    Altman, J; Dulas, D; Bache, R J

    1992-06-01

    Collateral vessels that develop after coronary artery occlusion demonstrate perivascular inflammation, subintimal hyperplasia, and endothelial proliferation. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that these abnormalities are associated with evidence for increased production of vasodilator prostaglandins. Eight dogs were studied 4-6 months after occlusion of the anterior descending coronary artery had been performed to stimulate collateral vessel growth. At the time of study, the anterior descending coronary artery was cannulated at the site of occlusion to allow measurement of retrograde blood flow as an index of interarterial collateral flow. Injection of radioactive microspheres during the retrograde flow collection allowed determination of continuing tissue flow in the collateral-dependent zone as an index of intramural microvascular collateral flow. Retrograde and tissue flows were measured before and 20 minutes after 5 mg/kg i.v. indomethacin, a dose that caused 95 +/- 3% inhibition of the coronary vasodilation in response to a 500 micrograms intracoronary bolus of arachidonic acid. Heart rate and mean aortic pressure were not significantly altered by indomethacin, and blood flow to the normally perfused myocardial region was not changed by administration of indomethacin. However, indomethacin caused a 40 +/- 7% decrease in retrograde flow (p less than 0.01), and microvascular collateral flow to the dependent myocardium decreased by 20 +/- 10% (p less than 0.05). These data indicate that, unlike the normal coronary circulation, well-developed coronary collateral vessels are under the tonic influence of vasodilator prostaglandins.

  11. Computation of blood flow through collateral circulation of the superficial femoral artery.

    PubMed

    Kruse, R R; Vinke, E J; Poelmann, F B; Rohof, D; Holewijn, S; Slump, C H; Reijnen, Mmpj

    2016-04-01

    Obliteration of collaterals during (endo)vascular treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease is considered detrimental. We use a model to calculate maximum collateral bed flow of the superficial femoral artery in order to provide insight in their hemodynamic relevance. A computational model was developed using digital subtraction angiographies in combination with Poiseuille's equation and Ohm's law. Lesions were divided into short and long (<15 cm and ≥15 cm, respectively) and into stenosis and occlusions. Data are presented in relation to the calculated maximum healthy superficial femoral artery flow. Stenotic lesions are longer than occlusive lesions (P < 0.05) and occlusions had more and larger collaterals (P < 0.05). In all four study groups the collateral flow significantly increased the total flow (P < 0.05). The maximum collateral system flow in the stenosis and occlusion groups was 5.1% and 20.8% of healthy superficial femoral artery flow, respectively (P < 0.05), and there were no significant differences between short and long lesions (11.2% and 6.7% of healthy superficial femoral artery flow, respectively). The maximum collateral system flow of the superficial femoral artery is only a fraction, with a maximum of one fifth, of healthy superficial femoral artery flow. Effects of collateral vessel occlusion during (endo)vascular treatment may therefore be without detrimental consequences. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. An automated coronary artery occlusion device for stimulating collateral development in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rys, Richard; LaDisa, John F; Tessmer, John P; Gu, Weidong; Kersten, Judy R; Warltier, David C; Pagel, Paul S

    2002-01-01

    Repetitive, brief coronary artery occlusions produce collateral development in experimental animals. This model causes coronary collateralization in a highly reproducible fashion, but the process is very labor intensive. We report the design and use of a fully automated hydraulic coronary occlusion device capable of producing repetitive coronary occlusions and enhancement of coronary collateral development in dogs. The device consists of analog electronics that allow adjustment of occlusion number, frequency, pressure and duration, and mechanical components responsible for the coronary occlusion. The motor and piston of the device are coupled to a chronically implanted hydraulic vascular occluder placed around the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) of dogs instrumented for measurement of systemic and coronary hemodynamics. One group of dogs (n = 6) underwent brief (2 min) LAD occlusions once per hour, eight times per day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks to stimulate collateral development (measured using radioactive microspheres). Another group of dogs (n = 6) that did not receive repetitive occlusions served as controls. The device reproducibly produced repetitive LAD occlusions for the duration, frequency, and time interval initially programmed. A time-dependent increase in transmural collateral blood flow was observed in dogs undergoing repetitive occlusions using the device. Collateral blood flow was unchanged in dogs that did not undergo occlusions. The automated occluder device reliably produces repetitive coronary occlusions and may facilitate further study of coronary collateral development in response to chronic myocardial ischemia.

  13. The fissure: interlobar collateral ventilation and implications for endoscopic therapy in emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Koster, Theodoor David; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2016-01-01

    In patients with severe emphysema, bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using one-way valves is a promising therapeutic option to improve lung function and quality of life. The goal of this treatment is to achieve a complete lobar atelectasis. In a significant proportion of patients, this atelectasis cannot be achieved due to interlobar collateral ventilation. This collateral ventilation is generated through incomplete lobar fissures. Therefore, only patients with complete fissures and no collateral ventilation can be selected for endobronchial therapy with one-way valves. Incomplete fissures are very common and exhibit a great variation in anatomy. The reported prevalence is 17%–85% for the right major fissure, 19%–74% for the left major fissure, and 20%–90% for the minor fissure. There are several methods of measuring or predicting the presence of collateral ventilation, with computed tomography (CT)-fissure analysis and the Chartis measurement being the most important. CT-fissure analysis is an indirect method to measure the completeness of fissures as a surrogate for collateral ventilation. The Chartis system is an endobronchial method to directly measure the presence of collateral ventilation. Both methods have unique value, and the combination of both can accurately predict the treatment response to the bronchoscopic placement of endobronchial valves. This review provides an in-depth view of lung fissure and collateral ventilation to help understand its importance in selecting the appropriate patients for new emphysema treatments and thus avoid useless treatment in unsuitable patients. PMID:27110109

  14. Relationship between haemodynamic impairment and collateral blood flow in carotid artery disease.

    PubMed

    Hartkamp, Nolan S; Petersen, Esben T; Chappell, Michael A; Okell, Thomas W; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Zeebregts, Clark J; Bokkers, Reinoud Ph

    2017-01-01

    Collateral blood flow plays a pivotal role in steno-occlusive internal carotid artery (ICA) disease to prevent irreversible ischaemic damage. Our aim was to investigate the effect of carotid artery disease upon cerebral perfusion and cerebrovascular reactivity and whether haemodynamic impairment is influenced at brain tissue level by the existence of primary and/or secondary collateral. Eighty-eight patients with steno-occlusive ICA disease and 29 healthy controls underwent MR examination. The presence of collaterals was determined with time-of-flight, two-dimensional phase contrast MRA and territorial arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging. Cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity were assessed with ASL before and after acetazolamide. Cerebral haemodynamics were normal in asymptomatic ICA stenosis patients, as opposed to patients with ICA occlusion, in whom the haemodynamics in both hemispheres were compromised. Haemodynamic impairment in the affected brain region was always present in symptomatic patients. The degree of collateral blood flow was inversely correlated with haemodynamic impairment. Recruitment of secondary collaterals only occurred in symptomatic ICA occlusion patients. In conclusion, both CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity were found to be reduced in symptomatic patients with steno-occlusive ICA disease. The presence of collateral flow is associated with further haemodynamic impairment. Recruitment of secondary collaterals is associated with severe haemodynamic impairment.

  15. The fissure: interlobar collateral ventilation and implications for endoscopic therapy in emphysema.

    PubMed

    Koster, Theodoor David; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2016-01-01

    In patients with severe emphysema, bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using one-way valves is a promising therapeutic option to improve lung function and quality of life. The goal of this treatment is to achieve a complete lobar atelectasis. In a significant proportion of patients, this atelectasis cannot be achieved due to interlobar collateral ventilation. This collateral ventilation is generated through incomplete lobar fissures. Therefore, only patients with complete fissures and no collateral ventilation can be selected for endobronchial therapy with one-way valves. Incomplete fissures are very common and exhibit a great variation in anatomy. The reported prevalence is 17%-85% for the right major fissure, 19%-74% for the left major fissure, and 20%-90% for the minor fissure. There are several methods of measuring or predicting the presence of collateral ventilation, with computed tomography (CT)-fissure analysis and the Chartis measurement being the most important. CT-fissure analysis is an indirect method to measure the completeness of fissures as a surrogate for collateral ventilation. The Chartis system is an endobronchial method to directly measure the presence of collateral ventilation. Both methods have unique value, and the combination of both can accurately predict the treatment response to the bronchoscopic placement of endobronchial valves. This review provides an in-depth view of lung fissure and collateral ventilation to help understand its importance in selecting the appropriate patients for new emphysema treatments and thus avoid useless treatment in unsuitable patients.

  16. Determinants and prognostic significance of collaterals in patients undergoing coronary revascularization.

    PubMed

    Nathoe, Hendrik M; Koerselman, Jeroen; Buskens, Erik; van Dijk, Diederik; Stella, Pieter R; Plokker, Thijs H W; Doevendans, Pieter A F M; Grobbee, Diederick E; de Jaegere, Peter P T

    2006-07-01

    There is evidence that coronary collaterals improve the prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, there is limited clinical information on the protective role of collaterals in patients with stable coronary artery disease. This information may help risk stratification and the development of novel therapies, such as arteriogenesis and angiogenesis. The relation between collaterals and cardiac death or MI at 1 year after coronary revascularization was studied in 561 patients who were enrolled in a randomized study that compared stent implantation with bypass grafting. Collaterals were assessed on an angiogram using Rentrop's classification and considered present with a Rentrop grade >1. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios for cardiac death or MI at 1 year were calculated using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. In addition, determinants of collaterals were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Collaterals were present in 176 patients (31%). The adjusted odds ratio of cardiac death or infarction was 0.18 (95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.78) in the presence of collaterals. Independent determinants of collaterals were age (odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 0.99), multivessel disease (odds ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 2.51), impaired ventricular function (odds ratio 1.85, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 3.29), type C lesion (odds ratio 3.72, 95% confidence interval 2.33 to 5.95), and stenosis severity >90% (odds ratio 9.08, 95% confidence interval 4.65 to 17.73). In conclusion, in patients with a low risk profile, the presence of collaterals protects against cardiac death and MI at 1 year after coronary revascularization. Variables that reflect the duration and severity of the atherosclerotic and ischemic burden determine their presence.

  17. Alternative Evolutionary Paths to Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance Cause Distinct Collateral Effects.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Camilo; Trebosc, Vincent; Kemmer, Christian; Rosenstiel, Philip; Beardmore, Robert; Schulenburg, Hinrich; Jansen, Gunther

    2017-09-01

    When bacteria evolve resistance against a particular antibiotic, they may simultaneously gain increased sensitivity against a second one. Such collateral sensitivity may be exploited to develop novel, sustainable antibiotic treatment strategies aimed at containing the current, dramatic spread of drug resistance. To date, the presence and molecular basis of collateral sensitivity has only been studied in few bacterial species and is unknown for opportunistic human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the present study, we assessed patterns of collateral effects by experimentally evolving 160 independent populations of P. aeruginosa to high levels of resistance against eight commonly used antibiotics. The bacteria evolved resistance rapidly and expressed both collateral sensitivity and cross-resistance. The pattern of such collateral effects differed to those previously reported for other bacterial species, suggesting interspecific differences in the underlying evolutionary trade-offs. Intriguingly, we also identified contrasting patterns of collateral sensitivity and cross-resistance among the replicate populations adapted to the same drug. Whole-genome sequencing of 81 independently evolved populations revealed distinct evolutionary paths of resistance to the selective drug, which determined whether bacteria became cross-resistant or collaterally sensitive towards others. Based on genomic and functional genetic analysis, we demonstrate that collateral sensitivity can result from resistance mutations in regulatory genes such as nalC or mexZ, which mediate aminoglycoside sensitivity in β-lactam-adapted populations, or the two-component regulatory system gene pmrB, which enhances penicillin sensitivity in gentamicin-resistant populations. Our findings highlight substantial variation in the evolved collateral effects among replicates, which in turn determine their potential in antibiotic therapy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on

  18. Collateral blood flow in different cerebrovascular hierarchy provides endogenous protection in cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chuanming; Liang, Fengyin; Ren, Huixia; Yao, Xiaoli; Liu, Qiang; Li, Mingyue; Qin, Dajiang; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Pei, Zhong; Su, Huanxing

    2016-11-15

    Collateral blood flow as vascular adaptions to focal cerebral ischemia is well recognized. However, few studies directly investigate the dynamics of collateral vessel recruitment in vivo and little is known about the effect of collateral blood flow in different cerebrovascular hierarchy on the neuropathology after focal ischemic stroke. Here, we report that collateral blood flow is critically involved in blood vessel compensations following regional ischemia. We occluded a pial arteriole using femtosecond laser ablating under the intact thinned skull and documented the changes of collateral flow around the surface communication network and between the surface communication network and subsurface microcirculation network using in vivo two photon microscopy imaging. Occlusion of the pial arteriole apparently increased the diameter and collateral blood flow of its leptomeningeal anastomoses, which significantly reduced the cortical infarction size. This result suggests that the collateral flow via surface communicating network connected with leptomeningeal anastomoses could greatly impact on the extent of infarction. We then further occluded the target pial arteriole and all of its leptomeningeal anastomoses. Notably, this type of occlusion led to reversals of blood flow in the penetrating arterioles mainly proximal to the occluded pial arteriole in a direction from the subsurface microcirculation network to surface arterioles. Interesting, the cell death in the area of ischemic penumbra was accelerated when we performed occlusion to cease the reversed blood flow in those penetrating arterioles, suggesting that the collateral blood flow from subsurface microcirculation network exerts protective roles in delaying cell death in the ischemic penumbra. In conclusion, we provide the first experimental evidence that collateral blood vessels at different cerebrovascular hierarchy are endogenously compensatory mechanisms in brain ischemia. This article is protected by

  19. The Collateral Consequences of Sex Offender Management Policies: Views From Professionals.

    PubMed

    Call, Corey

    2016-06-13

    In this study, the perceptions of community corrections professionals and clinical specialists toward the collateral consequences of current sex offender management policies were explored and contrasted. In addition, potential influencing factors of these perceptions were examined. Results indicate high levels of belief that sex offenders experience a variety of collateral consequences upon reentry; however, community corrections professionals are significantly less likely to believe that sex offenders experience collateral consequences than clinical specialists. Furthermore, few demographic variables were found to significantly influence the perceptions of the sample. Implications for the management of sex offenders are discussed.

  20. Injuries to the Collateral Ligaments of the Metacarpophalangeal Joint of the Thumb, Including Simultaneous Combined Thumb Ulnar and Radial Collateral Ligament Injuries, in National Football League Athletes.

    PubMed

    Werner, Brian C; Belkin, Nicole S; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F; Hotchkiss, Robert N

    2017-01-01

    Thumb collateral ligament injuries occur frequently in the National Football League (NFL). In the general population or in recreational athletes, pure metacarpophalangeal (MCP) abduction or adduction mechanisms yield isolated ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) and radial collateral ligament (RCL) tears, respectively, while NFL athletes may sustain combined mechanism injury patterns. To evaluate the incidence of simultaneous combined thumb UCL and RCL tears among all thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries in NFL athletes on a single team. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review of all thumb injuries on a single NFL team from 1991 to 2014 was performed. All players with a thumb MCP collateral ligament injury were included. Collateral ligament injuries were confirmed by review of both physical examination findings and magnetic resonance imaging. Player demographics, surgical details, and return-to-play data were obtained from the team electronic medical record and surgeons' records. A total of 36 thumbs in 32 NFL players were included in the study, yielding an incidence of 1.6 thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries per year on a single NFL team. Of these, 9 thumbs (25%) had a simultaneous combined UCL and RCL tear injury pattern confirmed on both physical examination and MRI. The remaining 27 thumbs (75%) were isolated UCL injuries. All combined UCL/RCL injuries required surgery due to dysfunction from instability; 63.0% of isolated UCL injuries required surgical repair ( P = .032) due to continued pain and dysfunction from instability. Repair, when required, was delayed until the end of the season. All players with combined UCL/RCL injuries and isolated UCL injuries returned to play professional football the following season. Simultaneous combined thumb UCL and RCL tear is a previously undescribed injury pattern that occurred in 25% of thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries on a single NFL team over a 23-year period. All players with combined thumb UCL

  1. Branching structure and strain hardening of branched metallocene polyethylenes

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Enrique; Li, Si-Wan; Costeux, Stéphane; Dealy, John M.

    2015-09-15

    There have been a number of studies of a series of branched metallocene polyethylenes (BMPs) made in a solution, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) polymerization. The materials studied vary in branching level in a systematic way, and the most highly branched members of the series exhibit mild strain hardening. An outstanding question is which types of branched molecules are responsible for strain hardening in extension. This question is explored here by use of polymerization and rheological models along with new data on the extensional flow behavior of the most highly branched members of the set. After reviewing all that is known about the effects of various branching structures in homogeneous polymers and comparing this with the structures predicted to be present in BMPs, it is concluded that in spite of their very low concentration, treelike molecules with branch-on-branch structure provide a large number of deeply buried inner segments that are essential for strain hardening in these polymers.

  2. Ulnar collateral ligament injuries of the thumb: phalangeal translation during valgus stress in human cadavera.

    PubMed

    McKeon, Kathleen E; Gelberman, Richard H; Calfee, Ryan P

    2013-05-15

    The clinical diagnosis of thumb ulnar collateral ligament disruption has been based on joint angulation during valgus stress testing. This report describes a definitive method of distinguishing between complete and partial ulnar collateral ligament injuries by quantifying translation of the proximal phalanx on the metacarpal head during valgus stress testing. Sixty-two cadaveric thumbs underwent standardized valgus stress testing under fluoroscopy with the ulnar collateral ligament intact, following an isolated release of the proper ulnar collateral ligament, and following a combined release of both the proper and the accessory ulnar collateral ligament (complete ulnar collateral ligament release). Following complete ulnar collateral ligament release, the final thirty-seven thumbs were also analyzed after the application of a valgus force sufficient to cause 45° of valgus angulation at the metacarpophalangeal joint to model more severe soft-tissue injury. Two independent reviewers measured coronal plane joint angulation (in degrees), ulnar joint line gap formation (in millimeters), and radial translation of the proximal phalanx on the metacarpal head (in millimeters) on digital fluoroscopic images that had been randomized. Coronal angulation across the stressed metacarpophalangeal joint progressively increased through the stages of the testing protocol: ulnar collateral ligament intact (average [and standard deviation], 20° ± 8.1°), release of the proper ulnar collateral ligament (average, 23° ± 8.3°), and complete ulnar collateral ligament release (average, 30° ± 8.9°) (p < 0.01 for each comparison). Similarly, gap formation increased from the measurement in the intact state (5.1 ± 1.3 mm), to that following proper ulnar collateral ligament release (5.7 ± 1.5 mm), to that following complete ulnar collateral ligament release (7.2 ± 1.5 mm) (p < 0.01 for each comparison). Radial translation of the proximal phalanx on the metacarpal head did not increase

  3. Surgical anatomy of the penis in hypospadias: magnetic resonance imaging study of the tissue planes, vessels, and collaterals.

    PubMed

    Kureel, Shiv Narain; Gupta, Archika; Sunil, Kanoujia; Dheer, Yadvendra; Kumar, Manoj; Tomar, Vinod Kumar

    2015-05-01

    To report the surgical anatomy of the penis in hypospadias with study of vessels in relation to fascial planes, glans, corpora cavernosa, and corpus spongiosum using magnetic resonance imaging. Twelve hypospadias presenting at older age (8-20 years) were studied with 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner and a 3-inch surface coil. Precontrast and postcontrast images were acquired using fast-spin echo sequences in sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes. The findings were processed in Volume Share 4.5, version Workstation, of General Electric Healthcare. Anatomic findings were verified during surgery. With imaging and surgical findings, a 3-dimensional conceptual diagram of surgical anatomy was created. Distinct layers of the skin, dartos fascia, Buck fascia, tunica albuginea, glans urothelium, lamina propria of glans, and corpus spongiosum were delineated with their spatial relationship. Axial pattern vessels of the dartos and its anastomosis with branches of dorsal penile vessels at the coronal sulcus, perforators along the corpus spongiosum, subglanular extension of the fascia, and intraglanular branches of the dorsal penile artery forming an arcade were visualized. Dorsomedial and dorsolateral axial pattern vessels are present in penile dartos with relative avascularity at dorsal midline in most cases. Subglanular extension of Buck fascia fused with the basal lamina propria of glans forms a barrier between the tip of corpora and the intraglanular arcade of vessels. Collaterals are present at coronal sulcus, along the bifurcated corpus spongiosum, and the dartos enabling blood flow between the terminal most branches of the external and internal pudendal vessels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Libraries across Land and Sea: Academic Library Services on International Branch Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Harriett

    2013-01-01

    This preliminary study explores how library services are offered at the international branch campuses of U.S. institutions of higher education, including librarians' experiences, challenges faced, and collaborations with the home U.S. institutions. The data from a Web survey distributed to international branch campus librarians, a conducted…

  5. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Repair with Internal Brace Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Brian L.; Cain, E. Lyle; Emblom, Benton A.; Frantz, Jamie T.; Dugas, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Objective: Our purpose is to describe a novel surgical technique for Ulnar Collateral Ligament repair in the young adolescent, and present the clinical results of a retrospective cohort of patients. We hypothesized that using an internal brace to augment the repair of the native ulnar collateral ligament would allow for a more aggressive physical therapy protocol and ultimately facilitate both an expeditious return to sport and a high level of patient satisfaction. Methods: Methods: After obtaining IRB approval for this study, our institutional electronic database was utilized to identify all patients who had undergone our novel technique for UCL repair between the years 2013-2014. An orthopedic fellow conducted phone surveys and the KJOC questionnaire was administered. Primary outcome measures included KJOC scores at 6 and 12 months, time to initiation of a plyometrics regimen, an interval throwing program and return to sports. Secondary measures including patient satisfaction, level of competition achieved and percent return to normal were also collected. Results: Results: Twenty-two patients (19 male/3 female, average age 17.8 years) underwent surgery between 2013-2014. All patients were high school level athletes at the time of injury and included nineteen baseball players (13 pitchers), two football players, a javelin thrower and a cheerleader. Injury patterns included seven proximal tears, one mid substance, thirteen distal and four avulsions. Nine patients underwent ulnar transposition at the time of surgery, one had undergone prior transposition and the remainder of the patient’s ulnar nerves were left in situ. At six and twelve months the average KJOC scores respectively were 88.3 and 93. Patients that underwent transposition had KJOC scores of 78.3 at six months and 97.5 at twelve while patients that were left in-situ scored 82 and 91. These differences were not significant. The average number of weeks until initiation of plyometrics was

  6. 13 CFR 123.513 - Does SBA require collateral on its Military Reservist EIDL?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans § 123.513 Does SBA require... provide available collateral such as a lien on business property, a security interest in personal...

  7. Spectrum of hepatofugal collateral pathways in portal hypertension: an illustrated radiological review.

    PubMed

    Arora, Ankur; Rajesh, S; Meenakshi, Yamini S; Sureka, Binit; Bansal, Kalpana; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the various portosystemic collateral pathways pertinent to portal hypertension on multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) and their clinical relevance, with special emphasis on the uncommon ones. The knowledge and understanding of the various patterns of portosystemic collateral channels has important implications both for the clinician and the interventionist. MDCT with its advanced post processing capabilities can exquisitely demonstrate these vascular pathways to help in therapeutic decision making. Teaching points • Portosystemic collaterals are an important cause of bleeding and hepatic encephalopathy. • Radiologists should be familiar with the imaging findings to effectively identify them. • Pre-operative knowledge of portosystemic collaterals is essential to avoid inadvertent vascular injury.

  8. 7 CFR 1980.443 - Collateral, personal and corporate guarantees and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... loan is reasonably assured when considered with the integrity and ability of project management... to the following: Land, buildings, machinery, equipment, furniture, fixtures, inventory, accounts receivable, cash or special cash collateral accounts, marketable securities and cash surrender value of...

  9. Fatal derecruitment of occluded left anterior descending collaterals after left circumflex revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Boukhris, Marouane; Tomasello, Salvatore D.; Galassi, Alfredo R.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary arteries are not definitely functionally terminal arteries, as previously thought; indeed, they are linked and interconnected by a rich network of collaterals. Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) represent a subset of frequent lesions encountered in everyday catheterization laboratory practice, generally associated with a developed system of collateral connections. These latter have the capacity to prevent myocardial necrosis and may even uphold metabolic supply to the ischemic territory to maintain its contractile capacity. Authors have reported a rapid and progressive reduction of collateral function and their decline after antegrade flow restoration, resulting in higher myocardial susceptibility to ischemia in the CTO territory. Here, we report the case of a fatal derecruitment of collaterals for a left anterior descending CTO not reopened, after left circumflex subocclusion revascularization. PMID:26778906

  10. 46 CFR 308.522 - Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.522... use in establishing a collateral deposit fund, may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency...

  11. 13 CFR 123.11 - Does SBA require collateral for any of its disaster loans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... appropriate in the event the President declares a major disaster), or an economic injury disaster loan of $5... loan after a single disaster. In deciding whether collateral is required, SBA will add up all physical...

  12. Does Exercise Training Improve Coronary Collateralization? A New Look at an Old Belief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Terence

    1989-01-01

    Debate continues as to whether exercise training accelerates the growth of coronary collateral vessels. Animal research has produced positive results, but human studies have been disappointing, largely because of problems in experimental design and methodology. (IAH)

  13. Resolution of bilateral moyamoya associated collateral vessel aneurysms: Rationale for endovascular versus surgical intervention

    PubMed Central

    Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Goodin, Sean; Charbel, Fady T.; Alaraj, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Management of aneurysms associated with deep collateral vessels in moyamoya disease is challenging both from an endovascular and a surgical standpoint. Difficulties with access or localization, and compromise of the collateral circulation with subsequent ischemia are the primary concerns, making direct obliteration potentially unfeasible or risky. Alternatively, superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery bypass is another potential strategy for resolution of these aneurysms. Case Description: Presented are the findings and management for a patient with moyamoya disease and bilateral deep collateral vessel aneurysms, successfully treated with endovascular obliteration following a right-sided hemorrhage and subsequently with bypass for an unruptured but growing contralateral aneurysm. Conclusions: A rationale and approach to management is outlined, as derived from review of the current literature and the illustrative case with bilateral collateral vessel aneurysms. PMID:25071939

  14. Incidentally detected right pulmonary artery agenesis with right coronary artery collateralization.

    PubMed

    Mikaberidze, Nino; Goldberg, Ythan; Khosraviani, Khashayar; Taub, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis (UPAA) with pulmonary hypoplasia is a rare congenital anomaly. We describe a 71-year old male who was incidentally diagnosed with the right UPAA and a hypoplastic right lung supplied by collateralized right coronary.

  15. 46 CFR 308.522 - Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.522... use in establishing a collateral deposit fund, may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency...

  16. 46 CFR 308.522 - Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.522... use in establishing a collateral deposit fund, may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency...

  17. 46 CFR 308.522 - Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.522... use in establishing a collateral deposit fund, may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency...

  18. Effect of Collaterals on Clinical Presentation, Baseline Imaging, Complications, and Outcome in Acute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Fanou, E M; Knight, J; Aviv, R I; Hojjat, S-P; Symons, S P; Zhang, L; Wintermark, M

    2015-12-01

    Good CTA collaterals independently predict good outcome in acute ischemic stroke. Our aim was to evaluate the role of collateral circulation and its added benefit over CTP-derived total ischemic volume as a predictor of baseline NIHSS score, total ischemic volume, hemorrhagic transformation, final infarct size, and a modified Rankin Scale score >2. This was a retrospective study of 395 patients with stroke dichotomized by recanalization (recanalization positive/recanalization negative) and collateral status. Clot burden score was quantified on baseline CTA. Total ischemic volumes were derived from thresholded CTP maps. Final infarct size was assessed on follow-up CT/MRI. We performed uni-/multivariate analyses for each outcome, adjusting for rtPA status, using general linear (continuous variables) and logistic (binary variables) regression. Model comparison with collateral score and total ischemic volume was performed using the F or likelihood ratio test. Collateral presence independently and inversely predicted all outcomes except hemorrhagic transformation in patients who were recanalization negative and mRS >2 in patients who were recanalization positive. The greatest collateral benefit occurred in patients who were recanalization negative, contributing 16.5% and 19.2% of the variability for final infarct size and mRS >2. The collateral score model is superior to the total ischemic volume for mRS >2 prediction, but a combination of total ischemic volume and collateral score is superior for mRS >2 and final infarct prediction (24% and 28% variability, respectively). In patients who were recanalization positive, a model including collateral score and total ischemic volume was superior to that of total ischemic volume for hemorrhagic transformation and final infarct prediction but was muted compared with patients who were recanalization negative (11.3% and 16.9% variability). Collateral circulation is an independent predictor of all outcomes, but the magnitude of

  19. Cyclooxygenase blockade limits blood flow to collateral-dependent myocardium during exercise.

    PubMed

    Altman, J D; Klassen, C L; Bache, R J

    1995-11-01

    Cyclooxygenase blockade has been found to cause vasoconstriction of coronary collateral vessels in open-chest animals. This study was carried out to determine whether cyclooxygenase blockade can limit blood flow to collateral-dependent myocardium during exercise. Studies were performed in 8 adult mongrel dogs in which intermittent followed by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery produced an area of collateral-dependent myocardium. Myocardial blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres at rest and during treadmill exercise to produce heart rates of 215 +/-0 7 beats/min. At rest collateral zone blood flow (1.00 +/- 0.10 ml/min per g) was significantly less than normal zone flow (1.23 +/- 0.14) (P < 0.05). During control exercise blood flow increased 91 +/- 22% in the collateral zone and 102 +/- 28% in the normal zone (each P < 0.05). Thirty minutes after cyclooxygenase blockade with indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.v.) blood flow in the normal zone and the collateral zone was not different from control during resting conditions. Indomethacin did not change heart rate or arterial pressure during exercise, but significantly increased the aortic-to-distal coronary pressure gradient from 33 +/- 3 to 40 +/- 5 mmHg (P < 0.05). Indomethacin increased transcollateral resistance during exercise by 42 +/- 10% (P < 0.05); this was associated with a 27 +/- 11% decrease in subendocardial flow in the collateral zone (P < 0.05) with no significant change in subepicardial flow, and no change in normal zone blood flow. These findings demonstrate that in the intact awake animal cyclooxygenase blockade causes coronary collateral vasoconstriction which can impair blood flow to the dependent myocardium during exercise.

  20. "One-stop" Hybrid approach for tetralogy of fallot with aortopulmonary collateral arteries in adults.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yiyao; Zhang, Wei; Pei, Yu; Yang, Li; Xue, Langang; Liu, Xiaocheng

    2013-04-01

    We report a 45 year-old Chinese woman with tetralogy of fallot that had two aortopulmonary collateral arteries and tricuspid regurgitation. Collateral circulation was blocked and total correction was successfully performed in our "one-stop" hybrid operation room. The patient was weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass after 97 minutes and was transferred to the intensive care unit for about 36 hours. Without any complications, the patient was discharged home in the following eight days.

  1. “One-stop” Hybrid approach for tetralogy of fallot with aortopulmonary collateral arteries in adults

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yiyao; Zhang, Wei; Pei, Yu; Yang, Li; Xue, Langang; Liu, Xiaocheng

    2013-01-01

    We report a 45 year-old Chinese woman with tetralogy of fallot that had two aortopulmonary collateral arteries and tricuspid regurgitation. Collateral circulation was blocked and total correction was successfully performed in our “one-stop” hybrid operation room. The patient was weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass after 97 minutes and was transferred to the intensive care unit for about 36 hours. Without any complications, the patient was discharged home in the following eight days. PMID:24353602

  2. Isolated lateral collateral ligament complex injury in rock climbing and Brazilian Jiu-jitsu.

    PubMed

    Davis, Bryan A; Hiller, Lucas P; Imbesi, Steven G; Chang, Eric Y

    2015-08-01

    We report two occurrences of high-grade tears of the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC), consisting of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) and fibular collateral ligament (FCL). One injury occurred in a rock climber and the other in a martial artist. Increasing awareness of isolated injuries of the LCLC will allow for appropriate diagnosis and management. We review and discuss the anatomy of the LCLC, the unique mechanism of isolated injury, as well as physical and imaging examination findings.

  3. Assessment of intracranial collaterals on CT angiography in anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Yeo, L L L; Paliwal, P; Teoh, H L; Seet, R C; Chan, B P; Ting, E; Venketasubramanian, N; Leow, W K; Wakerley, B; Kusama, Y; Rathakrishnan, R; Sharma, V K

    2015-02-01

    Intracranial collaterals influence the prognosis of patients treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke. We compared the methods of scoring collaterals on pre-tPA brain CT angiography for predicting functional outcomes in acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke. Two hundred consecutive patients with acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke treated with IV-tPA during 2010-2012 were included. Two independent neuroradiologists evaluated intracranial collaterals by using the Miteff system, Maas system, the modified Tan scale, and the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score 20-point methodology. Good and extremely poor outcomes at 3 months were defined by modified Rankin Scale scores of 0-1 and 5-6 points, respectively. Factors associated with good outcome on univariable analysis were younger age, female sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, small infarct core (ASPECTS ≥8), vessel recanalization, lower pre-tPA NIHSS scores, and good collaterals according to Tan methodology, ASPECTS methodology, and Miteff methodology. On multivariable logistic regression, only lower NIHSS scores (OR, 1.186 per point; 95% CI, 1.079-1.302; P = .001), recanalization (OR, 5.599; 95% CI, 1.560-20.010; P = .008), and good collaterals by the Miteff method (OR, 3.341; 95% CI, 1.203-5.099; P = .014) were independent predictors of good outcome. Poor collaterals by the Miteff system (OR, 2.592; 95% CI, 1.113-6.038; P = .027), Maas system (OR, 2.580; 95% CI, 1.075-6.187; P = .034), and ASPECTS method ≤5 points (OR, 2.685; 95% CI, 1.156-6.237; P = .022) were independent predictors of extremely poor outcomes. Only the Miteff scoring system for intracranial collaterals is reliable for predicting favorable outcome in thrombolyzed acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke. However, poor outcomes can be predicted by most of the existing methods of scoring intracranial collaterals. © 2015 by American Journal of

  4. Coronary collateral circulation in patients of coronary ectasia with significant coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Po-Chao; Su, Ho-Ming; Lee, Hsiang-Chun; Juo, Suh-Hang; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    Patients with coronary ectasia (CE) usually have coexisting coronary stenosis resulting in myoischemia. Coronary collateral plays an important role in protecting myocardium from ischemia and reducing cardiovascular events. However, limited studies investigate the role of CE in coronary collaterals development. We evaluated 1020 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography and 552 patients with significant coronary artery disease (SCAD), defined as diameter stenosis more than 70%, were finally analyzed. CE is defined as the ectatic diameter 1.5 times larger than adjacent reference segment. Rentrop collateral score was used to classify patients into poor (grades 0 and 1) or good (grades 2 and 3) collateral group. 73 patients (13.2%) had CE lesions which were most located in the right coronary artery (53.4%). Patients with CE had a lower incidence of diabetes (43.8% vs 30.1%, p = 0.03), higher body mass index (25.4±3.5 vs 26.7±4.6, p = 0.027) and poorer coronary collateral (58.2% vs 71.2%, p = 0.040). Patients with poor collateral (n = 331) had a higher incidence of CE (15.7% vs 9.5%, p = 0.040) and fewer diseased vessels numbers (1.96±0.84 vs 2.48±0.69, p<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed diabetes (odd ratio (OR) 0.630, p = 0.026), CE (OR = 0.544, p = 0.048), and number of diseased vessels (OR = 2.488, p<0.001) were significant predictors of coronary collaterals development. The presence of CE was associated with poorer coronary collateral development in patients with SCAD.

  5. Coronary Collateral Circulation in Patients of Coronary Ectasia with Significant Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Po-Chao; Su, Ho-Ming; Lee, Hsiang-Chun; Juo, Suh-Hang; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Patients with coronary ectasia (CE) usually have coexisting coronary stenosis resulting in myoischemia. Coronary collateral plays an important role in protecting myocardium from ischemia and reducing cardiovascular events. However, limited studies investigate the role of CE in coronary collaterals development. Methods We evaluated 1020 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography and 552 patients with significant coronary artery disease (SCAD), defined as diameter stenosis more than 70%, were finally analyzed. CE is defined as the ectatic diameter 1.5 times larger than adjacent reference segment. Rentrop collateral score was used to classify patients into poor (grades 0 and 1) or good (grades 2 and 3) collateral group. Results 73 patients (13.2%) had CE lesions which were most located in the right coronary artery (53.4%). Patients with CE had a lower incidence of diabetes (43.8% vs 30.1%, p = 0.03), higher body mass index (25.4±3.5 vs 26.7±4.6, p = 0.027) and poorer coronary collateral (58.2% vs 71.2%, p = 0.040). Patients with poor collateral (n = 331) had a higher incidence of CE (15.7% vs 9.5%, p = 0.040) and fewer diseased vessels numbers (1.96±0.84 vs 2.48±0.69, p<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed diabetes (odd ratio (OR) 0.630, p = 0.026), CE (OR = 0.544, p = 0.048), and number of diseased vessels (OR = 2.488, p<0.001) were significant predictors of coronary collaterals development. Conclusion The presence of CE was associated with poorer coronary collateral development in patients with SCAD. PMID:24475209

  6. Model of spatio-temporal propagation of action potentials in the Schaffer collateral pathway of the CA1 area of the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bernard, C; Cannon, R C; Ben Ari, Y; Wheal, H V

    1997-01-01

    There is a sharp contrast between the profuse in vivo axonal arborization of CA3 pyramidal cells in the CA1 area and the low probability of finding pairs of connected CA3-CA1 pyramidal cells in vitro. These anatomical differences contribute to a connectivity argument for discrepancies between electrophysiological data recorded in vitro and in vivo. In order to investigate this issue, we have developed a realistic computer model of the Schaffer collateral pathway of the hippocampus and analyzed the spatio-temporal distribution of action potentials along this pathway following three different types of electrical test stimulus. Direct activation of mossy fibers, CA3 pyramidal cells and focal stimulation of CA1 stratum radiatum were investigated. The parameters of the model were selected from available biological data. Spikes in Schaffer collaterals were followed from their onset in the CA3 pyramidal cell initial segment to the last order branches of their axonal tree in two types of configuration: the whole hippocampus and the slice configuration. The anatomical and electropysiological characteristics of the mossy fibre and Schaffer collateral pathways were found to impose strong constraints on the spatio-temporal distribution of action potentials in the CA1 area. Specific projection zones are determined by the spatial localization of the emitting CA3 pyramidal cells. Their position also defines precise time windows during which some CA1 projection zones receive a large number of correlated signals. Moreover, the variability of the delay at the mossy fibre/CA3 pyramidal cell synapse seems to provide the CA1 projection zones with a background level of excitation. Finally, we show how the patterns of activation obtained in the whole hippocampus are different from those obtained in the slice.

  7. Identification of cofactors influencing hypertrophy of the future liver remnant after portal vein embolization-the effect of collaterals on embolized liver volume.

    PubMed

    Zeile, Martin; Bakal, Artur; Volkmer, Jan E; Stavrou, Gregor A; Dautel, Philip; Hoeltje, Jan; Stang, Axel; Oldhafer, Karl J; Brüning, Roland

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to monitor hypertrophy of future liver remnant following portal vein embolization (PVE) before planned extended right hepatectomy. However, because individual responses to PVE are highly variable, our focus was to identify cofactors of successful hypertrophy. 28 patients with primary or secondary liver tumours, mean age 64.1 ± 12.9 years, underwent PVE. Volumetric analysis of hypertrophy before and after PVE (median 39.0 ± 15.7 days) was performed. The embolized liver segments were investigated for occurrence of reperfusion of their portal branches. Blood parameters before PVE were additionally investigated. Patients were divided into responders (21/28) and non-responders (7/28) by post-PVE standardized future liver remnant being above or below 25%, respectively. No significant differences between the groups were found regarding biometric and volumetric parameters before PVE. In the entire group after PVE, the mean absolute increase of Segments 2 and 3 was 196.0 ± 84.7 cm(3) and the median relative increase was 46.6 ± 98.8%. The formation of left to right hepatic portoportal collaterals exhibited a negative correlation to successful hypertrophy (p = 0.004) as well as low plasma total protein (p = 0.019). Successful embolization of Segment IV showed only a trend to significance (p = 0.098). Cofactors associated with a favourable outcome regarding hypertrophy were the absence of collaterals in the control CT scans and high plasma total protein. Advances in knowledge: Portoportal collaterals negatively influence hypertrophy after PVE. On the other hand, plasma total protein is a positive prognostic indicator on hypertrophy of the liver in our cohort.

  8. Combined flexor-pronator mass and ulnar collateral ligament injuries in the elbows of older baseball players.

    PubMed

    Osbahr, Daryl C; Swaminathan, Swarup S; Allen, Answorth A; Dines, Joshua S; Coleman, Struan H; Altchek, David W

    2010-04-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction techniques have afforded baseball players up to a reported 90% return to prior or higher level of play. A subpopulation exists with less impressive clinical outcomes potentially related to the presence of a concomitant flexor-pronator mass injury. Combined flexor-pronator and ulnar collateral ligament injuries occur in older players, and results in this group are inferior to those reported for isolated ulnar collateral ligament reconstructions. Case Series; Level of evidence, 4. All baseball players who had ulnar collateral ligament reconstructions by 1 surgeon over a 6-year period were identified, and the authors studied those treated for a combined flexor-pronator and ulnar collateral ligament injury. The ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction was accomplished using the docking technique, and the flexor-pronator injury was treated with debridement if tendinotic or reattachment if torn. A 2-sample t test was conducted to evaluate the likelihood of developing the combined flexor-pronator/ulnar collateral ligament compared with ulnar collateral ligament injury based on age, while a Pearson chi(2) test was used to evaluate the likelihood of a patient being > or =30 years of age in the combined flexor-pronator/ulnar collateral ligament versus ulnar collateral ligament groups. Outcome was assessed using a modified Conway classification. A total of 187 male baseball players between 14 and 42 years of age (mean, 20.7 years) had an ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction by 1 surgeon. Eight (4%) of 187 baseball players were treated for the combined flexor-pronator/ulnar collateral ligament injury. There was a statistically significant difference in age between the ulnar collateral ligament group (20.1 years) and the flexor-pronator/ulnar collateral ligament group (33.4 years) (P < .001). Age > or =30 years was a statistically significant age limit to predict the presence of a combined flexor-pronator/ulnar collateral ligament

  9. [Approach to the road of vigorously developing Chinese medicine by scientific location of channels and collaterals].

    PubMed

    Li, Ding-zhong; Fu, Song-tao; Mi, He-yin; Li, Xiu-zhang; Zhang, Chang-lin; Zhang, Wei-bo

    2008-12-01

    Through researches of channels and collaterals and clinical practice of many years, the authors understand that Chinese medicine, which considers the human body as an interrelated, mutual constraints, whole, dynamic living system, has gradually become an important part of modern medicine. Channels and collaterals are a closed loop system which is communicated and linked by energy and information in the form of electromagnetic oscillation, reflecting many characteristics similar to quantum. Channels and collaterals are not a fixed organizational structure. Studies on channel and collaterals find that the track of the propagated sensation along channels (PSC) have the phenomenon drifting about. This exactly reflects the law of channels dynamically running. By information triggering and living resonance, channels and collaterals bring into play entirely regulative action. The innovative treatment of channels and collaterals followed by characteristics and laws of quantum can get a better curative effect. Theory of channels in the position of quantum information medical science provides an important breach for modernization of Chinese medicine.

  10. Inhibitory collaterals in genetically identified medium spiny neurons in mouse primary corticostriatal cultures.

    PubMed

    Lalchandani, Rupa R; Vicini, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    Inhibitory collaterals between striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN) subtypes have been shown to critically influence striatal output. However, the low rate of inhibitory collateral detection between striatal MSNs in conventional ex vivo slice recordings has made the study of these connections challenging. Furthermore, most studies on MSN collaterals have been conducted either blind or in models, in which only one MSN subtype can be distinguished. Here, we describe a dissociated culture system using striatal and cortical neurons harvested from genetically modified mice at postnatal day 0. These mice express tdTomato and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) downstream of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor promoters, respectively, allowing for simultaneous distinction between the two major subtypes of MSNs. In vitro, these neurons develop spines, hyperpolarized resting membrane potentials and exhibit up-and-down states, while also maintaining expression of both fluorophores through time. Using paired whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from identified MSNs at 14 days in vitro, we are able to detect a much higher rate of inhibitory functional synapses than what has been previously reported in slice recordings. These collateral synapses release γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and shape the firing patters of other MSNs. Although reduced in vitro models have a number of inherent limitations, the cultures described here provide a unique opportunity to study frequently observed functional collaterals between identifiable MSNs. Additionally, cultured neurons allow for control of the extracellular environment, with the potential to investigate pharmacological regulation of inhibitory MSNs collaterals.

  11. Cerebral collateral therapeutics in acute ischemic stroke: A randomized preclinical trial of four modulation strategies.

    PubMed

    Beretta, Simone; Versace, Alessandro; Carone, Davide; Riva, Matteo; Dell'Era, Valentina; Cuccione, Elisa; Cai, Ruiyao; Monza, Laura; Pirovano, Silvia; Padovano, Giada; Stiro, Fabio; Presotto, Luca; Paternò, Giovanni; Rossi, Emanuela; Giussani, Carlo; Sganzerla, Erik P; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral collaterals are dynamically recruited after arterial occlusion and highly affect tissue outcome in acute ischemic stroke. We investigated the efficacy and safety of four pathophysiologically distinct strategies for acute modulation of collateral flow (collateral therapeutics) in the rat stroke model of transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. A composed randomization design was used to assign rats (n = 118) to receive phenylephrine (induced hypertension), polygeline (intravascular volume load), acetazolamide (cerebral arteriolar vasodilation), head down tilt (HDT) 15° (cerebral blood flow diversion), or no treatment, starting 30 min after MCA occlusion. Compared to untreated animals, treatment with collateral therapeutics was associated with lower infarct volumes (62% relative mean difference; 51.57 mm(3) absolute mean difference; p < 0.001) and higher chance of good functional outcome (OR 4.58, p < 0.001). Collateral therapeutics acutely increased cerebral perfusion in the medial (+40.8%; p < 0.001) and lateral (+19.2%; p = 0.016) MCA territory compared to pretreatment during MCA occlusion. Safety indicators were treatment-related mortality and cardiorespiratory effects. The highest efficacy and safety profile was observed for HDT. Our findings suggest that acute modulation of cerebral collaterals is feasible and provides a tissue-saving effect in the hyperacute phase of ischemic stroke prior to recanalization therapy.

  12. Acute development of collateral circulation and therapeutic prospects in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Iwasawa, Eri; Ichijo, Masahiko; Ishibashi, Satoru; Yokota, Takanori

    2016-03-01

    In acute ischemic stroke, collateral circulation plays an important role in maintaining blood flow to the tissue that is at risk of progressing into ischemia, and in increasing the successful recanalization rate without hemorrhagic transformation. We have reported that well-developed collateral circulation is associated with smaller infarct volume and better long-term neurological outcome, and it disappears promptly once the effective recanalization is achieved. Contrary to the belief that collateral vessels develop over time in chronic stenotic condition, there exists a phenomenon that collateral circulation develops immediately in acute stenosis or occlusion of the arteries and it seems to be triggered by fluid shear stress, which occurs between the territories of stenotic/occluded arteries and those fed by surrounding intact arteries. We believe that this acute development of collateral circulation is a target of novel therapeutics in ischemic stroke and refer our recent attempt in enhancing collateral circulation by modulating sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1, which is a known shear-stress mechanosensing protein.

  13. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  14. Combustion Branch Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  15. Combustion Branch Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  16. Time-resolved CT assessment of collaterals as imaging biomarkers to predict clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Tong, Elizabeth; Patrie, Jim; Tong, Sara; Evans, Avery; Michel, Patrik; Eskandari, Ashraf; Wintermark, Max

    2017-09-01

    Collateral circulation plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke and is increasingly recognized as a promising biomarker for predicting the clinical outcome. However, there is no single established grading system. We designed a novel machine-learning software that allows non-invasive, objective, and quantitative assessment of collaterals according to their vascular territories. Our goal is to investigate the prognostic and predictive value of this collateral score for the prediction of acute stroke outcome. This is a retrospective study of 135 patients with anterior circulation stroke treated with IV TPA. An equation using this collateral score (adjusting for age, baseline NIHSS, and recanalization) was derived to predict the clinical outcome (90-day mRS). The primary analyses focused on determining the prognostic value of our newly developed collateral scores. Secondary analyses examined the interrelationships between the collateral score and other variables. The collateral score emerged as a statistically significant prognostic biomarker for good clinical outcome (p < 0.033) among recanalized patients, but not among non-recanalized patients (p < 0.497). Our results also showed that collateral score was a predictive biomarker (p < 0.044). These results suggest that (1) patients with good collateral score derive more benefit from successful recanalization than patients with poor collateral score and (2) collateral status is inconsequential if recanalization is not achieved. Our data results reinforce the importance of careful patient selection for recanalization therapy to avoid futile recanalization. The paucity of collaterals predicts poor clinical outcome despite recanalization. On the other hand, robust collaterals warrant consideration for recanalization therapy given the better odds of good clinical outcome.

  17. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  18. Direct Cortical Inputs Erase LTP at Schaffer Collateral Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Yukitoshi; Zorumski, Charles F.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP), a synaptic mechanism thought to underlie memory formation, has been studied extensively at hippocampal Schaffer collateral (SC) synapses. The SC pathway transmits information to area CA1 that originates in entorhinal cortex and is processed by the dentate gyrus and area CA3. CA1 also receives direct excitatory input from entorhinal cortex via the perforant path (PP), but the role of this cortical input is less certain. Here we report that low frequency stimulation of PP inputs to CA1 has no lasting effect on basal SC transmission, but effectively depotentiates SC synapses that have undergone LTP in a fashion that can be reversed by subsequent high frequency stimulation of SC inputs. This depotentiation does not require N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors or L-type calcium channels, but involves adenosine acting at A1 receptors. Given the limited storage capacity of the hippocampus, these observations provide a mechanism by which input from cortex can help to reset synaptic transmission in the hippocampus and facilitate further information processing. PMID:18799687

  19. Collateral pathways from the ventromedial hypothalamus mediate defensive behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Chen, Irene Z.; Lin, Dayu

    2014-01-01

    Summary The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) was thought to be essential for coping with threat, although its circuit mechanism remains unclear. To investigate this, we optogenetically activated steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1)-expressing neurons in the dorsomedial and central part of VMH (VMHdm/c), and observed a range of context dependent somatomotor and autonomic responses resembling animals' natural defensive behaviors. By activating independent pathways emanating from VMHdm/c, we demonstrated that VMHdm/c projection to the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) induces inflexible immobility, while the VMHdm/c to anterior hypothalamic nucleus (AHN) pathway promotes avoidance. Furthermore, consistent with the behavior changes induced by VMH to AHN pathway activation, direct activation of the AHN elicited avoidance and escape jumping but not immobility. Finally, retrograde tracing studies revealed that nearly 50% of PAG- projecting VMHdm/c neurons send collateral projection to the AHN and vice versa. Thus, VMHdm/c neurons employ a one-to-many wiring configuration to orchestrate multiple aspects of defensive behaviors. PMID:25754823

  20. Targeting pathogen metabolism without collateral damage to the host

    PubMed Central

    Haanstra, Jurgen R.; Gerding, Albert; Dolga, Amalia M.; Sorgdrager, Freek J. H.; Buist-Homan, Manon; du Toit, François; Faber, Klaas Nico; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg; Szöör, Balázs; Matthews, Keith R.; Snoep, Jacky L.; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Bakker, Barbara M.

    2017-01-01

    The development of drugs that can inactivate disease-causing cells (e.g. cancer cells or parasites) without causing collateral damage to healthy or to host cells is complicated by the fact that many proteins are very similar between organisms. Nevertheless, due to subtle, quantitative differences between the biochemical reaction networks of target cell and host, a drug can limit the flux of the same essential process in one organism more than in another. We identified precise criteria for this ‘network-based’ drug selectivity, which can serve as an alternative or additive to structural differences. We combined computational and experimental approaches to compare energy metabolism in the causative agent of sleeping sickness, Trypanosoma brucei, with that of human erythrocytes, and identified glucose transport and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as the most selective antiparasitic targets. Computational predictions were validated experimentally in a novel parasite-erythrocytes co-culture system. Glucose-transport inhibitors killed trypanosomes without killing erythrocytes, neurons or liver cells. PMID:28084422

  1. Strigolactone inhibition of shoot branching.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Roldan, Victoria; Fermas, Soraya; Brewer, Philip B; Puech-Pagès, Virginie; Dun, Elizabeth A; Pillot, Jean-Paul; Letisse, Fabien; Matusova, Radoslava; Danoun, Saida; Portais, Jean-Charles; Bouwmeester, Harro; Bécard, Guillaume; Beveridge, Christine A; Rameau, Catherine; Rochange, Soizic F

    2008-09-11

    A carotenoid-derived hormonal signal that inhibits shoot branching in plants has long escaped identification. Strigolactones are compounds thought to be derived from carotenoids and are known to trigger the germination of parasitic plant seeds and stimulate symbiotic fungi. Here we present evidence that carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 8 shoot branching mutants of pea are strigolactone deficient and that strigolactone application restores the wild-type branching phenotype to ccd8 mutants. Moreover, we show that other branching mutants previously characterized as lacking a response to the branching inhibition signal also lack strigolactone response, and are not deficient in strigolactones. These responses are conserved in Arabidopsis. In agreement with the expected properties of the hormonal signal, exogenous strigolactone can be transported in shoots and act at low concentrations. We suggest that endogenous strigolactones or related compounds inhibit shoot branching in plants. Furthermore, ccd8 mutants demonstrate the diverse effects of strigolactones in shoot branching, mycorrhizal symbiosis and parasitic weed interaction.

  2. Branching toughens fibrous networks.

    PubMed

    Koh, C T; Oyen, M L

    2012-08-01

    Fibrous collagenous networks are not only stiff but also tough, due to their complex microstructures. This stiff yet tough behavior is desirable for both medical and military applications but it is difficult to reproduce in engineering materials. While the nonlinear hyperelastic behavior of fibrous networks has been extensively studied, the understanding of toughness is still incomplete. Here, we identify a microstructure mimicking the branched bundles of a natural type I collagen network, in which partially cross-linked long fibers give rise to novel combinations of stiffness and toughness. Finite element analysis shows that the stiffness of fully cross-linked fibrous networks is amplified by increasing the fibril length and cross-link density. However, a trade-off of such stiff networks is reduced toughness. By having partially cross-linked networks with long fibrils, the networks have comparable stiffness and improved toughness as compared to the fully cross-linked networks. Further, the partially cross-linked networks avoid the formation of kinks, which cause fibril rupture during deformation. As a result, the branching allows the networks to have stiff yet tough behavior.

  3. Synthesis of branched polysaccharides with tunable degree of branching.

    PubMed

    Ciric, Jelena; Loos, Katja

    2013-03-01

    An in vitro enzyme-catalyzed tandem reaction using the enzymes phosphorylase b from rabbit muscle and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme (Dg GBE) to obtain branched polyglucans with tunable degree of branching (2% ÷ 13%) is presented. The tunable degree of branching is obtained by varying the reaction conditions such as pH value, the choice of reducing agent and its concentration and reaction time. Linear amylose is formed by the phosphorylase-catalyzed propagation of glucose-1-phosphate while Dg GBE introduces branching points on the α-(1→6) position by relocating short oligosaccharide chains. Our results show that the best way to obtain different degrees of branching with this set of enzymes is by regulation of the reaction time.

  4. Right pulmonary artery atresia with left circumflex coronary collaterals supplying the affected lung diagnosed by V/Q scintigraphy and CTA: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chen-Tian; Qiu, Zhong-Ling; Han, Ting-Ting; Luo, Quan-Yong

    2014-12-01

    Ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) lung scintigraphy has been a popular diagnostic test for evaluation of pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) for almost 40 years. Despite the validation of V/Q scintigraphy, it is important to remember that there are causes of unmatched perfusion defects that are not due to PE. Here, we describe a very rare case of right main pulmonary artery atresia with left circumflex coronary collaterals supplying the affected lung in an adult patient diagnosed by V/Q scan and CT angiography (CTA). Lung perfusion scan disclosed the total absence of perfusion in the right lung, while ventilation scan disclosed decreased size of the right lung with diminished but homogeneous radioactivity distribution. CTA showed occlusion of the right main pulmonary artery with no evidence of embolus. Three-dimensional reconstruction demonstrated large, tortuous collateral vessels arising from the left circumflex coronary branch to the affected lung indicating collaterals formed from the coronary circulation to the pulmonary circulation. We highlight that demonstrations on V/Q scintigraphy in such cases should be interpreted with caution.

  5. The velocity of collateral filling predicts recanalization in acute ischemic stroke after intravenous thrombolysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Xiaocheng; Yan, Shenqiang; Lai, Yangxiao; Han, Quan; Sun, Jianzhong; Zhang, Minming; Parsons, Mark W.; Wang, Shaoshi; Lou, Min

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pretreatment quality of collaterals, involving velocity and extent of collateral filling, on recanalization after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). A retrospective analysis was performed of 66 patients with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) M1 segment occlusion who underwent MR perfusion (MRP) imaging before IVT. The velocity of collateral filling was defined as arrival time delay (ATD) of contrast bolus to Sylvian fissure between the normal and the affected hemisphere. The extent of collateral filling was assessed according to the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT (ASPECT) score on temporally fused maximum intensity projections (tMIP). Arterial occlusive lesion (AOL) score was used to assess the degree of arterial recanalization. ATD (OR = 0.775, 95% CI = 0.626–0.960, p = 0.020), but not tMIP-ASPECT score (OR = 1.073, 95% CI = 0.820–1.405, p = 0.607), was independently associated with recanalization (AOL score of 2 and 3) at 24 hours after IVT. When recanalization was achieved, hemorrhagic transformation (HT) occurred more frequently in patients with slow collaterals (ATD ≥ 2.3 seconds) than those with rapid collaterals (ATD < 2.3 seconds) (88.9% vs 38.1%, p = 0.011). In conclusion, the velocity of collaterals related to recanalization, which may guide the decision-making of revascularization therapy in acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27296511

  6. Predicting Collateral Status With Magnetic Resonance Perfusion Parameters: Probabilistic Approach With a Tmax-Derived Prediction Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Ji; Son, Jeong Pyo; Kim, Suk Jae; Ryoo, Sookyung; Woo, Sook-Young; Cha, Jihoon; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bang, Oh Young

    2015-10-01

    Good collateral flow is an important predictor for favorable responses to recanalization therapy and successful outcomes after acute ischemic stroke. Magnetic resonance perfusion-weighted imaging (MRP) is widely used in patients with stroke. However, it is unclear whether the perfusion parameters and thresholds would predict collateral status. The present study evaluated the relationship between hypoperfusion severity and collateral status to develop a predictive model for good collaterals using MRP parameters. Patients who were eligible for recanalization therapy that underwent both serial diffusion-weighted imaging and serial MRP were enrolled into the study. A collateral flow map derived from MRP source data was generated through automatic postprocessing. Hypoperfusion severity, presented as proportions of every 2-s Tmax strata to the entire hypoperfusion volume (Tmax≥2 s), was compared between patients with good and poor collaterals. Prediction models for good collaterals were developed with each Tmax strata proportion and cerebral blood volumes. Among 66 patients, 53 showed good collaterals based on MRP-based collateral grading. Although no difference was noted in delays within 16 s, more severe Tmax delays (Tmax16-18 s, Tmax18-22 s, Tmax22-24 s, and Tmax>24 s) were associated with poor collaterals. The probability equation model using Tmax strata proportion demonstrated high predictive power in a receiver operating characteristic analysis (area under the curve=0.9303; 95% confidence interval, 0.8682-0.9924). The probability score was negatively correlated with the volume of infarct growth (P=0.030). Collateral status is associated with more severe Tmax delays than previously defined. The present Tmax severity-weighted model can determine good collaterals and subsequent infarct growth. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Collateral Status on Baseline Computed Tomographic Angiography and Intra-Arterial Treatment Effect in Patients With Proximal Anterior Circulation Stroke.

    PubMed

    Berkhemer, Olvert A; Jansen, Ivo G H; Beumer, Debbie; Fransen, Puck S S; van den Berg, Lucie A; Yoo, Albert J; Lingsma, Hester F; Sprengers, Marieke E S; Jenniskens, Sjoerd F M; Lycklama À Nijeholt, Geert J; van Walderveen, Marianne A A; van den Berg, René; Bot, Joseph C J; Beenen, Ludo F M; Boers, Anna M M; Slump, Cornelis H; Roos, Yvo B W E M; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; Dippel, Diederik W J; van der Lugt, Aad; van Zwam, Wim H; Marquering, Henk A; Majoie, Charles B L M

    2016-03-01

    Recent randomized trials have proven the benefit of intra-arterial treatment (IAT) with retrievable stents in acute ischemic stroke. Patients with poor or absent collaterals (preexistent anastomoses to maintain blood flow in case of a primary vessel occlusion) may gain less clinical benefit from IAT. In this post hoc analysis, we aimed to assess whether the effect of IAT was modified by collateral status on baseline computed tomographic angiography in the Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN). MR CLEAN was a multicenter, randomized trial of IAT versus no IAT. Primary outcome was the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days. The primary effect parameter was the adjusted common odds ratio for a shift in direction of a better outcome on the modified Rankin Scale. Collaterals were graded from 0 (absent) to 3 (good). We used multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis with interaction terms to estimate treatment effect modification by collateral status. We found a significant modification of treatment effect by collaterals (P=0.038). The strongest benefit (adjusted common odds ratio 3.2 [95% confidence intervals 1.7-6.2]) was found in patients with good collaterals (grade 3). The adjusted common odds ratio was 1.6 [95% confidence intervals 1.0-2.7] for moderate collaterals (grade 2), 1.2 [95% confidence intervals 0.7-2.3] for poor collaterals (grade 1), and 1.0 [95% confidence intervals 0.1-8.7] for patients with absent collaterals (grade 0). In MR CLEAN, baseline computed tomographic angiography collateral status modified the treatment effect. The benefit of IAT was greatest in patients with good collaterals on baseline computed tomographic angiography. Treatment benefit appeared less and may be absent in patients with absent or poor collaterals. URL: http://www.trialregister.nl and http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: (NTR)1804 and ISRCTN10888758, respectively. © 2016

  8. Giant aorto-pulmonary collaterals in pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect: long-term survival in unoperated adults.

    PubMed

    Spaziani, Gaia; Favilli, Silvia; Fonda, Claudio; Chiappa, Enrico

    2013-08-01

    The association of pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect (PA/VSD) can be considered the most severe form of tetralogy of Fallot. The main feature of this congenital heart disease is represented by discontinuity between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk or its branches; the anatomy of central pulmonary arteries is often abnormal, consequently the type and the amount of sources of pulmonary blood flow are variable. Due to evolution in surgical techniques, definitive correction is now also considered in more complex cases. A small rate of unoperated patients with PA/VSD can survive until adulthood and the arterial blood supply to the lungs, provided by major aorto-pulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs), is one of the main determinants of survival. We report two unoperated cases of PA/VSD and MAPCAs with long-term survival. Giant MAPCAs can occasionally be found by chest radiography in adults with unrepaired PA/VSD. Moreover, non-invasive assessment of the pulmonary arterial bed with computer tomography or MRI is helpful in these patients during follow-up. Finally, we discuss the use of oral anticoagulants and/or 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitors in these patients.

  9. Collateral circulation from the conus coronary artery to the anterior descending coronary artery: assessment using multislice coronary computed tomography.

    PubMed

    de Agustín, José A; Marcos-Alberca, Pedro; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Vilacosta, Isidre; Pérez de Isla, Leopoldo; Rodríguez, Enrique; Macaya, Carlos; Zamorano, José

    2010-03-01

    The prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease largely depends on the presence of a collateral circulation. The location and extent of the collateral circulation is highly variable and these parameters determine whether or not ischemic symptoms occur and whether left ventricular contractility is abnormal. The collateral circulation is generally established through small-caliber distal vessels, although many different forms have been described. We report on three patients with severe left coronary artery disease and collateral circulation through a large conus coronary artery that joined a proximal or medial segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. In all three cases, left ventricular function was preserved.

  10. Interrogating the functional correlates of collateralization in patients with intracranial stenosis using multi-modal hemodynamic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Brent A.; Donahue, Manus J.; Davis, L. Taylor; Faraco, Carlos C.; Arteaga, Daniel; Chen, Sheau-Chiann; Ladner, Travis; Scott, Allison O.; Strother, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The importance of collateralization for maintaining adequate cerebral perfusion is increasingly recognized. However, measuring collateral flow noninvasively has proved elusive. The aim of this study was to assess correlations among (1) baseline perfusion and arterial transit time artifact, (2) cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), and (3) the presence of collateral vessels on digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Materials and Methods The relationship between the presence of collateral vessels on arterial-spin-labeling (ASL) MRI and DSA was compared to blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) MRI measures of hypercapnic cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis (n=18). DSA maps were reviewed by a neuroradiologist and assigned the following scores: 1) collaterals to the periphery of the ischemic site; 2) complete irrigation of the ischemic bed via collateral flow; 3) normal antegrade flow. ASL maps were scored according to 0) low signal; 1) moderate signal with arterial transit artifact (ATA); 2) high signal with ATA; 3) normal signal. Results In regions with normal-to-high signal on ASL, collateral vessel presence on DSA strongly correlated with declines in CVR as measured on BOLD MRI (p<0.001), most notably in patients with non-atherosclerotic disease. There was a trend toward increasing CVR with increases in the degree of collateralization on DSA (p=0.082). Conclusion Collateral vessels may have fundamentally different vasoreactivity properties than healthy vessels, a finding that is observed most prominently in non-atherosclerotic disease and to a lesser extent in atherosclerotic disease. PMID:27056428

  11. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  12. Branches in the Everett interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Arthur J.

    2014-05-01

    Hugh Everett III describes a quantum measurement as resulting in the "branching" of the quantum state of observer and measured system, with all possible measurement outcomes represented by the ensuing branches of the total quantum state. But Everett does not specify a general rule for decomposing a quantum state into branches, and commentators have long puzzled over how, and even whether, to regard Everett's notion of branching states as physically meaningful. It is common today to appeal to decoherence considerations as a way of giving physical content to the Everettian notion of branches, but these appeals to decoherence are often regarded as considerations foreign to Everett's own approach. This paper contends that this assessment is only half right: though he does not invoke environmental decoherence, Everett does appeal to decoherence considerations, broadly understood, in his treatment of measurement. Careful consideration of his idealized models of measurement, and of the significance he ascribes to the branching of states corresponding to definite measurement outcomes, reveals that his notion of branching refers to a special physical characteristic of elements of a particular decomposition, namely the absence of interference between these component states as a result of the particular dynamics governing the evolution of the system. Characterizations of branching that appeal to the results of modern decoherence theory should therefore be regarded as a natural development of Everett's own physically meaningful conception of branching.

  13. The control of branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Iber, Dagmar; Menshykau, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms are heavily branched structures and arise by an apparently similar process of branching morphogenesis. Yet the regulatory components and local interactions that have been identified differ greatly in these organs. It is an open question whether the regulatory processes work according to a common principle and how far physical and geometrical constraints determine the branching process. Here, we review the known regulatory factors and physical constraints in lung, kidney, pancreas, prostate, mammary gland and salivary gland branching morphogenesis, and describe the models that have been formulated to analyse their impacts. PMID:24004663

  14. Dopaminergic treatment weakens medium spiny neuron collateral inhibition in the parkinsonian striatum.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Ding, Shengyuan; Zhou, Fu-Ming

    2017-03-01

    The striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are critical to both motor and cognitive functions. A potential regulator of MSN activity is the GABAergic collateral axonal input from neighboring MSNs. These collateral axon terminals are further under the regulation of presynaptic dopamine (DA) receptors that may become dysfunctional when the intense striatal DA innervation is lost in Parkinson's disease (PD). We show that DA D1 receptor-expressing MSNs (D1-MSNs) and D2 receptor-expressing MSNs (D2-MSNs) each formed high-rate, one-way collateral connections with a homotypic preference in both normal and DA-denervated mouse striatum. Furthermore, whereas the homotypic preference, one-way directionality and the basal inhibitory strength were preserved, DA inhibited GABA release at the D2-MSN→D2-MSN collateral synapse in a supersensitive manner in the DA-denervated striatum. In contrast, for D1-MSN-originated collateral connections, whereas D1 agonism facilitated D1-MSN→D1-MSN collateral inhibition in the normal striatum, this presynaptic D1R facilitation of GABA release was lost in the parkinsonian striatum. These results indicate that in the parkinsonian striatum, dopaminergic treatment can presynaptically weaken the D2-MSN→D2-MSN collateral inhibition and disinhibit the surrounding D2-MSNs, whereas the D1-MSN→D1-MSN collateral inhibition is weakened by the loss of the presynaptic D1 receptor facilitation, disinhibiting the surrounding D1-MSNs. Together, these newly discovered effects can disrupt the MSN circuits in the parkinsonian striatum and may contribute to dopaminergic treatment-induced aberrant motor and nonmotor behaviors in PD.NEW & NOTEWORTHY With the use of a large database, this study establishes that neighboring homotypic striatal spiny projection neurons have a 50% chance to form one-way collateral inhibitory connection, a substantially higher rate than previous estimates. This study also shows that dopamine denervation may alter presynaptic dopamine

  15. Analysis of long branch extraction and long branch shortening

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Long branch attraction (LBA) is a problem that afflicts both the parsimony and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis techniques. Research has shown that parsimony is particularly vulnerable to inferring the wrong tree in Felsenstein topologies. The long branch extraction method is a procedure to detect a data set suffering from this problem so that Maximum Likelihood could be used instead of Maximum Parsimony. Results The long branch extraction method has been well cited and used by many authors in their analysis but no strong validation has been performed as to its accuracy. We performed such an analysis by an extensive search of the branch length search space under two topologies of six taxa, a Felsenstein-like topology and Farris-like topology. We also examine a long branch shortening method. Conclusions The long branch extraction method seems to mask the majority of the search space rendering it ineffective as a detection method of LBA. A proposed alternative, the long branch shortening method, is also ineffective in predicting long branch attraction for all tree topologies. PMID:21047381

  16. Increased circulating monocyte count is related to good collateral development in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Arslan, Uğur; Tavil, Yusuf; Okuyan, Hizir; Abaci, Adnan; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-04-01

    Monocytes have been shown to take an important role in collateral growth in animal studies. The aim of the study was to investigate the relation of circulating monocyte count with collateral development in patients with severely stenotic CAD. Patients who had > or =95% stenosis in at least one major coronary artery were included in the study. Coronary angiograms of 210 eligible patients from our database were analyzed again and 103 of them had good and 107 had poor collateral development according to Cohen-Rentrop method. Only the monocyte count was found to be significantly different between two groups (671+/-218 mm(-3) versus 522+/-195 mm(-3), p<0.001) when multivariate analysis was performed and an increased monocyte count was observed in the good collateral group (Odds ration [OR], 2.918; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.281-6.648, p=0.011). This study in which the relationship between monocyte count in blood and collateral development was disclosed has a potential importance in clinical and basic cardiovascular medicine.

  17. Self-, collateral- and clinician assessment of depression in persons with cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Mohit P.; Sullivan, Jan R.; Feldman, Zachary; Landes, Reid D.; Beck, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This investigation examined the associations between self-reports, collateral-source reports and a clinician’s diagnosis of depression in persons with cognitive impairment. Method Responses on the Geriatric Depression Scale – 15 (GDS-15) from 162 participants with a diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment (n = 78) or Alzheimer’s Dementia and a Mini-Mental State score ≥15 (n = 84) were compared with both their collateral sources’ report on either the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (n = 93) and/or the collateral-source GDS-15 (n = 67), or a clinician’s diagnosis of Major Depression (MD). Results Significant differences were seen between self- versus collateral-source reports of depression in these participants. Participants’ reports of loss of interest (anhedonia) significantly increased the odds of disagreement with their collateral sources (OR = 3.78, 95% CI: 1.3–11.2) while reports of negative cognitions significantly decreased the odds of such a disagreement (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.1–0.9). The symptom of anhedonia also showed the strongest association with the clinician’s diagnosis of MD. Conclusion A motivational symptom like loss of interest was seen to play an important role in depression experienced by those with cognitive impairment. PMID:19023719

  18. Development of collateral vessels: A new paradigm in CAM angiogenesis model.

    PubMed

    Gatne, Dipti P; Mungekar, Snehal; Addepalli, Veeranjaneyulu; Mohanraj, Krishnapriya; Ghone, Sanjeevani A; Rege, Nirmala N

    2016-01-01

    The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is one of the most widely used models to study angiogenesis. In this study, collateral vessel development is reported in CAM assay useful in analysis of angiogenesis. Four days old white Leghorn fertilized chicken eggs were inoculated with vehicle, standard or test angiogenesis inhibitor using standard protocol. Central vessel growth was seen tapering down and collateral vessels were developed from the lower side of the chorioallantoic membrane moving upward in 12 days old standard or test treated CAMs. In the absence of the central vessel, collateral blood supply helped in survival of embryos. Hence, development of collateral vessels was used for ranking of blood vessels and angiogenesis in addition to well-known standard parameters related to central vessel. The finding could differentiate molecules inhibiting angiogenesis with or without collateralization which is crucial in anti-angiogenic therapy used for cardiovascular diseases and cancer. This study proposes a new avenue to distinguish pro-angiogenic molecules from anti-angiogenic ones as well as anti-angiogenic molecules which may or may not support alternative vascularization pathway that would have great impact on future angiogenic and anti-angiogenic therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Trans-illuminated laser speckle imaging of collateral artery blood flow in ischemic mouse hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Meisner, Joshua K; Niu, Jacqueline; Sumer, Suna; Price, Richard J

    2013-09-01

    The mouse ischemic hindlimb model is used widely for studying collateral artery growth (i.e., arteriogenesis) in response to increased shear stress. Nonetheless, precise measurements of regional shear stress changes along individual collateral arteries are lacking. Our goal is to develop and verify trans-illumination laser speckle flowmetry (LSF) for this purpose. Studies of defibrinated bovine blood flow through tubes embedded in tissue-mimicking phantoms indicate that trans-illumination LSF better maintains sensitivity with an increasing tissue depth when compared to epi-illumination, with an ∼50% reduction in the exponential decay of the speckle velocity signal. Applying trans-illuminated LSF to the gracilis muscle collateral artery network in vivo yields both improved sensitivity and reduced noise when compared to epi-illumination. Trans-illuminated LSF images reveal regional differences in collateral artery blood velocity after femoral artery ligation and are used to measure an ∼2-fold increase in the shear stress at the entrance regions to the muscle. We believe these represent the first direct measurements of regional shear stress changes in individual mouse collateral arteries. The ability to capture deeper vascular signals using a trans-illumination configuration for LSF may expand the current applications for LSF, which could have bearing on determining how shear stress magnitude and direction regulate arteriogenesis.

  20. Prevention of the collapse of pial collaterals by remote ischemic perconditioning during acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junqiang; Ma, Yonglie; Dong, Bin; Bandet, Mischa V; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Winship, Ian R

    2017-08-01

    Collateral circulation is a key variable determining prognosis and response to recanalization therapy during acute ischemic stroke. Remote ischemic perconditioning (RIPerC) involves inducing peripheral ischemia (typically in the limbs) during stroke and may reduce perfusion deficits and brain damage due to cerebral ischemia. In this study, we directly investigated pial collateral flow augmentation due to RIPerC during distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in rats. Blood flow through pial collaterals between the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and the MCA was assessed in male Sprague Dawley rats using in vivo laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) and two photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) during distal MCAo. LSCI and TPLSM revealed that RIPerC augmented collateral flow into distal MCA segments. Notably, while control rats exhibited an initial dilation followed by a progressive narrowing of pial arterioles 60 to 150-min post-MCAo (constricting to 80-90% of post-MCAo peak diameter), this constriction was prevented or reversed by RIPerC (such that vessel diameters increased to 105-110% of post-MCAo, pre-RIPerC diameter). RIPerC significantly reduced early ischemic damage measured 6 h after stroke onset. Thus, prevention of collateral collapse via RIPerC is neuroprotective and may facilitate other protective or recanalization therapies by improving blood flow in penumbral tissue.

  1. Biomechanics of a less invasive procedure for reconstruction of the ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Hechtman, K S; Tjin-A-Tsoi, E W; Zvijac, J E; Uribe, J W; Latta, L L

    1998-01-01

    A reconstruction of the anterior bundle of the ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow using bone anchors was compared regarding strain and valgus load strength with the intact ulnar collateral ligament and the reconstructed ulnar collateral ligament using bone tunnels. In both normal and reconstructed elbows, the anterior band and posterior band were tight during only a portion of the range of motion. Toward extension, the mean peak strain in the anterior band was tight for the normal and bone anchor groups, but lax in the bone tunnel group. Toward extension, the mean peak strain in the posterior band was lax in all elbows. Toward flexion, the strain in the anterior band was lax in the normal and bone anchor groups, but tight in the bone tunnel group. The mean of the peak strains for the posterior band toward flexion was tight for all elbows. Mean valgus load strength of normal elbows was 22.7 +/- 9.0 N.m. The bone tunnel and bone anchor mean strengths were 76.3% and 63.5%, respectively, of normal elbow strength. We concluded that the bone anchor reproduced the normal anatomy and mechanical function of the ulnar collateral ligament more closely than the bone tunnel, and that both reconstruction methods were significantly weaker than the normal ulnar collateral ligament. However, we found no significant difference in reconstruction strength between bone anchor and bone tunnel.

  2. Embolization of Collateral Vessels Using Mechanically Detachable Coils in Young Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Y.; Ogino, H.; Hara, M.; Satake, M.; Oshima, H.; Banno, T.; Mizuno, K.; Mishima, A.; Shibamoto, Y.

    2003-11-15

    Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of embolizing collateral vessels using mechanically detachable coils (MDCs) in children aged 3 years or younger with congenital heart disease. The subjects were 8 children with congenital heart disease featuring collateral vessels (age 18 days-3 years): 3 with a single ventricle, 2 with the tetralogy of Fallot, 2 with pulmonary atresia, and 1 with a ventricular septal defect. The embolized vessels were the major aortopulmonary collateral artery (MAPCA) in 5 patients, the persistent left superior vena cava in 2, and the coronary arteriovenous fistula in 1. A 4 or a 5 F catheter was used as the guiding device, and embolization was performed using MDCs and other conventional coils introduced through the microcatheter. One patient had growth of new MAPCAs after embolization, and these MAPCAs were also embolized with MDCs. Thus, a total of 9 embolization procedures were performed in 8 patients. Complete occlusion of the collateral vessels was achieved in 8 of 9 procedures (89%). Seven of 8 patients (88%) had uneventful courses after embolization, and MDC procedures appeared to play important roles in avoiding coil migration and achievement of safe coil embolization. One patient who underwent MAPCA embolization showed no improvement in heart function and died 2 months and 19 days later. Embolization of collateral vessels using MDCs in young children with congenital heart disease can be an effective procedure and a valuable adjunct to surgical management.

  3. Modeling branching in cereals.

    PubMed

    Evers, Jochem B; Vos, Jan

    2013-10-10

    Cereals and grasses adapt their structural development to environmental conditions and the resources available. The primary adaptive response is a variable degree of branching, called tillering in cereals. Especially for heterogeneous plant configurations the degree of tillering varies per plant. Functional-structural plant modeling (FSPM) is a modeling approach allowing simulation of the architectural development of individual plants, culminating in the emergent behavior at the canopy level. This paper introduces the principles of modeling tillering in FSPM, using (I) a probability approach, forcing the dynamics of tillering to correspond to measured probabilities. Such models are particularly suitable to evaluate the effect structural variables on system performance. (II) Dose-response curves, representing a measured or assumed response of tillering to an environmental cue. (III) Mechanistic approaches to tillering including control by carbohydrates, hormones, and nutrients. Tiller senescence is equally important for the structural development of cereals as tiller appearance. Little study has been made of tiller senescence, though similar concepts seem to apply as for tiller appearance.

  4. Role of Genetic Variation in Collateral Circulation in the Evolution of Acute Stroke: A Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Chieh Jill; Oyarzabal, Esteban A; Zhang, Hua; Faber, James E; Shih, Yen-Yu Ian

    2017-03-01

    No studies have determined the effect of differences in pial collateral extent (number and diameter), independent of differences in environmental factors and unknown genetic factors, on severity of stroke. We examined ischemic tissue evolution during acute stroke, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging and histology, by comparing 2 congenic mouse strains with otherwise identical genetic backgrounds but with different alleles of the Determinant of collateral extent-1 (Dce1) genetic locus. We also optimized magnetic resonance perfusion and diffusion-deficit thresholds by using histological measures of ischemic tissue. Perfusion, diffusion, and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were performed on collateral-poor (congenic-Bc) and collateral-rich (congenic-B6) mice at 1, 5, and 24 hours after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Magnetic resonance imaging-derived penumbra and ischemic core volumes were confirmed by histology in a subset of mice at 5 and 24 hours after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Although perfusion-deficit volumes were similar between strains 1 hour after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, diffusion-deficit volumes were 32% smaller in collateral-rich mice. At 5 hours, collateral-rich mice had markedly restored perfusion patterns showing reduced perfusion-deficit volumes, smaller infarct volumes, and smaller perfusion-diffusion mismatch volumes compared with the collateral-poor mice (P<0.05). At 24 hours, collateral-rich mice had 45% smaller T2-weighted lesion volumes (P<0.005) than collateral-poor mice, with no difference in perfusion-diffusion mismatch volumes because of penumbral death occurring 5 to 24 hours after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in collateral-poor mice. Variation in collateral extent significantly alters infarct volume expansion, transiently affects perfusion and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging signatures, and impacts salvage of ischemic penumbra after stroke onset. © 2017

  5. Prevalence of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Surgery in Professional Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Conte, Stan A; Fleisig, Glenn S; Dines, Joshua S; Wilk, Kevin E; Aune, Kyle T; Patterson-Flynn, Nancy; ElAttrache, Neal

    2015-07-01

    While the high rate of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries in professional baseball is widely discussed in the media and medical literature, the actual prevalence of UCL reconstruction has not been documented. The prevalence of UCL reconstruction will be higher among pitchers than nonpitchers, and Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers will have a higher prevalence than will minor league pitchers. Descriptive epidemiology study. An online questionnaire was distributed to all 30 MLB organizations. Certified athletic trainers from each team administered the questionnaire to all players in the organization, including major league players and 6 levels of minor league players. Demographic data were compared between major and minor league players. Continuous variables (age, years of professional baseball, country of origin, etc) were compared with Student t tests (P < .05). Categorical variables (level, position, etc) were compared using chi-square analysis (P < .05). A total of 5088 professional baseball players (722 major league and 4366 minor league) participated in the survey. Pitchers represented 53% of all players, and 497 players reported at least 1 UCL reconstruction, demonstrating a prevalence rate of 10% (497 of 5088). Pitchers reported a significantly higher prevalence of UCL reconstruction (16%; 437 of 2706) than nonpitchers (3%; 60 of 2382; P < .001). Among major league pitchers, 25% (96 of 382) had a history of UCL reconstruction, while minor league pitchers showed a 15% (341 of 2324) prevalence (P < .001). Major league pitchers were also significantly older (28.8 ± 3.9 years) than minor league pitchers (22.8 ± 3.0; P < .001). The majority of major leaguers (86%) had their UCL reconstruction as professional pitchers, whereas the majority of minor league pitchers (61%) underwent their UCL reconstruction during high school and college (P < .001). The rates of UCL revision, prior elbow surgery, prior shoulder surgery, and types of UCL graft were similar

  6. Treatment of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Tears of the Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Bach, Bernard R.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears have become common, and UCL reconstruction (UCLR) is currently the preferred surgical treatment method for treating UCL tears. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to review the literature surrounding UCL repair and determine the viability of new repair techniques for treatment of UCL tears. We hypothesized that UCL repair techniques will provide comparable results to UCLR for treatment of UCL tears. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review was registered with PROSPERO and performed with PRISMA guidelines using 3 publicly available free databases. Biomechanical and clinical outcome investigations reporting on UCL repair with levels of evidence 1 through 4 were eligible for inclusion. Descriptive statistics were calculated for each study and parameter/variable analyzed. Results: Of the 46 studies eligible, 4 studies (3 clinical and 1 biomechanical) were included. There were 92 patients (n = 92 elbows; 61 males [62.3%]; mean age, 21.9 ± 4.7 years) included in the clinical studies, with a mean follow-up of 49 ± 14.4 months. Eighty-six percent of repairs performed were on the dominant elbow, and 38% were in college athletes. Most UCL repairs (66.3%) were performed via suture anchors. After UCL repair, 87.0% of patients were able to return to sport. Overall, 94.9% of patients scored excellent/good on the Andrews-Carson score. Patients who were able to return to sport after UCL repair did so within 6 months after surgery. Biomechanically, when UCL repair was compared with the modified Jobe technique, the repair group showed significantly less gap formation than the reconstruction group. Conclusion: In patients for whom repair is properly indicated, UCL repair provides similar return-to-sport rates and clinical outcomes with shorter return-to-sport timing after repair compared with UCL reconstruction. Future outcome studies evaluating UCL repair

  7. Pulmonary Fissure Integrity and Collateral Ventilation in COPD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jiantao; Wang, Zhimin; Gu, Suicheng; Fuhrman, Carl; Leader, Joseph K.; Meng, Xin; Tedrow, John; Sciurba, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    collateral ventilation. PMID:24800803

  8. A Branch Meeting in Avon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Kathryn; Coles, Alf

    2011-01-01

    The Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) exists for, and is run by, its members. Branch meetings are so much more than the "grass roots" of the association--it can be a powerhouse of inspiration and creativity. In this article, the authors provide commentaries on a recent branch meeting.

  9. A Branch Meeting in Avon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Kathryn; Coles, Alf

    2011-01-01

    The Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) exists for, and is run by, its members. Branch meetings are so much more than the "grass roots" of the association--it can be a powerhouse of inspiration and creativity. In this article, the authors provide commentaries on a recent branch meeting.

  10. [Original relations of acupoints with channels-collaterals and acupuncture therapy].

    PubMed

    Bai, Xing-hua

    2008-03-01

    With analysis and systematization of ancient medical books being unearthed Mazoangdui tomb and other literatures, it is found that ancient names and meanings of moxibustion and acupuncture parts passed the courses from Mai to Maikou, the place and region above Mai, then to acupoints on the body surface showing channels, gi and blood. This change trace reveals original relationship acupoints with channels-collaterals, and acupuncture therapy. The acupoint is a point and channels-collaterals are lines, except a less acupoints which located by obvious anatomic markers, most of are special parts on the channels and collaterals, are not a isolated point. The acupoint is the gate of needle inserting the human body, proposal of this concept and increase of the number of acopoints are closely related with invention, popularity and spreading of acupuncture therapy.

  11. Indocyanine Green Lymphographic Signs of Lymphatic Collateral Formation in Lower Extremity Lymphedema After Cancer Resection.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Kensuke; Shibata, Takashi; Mito, Daisuke; Ishiura, Ryohei; Kato, Motoi; Yamashita, Shuji; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Iida, Takuya; Koshima, Isao

    2016-08-01

    Indocyanine green lymphography has recently been used to assess lymphatic vessel function in lymphedema patients. Postoperative collateral lymphatic vessels toward ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes are rarely seen above the umbilical level in lower lymphedema patients. Between January 2012 and December 2014, we performed indocyanine green lymphography of 192 limbs in 96 lower extremity lymphedema cases. As a result, dermal back flow appeared in 95 cases, with 38 in the lower abdominal area and 31 in the genital area. We confirmed 3 cases of superficial lymphatic collateral ways extending above the umbilical level to the axillary lymph nodes. All 3 cases had similarity in lower abdominal edema, so excessive lymphatic fluid in the lower abdomen was assumed to be the cause. Lymphatic collateral ways from abdomen to axillary lymph nodes in this study was likely to be designed to prevent the progress of lymphedema.

  12. Comparing main and collateral effects of extinction and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior.

    PubMed

    Petscher, Erin Seligson; Bailey, Jon S

    2008-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects and collateral effects of extinction (EXT) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) interventions with inappropriate vocalizations and work refusal. Both interventions have been used frequently to reduce problem behaviors. The benefits of these interventions have been established yet may be outweighed by the reported negative side effects that result. However, these collateral effects have rarely been measured or reported. DRA produced the most rapid reductions in behavior for 4 of the 5 participants. Other behaviors were measured for changes and showed that the desirable collateral effect of academic engagement tended to be higher during EXT than DRA. No evidence of EXT bursts was present with any participant, although EXT-induced aggression occurred with 1 participant.

  13. A positive approach to branching.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Bart J; Drummond, Revel S M; Ledger, Susan E; Snowden, Kimberley C

    2010-04-01

    Plants regulate the development of branches in response to environmental and developmental signals in order to maximize reproductive success. A number of hormone signals are involved in the regulation of branching and both their production and transmission affect axillary meristem outgrowth. With the identification of strigolactones as root-derived branch inhibitors it seems likely that a biochemical pathway starting from a carotenoid and resulting in production of a strigolactone hormone is present in most plants. Our observation that loss of CCD7 or CCD8 also results in production of a promoter of branching from roots shows the branching pathway has multiple levels of control which allows a high degree of sensitivity to subtle differences in environmental and developmental signals.

  14. Genetic lineage tracing discloses arteriogenesis as the main mechanism for collateral growth in the mouse heart

    PubMed Central

    He, Lingjuan; Liu, Qiaozhen; Hu, Tianyuan; Huang, Xiuzhen; Zhang, Hui; Tian, Xueying; Yan, Yan; Wang, Li; Huang, Yu; Miquerol, Lucile; Wythe, Joshua D.; Zhou, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Aims Capillary and arterial endothelial cells share many common molecular markers in both the neonatal and adult hearts. Herein, we aim to establish a genetic tool that distinguishes these two types of vessels in order to determine the cellular mechanism underlying collateral artery formation. Methods and results Using Apln-GFP and Apln-LacZ reporter mice, we demonstrate that APLN expression is enriched in coronary vascular endothelial cells. However, APLN expression is reduced in coronary arterial endothelial cells. Genetic lineage tracing, using an Apln-CreER mouse line, robustly labelled capillary endothelial cells, but not arterial endothelial cells. We leveraged this differential activity of Apln-CreER to study collateral artery formation following myocardial infarction (MI). In a neonatal heart MI model, we found that Apln-CreER-labelled capillary endothelial cells do not contribute to the large collateral arteries. Instead, these large collateral arteries mainly arise from pre-existing, infrequently labelled coronary arteries, indicative of arteriogenesis. Furthermore, in an adult heart MI model, Apln-CreER activity also distinguishes large and small diameter arteries from capillaries. Lineage tracing in this setting demonstrated that most large and small coronary arteries in the infarcted myocardium and border region are derived not from capillaries, but from pre-existing arteries. Conclusion Apln-CreER-mediated lineage tracing distinguishes capillaries from large arteries, in both the neonatal and adult hearts. Through genetic fate mapping, we demonstrate that pre-existing arteries, but not capillaries, extensively contribute to collateral artery formation following myocardial injury. These results suggest that arteriogenesis is the major mechanism underlying collateral vessel formation. PMID:26768261

  15. Clinical study of the hypothesis of endogenous collateral wind on acute coronary syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian; Zhang, Cong; Yang, Ran; Zhu, Haiyan; Zhao, Huaibing; Li, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), is a serious threat to people's health, and life, and in recent years, the incidence has increased yearly. This study was to propose the hypothesis of "endogenous collateral wind" based on the patho-mechanism of thrombogenesis complicated by ruptured plaque on ACS, and the theory of traditional Chinese medicine. Through successful coronary angiography (CAG), and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), patients with coronary artery disease were made the differential diagnosis such as blood stasis, blood stasis due to phlegm obstruction, and endogenous collateral wind. The levels of plasma inflammatory marker were measured to study on the characteristics of "endogenous collateral wind". Luo heng dripping pills with promoting blood circulation to expel wind-evil, and remove wetness were made based on the hypothesis of "endogenous collateral wind" on ACS. Patients with unstable angina were randomly divided into 3, groups based on therapeutic methods: conventional therapy group, Luo Heng dripping pills group and Tongxinluo caps. Differences among groups were compared. There were great changes in number and degree of coronary arteriostenosis confirmed by CAG, the types of ACC/AHA lesion and Levin lesion confirmed by CAG, remodeling index, positive or negative remodeling percentage measured by IVUS, the plasma levels of plasma inflammatory marker measured by ELLSA in the patients with endogenous collateral wind, compared with patients with blood stasis and blood stasis due to phlegm obstruction. The total effective rate of improved angina in Luo Heng dripping pills group was significantly higher than those in other two groups. The levels of plasma inflammatory marker were significantly lower in Luo Heng dripping pills group. There were some pathological basis which were found about the hypothesis of "endogenous collateral wind" on acute coronary syndrome. It provided evidences for patients with coronary artery disease treated by medicines with

  16. Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Angiography Provides Collateral Circulation and Hemodynamic Information in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, María; Puig, Josep; Blasco, Gerard; Pérez de la Ossa, Natalia; Dorado, Laura; Dávalos, Antoni; Munuera, Josep

    2016-02-01

    Contrary to usual static vascular imaging techniques, contrast-enhanced dynamic magnetic resonance angiography (dMRA) enables dynamic study of cerebral vessels. We evaluated dMRA ability to assess arterial occlusion, cerebral hemodynamics, and collateral circulation in acute ischemic stroke. Twenty-five acute ischemic stroke patients with proximal anterior circulation occlusion underwent dMRA on a 3T scanner within 12 hours of symptoms onset. Diffusion weighted imaging, Tmax6 s lesion volumes and hypoperfusion intensity ratio as volume of Tmax>6 s/volume of Tmax>10 s were measured. Site and grade of occlusion (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction criteria) were evaluated on time-of-flight MRA and dMRA. Leptomeningeal collaterality (American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology [ASITN/SIR] Scale) and asymmetries in venous clearance were assessed exclusively on dMRA. Collateral filling was dichotomized into incomplete (ASITN/SIR 0-2) or complete (ASITN/SIR 3-4). On dMRA, site of occlusion was M1 in 21 patients, tandem internal carotid artery/M1 in 2 and tandem internal carotid artery/terminal internal carotid artery in 2 patients. Three tandem occlusions were not detected on time-of-flight-MRA. All patients had Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 0 to 1 on time-of-flight-MRA, but three of them had Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 2 on dMRA. Complete collateral filling (n=12, 48%) was associated with smaller diffusion weighted imaging lesion volume (P=0.039), smaller hypoperfused volume (P=0.018), and lower hypoperfusion intensity ratio (P=0.006). Patients with symmetrical clearance of transverse sinuses (52%) were more likely to have complete collateral filling (P=0.015). As a fast, direct, feasible, noninvasive, and reliable method to assess site of occlusion, collateral circulation and hemodynamic alterations, dMRA provides profound insights in acute stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Glenohumeral internal rotation deficits in baseball players with ulnar collateral ligament insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Dines, Joshua S; Frank, Joshua B; Akerman, Meredith; Yocum, Lewis A

    2009-03-01

    The kinetic chain of the throwing motion functions to optimize efficiency of proximal segments to decrease force loads seen at smaller, distal segments such as the ulnar collateral ligament. Several studies have shown that shoulder internal rotation forms the physiologic counter to the valgus torque generated during the late cocking phase of throwing. Previous studies have implicated decreased glenohumeral internal rotation as a cause of shoulder internal impingement. To date, an association between pathologic glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and elbow injury has not been exhibited. Throwers with ulnar collateral ligament insufficiency will exhibit significantly increased glenohumeral internal rotation deficit. Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty-nine baseball players with ulnar collateral ligament insufficiency were demographically matched with 29 control baseball players who had no history of shoulder, elbow, or cervical spine injury. The investigators measured passive glenohumeral internal and external rotation, elbow flexion and extension, and forearm pronation and supination. The Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze continuous variables. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of demographics. There was a significant difference in dominant arm internal rotation, with injured players having significantly less (P < .004), and in glenohumeral internal rotation deficit between players with ulnar collateral ligament insufficiency and those who were asymptomatic (28.5 degrees vs 12.7 degrees ; P < .001). Also, total range of motion was significantly decreased in the injured group. There were no significant differences in elbow or forearm range of motion between the groups. Our results indicate that pathologic glenohumeral internal rotation deficit may be associated with elbow valgus instability. This has important clinical implications both in terms of preventing ulnar collateral ligament injury and with regard to

  18. [Effects of nicorandil on coronary collateral circulation depend on the donor arteries].

    PubMed

    Umezawa, S; Ogawara, S; Okamoto, Y; Igawa, M; Aonuma, K; Inada, M; Korenaga, M; Hiroe, M; Marumo, F

    1996-11-01

    The effects of nicorandil on coronary collateral circulation during exercise-induced ischemia were compared between the different donor arteries in 13 patients with effort angina, 7 with complete obstruction of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) with well-developed collateral vessels from the right coronary artery (RCA) (LAD group), and 6 with complete occlusion of the RCA (segment 2-3) with well-developed collateral vessels from the LAD (RCA group). Initial percentage thallium (%TI) uptake (thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography) and washout rate were measured in the anterior, septal and posterior regions during ergometer exercise. The submaximal treadmill exercise test was also performed using a cardiopulmonary monitoring system to measure Vo2 at anaerobic threshold (AT). After the controls were obtained, nicorandil (15 mg/day) was administered for 4 weeks, during which ergometer exercise and treadmill exercise tests were carried out repeatedly. A significant improvement of initial %TI uptake on exercise was observed in the LAD group with nicorandil therapy, but no improvement was shown in the RCA group. The AT significantly increased after nicorandil treatment in the LAD group (13.9 +/- 0.38-->16.8 +/- 1.18 ml/min/kg), reflecting the improvement of cardiac function through the increased collateral flow. However, in the RCA group, it remained unchanged, suggesting no improvement of cardiac function. Nicorandil was effective to increase collateral flow from the RCA, but ineffective on that from the LAD. Nicorandil is an effective coronary dilator and is reported to affect both large and small coronary arteries. The effect on the collateral circulation is dependent on the donor artery supplying different areas. The vasodilator effect of nicorandil is mainly on the LAD, which is large enough to supply blood to a wider area of the heart, rather than the RCA.

  19. Ligation of the left hepatic vein for dilated intrahepatic collaterals late after fontan operation.

    PubMed

    Park, Chun Soo; Park, Jeong-Jun; Park, In-Sook; Goo, Hyun Woo

    2014-07-01

    A 17-year-old male presented with two episodes of syncope, cyanosis, and exercise intolerance 13 years after the Fontan operation. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging showed dilated intrahepatic collaterals, which drained into the atrium through the left hepatic vein, and 24-hour Holter monitoring revealed sinus node dysfunction. We performed ligation of the left hepatic vein using intrahepatic collaterals as channels draining hepatic venous blood into the Fontan pathway, and implanted an epicardial dual chamber pacemaker. At one-year follow-up, the patient remained asymptomatic and his cardiac performance was much improved.

  20. The Role of Collateral Information about Examinees in Item Parameter Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    possible to estimate item parameters by conditional maximum likelihood, or CML (Andersen, 1973, 1977). In the Rasch model for dichotomous items, for...for the 1-parameter logistic ( Rasch ) IRT model . Case 1: Collateral information, independent of examinee and item sampling. Suppose that collateral...examinee responses to two items follow the Rasch model ; that is, P(xI6,fi) - [x (O-fl )]/[l+exp(O-fi)I. Suppose further that P 1-02-0, and that the examinee

  1. [Destruction of residual varicose collaterals by subcutaneous dilaceration with a needle].

    PubMed

    Lengua, F; Pajot, A; Buffet, J M; Kassem, S; Fernandez, R

    1980-01-01

    The persistence of collaterals after a properly conducted surgical treatment of varicose veins of the lower limbs often presents a problem which is difficult to resolve. The authors put forward a simple and original method, in which a long and slightly curved triangular needle is used, without incisions, to destroy by dilaceration the collaterals whatever their degree of dilatation and their location. This technique has also been used as a first stage preceding stripping, and over a 5 year period has given results in 70 patients which are very satisfactory both from the point of view of efficacy as well as from the aesthetic point of view.

  2. Independent predictors of retrograde failure in CTO-PCI after successful collateral channel crossing.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoriyasu; Muto, Makoto; Yamane, Masahisa; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Okamura, Atsunori; Igarashi, Yasumi; Fujita, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Shigeru; Oida, Akitsugu; Tsuchikane, Etsuo

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate factors for predicting retrograde CTO-PCI failure after successful collateral channel crossing. Successful guidewire/catheter collateral channel crossing is important for the retrograde approach in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO). A total of 5984 CTO-PCI procedures performed in 45 centers in Japan from 2009 to 2012 were studied. The retrograde approach was used in 1656 CTO-PCIs (27.7%). We investigated these retrograde procedures to evaluate factors for predicting retrograde CTO-PCI failure even after successful collateral channel crossing. Successful guidewire/catheter collateral crossing was achieved in 77.1% (n = 1,276) of 1656 retrograde CTO-PCI procedures. Retrograde procedural success after successful collateral crossing was achieved in 89.4% (n = 1,141). Univariate analysis showed that the predictors for retrograde CTO-PCI failure were in-stent occlusion (OR = 1.9829, 95%CI = 1.1783 - 3.3370 P = 0.0088), calcified lesions (OR = 1.9233, 95%CI = 1.2463 - 2.9679, P = 0.0027), and lesion tortuosity (OR = 1.5244, 95%CI = 1.0618 - 2.1883, P = 0.0216). On multivariate analysis, lesion calcification was an independent predictor of retrograde CTO-PCI failure after successful collateral channel crossing (OR = 1.3472, 95%CI = 1.0614 - 1.7169, P = 0.0141). The success rate of retrograde CTO-PCI following successful guidewire/catheter collateral channel crossing was high in this registry. Lesion calcification was an independent predictor of retrograde CTO-PCI failure after successful collateral channel crossing. Devices and techniques to overcome complex CTO lesion morphology, such as lesion calcification, are required to further improve the retrograde CTO-PCI success rate. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Who died? The murder of collaterals related to intimate partner conflict.

    PubMed

    Dobash, Russell P; Dobash, R Emerson

    2012-06-01

    Using data from the Murder in Britain Study, the authors focus on murders that are related to intimate partner conflict but involve the killing of a person other than the intimate partner. Intimate partner collateral murders (IPCM) include children, allies, and new partners. The findings expand the number and types of murder associated with intimate partner conflict, characterize the three main types of collaterals, compare the childhood and adulthood of the perpetrators of intimate partner murder [IPM] (n = 104) and IPCM (n = 62), and reflect similarities and differences. Various disciplinary approaches are reflected in the research design, data collection, findings, and conclusions.

  4. Combat Stress: A Collateral Effect in the Operational Effectiveness Loss Multiplier (OELM) Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Document D-5316 February 2015 Combat Stress: A Collateral Effect in the Operational... Effectiveness Loss Multiplier (OELM) Methodology Sarah E. Butterworth INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES 4850 Mark Center Drive Alexandria, Virginia 22311...7013 (a)(16) [Jun 2013]. I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Document D-5316 Combat Stress: A Collateral Effect in the

  5. Transhepatic Venous Approach for Balloon-assisted Cervical Collateral Venous Access

    SciTech Connect

    Eyheremendy, Eduardo P.; Malizia, Patricio; Sierre, Sergio

    2011-12-15

    Central venous catheter placement is indicated in many situations, and an increasing number of patients require temporary and long-term central catheters. Frequently, patients who have undergone multiple central veins catheterizations develop complete and diffuse venous occlusion, and this constitutes a difficult-to-manage clinical problem. We report a case of a 20-year-old patient who was referred to our department for central venous line placement who manifested bilateral femoral, jugular, and subclavian veins occlusion. A central venous catheter was implanted through a cervical collateral vein, targeting on and puncturing an angioplasty balloon, and advanced into the collateral vein through a transhepatic venous access.

  6. Aberrant Ovarian Collateral Originating from External Iliac Artery During Uterine Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Joon Ho; Kim, Man Deuk Lee, Kwang-hun; Lee, Myungsu; Lee, Mu Sook; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun

    2013-02-15

    We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who underwent uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic multiple uterine fibroids with collateral aberrant right ovarian artery that originated from the right external iliac artery. We believe that this is the first reported case in the literature of this collateral uterine flow by the right ovarian artery originated from the right external iliac artery. We briefly present the details of the case and review the literature on variations of ovarian artery origin that might be encountered during UAE.

  7. Investigation of water spray to reduce collateral thermal damage during laser resection of soft tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen-Kunde, D.; Wolken, H.; Ellebrecht, D.; Danicke, V.; Wurster, L.; Kleemann, M.; Birngruber, R.

    2013-06-01

    To reduce unwanted collateral thermal damage to surrounding tissue and organs during laparoscopic laser dissection (cw, wavelength: 1.9μm) of porcine liver water spray was used. Size and amount of the produced water droplets of the water spray were photographed by short time imaging and analyzed by imaging software. At in vivo measurements on fresh porcine liver the depth of thermal damage was reduced by 85 % with water spray and the lateral size of thermal damage at the tissue surface could be reduced by 67%. This results show that especially for laparoscopic laser surgery water spray application might be a useful tool to avoid unwanted collateral thermal damage.

  8. 12 CFR 221.117 - When bank in “good faith” has not relied on stock as collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... bank in “good faith” has not relied on stock as collateral. (a) The Board has received questions... question of whether or not a bank has relied upon particular stock as collateral is necessarily a question... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When bank in âgood faithâ has not relied on...

  9. 12 CFR 221.117 - When bank in “good faith” has not relied on stock as collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the margin stock as collateral,” contained in paragraph (2)(iv) of the definition of indirectly... because of fluctuations in market value of the stock, but instead was payable on one or more fixed... stock as collateral. 221.117 Section 221.117 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED)...

  10. 17 CFR 255.16 - Ownership of interests in and sponsorship of issuers of certain collateralized debt obligations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sponsorship of issuers of certain collateralized debt obligations backed by trust-preferred securities. 255.16... Investments § 255.16 Ownership of interests in and sponsorship of issuers of certain collateralized debt... apply to the ownership by a banking entity of an interest in, or sponsorship of, any issuer if: (1) The...

  11. 17 CFR 75.16 - Ownership of interests in and sponsorship of issuers of certain collateralized debt obligations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sponsorship of issuers of certain collateralized debt obligations backed by trust-preferred securities. 75.16... Investments § 75.16 Ownership of interests in and sponsorship of issuers of certain collateralized debt... apply to the ownership by a banking entity of an interest in, or sponsorship of, any issuer if: (1) The...

  12. 13 CFR 120.545 - What are SBA's policies concerning the liquidation of collateral and the sale of business loans...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... competitive procedures at publicly advertised sales. Bidder qualifications will be set for each sale in... the liquidation of collateral and the sale of business loans and physical disaster assistance loans... policies concerning the liquidation of collateral and the sale of business loans and physical disaster...

  13. Branch strategies - Modeling and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubey, Pradeep K.; Flynn, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors provide a common platform for modeling different schemes for reducing the branch-delay penalty in pipelined processors as well as evaluating the associated increased instruction bandwidth. Their objective is twofold: to develop a model for different approaches to the branch problem and to help select an optimal strategy after taking into account additional i-traffic generated by branch strategies. The model presented provides a flexible tool for comparing different branch strategies in terms of the reduction it offers in average branch delay and also in terms of the associated cost of wasted instruction fetches. This additional criterion turns out to be a valuable consideration in choosing between two strategies that perform almost equally. More importantly, it provides a better insight into the expected overall system performance. Simple compiler-support-based low-implementation-cost strategies can be very effective under certain conditions. An active branch prediction scheme based on loop buffers can be as competitive as a branch-target-buffer based strategy.

  14. Relationship between thrombospondin-1, endostatin, angiopoietin-2, and coronary collateral development in patients with chronic total occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Qing; Qian, Juying; Ma, Jianying; Ge, Lei; Ge, Junbo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study is aimed to investigate whether serum angiostatic factors (thrombospondin-1 [TSP-1] and endostatin) or angiogenic factors (angiopoietin-2 [Ang-2]) are related to coronary collateral vessel development in patients with chronic total occlusion (CTO). A total of 149 patients were enrolled in the study, and 39 patients with coronary artery disease but without significant stenosis were included in control group. In 110 patients with CTO lesion, 79 with Rentrop grades 2 to 3 collaterals were grouped as good collateral, while 31 with Rentrop grades 0 to 1 collaterals were grouped as poor collateral. Serum TSP-1, endostatin, and Ang-2 levels were studied. Serum endostatin level was significantly higher in poor collateral group compared with control group and good collateral group, respectively (96.2 ± 30.4 vs 77.8 ± 16.5 ng/mL, P = 0.007; 96.2 ± 30.4 vs 81.2 ± 30.4 ng/mL, P = 0.018). In multivariate analysis, decreased serum endostatin level was independently related to good coronary collateral development. Serum TSP-1 level was lower in patients with CTO compared with control group. However, no difference in TSP-1 level was detected between poor and good collateral group. The serum Ang-2 level did not show a significant difference among 3 groups. Circulatory endostatin may be a useful biomarker for coronary collateral development and potential target for therapeutic angiogenesis in patients with CTO. PMID:27537575

  15. The PLAU P141L single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with collateral circulation in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Duran, Joan; Sánchez-Olavarría, Pilar; Mola, Marina; Götzens, Víctor; Carballo, Julio; Martín-Pelegrina, Eva; Petit, Màrius; García Del Blanco, Bruno; García-Dorado, David; de Anta, Josep M

    2014-07-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator, which is encoded by the PLAU gene, plays a prominent role during collateral arterial growth. We investigated whether the PLAU P141L (C > T) polymorphism, which causes a mutation in the kringle domain of the protein, is associated with coronary collateral circulation in a cohort of 676 patients with coronary artery disease. The polymorphism was genotyped in blood samples using a TaqMan-based genotyping assay, and collateral circulation was assessed by the Rentrop method. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted by clinically relevant variables to estimate odds ratios were used to examine associations of PLAU P141L allelic variants and genotypes with collateral circulation. Patients with poor collateral circulation (Rentrop 0-1; n = 547) showed a higher frequency of the TT genotype than those with good collateral circulation (Rentrop 2-3; n = 129; P = .020). The T allele variant was also more common in patients with poor collateral circulation (P = .006). The odds ratio of having poorly developed collaterals in patients bearing the T allele (adjusted for clinically relevant variables) was statistically significant under the dominant model (odds ratio = 1.83 [95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.90]; P = .010) and the additive model (odds ratio = 1.73 [95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.62]; P = .009). An association was found between coronary collateral circulation and the PLAU P141L polymorphism. Patients with the 141L variant are at greater risk of developing poor coronary collateral circulation. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction in high school baseball players: clinical results and injury risk factors.

    PubMed

    Petty, Damon H; Andrews, James R; Fleisig, Glenn S; Cain, E Lyle

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of ulnar collateral ligament injury has increased in baseball, especially at the high school level. Ulnar collateral ligament injury in high school baseball players is associated with overuse, high-velocity throwing, early throwing of breaking pitches, and improper warm-ups. Retrospective cohort study. Follow-up physical examination and questionnaire data were collected at an average of 35 months after ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction from 27 former high school baseball players. Six potential risk factors were evaluated: year-round throwing, seasonal overuse, event overuse, throwing velocity more than 80 mph, throwing breaking pitches before age 14, and inadequate warm-ups. Overall, 74% returned to baseball at the same or higher level. Patients averaged 3 potential risk factors, and 85% demonstrated at least one overuse category. Of the pitchers, the average self-reported fastball velocity was 83 mph, and 67% threw breaking pitches before age 14. The success rate of ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction in high school baseball players is nearly equal to that in more mature groups of throwers. Overuse of the throwing arm and throwing breaking pitches at an early age may be related to their injuries. Special attention should be paid to elite-level teenage pitchers who throw with high velocity. Copyright 2004 American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine

  17. 7 CFR 1902.7 - Pledging collateral for deposit of funds in supervised bank accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Analysis Division, that collateral has been pledged, contact should be made with the financial institution... financial institution, deposited for borrowers in supervised bank accounts, must be secured by pledging... applicant has selected or tentatively selected a financial institution for the supervised bank account,...

  18. 7 CFR 1902.7 - Pledging collateral for deposit of funds in supervised bank accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Analysis Division, that collateral has been pledged, contact should be made with the financial institution... financial institution, deposited for borrowers in supervised bank accounts, must be secured by pledging... applicant has selected or tentatively selected a financial institution for the supervised bank account,...

  19. Collateral Damage Related to Rape and Interpersonal Violence in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    Collegiate communities are often faced with difficult situations from sexual assault, rape, and other forms of interpersonal violence. These events are not only tragic or traumatic for the individuals involved but also have ripple effects and create collateral damage within the campus community. Many universities are instituting bystander training…

  20. 7 CFR 1980.443 - Collateral, personal and corporate guarantees and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... insurance. Collateral may also include assignments of leases or leasehold interest, revenues, patents, and... flow to service its debts and meets key industry standards such as those of Robert Morris Associates... when the security instruments are filed. (2) Hazard insurance with a standard mortgage clause...

  1. Pulmonary Atresia with Ventricular Septal Defect and Major Aortopulmonary Collaterals Associated with Left Pulmonary Artery Interruption.

    PubMed

    Mun, Da-Na; Park, Chun Soo; Kim, Young-Hwue; Goo, Hyun Woo

    2016-10-01

    A multistage plan and multidisciplinary approach are the keys to successful repair in patients with pulmonary atresia (PA) with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs). In this article, we present a multidisciplinary approach adopted to treat a patient with PA with VSD and MAPCAs associated with left pulmonary artery interruption.

  2. Hemodynamic role of ophthalmic artery collateral in internal carotid artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Tatemichi, T K; Chamorro, A; Petty, G W; Khandji, A; Oropeza, L A; Duterte, D I; Mohr, J P

    1990-03-01

    We performed duplex and transcranial Doppler studies in 36 patients with angiographically documented internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) to determine the effect of ophthalmic artery collateral (OAC) on measures of vascular resistivity both proximal and distal to the occlusion. Resistance in the common carotid artery, measured by the resistivity index, was significantly lower in the group with OAC than in those without OAC, indicating a shunt to the low resistance intracranial circuit. The pulsatility index (PI) of the Doppler signal in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery, a measure of both inflow pressure and distal vascular resistance, did not differ between those with and without OAC. However, the presence of circle of Willis collateral pathways (anterior communicating and/or posterior communicating artery) did appear to have a significant effect on pulsatility. When both were present angiographically, PI was higher than in the group with only 1 Willisian collateral. These findings suggest that OAC has a marginal effect on vascular resistance in arterial bed distal to an ICAO, while Willisian collaterals appear to have a more important role in cerebral perfusion, as measured indirectly by Doppler methods.

  3. Collateral Damage Related to Rape and Interpersonal Violence in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    Collegiate communities are often faced with difficult situations from sexual assault, rape, and other forms of interpersonal violence. These events are not only tragic or traumatic for the individuals involved but also have ripple effects and create collateral damage within the campus community. Many universities are instituting bystander training…

  4. The Collateral Effects of Behavioral Interventions: Applied Implications from JEAB, January 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shull, Richard L.; Fuqua, R. Wayne

    1993-01-01

    A review of the January 1993 issue of the "Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior" concludes that behavioral interventions produce collateral effects, but predicting those effects in applied work is complicated because of verbal and instructional influences and because of interactions among reinforcer types. (JDD)

  5. Supplemental Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization Through a Collateral Omental Artery: Treatment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Won, Jong Yun Lee, Do Yun; Lee, Jong Tae; Park, Sung Il; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Suh, Sang-Hyun; Park, Sang Joon

    2003-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of supplemental transcatheter arterialchemoembolization (TACE) through the extrahepatic collateral omentalartery (OA) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: We studied 21 patients with extrahepatic collaterals of the OA, among 1,512 patients with HCC who had undergone angiography. HCCs supplied by collateral OAs were located at: segment IV in seven, segment V in five, segment III in three, segment VI in three and segment VIII in three patients (Couinaud classification of segments). On preoperative CT scans, every HCC was abutting the liver surface. Adjacent omental infiltration or engorgement was noted in 11 patients. Celiac and hepatic arteriograms showed hypertrophy of the feeding OA in all patients. TACE of the OA was performed in 19 patients with an emulsion of iodized oil and doxorubicin hydrochloride.Embolization with gelatin sponge particles was added in five patients. Results: Collaterals of the OA to the HCC were found on the first to seventeenth sessions of TACE. On follow-up CT scans, five patients showed complete uptake of iodized oil in the tumor. Partial uptake of iodized oil was noted in 13 patients and no uptake in one patient. There was no serious complication that related to the omental embolization, such as omental or bowel ischemia. The cumulative survival rates from the time of the TACE of the OA were 81% at 6 months and 68% at 12 months. Conclusion: TACE of the OA is safe and has a potential therapeutic effect in the treatment of HCC.

  6. Comparing Main and Collateral Effects of Extinction and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petscher, Erin Seligson; Bailey, Jon S.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects and collateral effects of extinction (EXT) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) interventions with inappropriate vocalizations and work refusal. Both interventions have been used frequently to reduce problem behaviors. The benefits of these interventions have been established yet may be…

  7. Gene therapy during cardiac surgery: role of surgical technique to minimize collateral organ gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Michael G.; Swain, JaBaris D.; Fargnoli, Anthony S.; Bridges, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Effective gene therapy for heart failure has not yet been achieved clinically. The aim of this study is to quantitatively assess the cardiac isolation efficiency of the molecular cardiac surgery with recirculating delivery (MCARD™) and to evaluate its efficacy as a means to limit collateral organ gene expression. 1014 genome copies (GC) of recombinant adeno-associated viral vector 6 encoding green fluorescent protein under control of the cytomegalovirus promoter was delivered to the nine arrested sheep hearts. Blood samples were assessed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT QPCR). Collateral organ gene expression was assessed at four-weeks using immunohistochemical staining. The blood vector GC concentration in the cardiac circuit during complete isolation trended from 9.59±0.73 to 9.05±0.65 (log GC/cm3), and no GC were detectable in the systemic circuit (P<0.001). The washing procedure performed prior to relinquishing the cardiac circuit decreased the systemic blood vector GC concentration >800-fold (P<0.001), consistent with >99% isolation efficiency. Conversely, incomplete isolation resulted in equalization of vector GC concentration in the circuits, leading to robust collateral organ gene expression. MCARD™ is an efficient, clinically translatable myocardial delivery platform for cardiac specific gene therapy. The cardiac surgical techniques utilized are critically important to limit collateral organ gene expression. PMID:20861057

  8. 10 CFR 609.15 - Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.15 Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation... to such effect (without the need for consent or other action on the part of the Holders of the... Agreement, to become immediately due and payable by giving the Borrower written notice to such...

  9. 29 CFR 1960.58 - Training of collateral duty safety and health personnel and committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training of collateral duty safety and health personnel and... SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) BASIC PROGRAM ELEMENTS FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Training § 1960.58 Training of...

  10. 29 CFR 1960.58 - Training of collateral duty safety and health personnel and committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Training of collateral duty safety and health personnel and... SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) BASIC PROGRAM ELEMENTS FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Training § 1960.58 Training of...

  11. 29 CFR 1960.58 - Training of collateral duty safety and health personnel and committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Training of collateral duty safety and health personnel and... SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) BASIC PROGRAM ELEMENTS FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Training § 1960.58 Training of...

  12. 29 CFR 1960.58 - Training of collateral duty safety and health personnel and committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Training of collateral duty safety and health personnel and... SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) BASIC PROGRAM ELEMENTS FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Training § 1960.58 Training of...

  13. 29 CFR 1960.58 - Training of collateral duty safety and health personnel and committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Training of collateral duty safety and health personnel and... SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) BASIC PROGRAM ELEMENTS FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Training § 1960.58 Training of...

  14. 17 CFR 22.3 - Derivatives clearing organizations: Treatment of cleared swaps customer collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for such collateral; and (iv) Record in its books and records the amount of such Cleared Swaps... to any futures commission merchant; or (iii) Futures Customer Funds (as § 1.3 of this chapter defines such term) or the foreign futures or foreign options secured amount (as § 1.3 of this chapter defines...

  15. 45 CFR 1336.67 - Security and collateral: Responsibilities of the Loan Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) As a Credit Factor. The availability of collateral security normally is considered an important... interests which may be taken by the lender include, but are not limited to, liens on real or personal... the replacement value of the property secured (whichever is less) must be taken naming the lender...

  16. 12 CFR 723.7 - What are the collateral and security requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the collateral and security requirements? 723.7 Section 723.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING... truck, or sports utility vehicle and not part of a fleet of vehicles. ...

  17. The Effects of Noncontingent and Contingent Attention for Self-Injury, Manding, and Collateral Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, K. Mark; Fisher, Wayne W.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Wilke, Arthur E.; Johnson, Whitney

    1998-01-01

    Assessed main and collateral effects of the assessment and treatment of attention-maintained self-injury, with regard to four categories of behavior: self-injury, a novel mand, pre-existing prosocial responses, and other aberrant responses. Results suggest that self-injury, prosocial responses, and other abberant behaviors are within the same…

  18. 7 CFR 1980.444 - Appraisal of property serving as collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Program § 1980.444 Appraisal of property serving as collateral. (a) Appraisal reports prepared by... industry and those prepared by the lender in accordance with its policy and procedures. All appraisals will... is made within 3 years from the date of the most recent borrower's appraisal report, and there is no...

  19. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral... county office. Any such approval shall not constitute a release of CCC's security interest in the... and security agreement shall not be released until all loan liability has been satisfied in full....

  20. 7 CFR 1421.106 - Warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... commodities, or marketing assistance loan proceeds, after execution of the note and security agreement by CCC... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan collateral... SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH...

  1. 7 CFR 1421.106 - Warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... commodities, or marketing assistance loan proceeds, after execution of the note and security agreement by CCC... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan collateral... SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH...

  2. Dynamic Knee Alignment and Collateral Knee Laxity and Its Variations in Normal Humans

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Kamal; Picard, Frederic; Clarke, Jon V.

    2015-01-01

    Alignment of normal, arthritic, and replaced human knees is a much debated subject as is the collateral ligamentous laxity. Traditional quantitative values have been challenged. Methods used to measure these are also not without flaws. Authors review the recent literature and a novel method of measurement of these values has been included. This method includes use of computer navigation technique in clinic setting for assessment of the normal or affected knee before the surgery. Computer navigation has been known for achievement of alignment accuracy during knee surgery. Now its use in clinic setting has added to the inventory of measurement methods. Authors dispel the common myth of straight mechanical axis in normal knees and also look at quantification of amount of collateral knee laxity. Based on the scientific studies, it has been shown that the mean alignment is in varus in normal knees. It changes from lying non-weight-bearing position to standing weight-bearing position in both coronal and the sagittal planes. It also varies with gender and race. The collateral laxity is also different for males and females. Further studies are needed to define the ideal alignment and collateral laxity which the surgeon should aim for individual knees. PMID:26636090

  3. 17 CFR 22.3 - Derivatives clearing organizations: Treatment of cleared swaps customer collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Derivatives clearing... Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION CLEARED SWAPS § 22.3 Derivatives clearing organizations: Treatment of cleared swaps customer collateral. (a) General. A derivatives clearing organization shall...

  4. 17 CFR 22.3 - Derivatives clearing organizations: Treatment of Cleared Swaps Customer Collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Derivatives clearing... Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION CLEARED SWAPS (Eff. 4-9-2012) § 22.3 Derivatives clearing organizations: Treatment of Cleared Swaps Customer Collateral. (a) General. A derivatives clearing...

  5. 12 CFR 150.320 - What is acceptable collateral for uninsured deposits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... collateral for self deposits or affiliate deposits under § 150.310: (a) Direct obligations of the United States, or other obligations fully guaranteed by the United States as to principal and interest. (b... to invest fiduciary funds under applicable state law. (c) Other readily marketable securities as...

  6. 10 CFR 611.111 - Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation. 611.111 Section 611.111 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Direct Loan Program § 611.111 Default, demand, payment, and...

  7. Pulmonary Atresia with Ventricular Septal Defect and Major Aortopulmonary Collaterals Associated with Left Pulmonary Artery Interruption

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Da-Na; Park, Chun Soo; Kim, Young-Hwue; Goo, Hyun Woo

    2016-01-01

    A multistage plan and multidisciplinary approach are the keys to successful repair in patients with pulmonary atresia (PA) with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs). In this article, we present a multidisciplinary approach adopted to treat a patient with PA with VSD and MAPCAs associated with left pulmonary artery interruption. PMID:27733998

  8. CUDA-based acceleration of collateral filtering in brain MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Yuan; Chang, Herng-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Image denoising is one of the fundamental and essential tasks within image processing. In medical imaging, finding an effective algorithm that can remove random noise in MR images is important. This paper proposes an effective noise reduction method for brain magnetic resonance (MR) images. Our approach is based on the collateral filter which is a more powerful method than the bilateral filter in many cases. However, the computation of the collateral filter algorithm is quite time-consuming. To solve this problem, we improved the collateral filter algorithm with parallel computing using GPU. We adopted CUDA, an application programming interface for GPU by NVIDIA, to accelerate the computation. Our experimental evaluation on an Intel Xeon CPU E5-2620 v3 2.40GHz with a NVIDIA Tesla K40c GPU indicated that the proposed implementation runs dramatically faster than the traditional collateral filter. We believe that the proposed framework has established a general blueprint for achieving fast and robust filtering in a wide variety of medical image denoising applications.

  9. 46 CFR 308.522 - Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302. 308.522 Section 308.522 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance §...

  10. 14 CFR 1261.410 - Suspension or revocation of license or eligibility; liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applied on debts due it through the exercise of a power of sale in the security instrument or a... reasonable time after demand, unless the cost of disposing of the collateral will be disproportionate to its... reasonable notice of the sale, an accounting of any surplus proceeds, and any other procedures required by...

  11. The Strategic and Political Impacts of Collateral Damage from Strike Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Clodfelter, The Limits of Air Power: The American Bombing of North Vietnam (Lincoln, NE: Bison Books, 2006), 12–26. 5 potential effects from collateral...New York: PublicAffairs, 2002. Clodfelter, Mark. The Limits of Air Power: The American Bombing of North Vietnam. Lincoln, NE: Bison Books, 2006

  12. Intractable Postpartum Hemorrhage Resulting from Uterine Artery Pseudoaneurysm: Superselective Arteriographic Embolization via the Collateral Route

    SciTech Connect

    Doenmez, Halil Oztuerk, M. Halil; Guergen, Fatma; Soylu, Serra O.; Hekimoglu, Baki

    2007-04-15

    We present a patient with intractable postpartum hemorrhage resulting from uterine artery pseudoaneurysm despite bilateral hypogastric artery ligation who was successfully treated by an endovascular approach via the collateral route. Although there is a good argument for postponing surgery until transcatheter embolization has been attempted, this case shows that embolization can still be successful even if the iliac vessels have been ligated.

  13. Fault branching and rupture directivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliss, Sonia; Bhat, Harsha S.; Dmowska, Renata; Rice, James R.

    2005-06-01

    Could the directivity of a complex earthquake be inferred from the ruptured fault branches it created? Typically, branches develop in forward orientation, making acute angles relative to the propagation direction. Direct backward branching of the same style as the main rupture (e.g., both right lateral) is disallowed by the stress field at the rupture front. Here we propose another mechanism of backward branching. In that mechanism, rupture stops along one fault strand, radiates stress to a neighboring strand, nucleates there, and develops bilaterally, generating a backward branch. Such makes diagnosing directivity of a past earthquake difficult without detailed knowledge of the branching process. As a field example, in the Landers 1992 earthquake, rupture stopped at the northern end of the Kickapoo fault, jumped onto the Homestead Valley fault, and developed bilaterally there, NNW to continue the main rupture but also SSE for 4 km forming a backward branch. We develop theoretical principles underlying such rupture transitions, partly from elastostatic stress analysis, and then simulate the Landers example numerically using a two-dimensional elastodynamic boundary integral equation formulation incorporating slip-weakening rupture. This reproduces the proposed backward branching mechanism based on realistic if simplified fault geometries, prestress orientation corresponding to the region, standard lab friction values for peak strength, and fracture energies characteristic of the Landers event. We also show that the seismic S ratio controls the jumpable distance and that curving of a fault toward its compressional side, like locally along the southeastern Homestead Valley fault, induces near-tip increase of compressive normal stress that slows rupture propagation.

  14. Novel side branch ostial stent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Lv, Shu-Zheng; Kwan, Tak W

    2009-04-01

    Bifurcation lesions are technically challenging and plagued by a high incidence of restenosis, especially at the side branch orifice, which results in a more frequent need for revascularization during the follow-up period. This report discusses two clinical experiences with a novel side branch ostial stent, the BIGUARD stent, designed for the treatment of bifurcation lesions; procedural success with no in-hospital complications was observed in types IVb and Ia lesions.

  15. Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.

  16. Long chain branching of PLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Liangliang; Xu, Yuewen; Fahnhorst, Grant; Macosko, Christopher W.

    2017-05-01

    A trifunctional aziridine linker, trimethylolpropane tris(2-methyl-1-aziridinepropionate) (TTMAP), was melt blended with linear polylactic acid (PLA) to make star branched PLA. Adding pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) led to long chain branched (LCB) PLA. Mixing torque evolution during melt processing revealed high reactivity of aziridine with the carboxyl end group on PLA and an incomplete reaction of PMDA with the hydroxyl end group. Star-shaped PLA exhibited higher viscosity but no strain hardening in extensional flow while LCB PLA showed significant extensional hardening. Excess TTMAP in the branching reaction resulted in gel formation, which led to failure at low strain in extension. PMDA conversion was estimated based on gelation theory. The strain rate dependence of extensional hardening indicated that the LCB PLA had a low concentration of long chain branched molecules with an H-shaped topology. Unlike current methods used to branch PLA, free radical chemistry or use of an epoxy functional oligomers, our branching strategy produced strain hardening with less increase in shear viscosity. This study provides guidelines for design of polymers with low shear viscosity, which reduces pressure drop in extrusion, combined with strong extensional hardening, which enhances performance in processes that involve melt stretching.

  17. Caenorhabditis elegans neuronal regeneration is influenced by life stage, ephrin signaling, and synaptic branching

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zilu; Ghosh-Roy, Anindya; Yanik, Mehmet Fatih; Zhang, Jin Z.; Jin, Yishi; Chisholm, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported functional regeneration of Caenorhabditis elegans motor neurons after femtosecond laser axotomy. We report here that multiple neuronal types can regrow after laser axotomy using a variety of lasers. The precise pattern of regrowth varies with cell type, stage of animal, and position of axotomy. Mechanosensory axons cut in late larval or adult stages displayed extensive regrowth, yet failed to reach their target area because of guidance errors in the anteroposterior axis. By contrast, mechanosensory axons cut in early larval stages regrew at the same rate but with fewer anteroposterior guidance errors, and were more likely to reach their target area. In adult animals lacking the VAB-1 Eph receptor tyrosine kinase, mechanosensory axon regrowth was more accurate than in the wild type, suggesting that guidance errors of regrowing touch neuron axons are the result of Eph signaling. Kinase-dependent and kinase-independent Eph signaling influenced outgrowth and guidance of regrowing touch neurons, respectively. Mechanosensory neurons regrew when severed proximal to their collateral synaptic branch but did not regrow when severed distal to the branch point. However, the distal axon could regrow if the branch is removed surgically at the same time as distal axotomy, or at a later time. The touch neuron synaptic branch point may act as a sorting area to regulate growth. These findings reveal that multiple influences affect regenerative growth in C. elegans neurons. PMID:17848506

  18. In vivo single branch axotomy induces GAP-43-dependent sprouting and synaptic remodeling in cerebellar cortex.

    PubMed

    Allegra Mascaro, Anna Letizia; Cesare, Paolo; Sacconi, Leonardo; Grasselli, Giorgio; Mandolesi, Georgia; Maco, Bohumil; Knott, Graham W; Huang, Lieven; De Paola, Vincenzo; Strata, Piergiorgio; Pavone, Francesco S

    2013-06-25

    Plasticity in the central nervous system in response to injury is a complex process involving axonal remodeling regulated by specific molecular pathways. Here, we dissected the role of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43; also known as neuromodulin and B-50) in axonal structural plasticity by using, as a model, climbing fibers. Single axonal branches were dissected by laser axotomy, avoiding collateral damage to the adjacent dendrite and the formation of a persistent glial scar. Despite the very small denervated area, the injured axons consistently reshape the connectivity with surrounding neurons. At the same time, adult climbing fibers react by sprouting new branches through the intact surroundings. Newly formed branches presented varicosities, suggesting that new axons were more than just exploratory sprouts. Correlative light and electron microscopy reveals that the sprouted branch contains large numbers of vesicles, with varicosities in the close vicinity of Purkinje dendrites. By using an RNA interference approach, we found that downregulating GAP-43 causes a significant increase in the turnover of presynaptic boutons. In addition, silencing hampers the generation of reactive sprouts. Our findings show the requirement of GAP-43 in sustaining synaptic stability and promoting the initiation of axonal regrowth.

  19. Dopamine D2 Receptors Regulate Collateral Inhibition between Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons

    PubMed Central

    van der Goes, Marie-Sophie; Partridge, John G.; Vicini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The principle neurons of the striatum are GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs), whose collateral synapses onto neighboring neurons play critical roles in striatal function. MSNs can be divided by dopamine receptor expression into D1-class and D2-class MSNs, and alterations in D2 MSNs are associated with various pathological states. Despite overwhelming evidence for D2 receptors (D2Rs) in maintaining proper striatal function, it remains unclear how MSN collaterals are specifically altered by D2R activation. Here, we report that chronic D2R stimulation regulates MSN collaterals in vitro by presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. We used corticostriatal cultures from mice in which MSN subtypes were distinguished by fluorophore expression. Quinpirole, an agonist for D2/3 receptors, was used to chronically activate D2Rs. Quinpirole increased the rate and strength of collateral formation onto D2R-containing MSNs as measured by dual whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Additionally, these neurons were more sensitive to low concentrations of GABA and exhibited an increase in gephyrin puncta density, suggesting increased postsynaptic GABAA receptors. Last, quinpirole treatment increased presynaptic GABA release sites, as shown by increased frequency of sIPSCs and mIPSCs, correlating with increased VGAT (vesicular GABA transporter) puncta. Combined with the observation that there were no detectable differences in sensitivity to specific GABAA receptor modulators, we provide evidence that D2R activation powerfully transforms MSN collaterals via coordinated presynaptic and postsynaptic alterations. As the D2 class of MSNs is highly implicated in Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders, our findings may contribute to understanding and treating the changes that occur in these pathological states. PMID:23986243

  20. Activity-dependent differences in function between proximal and distal Schaffer collaterals.

    PubMed

    Owen, Benjamin; Grover, Lawrence M

    2015-06-01

    Axon conduction fidelity is important for signal transmission and has been studied in various axons, including the Schaffer collateral axons of the hippocampus. Previously, we reported that high-frequency stimulation (HFS) depresses Schaffer collateral excitability when assessed by whole-cell recordings from CA3 pyramidal cells but induces biphasic excitability changes (increase followed by decrease) in extracellular recordings of CA1 fiber volleys. Here, we examined responses from proximal (whole-cell or field-potential recordings from CA3 pyramidal cell somata) and distal (field-potential recordings from CA1 stratum radiatum) portions of the Schaffer collaterals during HFS and burst stimulation in hippocampal slices. Whole-cell and dual-field-potential recordings using 10-100-Hz HFS revealed frequency-dependent changes like those previously described, with higher frequencies producing more drastic changes. Dual-field-potential recordings revealed substantial differences in the response to HFS between proximal and distal regions of the Schaffer collaterals, with proximal axons depressing more strongly and only distal axons showing an initial excitability increase. Because CA3 pyramidal neurons normally fire in short bursts rather than long high-frequency trains, we repeated the dual recordings using 100-1,000-ms interval burst stimulation. Burst stimulation produced changes similar to those during HFS, with shorter intervals causing more drastic changes and substantial differences observed between proximal and distal axons. We suggest that functional differences between proximal and distal Schaffer collaterals may allow selective filtering of nonphysiological activity while maximizing successful conduction of physiological activity throughout an extensive axonal arbor.

  1. Permeability Imaging as a Biomarker of Leptomeningeal Collateral Flow in Patients with Intracranial Arterial Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Wu, Bing; Zhu, Guangming; Wintermark, Max; Wu, Xinhuai; Su, Zihua; Xu, Xiao; Tian, Chenglin; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Weiwei; Lou, Xin

    2015-04-01

    Different methods of angiography are of great clinical utility; however, it still remains unstandardized as which method would be suitable to determine cerebral collateral circulation. Here we compared digital subtraction angiography (DSA), computer tomography angiography (CTA) and dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in seven patients with severe intracranial arterial stenosis, and determine whether volume transfer constant (K(trans)) maps of permeability imaging could be used as the biomarkers of cerebral collateral circulation. We retrospectively reviewed seven adult patients with severe intracranial arterial stenosis or occlusion with a complete parenchymal and vascular imaging work-up. DSA, CTA source imaging (CTA-SI), arterial spin labeling (ASL), and K(trans) maps were used to assess their collateral flow. Cohen's Kappa coefficient was calculated to test the consistency of their collateral scores. A reasonable agreement was found between DSA and K(trans) maps (Kappa = 0.502, P < 0.001) when all 15 regional vascular sites were included, and a better agreement found after exclusion of perforating artery territories (N = 10 sites, Kappa = 0.766, P < 0.001). The agreement between CTA-SI and DSA was moderate on all 15 sites (Kappa = 0.413, P < 0.001) and 10 sites (Kappa = 0.329, P < 0.001). The agreement between ASL and DSA was least favorable, no matter for all 15 sites (Kappa = 0.270, P < 0.001) or 10 sites (Kappa = 0.205, P = 0.002). K(trans) maps are useful and promising for leptomeningeal collateral assessment, when compared to CTA-SI or ASL. Further studies are requited for verify its validity in a large registry of patients.

  2. Enthesopathy and desmitis of the medial collateral ligament of the cubital joint in 4 horses.

    PubMed

    Dabareiner, Robin M; Chaffin, M Keith; Quirham, Heather; Carter, G Kent

    2013-04-15

    4 horses with enthesopathy and desmitis of the medial collateral ligament of the cubital joint were examined. All 4 horses had a history of acute, severe, unilateral forelimb lameness and had signs of pain during manipulation of the affected upper forelimb; 2 also had swelling in the axillary region. There was no improvement in lameness after diagnostic local analgesia below the carpal region, and 1 of 4 horses had mild improvement after cubital joint analgesia. Radiography revealed enthesophyte formation on the radial tuberosity and linear mineralization of the medial collateral ligament in 2 horses and periosteal reaction on the humeral condyle in all 4 horses. One horse had mild osteoarthritis of the cubital joint, and 3 had osteophytosis of the cranial aspect of the radius. Although all horses were initially examined because of an acute onset of lameness, all had chronic abnormalities visible on imaging. Ultrasonography revealed an irregular boney contour and enthesopathy at the insertion of the short medial collateral ligament to the radial tuberosity and desmitis of the short medial collateral ligament. Two horses had radiographic evidence of similar but less severe lesions of the contralateral cubital joint. All horses received phenylbutazone and rest. All horses were free of lameness after a median of 3 months (range, 2 to 4 months) and returned to previous use after a median of 6 months (range, 3 to 8 months). The results of the present report suggested that performance horses with enthesopathy and desmitis of the medial collateral ligament of the cubital joint may have a good prognosis for return to previous use following appropriate treatment.

  3. A novel genetic locus modulates infarct volume independently of the extent of collateral circulation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Pei-Lun; Keum, Sehoon; Marchuk, Douglas A

    2013-09-03

    In the mouse model of permanent, middle cerebral artery occlusion, infarct volume varies widely across inbred strains but generally is inversely correlated with collateral vessel number. However, we also observed certain mouse strains that share similar collateral vessel anatomy but exhibit significantly different infarct volume. To identify genetic factors determining infarct volume in a collateral vessel-independent manner, we performed quantitative trait locus analysis on a F2 cross between C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ strains. We mapped four novel loci (Civq4 through Civq7) that modulate infarct volume. Civq4, on chromosome 8, is the strongest locus (logarithm of the odds 9.8) that contributes 21% of the phenotypic variance of infarct volume in the cross. The Civq4 and Civq6 loci represent transgressive B6 alleles that render animals susceptible to larger infarcts. Based on genomic sequence and microarray analyses, we propose candidate genes for the Civq4 locus. By selecting inbred strains with similar collateral vessel anatomy but that vary significantly in infarct volume, we have mapped four loci determining infarct volume in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. Two of the loci appear to modulate infarct volume through a collateral vessel-independent mechanism. Based on strain-specific sequence variants and differences in transcript levels, Msr1 and Mtmr7 appear to be strong candidate genes for Civq4. Identifying the underlying genetic factors of these loci will elucidate the genetic architecture response to cerebral ischemia, shed new light on disease mechanisms of ischemic stroke, and identify potential therapeutic targets for clinical applications.

  4. A novel genetic locus modulates infarct volume independently of the extent of collateral circulation

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Pei-Lun; Keum, Sehoon

    2013-01-01

    In the mouse model of permanent, middle cerebral artery occlusion, infarct volume varies widely across inbred strains but generally is inversely correlated with collateral vessel number. However, we also observed certain mouse strains that share similar collateral vessel anatomy but exhibit significantly different infarct volume. To identify genetic factors determining infarct volume in a collateral vessel-independent manner, we performed quantitative trait locus analysis on a F2 cross between C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ strains. We mapped four novel loci (Civq4 through Civq7) that modulate infarct volume. Civq4, on chromosome 8, is the strongest locus (logarithm of the odds 9.8) that contributes 21% of the phenotypic variance of infarct volume in the cross. The Civq4 and Civq6 loci represent transgressive B6 alleles that render animals susceptible to larger infarcts. Based on genomic sequence and microarray analyses, we propose candidate genes for the Civq4 locus. By selecting inbred strains with similar collateral vessel anatomy but that vary significantly in infarct volume, we have mapped four loci determining infarct volume in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. Two of the loci appear to modulate infarct volume through a collateral vessel-independent mechanism. Based on strain-specific sequence variants and differences in transcript levels, Msr1 and Mtmr7 appear to be strong candidate genes for Civq4. Identifying the underlying genetic factors of these loci will elucidate the genetic architecture response to cerebral ischemia, shed new light on disease mechanisms of ischemic stroke, and identify potential therapeutic targets for clinical applications. PMID:23800850

  5. Principles of branch formation and branch patterning in Hydrozoa.

    PubMed

    Berking, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The freshwater polyp Hydra produces buds which separate from the parent. Other Hydrozoa produce branches which remain connected to the parent, thus forming a colony. Some Hydrozoa grow by means of an organ that is like a shoot apical meristem. Others display a sympodial type of growth. In this article, I propose that these different types of branches are organized by a common pattern-forming system. This system has self-organizing properties. It causes branch tip formation and is kept active in the tip when the tip finally differentiates into a hypostome of a polyp. The system does not cause structure formation directly but rather, determines a tissue property called positional value, in such a way that a gradient of values forms in the tissue of the bud or branch. The local value determines the local morphodynamic processes, including differentiation of the hypostome (highest positional value), tentacles and basal disc and of the exoskeleton pattern along the shoot. A high positional value favors the onset of a new self-organizing process and by lateral inhibition, such a process prevents the initiation of a further process in its surroundings. Small quantitative differences in the range of the signals involved determine whether a bud or a branch forms and whether monopodial and sympodial growth follows.

  6. Quantitative macroinvertebrate survey of Pen Branch and Indian Grave Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    A total of 80 species were collected at all sites on Pen Branch and Indian Grave Branch during the 28 day period for colonization of the multiplate artificial substrate samplers. The two upstream sites demonstrated the highest species richness. During the sampling interval a release of significant proportion entered Indian Grave Branch, affecting all downstream sites. This effect was most severe at sites 3, 4, and 7, apparently resulting in heavy scouring of the multiplate samplers. Nevertheless, much colonization did occur at sites 3 and 4, with hydropsychid caddisflies, blackflies and midges predominant. At sites 5 and 6 a greater degree of recovery was noted, due to the lessened scouring in the broad floodplain. These downstream sites had significant numbers of mayflies along with the numerous midges. Considered overall, colonization during the period since the K Reactor has ceased releasing thermal effluent into Pen Branch and Indian Grave Branch has been substantial, introducing a substantial proportion of the species known from other nearby streams. 29 tabs.

  7. Preserved Collateral Blood Flow in the Endovascular M2CAO Model Allows for Clinically Relevant Profiling of Injury Progression in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Little, Philip; Kvist, Ola; Grankvist, Rikard; Jonsson, Stefan; Damberg, Peter; Söderman, Michael; Arnberg, Fabian; Holmin, Staffan

    2017-01-01

    Interventional treatment regimens have increased the demand for accurate understanding of the progression of injury in acute ischemic stroke. However, conventional animal models severely inhibit collateral blood flow and mimic the malignant infarction profile not suitable for treatment. The aim of this study was to provide a clinically relevant profile of the emergence and course of ischemic injury in cases suitable for acute intervention, and was achieved by employing a M2 occlusion model (M2CAO) that more accurately simulates middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in humans. Twenty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to Short (90 min), Intermediate (180 min) or Extended (600 min) transient M2CAO and examined longitudinally with interleaved diffusion-, T2- and arterial spin labeling perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging before and after reperfusion. We identified a rapid emergence of cytotoxic edema within tissue regions undergoing infarction, progressing in several distinct phases in the form of subsequent moderation and then reversal at 230 min (p < 0.0001). We identified also the early emergence of vasogenic edema, which increased consistently before and after reperfusion (p < 0.0001). The perfusion of the penumbra correlated more strongly to the perfusion of adjacent tissue regions than did the perfusion of regions undergoing infarction (p = 0.0088). This was interpreted as an effect of preserved collateral blood flow during M2CAO. Accordingly, we observed only limited recruitment of penumbra regions to the infarction core. However, a gradual increase in infarction size was still occurring as late as 10 hours after M2CAO. Our results indicate that patients suffering MCA branch occlusion stand to benefit from interventional therapy for an extended time period after the emergence of ischemic injury. PMID:28068417

  8. Combined assessment of reflow and collateral blood flow by myocardial contrast echocardiography after acute reperfused myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, F; Messner-Pellenc, P; Descours, Q; Daures, J; Pasquie, J; Hager, F; Davy, J; Grolleau-Raoux, R

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the combined assessment of reflow and collateral blood flow by myocardial contrast echocardiography after myocardial infarction.
DESIGN—Myocardial contrast echocardiography was performed in patients with acute myocardial infarction shortly after successful coronary reperfusion (TIMI 3 patency) by direct angioplasty. Collateral flow was assessed before coronary angioplasty, and contrast reflow was evaluated 15 minutes after reperfusion. The presence of contractile reserve was assessed by low dose dobutamine echocardiography (5 to 15 µg/kg/min) at (mean (SD)) 3 (2) days after myocardial infarction. Recovery of segmental function (myocardial viability) was evaluated by resting echocardiography at a two month follow up. The study was prospective.
PATIENTS—35 consecutive patients referred for acute transmural myocardial infarction.
RESULTS—Contrast reflow was observed in 20 patients (57%) and collateral flow in 14 (40%). Contrast reflow and collateral contrast flow were both correlated with reversible dysfunction on initial dobutamine echocardiography and at follow up (p < 0.05). The presence of reflow or collateral flow on myocardial contrast echocardiography was a highly sensitive (100%) but weakly specific (60%) indicator of segmental dysfunction recovery. Simultaneous presence of contrast reflow and collateral flow was more specific of reversible dysfunction than reflow alone (90% v 60%).
CONCLUSIONS—Combined assessment of reflow and collateral blood flow enhanced the sensitivity of myocardial contrast echocardiography in predicting myocardial viability after acute, reperfused myocardial infarction. The simultaneous presence of reflow and collateral blood flow was highly specific of recovery of segmental dysfunction.


Keywords: contrast echocardiography; coronary reflow; collateral blood flow; dobutamine echocardiography; myocardial dysfunction PMID:10377311

  9. Rare combination and transcatheter treatment during single session in an infant: Patent ductus arteriosus and major aortopulmonary collateral artery concordance.

    PubMed

    Güvenç, Osman; Ödemiş, Ender; Saygı, Murat; Demir, İbrahim Halil

    2016-10-01

    Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries are abnormal vascular structures that may be seen in cyanotic diseases that progress with reduced pulmonary flow. They occur rather rarely in the absence of cyanotic congenital heart disease. Presently described is the case of an infant who underwent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and major aortopulmonary collateral artery occlusion in a single session, without presence of cyanotic congenital heart disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of congenital aortopulmonary collateral artery to be reported in a symptomatic infant with PDA.

  10. Photovoltaic measurements and performance branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, S. E.; Dippo, P.

    1990-05-01

    The Photovoltaic (PV) Measurements and Performance Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) provides comprehensive PV materials, device and component characterization, measurement, fabrication, and modeling research and support for the international PV research community in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's PV m goals. The progress of the Branch is summarized. The seven technical sections present a succinct overview of the capabilities and accomplishments of each group in the Branch. The Branch is comprised of the following groups; Surface and Interface Analysis, Materials Characterization, Device Development, Electro-Optical Characterization, Cell Performance, Advanced Module Testing and Performance, and Surface and Interface Modification and Stability. The main research projects completed in FY 1989 are highlighted including measurements and tests of PV materials, cells, submodules and modules. The report contains a comprehensive bibliography of the more than 80 branch-originated journal and conference publications which were authored in collaboration with, or in support of, approximately 130 university, industrial, government, and in-house research groups.

  11. Fault Branching and Rupture Directivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.; Kame, N.

    2002-12-01

    Can the rupture directivity of past earthquakes be inferred from fault geometry? Nakata et al. [J. Geogr., 1998] propose to relate the observed surface branching of fault systems with directivity. Their work assumes that all branches are through acute angles in the direction of rupture propagation. However, in some observed cases rupture paths seem to branch through highly obtuse angles, as if to propagate ``backwards". Field examples of that are as follows: (1) Landers 1992. When crossing from the Johnson Valley to the Homestead Valley (HV) fault via the Kickapoo (Kp) fault, the rupture from Kp progressed not just forward onto the northern stretch of the HV fault, but also backwards, i.e., SSE along the HV [Sowers et al., 1994, Spotila and Sieh, 1995, Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995, Rockwell et al., 2000]. Measurements of surface slip along that backward branch, a prominent feature of 4 km length, show right-lateral slip, decreasing towards the SSE. (2) At a similar crossing from the HV to the Emerson (Em) fault, the rupture progressed backwards along different SSE splays of the Em fault [Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995]. (3). In crossing from the Em to Camp Rock (CR) fault, again, rupture went SSE on the CR fault. (4). Hector Mine 1999. The rupture originated on a buried fault without surface trace [Li et al., 2002; Hauksson et al., 2002] and progressed bilaterally south and north. In the south it met the Lavic Lake (LL) fault and progressed south on it, but also progressed backward, i.e. NNW, along the northern stretch of the LL fault. The angle between the buried fault and the northern LL fault is around -160o, and that NNW stretch extends around 15 km. The field examples with highly obtuse branch angles suggest that there may be no simple correlation between fault geometry and rupture directivity. We propose that an important distinction is whether those obtuse branches actually involved a rupture path which directly turned through the obtuse angle (while continuing

  12. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 56.6403 Section 56.6403... Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the circuits to be used. (b...

  13. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 57.6403 Section 57.6403... Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Branch circuits. 56.6403 Section 56.6403... Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the circuits to be used. (b...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Branch circuits. 56.6403 Section 56.6403... Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the circuits to be used. (b...

  16. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Branch circuits. 57.6403 Section 57.6403... Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the...

  17. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Branch circuits. 57.6403 Section 57.6403... Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the...

  18. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Branch circuits. 57.6403 Section 57.6403... Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the...

  19. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Branch circuits. 56.6403 Section 56.6403... Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the circuits to be used. (b...

  20. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Branch circuits. 56.6403 Section 56.6403... Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the circuits to be used. (b...

  1. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Branch circuits. 57.6403 Section 57.6403... Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the...

  2. 17 CFR 166.4 - Branch offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Branch offices. 166.4 Section... RULES § 166.4 Branch offices. Each branch office of each Commission registrant must use the name of the.... The act, omission or failure of any person acting for the branch office, within the scope of...

  3. Double-branched vortex generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, E. R.; Westphal, R. V.; Mehta, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    In order to assess the suitability of using a double branched vortex generator in parametric studies involving vortex interactions, an experimental study of the main vortex and secondary flows produced by a double branched vortex generator was conducted in a 20-by-40 cm indraft wind tunnel. Measurements of the cross flow velocities were made with a five hole pressure probe from which vorticity contours and vortex parameters were derived. The results showed that the optimum configuration consisted of chord extensions with the absence of a centerbody.

  4. Synaptic gating at axonal branches, and sharp-wave ripples with replay: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Vladimirov, Nikita; Tu, Yuhai; Traub, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms of place cell replay occurring during sharp-wave ripples (SPW-Rs) remain obscure due to the fact that ripples in vitro depend on non-synaptic mechanisms, presumably via axo-axonal gap junctions between pyramidal cells. We suggest a model of in vivo SPW-Rs in which synaptic excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs) control the axonal spiking of cells in SPW-Rs: ripple activity remains hidden in the network of axonal collaterals (connected by gap junctions) due to conduction failures, unless there is a sufficient dendritic EPSP. The EPSP brings the axonal branching point to threshold, and action potentials from the collateral start to propagate to the soma and to the distal axon. The model coherently explains multiple experimental data on SPW-Rs, both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of synaptic gating leads to the following implication: a sequence of pyramidal cells can be replayed at ripple frequency by the superposition of subthreshold dendritic EPSPs and ripple activity in the axonal plexus. Replay is demonstrated in both forward and reverse directions. We discuss several testable predictions. In general, the mechanism of synaptic gating suggests that pyramidal cells under certain conditions can act like a transistor. PMID:23992155

  5. Intensity-based 3D/2D registration for percutaneous intervention of major aorto-pulmonary collateral arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couet, Julien; Rivest-Henault, David; Miro, Joaquim; Lapierre, Chantal; Duong, Luc; Cheriet, Mohamed

    2012-02-01

    Percutaneous cardiac interventions rely mainly on the experience of the cardiologist to safely navigate inside soft tissues vessels under X-ray angiography guidance. Additional navigation guidance tool might contribute to improve reliability and safety of percutaneous procedures. This study focus on major aorta-pulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs) which are pediatric structures. We present a fully automatic intensity-based 3D/2D registration method that accurately maps pre-operatively acquired 3D tomographic vascular data of a newborn patient over intra-operatively acquired angiograms. The tomographic dataset 3D pose is evaluated by comparing the angiograms with simulated X-ray projections, computed from the pre-operative dataset with a proposed splatting-based projection technique. The rigid 3D pose is updated via a transformation matrix usually defined in respect of the C-Arm acquisition system reference frame, but it can also be defined in respect of the projection plane local reference frame. The optimization of the transformation is driven by two algorithms. First the hill climbing local search and secondly a proposed variant, the dense hill climbing. The latter makes the search space denser by considering the combinations of the registration parameters instead of neighboring solutions only. Although this study focused on the registration of pediatric structures, the same procedure could be applied for any cardiovascular structures involving CT-scan and X-ray angiography. Our preliminary results are promising that an accurate (3D TRE 0.265 +/- 0.647mm) and robust (99% success rate) bi-planes registration of the aorta and MAPCAs from a initial displacement up to 20mm and 20° can be obtained within a reasonable amount of time (13.7 seconds).

  6. Physical examination and imaging of the lateral collateral ligament and posterolateral corner of the knee.

    PubMed

    Devitt, Brian M; Whelan, Daniel B

    2015-03-01

    The initial assessment of injury to the lateral collateral ligament and posterolateral corner is often challenging, particularly in the context of a multiligamentous injury. Although advanced imaging techniques have enhanced the evaluation of knee injuries, the significant, and often unique, contribution of clinical examination should not be overlooked. Clinical examination starts with a thorough history, which is instrumental in elucidating not only the patient's symptomatology but also the mechanism of injury. Differentiating between acute and chronic injury and teasing out the patient's functional limitations are instructive in defining the appropriate treatment plan. The treating physician needs patience, vigilance, and a variety of diagnostic tools to reach a precise diagnosis. Each injury should be approached in a methodical and systematic manner to ensure an accurate initial assessment. This review provides a step-wise approach to the clinical assessment of the lateral collateral ligament and posterolateral corner injured knee. Adjunctive imaging modalities and investigations are also discussed.

  7. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor-1 Selective Agonist Enhances Collateral Growth and Protects against Subsequent Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ichijo, Masahiko; Ishibashi, Satoru; Li, Fuying; Yui, Daishi; Miki, Kazunori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Yokota, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Collateral growth after acute occlusion of an intracranial artery is triggered by increasing shear stress in preexisting collateral pathways. Recently, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR1) on endothelial cells was reported to be essential in sensing fluid shear stress. Here, we evaluated the expression of S1PR1 in the hypoperfused mouse brain and investigated the effect of a selective S1PR1 agonist on leptomeningeal collateral growth and subsequent ischemic damage after focal ischemia. Methods In C57Bl/6 mice (n = 133) subjected to unilateral common carotid occlusion (CCAO) and sham surgery. The first series examined the time course of collateral growth, cell proliferation, and S1PR1 expression in the leptomeningeal arteries after CCAO. The second series examined the relationship between pharmacological regulation of S1PR1 and collateral growth of leptomeningeal anastomoses. Animals were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: LtCCAO and daily intraperitoneal (ip) injection for 7 days of an S1PR1 selective agonist (SEW2871, 5 mg/kg/day); sham surgery and daily ip injection for 7 days of SEW2871 after surgery; LtCCAO and daily ip injection for 7 days of SEW2871 and an S1PR1 inverse agonist (VPC23019, 0.5 mg/kg); LtCCAO and daily ip injection of DMSO for 7 days after surgery; and sham surgery and daily ip injection of DMSO for 7 days. Leptomeningeal anastomoses were visualized 14 days after LtCCAO by latex perfusion method, and a set of animals underwent subsequent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) 7days after the treatment termination. Neurological functions 1hour, 1, 4, and 7days and infarction volume 7days after pMCAO were evaluated. Results In parallel with the increase in S1PR1 mRNA levels, S1PR1 expression colocalized with endothelial cell markers in the leptomeningeal arteries, increased markedly on the side of the CCAO, and peaked 7 days after CCAO. Mitotic cell numbers in the leptomeningeal arteries

  8. Outcome review on the percutaneous release of the proximal interphalangeal joint accessory collateral ligaments

    PubMed Central

    Cerovac, Sonja; Stanley, John

    2009-01-01

    The percutaneous release of accessory collateral ligaments was introduced in 1986 as a safe and quick procedure to be attempted before open, more extensive joint release in the treatment of proximal interphalangeal joint flexion contracture. Our study analyzed the long-term results and patient satisfaction following a percutaneous release in 30 joints after a mean follow-up period of 34 months. In one half of cases the preoperative joint flexion deformity was reduced from 78° to 34°. The best results were observed in patients with osteoarthritis and stiff, immobilized joints. In patients with inflammatory arthritides, marked intraoperative correction was maintained rarely, joint contractures recurred early, and patients were unsatisfied. There were no intraoperative complications. Percutaneous release of the accessory collateral ligaments can produce a long lasting correction of the joint contracture, but careful patient selection and strict postoperative rehabilitation are essential for favorable outcome. PMID:21808681

  9. [Chinese translation of "nerve" and its influences on research of meridians and collaterals].

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Yun; Zhao, Jing-Sheng

    2011-05-01

    Authors investigated the whole introduction and translation course of the word "nerve" into China during the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), Qing dynasty(1644-1911) and the Republic of China (1912-1949), when western medicine was introduced into the East, as well as its influences on the cognition and researches of meridians and collaterals. The result shows that "nerve" was once translated into "Xijin" and "Naoqijin" in the Ming and Qing dynasties. Only until the period of the late Qing dynasty and the early stage of the Republic of China, the word "Shenjing", which is known as the unique Chinese translation of nerve nowadays, was introduced from Japan. From that time on, the Chinese physicians started to explore the relation between nerves and meridians, which led to the transform of the academic methodology on essence of meridian. Thus, profound as well as prolong influences were made on study of meridians and collaterals until nowadays.

  10. [Practice on the case-based teaching innovation of Science of Meridians, Collaterals and Acupoints].

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhen-Jin; Zhang, Shu-Feng; Yan, Yuan-Jie; Bao, Hong-Ling; Wang, Bei-Bei

    2012-12-01

    The case-based teaching method which is applied to the teaching of Science of Meridians, Collaterals and Acupoints is discussed in this paper, in which the typical cases such as the growth of the acupuncture-moxibustion eminent physicians, the application of acupoints by the eminent physicians and the experiences in the acupoint combination are integrated. The students are instructed to launch the clinical practical activity through establishing the clinical base of Science of Meridians, Collaterals and Acupoints, in association with the true cases. It is proved that the case-based teaching method can promote the training of the manipulation techniques of the students and the inheritance of the experiences of eminent physicians in higher education.

  11. Spatially Interpolated Disease Prevalence Estimation Using Collateral Indicators of Morbidity and Ecological Risk

    PubMed Central

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers estimation of disease prevalence for small areas (neighbourhoods) when the available observations on prevalence are for an alternative partition of a region, such as service areas. Interpolation to neighbourhoods uses a kernel method extended to take account of two types of collateral information. The first is morbidity and service use data, such as hospital admissions, observed for neighbourhoods. Variations in morbidity and service use are expected to reflect prevalence. The second type of collateral information is ecological risk factors (e.g., pollution indices) that are expected to explain variability in prevalence in service areas, but are typically observed only for neighbourhoods. An application involves estimating neighbourhood asthma prevalence in a London health region involving 562 neighbourhoods and 189 service (primary care) areas. PMID:24129116

  12. Placement of a port catheter through collateral veins in a patient with central venous occlusion.

    PubMed

    Teichgräber, Ulf Karl-Martin; Streitparth, Florian; Gebauer, Bernhard; Benter, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Long-term utilization of central venous catheters (CVCs) for parenteral nutrition has a high incidence of central venous complications including infections, occlusions, and stenosis. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman presenting with a malabsorption caused by short gut syndrome due to congenital aganglionic megacolon. The patient developed a chronic occlusion of all central neck and femoral veins due to long-term use of multiple CVCs over more than 20 years. In patients with central venous occlusion and venous transformation, the implantation of a totally implanted port system by accessing collateral veins is an option to continue long-term parenteral nutrition when required. A 0.014-in. Whisper guidewire (Terumo, Tokyo) with high flexibility and steerability was chosen to maneuver and pass through the collateral veins. We suggest this approach to avoid unfavorable translumbar or transhepatic central venous access and to conserve the anatomically limited number of percutaneous access sites.

  13. Evidence of primary, secondary, and collateral paraphilias left at serial murder and sex offender crime scenes.

    PubMed

    White, John H

    2007-09-01

    This paper is a descriptive review of the phenomenon of paraphilias, the relationship of possessing multiple paraphilias with the commission of sexual crimes and serial murder and the recognition of evidence related to sexual crimes committed by offenders with paraphilias. Several case studies are presented and the manifestations of multiple paraphilias, such as those experienced by Jeffrey Dahmer, Albert Fish, and others, are conceptualized and divided into three types: (i) replacement--no overlap; (ii) replacement with overlap; and (iii) cumulative. The categories are further divided into primary, secondary, and collateral paraphilias. Primary and secondary paraphilias are mutually exclusive and one does not build upon the other. Collateral paraphilias may serve to enhance the overall sexual experience of the primary and secondary paraphilias, including the sexualization of props or weapons. Implications for criminalists and criminal investigators are explained, particularly the value in discerning hidden as well as salient evidence of paraphilic behaviors left at crime scenes.

  14. Portal hypertension: Imaging of portosystemic collateral pathways and associated image-guided therapy.

    PubMed

    Bandali, Murad Feroz; Mirakhur, Anirudh; Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Ferris, Mollie Clarke; Sadler, David James; Gray, Robin Ritchie; Wong, Jason Kam

    2017-03-14

    Portal hypertension is a common clinical syndrome, defined by a pathologic increase in the portal venous pressure. Increased resistance to portal blood flow, the primary factor in the pathophysiology of portal hypertension, is in part due to morphological changes occurring in chronic liver diseases. This results in rerouting of blood flow away from the liver through collateral pathways to low-pressure systemic veins. Through a variety of computed tomographic, sonographic, magnetic resonance imaging and angiographic examples, this article discusses the appearances and prevalence of both common and less common portosystemic collateral channels in the thorax and abdomen. A brief overview of established interventional radiologic techniques for treatment of portal hypertension will also be provided. Awareness of the various imaging manifestations of portal hypertension can be helpful for assessing overall prognosis and planning proper management.

  15. Physical examination and imaging of the medial collateral ligament and posteromedial corner of the knee.

    PubMed

    Kurzweil, Peter R; Kelley, Steven T

    2006-06-01

    The medial side is one of the most commonly injured areas of the knee. The anatomy, diagnosis, and treatment of medial collateral ligament and posteromedial corner (PMC) injuries can be challenging. Understanding the mechanism of injury and performing a thorough physical examination and radiographic evaluation is essential. Frequently, there are concomitant meniscal and other ligament injuries associated with medial-side injuries. Correct identification of all injured structures is important, as missed diagnoses can lead to significant disability. Unrecognized PMC injuries have been implicated in anteromedial rotary instability and failed anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Valgus stress testing is the cornerstone for the identification of medial-side knee injuries. Coronal sequences from magnetic resonance imaging are the most useful tool to view the medial collateral ligament and posteromedial structures. Stress x-rays and ultrasound may also be helpful. Thorough physical examination and imaging of injuries to the PMC should dictate the appropriate treatment for optimal results.

  16. Therapeutic angiogenesis in peripheral arterial disease: can biotechnology produce an effective collateral circulation?

    PubMed

    Collinson, D J; Donnelly, R

    2004-07-01

    The physiological processes of angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and arteriogenesis contribute to the growth of collateral vessels in response to obstructive arterial disease causing lower limb or myocardial ischaemia, but in clinical practice the endogenous angiogenic response is often suboptimal or impaired, e.g. by factors such as ageing, diabetes or drug therapies. Therapeutic angiogenesis is an application of biotechnology to stimulate new vessel formation via local administration of pro-angiogenic growth factors in the form of recombinant protein or gene therapy, or by implantation of endothelial progenitor cells that will synthesize multiple angiogenic cytokines. Numerous experimental and clinical studies have sought to establish 'proof of concept' for therapeutic angiogenesis in PAD and myocardial ischaemia using different treatment modalities, but the results have been inconsistent. This review summarises the mechanisms of angiogenesis and the results of recent trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of different gene therapy, recombinant protein and cellular-based treatment approaches to enhance collateral vessel formation.

  17. Placement of a Port Catheter Through Collateral Veins in a Patient with Central Venous Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Teichgraeber, Ulf Karl-Martin Streitparth, Florian; Gebauer, Bernhard; Benter, Thomas

    2010-04-15

    Long-term utilization of central venous catheters (CVCs) for parenteral nutrition has a high incidence of central venous complications including infections, occlusions, and stenosis. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman presenting with a malabsorption caused by short gut syndrome due to congenital aganglionic megacolon. The patient developed a chronic occlusion of all central neck and femoral veins due to long-term use of multiple CVCs over more than 20 years. In patients with central venous occlusion and venous transformation, the implantation of a totally implanted port system by accessing collateral veins is an option to continue long-term parenteral nutrition when required. A 0.014-in. Whisper guidewire (Terumo, Tokyo) with high flexibility and steerability was chosen to maneuver and pass through the collateral veins. We suggest this approach to avoid unfavorable translumbar or transhepatic central venous access and to conserve the anatomically limited number of percutaneous access sites.

  18. Portal hypertension: Imaging of portosystemic collateral pathways and associated image-guided therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bandali, Murad Feroz; Mirakhur, Anirudh; Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Ferris, Mollie Clarke; Sadler, David James; Gray, Robin Ritchie; Wong, Jason Kam

    2017-01-01

    Portal hypertension is a common clinical syndrome, defined by a pathologic increase in the portal venous pressure. Increased resistance to portal blood flow, the primary factor in the pathophysiology of portal hypertension, is in part due to morphological changes occurring in chronic liver diseases. This results in rerouting of blood flow away from the liver through collateral pathways to low-pressure systemic veins. Through a variety of computed tomographic, sonographic, magnetic resonance imaging and angiographic examples, this article discusses the appearances and prevalence of both common and less common portosystemic collateral channels in the thorax and abdomen. A brief overview of established interventional radiologic techniques for treatment of portal hypertension will also be provided. Awareness of the various imaging manifestations of portal hypertension can be helpful for assessing overall prognosis and planning proper management. PMID:28348478

  19. Management of medial-sided knee injuries, part 1: medial collateral ligament.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Milford H; Tibor, Lisa M; Sekiya, Jon K; Hardaker, William T; Garrett, William E; Taylor, Dean C

    2011-05-01

    The medial collateral ligament complex is a primary stabilizer that combines static and dynamic resistance to direct valgus stress while contributing significant restraints to rotatory motion and anterior-posterior translation. Varying opinions exist among investigators regarding injury classification and treatment algorithms. Whereas most agree that the majority of isolated medial collateral ligament complex injuries can be treated nonoperatively, isolated injuries with chronic instability and multiligament injuries may require operative intervention. Substantial confounding factors are present within published reports, making comparative analyses and systematic review challenging. This review focuses on the anatomy and biomechanics of the medial structures of the knee; it discusses the clinical evaluation of complex injuries; and it reviews nonoperative and operative treatment methods.

  20. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.