The collective excitation of g-modes in the sun
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolff, C. L.
1980-01-01
Oscillations of the solar interior (linear g-modes) may be strongly driven by the collective influence of all the modes upon the nuclear reactions in the core. This heretofore neglected effect could couple the modes, reduce the effective amplitudes near the center, and spatially concentrate most of the oscillation energy into just a portion of the radiative interior. If operating at sufficient strength, this can reverse the conventional conclusion, drawn from single mode calculations, that almost all solar g-modes are damped. Furthermore, it would put the theory into rough harmony with three otherwise troubling observations: (1) the 'low' neutrino flux measured by Davis (1978), (2) the high correspondence found by Wolff (1976) between recurrence periods in solar activity and the rotational beat periods of g-modes, and (3) the fluctuations in the sun's diameter which imply g-mode activity at high angular harmonics (Hill and Caudell 1979). A nonlinear expression is derived for the local rate of work done on an array of oscillation modes by the nuclear reactions. Three additional tests of the model are suggested.
Collective excitations of atoms and field modes in coupled cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enaki, Nicolae A.; Bazgan, Sergiu
2014-04-01
The exact solution for the system formed from two or three q-bits doped in coupled cavities is discussed. The problem of indistinguishability between the excited radiators and the photons is analyzed using the intrinsic symmetry of the system. It is demonstrated that the solution is drastically simplified when the radiators and photons are considered as new polariton excitations. The exact solution of the Schrödinger equation is obtained for single and two excitations in each cavity considering the indistinguishability principle. This approach opens new possibilities for the interpretation of quantum entangled states in comparison with the traditional distinct situation (see e.g. Napoli and Messina 2001 Fortschr. Phys. 49 1059; Enaki and Bazgan 2013 Phys. Scr. T153 014022) due to the decrease in the number of degrees of freedom in the system. Considering that the energy of coupling between the radiators and the photons is larger than that of the coupling with an external vacuum field, we have found the master equation for the dumping of collective excitations. The time dependence of the population for new dressed quasi-levels of energy is obtained by solving the master equation analytically and numerically.
Probing the neutron skin thickness in collective modes of excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paar, N.; Horvat, A.
2014-03-01
Nuclear collective motion provides valuable constraint on the size of neutron-skin thickness and the properties of nuclear matter symmetry energy. By employing relativistic nuclear energy density functional (RNEDF) and covariance analysis related to χ2 fitting of the model parameters, relevant observables are identified for dipole excitations, which strongly correlate with the neutron-skin thickness (rnp), symmetry energy at saturation density (J) and slope of the symmetry energy (L). Using the RNEDF framework and experimental data on pygmy dipole strength (68Ni, 132Sn, 208Pb) and dipole polarizability (208Pb), it is shown how the values of J, and L, and rnp are constrained. The isotopic dependence of moments associated to dipole excitations in 116-136Sn shows that the low-energy dipole strength and polarizability in neutron-rich nuclei display strong sensitivity to the symmetry energy parameter J, more pronounced than in isotopes with moderate neutron-to-proton number ratios.
Near Gap Excitation of Collective Modes in a Charge Density Wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leuenberger, Dominik; Sobota, Jonathan; Yang, Shuolong; Kemper, Alexander; Giraldo, Paula; Moore, Rob; Fisher, Ian; Kirchmann, Patrick; Devereaux, Thomas; Shen, Zhi-Xun
2015-03-01
We present time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (trARPES) measurements on the charge density wave system's (CDW) CeTe3. Optical excitation transiently populates the unoccupied band structure and reveals a CDW gap size of 2 Δ = 0 . 59 eV. In addition, the occupied Te- 5 p band dispersion is coherently modified by three collective modes. First, the spatial polarization of the modes is analyzed by fits of a transient model dispersion and DFT frozen phonon calculations. We thereby demonstrate how the rich information from trARPES allows identification of collective modes and their spatial polarization, which explains the mode-dependent coupling to charge order. Second, the exciting photon energy hν was gradually lowered towards 2 Δ , at constant optical excitation density. The coherent response of the amplitude mode deviates from the optical conductivity, which is dominated by direct interband transitions between the lower and upper CDW bands. The measured hν -dependence can be reproduced by a calculated joint density of states for optical transition between bands with different orbital character. This finding suggests, that the coherent response of the CDW amplitude mode is dominated by photo-doping of the charge ordering located in the Te-planes.
Three-mode resonant coupling of collective excitations in a Bose-Einstein condensate
Ma Yongli; Huang, Guoxiang; Hu Bambi
2005-04-01
We make a systematic study of the resonant mode coupling of the collective excitations at zero temperature in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). (i) Based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation we derive a set of nonlinearly coupled envelope equations for a three-mode resonant interaction (TMRI) by means of a method of multiple scales. (ii) We calculate the coupling matrix elements for the TMRI and show that the divergence appearing in previous studies can be eliminated completely by using a Fetter-like variational approximation for the ground-state wave function of the condensate. (iii) We provide the selection rules in mode-mode interaction processes [including TMRI and second-harmonic generation (SHG)] according to the symmetry of the excitations. (iv) By solving the nonlinearly coupled envelope equations we obtain divergence-free nonlinear amplitudes for the TMRI and SHG processes and show that our theoretical results on the shape oscillations of the condensate agree well with the experimental ones. We suggest also an experiment to check the theoretical prediction of the present study on the TMRI of collective excitations in a BEC.
Loading of a Bose-Einstein condensate into an optical lattice: The excitation of collective modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plata, J.
2004-03-01
The dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a harmonic trap with a nonadiabatically loaded optical lattice is studied analytically. As the global effect of the optical potential can be described in terms of a renormalized interaction coupling constant and of an effective mass in the laser direction, a fast loading can be understood as a sudden change of those characteristic parameters. In this approach, a standard scaling transformation is applied to study the resulting dynamics, in particular, the generation of collective modes. The relevance of the excited modes to the interference patterns obtained after free expansion is analyzed. The applicability of trap-frequency adjustments as a strategy for suppressing the loading induced excitations is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okuducu, Ş.; Akti, N. N.; Saraç, H.; Bölükdemir, M. H.; Tel, E.
In this study the nuclear energy level density based on nuclear collective excitation mechanism has been identified in terms of the low-lying collective level bands near the neutron binding energy. Nuclear level density parameters of some light deformed medical radionuclides used widely in medical applications have been calculated by using different collective excitation modes of observed nuclear spectra. The calculated parameters have been used successfully in estimation of the neutron-capture cross section basic data for the production of new medical radionuclides. The investigated radionuclides have been considered in the region of mass number 40collective coupled state bands of the interest radionuclides. The present calculated results have been compared with the compiled values from the literatures for s-wave neutron resonance data.
High Resolution Density Sculpting of Ultracold Neutral Plasmas to Excite Collective Modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McQuillen, Patrick; Castro, Jose; Killian, Thomas
2011-10-01
Ultracold Neutral Plasmas (UNPs) are created by photoionizing laser cooled atoms near the ionization threshold. They provide extremely clean and controllable experimental conditions and a means of studying strongly coupled plasmas in the laboratory. By virtue of their extremely cold temperatures (~1K), the Coulombic potential energy can dominate thermal kinetic energies and lead to interesting collective effects. A recent advance in creation techniques allows the production of UNPs with controllable initial density distributions. This technique has allowed us to excite and measure dispersion of the low frequency Ion Acoustic Wave (IAW) as well as produce streaming plasmas with tunable velocities. With recent upgrades to our ionizing and imaging system we will continue these studies at much shorter length scales, those comparable to Debye shielding lengths and approaching average interatomic spacing. In this regime, where concepts of Debye shielding break down along with many fundamental plasma approximations, we can test predictions of deviations from classical plasma behavior. Funding provided by the National Science Foundation and the US Department of Energy.
Elementary excitations and a collective mode in hcp sup 4 He
Lengua, G.A.; Goodkind, J.M. )
1990-06-01
We have measured the velocity and attenuation of sound at 10, 30, and 50 MHz in solid {sup 4}He at higher purity, lower density, and lower acoustic power than have been measured previously. At 10 MHz the velocity varies as T{sup 4}, as would be expected for a very high quality crystal with remarkable low dislocation density. The temperature dependence of the attenuation reveals coupling to thermally activated excitations that are consistent with vacancies measured in other work. However, in our work the activation energy is {approximately}0.7 K so that their concentration is sufficiently high to require Bose statistics. At 30 and 50 MHz, an unexpected, additional resonant behavior was observed.
Performance seeking control excitation mode
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schkolnik, Gerard
1995-01-01
Flight testing of the performance seeking control (PSC) excitation mode was successfully completed at NASA Dryden on the F-15 highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) aircraft. Although the excitation mode was not one of the original objectives of the PSC program, it was rapidly prototyped and implemented into the architecture of the PSC algorithm, allowing valuable and timely research data to be gathered. The primary flight test objective was to investigate the feasibility of a future measurement-based performance optimization algorithm. This future algorithm, called AdAPT, which stands for adaptive aircraft performance technology, generates and applies excitation inputs to selected control effectors. Fourier transformations are used to convert measured response and control effector data into frequency domain models which are mapped into state space models using multiterm frequency matching. Formal optimization principles are applied to produce an integrated, performance optimal effector suite. The key technical challenge of the measurement-based approach is the identification of the gradient of the performance index to the selected control effector. This concern was addressed by the excitation mode flight test. The AdAPT feasibility study utilized the PSC excitation mode to apply separate sinusoidal excitation trims to the controls - one aircraft, inlet first ramp (cowl), and one engine, throat area. Aircraft control and response data were recorded using on-board instrumentation and analyzed post-flight. Sensor noise characteristics, axial acceleration performance gradients, and repeatability were determined. Results were compared to pilot comments to assess the ride quality. Flight test results indicate that performance gradients were identified at all flight conditions, sensor noise levels were acceptable at the frequencies of interest, and excitations were generally not sensed by the pilot.
Multimode optical fibers: steady state mode exciter.
Ikeda, M; Sugimura, A; Ikegami, T
1976-09-01
The steady state mode power distribution of the multimode graded index fiber was measured. A simple and effective steady state mode exciter was fabricated by an etching technique. Its insertion loss was 0.5 dB for an injection laser. Deviation in transmission characteristics of multimode graded index fibers can be avoided by using the steady state mode exciter.
Collective Excitations in Electron-Hole Bilayers
Kalman, G. J.; Hartmann, P.; Donko, Z.; Golden, K. I.
2007-06-08
We report a combined analytic and molecular dynamics analysis of the collective mode spectrum of a bipolar (electron-hole) bilayer in the strong coupling classical limit. A robust, isotropic energy gap is identified in the out-of-phase spectra, generated by the combined effect of correlations and of the excitation of the bound dipoles. In the in-phase spectra we identify longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes wholly maintained by correlations. Strong nonlinear generation of higher harmonics of the fundamental dipole oscillation frequency and the transfer of harmonics between different modes is observed.
Statistical dynamo theory: Mode excitation.
Hoyng, P
2009-04-01
We compute statistical properties of the lowest-order multipole coefficients of the magnetic field generated by a dynamo of arbitrary shape. To this end we expand the field in a complete biorthogonal set of base functions, viz. B= summation operator_{k}a;{k}(t)b;{k}(r) . The properties of these biorthogonal function sets are treated in detail. We consider a linear problem and the statistical properties of the fluid flow are supposed to be given. The turbulent convection may have an arbitrary distribution of spatial scales. The time evolution of the expansion coefficients a;{k} is governed by a stochastic differential equation from which we infer their averages a;{k} , autocorrelation functions a;{k}(t)a;{k *}(t+tau) , and an equation for the cross correlations a;{k}a;{l *} . The eigenfunctions of the dynamo equation (with eigenvalues lambda_{k} ) turn out to be a preferred set in terms of which our results assume their simplest form. The magnetic field of the dynamo is shown to consist of transiently excited eigenmodes whose frequency and coherence time is given by Ilambda_{k} and -1/Rlambda_{k} , respectively. The relative rms excitation level of the eigenmodes, and hence the distribution of magnetic energy over spatial scales, is determined by linear theory. An expression is derived for |a;{k}|;{2}/|a;{0}|;{2} in case the fundamental mode b;{0} has a dominant amplitude, and we outline how this expression may be evaluated. It is estimated that |a;{k}|;{2}/|a;{0}|;{2} approximately 1/N , where N is the number of convective cells in the dynamo. We show that the old problem of a short correlation time (or first-order smoothing approximation) has been partially eliminated. Finally we prove that for a simple statistically steady dynamo with finite resistivity all eigenvalues obey Rlambda_{k}<0 .
Collective excitations in the continuum
Dussel, G. G.; Betan, R. Id; Liotta, R. J.; Vertse, T.
2009-12-15
Pairing (particle-particle) giant resonances are analyzed within a shell-model formalism in the complex energy plane with the aim of understanding why they have not been observed so far. A comparison is made with the equivalent particle-hole mode by applying the formalism to the analysis of the well-understood particle-hole giant resonance. It is found that because of the proper treatment of the continuum intrinsic to the formalism, giant pairing resonances lie much higher than previously predicted and that some of them may be too wide to be observed, whereas others are meaningful excitations. For these, new experimental searches are proposed.
Intersubband collective excitations at the surface of a semiconductor superlattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawrylak, Pawel; Wu, Ji-Wei; Quinn, J. J.
1985-06-01
The intersubband and intrasubband collective excitations of a semi-infinite semiconductor superlattice are investigated. Surface intersubband excitations, similar to the intrasubband surface modes predicted by Giuliani and Quinn, are found for wavelengths shorter than a critical value λ*, which depends on the material parameters.
Mode Selective Excitation Using Coherent Control Spectroscopy
Singh, Ajay K.; Konradi, Jakow; Materny, Arnulf; Sarkar, Sisir K.
2008-11-14
Femtosecond time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) gives access to ultrafast molecular dynamics. However, femtosecond laser pulses are spectrally broad and therefore coherently excite several molecular modes. While the temporal resolution is high, usually no mode-selective excitation is possible. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of selectively exciting specific molecular vibrations in solution phase with shaped fs laser excitation using a feedback-controlled optimization technique guided by an evolutionary algorithm. This approach is also used to obtain molecule-specific CARS spectra from a mixture of different substances. The optimized phase structures of the fs pulses are characterized to get insight into the control process. Possible applications of the spectrum control are discussed.
Fletcher, Daniel A.; Kino, Gordon S.
2002-11-05
A lens system including a collection lens and a microlens spaced from the collection lens adjacent the region to be observed. The diameter of the observablel region depends substantially on the radius of the microlens.
Interchange mode excited by trapped energetic ions
Nishimura, Seiya
2015-07-15
The kinetic energy principle describing the interaction between ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes with trapped energetic ions is revised. A model is proposed on the basis of the reduced ideal MHD equations for background plasmas and the bounce-averaged drift-kinetic equation for trapped energetic ions. The model is applicable to large-aspect-ratio toroidal devices. Specifically, the effect of trapped energetic ions on the interchange mode in helical systems is analyzed. Results show that the interchange mode is excited by trapped energetic ions, even if the equilibrium states are stable to the ideal interchange mode. The energetic-ion-induced branch of the interchange mode might be associated with the fishbone mode in helical systems.
Interchange mode excited by trapped energetic ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishimura, Seiya
2015-07-01
The kinetic energy principle describing the interaction between ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes with trapped energetic ions is revised. A model is proposed on the basis of the reduced ideal MHD equations for background plasmas and the bounce-averaged drift-kinetic equation for trapped energetic ions. The model is applicable to large-aspect-ratio toroidal devices. Specifically, the effect of trapped energetic ions on the interchange mode in helical systems is analyzed. Results show that the interchange mode is excited by trapped energetic ions, even if the equilibrium states are stable to the ideal interchange mode. The energetic-ion-induced branch of the interchange mode might be associated with the fishbone mode in helical systems.
Atmospheric Excitation of Planetary Normal Modes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tanimoto, Toshiro
2001-01-01
The objectives of this study were to: (1) understand the phenomenon of continuous free oscillations of the Earth and (2) examine the idea of using this phenomenon for planetary seismology. We first describe the results on (1) and present our evaluations of the idea (2) in the final section. In 1997, after almost forty years since the initial attempt by Benioff et al, continuous free oscillations of the Earth were discovered. Spheroidal fundamental modes between 2 and 7 millihertz are excited continuously with acceleration amplitudes of about 0.3-0.5 nanogals. The signal is now commonly found in virtually all data recorded by STS-1 type broadband seismometers at quiet sites. Seasonal variation in amplitude and the existence of two coupled modes between the atmosphere and the solid Earth support that these oscillations are excited by the atmosphere. Stochastic excitation due to atmospheric turbulence is a favored mechanism, providing a good match between theory and data. The atmosphere has ample energy to support this theory because excitation of these modes require only 500-10000 W whereas the atmosphere contains about 117 W of kinetic energy. An application of this phenomenon includes planetary seismology, because other planets may be oscillating due to atmospheric excitation. The interior structure of planets could be learned by determining the eigenfrequencies in the continuous free oscillations. It is especially attractive to pursue this idea for tectonically quiet planets, since quakes may be too infrequent to be recorded by seismic instruments.
Excitation modes in non-axial nuclei
Leviatan, A.; Ginnochio, J.N.
1990-01-01
Excitation modes of non-axial quadrupole shapes are investigated in the framework of interacting boson models. Both {gamma}-unstable and {gamma}-rigid nuclear shapes are considered for systems with one type of boson as well as with proton-neutron bosons. 6 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gayen, Saurabh; Behera, Surjyo; Bose, Shyamalendu
2006-03-01
The Raman spectra of a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) consist of three types of modes; (i) the high frequency G-mode arising out of tangential oscillations of carbon atoms, (ii) D-mode due to the defects in the nanotube and (iii) the low frequency radial breathing mode (RBM) resulting out of radial oscillations of the carbon atoms. In this paper we theoretically investigate the effects of collective oscillations of electrons (plasmons) on the G and RBM modes in the Raman spectra of a filled and unfilled metallic SWNT. Inclusion of plasmon and the filling (rattler) atom produces four peaks in the Raman spectra in general. The positions and relative strengths of the Raman peaks [1] depend upon phonon frequencies of the nanotube and that of the filling atoms, the plasmon frequency, the strength of the electron-phonon interaction, strength of the interactions between the nanotube phonons and rattler phonon and radius of the nanotube [2]. Usually the intensity of the G-mode is higher than that of RBM. For heavier filling atoms the frequency of the rattler phonon is lower in value, which may broaden the peak to such an extent that it may disappear in the background spectrum altogether. 1.S.M. Bose et al., Physica B 351, 129 (2004) 2. S.M. Bose, S.Gayen and S. Behera, Phys. Rev. B 72, 153402 (2005).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldreich, Peter; Murray, Norman; Kumar, Pawan
1994-01-01
We investigate the rates at which energy is supplied to individual p-modes as a function of their frequencies nu and angular degrees l. The observationally determined rates are compared with those calculated on the hypothesis that the modes are stochastically excited by turbulent convection. The observationally determined excitation rate is assumed to be equal to the product of the mode's energy E and its (radian) line width Gamma. We obtain E from the mode's mean square surface velocity with the aid of its velocity eigenfuction. We assume that Gamma measures the mode's energy decay rate, even though quasi-elastic scattering may dominate true absorption. At fixed l, E(Gamma) arises as nu(exp 7) at low nu, reaches a peak at nu approximately equal 3.5 mHz, and then declines as nu(exp 4.4) at higher nu . At fixed nu, E(Gamma) exhibits a slow decline with increasing l. To calculate energy input rates, P(sub alpha), we rely on the mixing-length model of turbulent convection. We find entropy fluctuations to be about an order of magnitude more effective than the Reynolds stress in exciting p-modes . The calculated P(sub alpha) mimic the nu(exp 7) dependence of E(Gamma) at low nu and the nu(exp -4.4) dependence at high nu. The break of 11.4 powers in the nu-dependence of E(Gamma) across its peak is attributed to a combination of (1) the reflection of high-frequency acoustic waves just below the photosphere where the scale height drops precipitously and (2) the absence of energy-bearing eddies with short enough correlation times to excite high-frequency modes. Two parameters associated with the eddy correlation time are required to match the location and shape of the break. The appropriate values of these parameters, while not unnatural, are poorly constrained by theory. The calculated P(sub alpha) can also be made to fit the magnitude of E(Gamma) with a reasonable value for the eddy aspect ratio. Our resutls suggest a possible explanation for the decline of mode energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alakhaly, Galal Ahmed; Dey, Bishwajyoti
2015-05-01
We have studied the dynamic evolution of the collective excitations in Bose-Einstein condensates in a deep optical lattice with tunable three-body interactions. Their dynamics is governed by a high order discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE). The dynamical phase diagram of the system is obtained using the variational method. The dynamical evolution shows very interesting features. The discrete breather phase totally disappears in the regime where the three-body interaction completely dominates over the two-body interaction. The soliton phase in this particular regime exists only when the soliton line approaches the critical line in the phase diagram. When weak two-body interactions are reintroduced into this regime, the discrete breather solutions reappear, but occupies a very small domain in the phase space. Likewise, in this regime, the soliton as well as the discrete breather phases completely disappear if the signs of the two-and three-body interactions are opposite. We have analysed the causes of this unusual dynamical evolution of the collective excitations of the Bose-Einstein condensate with tunable interactions. We have also performed direct numerical simulations of the governing DNLS equation to show the existence of the discrete soliton solution as predicted by the variational calculations, and also to check the long term stability of the soliton solution.
Collective Hamiltonian for chiral modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Q. B.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhao, P. W.; Jolos, R. V.; Meng, J.
2013-02-01
A collective model is proposed to describe the chiral rotation and vibration and applied to a system with one h11/2 proton particle and one h11/2 neutron hole coupled to a triaxial rigid rotor. The collective Hamiltonian is constructed from the potential energy and mass parameter obtained in the tilted axis cranking approach. By diagonalizing the collective Hamiltonian with a box boundary condition, it is found that for the chiral rotation, the partner states become more degenerate with the increase of the cranking frequency, and for the chiral vibrations, their important roles for the collective excitation are revealed at the beginning of the chiral rotation region.
Collective excitations in soft-sphere fluids.
Bryk, Taras; Gorelli, Federico; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Santoro, Mario; Scopigno, Tullio
2014-10-01
Despite that the thermodynamic distinction between a liquid and the corresponding gas ceases to exist at the critical point, it has been recently shown that reminiscence of gaslike and liquidlike behavior can be identified in the supercritical fluid region, encoded in the behavior of hypersonic waves dispersion. By using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and calculations within the approach of generalized collective modes, we provide an accurate determination of the dispersion of longitudinal and transverse collective excitations in soft-sphere fluids. Specifically, we address the decreasing rigidity upon density reduction along an isothermal line, showing that the positive sound dispersion, an excess of sound velocity over the hydrodynamic limit typical for dense liquids, displays a nonmonotonic density dependence strictly correlated to that of thermal diffusivity and kinematic viscosity. This allows rationalizing recent observation parting the supercritical state based on the Widom line, i.e., the extension of the coexistence line. Remarkably, we show here that the extremals of transport properties such as thermal diffusivity and kinematic viscosity provide a robust definition for the boundary between liquidlike and gaslike regions, even in those systems without a liquid-gas binodal line. Finally, we discuss these findings in comparison with recent results for Lennard-Jones model fluid and with the notion of the "rigid-nonrigid" fluid separation lines.
Collective excitations in soft-sphere fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bryk, Taras; Gorelli, Federico; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Santoro, Mario; Scopigno, Tullio
2014-10-01
Despite that the thermodynamic distinction between a liquid and the corresponding gas ceases to exist at the critical point, it has been recently shown that reminiscence of gaslike and liquidlike behavior can be identified in the supercritical fluid region, encoded in the behavior of hypersonic waves dispersion. By using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and calculations within the approach of generalized collective modes, we provide an accurate determination of the dispersion of longitudinal and transverse collective excitations in soft-sphere fluids. Specifically, we address the decreasing rigidity upon density reduction along an isothermal line, showing that the positive sound dispersion, an excess of sound velocity over the hydrodynamic limit typical for dense liquids, displays a nonmonotonic density dependence strictly correlated to that of thermal diffusivity and kinematic viscosity. This allows rationalizing recent observation parting the supercritical state based on the Widom line, i.e., the extension of the coexistence line. Remarkably, we show here that the extremals of transport properties such as thermal diffusivity and kinematic viscosity provide a robust definition for the boundary between liquidlike and gaslike regions, even in those systems without a liquid-gas binodal line. Finally, we discuss these findings in comparison with recent results for Lennard-Jones model fluid and with the notion of the "rigid-nonrigid" fluid separation lines.
Population of collective modes in light scattering by many atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerin, William; Kaiser, Robin
2017-05-01
The interaction of light with an atomic sample containing a large number of particles gives rise to many collective (or cooperative) effects, such as multiple scattering, superradiance, and subradiance, even if the atomic density is low and the incident optical intensity weak (linear optics regime). Tracing over the degrees of freedom of the light field, the system can be well described by an effective atomic Hamiltonian, which contains the light-mediated dipole-dipole interaction between atoms. This long-range interaction is at the origin of the various collective effects, or of collective excitation modes of the system. Even though an analysis of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of these collective modes does allow distinguishing superradiant modes, for instance, from other collective modes, this is not sufficient to understand the dynamics of a driven system, as not all collective modes are significantly populated. Here, we study how the excitation parameters, i.e., the driving field, determines the population of the collective modes. We investigate in particular the role of the laser detuning from the atomic transition, and demonstrate a simple relation between the detuning and the steady-state population of the modes. This relation allows understanding several properties of cooperative scattering, such as why superradiance and subradiance become independent of the detuning at large enough detuning without vanishing, and why superradiance, but not subradiance, is suppressed near resonance. We also show that the spatial properties of the collective modes allow distinguishing diffusive modes, responsible for radiation trapping, from subradiant modes.
Collective Hamiltonian for Chiral and Wobbling Modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Q. B.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhao, P. W.; Jolos, R. V.; Meng, J.
The recent progresses of the collective Hamiltonian for chiral and wobbling modes are briefly introduced. The collective Hamiltonian is constructed from the collective potential and mass parameter obtained in the tilted axis cranking approach. The collective Hamiltonian can reproduce the exact solutions by the particle rotor model very well for both chiral and wobbling modes.
Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference between Two Deterministic Collective Excitations in an Atomic Ensemble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jun; Zhou, Ming-Ti; Jing, Bo; Wang, Xu-Jie; Yang, Sheng-Jun; Jiang, Xiao; Mølmer, Klaus; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-10-01
We demonstrate deterministic generation of two distinct collective excitations in one atomic ensemble, and we realize the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between them. Using Rydberg blockade we create single collective excitations in two different Zeeman levels, and we use stimulated Raman transitions to perform a beam-splitter operation between the excited atomic modes. By converting the atomic excitations into photons, the two-excitation interference is measured by photon coincidence detection with a visibility of 0.89(6). The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference witnesses an entangled NOON state of the collective atomic excitations, and we demonstrate its two times enhanced sensitivity to a magnetic field compared with a single excitation. Our work implements a minimal instance of boson sampling and paves the way for further multimode and multiexcitation studies with collective excitations of atomic ensembles.
Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference between Two Deterministic Collective Excitations in an Atomic Ensemble.
Li, Jun; Zhou, Ming-Ti; Jing, Bo; Wang, Xu-Jie; Yang, Sheng-Jun; Jiang, Xiao; Mølmer, Klaus; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-10-28
We demonstrate deterministic generation of two distinct collective excitations in one atomic ensemble, and we realize the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between them. Using Rydberg blockade we create single collective excitations in two different Zeeman levels, and we use stimulated Raman transitions to perform a beam-splitter operation between the excited atomic modes. By converting the atomic excitations into photons, the two-excitation interference is measured by photon coincidence detection with a visibility of 0.89(6). The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference witnesses an entangled NOON state of the collective atomic excitations, and we demonstrate its two times enhanced sensitivity to a magnetic field compared with a single excitation. Our work implements a minimal instance of boson sampling and paves the way for further multimode and multiexcitation studies with collective excitations of atomic ensembles.
Ab initio study of collective excitations in a disparate mass molten salt.
Bryk, Taras; Klevets, Ivan
2012-12-14
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and the approach of generalized collective modes are applied for calculations of spectra of longitudinal and transverse collective excitations in molten LiBr. Dispersion and damping of low- and high-frequency branches of collective excitations as well as wave-number dependent relaxing modes were calculated. The main mode contributions to partial, total, and concentration dynamic structure factors were estimated in a wide region of wave numbers. A role of polarization effects is discussed from comparison of mode contributions to concentration dynamic structure factors calculated for molten LiBr from ab initio and classical rigid ion simulations.
Collective Modes in a Quantum Solid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gazit, Snir; Podolsky, Daniel; Nonne, Heloise; Auerbach, Assa; Arovas, Daniel P.
2016-08-01
We provide a theoretical explanation for the optical modes observed in inelastic neutron scattering on the bcc solid phase of helium 4 [T. Markovich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 195301 (2002)]. We argue that these excitations are amplitude (Higgs) modes associated with fluctuations of the crystal order parameter within the unit cell. We present an analysis of the modes based on an effective Ginzburg-Landau model, classify them according to their symmetry properties, and compute their signature in inelastic neutron scattering experiments. In addition, we calculate the dynamical structure factor by means of an ab intio quantum Monte Carlo simulation and find a finite frequency excitation at zero relative momentum.
Magnetotail dynamics excited by the streaming tearing mode
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sato, T.; Walker, R. J.
1982-01-01
Magnetotail reconnection in the presence of plasma streaming parallel to the neutral sheet is modeled. The tearing mode is excited much more violently in the case with parallel plasma flow in the plasma sheet than in the case with no flow. The flow patterns for the nonlinear resistive tearing mode and the streaming tearing mode are much more complex than those for the linear tearing mode. Flow vortices are observed in both cases.
Low-frequency collective modes in dry and hydrated proteins.
Bellissent-Funel, M C; Teixeira, J; Chen, S H; Dorner, B; Middendorf, H D; Crespi, H L
1989-01-01
We have observed Brillouin-like low frequency collective modes in the scattering of 1 A neutrons from a fully in vivo deuterated protein. These modes are tentatively interpreted as due to short-lived coherent excitations propagating with velocities between 2,000 and 4,000 m/s in elements of the secondary structure and patches of closely associated water. PMID:2554989
Collective modes in multiband superfluids and superconductors: Multiple dynamical classes
Ota, Yukihiro; Machida, Masahiko; Koyama, Tomio; Aoki, Hideo
2011-02-01
One important way to characterize the states having a gauge symmetry spontaneously broken over multibands is to look at their collective excitation modes. We find that a three-band system has multiple Leggett modes with significantly different masses, which can be classified into different dynamical classes according to whether multiple interband Josephson currents add or cancel. This provides a way to dynamically characterize multiband superconductivity while the pairing symmetry is a static property.
Collective excitations and viscosity in liquid Bi
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ropo, Matti; Akola, Jaakko; Jones, R. O.
2016-11-01
The analysis of extensive density functional/molecular dynamics simulations (over 500 atoms, up to 100 ps) of liquid bismuth at four temperatures between 573 K and 1023 K has provided details of the dynamical structure factors, the dispersion of longitudinal and transverse collective modes, and related properties (power spectrum, viscosity, and sound velocity). Agreement with available inelastic x-ray and neutron scattering data and with previous simulations is generally very good. The results show that density functional/molecular dynamics simulations can give dynamical information of good quality without the use of fitting functions, even at long wavelengths.
Fishbone mode excitation in the ion kinetic regime
Shi, B.; Sui, G. |
1997-08-01
By solving the dispersion relation in the ion kinetic regime, it is found that the threshold of the plasma beta value for exciting the ion-fishbone mode is lowered. Thus, for most of the present-day tokamaks where the Bussac criterion [Bussac {ital et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 35}, 1638 (1975)] is not satisfied, it will still be possible to excite the ion-fishbone mode. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Evanescent optical fluorescence excitation: the role of photonic mode density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menges, Bernhard; Sato, Akihiro; Knoll, Wolfgang
2007-04-01
In this paper we will discuss a few basic concepts concerning the use of evanescent optical fields for the excitation of fluorescent chromophores placed near the interface. The observation of enhanced fluorescence from chromophores excited by surface plasmon and waveguide modes will be presented and discussed. We attribute the enhancement to the near-field interaction between the chromophores and the increased photonic mode density by surface plasmon and waveguide modes. We determined limits of detection (LOD) of DNA hybridisation using the same sensor architecture by surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS) and optical waveguide fluorescence spectroscopy (OWFS). Both SPFS and OWFS techniques have the same detection principle using an enhanced electromagnetic field to excite fluorophores and make it possible to monitor DNA hybridisation in real-time with high sensitivity. The relative photonic mode density of each mode was calculated under the resonance condition, and these values are reflected in the LOD values.
Decay modes of the excited pseudoscalar glueball
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eshraim, Walaa I.; Schramm, Stefan
2017-01-01
We study three different chiral Lagrangians that describe the two- and three-body decays of an excited pseudoscalar glueball, JP C=0*-+ , into light mesons and charmonium states as well as into a scalar and pseudoscalar glueball. We compute the decay channels for an excited pseudoscalar glueball with a mass of 3.7 GeV and consider a ground-state pseudoscalar glueball of mass 2.6 GeV, following predictions from lattice QCD simulations. These states and channels are in reach of the ongoing BESIII experiment and the PANDA experiments at the upcoming FAIR facility experiment. We present the resulting decay branching ratios with a parameter-free prediction.
Excitation of Resonant Helioseimic Modes by Solar Flares
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leibacher, John William; Baudin, Frédéric; Rabello Soares, Maria Cristina
2015-04-01
Flares are known to excite propagating sound waves in the solar atmosphere, and Maurya et al. (2009), using a local analysis (ring diagrams) of the 2003 Halloween flare, showed that they excite resonant p-modes as well. We confirm and extend here these results by: applying the same analysis to other locations on the Sun at the time of the Halloween flare, analyzing other events also showing a signature of p-mode excitation, looking in detail at the results of the ring diagrams analysis in terms of noise fitting and the center-to-limb variation of ring-diagram power.
Excitation of Resonant Helioseimic Modes by Solar Flares.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leibacher, John W.; Baudin, Frédéric; Rabello Soares,, Maria Cristina
2015-08-01
Flares are known to excite propagating sound waves in the solar atmosphere, and Maurya et al. (2009), using a local analysis (ring diagrams) of the 2003 Halloween flare, showed that they excite resonant p-modes as well. We confirm and extend here these results by:-applying the same analysis to other locations on the Sun at the time of the Halloween flare-analyzing other events also showing a signature of p-mode excitation-looking in detail at the results of the ring diagrams analysis in terms of noise fitting and the center-to-limb variation of ring-diagram power.
Collective Hamiltonian for wobbling modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Q. B.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhao, P. W.; Meng, J.
2014-10-01
The simple, longitudinal, and transverse wobblers are systematically studied within the framework of a collective Hamiltonian, where the collective potential and mass parameter included are obtained based on the tilted axis cranking approach. Solving the collective Hamiltonian by diagonalization, the energies and the wave functions of the wobbling states are obtained. The obtained results are compared with those by the harmonic approximation formula and particle rotor model. The wobbling energies calculated by the collective Hamiltonian are closer to the exact solutions by the particle rotor model than the harmonic approximation formula. It is confirmed that the wobbling frequency increases with the rotational frequency in simple and longitudinal wobbling motions while decreases in transverse wobbling motion. These variation trends are related to the stiffness of the collective potential in the collective Hamiltonian.
Coupling between graphene and intersubband collective excitations in quantum wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez de la Cruz, G.
2017-08-01
Recently, strong light-matter coupling between the electromagnetic modes in plasmonic metasurfaces with quantum-engineering electronic intersubband transitions in quantum wells has been demonstrated experimentally (Benz et al., [14], Lee et al., [15]). These novel materials combining different two-dimensional electronic systems offer new opportunities for tunable optical devices and fundamental studies of collective excitations driven by interlayer Coulomb interactions. In this work, our aim is to study the plasmon spectra of a hybrid structure consisting of conventional two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a semiconductor quantum well and a graphene sheet with an interlayer separation of a. This electronic bilayer structure is immersed in a nonhomgeneous dielectric background of the system. We use a simple model in which the graphene surface plasmons and both; the intrasubband and intersubband collective electron excitations in the quantum well are coupled via screened Coulomb interaction. Here we calculate the dispersion of these relativistic/nonrelativistic new plasmon modes taking into account the thickness of the quantum well providing analytical expressions in the long-wavelength limit.
Collective excitation of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate with spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Li; Pu, Han; Yu, Zeng-Qiang; Zhang, Yunbo
2017-03-01
We investigate the collective excitations of a Raman-induced spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a quasi-one-dimensional harmonic trap using the Bogoliubov method. By tuning the Raman coupling strength, three phases of the system can be identified. By calculating the transition strength, we are able to classify various excitation modes that are experimentally relevant. We show that the three quantum phases possess distinct features in their collective excitation properties. In particular, the spin dipole and the spin breathing modes can be used to clearly map out the phase boundaries. We confirm these predictions by direct numerical simulations of the quench dynamics that excites the relevant collective modes.
Taher, Aymen Belhadj; Di Bin, Philippe; Bahloul, Faouzi; Tartaret-Josnière, Etienne; Jossent, Mathieu; Février, Sébastien; Attia, Rabah
2016-01-25
We propose a new technique to selectively excite the fundamental mode in a few mode fiber (FMF). This method of excitation is made from a single mode fiber (SMF) which is inserted facing the FMF into an air-silica microstructured cane before the assembly is adiabatically tapered. We study theoretically and numerically this method by calculating the effective indices of the propagated modes, their amplitudes along the taper and the adiabaticity criteria, showing the ability to achieve an excellent selective excitation of the fundamental mode in the FMF with negligible loss. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed solution provides a successful mode conversion and allows an almost excellent fundamental mode excitation in the FMF (representing 99.8% of the total power).
Mode purification for ultrasonic guided waves under pseudopulse excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Z.; Lin, J.; Zeng, L.; Gao, F.
2015-07-01
Under broadband excitation, the captured Lamb wave signals contain rich information of the structural properties. However, since multiple modes are highly dispersive and overlapped with each other, Lamb wave signals are especially complicated to be interpreted. To overcome this problem, a mode purification strategy is established under pseudo-pulse excitation. In this strategy, a pseudo-pulse excitation technique is introduced to obtain a high resolution for the inspection firstly. Dispersion compensation method is applied to remove the dispersion of the received signal subsequently, through which all the wave packets associated with the interferential mode propagating through different paths could be compressed into the same shape as the excitation. Benefiting from that, the energy of the wave packets corresponding to the interference mode could be concentrated in time domain as individual temporal pulses, which thereby could be eliminated by zero-amplitude rectangular time windows without affecting the desired mode much. After that, the inverse dispersion compensation is applied to the residual signals to restore the original waveform of the desired mode. Finally, experiments are introduced to validate the availability and robustness of the proposed strategy.
Optical Excitation of Electromagnetic Modes Using Grating Coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bryan-Brown, Guy Peter
Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The recent developments in the manufacture and theoretical modelling of diffraction gratings have lead to much interest in the physics and applications of electromagnetic modes that may be excited on a grating surface. In this work, grating surfaces are used to enhance photon momentum and so allow coupling of photons into electromagnetic resonances. The excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on gratings has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Accurate fitting of theory to reflectivity data has shown that SPP excitation is an excellent method of characterising metal films and also shows that our holographically produced gratings have a well defined groove profile. Thin silver films have been used to demonstrate the excitation of long range surface plasmons (LRSPs) and short range surface plasmons. The dispersion of these modes has been examined theoretically and experimentally. Theory has been fitted to reflectivity data with an accuracy never before seen for this configuration. A recently discovered optical mode, the long range surface exciton polariton (LRSEP) has been observed on thin chromium films at infra red wavelengths. The dispersion of this mode with film thickness is examined along with the different perturbations on the mode due to grating coupling and prism coupling. Excitation of long range modes on palladium films has been used to optically characterise the metal and has shown that effective medium theories may be used as a qualitative description of film porosity. Further work reports the discovery of a new phenomenon called p to s conversion which occurs when an optical mode is excited on a suitably orientated grating. This phenomenon is studied in detail for surface plasmon polaritons, long range surface plasmons and guided modes. Conversion efficiencies of up to 66% have been observed for lightly modulated gratings via the excitation of SPPs and guided modes have
Signature of nonadiabatic coupling in excited-state vibrational modes.
Soler, Miguel A; Nelson, Tammie; Roitberg, Adrian E; Tretiak, Sergei; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian
2014-11-13
Using analytical excited-state gradients, vibrational normal modes have been calculated at the minimum of the electronic excited-state potential energy surfaces for a set of extended conjugated molecules with different coupling between them. Molecular model systems composed of units of polyphenylene ethynylene (PPE), polyphenylenevinylene (PPV), and naphthacene/pentacene (NP) have been considered. In all cases except the NP model, the influence of the nonadiabatic coupling on the excited-state equilibrium normal modes is revealed as a unique highest frequency adiabatic vibrational mode that overlaps with the coupling vector. This feature is removed by using a locally diabatic representation in which the effect of NA interaction is removed. Comparison of the original adiabatic modes with a set of vibrational modes computed in the locally diabatic representation demonstrates that the effect of nonadiabaticity is confined to only a few modes. This suggests that the nonadiabatic character of a molecular system may be detected spectroscopically by identifying these unique state-specific high frequency vibrational modes.
Gravitational Effects on Collective Modes of Superfluid Shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padavić, Karmela; Sun, Kuei; Lannert, Courtney; Vishveshwara, Smitha
We study the effects of gravity on collective excitations of shell-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). Superfluid shells are of general interest as examples of hollow geometries that can be produced in ultracold atoms in bubble-trap potentials or optical lattices. Our approach to analyzing superfluid shells is based on a Gross-Pitaevskii mean field theory and hydrodynamic equations derived from it. Considering a spherically symmetric BEC in general, there are distinct collective excitation spectra for the cases of a fully filled sphere and a very thin shell. Furthermore, an adiabatic change in the potential producing a slow transition from one geometry to the other shows a characteristic evolution. Given that in most realistic experimental conditions gravity cannot be neglected we investigate its effects on the equilibrium profile and the collective modes in the very thin shell limit. We analytically obtain the full excitation spectrum for the thin shell geometry and account for gravity perturbatively at length and energy scales that describe a stable matter-wave bubble. We find that gravity breaks spherical symmetry of the equilibrium density profile and affects the collective excitations by coupling adjacent modes in the angular direction.
Extremely confined gap surface-plasmon modes excited by electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raza, Søren; Stenger, Nicolas; Pors, Anders; Holmgaard, Tobias; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima; Wagner, Jakob B.; Pedersen, Kjeld; Wubs, Martijn; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Mortensen, N. Asger
2014-06-01
High-spatial and energy resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) can be used for detailed characterization of localized and propagating surface-plasmon excitations in metal nanostructures, giving insight into fundamental physical phenomena and various plasmonic effects. Here, applying EELS to ultra-sharp convex grooves in gold, we directly probe extremely confined gap surface-plasmon (GSP) modes excited by swift electrons in nanometre-wide gaps. We reveal the resonance behaviour associated with the excitation of the antisymmetric GSP mode for extremely small gap widths, down to ~5 nm. We argue that excitation of this mode, featuring very strong absorption, has a crucial role in experimental realizations of non-resonant light absorption by ultra-sharp convex grooves with fabrication-induced asymmetry. The occurrence of the antisymmetric GSP mode along with the fundamental GSP mode exploited in plasmonic waveguides with extreme light confinement is a very important factor that should be taken into account in the design of nanoplasmonic circuits and devices.
Search for intrinsic collective excitations in Sm152
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulp, W. D.; Wood, J. L.; Garrett, P. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Cline, D.; Allmond, J. M.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Dashdorj, D.; Choudry, S. N.; Hayes, A. B.; Hua, H.; Mynk, M. G.; McEllistrem, M. T.; McKay, C. J.; Orce, J. N.; Teng, R.; Yates, S. W.
2008-06-01
The 685 keV excitation energy of the first excited 0+ state in Sm152 makes it an attractive candidate to explore expected two-phonon excitations at low energy. Multiple-step Coulomb excitation and inelastic neutron scattering studies of Sm152 are used to probe the E2 collectivity of excited 0+ states in this “soft” nucleus and the results are compared with model predictions. No candidates for two-phonon Kπ=0+quadrupole vibrational states are found. A 2+,K=2 state with strong E2 decay to the first excited Kπ=0+ band and a probable 3+ band member are established.
Roundabout relaxation: collective excitation requires a detour to equilibrium.
Morita, Hidetoshi; Kaneko, Kunihiko
2005-03-04
Relaxation to equilibrium after strong and collective excitation is studied by using a Hamiltonian dynamical system of a one-dimensional XY model. After an excitation of a domain of K elements, the excitation is concentrated to fewer elements, which are made farther away from equilibrium, and the excitation intensity increases logarithmically with K. Equilibrium is reached only after taking this roundabout route, with the time for relaxation diverging asymptotically as Kgamma with gamma approximately 4.2.
Roundabout Relaxation: Collective Excitation Requires a Detour to Equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morita, Hidetoshi; Kaneko, Kunihiko
2005-03-01
Relaxation to equilibrium after strong and collective excitation is studied by using a Hamiltonian dynamical system of a one-dimensional XY model. After an excitation of a domain of K elements, the excitation is concentrated to fewer elements, which are made farther away from equilibrium, and the excitation intensity increases logarithmically with K. Equilibrium is reached only after taking this roundabout route, with the time for relaxation diverging asymptotically as Kγ with γ≈4.2.
Excitation of leaky modes in a system of coupled waveguides
Usievich, B A; Nurligareev, J Kh; Sychugov, V A; Golant, K M
2007-06-30
A system of coupled single-mode waveguides with the number M of guided modes lower than the number N of single-mode waveguides is studied. Leaky modes in this system are investigated in detail. It is shown, in particular, that these modes can be excited by light incident on the side surface of the system when the reflection coefficient vanishes. It is found that the angular dependence of the coefficient of reflection from the side surface of the system can be used to refine the dispersion curve for leaky modes. It is shown that light incident at a grazing angle can propagate in the system in the direction considerably different from the propagation direction of a beam incident from a substrate, even in the case of a small difference in the refractive indices. (fiber and integrated optics)
Collective oscillations and coupled modes in confined microfluidic droplet arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiller, Ulf D.; Fleury, Jean-Baptiste; Seemann, Ralf; Gompper, Gerhard
Microfluidic droplets have a wide range of applications ranging from analytic assays in cellular biology to controlled mixing in chemical engineering. Ensembles of microfluidic droplets are interesting model systems for non-equilibrium many-body phenomena. When flowing in a microchannel, trains of droplets can form microfluidic crystals whose dynamics are governed by long-range hydrodynamic interactions and boundary effects. In this contribution, excitation mechanisms for collective waves in dense and confined microfluidic droplet arrays are investigated by experiments and computer simulations. We demonstrate that distinct modes can be excited by creating specific `defect' patterns in flowing droplet trains. While longitudinal modes exhibit a short-lived cascade of pairs of laterally displacing droplets, transversely excited modes form propagating waves that behave like microfluidic phonons. We show that the confinement induces a coupling between longitudinal and transverse modes. We also investigate the life time of the collective oscillations and discuss possible mechanisms for the onset of instabilities. Our results demonstrate that microfluidic phonons can exhibit effects beyond the linear theory, which can be studied particularly well in dense and confined systems. This work was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. SE 1118/4.
Two-Mode Excited Entangled Coherent State: Nonclassicality and Entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hao-Liang; Wu, Jia-Ni; Liu, Cun-Jin; Hu, Yin-Quan; Hu, Li-Yun
2017-03-01
Two-mode excited entangled coherent states (TME-ECSs) are introduced by operating repeatedly the photon-excited operator on the ECSs. It is shown that the normalization constant is related to the product of two Laguerre polynomials. The influence of the operation on nonclassical behaviour of the ECSs is investigated in terms of cross-correlation function, anti-bunching effect and the negativity of Wigner function, which show that nonclassical properties can be enhanced. In addition, inseparability properties of the TME-ECSs are discussed by using Bell inequality and concurrence. It is found that the degree of quantum entanglement of even ECSs increases with the increase of the total excited photon number, and the violation of Bell inequality can be present for both even and odd case only when the total excited photon numbers are even and odd, respectively.
Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. II. Antenna arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.
2014-12-01
The excitation of whistler modes from magnetic loop antennas has been investigated experimentally. The field topology of the excited wave driven by a single loop antenna has been measured for different loop orientations with respect to the uniform background field. The fields from two or more antennas at different locations are then created by superposition of the single-loop data. It is shown that an antenna array can produce nearly plane waves which cannot be achieved with single antennas. By applying a phase shift along the array, oblique wave propagation is obtained. This allows a meaningful comparison with plane wave theory. The Gendrin mode and oblique cyclotron resonance are demonstrated. Wave helicity and polarization in space and time are demonstrated and distinguished from the magnetic helicity of the wave field. The superposition of two oblique plane whistler modes produces in a "whistler waveguide" mode whose polarization and helicity properties are explained. The results show that single point measurements cannot properly establish the wave character of wave packets. The laboratory observations are relevant for excitation and detection of whistler modes in space plasmas.
Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. II. Antenna arrays
Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.
2014-12-15
The excitation of whistler modes from magnetic loop antennas has been investigated experimentally. The field topology of the excited wave driven by a single loop antenna has been measured for different loop orientations with respect to the uniform background field. The fields from two or more antennas at different locations are then created by superposition of the single-loop data. It is shown that an antenna array can produce nearly plane waves which cannot be achieved with single antennas. By applying a phase shift along the array, oblique wave propagation is obtained. This allows a meaningful comparison with plane wave theory. The Gendrin mode and oblique cyclotron resonance are demonstrated. Wave helicity and polarization in space and time are demonstrated and distinguished from the magnetic helicity of the wave field. The superposition of two oblique plane whistler modes produces in a “whistler waveguide” mode whose polarization and helicity properties are explained. The results show that single point measurements cannot properly establish the wave character of wave packets. The laboratory observations are relevant for excitation and detection of whistler modes in space plasmas.
Collective excitations of spherical semiconductor nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradi, Afshin
2016-10-01
In this article, we study the dispersion properties of bulk and surface electrostatic oscillations of a spherical quantum electron-hole semiconductor plasma as a simple model of a semiconductor nanoparticle. We derive general dispersion relation for both bulk and surface modes, using quantum hydrodynamic theory (including the electrons and holes quantum recoil effects, quantum statistical pressures of the plasma species, as well as exchange and correlation effects) in conjunction with Poisson’s equation and appropriate boundary conditions. We show that for the arbitrary value of angular quantum number {\\ell }≥slant 1 there are only two surface plasmon modes, but two infinite series of bulk modes for {\\ell }≥slant 0 that owe their existence to the curvature of the interface. We use the typical values of GaAs semiconductor to compute the bulk and surface mode frequencies for different value of {\\ell }.
Measurement of collective excitations in a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khamehchi, M. A.; Zhang, Yongping; Hamner, Chris; Busch, Thomas; Engels, Peter
2014-12-01
We measure the collective excitation spectrum of a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate using Bragg spectroscopy. The spin-orbit coupling is generated by Raman dressing of atomic hyperfine states. When the Raman detuning is reduced, mode softening at a finite momentum is revealed, which provides insight into a supersolid-like phase transition. We find that for the parameters of our system, this softening stops at a finite excitation gap and is symmetric under a sign change of the Raman detuning. Finally, using a moving barrier that is swept through the BEC, we also show the effect of the collective excitation on the fluid dynamics.
Excitation of dark plasmonic modes in symmetry broken terahertz metamaterials.
Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy; Su, Xiaofang; Zeng, Yong; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Taylor, Antoinette J; Azad, Abul
2014-08-11
Plasmonic structures with high symmetry, such as double-identical gap split ring resonators, possess dark eigenmodes. These dark eigenmodes are dominated by magnetic dipole and/or higher-order multi-poles such as electric quadrapoles. Consequently these dark modes interact very weakly with the surrounding environment, and can have very high quality factors (Q). In this work, we have studied, experimentally as well as theoretically, these dark eigenmodes in terahertz metamaterials. Theoretical investigations with the help of classical perturbation theory clearly indicate the existence of these dark modes in symmetric plasmonic metamaterials. However, these dark modes can be excited experimentally by breaking the symmetry within the constituting metamaterial resonators cell, resulting in high quality factor resonance mode. The symmetry broken metamaterials with such high quality factor can pave the way in realizing high sensitivity sensors, in addition to other applications.
Asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons by dark mode coupling.
Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Quan; Li, Quan; Xu, Yuehong; Gu, Jianqiang; Tian, Zhen; Ouyang, Chunmei; Liu, Yongmin; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili
2016-02-01
Control over surface plasmons (SPs) is essential in a variety of cutting-edge applications, such as highly integrated photonic signal processing systems, deep-subwavelength lasing, high-resolution imaging, and ultrasensitive biomedical detection. Recently, asymmetric excitation of SPs has attracted enormous interest. In free space, the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials has been widely investigated to uniquely manipulate the electromagnetic waves. In the near field, we show that the dark mode coupling mechanism of the classical EIT effect enables an exotic and straightforward excitation of SPs in a metasurface system. This leads to not only resonant excitation of asymmetric SPs but also controllable exotic SP focusing by the use of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. Our experimental findings manifest the potential of developing plasmonic metadevices with unique functionalities.
Asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons by dark mode coupling
Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Quan; Li, Quan; Xu, Yuehong; Gu, Jianqiang; Tian, Zhen; Ouyang, Chunmei; Liu, Yongmin; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili
2016-01-01
Control over surface plasmons (SPs) is essential in a variety of cutting-edge applications, such as highly integrated photonic signal processing systems, deep-subwavelength lasing, high-resolution imaging, and ultrasensitive biomedical detection. Recently, asymmetric excitation of SPs has attracted enormous interest. In free space, the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials has been widely investigated to uniquely manipulate the electromagnetic waves. In the near field, we show that the dark mode coupling mechanism of the classical EIT effect enables an exotic and straightforward excitation of SPs in a metasurface system. This leads to not only resonant excitation of asymmetric SPs but also controllable exotic SP focusing by the use of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. Our experimental findings manifest the potential of developing plasmonic metadevices with unique functionalities. PMID:26989777
Are Resonant Helioseimic Modes Excited by Solar Flares?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leibacher, John W.; Baudin, Frédéric; Rabello Soares, Maria Cristina
2016-05-01
We critically examine reports that flares have been observed to excite resonant p-modes by:-looking in detail at the results of the ring-diagram analysis in terms of duty cycle and center-to-limb variation of ring-diagram power.-applying the same analysis to the Halloween flare using GONG and MDI data.-assessing the stability in terms of oscillation power of both instruments.
Vibrationally mode-specific excitation in molecular photoionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poliakoff, Erwin
2003-05-01
Recent measurements on the photoionization of polyatomic molecules demonstrate that excitations of nominally forbidden vibrations are surprisingly intense, and that their energy dependences elucidate why they are occurring. The unifying theme underscored by these results is that the continuum photoelectron exerts tremendous influence on which vibrations are excited and the degree of excitation. These data are generated via high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy coupled with high brightness synchrotron radiation. Results are presented on the linear triatomic systems CO_2, CS_2, and N_2O. For these molecules, all vibrational modes are excited. Moreover, the energy dependences for the alternative vibrational modes exhibit dramatic differences, which are attributed to the degree and type of localization experienced by the continuum photoelectron in the molecular framework. And while the electronic structures of these molecules are very similar, they behave very differently from each other, even over a very broad energy range. Theoretical results by Prof. R.R. Lucchese will be discussed, and the comparison with experiment helps to illustrate the state of our understanding of these phenomena. In addition to the linear triatomics, preliminary results will be reported on BF_3, as well as a van der Waals dimer, Ar_2.
The quest for novel modes of excitation in exotic nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paar, N.
2010-06-01
This paper provides an insight into several open problems in the quest for novel modes of excitation in nuclei with isospin asymmetry, deformation and finite-temperature characteristics in stellar environments. Major unsolved problems include the nature of pygmy dipole resonances, the quest for various multipole and spin-isospin excitations both in neutron-rich and proton drip-line nuclei mainly driven by loosely bound nucleons, excitations in unstable deformed nuclei and evolution of their properties with the shape phase transition. Exotic modes of excitation in nuclei at finite temperatures characteristic of supernova evolution present open problems with a possible impact in modeling astrophysically relevant weak interaction rates. All these issues challenge self-consistent many-body theory frameworks at the frontiers of on-going research, including nuclear energy density functionals, both phenomenological and constrained by the strong interaction physics of QCD, models based on low-momentum two-nucleon interaction Vlow-k and correlated realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction VUCOM, supplemented by three-body force, as well as two-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions derived from the chiral effective field theory. Joined theoretical and experimental efforts, including research with radioactive isotope beams, are needed to provide insight into dynamical properties of nuclei away from the valley of stability, involving the interplay of isospin asymmetry, deformation and finite temperature.
Ultrafast terahertz spectroscopy and control of collective modes in semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seletskiy, Denis V.
In this dissertation we applied methods of ultrafast terahertz (THz) spectroscopy to study several aspects of semiconductor physics and in particular of collective mode excitations in semiconductors. We detect and analyze THz radiation emitted by these collective modes to reveal the underlying physics of many-body interactions. We review a design, implementation and characterization of our ultrafast terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy setup, with additional features of mid-infrared tunability and coherent as well as incoherent detection capabilities. Temperature characterization of the collective plasmon excitation in indium antimonide (InSb) is presented to reveal the importance of non-parabolicity corrections in quantitative description. We also obtain electronic mobility from the radiation signals, which, once corrected for ultrafast scattering mechanisms, is in good agreement with DC Hall mobility measurements. Exhibited sensitivity to non-parabolicity and electronic mobility is applicable to non-contact characterization of electronic transport in nanostructures. As a first goal of this work, we have addressed the possibility of an all-optical control of the electronic properties of condensed matter systems on an ultrafast time scale. Using femtosecond pulses we have demonstrated an ability to impose a nearly 20% blue-shift of the plasma frequency in InSb. Preliminary investigations of coherent control of the electron dynamics using third-order nonlinearity were also carried out in solid state and gaseous media. In particular, we have experimentally verified the THz coherent control in air-breakdown plasmas and have demonstrated the ability to induce quantum-interference current control in indium arsenide crystals. As a second focus of this dissertation, we have addressed manipulation of the plasmon modes in condensed matter systems. After development of the analytical model of radiation from spatially extended longitudinal modes, we have applied it to
Collective modes in the paramagnetic phase of the Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dao, Vu Hung; Frésard, Raymond
2017-04-01
The charge dynamical response function of the Hubbard model is investigated on the square lattice in the thermodynamic limit. The obtained charge-excitation spectra consist of a continuum, a gapless collective mode with anisotropic zero-sound velocity, and a correlation-induced high-frequency mode at ω ≈U . The correlation function is calculated from Gaussian fluctuations around the paramagnetic saddle point within the Kotliar and Ruckenstein slave-boson representation. Its dependence on the on-site Coulomb repulsion U and density is studied in detail. An approximate analytical expression of the high-frequency mode, which holds for any lattice with one atom in the unit cell, is derived. Comparison with numerical simulations, perturbation theory, and the polarization potential theory is carried out. We also show that magnetic instabilities tend to vanish for T ≳t /6 , and finite-temperature phase diagrams are established.
Search for intrinsic collective excitations in {sup 152}Sm
Kulp, W. D.; Wood, J. L.; Allmond, J. M.; Garrett, P. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A. B.; Hua, H.; Teng, R.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Choudry, S. N.; McEllistrem, M. T.; McKay, C. J.; Orce, J. N.; Dashdorj, D.; Mynk, M. G.; Yates, S. W.
2008-06-15
The 685 keV excitation energy of the first excited 0{sup +} state in {sup 152}Sm makes it an attractive candidate to explore expected two-phonon excitations at low energy. Multiple-step Coulomb excitation and inelastic neutron scattering studies of {sup 152}Sm are used to probe the E2 collectivity of excited 0{sup +} states in this 'soft' nucleus and the results are compared with model predictions. No candidates for two-phonon K{sup {pi}}=0{sup +}quadrupole vibrational states are found. A 2{sup +},K=2 state with strong E2 decay to the first excited K{sup {pi}}=0{sup +} band and a probable 3{sup +} band member are established.
Collective π -electronic excitations in BN double-walled nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Margulis, Vl. A.; Muryumin, E. E.; Gaiduk, E. A.
2008-07-01
We report a systematic theoretical study of the collective π -electronic excitations in boron nitride double-walled nanotubes (BN-DWNTs). For simplicity, it is assumed that both shells (inner and outer) of such tubes have a zigzag achiral structure. Taking into account intershell Coulomb coupling and neglecting intershell electron tunneling, we introduce the effective dynamic-dielectric-response function of the BN-DWNTs, which depends on frequency ω , wave number q , and angular momentum L . An explicit expression for this function is derived within the random-phase approximation using standard many-body techniques based on the Green’s function method. Numerical results are presented for the wave-number dispersion and damping of the π -plasmon modes with different L ’s, demonstrating a unified picture of the π -plasmon-energy variation with q for the BN-DWNTs of different diameters. According to this picture, the spectrum of the π plasmons, which are shown to be long lived and hence well-defined collective electronic excitations in the BN-DWNTs, consists of a set of nonintersecting upward-dispersed branches, which are well separated in their energies at small values of q , but which tend to merge with increasing q . Each of the branches corresponds to one and only one value of the angular momentum L=0,1,2,… and none of the branches starts from q=0 . The present calculations also show that the π plasmons in the BN-DWNTs can exist even at those q values at which the π -plasmon modes are not supported by either of the nanotube shells alone. It is found that the threshold value of the wavelength, at which the L=0 π -plasmon dispersion curve in the BN-DWNTs makes its start, is redshifted as compared to that in the inner and outer nanotube shells if they are considered separately. The most important features of our calculated results seem to be consistent, more or less reasonable, with those derived from the recent electron
Collective modes in the fluxonium qubit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Catelani, Gianluigi; Viola, Giovanni
2015-03-01
In the fluxonium qubit, an array comprising a large number of identical Josephson junctions form a so-called superinductance. The superinductance is connected to a junction - the phase slip element - with a smaller Josephson energy and a different charging energy. We investigate the effects of unavoidable capacitive couplings to ground as well as non-linearities of the superinductance: they both introduce interactions between the low-energy qubit degree of freedom and higher-energy collective modes of the circuit. We also consider the role of the additional capacitances that are used to couple the qubit to a resonator for driving and read-out. We show that the interactions with the collective modes can affect not only the spectrum of the qubit but also its coherence. Work supported in part by the EU under REA Grant Agreement No. CIG-618258.
Few-body collective excitations beyond Kohn's theorem in quantum Hall systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wooten, R. E.; Yan, B.; Greene, Chris H.
2017-01-01
A relative coordinate breathing mode in the quantum Hall system is predicted to exist with different behavior under either Coulomb or dipole-dipole interactions. While Kohn's theorem [W. Kohn, Phys. Rev. 123, 1242 (1961), 10.1103/PhysRev.123.1242] predicts that any relative coordinate interaction will fail to alter the center-of-mass energy spectrum, it can affect excitations in the relative coordinates. One such collective excitation, which we call the hyperradial breathing mode, emerges naturally from a few-body, hyperspherical representation of the problem and depends on the interparticle interactions, the ground state wave function, and the number of particles participating in the excitation. Possible observations of this excitation will be discussed in the context of both conventional quantum Hall experiments and cold, rotating atomic simulations.
Propagation of collective modes in non-overlapping dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallemi, A.; Guilleumas, M.; Mayol, R.; Pi, M.
2014-04-01
We investigate long-range effects of the dipolar interaction in Bose-Einstein condensates by solving the time-dependent 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We study the propagation of excitations between non-overlapping condensates when a collective mode is excited in one of the condensates. We obtain the frequency shifts due to the long-range character of the dipolar coupling for the bilayer and also the trilayer system when the dipolar mode is excited in one condensate. The propagation of the monopolar and quadrupolar modes are also investigated. The coupled-pendulum model is proposed to qualitatively explain the long range effects of the dipolar coupling.
Fast excitation of geodesic acoustic mode by energetic particle beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Jintao; Qiu, Zhiyong; Zonca, Fulvio
2015-12-01
A new mechanism for geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) excitation by a not fully slowed down energetic particle (EP) beam is analyzed to explain experimental observations in Large Helical Device. It is shown that the positive velocity space gradient near the lower-energy end of the EP distribution function can strongly drive the GAM unstable. The new features of this EP-induced GAM (EGAM) are: (1) no instability threshold in the pitch angle; (2) the EGAM frequency can be higher than the local GAM frequency; and (3) the instability growth rate is much larger than that driven by a fully slowed down EP beam.
Exotic modes of excitation in deformed neutron-rich nuclei
Yoshida, Kenichi
2011-05-06
Low-lying dipole excitation mode in neutron-rich Mg isotopes close to the drip line is investigated in the framework of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and the quasiparticle random-phase approximation employing the Skyrme and the pairing energy-density functionals. It is found that the low-lying dipole-strength distribution splits into the K{sup {pi}} = 0{sup -} and 1{sup -} components due to the nuclear deformation. The low-lying dipole strength increases as the neutron drip-line is approached.
Fast excitation of geodesic acoustic mode by energetic particle beams
Cao, Jintao; Qiu, Zhiyong; Zonca, Fulvio
2015-12-15
A new mechanism for geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) excitation by a not fully slowed down energetic particle (EP) beam is analyzed to explain experimental observations in Large Helical Device. It is shown that the positive velocity space gradient near the lower-energy end of the EP distribution function can strongly drive the GAM unstable. The new features of this EP-induced GAM (EGAM) are: (1) no instability threshold in the pitch angle; (2) the EGAM frequency can be higher than the local GAM frequency; and (3) the instability growth rate is much larger than that driven by a fully slowed down EP beam.
Nonlinear terahertz coherent excitation of vibrational modes of liquids.
Allodi, Marco A; Finneran, Ian A; Blake, Geoffrey A
2015-12-21
We report the first coherent excitation of intramolecular vibrational modes via the nonlinear interaction of a TeraHertz (THz) light field with molecular liquids. A terahertz-terahertz-Raman pulse sequence prepares the coherences with a broadband, high-energy, (sub)picosecond terahertz pulse, that are then measured in a terahertz Kerr effect spectrometer via phase-sensitive, heterodyne detection with an optical pulse. The spectrometer reported here has broader terahertz frequency coverage, and an increased sensitivity relative to previously reported terahertz Kerr effect experiments. Vibrational coherences are observed in liquid diiodomethane at 3.66 THz (122 cm(-1)), and in carbon tetrachloride at 6.50 THz (217 cm(-1)), in exact agreement with literature values of those intramolecular modes. This work opens the door to 2D spectroscopies, nonlinear in terahertz field, that can study the dynamics of condensed-phase molecular systems, as well as coherent control at terahertz frequencies.
Nonlinear terahertz coherent excitation of vibrational modes of liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allodi, Marco A.; Finneran, Ian A.; Blake, Geoffrey A.
2015-12-01
We report the first coherent excitation of intramolecular vibrational modes via the nonlinear interaction of a TeraHertz (THz) light field with molecular liquids. A terahertz-terahertz-Raman pulse sequence prepares the coherences with a broadband, high-energy, (sub)picosecond terahertz pulse, that are then measured in a terahertz Kerr effect spectrometer via phase-sensitive, heterodyne detection with an optical pulse. The spectrometer reported here has broader terahertz frequency coverage, and an increased sensitivity relative to previously reported terahertz Kerr effect experiments. Vibrational coherences are observed in liquid diiodomethane at 3.66 THz (122 cm-1), and in carbon tetrachloride at 6.50 THz (217 cm-1), in exact agreement with literature values of those intramolecular modes. This work opens the door to 2D spectroscopies, nonlinear in terahertz field, that can study the dynamics of condensed-phase molecular systems, as well as coherent control at terahertz frequencies.
Radial structures and nonlinear excitation of geodesic acoustic modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zonca, F.; Chen, L.
2008-08-01
Geodesic acoustic modes (GAM) are shown to constitute a continuous spectrum due to radial inhomogeneities. The importance and theoretical as well as experimental implications of this fact are discussed in this work. The existence of a singular layer causes GAM to mode convert to short-wavelength kinetic GAM (KGAM) via finite ion Larmor radii; analogous to kinetic Alfvén waves (KAW). Furthermore, it is shown that KGAM can be nonlinearly excited by drift-wave (DW) turbulence via 3-wave parametric interactions, and the resultant driven-dissipative nonlinear system exhibits typical prey-predator self-regulatory dynamics, consistent with recent experimental observations on HL-2A. The degeneracy of GAM/KGAM with beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (BAE) is demonstrated and discussed, with emphasis on its important role in the complex self-organized behaviors of burning plasmas.
Infra red active modes due to coupling of cyclotron excitation and LO phonons in polar semiconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agrawal, Ratna; Dubey, Swati; Ghosh, S.
2013-06-01
Effects of free carrier concentration, external magnetic field and Callen effective charge on infra red active modes in a polar semiconductor have been analytically investigated using simple harmonic oscillator model. Callen effective charge considerably enhances reflectivity and shifts minima towards lower values of energy. Presence of magnetic field leads towards the coupling of collective cyclotron excitations with LO phonon giving rise to maximum reflectivity whereas cyclotron resonance absorption results into minimum reflectivity.
Large angular scale CMB anisotropy from an excited initial mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sojasi, A.; Mohsenzadeh, M.; Yusofi, E.
2016-07-01
According to inflationary cosmology, the CMB anisotropy gives an opportunity to test predictions of new physics hypotheses. The initial state of quantum fluctuations is one of the important options at high energy scale, as it can affect observables such as the CMB power spectrum. In this study a quasi-de Sitter inflationary background with approximate de Sitter mode function built over the Bunch-Davies mode is applied to investigate the scale-dependency of the CMB anisotropy. The recent Planck constraint on spectral index motivated us to examine the effect of a new excited mode function (instead of pure de Sitter mode) on the CMB anisotropy at large angular scales. In so doing, it is found that the angular scale-invariance in the CMB temperature fluctuations is broken and in the limit ℓ < 200 a tiny deviation appears. Also, it is shown that the power spectrum of CMB anisotropy is dependent on a free parameter with mass dimension H << M * < M p and on the slow-roll parameter ɛ. Supported by the Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Rasht, Iran
Collective edge modes in fractional quantum Hall systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Hoang K.; Joglekar, Yogesh N.; Murthy, Ganpathy
2004-07-01
Over the past few years one of us (Murthy) in collaboration with Shankar has developed an extended Hamiltonian formalism capable of describing the ground-state and low-energy excitations in the fractional quantum Hall regime. The Hamiltonian, expressed in terms of composite fermion operators, incorporates all the nonperturbative features of the fractional Hall regime, so that conventional many-body approximations such as Hartree-Fock and time-dependent Hartree-Fock are applicable. We apply this formalism to develop a microscopic theory of the collective edge modes in fractional quantum Hall regime. We present the results for edge mode dispersions at principal filling factors ν=1/3 , 1/5 , and 2/5 for systems with unreconstructed edges. The primary advantage of the method is that one works in the thermodynamic limit right from the beginning, thus avoiding the finite-size effects which ultimately limit exact diagonalization studies.
High energy components and collective modes in thermonuclear plasmas
Coppi, B.; Cowley, S.; Detragiache, P.; Kulsrud, R.; Pegoraro, F.
1986-02-01
The theory of a class of collective modes of a thermonuclear magnetically confined plasma, with frequencies in the range of the ion cyclotron frequency and of its harmonics, is presented. These modes can be excited by their resonant cyclotron interaction with a plasma component of relatively high energy particles characterized by a strongly anisotropic distribution in velocity space. Normal modes that are spatially localized by the inhomogeneity of the plasma density are found. This ensures that the energy gained by their resonant interaction is not convected away. The mode spatial localization can be significantly altered by the magnetic field inhomogeneity for a given class of plasma density profiles. Special attention is devoted to the case of a spin polarized plasma, where the charged products of fusion reactions are anisotropically distributed. We show that for the mode of polarization that enhances nuclear reaction rates the tritium will be rapidly depolarized to toroidal configurations with relatively mild gradients of the confining magnetic field. 18 refs., 9 figs.
Quasiparticle Coherence, Collective Modes, and Competing Order in Cuprate Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hinton, James Patrick
In recent years, the study of cuprate superconductors has been dominated by the investigation of normal state properties. Of particular interest is the nature of interactions between superconductivity and other incipient orders which emerge above the superconducting transition temperature, Tc. The discovery of charge density wave (CDW) correlations in YBa2Cu3O6+x (YBCO) and HgBa2CuO 4+d (Hg-1201) has established that some form of charge order is ubiquitous in the cuprates. In this work, we explore the non-equilibrium dynamics of systems which sit near the boundary between superconductivity and competing orders. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy is ideally suited to the study of competing order. Exciting the sample with an optical pulse perturbs the system from equilibrium, altering the balance between the co-existing orders. The return to equilibrium is then monitored by a time-delayed probe pulse, revealing multiple decay processes as well as collective excitations. We first apply this technique to Hg-1201, conducting a detailed study of the phase diagram. At temperatures near Tc, the pump pulse induces a non-equilibrium quasiparticle population. At Tc we observe a doping-dependent peak in the relaxation time of these quasiparticles which we associate with a divergence in the coherence time of the fluctuating CDW. Using heterodyne probing in the transient grating geometry, we are able to disentangle the transient reflectivity components associated with superconductivity and the pseudogap, domonstrating competition across the phase diagram. We also discuss the observation of a sharp transition in the nature of the pseudogap signal at ˜ 11% doping. In YBCO, we explore the temperature and doping dependence of coherent oscillations excited by the pump pulse. We associate these oscillations with the excitation of the CDW amplitude mode, and model their temperature dependence within the framework of a Landau model of competing orders. We conclude with an investigation
Suppression of higher mode excitation in a high gain relativistic klystron amplifier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Jin, X.; Li, Z. H.; Tang, C. X.
2012-02-01
Suppressing higher mode excitation is very important in the high gain relativistic klystron amplifier because higher mode can seriously degrade klystron performance and cause pulse shortening. The mechanism of higher mode self-excitation is explored in the PIC simulation, and it is shown the coupling between cavities is the main cause of higher mode self-excitation. The coupling forms the positive feedback loop for higher mode to be excited just like that in the oscillator circuit. The formula for startup current of higher mode self-excitation is developed based on the coupling between cavities. And the corresponding methods are taken to avoid higher mode self-excitation. Finally, mode control is realized in the RKA with output power up to 1.02 GW when driven power is only few kilowatts.
Collective excitations in a 2D electron system: Canted field geometry
Marinescu, D.C.; Quinn, J.J.; Wojs, A.
1998-06-01
The authors investigate the charge and spin collective modes induced in a 2D electron gas by a weak electromagnetic perturbation in the presence of a dc magnetic field which makes an angle {theta} with the electron layer. The excitation frequencies are determined within the framework of the Landau-Silin theory of Fermi liquids by solving a semi-classical equation for transport in the self-consistent electromagnetic field associated with particle density fluctuations. The quasiparticle interaction is spin dependent and varies parametrically with the degree of spin polarization. In the long wavelength limit, they obtain analytic results for the frequencies of the collective modes as functions of {theta}.
Collective excitations on a surface of topological insulator.
Efimkin, Dmitry K; Lozovik, Yurii E; Sokolik, Alexey A
2012-02-29
We study collective excitations in a helical electron liquid on a surface of three-dimensional topological insulator. Electron in helical liquid obeys Dirac-like equation for massless particles and direction of its spin is strictly determined by its momentum. Due to this spin-momentum locking, collective excitations in the system manifest themselves as coupled charge- and spin-density waves. We develop quantum field-theoretical description of spin-plasmons in helical liquid and study their properties and internal structure. Value of spin polarization arising in the system with excited spin-plasmons is calculated. We also consider the scattering of spin-plasmons on magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities and external potentials, and show that the scattering occurs mainly into two side lobes. Analogies with Dirac electron gas in graphene are discussed.PACS: 73.20.Mf; 73.22.Lp; 75.25.Dk.
Crossover from skin mode to proton-neutron mode in E1 excitations of neutron-rich nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakada, H.; Inakura, T.; Sawai, H.
2013-03-01
The character of the low-energy E1 excitations is investigated by analyzing transition densities obtained from the RPA calculations in the doubly magic nuclei. We propose a decomposition method of the E1 excitations into the pn mode (i.e., oscillation between protons and neutrons) and the skin mode (i.e., oscillation of the neutron skin against the inner core) via the transition densities, by which their mixing is handled in a straightforward manner. Crossover behavior of the E1 excitations is found, from the skin mode at low energy to the pn mode at higher energy. The ratio of the skin-mode strength to the full strength turns out to be insensitive to the nuclides and to the effective interactions in the energy region of the crossover. Depending on the excitation energy, the observed low-energy E1 excitations are not necessarily dominated by the skin mode, as exemplified for 90Zr.
Excitation of the symmetry forbidden bending mode in molecular photoionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, J. Scott; Poliakoff, E. D.; Miller, Thomas F.; Natalense, Alexandra P. P.; Lucchese, Robert R.
2001-03-01
We present results on the energy dependence of the vibrational branching ratio for the bending mode in CO2 3σu-1 photoionization. Specifically, we determine the v+=(0,1,0)/v+=(0,0,0) intensity ratio by detecting dispersed fluorescence from the electronically excited photoions. The results exhibit large deviations over a very wide energy range, 18
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minola, M.; Dellea, G.; Gretarsson, H.; Peng, Y. Y.; Lu, Y.; Porras, J.; Loew, T.; Yakhou, F.; Brookes, N. B.; Huang, Y. B.; Pelliciari, J.; Schmitt, T.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Keimer, B.; Braicovich, L.; Le Tacon, M.
2015-05-01
We used resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) with and without analysis of the scattered photon polarization, to study dispersive spin excitations in the high temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O6 +x over a wide range of doping levels (0.1 ≤x ≤1 ). The excitation profiles were carefully monitored as the incident photon energy was detuned from the resonant condition, and the spin excitation energy was found to be independent of detuning for all x . These findings demonstrate that the largest fraction of the spin-flip RIXS profiles in doped cuprates arises from magnetic collective modes, rather than from incoherent particle-hole excitations as recently suggested theoretically [Benjamin et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 247002 (2014)]. Implications for the theoretical description of the electron system in the cuprates are discussed.
Neutron star structure and collective excitations of finite nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paar, N.; Moustakidis, Ch. C.; Marketin, T.; Vretenar, D.; Lalazissis, G. A.
2014-07-01
A method is introduced that establishes relations between properties of collective excitations in finite nuclei and the phase transition density nt and pressure Pt at the inner edge separating the liquid core and the solid crust of a neutron star. A theoretical framework that includes the thermodynamic method, relativistic nuclear energy density functionals, and the quasiparticle random-phase approximation is employed in a self-consistent calculation of (nt,Pt) and collective excitations in nuclei. Covariance analysis shows that properties of charge-exchange dipole transitions, isovector giant dipole and quadrupole resonances, and pygmy dipole transitions are correlated with the core-crust transition density and pressure. A set of relativistic nuclear energy density functionals, characterized by systematic variation of the density dependence of the symmetry energy of nuclear matter, is used to constrain possible values for (nt,Pt). By comparing the calculated excitation energies of giant resonances, energy-weighted pygmy dipole strength, and dipole polarizability with available data, we obtain the weighted average values: nt=0.0955±0.0007 fm-3 and Pt=0.59±0.05 MeV fm-3. This approach crucially depends on experimental results for collective excitations in nuclei and, therefore, accurate measurements are necessary to further constrain the structure of the crust of neutron stars.
Radial structures and nonlinear excitation of Geodesic Acoustic Modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Liu; Zonca, Fulvio
2007-11-01
In this paper, we show that GAMs constitute a continuous spectrum due to radial inhomogeneities. The existence of singular layer, thus, suggests linear mode conversion to short-wavelength kinetic GAM (KGAM) via finite ion Larmor radii. This result is demonstrated by derivations of the GAM mode structure and dispersion relation in the singular layer. At the lowest order in krρi, with kr the radial wave vector and ρi the ion Larmor radius, the well known kinetic dispersion relation of GAM is recovered. At the next relevant order, O(kr^2ρi^2), we show that KGAM propagates in the low-temperature and/or high safety-factor domain; i.e., typically, radially outward, and a corresponding damping rate is derived. In this work, we also show that, while KGAM is linearly stable due to ion Landau damping, it can be nonlinearly excited by finite-amplitude DW turbulence via 3-wave parametric interactions. The resultant 3-wave system exhibits the typical prey-predator self-regulatory dynamics.
Excitation of external kink mode by trapped energetic particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, S. C.; Xu, X. Y.; Liu, Y. Q.; Wang, Z. R.
2016-05-01
An unstable fishbone-like non-resonant external kink mode (FLEM) is numerically found to be driven by the precessional drift motion of trapped energetic particles (EPs) in both reversed-field pinch (RFP) and tokamak plasmas, even under the ideal wall boundary condition. In the presence of a sufficiently large fraction of trapped energetic ions in high beta plasmas, the FLEM instability may occur. The excitation condition is discussed in detail. The frequency of the FLEM is linked to the precessional drift frequency of EPs, and varies with the plasma flow speed. Therefore, it is usually much higher than that of the typical resistive wall mode (RWM). In general, the growth rate of FLEM does not depend on the wall resistivity. However, the wall position can significantly affect the mode’s property. The drift kinetic effects from thermal particles (mainly due to the transit resonance of passing particles) play a stabilizing role on FLEMs. In the presence of EPs, the FLEM and the RWM can co-exist or even couple to each other, depending on the plasma parameters. The FLEM instabilities in RFP and tokamaks have rather similar physics nature, although certain sub-dominant characters appear differently in the two configurations.
Experimental studies of collective excitations of a BEC in light-induced gauge fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chuan-Hsun; Niffenegger, Robert; Blasing, David; Olson, Abraham; Chen, Yong P.
2015-05-01
We present our experimental studies of collective modes including spin dipole mode and scissors mode of a 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in the presence of Raman light-induced gauge fields and synthetic spin-orbit coupling (SOC). By Raman dressing the mf spin states within the F =1 manifold, we engineer atoms' energy-momentum dispersion to create synthetic SOC, and spin dependent synthetic electric and magnetic fields. We have used spin dependent synthetic electric fields to make two BECs with different spins oscillate and collide in the optical trap. We have studied the effects of SOC on both the momentum damping and thermalization behaviors of the BECs when undergoing such spin dipole oscillations. We have also used spatially dependent synthetic electric fields to excite the scissors mode, which has been used as a probe for superfluidity. We have investigated the effects of the synthetic gauge fields and SOC on the measured scissors mode.
Asymmetry of collective excitations in electron- and hole-doped cuprate superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, W. S.; Lee, J. J.; Nowadnick, E. A.; Gerber, S.; Tabis, W.; Huang, S. W.; Strocov, V. N.; Motoyama, E. M.; Yu, G.; Moritz, B.; Huang, H. Y.; Wang, R. P.; Huang, Y. B.; Wu, W. B.; Chen, C. T.; Huang, D. J.; Greven, M.; Schmitt, T.; Shen, Z. X.; Devereaux, T. P.
2014-11-01
High-temperature superconductivity emerges on doping holes or electrons into antiferromagnetic copper oxides. The large energy scale of magnetic excitations, for example, compared with phonon energies, is thought to drive superconductivity with high transition temperatures (Tc). Comparing high-energy magnetic excitations of hole- and electron-doped superconductors provides an opportunity to test this hypothesis. Here, we use resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at the Cu L3-edge to reveal collective excitations in the electron-doped cuprate Nd2-xCexCuO4. Surprisingly, magnetic excitations harden significantly across the antiferromagnetic high-temperature superconductivity phase boundary despite short-ranged antiferromagnetic correlations, in contrast to the hole-doped cuprates. Furthermore, we find an unexpected branch of collective modes in superconducting compounds, absent in hole-doped cuprates. These modes emanate from the zone centre and possess a higher temperature scale than Tc, signalling a distinct quantum phase. Despite their differences, the persistence of magnetic excitations and the existence of a distinct quantum phase are apparently universal in both hole- and electron-doped cuprates.
Imura, Kohei; Okamoto, Hiromi
2006-05-15
We experimentally investigated the reciprocity of scanning near-field optical microscopy between illumination and collection modes. Near-field transmission images of single gold spheres and nanorods observed by the two modes are found to be equivalent to each other in the region from visible to near infrared. This result shows that reciprocity holds for the near-field scattering problems. We found that the conventional optical selection rule for far-field excitations does not apply not only under illumination mode but also with collection-mode arrangements. The possible origin of this observation might be the near-field probe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murotani, Yuta; Tsuji, Naoto; Aoki, Hideo
2017-03-01
We theoretically investigate coherent optical excitations of collective modes in two-band BCS superconductors, which accommodate two Higgs modes and one Leggett mode corresponding, respectively, to the amplitude and relative-phase oscillations of the superconducting order parameters associated with the two bands. We find, based on a mean-field analysis, that each collective mode can be resonantly excited through a nonlinear light-matter coupling when the doubled frequency of the driving field coincides with the frequency of the corresponding mode. Among the two Higgs modes, the higher-energy one exhibits a sharp resonance with light, while the lower-energy mode has a broadened resonance width. The Leggett mode is found to be resonantly induced by a homogeneous ac electric field because the leading nonlinear effect generates a potential offset between the two bands that couples to the relative phase of the order parameters. The resonance for the Leggett mode becomes sharper with increasing temperature. All of these light-induced collective modes along with density fluctuations contribute to the third-harmonic generation. We also predict an experimental possibility of optical detection of the Leggett mode.
Excitation of ultrasharp trapped-mode resonances in mirror-symmetric metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Shengyan; Liu, Zhe; Xia, Xiaoxiang; E, Yiwen; Tang, Chengchun; Wang, Yujin; Li, Junjie; Wang, Li; Gu, Changzhi
2016-06-01
We experimentally demonstrate a metamaterial structure composed of two mirror-symmetric joint split ring resonators (JSRRs) that support extremely sharp trapped-mode resonance with a large modulation depth in the terahertz region. Contrary to the regular mirror-arranged SRR arrays in which both the subradiant inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance and quadrupole-mode resonance can be excited, our designed structure features a metallic microstrip bridging the adjacent SRRs, which leads to the emergence of an otherwise inaccessible ultrahigh-quality-factor resonance. The ultrasharp resonance occurs near the Wood-Rayleigh anomaly frequency, and the underlying mechanism can be attributed to the strong coupling between the in-plane propagating collective lattice surface mode originating from the array periodicity and localized surface plasmon resonance in mirror-symmetric coupled JSRRs, which dramatically reduces radiative damping. The ultrasharp resonance shows great potential for multifunctional applications such as plasmonic switching, low-power nonlinear processing, and chemical and biological sensing.
Direct dark mode excitation by symmetry matching of a single-particle-based metasurface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burokur, Shah Nawaz; Lupu, Anatole; de Lustrac, André
2015-01-01
This paper provides evidence for a direct dark mode excitation mechanism in a metasurface structure. The dark mode excitation mechanism is entirely determined by structures' symmetry and does not depend on near-field coupling between elements. In our examples, we consider single-element based metasurface composed of two V antennas connected in an antisymmetric arrangement. Both experimental and modeling results show an efficient excitation of magnetic dipolar mode in such structures. The direct dark mode excitation mechanism provides a design that is more robust with respect to technology imperfections. The considered approach opens promising perspectives for new types of nanostructure designs and greatly relaxes fabrication constraints for the optical domain.
Collective modes in multi-Weyl semimetals
Ahn, Seongjin; Hwang, E. H.; Min, Hongki
2016-01-01
We investigate collective modes in three dimensional (3D) gapless multi-Weyl semimetals with anisotropic energy band dispersions (i.e., with a positive integer J). For comparison, we also consider the gapless semimetals with the isotropic band dispersions (i.e. E ~ kJ). We calculate analytically long-wavelength plasma frequencies incorporating interband transitions and chiral properties of carriers. For both the isotropic and anisotropic cases, we find that interband transitions and chirality lead to the depolarization shift of plasma frequencies. For the isotropic parabolic band dispersion the long-wavelength plasmons do not decay via Landau damping, while for the higher-order band dispersions the long-wavelength plasmons experience damping below a critical density. For systems with the anisotropic dispersion the density dependence of the long-wavelength plasma frequency along the direction of non-linear dispersion behaves like that of the isotropic linear band model, while along the direction of linear dispersion it behaves like that of the isotropic non-linear model. Plasmons along both directions remain undamped over a broad range of densities due to the chirality induced depolarization shift. Our results provide a comprehensive picture of how band dispersion and chirality affect plasmon behaviors in 3D gapless chiral systems with the arbitrary band dispersion. PMID:27687770
Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. I. Basic properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.
2014-12-01
Properties of magnetic loop antennas for exciting electron whistler modes have been investigated in a large laboratory plasma. The parameter regime is that of large plasma frequency compared to the cyclotron frequency and signal frequency below half the cyclotron frequency. The antenna diameter is smaller than the wavelength. Different directions of the loop antenna relative to the background magnetic field have been measured for small amplitude waves. The differences in the topology of the wave magnetic field are shown from measurements of the three field components in three spatial directions. The helicity of the wave magnetic field and of the hodogram of the magnetic vector in space and time are clarified. The superposition of wave fields is used to investigate the properties of two antennas for small amplitude waves. Standing whistler waves are produced by propagating two wave packets in opposite directions. Directional radiation is obtained with two phased loops separated by a quarter wavelength. Rotating antenna fields, produced with phased orthogonal loops at the same location, do not produce directionality. The concept of superposition is extended in a Paper II to generate antenna arrays for whistlers. These produce nearly plane waves, whose propagation angle can be varied by the phase shifting the currents in the array elements. Focusing of whistlers is possible. These results are important for designing antennas on spacecraft or diagnosing and heating of laboratory plasmas.
Plasmon mode excitation and photoluminescence enhancement on silver nanoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuchmizhak, Aleksandr A.; Gurbatov, Stanislav O.; Kulchin, Yuri N.; Vitrik, Oleg B.
2015-12-01
We demonstrate a simple and high-performance laser-assisted technique for silver nanoring fabrication, which includes the ablation of the Ag film by focused nanosecond pulses and subsequent reactive ion polishing. The nanoring diameter and thickness can be controlled by optimizing both the pulse energy and the metal film thickness at laser ablation step, while the subsequent reactive ion polishing provides the ability to fabricate the nanoring with desirable height. Scattering patterns of s-polarized collimated laser beam obliquely illuminating the nanoring demonstrate the focal spot inside the nanoring shifted from its center at a distance of ~0.57Rring. Five-fold enhancement of the photoluminescence signal from the Rhodamine 6G organic dye near the Ag nanoring was demonstrated. This enhancement was attributed to the increase of the electromagnetic field amplitude near the nanoring surface arising from excitation of the multipole plasmon modes traveling along the nanoring. This assumption was confirmed by dark-field back-scattering spectrum of the nanoring measured under white-light illumination, as well as by supporting finite-difference time-domain simulations.
Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. I. Basic properties
Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.
2014-12-15
Properties of magnetic loop antennas for exciting electron whistler modes have been investigated in a large laboratory plasma. The parameter regime is that of large plasma frequency compared to the cyclotron frequency and signal frequency below half the cyclotron frequency. The antenna diameter is smaller than the wavelength. Different directions of the loop antenna relative to the background magnetic field have been measured for small amplitude waves. The differences in the topology of the wave magnetic field are shown from measurements of the three field components in three spatial directions. The helicity of the wave magnetic field and of the hodogram of the magnetic vector in space and time are clarified. The superposition of wave fields is used to investigate the properties of two antennas for small amplitude waves. Standing whistler waves are produced by propagating two wave packets in opposite directions. Directional radiation is obtained with two phased loops separated by a quarter wavelength. Rotating antenna fields, produced with phased orthogonal loops at the same location, do not produce directionality. The concept of superposition is extended in a Paper II to generate antenna arrays for whistlers. These produce nearly plane waves, whose propagation angle can be varied by the phase shifting the currents in the array elements. Focusing of whistlers is possible. These results are important for designing antennas on spacecraft or diagnosing and heating of laboratory plasmas.
Sensitivity of nonlinear photoionization to resonance substructure in collective excitation
Mazza, T.; Karamatskou, A.; Ilchen, M.; ...
2015-04-09
Collective behaviour is a characteristic feature in many-body systems, important for developments in fields such as magnetism, superconductivity, photonics and electronics. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the optically nonlinear response of collective excitations. Here we demonstrate how the nonlinear interaction of a many-body system with intense XUV radiation can be used as an effective probe for characterizing otherwise unresolved features of its collective response. Resonant photoionization of atomic xenon was chosen as a case study. The excellent agreement between experiment and theory strongly supports the prediction that two distinct poles underlie the giant dipole resonance. Our results pavemore » the way towards a deeper understanding of collective behaviour in atoms, molecules and solid-state systems using nonlinear spectroscopic techniques enabled by modern short-wavelength light sources.« less
Sensitivity of nonlinear photoionization to resonance substructure in collective excitation
Mazza, T.; Karamatskou, A.; Ilchen, M.; Bakhtiarzadeh, S.; Rafipoor, A. J.; O’Keeffe, P.; Kelly, T. J.; Walsh, N.; Costello, J. T.; Meyer, M.; Santra, R.
2015-04-09
Collective behaviour is a characteristic feature in many-body systems, important for developments in fields such as magnetism, superconductivity, photonics and electronics. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the optically nonlinear response of collective excitations. Here we demonstrate how the nonlinear interaction of a many-body system with intense XUV radiation can be used as an effective probe for characterizing otherwise unresolved features of its collective response. Resonant photoionization of atomic xenon was chosen as a case study. The excellent agreement between experiment and theory strongly supports the prediction that two distinct poles underlie the giant dipole resonance. Our results pave the way towards a deeper understanding of collective behaviour in atoms, molecules and solid-state systems using nonlinear spectroscopic techniques enabled by modern short-wavelength light sources.
Sensitivity of nonlinear photoionization to resonance substructure in collective excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazza, T.; Karamatskou, A.; Ilchen, M.; Bakhtiarzadeh, S.; Rafipoor, A. J.; O'Keeffe, P.; Kelly, T. J.; Walsh, N.; Costello, J. T.; Meyer, M.; Santra, R.
2015-04-01
Collective behaviour is a characteristic feature in many-body systems, important for developments in fields such as magnetism, superconductivity, photonics and electronics. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the optically nonlinear response of collective excitations. Here we demonstrate how the nonlinear interaction of a many-body system with intense XUV radiation can be used as an effective probe for characterizing otherwise unresolved features of its collective response. Resonant photoionization of atomic xenon was chosen as a case study. The excellent agreement between experiment and theory strongly supports the prediction that two distinct poles underlie the giant dipole resonance. Our results pave the way towards a deeper understanding of collective behaviour in atoms, molecules and solid-state systems using nonlinear spectroscopic techniques enabled by modern short-wavelength light sources.
Sensitivity of nonlinear photoionization to resonance substructure in collective excitation.
Mazza, T; Karamatskou, A; Ilchen, M; Bakhtiarzadeh, S; Rafipoor, A J; O'Keeffe, P; Kelly, T J; Walsh, N; Costello, J T; Meyer, M; Santra, R
2015-04-09
Collective behaviour is a characteristic feature in many-body systems, important for developments in fields such as magnetism, superconductivity, photonics and electronics. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the optically nonlinear response of collective excitations. Here we demonstrate how the nonlinear interaction of a many-body system with intense XUV radiation can be used as an effective probe for characterizing otherwise unresolved features of its collective response. Resonant photoionization of atomic xenon was chosen as a case study. The excellent agreement between experiment and theory strongly supports the prediction that two distinct poles underlie the giant dipole resonance. Our results pave the way towards a deeper understanding of collective behaviour in atoms, molecules and solid-state systems using nonlinear spectroscopic techniques enabled by modern short-wavelength light sources.
Collective excitations in a superfluid of color-flavor locked quark matter
Fukushima, Kenji; Iida, Kei
2005-04-01
We investigate collective excitations coupled with baryon density in a system of massless three-flavor quarks in the collisionless regime. By using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model in the mean-field approximation, we field-theoretically derive the spectra both for the normal and color-flavor locked (CFL) superfluid phases at zero temperature. In the normal phase, we obtain usual zero sound as a low-lying collective mode in the particle-hole (vector) channel. In the CFL phase, the nature of collective excitations varies in a way dependent on whether the excitation energy, {omega}, is larger or smaller than the threshold given by twice the pairing gap {delta}, at which pair excitations with nonzero total momentum become allowed to break up into two quasiparticles. For {omega}<<2{delta}, a phonon corresponding to fluctuations in the U(1) phase of {delta} appears as a sharp peak in the particle-particle ('H') channel. We reproduce the property known from low-energy effective theories that this mode propagates at a velocity of v{sub H}=1/{radical}(3) in the low momentum regime; the decay constant f{sub H} obtained in the NJL model is identical with the QCD result obtained in the mean-field approximation. We also find that, as the momentum of the phonon increases, the excitation energy goes up and asymptotically approaches {omega}=2{delta}. Above the threshold for pair excitations ({omega}>2{delta}), zero sound manifests itself in the vector channel. By locating the zero sound pole of the vector propagator in the complex energy plane, we investigate the attenuation and energy dispersion relation of zero sound. In the long wavelength limit, the phonon mode, the only low-lying excitation, has its spectral weight in the H channel alone, while the spectral function vanishes in the vector channel. This is due to nontrivial mixing between the H and vector channels in the superfluid medium. We finally extend our study to the case of nonzero temperature. We demonstrate how
Local excitation and collection in polymeric fluorescent microstructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henrique, Franciele Renata; Mendonca, Cleber Renato
2016-04-01
Integrated photonics has gained attention in recent years due to its wide range of applications which span from biology to optical communications. The use of polymer-based platforms for photonic devices is of great interest because organic compounds can be easily incorporated to polymers, enabling modifications to the system physical properties. The two-photon polymerization technique has emerged as an interesting tool for the production of three-dimensional polymeric microstructures. However, for their further incorporation in photonic devices it is necessary to develop methods to perform optical excitation and signal collection on such microstructures. With such purpose, we demonstrate approaches to perform local excitation and collection in polymeric microstructures doped with fluorescent dyes, employing tapered fibers. The obtained results indicate that fiber tapers are suitable to couple light in and out of fluorescent polymeric microstructures, paving the way for their incorporation in photonic devices. We also show that microstructures doped with more than one dye can be used as built-in broadband light sources to photonic circuits and their emission spectrum can be tuned by the right choice of the excitation position.
Degenerate mode band-pass birdcage coil for accelerated parallel excitation.
Alagappan, Vijayanand; Nistler, Juergen; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Setsompop, Kawin; Fontius, Ulrich; Zelinski, Adam; Vester, Markus; Wiggins, Graham C; Hebrank, Franz; Renz, Wolfgang; Schmitt, Franz; Wald, Lawrence L
2007-06-01
An eight-rung, 3T degenerate birdcage coil (DBC) was constructed and evaluated for accelerated parallel excitation of the head with eight independent excitation channels. Two mode configurations were tested. In the first, each of the eight loops formed by the birdcage was individually excited, producing an excitation pattern similar to a loop coil array. In the second configuration a Butler matrix transformed this "loop coil" basis set into a basis set representing the orthogonal modes of the birdcage coil. In this case the rung currents vary sinusoidally around the coil and only four of the eight modes have significant excitation capability (the other four produce anticircularly polarized (ACP) fields). The lowest useful mode produces the familiar uniform B(1) field pattern, and the higher-order modes produce center magnitude nulls and azimuthal phase variations. The measured magnitude and phase excitation profiles of the individual modes were used to generate one-, four-, six-, and eightfold-accelerated spatially tailored RF excitations with 2D and 3D k-space excitation trajectories. Transmit accelerations of up to six-fold were possible with acceptable levels of spatial artifact. The orthogonal basis set provided by the Butler matrix was found to be advantageous when an orthogonal subset of these modes was used to mitigate B(1) transmit inhomogeneities using parallel excitation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lisenkov, Ivan; Tyberkevych, Vasyl; Nikitov, Sergey; Slavin, Andrei
2016-06-01
A general theory of collective spin-wave edge modes in semi-infinite and finite periodic arrays of magnetic nanodots having uniform dynamic magnetization (macrospin approximation) is developed. The theory is formulated using a formalism of multivectors of magnetization dynamics, which allows one to study edge modes in arrays having arbitrarily complex primitive cells and lattice structure. The developed formalism can describe spin-wave edge modes localized both at the physical edges of the array and at the internal "domain walls" separating the array regions existing in different static magnetization states. Using a perturbation theory, in the framework of the developed formalism, it is possible to calculate damping of the edge modes and to describe their excitation by external variable magnetic fields. The theory is illustrated on the following practically important examples: (i) calculation of the FMR absorption in a finite nanodot array having the shape of a right triangle; (ii) calculation of the spectra of nonreciprocal spin-wave edge modes, including the modes at the physical edges of an array and modes at the domain walls inside the array; and (iii) study of the influence of the domain wall modes on the FMR spectrum of an array existing in a nonideal chessboard antiferromagnetic ground state.
Dispersion and decay of collective modes in neutron star cores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobyakov, D. N.; Pethick, C. J.; Reddy, S.; Schwenk, A.
2017-08-01
We calculate the frequencies of collective modes of neutrons, protons, and electrons in the outer core of neutron stars. The neutrons and protons are treated in a hydrodynamic approximation and the electrons are regarded as collisionless. The coupling of the nucleons to the electrons leads to Landau damping of the collective modes and to significant dispersion of the low-lying modes. We investigate the sensitivity of the mode frequencies to the strength of entrainment between neutrons and protons, which is not well characterized. The contribution of collective modes to the thermal conductivity is evaluated.
Charge-exchange modes of excitation in deformed neutron-rich nuclei
Yoshida, Kenichi
2015-10-15
Gamow-Teller (GT) mode of excitation and β-decay properties of deformed neutron-rich even-N Zr isotopes are investigated in a self-consistent Skyrme energy-density-functional approach, in which the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equation is solved in the coordinate space and the proton-neutron Quasiparticle-RPA equation is solved in the quasiparticle basis. It is found that a stronger collectivity is generated for the GT giant resonance as an increase in the neutron number. Furthermore, we find that the T = 0 pairing enhances the low-lying GT strengths cooperatively with the T = 1 pairing correlation depending on the microscopic structure of the low-lying mode and the shell structure around the Fermi levels, and that the enhanced strength shortens the β-decay half-lives by at most an order of magnitude.
Mode-selective phonon excitation in gallium nitride using mid-infrared free-electron laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kagaya, Muneyuki; Yoshida, Kyohei; Zen, Heishun; Hachiya, Kan; Sagawa, Takashi; Ohgaki, Hideaki
2017-02-01
The single-phonon mode was selectively excited in a solid-state sample. A mid-infrared free-electron laser, which was tuned to the target phonon mode, was irradiated onto a crystal cooled to a cryogenic temperature, where modes other than the intended excitation were suppressed. An A 1(LO) vibrational mode excitation on GaN(0001) face was demonstrated. Anti-Stokes Raman scattering was used to observe the excited vibrational mode, and the appearance and disappearance of the scattering band at the target wavenumber were confirmed to correspond to on and off switching of the pump free-electron laser and were fixed to the sample vibrational mode. The sum-frequency generation signals of the pump and probe lasers overlapped the Raman signals and followed the wavenumber shift of the pump laser.
A new class of collective excitations: Exciton strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazumdar, S.; Guo, F.; Meissner, K.; Fluegel, B.; Peyghambarian, N.
1996-06-01
Optical excitation in a strongly neutral quasi-one-dimensional mixed-stack charge-transfer solid results in an exciton state, in which the electron and the hole are bound by electrostatic Coulomb interactions that are large compared to the one-electron hopping. We present a joint theoretical-experimental demonstration of a new class of collective excitations, multiexcitons or exciton strings, consisting of a string of several (more than two) bound excitons, in a prototype neutral charge-transfer solid. The stability of the multiexciton states arise from the combined effects of one dimensionality and strong Coulomb interactions. Theoretically, we show that in narrow band one-dimensional semiconductors with long range Coulomb interactions, the occurrence of stable 2-exciton string (biexciton) necessarily implies stable higher multiexcitons. Experimentally, evidence for the multiexciton strings is demonstrated by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of anthracene pyromellitic acid dianhydride. Excellent qualitative agreement is found between the calculated and the measured differential transmission spectra. Photoinduced absorptions to the 2-exciton string at low pump intensity and to the 3-exciton string at high pump intensity are observed, in agreement with the theory of excited state absorption. The 2-exciton string is confirmed also by a direct two-photon absorption measurement. The binding energies of the 2-exciton and the 3-exciton strings are obtained from the experimental data. The larger binding energy of the 3-exciton is in agreement with theory.
Wave modes of collective vortex gyration in dipolar-coupled-dot-array magnonic crystals
Han, Dong-Soo; Vogel, Andreas; Jung, Hyunsung; Lee, Ki-Suk; Weigand, Markus; Stoll, Hermann; Schütz, Gisela; Fischer, Peter; Meier, Guido; Kim, Sang-Koog
2013-01-01
Lattice vibration modes are collective excitations in periodic arrays of atoms or molecules. These modes determine novel transport properties in solid crystals. Analogously, in periodical arrangements of magnetic vortex-state disks, collective vortex motions have been predicted. Here, we experimentally observe wave modes of collective vortex gyration in one-dimensional (1D) periodic arrays of magnetic disks using time-resolved scanning transmission x-ray microscopy. The observed modes are interpreted based on micromagnetic simulation and numerical calculation of coupled Thiele equations. Dispersion of the modes is found to be strongly affected by both vortex polarization and chirality ordering, as revealed by the explicit analytical form of 1D infinite arrays. A thorough understanding thereof is fundamental both for lattice vibrations and vortex dynamics, which we demonstrate for 1D magnonic crystals. Such magnetic disk arrays with vortex-state ordering, referred to as magnetic metastructure, offer potential implementation into information processing devices. PMID:23877284
Phase velocity spectrum analysis for a time delay comb transducer for guided wave mode excitation
Quarry, M J; Rose, J L
2000-09-26
A theoretical model for the analysis of ultrasonic guided wave mode excitation of a comb transducer with time delay features was developed. Time delay characteristics are included via a Fourier transform into the frequency domain. The phase velocity spectrum can be used to determine the mode excitation on the phase velocity dispersion curves for a given structure. Experimental and theoretical results demonstrate the tuning of guided wave modes using a time delay comb transducer.
Collective excitations in an interacting boson gas beyond Bogoliubov theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrari, Loris
2017-05-01
In a gas of N interacting bosons, the Hamiltonian Hc, obtained by dropping all the interaction terms between free bosons with moment ℏk ≠ 0 , is diagonalized exactly. The resulting eigenstates | S , k , η > depend on two discrete indices S , η = 0 , 1 , … , where η numerates the quasiphonons carrying a moment ℏk , responsible for transport or dissipation processes. S, in turn, numerates a ladder of 'vacua' | S , k , 0 > , with increasing equispaced energies, formed by boson pairs with opposite moment. Passing from one vacuum to another (S → S ± 1), results from creation/annihilation of new momentless collective excitations, that we call pseudobosons. Exact quasiphonons originate from one of the vacua by 'creating' an asymmetry in the number of opposite moment bosons. The well known Bogoliubov collective excitations (CEs) are shown to coincide with the exact eigenstates | 0 , k , η > , i.e. with the quasiphonons (QPs) created from the lowest-level vacuum (S=0). All this is discussed, in view of existing or future experimental observations of the pseudobosons (PBs), a sort of bosonic Cooper pairs, which are the main factor of novelty beyond Bogoliubov theory.
User-friendly software for modeling collective spin wave excitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahn, Steven; Peterson, Peter; Fishman, Randy; Ehlers, Georg
There exists a great need for user-friendly, integrated software that assists in the scientific analysis of collective spin wave excitations measured with inelastic neutron scattering. SpinWaveGenie is a C + + software library that simplifies the modeling of collective spin wave excitations, allowing scientists to analyze neutron scattering data with sophisticated models fast and efficiently. Furthermore, one can calculate the four-dimensional scattering function S(Q,E) to directly compare and fit calculations to experimental measurements. Its generality has been both enhanced and verified through successful modeling of a wide array of magnetic materials. Recently, we have spent considerable effort transforming SpinWaveGenie from an early prototype to a high quality free open source software package for the scientific community. S.E.H. acknowledges support by the Laboratory's Director's fund, ORNL. Work was sponsored by the Division of Scientific User Facilities, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.
Strong interaction between electrons and collective excitations in the multiband superconductor MgB2
Mou, Daixiang; Jiang, Rui; Taufour, Valentin; ...
2015-04-08
We use a tunable laser angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study the electronic properties of the prototypical multiband BCS superconductor MgB2. Our data reveal a strong renormalization of the dispersion (kink) at ~65meV, which is caused by the coupling of electrons to the E2g phonon mode. In contrast to cuprates, the 65 meV kink in MgB2 does not change significantly across Tc. More interestingly, we observe strong coupling to a second, lower energy collective mode at a binding energy of 10 meV. As a result, this excitation vanishes above Tc and is likely a signature of the elusive Leggett mode.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozich, V.; Szyc, Ł.; Nibbering, E. T. J.; Werncke, W.; Elsaesser, T.
2009-04-01
Vibrational relaxation after spectrally selective excitation within the NH stretching band of adenine-thymine base pairs in DNA oligomers was studied by subpicosecond infrared-pump/anti-Stokes Raman-probe spectroscopy. The decay of the different NH stretching vibrations populates distinct accepting modes in the NH bending range with a rise time of 0.6 ps that is close to the NH stretching decay times. The population of thymine fingerprint modes after excitation of the adenine antisymmetric NH 2 stretching mode points to an ultrafast excitation transfer to the thymine NH stretching vibration before relaxation. The nonequilibrium fingerprint populations decay on a time scale of several picoseconds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Zhongqiang; Au, Francis T. K.
2016-04-01
The vibration mode shapes are often used to identify damage of bridges because the mode shapes are not only important modal properties but also sensitive to damage. However, the key issue is how to conveniently obtain the mode shapes of a bridge in service. Traditional methods invariably require installation of instruments on the bridge for collection of dynamic responses for constructing mode shapes, which are both costly and inconvenient. Therefore a method is developed to construct the mode shapes of simply supported bridges based on Hilbert Transform using only vehicle acceleration response for identification of the location of damage. Firstly, an algorithm is devised to construct the mode shapes by using the dynamic responses extracted from a moving vehicle under impact excitation. Then, based on these intermediate results, the coordinate modal assurance criterion in conjunction with suitable wavelets is used to identify the location of damage. Compared with the traditional methods, the proposed method uses only the information from the moving vehicle. Moreover, additional impact excitation on the vehicle helps to excite the bridge. This helps to improve the accuracy by overcoming the adverse effects of measurement noise and road surface roughness, which leads to high accuracy of damage detection. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, some numerical studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of measurement noise, road surface roughness and multiple locations of damage on the accuracy of results.
Higher order parametric excitation modes for spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometers
Gershman, D. J.; Block, B. P.; Rubin, M.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.
2011-12-15
This paper describes a technique to significantly improve upon the mass peak shape and mass resolution of spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMSs) through higher order auxiliary excitation of the quadrupole field. Using a novel multiresonant tank circuit, additional frequency components can be used to drive modulating voltages on the quadrupole rods in a practical manner, suitable for both improved commercial applications and spaceflight instruments. Auxiliary excitation at frequencies near twice that of the fundamental quadrupole RF frequency provides the advantages of previously studied parametric excitation techniques, but with the added benefit of increased sensed excitation amplitude dynamic range and the ability to operate voltage scan lines through the center of upper stability islands. Using a field programmable gate array, the amplitudes and frequencies of all QMS signals are digitally generated and managed, providing a robust and stable voltage control system. These techniques are experimentally verified through an interface with a commercial Pfeiffer QMG422 quadrupole rod system. When operating through the center of a stability island formed from higher order auxiliary excitation, approximately 50% and 400% improvements in 1% mass resolution and peak stability were measured, respectively, when compared with traditional QMS operation. Although tested with a circular rod system, the presented techniques have the potential to improve the performance of both circular and hyperbolic rod geometry QMS sensors.
Higher order parametric excitation modes for spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gershman, D. J.; Block, B. P.; Rubin, M.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Zurbuchen, T. H.
2011-12-01
This paper describes a technique to significantly improve upon the mass peak shape and mass resolution of spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMSs) through higher order auxiliary excitation of the quadrupole field. Using a novel multiresonant tank circuit, additional frequency components can be used to drive modulating voltages on the quadrupole rods in a practical manner, suitable for both improved commercial applications and spaceflight instruments. Auxiliary excitation at frequencies near twice that of the fundamental quadrupole RF frequency provides the advantages of previously studied parametric excitation techniques, but with the added benefit of increased sensed excitation amplitude dynamic range and the ability to operate voltage scan lines through the center of upper stability islands. Using a field programmable gate array, the amplitudes and frequencies of all QMS signals are digitally generated and managed, providing a robust and stable voltage control system. These techniques are experimentally verified through an interface with a commercial Pfeiffer QMG422 quadrupole rod system. When operating through the center of a stability island formed from higher order auxiliary excitation, approximately 50% and 400% improvements in 1% mass resolution and peak stability were measured, respectively, when compared with traditional QMS operation. Although tested with a circular rod system, the presented techniques have the potential to improve the performance of both circular and hyperbolic rod geometry QMS sensors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ullrich, C. A.; Vignale, G.
1998-09-01
It is well known that high-frequency collective excitations in electronic systems are not Landau damped, i.e., they cannot decay effectively into single particle-hole pairs. The leading damping mechanism in this regime is instead provided by dynamical exchange and correlation effects, such as multipair production. These effects are not captured by the widely used adiabatic local-density approximation (ALDA), which accounts for Landau damping only. In the recently developed time-dependent current density-functional formalism [G. Vignale, C. A. Ullrich, and S. Conti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4878 (1997)], exchange and correlation enter as viscoelastic stresses in the electron fluid, causing an additional damping that is not contained in the ALDA. We use this theory to derive an explicit formula for the linewidth of collective electronic excitations that are not Landau damped. The formula is then applied to calculate the linewidth of collective modes in two-dimensional (2D) quantum strips. In comparison with the corresponding modes in the homogeneous 2D electron gas, we find an order-of-magnitude enhancement of the linewidth due to the nonuniformity of the system.
Sedelnikova, O. V. Bulusheva, L. G.; Okotrub, A. V.; Asanov, I. P.; Yushina, I. V.
2014-04-21
Effect of corrugation of hexagonal carbon network on the collective electron excitations has been studied using optical absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in conjunction with density functional theory calculations. Onion-like carbon (OLC) was taken as a material, where graphitic mantle enveloping agglomerates of multi-shell fullerenes is strongly curved. Experiments showed that positions of π and π + σ plasmon modes as well as π → π* absorption peak are substantially redshifted for OLC as compared with those of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and thermally exfoliated graphite consisted of planar sheets. This effect was reproduced in behavior of dielectric functions of rippled graphite models calculated within the random phase approximation. We conclude that the energy of electron excitations in graphitic materials could be precisely tuned by a simple bending of hexagonal network without change of topology. Moreover, our investigation suggests that in such materials optical exciton can transfer energy to plasmon non-radiatively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sedelnikova, O. V.; Bulusheva, L. G.; Asanov, I. P.; Yushina, I. V.; Okotrub, A. V.
2014-04-01
Effect of corrugation of hexagonal carbon network on the collective electron excitations has been studied using optical absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in conjunction with density functional theory calculations. Onion-like carbon (OLC) was taken as a material, where graphitic mantle enveloping agglomerates of multi-shell fullerenes is strongly curved. Experiments showed that positions of π and π + σ plasmon modes as well as π → π* absorption peak are substantially redshifted for OLC as compared with those of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and thermally exfoliated graphite consisted of planar sheets. This effect was reproduced in behavior of dielectric functions of rippled graphite models calculated within the random phase approximation. We conclude that the energy of electron excitations in graphitic materials could be precisely tuned by a simple bending of hexagonal network without change of topology. Moreover, our investigation suggests that in such materials optical exciton can transfer energy to plasmon non-radiatively.
Using p-mode excitation rates for probing convection in solar-like stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kupka, F.; Belkacem, K.; Goupil, J.-M.; Samadi, R.
2009-03-01
We discuss how the possibility to measure mode excitation rates through means of helio- and asteroseismology has improved our capabilities to test convection models and numerical simulations of surface convection and avoids ambiguities that have limited previous approaches.
Characterization of superconducting radiofrequency breakdown by two-mode excitation
Eremeev, Grigory V.; Palczewski, Ari D.
2014-01-14
We show that thermal and magnetic contributions to the breakdown of superconductivity in radiofrequency (RF) fields can be separated by applying two RF modes simultaneously to a superconducting surface. We develop a simple model that illustrates how mode-mixing RF data can be related to properties of the superconductor. Within our model the data can be described by a single parameter, which can be derived either from RF or thermometry data. Our RF and thermometry data are in good agreement with the model. We propose to use mode-mixing technique to decouple thermal and magnetic effects on RF breakdown of superconductors.
Optimization of orthotropic distributed-mode loudspeaker using attached masses and multi-exciters.
Lu, Guochao; Shen, Yong; Liu, Ziyun
2012-02-01
Based on the orthotropic model of the plate, the method to optimize the sound response of the distributed-mode loudspeaker (DML) using the attached masses and the multi-exciters has been investigated. The attached masses method will rebuild the modes distribution of the plate, based on which multi-exciter method will smooth the sound response. The results indicate that the method can be used to optimize the sound response of the DML. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America
Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. III. Group and phase velocities of wave packets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.
2015-07-01
The properties of whistler modes excited by single and multiple magnetic loop antennas have been investigated in a large laboratory plasma. A single loop excites a wavepacket, but an array of loops across the ambient magnetic field B0 excites approximate plane whistler modes. The single loop data are measured. The array patterns are obtained by linear superposition of experimental data shifted in space and time, which is valid in a uniform plasma and magnetic field for small amplitude waves. Phasing the array changes the angle of wave propagation. The antennas are excited by an rf tone burst whose propagating envelope and oscillations yield group and phase velocities. A single loop antenna with dipole moment across B0 excites wave packets whose topology resembles m = 1 helicon modes, but without radial boundaries. The phase surfaces are conical with propagation characteristics of Gendrin modes. The cones form near the antenna with comparable parallel and perpendicular phase velocities. A physical model for the wave excitation is given. When a wave burst is applied to a phased antenna array, the wave front propagates both along the array and into the plasma forming a "whistler wing" at the front. These laboratory observations may be relevant for excitation and detection of whistler modes in space plasmas.
Nonlinear excitation of long-wavelength modes in Hall plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lakhin, V. P.; Ilgisonis, V. I.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Sorokina, E. A.
2016-10-01
Hall plasmas with magnetized electrons and unmagnetized ions exhibit a wide range of small scale fluctuations in the lower-hybrid frequency range as well as low-frequency large scale modes. Modulational instability of lower-hybrid frequency modes is investigated in this work for typical conditions in Hall plasma devices such as magnetrons and Hall thrusters. In these conditions, the dispersion of the waves in the lower-hybrid frequency range propagating perpendicular to the external magnetic field is due to the gradients of the magnetic field and the plasma density. It is shown that such lower-hybrid modes are unstable with respect to the secondary instability of the large scale quasimode perturbations. It is suggested that the large scale slow coherent modes observed in a number of Hall plasma devices may be explained as a result of such secondary instabilities.
Nonlinear excitation of subcritical fast ion-driven modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lesur, M.; Itoh, K.; Ido, T.; Itoh, S.-I.; Kosuga, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Inagaki, S.; Osakabe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Shimizu, A.; Ida, K.; the LHD experiment Group
2016-05-01
In collisionless plasma, it is known that linearly stable modes can be destabilized (subcritically) by the presence of structures in phase-space. The growth of such structures is a nonlinear, kinetic mechanism, which provides a channel for free-energy extraction, different from conventional inverse Landau damping. However, such nonlinear growth requires the presence of a seed structure with a relatively large threshold in amplitude. We demonstrate that, in the presence of another, linearly unstable (supercritical) mode, wave-wave coupling can provide a seed, which can lead to subcritical instability by either one of two mechanisms. Both mechanisms hinge on a collaboration between fluid nonlinearity and kinetic nonlinearity. If collisional velocity diffusion is low enough, the seed provided by the supercritical mode overcomes the threshold for nonlinear growth of phase-space structure. Then, the supercritical mode triggers the conventional subcritical instability. If collisional velocity diffusion is too large, the seed is significantly below the threshold, but can still grow by a sustained collaboration between fluid and kinetic nonlinearities. Both of these subcritical instabilities can be triggered, even when the frequency of the supercritical mode is rapidly sweeping. These results were obtained by modeling the subcritical mode kinetically, and the impact of the supercritical mode by simple wave-wave coupling equations. This model is applied to bursty onset of geodesic acoustic modes in an LHD experiment. The model recovers several key features such as relative amplitude, timescales, and phase relations. It suggests that the strongest bursts are subcritical instabilities, with sustained collaboration between fluid and kinetic nonlinearities.
Excitation of internal kink modes by trapped energetic beam ions
Chen, L.; White, R.B.; Rosenbluth, M.N.
1983-10-01
Energetic trapped particles are shown to have a destabilizing effect on the internal kink mode in tokamaks. The plasma pressure threshold for the mode is lowered by the particles. The growth rate is near the ideal magnetohydrodynamic value, but the frequency is comparable to the trapped particle precission frequency. A model for the instability cycle gives stability properties, associated particle losses, and neutron emissivity consistent with the fishbone events observed in PDX.
Excitation of surface modes by electron beam in semi-bounded quantum plasma
Mohamed, B. F.; Elbasha, N. M.
2015-10-15
The excitation of the TM surface modes due to the interaction of electron beam with a semi-bounded quantum magnetized plasma is investigated. The generated current and the perturbed densities of the electron beam and plasma are obtained. The wave equation that describes the excited fields has been solved to obtain the dispersion relation for these modes. It is found that the quantum effects play important role for frequencies less and bigger than plasma frequency such that the phase velocity of modes increases with increasing the quantum effects compared to the classical case. It has also been displayed that in the absence of external magnetic field, the surface modes appear in the all regions of the wavelength while they have been only excited for high wavenumber in the presence of the magnetic field. Besides, it has been shown that the dispersion curves of the modes depend essentially on the density ratio of beam and plasma.
Excitation of collective modes in a quantum flute
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torfason, Kristinn; Manolescu, Andrei; Molodoveanu, Valeriu; Gudmundsson, Vidar
2012-06-01
We use a generalized master equation (GME) formalism to describe the nonequilibrium time-dependent transport of Coulomb interacting electrons through a short quantum wire connected to semi-infinite biased leads. The contact strength between the leads and the wire is modulated by out-of-phase time-dependent potentials that simulate a turnstile device. We explore this setup by keeping the contact with one lead at a fixed location at one end of the wire, whereas the contact with the other lead is placed on various sites along the length of the wire. We study the propagation of sinusoidal and rectangular pulses. We find that the current profiles in both leads depend not only on the shape of the pulses, but also on the position of the second contact. The current reflects standing waves created by the contact potentials, like in a wind musical instrument (for example, a flute), but occurring on the background of the equilibrium charge distribution. The number of electrons in our quantum “flute” device varies between two and three. We find that for rectangular pulses the currents in the leads may flow against the bias for short time intervals, due to the higher harmonics of the charge response. The GME is solved numerically in small time steps without resorting to the traditional Markov and rotating wave approximations. The Coulomb interaction between the electrons in the sample is included via the exact diagonalization method. The system (leads plus sample wire) is described by a lattice model.
Response functions and spectrum of collective excitations of fractional-quantum-Hall-effect systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez, Ana; Fradkin, Eduardo
1993-03-01
We calculate the electromagnetic response functions of a fractional-quantum-Hall-effect (FQHE) system within the framework of the fermion Chern-Simons theory for the FQHE, which we developed before. Our results are valid in a semiclassical expansion around the average-field approximation (AFA). We reexamine the AFA and the role of fluctuations. We argue that, order-by-order in the semiclassical expansion, the response functions obey the correct symmetry properties required by Galilean and gauge invariance and by the incompressibility of the fluid. In particular, we find that the low-momentum limit of the semiclassical approximation to the response functions is exact and that it saturates the f-sum rule. We obtain the spectrum of collective excitations of FQHE systems in the low-momentum limit. We find a rich spectrum of modes which includes a host of quasiparticle-quasihole bound states and, in general, two collective modes coalescing at the cyclotron frequency. The Hall conductance is obtained from the current-density correlation function, and it has the correct value already at the semiclassical level. We applied these results to the problem of the screening of external charges and fluxes by the electron fluid, and obtained asymptotic expressions of the charge and current-density profiles, for different types of interactions. Finally, we reconsider the anyon superfluid within our scheme and derive the spectrum of collective modes for interacting hard-core bosons and semions. In addition to the gapless phase mode, we find a set of gapped collective modes.
Excitation of higher order modes in optical fibers with parabolic index profile.
Chen, C L
1988-06-01
A large number of modes can be supported by multimode fibers. There are applications where higher order modes are preferred. Microbend intensity sensors are good examples. The sensitivity of these sensors is greatly increased if higher order modes are excited. In this work, a simple method to excite higher order modes preferentially is suggested. It consists of thin-film gratings deposited directly onto the fiber end. By controlling the film thickness or transparency of the grating structure, a desired transmission coefficient T(r,Phi) is synthesized. The desired mode can be excited preferentially by incident Gaussian beams without the aid of additional optical components. Binary intensity and binary phase gratings have been studied. Numerical investigation reveals that the phase gratings are more effective for the preferential excitation of higher order modes than the intensity gratings. In fact, by using binary phase gratings and in optimal excitation conditions as much as 81.1, 76.9, 74.6, 73.3, and 72.3% of the power in the incoming, linearly polarized, fundamental Gaussian beam can be converted to LP(02), LP(03), LP(04), LP(05), and LP(06) modes, respectively, excluding Fresnel loss.
Study of p-mode excitation and damping rate variations from IRIS++ observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salabert, D.; Jiménez-Reyes, S. J.; Tomczyk, S.
2003-09-01
11 years of low degree helioseismic data collected by the IRIS++ network (International Research of the Interior of the Sun) have been analyzed. The epoch covered (mid-1989 to end-1999) spans the maximum and the falling phase of solar cycle 22 and the rising phase of the current solar cycle 23. Annual timeseries with an overlap of 6 months are used to study the variations with solar activity of the p-mode frequencies nu n,l, heights Hn,l, and linewidths Gamma n,l, taking into account the effects of the window function. These are used to infer variations in the velocity power
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Shailesh; Lausen, Jens L.; Garcia-Ortiz, Cesar E.; Andersen, Sebastian K. H.; Roberts, Alexander S.; Radko, Ilya P.; Smith, Cameron L. C.; Kristensen, Anders; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.
2016-02-01
Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamonds are interesting due to their remarkable characteristics that are well suited to applications in quantum-information processing and magnetic field sensing, as well as representing stable fluorescent sources. Multiple NV centers in nanodiamonds (NDs) are especially useful as biological fluorophores due to their chemical neutrality, brightness and room-temperature photostability. Furthermore, NDs containing multiple NV centers also have potential in high-precision magnetic field and temperature sensing. Coupling NV centers to propagating surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes gives a base for lab-on-a-chip sensing devices, allows enhanced fluorescence emission and collection which can further enhance the precision of NV-based sensors. Here, we investigate coupling of multiple NV centers in individual NDs to the SPP modes supported by silver surfaces protected by thin dielectric layers and by gold V-grooves (VGs) produced via the self-terminated silicon etching. In the first case, we concentrate on monitoring differences in fluorescence spectra obtained from a source ND, which is illuminated by a pump laser, and from a scattering ND illuminated only by the fluorescence-excited SPP radiation. In the second case, we observe changes in the average NV lifetime when the same ND is characterized outside and inside a VG. Fluorescence emission from the VG terminations is also observed, which confirms the NV coupling to the VG-supported SPP modes.
Collective Modes and Colored Noise as Beam-Halo Amplifiers
Bohn, Courtlandt L
2004-08-06
As illustrated herein, collective modes and colored noise conspire to produce beam halo with much larger amplitude than could be generated by either phenomenon separately. Collective modes are inherent to nonequilibrium beams with space charge. Colored noise arises from unavoidable machine transitions and/or errors that influence the internal space-charge force. Lowest-order radial eigenmodes calculated self-consistently for a direct-current, cylindrically symmetric, warm-fluid Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij equilibrium serve to model the collective modes. Even with weak space charge, small-amplitude collective modes, and weak noise strength, a pronounced halo is seen to develop if these phenomena act on the beam over a sufficiently long time, such as in a synchrotron or storage ring.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Dongsheng; Wang, Shiyu
2017-09-01
This work examines the distinct resonance vibration of rotationally periodic structures. An analytical model of a sample stepped-plate structure subjected to standing wave excitation is developed by elasticity theory. Spatial-dependent resonance mode and resonance frequency are formulated by perturbation-superposition method. Different from the natural mode and natural frequency, a sinusoidal fluctuation of the resonance frequency is identified between the two split natural frequencies for single standing wave excitation. The resonance mode does not have preferred orientation because it is determined by excitation orientation. The resonance behaviors are different from those near the repeated natural frequencies. The response to a standing wave pair is also calculated and compared with that to the mathematically equivalent traveling wave, where significant difference is identified. The results indicate that purer traveling wave can be created by using a standing wave pair with pre-selected spatial phase and excitation frequency. Reverse traveling direction can be realized by altering excitation frequency. A test rig is designed and fabricated for verification purpose. The experiment validates that the response near the split natural frequencies is in phase with the external standing wave excitation. The resonance frequency varies with the excitation orientation for the split natural frequencies but it remains constant for the repeated natural frequencies. Potential applications of the spatial-dependent resonance mode and frequency are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clary, David C.; Meijer, Anthony J. H. M.
2002-06-01
Quantum dynamical calculations have been carried out on the excitation of the torsional vibrations of a protein by collision with a solvent molecule. This energy transfer process represents the first step in the unfolding of the protein. The method developed for this purpose is the torsional close coupling, infinite order sudden approximation. Both time-independent and time dependent methods are used to solve the scattering problem and individual excitation of all the torsional modes of the protein is treated. The method is applied to the excitation of the HIV protein gp41 colliding with a water molecule. This protein has 1101 atoms, 56 amino acids, and 452 torsional modes. A major mode-selective effect is found in the computations: it is much easier to excite backbone torsions than sidechain torsions in the protein. In addition, resonances arise in the collisional process and these complexes involve temporary trapping of the water molecule inside the pockets of the protein.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Wei; Zhang, Caihong; Li, Chun; Zhou, Xiaoying; Jia, Xiaoqing; Feng, Zheng; Su, Juan; Jin, Biaobing
2017-05-01
We demonstrate that the subradiant mode in ultrathin bi-layer metamaterials can be exclusively excited under two-antisymmetric-beam illumination (or equivalently, at a node of the standing wave field), while the superradiant mode is fully suppressed due to their different mode symmetry. Coherent perfect absorption (CPA) with the Lorentzian lineshape can be achieved corresponding to the subradiant mode. A theoretical model is established to distinguish the different behaviors of these two modes and to elucidate the CPA condition. Terahertz ultrathin bi-layer metamaterials on flexible polyimide substrates are fabricated and tested, exhibiting excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. This work provides physical insight into how to selectively excite the antisymmetric subradiant mode via coherence incidence.
Correlation between excitation of Alfven modes and degradation of ICRF heating efficiency in TFTR
Bernabei, S.; Chang, Z.; Darrow, D.
1997-05-01
Alfven modes are excited by energetic ions in TFTR during intense minority ICRF heating. There is a clear threshold in rf power above which the modes are destabilized. The net effect of these modes is the increase of the fast ion losses, with an associated saturation of the ion tail energy and of the efficiency of the heating. Typically, several modes are excited with progressive n-numbers, with frequencies in the neighborhood of 200 kHz. Results suggest that Energetic Particle Modes (EPM), mostly unseen by the Mirnov coils, are generated near the center and are responsible for the ion losses. Stronger global TAE modes, which are destabilized by the stream of displaced fast ions, appear responsible only for minor losses.
Probing the Collective Modes of Spherical Shell-Shaped Condensates with Quench Numerics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Frances; Sun, Kuei; Padavic, Karmela; Vishveshwara, Smitha; Lannert, Courtney
2015-03-01
We explore the collective modes of Bose-Einstein condensates by numerical solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with an external ``bubble trap'' potential (Vtrap =√{(r2 - Δ) 2 / 4 -Ω2 }) that can be continuously tuned between a thin spherical shell-shaped condensate (at large Δ) and an ordinary spherical condensate in a harmonic trap (at Δ = Ω = 0). We excite the condensate's collective modes by making a small sudden change to the trapping potential and analyzing the subsequent time evolution of the condensate wavefunction. We observe the evolution of the frequency of the low-lying collective modes between the limits of a thin-shell condensate and a filled-spherical condensate. Work supported by the National Science Foundation under Award DMR-1243574.
Bochkova, Elena; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; de Lustrac, André; Lupu, Anatole
2016-01-15
We provide evidence for the mechanism of direct dark mode excitation in a metasurface composed of bi-layered Z-shaped enantiomeric meta-atoms. The electromagnetic behavior of the structure is investigated through both numerical simulations and experimental measurements in the microwave domain. We demonstrate direct field coupling excitation of second higher order electric mode under normal incidence based only on symmetry matching conditions. The proposed approach provides a better flexibility in engineering dark mode resonances that do not rely on hybridization mechanism and presents important advantages for multi-spectral sensor applications.
Selective excitation of lowest-order transverse ring modes in a quasi-stadium laser diode.
Fukushima, Takehiro; Shinohara, Susumu; Sunada, Satoshi; Harayama, Takahisa; Arai, Kenichi; Sakaguchi, Koichiro; Tokuda, Yasunori
2013-10-15
For a two-dimensional quasi-stadium laser diode, we demonstrate stable excitation of the lowest-order transverse ring modes by optimally designing the confocal end mirrors of the laser cavity based on extended Fox-Li mode calculations. We observe kink-free light output versus injection current characteristics and highly directional single-peak emissions corresponding to the diamond-shaped trajectory in the cavity. These results provide convincing evidence for selective excitation of the lowest-order transverse modes.
Mode-locked solid state lasers using diode laser excitation
Holtom, Gary R [Boston, MA
2012-03-06
A mode-locked laser employs a coupled-polarization scheme for efficient longitudinal pumping by reshaped laser diode bars. One or more dielectric polarizers are configured to reflect a pumping wavelength having a first polarization and to reflect a lasing wavelength having a second polarization. An asymmetric cavity provides relatively large beam spot sizes in gain medium to permit efficient coupling to a volume pumped by a laser diode bar. The cavity can include a collimation region with a controlled beam spot size for insertion of a saturable absorber and dispersion components. Beam spot size is selected to provide stable mode locking based on Kerr lensing. Pulse durations of less than 100 fs can be achieved in Yb:KGW.
Upper hybrid wave excitation due to O-mode interaction with density gradient in the ionosphere
Antani, S.N.; Kaup, D.J.; Rao, N.N.
1995-12-31
It has been well recognized that upper hybrid (UH) waves play a key role in various wave processes occurring in the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) region of the ionosphere leading to the observed stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) during artificial heating by ordinary mode (O-mode) electromagnetic waves. Hence it is important to investigate how the UH waves get excited from the incident O-mode. It has been generally suggested that the UH waves are excited by O-mode interaction with nonuniform ionospheric plasma. For instance, direct conversion of the O-mode into UH waves due to pre-existing short scale irregularities was reported earlier. Here the authors consider the role of large-scale, smooth density gradient in exciting the UH waves from the O-mode. The model used is that of a driven harmonic oscillator in which the source term arises from the O-mode interaction with local density gradient. For a slab model with density gradient in the x-direction, and the geomagnetic field in the z-direction, they obtain an inhomogeneous fourth order ordinary differential equation governing the UH wave excitation. This equation has been analyzed in the vicinity of the UHR. The pertinent solutions will be presented and discussed for the typical parameters of heating experiments.
Resonant mode characterisation of a cylindrical Helmholtz cavity excited by a shear layer.
Bennett, Gareth J; Stephens, David B; Rodriguez Verdugo, Francisco
2017-01-01
This paper investigates the interaction between the shear-layer over a circular cavity with a relatively small opening and the flow-excited acoustic response of the volume within to shear-layer instability modes. Within the fluid-resonant category of cavity oscillation, most research has been conducted on rectangular geometries: generally restricted to longitudinal standing waves, or when cylindrical: to Helmholtz resonance. In practical situations, however, where the cavity is subject to a range of flow speeds, many different resonant mode types may be excited. The current work presents a cylindrical cavity design where Helmholtz oscillation, longitudinal resonance, and azimuthal acoustic modes may all be excited upon varying the flow speed. Experiments performed show how lock-on between each of the three fluid-resonances and shear-layer instability modes can be generated. A circumferential array of microphones flush-mounted with the internal surface of the cavity wall was used to decompose the acoustic pressure field into acoustic modes and has verified the excitation of higher order azimuthal modes by the shear-layer. For azimuthal modes especially, the location of the cavity opening affects the pressure response. A numerical solution is validated and provides additional insight and will be applied to more complex aeronautical and automotive geometries in the future.
Collective modes at a surface of a topological insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jhih-Sheng; Fogler, M. M.; Basov, D. N.
2015-03-01
We investigate hybrid plasmon-phonon modes of a polar topological insulator that originate from interaction among the quasiparticles of surface and bulk states, and also optical phonons. As an example, we study electron-doped Bi2Se3. We analyze the dispersion of the collective modes of this compound for (i) a bulk sample with a depletion layer created by acceptor adsorbates on the surface and (ii) a thin film. In the first case, we show that a depletion layer gives rise to two energy-momentum regions, where the surface states dominate the collective modes over the bulk carriers. In a thin film, the phonons are more prominent than the bulk carriers. The anisotropy of the phonon response makes the thin film behaves as a waveguide. We discuss how these various collective modes can be detected by scanning near-field optical microscopy. Supported by ONR and UCOP.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nogajewski, K.; Łusakowski, J.; Knap, W.; Popov, V. V.; Teppe, F.; Rumyantsev, S. L.; Shur, M. S.
2011-11-01
Magnetotransport and magnetooptics investigations of plasmon excitations in large-area grating-gate terahertz modulators based on AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors with different grating-gate duty cycle are reported. We demonstrate that the effect of the gate potential on the ungated region extends beyond the conventional fringing effect distance, ranging over 250-350 nm instead of expected 26-30 nm. This phenomenon enables excitation of the localized gated magnetoplasmon modes only if the inter-finger spacing in the grating gate exceeds 350 nm. For narrower slits, only the collective gated magnetoplasmon modes extending over the entire period of the structure can be excited.
Numerical and experimental study of a compressive-mode energy harvester under random excitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, H. T.; Yang, Z.; Zu, J.; Qin, W. Y.
2017-03-01
Piezoelectric energy harvester working in compressive mode has shown outstanding performance under harmonic excitation. However, it is still not clear if the compressive-mode energy harvester can sustain its superiority under random excitations. This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study on a nonlinear compressive-mode piezoelectric energy harvester under random excitations. First, a comprehensive distributed parameter electro-elastic model is developed using the extended Hamilton’s principle and the Euler–Bernoulli beam theory. The embedded force amplification effect of the flexural motion is analytically predicted. Then, the model is numerically solved under random excitations. Strong nonlinear responses was observed in both mechanical and electrical responses. Furthermore, a prototype was fabricated and tested. The experimental data show a good agreement with the model estimations under different level excitations and resistances. The results under random excitation demonstrate that the compressive-mode energy harvester significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art systems in terms of output voltage and normalized power density. If the optimal resistance is chosen in the harvesting circuit, the root mean square power of the prototype will reach three times higher than that of the counterparts.
Aiba, N.; Hirota, M.
2015-08-15
In a rotating toroidal plasma surrounded by a resistive wall, it is shown that linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities can be excited by interplay between the resistive wall mode (RWM) and stable ideal MHD modes, where the RWM can couple with not only a stable external kink mode but also various stable Alfvén eigenmodes that abound in a toroidal plasma. The RWM growth rate is shown to peak repeatedly as the rotation frequency reaches specific values for which the frequencies of the ideal MHD modes are Doppler-shifted to the small RWM frequency. Such destabilization can be observed even when the RWM in a static plasma is stable. A dispersion relation clarifies that the unstable mode changes from the RWM to the ideal MHD mode destabilized by wall resistivity when the rotation frequency passes through these specific values. The unstable mode is excited at these rotation frequencies even though plasma rotation also tends to stabilize the RWM from the combination of the continuum damping and the ion Landau damping.
Volkovich, Roie; Härtle, Rainer; Thoss, Michael; Peskin, Uri
2011-08-28
We show that individual vibrational modes in single-molecule junctions with asymmetric molecule-lead coupling can be selectively excited by applying an external bias voltage. Thereby, a non-statistical distribution of vibrational energy can be generated, that is, a mode with a higher frequency can be stronger excited than a mode with a lower frequency. This is of particular interest in the context of mode-selective chemistry, where one aims to break specific (not necessarily the weakest) chemical bond in a molecule. Such mode-selective vibrational excitation is demonstrated for two generic model systems representing asymmetric molecular junctions and/or scanning tunneling microscopy experiments. To this end, we employ two complementary theoretical approaches, a nonequilibrium Green's function approach and a master equation approach. The comparison of both methods reveals good agreement in describing resonant electron transport through a single-molecule contact, where differences between the approaches highlight the role of non-resonant transport processes, in particular co-tunneling and off-resonant electron-hole pair creation processes.
Excitation of geodesic acoustic modes by external fields.
Hallatschek, K; McKee, G R
2012-12-14
It is planned to use external magnetic perturbations at acoustic frequencies at the DIII-D tokamak to attempt to drive geodesic acoustic modes (GAM) to modify the turbulent transport. We show that this might not only be possible--despite the well-known electrostatic nature of the GAMs--but might be a viable and efficient method to generate GAMs in magnetically confined plasmas, by developing an elegant analytic method which allows us to couple numerical dynamic equilibrium calculations with massively parallel non-Boussinesq turbulence code runs and yields practical estimates of the effectivity of the method.
Collective Modes of Coupled Phase Oscillators with Delayed Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ares, Saúl; Morelli, Luis G.; Jörg, David J.; Oates, Andrew C.; Jülicher, Frank
2012-05-01
We study the effects of delayed coupling on timing and pattern formation in spatially extended systems of dynamic oscillators. Starting from a discrete lattice of coupled oscillators, we derive a generic continuum theory for collective modes of long wavelengths. We use this approach to study spatial phase profiles of cellular oscillators in the segmentation clock, a dynamic patterning system of vertebrate embryos. Collective wave patterns result from the interplay of coupling delays and moving boundary conditions. We show that the phase profiles of collective modes depend on coupling delays.
Coexisting single-particle and collective excitations in 70As
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haring-Kaye, R. A.; Elder, R. M.; Döring, J.; Tabor, S. L.; Volya, A.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Bender, P. C.; Medina, N. H.; Morrow, S. I.; Oliviera, J. R. B.; Tripathi, V.
2015-10-01
High-spin states in 70As were studied using the 55Mn(18O,3 n ) fusion-evaporation reaction at a beam energy of 50 MeV. Prompt γ -γ coincidences were measured using the Florida State University Compton-suppressed Ge array consisting of three Clover detectors and seven single-crystal detectors. A reinvestigation of the known level scheme resulted in the addition of 32 new transitions and the rearrangement of 10 others. The high-spin decay pattern of yrast negative-parity states was modified and enhanced extensively. Spins were assigned based on directional correlation of oriented nuclei ratios. Lifetimes of seven excited states were measured using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. The B (E 2 ) rates inferred from the lifetimes of states in the yrast positive-parity band imply substantial collectivity, in agreement with the results of previous studies. Substantial signature splitting and large alternations in the B (M 1 ) strengths were observed in this band as well, supporting the interpretation of an aligned π g9 /2⊗ν g9 /2 intrinsic configuration for this structure beginning at the lowest 9+ state. Large-scale shell-model calculations performed for 70As reproduce the relative energy differences between adjacent levels and the B (M 1 ) rates in the yrast positive-parity band rather well, but underestimate the B (E 2 ) strengths. The g9 /2 orbital occupancies for the lowest 9+ state predicted by the shell-model calculations provide additional evidence of a stretched π g9 /2⊗ν g9 /2 configuration for this state.
Plasma undulator excited by high-order mode lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jingwei; Rykovanov, Sergey
2016-10-01
A laser-created plasma undulator together with a laser-plasma accelerator makes it possible to construct an economical and extremely compact XFEL. However, the spectrum spread of the radiation from the current plasma undulators is too large for XFELs, because of the different values of strength parameters. The phase slippage between the electrons and the wakefield also limits the number of the electron oscillation cycles, thus reduces the performance of XFEL. Here we proposed a phase-locked plasma undulator created by high-order mode lasers. The modulating field is uniform along the transverse direction by choosing appropriate laser intensities of the modes, which enables all the electrons oscillate with the same strength parameter. The plasma density is tapered to lock the phase between the electrons and the wakefield, which signally increases the oscillation cycles. As a result, X-ray radiation with high brightness and narrow bandwidth is generated by injecting a high-energy electron beam into the novel plasma undulator. The beam loading limit indicates that the current of the electron beam could be hundreds of Ampere. These properties imply that such a plasma undulator may have great potential in compact XFELs. This work was supported by the Helmholtz Association (Young Investigator's Group No. VH-NG-1037).
Simulation for the radiation of Terahertz Horn Antenna with mixed-mode excitation source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Xiang-qin; Wang, Jian-guo; Wang, Guang-qiang; Chen, Zai-gao; Cai, Li-bing
2013-08-01
Considering the overmoded structures of high-power Terahertz(THz) sources are often electrically large, it's difficult to compute the radiation of THz antennas on a personal computer due to over long time and prohibitive computation resources. A parallelized finite-difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm based on MPI platform and virtual topology structure, combined with theory of guided waves, is presented for analysis of the radiation of the large THz conical horn excited by mixed-mode souce. Cartesian virtual topology structure is firstly defined by MPI_CART_CREATE( ) function based on MPI platform. And MPI_CART_SHIFT() function is used to define the position relations of the subdomains. Then FDTD method is used in each subdomain. The absorbing boundary of the whole FDTD domain is uniaxial perfectly matchedlayer (UPML), and that of the waveguide is convolutional PML(CPML). Synchronous communication mode is used in parallelized FDTD between the adjacent subdomains. The coefficient of field components for each mode source can be got based on the given power of each mode. Thus the mixed-mode excitation source can be set by the coefficient and each mode's initial phase. Examples of an electrically large THz horn with 4 or 6 modes mixed excited are given in this paper. Considering the universal characteristic of FDTD method, the method shown in this paper can be used to simulate the radiation of other kinds of THz antennas with mixed-mode exicitation source. And it's useful for the design of those structures.
Collective excitations and the nature of Mott transition in undoped gapped graphene.
Jafari, S A
2012-08-01
The particle-hole continuum (PHC) for massive Dirac fermions provides an unprecedented opportunity for the formation of two collective split-off states, one in the singlet and the other in the triplet (spin-1) channel, when the short-range interactions are added to the undoped system. Both states are close in energy and are separated from the continuum of free particle-hole excitations by an energy scale of the order of the gap parameter Δ. They both disperse linearly with two different velocities, reminiscent of spin-charge separation in Luttinger liquids. When the strength of Hubbard interactions is stronger than a critical value, the velocity of singlet excitation, which we interpret as a charge composite boson, becomes zero and renders the system a Mott insulator. Beyond this critical point the low-energy sector is left with a linearly dispersing triplet mode-a characteristic of a Mott insulator. The velocity of the triplet mode at the Mott criticality is twice the velocity of the underlying Dirac fermions. The phase transition line in the space of U and Δ is in qualitative agreement with our previous dynamical mean field theory calculations.
Mugarza, Aitor; Shimizu, Tomoko K.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel
2009-05-07
Tunneling electrons in a scanning tunneling microscope were used to excite specific vibrational quantum states of adsorbed water and hydroxyl molecules on a Ru(0 0 0 1) surface. The excited molecules relaxed by transfer of energy to lower energy modes, resulting in diffusion, dissociation, desorption, and surface-tip transfer processes. Diffusion of H{sub 2}O molecules could be induced by excitation of the O-H stretch vibration mode at 445 meV. Isolated molecules required excitation of one single quantum while molecules bonded to a C atom required at least two quanta. Dissociation of single H{sub 2}O molecules into H and OH required electron energies of 1 eV or higher while dissociation of OH required at least 2 eV electrons. In contrast, water molecules forming part of a cluster could be dissociated with electron energies of 0.5 eV.
A study of quasi-mode parametric excitations in lower-hybrid heating of tokamak plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villalon, E.; Bers, A.
1980-03-01
A detailed linear and non-linear analysis of quasi-mode parametric excitations, relevant to experiments in supplementary heating of tokamak plasmas, is presented. The linear analysis includes the full ion-cyclotron harmonic quasi-mode spectrum, while the nonlinear one, considering depletion of the pump electric field, is applied to the recent Alcator A heating experiment. The quasi-mode excitations are studied independently for the plasma edge and the main bulk of the plasma, and for the two typical regimes in overall density. It is concluded that the excited spectrum has a frequency close to the initial pump frequency, while the wave-number spectrum may be different from the initial linear spectrum.
Bryk, Taras; Ruocco, G.; Scopigno, T.
2015-09-14
Unlike phonons in crystals, the collective excitations in liquids cannot be treated as propagation of harmonic displacements of atoms around stable local energy minima. The viscoelasticity of liquids, reflected in transition from the adiabatic to elastic high-frequency speed of sound and in absence of the long-wavelength transverse excitations, results in dispersions of longitudinal (L) and transverse (T) collective excitations essentially different from the typical phonon ones. Practically, nothing is known about the effect of high pressure on the dispersion of collective excitations in liquids, which causes strong changes in liquid structure. Here dispersions of L and T collective excitations in liquid Li in the range of pressures up to 186 GPa were studied by ab initio simulations. Two methodologies for dispersion calculations were used: direct estimation from the peak positions of the L/T current spectral functions and simulation-based calculations of wavenumber-dependent collective eigenmodes. It is found that at ambient pressure, the longitudinal and transverse dynamics are well separated, while at high pressures, the transverse current spectral functions, density of vibrational states, and dispersions of collective excitations yield evidence of two types of propagating modes that contribute strongly to transverse dynamics. Emergence of the unusually high-frequency transverse modes gives evidence of the breakdown of a regular viscoelastic theory of transverse dynamics, which is based on coupling of a single transverse propagating mode with shear relaxation. The explanation of the observed high-frequency shift above the viscoelastic value is given by the presence of another branch of collective excitations. With the pressure increasing, coupling between the two types of collective excitations is rationalized within a proposed extended viscoelastic model of transverse dynamics.
Crossover of collective modes and positive sound dispersion in supercritical state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fomin, Yu D.; Ryzhov, V. N.; Tsiok, E. N.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.
2016-11-01
Supercritical state has been viewed as an intermediate state between gases and liquids with largely unknown physical properties. Here, we address the important ability of supercritical fluids to sustain collective excitations. We directly study propagating modes on the basis of correlation functions calculated in molecular dynamics simulations and find that the supercritical system sustains propagating solid-like transverse modes below the Frenkel line but not above where there is one longitudinal mode only. Important thermodynamic implications of this finding are discussed. We directly detect positive sound dispersion (PSD) below the Frenkel line where transverse modes are operative and quantitatively explain its magnitude on the basis of transverse and longitudinal velocities. PSD disappears above the Frenkel line which therefore demarcates the supercritical phase diagram into two areas where PSD does and does not operate.
Crossover of collective modes and positive sound dispersion in supercritical state.
Fomin, Yu D; Ryzhov, V N; Tsiok, E N; Brazhkin, V V; Trachenko, K
2016-11-02
Supercritical state has been viewed as an intermediate state between gases and liquids with largely unknown physical properties. Here, we address the important ability of supercritical fluids to sustain collective excitations. We directly study propagating modes on the basis of correlation functions calculated in molecular dynamics simulations and find that the supercritical system sustains propagating solid-like transverse modes below the Frenkel line but not above where there is one longitudinal mode only. Important thermodynamic implications of this finding are discussed. We directly detect positive sound dispersion (PSD) below the Frenkel line where transverse modes are operative and quantitatively explain its magnitude on the basis of transverse and longitudinal velocities. PSD disappears above the Frenkel line which therefore demarcates the supercritical phase diagram into two areas where PSD does and does not operate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamaru, S.; Bain, J. A.; van de Veerdonk, R. J. M.; Crawford, T. M.; Covington, M.; Kryder, M. H.
2004-09-01
This work presents experimental results of magnetostatic mode excitation using scanning Kerr microscopy under continuous sinusoidal excitation in the microwave frequency range. This technique was applied to 100nm thick permalloy coupons excited in two different ways. In the first experiment, the uniform (Kittel) mode was excited at frequencies in 2.24-8.00GHz . The resonant condition was effectively described with the conventional Kittel mode equation. The LLG damping parameter α increased significantly with decreasing bias field. It was confirmed that this increase was caused by multidomain structure and ripple domains formed under weak bias fields, as suggested by other studies. In the second experiment, propagating magnetostatic mode surface waves were excited. They showed an exponential amplitude decay and a linear phase variation with distance from the drive field source, consistent with a decaying plane wave. The Damon-Eshbach (DE) model was extended to include a finite energy damping and used to analyze the results. It was found that the wave number and the decay constant were reasonably well described by the extended DE model. In contrast to the first experiment, no significant variation of α with frequency or bias field was seen in this second experiment, where spatial inhomogeneities in the magnetization are less significant.
N-mode coherence in collective neutrino oscillations
Raffelt, Georg G.
2011-05-15
We study two-flavor neutrino oscillations in a homogeneous and isotropic ensemble under the influence of neutrino-neutrino interactions. For any density there exist forms of collective oscillations that show self-maintained coherence. They can be classified by a number N of linearly independent functions that describe all neutrino modes as linear superpositions. What is more, the dynamics is equivalent to another ensemble with the same effective density, consisting of N modes with discrete energies E{sub i} with i=1,...,N. We use this equivalence to derive the analytic solution for two-mode (bimodal) coherence, relevant for spectral-split formation in supernova neutrinos.
DE-1 and COSMOS 1809 observations of lower hybrid waves excited by VLF whistler mode waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bell, T. F; Inan, U. S.; Lauben, D.; Sonwalkar, V. S.; Helliwell, R. A.; Sobolev, Ya. P.; Chmyrev, V. M.; Gonzalez, S.
1994-01-01
Past work demostrates that strong lower hybrid (LH) waves can be excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves throughout large regions of the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere. The effects of the excited LH waves upon the suprathermal ion population in the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere depend upon the distribution of LH wave amplitude with wavelength lambda. The present work reports plasma wave data from the DE-1 and COSMOS 1809 spacecraft which suggests that the excited LH wave spectrum has components for which lambda less than or equal to 3.5 m when excitation occurs at a frequency roughly equal to the local lower hybrid resonance frequency. This wavelength limit is a factor of approximately 3 below that reported in past work and suggests that the excited LH waves can interact with suprathermal H(+) ions with energy less than or equal to 6 eV. This finding supports recent work concerning the heating of suprathermal ions above thunderstorm cells.
DE-1 and COSMOS 1809 observations of lower hybrid waves excited by VLF whistler mode waves
Bell, T.F.; Inan, U.S.; Lauben, D.; Sonwalkar, V.S.; Helliwell, R.A.; Sobolev, Ya.P.; Chmyrev, V.M.; Gonzalez, S.
1994-04-15
Past work demonstrates that strong lower hybrid (LH) waves can be excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves throughout large regions of the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere. The effects of the excited LH waves upon the suprathermal ion population in the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere depend upon the distribution of LH wave amplitude with wavelength {lambda}. The present work reports plasma wave data from the DE-1 and COSMOS 1809 spacecraft which suggests that the excited LH wave spectrum has components for which {lambda} {le} 3.5 m when excitation occurs at a frequency roughly equal to the lower hybrid resonance frequency. This wavelength limit is a factor of {approximately} 3 below that reported in past work and suggests that the excited LH waves can interact with suprathermal H{sup +} ions with energy {le} 6 eV. This finding supports recent work concerning the heating of suprathermal ions above thunderstorm cells. 19 refs., 3 figs.
Bryk, Taras; Mryglod, Ihor; Scopigno, Tullio; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Gorelli, Federico; Santoro, Mario
2010-07-14
The approach of generalized collective modes is applied to the study of dispersion curves of collective excitations along isothermal lines of supercritical pure Lennard-Jones fluid. An effect of structural relaxation and other nonhydrodynamic relaxation processes on the dispersion law is discussed. A simple analytical expression for the dispersion law in the long-wavelength region of acoustic excitations is obtained within a three-variable viscoelastic model of generalized hydrodynamics. It is shown that the deviation from the linear dependence in the long-wavelength region can be either "positive" or "negative" depending on the ratio between the high-frequency (elastic) and isothermal speed of sound. An effect of thermal fluctuations on positive and negative dispersion is estimated from the analytical solution of a five-variable thermoviscoelastic model that generalizes the results of the viscoelastic treatment. Numerical results are reported for a Lennard-Jones supercritical fluid along two isothermal lines T(*)=1.71,4.78 with different densities and discussed along the theoretical expressions derived.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarana, Michal; Houfek, Karel; Horáček, Jiří; Fabrikant, Ilya I.
2011-11-01
We present a study of dissociative electron attachment and vibrational excitation processes in electron collisions with the CF3Cl molecule. The calculations are based on the two-dimensional nuclear dynamics including the C-Cl symmetric stretch coordinate and the CF3 symmetric deformation (umbrella) coordinate. The complex potential energy surfaces are calculated using the ab initio R-matrix method. The results for dissociative attachment and vibrational excitation of the umbrella mode agree quite well with experiment whereas the cross section for excitation of the C-Cl symmetric stretch vibrations is about a factor-of-three too low in comparison with experimental data.
Collective modes of a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate: A hydrodynamic approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Wei; Li, Zhibing
2012-05-01
We studied the collective modes of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with spin-orbit coupling. We developed the hydrodynamic equations for spin-orbit coupled BECs and used them to study collective modes in the plane-wave phase and large Rabi coupling regime for both a uniform BEC and a BEC in a harmonic trap. In the homogeneous situation, we obtained energy spectra of elementary excitations and found that the spin-orbit coupling can increase the effective mass of the atoms, which will suppress the sound velocity. The spin-orbit coupling can also change the spin mixing, which will modify the interaction energy, and may lead to an enhancement of sound velocity. The competition between these two effects gives the behavior of sound velocity. In a harmonic trap, we found that the dipole mode and the breathing mode are coupled together in the plane-wave phase, and these two modes have a π/2 phase difference, because the spin-orbit coupling and the interaction are not invariant under spin rotation. However, in the large Rabi coupling regime, the dipole mode and the breathing mode are decoupled due to the symmetry restriction.
Direct observation of dynamic modes excited in a magnetic insulator by pure spin current
Demidov, V. E.; Evelt, M.; Bessonov, V.; Demokritov, S. O.; Prieto, J. L.; Muñoz, M.; Ben Youssef, J.; Naletov, V. V.; de Loubens, G.; Klein, O.; Collet, M.; Bortolotti, P.; Cros, V.; Anane, A.
2016-01-01
Excitation of magnetization dynamics by pure spin currents has been recently recognized as an enabling mechanism for spintronics and magnonics, which allows implementation of spin-torque devices based on low-damping insulating magnetic materials. Here we report the first spatially-resolved study of the dynamic modes excited by pure spin current in nanometer-thick microscopic insulating Yttrium Iron Garnet disks. We show that these modes exhibit nonlinear self-broadening preventing the formation of the self-localized magnetic bullet, which plays a crucial role in the stabilization of the single-mode magnetization oscillations in all-metallic systems. This peculiarity associated with the efficient nonlinear mode coupling in low-damping materials can be among the main factors governing the interaction of pure spin currents with the dynamic magnetization in high-quality magnetic insulators. PMID:27608533
Resonance Excitation of Longitudinal High Order Modes in Project X Linac
Khabiboulline, T.N.; Sukhanov, A.AUTHOR = Awida, M.; Gonin, I.; Lunin, A.AUTHOR = Solyak, N.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab
2012-05-01
Results of simulation of power loss due to excitation of longitudinal high order modes (HOMs) in the accelerating superconducting RF system of CW linac of Project X are presented. Beam structures corresponding to the various modes of Project X operation are considered: CW regime for 3 GeV physics program; pulsed mode for neutrino experiments; and pulsed regime, when Project X linac operates as a driver for Neutrino Factory/Muon Collider. Power loss and associated heat load due to resonance excitation of longitudinal HOMs are shown to be small in all modes of operation. Conclusion is made that HOM couplers can be removed from the design of superconducting RF cavities of Project X linac.
Plasma confinement regimes and collective modes characterizing them
Coppi, B.; Zhou, T.
2012-10-15
A unified theory is presented for the modes that are excited at the edge of the plasma column and are important signatures of the advanced confinement regimes into which magnetically confined plasmas can be driven. In particular, the so-called EDA H-Regime, the Elmy H-Regime, and the I-Regime are considered. The modes that are identified theoretically have characteristics that are consistent with or have anticipated those of the modes observed experimentally for each of the investigated regimes. The phase velocities, the produced transport processes, the frequencies, the wavelengths, and the consistency with the direction of spontaneous rotation are the factors considered for comparison with the relevant experiments. The quasi-coherent mode [I. Cziegler, Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2011] that is present in the EDA H-Regime has a phase velocity in the direction of the ion diamagnetic velocity in the plasma reference frame. Consequently, this is identified as a ballooning mode near finite Larmor radius marginal stability involving the effects of transverse ion viscosity and other dissipative effects. In this regime, impurities are driven outward by the combined effects of the local temperature gradients of the impurities and their thermal conductivity, while in the Elmy H-Regime impurities are driven toward the center of the plasma column. In the I-Regimes, the excited 'Heavy Particle' modes [B. Coppi and T. Zhou, Phys. Plasmas 19, 012302 (2012); Phys. Lett. A 375, 2916 (2011)] are not of the ballooning kind and are shown to expel the impurities toward the plasma edge in the presence of significant fluctuations. These modes can have a finite frequency of oscillation with a phase velocity in the direction of the electron diamagnetic velocity or they can be nearly purely growing, explaining why there are I-Regimes where fluctuations are not observed. Instead, the modes considered for the Elmy H-Regime are of the ballooning
Real-time observation of collective excitations in photoemission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemell, C.; Neppl, S.; Wachter, G.; Tőkési, K.; Ernstorfer, R.; Feulner, P.; Kienberger, R.; Burgdörfer, J.
2015-06-01
Ejection of an electron by absorption of an extreme ultraviolet (xuv) photon probes the many-electron response of a solid well beyond the single-particle picture. Photoemission spectra feature complex correlation satellite structures signifying the simultaneous excitation of single or multiple plasmons. The time delay of the plasmon satellites relative to the main line can be resolved in attosecond streaking experiments. Time-resolved photoemission thus provides the key to discriminate between intrinsic and extrinsic plasmon excitation. We demonstrate the determination of the branching ratio between intrinsic and extrinsic plasmon generation for simple metals.
Coupled spin and charge collective excitations in a spin polarized electron gas
Marinescu, D.C.; Quinn, J.J.; Yi, K.S.
1997-08-12
The charge and longitudinal spin responses induced in a spin polarized quantum well by a weak electromagnetic field are investigated within the framework of the linear response theory. The authors evaluate the excitation frequencies for the intra- and inter-subband transitions of the collective charge and longitudinal spin density oscillations including many-body corrections beyond the random phase approximation through the spin dependent local field factors, G{sub {sigma}}{sup {+-}} (q,{omega}). An equation-of-motion method was used to obtain these corrections in the limit of long wavelengths, and the results are given in terms of the equilibrium pair correlation function. The finite degree of spin polarization is shown to introduce coupling between the charge and spin density modes, in contrast with the result for an unpolarized system.
Dhakal, Ashim; Subramanian, Ananth Z; Wuytens, Pieter; Peyskens, Frédéric; Le Thomas, Nicolas; Baets, Roel
2014-07-01
We experimentally demonstrate the use of high contrast, CMOS-compatible integrated photonic waveguides for Raman spectroscopy. We also derive the dependence of collected Raman power with the waveguide parameters and experimentally verify the derived relations. Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) is evanescently excited and detected using single-mode silicon-nitride strip waveguides. We analyze the measured signal strength of pure IPA corresponding to an 819 cm⁻¹ Raman peak due to in-phase C-C-O stretch vibration for several waveguide lengths and deduce a pump power to Raman signal conversion efficiency on the waveguide to be at least 10⁻¹¹ per cm.
Incompressible Modes Excited by Supersonic Shear in Boundary Layers: Acoustic CFS Instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyaev, Mikhail A.
2017-02-01
We present an instability for exciting incompressible modes (e.g., gravity or Rossby modes) at the surface of a star accreting through a boundary layer. The instability excites a stellar mode by sourcing an acoustic wave in the disk at the boundary layer, which carries a flux of energy and angular momentum with the opposite sign as the energy and angular momentum density of the stellar mode. We call this instability the acoustic Chandrasekhar–Friedman–Schutz (CFS) instability, because of the direct analogy to the CFS instability for exciting modes on a rotating star by emission of energy in the form of gravitational waves. However, the acoustic CFS instability differs from its gravitational wave counterpart in that the fluid medium in which the acoustic wave propagates (i.e., the accretion disk) typically rotates faster than the star in which the incompressible mode is sourced. For this reason, the instability can operate even for a non-rotating star in the presence of an accretion disk. We discuss applications of our results to high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations in accreting black hole and neutron star systems and dwarf nova oscillations in cataclysmic variables.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warren, Gary
1988-01-01
The SOS code is used to compute the resonance modes (frequency-domain information) of sample devices and separately to compute the transient behavior of the same devices. A code, DOT, is created to compute appropriate dot products of the time-domain and frequency-domain results. The transient behavior of individual modes in the device is then plotted. Modes in a coupled-cavity traveling-wave tube (CCTWT) section excited beam in separate simulations are analyzed. Mode energy vs. time and mode phase vs. time are computed and it is determined whether the transient waves are forward or backward waves for each case. Finally, the hot-test mode frequencies of the CCTWT section are computed.
Collective mode of homogeneous superfluid Fermi gases in the BEC-BCS crossover
Combescot, R.; Kagan, M. Yu.; Stringari, S.
2006-10-15
We perform a detailed study of the collective mode across the whole crossover from the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC)-to the BCS regime in fermionic gases at zero temperature, covering the whole range of energy beyond the linear regime. This is done on the basis of the dynamical BCS model. We recover first the results of the linear regime in a simple form. Then specific attention is paid to the nonlinear part of the dispersion relation and its interplay with the continuum of single-fermionic excitations. In particular we consider in detail the merging of the collective mode into the continuum of single-fermionic excitations. This occurs not only on the BCS side of the crossover, but also slightly beyond unitarity on the BEC side. Another remarkable feature is the very linear behavior of the dispersion relation in the vicinity of unitarity almost up to merging with the continuum. Finally, while on the BEC side the mode is quite analogous to the Bogoliubov mode, a difference appears at high wave vectors. On the basis of our results we determine the Landau critical velocity in the BEC-BCS crossover which is found to be largest close to unitarity. Our investigation has revealed interesting qualitative features which deserve experimental exploration as well as further theoretical studies by more sophisticated means.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beltran Madrigal, Josslyn; Berthel, Martin; Gardillou, Florent; Tellez Limon, Ricardo; Couteau, Christophe; Barbier, Denis; Drezet, Aurelien; Salas-Montiel, Rafael; Huant, Serge; Blaize, Sylvain; Geng, Wei
2015-10-01
Several works have already shown that the excitation of plasmonic structures through waveguides enables a strong light confinement and low propagation losses [1]. This kind of excitation is currently exploited in areas such as biosensing [2], nanocircuits[3] and spectroscopy[4]. The efficient excitation of surface plasmon modes (SPP) with guided modes supported by high-index-contrast waveguides, such as silicon-on-insulator waveguides, had already been shown [1,5]. However, the use of weakconfined guided modes of a glass ion exchanged waveguide as a SPP excitation source represents a technological challenge, because the mismatch between the size of their respective electromagnetic modes is so high that the resultant coupling loss is unacceptable for practical applications. In this work, we describe how an adiabatic taper structure formed by an intermediate high-index-contrast layer placed between a plasmonic structure and an ion-exchanged waveguide decreases the mismatch between effective indices, size, and shape of the guided modes. This hybrid structure concentrates the electromagnetic energy from the micrometer to the nanometer scale with low coupling losses to radiative modes. The electromagnetic mode confined to the high-index-contrast waveguide then works as an efficient source of SPP supported by metallic nanostructures placed on its surface. We theoretically studied the modal properties and field distribution along the adiabatic coupler structure. In addition, we fabricated a high-index-contrast waveguide by electron beam lithography and thermal evaporation on top of an ion-exchanged waveguide on glass. This structure was characterized with the use of near field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM). Numerical simulations were compared with the experimental results. [1] N. Djaker, R. Hostein, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. Rigneault, and J. Wenger, J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 16250 (2010). [2] P. Debackere, S. Scheerlinck, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Opt. Express 14
Selective mode excitation in finite size plasma crystals by diffusely reflected laser light
Schablinski, Jan; Block, Dietmar
2015-02-15
The possibility to use diffuse reflections of a laser beam to exert a force on levitating dust particles is studied experimentally. Measurements and theoretical predictions are found to be in good agreement. Further, the method is applied to test the selective excitation of breathing-like modes in finite dust clusters.
Radiation efficiency for exciting whistler modes of electric and magnetic antennas: a comparison
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.
2016-10-01
Low frequency whistler modes (ω <ωc / 2) are excited in a large uniform laboratory plasma with electric dipoles and magnetic loop antennas oriented perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The antennas are driven under identical plasma conditions with short pulses from the same rf source so as to avoid nonlinear effects. The wave propagation and rf field topology are measured with rf probes. As expected, a magnetic loop antenna excites much stronger whistler modes than an electric dipole antenna. This is because the dipole electric field is shielded by sheaths and its current is a small displacement current compared to the conduction current of a closed loop antenna. A power ratio of Ploop /Pdipole = 8000 has been observed. The radiation resistances have also been obtained from first principles (Rrad =Prad /Irms2), but cannot be compared since the currents are vastly different. It is interesting to note that the electric dipole excites a wave whose topology resembles that of an m = 1 helicon mode. The loop has an elongated shape of the same length as the electric dipole (15 cm) and excites an m = 0 mode. These results are relevant to whistler wave injections experiments into space plasmas. Work supported by NSF/DOE.
Injection locking of an electronic maser in the hard excitation mode
Yakunina, K. A.; Kuznetsov, A. P.; Ryskin, N. M.
2015-11-15
The phenomenon of hard excitation is natural for many electronic oscillators. In particular, in a gyrotron, a maximal efficiency is often attained in the hard excitation regime. In this paper, we study the injection-locking phenomena using two models of an electronic maser in the hard excitation mode. First, bifurcation analysis is performed for the quasilinear model described by ordinary differential equations for the slow amplitude and phase. Two main scenarios of transition to the injection-locked mode are described, which are generalizations of the well-known phase-locking and suppression mechanisms. The results obtained for the quasilinear model are confirmed by numerical simulations of a gyrotron with fixed Gaussian structure of the RF field.
Multi-Mode Excitation and Data Reduction for Fatigue Crack Characterization in Conducting Plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wincheski, B.; Namkung, M.; Fulton, J. P.; Clendenin, C. G.
1992-01-01
Advances in the technique of fatigue crack characterization by resonant modal analysis have been achieved through a new excitation mechanism and data reduction of multiple resonance modes. A non-contacting electromagnetic device is used to apply a time varying Lorentz force to thin conducting sheets. The frequency and direction of the Lorentz force are such that resonance modes are generated in the test sample. By comparing the change in frequency between distinct resonant modes of a sample, detecting and sizing of fatigue cracks are achieved and frequency shifts caused by boundary condition changes can be discriminated against. Finite element modeling has been performed to verify experimental results.
Excitation of whistler-mode chorus waves in a laboratory plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, X.; Van Compernolle, B.; Bortnik, J.; Decyk, V.; Thorne, R. M.
2016-12-01
Whistler-mode chorus waves play an important role in the highly dynamic variability of the Earth's outer radiation belt. Here both broadband and discrete chirping whistler-mode emissions are excited in the laboratory by injecting a gyrating electron beam into a cold background plasma. The mode structure of these emissions is identified using an phase-correlation technique. The emission forms of the whistler waves strongly depend on plasma density, beam density and magnetic field profiles. Particle-in-cell simulations for the experiment shows an initial relaxation of the electron beam by Langmuir waves and subsequently growing whistler waves through both cyclotron resonance and Landau resonance.
Collective excitation of Rydberg-atom ensembles beyond the superatom model.
Gärttner, Martin; Whitlock, Shannon; Schönleber, David W; Evers, Jörg
2014-12-05
In an ensemble of laser-driven atoms involving strongly interacting Rydberg states, the steady-state excitation probability is usually substantially suppressed. In contrast, here we identify a regime in which the Rydberg excited fraction is enhanced by the interaction. This effect is associated with the buildup of many-body coherences induced by coherent multiphoton excitations between collective states. The excitation enhancement should be observable under currently existing experimental conditions and may serve as a direct probe for the presence of coherent multiphoton dynamics involving collective quantum states.
Nonlinear mode coupling and resonant excitations in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates.
Xue, Ju-Kui; Li, Guan-Qiang; Zhang, Ai-Xia; Peng, Ping
2008-01-01
Nonlinear excitations in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) described by two coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations are investigated analytically and numerically. The beating phenomenon, the higher-harmonic generation, and the mixing of the excited modes are revealed by both variational approximation and numerical method. The strong excitations induced by the parametric resonance are also studied by time-periodic modulation for the intercomponent interaction. The resonance conditions in terms of the modulation frequency and the strength of intercomponent interaction are obtained analytically, which are confirmed by numerical method. Direct numerical simulations show that, when the resonance takes place, periodic phase separation and multisoliton configurations (including soliton trains, soliton pairs, and multidomain walls) can be excited. In particular, we demonstrate a method for formation of multisoliton configurations through parametric resonance in two-component BECs.
Near gap excitation of a CDW amplitude mode by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leuenberger, Dominik; Yang, Shuolong; Sobota, Jonathan; Giraldo, Paula; Kirchmann, Patrick; Fisher, Ian; Shen, Zhi-Xun
2014-03-01
We present time-, angle- and energy-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy data from the light rear-earth tritelluride compound CeTe3. An in-plane Peierls distortion in the tellurium slabs leads to the formation of an incommensurate Charge Density Wave (CDW), accompanied by a CDW gap at the Fermi level. Ultrafast optical laser excitation and subsequent relaxation by means of electron-phonon coupling can coherently excite a periodic modulation of the CDW band position and the gap size in rear-earth tritellurides. In this work, the use of tuneable near infrared laser pulses allows for optical excitation slightly above and below the measured gap value of 570 meV. The smaller excitation phase space not only leads to cleaner amplitude mode signal but also helps to pin down the optical transitions, which are the driving mechanisms for the transient CDW phase transition. Financial support by the Swiss National Science Foundation is duly acknowledged.
Modeling stochastic excitation of acoustic modes in stars: present status and perspectives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samadi, R.; Belkacem, K.; Goupil, M.-J.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Dupret, M.-A.
2008-12-01
Solar-like oscillations have now been detected for more than ten years and their frequencies measured for a still growing number of stars with various characteristics (e.g. mass, chemical composition, evolutionary stage ...). Excitation of such oscillations is attributed to turbu- lent convection and takes place in the uppermost part of the convective envelope. Since the pioneering work of Goldreich & Keely (1977), more sophisticated theoretical models of stochastic excitation were developed, which differ from each other both by the way turbulent convection is modeled and by the assumed sources of excitation. We briefly review here the different underlying approximations and assumptions of those models. A second part shows that computed mode excitation rates crucially depend on the way time-correlations between eddies are described but also on the surface metal abundance of the star.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boschetto, Davide; Hung, Chung; Malard Moreira, Leandro; Mak, Kin Fai; Yan, Hugen; Heinz, Tony F.
2010-03-01
Raman spectroscopy is one of the key methods for the characterization of single and multilayer graphene. In the bulk limit, the lateral motion of adjacent graphene planes gives rise to a Raman active low-frequency mode, the so-called interlayer shearing mode. Coherent excitation of this mode has been observed by femtosecond time-resolved reflectivity [1]. For the case of few-layer graphene, related modes are predicted to be present and to exhibit different properties as a function of layer thickness [2]. Here we report the observation of coherent oscillation of such shearing mode phonons in multilayer graphene. The experiments are performed on mechanically exfoliated graphene samples using femtosecond laser excitation pulses and time-delayed femtosecond probe pulses in a transient reflectivity measurement. The coherent shearing-mode phonons exhibit a period of 800 fs, with a lifetime exceeding 10 ps. We will discuss the characteristics of shearing mode phonons as a function of the thickness of multilayer graphene. [1] T. Mishina et al., Phys. Rev. B 62, 2908 (2000) [2] S. K. Saha et al., Phys Rev. B 78, 165421 (2008)
Paillet, Frederick L.; Cheng, C.H.; Meredith, J.A.
1987-01-01
Existing techniques for the quantitative interpretation of waveform data have been based on one of two fundamental approaches: (1) simultaneous identification of compressional and shear velocities; and (2) least-squares minimization of the difference between experimental waveforms and synthetic seismograms. Techniques based on the first approach do not always work, and those based on the second seem too numerically cumbersome for routine application during data processing. An alternative approach is tested here, in which synthetic waveforms are used to predict relative mode excitation in the composite waveform. Synthetic waveforms are generated for a series of lithologies ranging from hard, crystalline rocks (Vp equals 6. 0 km/sec. and Poisson's ratio equals 0. 20) to soft, argillaceous sediments (Vp equals 1. 8 km/sec. and Poisson's ratio equals 0. 40). The series of waveforms illustrates a continuous change within this range of rock properties. Mode energy within characteristic velocity windows is computed for each of the modes in the set of synthetic waveforms. The results indicate that there is a consistent variation in mode excitation in lithology space that can be used to construct a unique relationship between relative mode excitation and lithology.
LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Collective modes of tri-nuclear molecules of the type 96Sr+ 10Be+ 146Ba
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hess, P. O.; Scheid, W.; Greiner, W.; Hamilton, J. H.
1999-12-01
The collective modes of the tri-nuclear molecule 96Sr+ 10Be+ 146Ba, observed in recent cold fission decay of 252Cf into three clusters, are theoretically investigated. The main excitations are rotations, the butterfly and belly-dancer modes and icons/Journals/Common/beta" ALT="beta" ALIGN="TOP"/>- and icons/Journals/Common/gamma" ALT="gamma" ALIGN="TOP"/>-vibrations. Due to the presence of the Be nucleus, butterfly excitation energies are shifted up to 2 MeV. There are only a few collective states below 1 MeV which are not rotational. The first rotational level of spin 2+ lies at an energy of about 6 keV. Proposals of how these collective modes may be measured are suggested.
Quantum dot based detections of propagating plasmonic modes excited by bowtie antennas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Jing; Wang, Kang; Feng, Hui; Lv, Yating; Chen, Jiannong; Zhang, Dawei
2017-03-01
Propagating plasmonic modes excited by bowtie apertures based on emissions from a layer of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots are experimentally detected. The mode distributions with a cladding of 20 nm thick Al2O3 film in between the silver and the quantum dot layers are more homogenous compared to the uncoated structure. The variation discipline of the effective indexes and the decay lengths of the plasmonic modes are discussed for various refractive indexes and thicknesses of the cladding. The three dimensional field distributions of the structure are simulated and the plasmonic fields are only excited in and around the cladding layer on top of the silver film. Such quantum dots based detection methods are promising tools for simultaneous imaging of near field optical distributions in integrated plasmonic nano-circuits.
EXCITATION OF SLOW MODES IN NETWORK MAGNETIC ELEMENTS THROUGH MAGNETIC PUMPING
Kato, Yoshiaki; Steiner, Oskar; Steffen, Matthias; Suematsu, Yoshinori
2011-04-01
From radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmosphere, we find a new mechanism for the excitation of longitudinal slow modes within magnetic flux concentrations. We find that the convective downdrafts in the immediate surroundings of magnetic elements are responsible for the excitation of slow modes. The coupling between the external downdraft and the plasma motion internal to the flux concentration is mediated by the inertial forces of the downdraft that act on the magnetic flux concentration. These forces, in conjunction with the downward movement, pump the internal atmosphere in the downward direction, which entails a fast downdraft in the photospheric and chromospheric layers of the magnetic element. Subsequent to the transient pumping phase, the atmosphere rebounds, causing a slow mode traveling along the magnetic flux concentration in the upward direction. It develops into a shock wave in chromospheric heights, possibly capable of producing some kind of dynamic fibril. We propose an observational detection of this process.
Altering the threshold of an excitable signal transduction network changes cell migratory modes.
Miao, Yuchuan; Bhattacharya, Sayak; Edwards, Marc; Cai, Huaqing; Inoue, Takanari; Iglesias, Pablo A; Devreotes, Peter N
2017-04-01
The diverse migratory modes displayed by different cell types are generally believed to be idiosyncratic. Here we show that the migratory behaviour of Dictyostelium was switched from amoeboid to keratocyte-like and oscillatory modes by synthetically decreasing phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate levels or increasing Ras/Rap-related activities. The perturbations at these key nodes of an excitable signal transduction network initiated a causal chain of events: the threshold for network activation was lowered, the speed and range of propagating waves of signal transduction activity increased, actin-driven cellular protrusions expanded and, consequently, the cell migratory mode transitions ensued. Conversely, innately keratocyte-like and oscillatory cells were promptly converted to amoeboid by inhibition of Ras effectors with restoration of directed migration. We use computational analysis to explain how thresholds control cell migration and discuss the architecture of the signal transduction network that gives rise to excitability.
Combined molecular and spin dynamics study of collective excitations in BCC iron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perera, Dilina; Landau, David P.; Nicholson, Don; Stocks, G. Malcolm
2014-03-01
Spin dynamics simulations of classical spin systems have revealed a substantial amount of information regarding the collective excitations in magnetic materials. However, much of the previous work has been restricted to lattice-based spin models that completely disregard the effect of lattice vibrations. Combining an empirical many body potential with a spin Hamiltonian parameterized by first principles calculations, we present a compressible magnetic model for BCC iron, which treats the dynamics of translational degrees of freedom on an equal footing with the magnetic (spin) degrees of freedom. This model provides us with a unified framework for performing combined molecular and spin dynamics simulations and make simultaneous quantitative measurements of the spin wave and vibrational spectrum. Results from our simulations reveal that the presence of lattice vibrations leads to softening and damping of spin waves, as well as evidence for a novel form of longitudinal spin wave excitation coupled with the longitudinal phonon mode of the same frequency. Furthermore, we will also discuss the influence of lattice vibrations at different temperatures and the implications of using different atomistic potentials. Research sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, ``Center for Defect Physics,'' an Energy Frontier Research Center. Done...processed 13325 records...10:54:51
Thermal conductivity of graphene and graphite: collective excitations and mean free paths.
Fugallo, Giorgia; Cepellotti, Andrea; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Michele; Marzari, Nicola; Mauri, Francesco
2014-11-12
We characterize the thermal conductivity of graphite, monolayer graphene, graphane, fluorographane, and bilayer graphene, solving exactly the Boltzmann transport equation for phonons, with phonon-phonon collision rates obtained from density functional perturbation theory. For graphite, the results are found to be in excellent agreement with experiments; notably, the thermal conductivity is 1 order of magnitude larger than what found by solving the Boltzmann equation in the single mode approximation, commonly used to describe heat transport. For graphene, we point out that a meaningful value of intrinsic thermal conductivity at room temperature can be obtained only for sample sizes of the order of 1 mm, something not considered previously. This unusual requirement is because collective phonon excitations, and not single phonons, are the main heat carriers in these materials; these excitations are characterized by mean free paths of the order of hundreds of micrometers. As a result, even Fourier's law becomes questionable in typical sample sizes, because its statistical nature makes it applicable only in the thermodynamic limit to systems larger than a few mean free paths. Finally, we discuss the effects of isotopic disorder, strain, and chemical functionalization on thermal performance. Only chemical functionalization is found to play an important role, decreasing the conductivity by a factor of 2 in hydrogenated graphene, and by 1 order of magnitude in fluorogenated graphene.
Development of collective structures over noncollective excitations in 139Nd
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhowal, S.; Gangopadhyay, G.; Petrache, C. M.; Ragnarsson, I.; Singh, A. K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Hübel, H.; Neußer-Neffgen, A.; Al-Khatib, A.; Bringel, P.; Bürger, A.; Nenoff, N.; Schönwaßer, G.; Hagemann, G. B.; Herskind, B.; Jensen, D. R.; Sletten, G.; Fallon, P.; Görgen, A.; Bednarczyk, P.; Curien, D.; Korichi, A.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Rao, B. V. T.; Reddy, T. S.; Singh, Nirmal
2011-08-01
High-spin states in 139Nd were investigated using the reaction 96Zr(48Ca,5n) at a beam energy of 195 MeV and γ-ray coincidences were acquired with the Euroball spectrometer. Apart from several dipole bands at medium excitation energy, three quadrupole bands have been observed at high spin. Linking transitions connecting two of the high-spin bands to low-energy states have been observed. Calculations based on the cranked-Nilsson-Strutinsky formalism have been used to assign configurations for the high-spin quadrupole bands.
Collective hypersonic excitations in strongly multiple scattering colloids.
Still, T; Gantzounis, G; Kiefer, D; Hellmann, G; Sainidou, R; Fytas, G; Stefanou, N
2011-04-29
Unprecedented low-dispersion high-frequency acoustic excitations are observed in dense suspensions of elastically hard colloids. The experimental phononic band structure for SiO(2) particles with different sizes and volume fractions is well represented by rigorous full-elastodynamic multiple-scattering calculations. The slow phonons, which do not relate to particle resonances, are localized in the surrounding liquid medium and stem from coherent multiple scattering that becomes strong in the close-packing regime. Such rich phonon-matter interactions in nanostructures, being still unexplored, can open new opportunities in phononics.
Kyong, Yongsoo; Kim, Daesung; Dayou, Jedol; Park, Kyihwan; Wang, Semyung
2008-07-01
For vibration testing, discrete types of scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) have been developed and have proven to be very useful. For complex structures, however, SLDV takes considerable time to scan the surface of structures and require large amounts of data storage. To overcome these problems, a continuous scan was introduced as an alternative. In this continuous method, the Chebyshev demodulation (or polynomial) technique and the Hilbert transform approach have been used for mode shape reconstruction with harmonic excitation. As an alternative, in this paper, the Hilbert-Huang transform approach is applied to impact excitation cases in terms of a numerical approach, where the vibration of the tested structure is modeled using impulse response functions. In order to verify this technique, a clamped-clamped beam was chosen as the test rig in the numerical simulation and real experiment. This paper shows that with additional innovative steps of using ideal bandpass filters and nodal point determination in the postprocessing, the Hilbert-Huang transformation can be used to create a better mode shape reconstruction even in the impact excitation case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Huajin; Ye, Qian; Zhang, Yiwen; Shi, Lei; Liu, Shiyang; Jian, Zi; Lin, Zhifang
2017-08-01
We demonstrate a reconfigurable lateral optical force (OF) on a plasmonic nanoparticle immersed in a simple optical field invariant along the lateral direction and formed by two interfering plane waves. This lateral OF is shown, from the multipolar expansion technique, attributed to several coupling channels established between multiple multipoles excited on a plasmonic nanoparticle, in particular, the adjacent electric multipole modes that bring about the Fano interferences, which can substantially enhance the lateral scattering asymmetry, leading to an augmented lateral OF comparable to the longitudinal OF. More importantly, by engineering Fano interference either intrinsically through particle size or extrinsically through selectively exciting narrow plasmonic dark modes the direction of the lateral OF is reversibly switchable. The lateral OF can even be modulated continuously from positive to negative by controlling the incident angle of the interfering plane waves due to the variation of relative phase of the excited plasmonic dark modes near Fano resonance, facilitating the plasmonic nanoparticle as a controllable conveyor as well as the optical selection and separation. Besides, a fundamental and counterintuitive physical consequence emerges in that the simple proportional relation between the lateral OF and the Belinfante spin momentum derived in the small particle limit breaks down when the Fano interference comes into play, in particular, a negative lateral OF opposite the Belinfante spin momentum can be induced by properly controlling the selective excitation.
Collective and quasiparticle excitations in superdeformed {sup 190}Hg
Wilson, A.N.; Timar, J.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F.; Crowell, B.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Ahmad, I.; Astier, A.; Azaiez, F.; Bergstroem, M.; Ducroux, L.; Gall, B.J.; Hannachi, F.; Khoo, T.L.; Korichi, A.; Lauritsen, T.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Meyer, M.; Nisius, D.; Paul, E.S.; Porquet, M.G.; Redon, N.; Wilson, J.N.; Nakatsukasa, T. ||||||
1996-08-01
Superdeformed (SD) states of {sup 190}Hg have been studied with the Eurogam Phase 2 {gamma}-ray spectrometer using the {sup 160}Gd({sup 34}S,4{ital n}) reaction. Two new excited SD bands have been found and identified as belonging to this nucleus, bringing the total number of SD bands in {sup 190}Hg to 4. One of the new bands has a dynamic moment of inertia that is very similar to that of the yrast SD band of {sup 190}Hg and most other SD bands in the {ital A}{approximately}190 region. In contrast, the other band has a dynamic moment of inertia which is mainly constant as a function of rotational frequency and exhibits a dramatic increase at the lowest frequencies. The observed dynamic moments of inertia are compared with the results of random phase approximation calculations based on the cranked shell model. Finally, the known excited SD band has been extended towards lower frequencies and new transitions have been found linking this band to the yrast SD band. The extracted {ital B}({ital E}1) values of the new linking transitions give further support for the possible octupole vibrational character of this band. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Collective and quasiparticle excitations in superformed Hg-190.
Wilson, A. N.; Timar, J.; Sharpey-Schafer, J. F.; Crowell, B.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Blumenthal, D. J.; Ahmad, I.; Astier, A.; Azaiez, F.; Bergstrom, M.; Ducroux, L.; Gall, B. J. P.; Hannachi, F.; Khoo, T. L.; Korichi, A.; Lauritsen, T.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Meyer, M.; Nisius, D.; Paul, E. S.; Porquet, M. G.; Redon, N.; Wilson, J. N.; Nakatsukasa, T.; Physics; Univ. of Liverpool; Univ. of Liverpool; Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Inst. de Physique Nucleaire Lyon; I.P.N.; Inst. of Physique Nucleaire Lyon; C.S.N.S.M.; AECL
1996-08-01
Superdeformed (SD) states of {sup 190}Hg have been studied with the Eurogam Phase 2 {gamma}-ray spectrometer using the {sup 160}Gd({sup 34}S,4n) reaction. Two new excited SD bands have been found and identified as belonging to this nucleus, bringing the total number of SD bands in {sup 190}Hg to 4. One of the new bands has a dynamic moment of inertia that is very similar to that of the yrast SD band of {sup 190}Hg and most other SD bands in the A{approx}190 region. In contrast, the other band has a dynamic moment of inertia which is mainly constant as a function of rotational frequency and exhibits a dramatic increase at the lowest frequencies. The observed dynamic moments of inertia are compared with the results of random phase approximation calculations based on the cranked shell model. Finally, the known excited SD band has been extended towards lower frequencies and new transitions have been found linking this band to the yrast SD band. The extracted B(E1) values of the new linking transitions give further support for the possible octupole vibrational character of this band.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Portnov, Alexander; Epshtein, Michael; Bar, Ilana
2017-06-01
Nonadiabatic processes, dominated by dynamic passage of reactive fluxes through conical intersections (CIs) are considered to be appealing means for manipulating reaction paths. One approach that is considered to be effective in controlling the course of dissociation processes is the selective excitation of vibrational modes containing a considerable component of motion. Here, we have chosen to study the predissociation of the model test molecule, methylamine and its deuterated isotopologues, excited to well-characterized quantum states on the first excited electronic state, S_{1}, by following the N-H(D) bond fission dynamics through sensitive H(D) photofragment probing. The branching ratios between slow and fast H(D) photofragments, the internal energies of their counter radical photofragments and the anisotropy parameters for fast H photofragments, confirm correlated anomalies for predissociation initiated from specific rovibronic states, reflecting the existence of a dynamic resonance in each molecule. This resonance strongly depends on the energy of the initially excited rovibronic states, the evolving vibrational mode on the repulsive S_{1} part during N-H(D) bond elongation, and the manipulated passage through the CI that leads to radicals excited with C-N-H(D) bending and preferential perpendicular bond breaking, relative to the photolyzing laser polarization, in molecules containing the NH_{2} group. The indicated resonance plays an important role in the bifurcation dynamics at the CI and can be foreseen to exist in other photoinitiated processes and to control their outcome.
Collective Modes of a Soliton Train in a Fermi Superfluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, Shovan; Mueller, Erich J.
2017-06-01
We characterize the collective modes of a soliton train in a quasi-one-dimensional Fermi superfluid, using a mean-field formalism. In addition to the expected Goldstone and Higgs modes, we find novel long-lived gapped modes associated with oscillations of the soliton cores. The soliton train has an instability that depends strongly on the interaction strength and the spacing of solitons. It can be stabilized by filling each soliton with an unpaired fermion, thus forming a commensurate Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phase. We find that such a state is always dynamically stable, which paves the way for realizing long-lived FFLO states in experiments via phase imprinting.
Wexler, Adam D; Drusová, Sandra; Woisetschläger, Jakob; Fuchs, Elmar C
2016-06-28
In this experiment liquid water is subject to an inhomogeneous electric field (∇(2)Ea≈ 10(10) V m(2)) using a high voltage (20 kV) point-plane electrode system. Using interferometry it was found that the application of a strong electric field gradient to water generates local changes in the refractive index of the liquid, polarizes the surface and creates a downward moving electro-convective jet. A maximum temperature difference of 1 °C is measured in the immediate vicinity of the point electrode. Raman spectroscopy performed on water reveals an enhancement of the vibrational collective modes (3250 cm(-1)) as well as an increase in the local mode (3490 cm(-1)) energy. This bimodal enhancement indicates that the spectral changes are not due to temperature changes. The intense field gradient thus establishes an excited subpopulation of vibrational oscillators far from thermal equilibrium. Delocalization of the collective vibrational mode spatially expands this excited population beyond the microscale. Hindered rotational freedom due to electric field pinning of molecular dipoles retards the heat flow and generates a chemical potential gradient. These changes are responsible for the observed changes in the refractive index and temperature. It is demonstrated that polar liquids can thus support local non-equilibrium thermodynamic transient states critical to biochemical and environmental processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Khokan; Kayal, Surajit; Ariese, Freek; Beeby, Andrew; Umapathy, Siva
2017-02-01
Femtosecond transient absorption (fs-TA) and Ultrafast Raman Loss Spectroscopy (URLS) have been applied to reveal the excited state dynamics of bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (BPEB), a model system for one-dimensional molecular wires that have numerous applications in opto-electronics. It is known from the literature that in the ground state BPEB has a low torsional barrier, resulting in a mixed population of rotamers in solution at room temperature. For the excited state this torsional barrier had been calculated to be much higher. Our femtosecond TA measurements show a multi-exponential behaviour, related to the complex structural dynamics in the excited electronic state. Time-resolved, excited state URLS studies in different solvents reveal mode-dependent kinetics and picosecond vibrational relaxation dynamics of high frequency vibrations. After excitation, a gradual increase in intensity is observed for all Raman bands, which reflects the structural reorganization of Franck-Condon excited, non-planar rotamers to a planar conformation. It is argued that this excited state planarization is also responsible for its high fluorescence quantum yield. The time dependent peak positions of high frequency vibrations provide additional information: a rapid, sub-picosecond decrease in peak frequency, followed by a slower increase, indicates the extent of conjugation during different phases of excited state relaxation. The CC triple (-C≡C-) bond responds somewhat faster to structural reorganization than the CC double (>C=C<) bonds. This study deepens our understanding of the excited state of BPEB and analogous linear pi-conjugated systems and may thus contribute to the advancement of polymeric "molecular wires."
Roy, Khokan; Kayal, Surajit; Ariese, Freek; Beeby, Andrew; Umapathy, Siva
2017-02-14
Femtosecond transient absorption (fs-TA) and Ultrafast Raman Loss Spectroscopy (URLS) have been applied to reveal the excited state dynamics of bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (BPEB), a model system for one-dimensional molecular wires that have numerous applications in opto-electronics. It is known from the literature that in the ground state BPEB has a low torsional barrier, resulting in a mixed population of rotamers in solution at room temperature. For the excited state this torsional barrier had been calculated to be much higher. Our femtosecond TA measurements show a multi-exponential behaviour, related to the complex structural dynamics in the excited electronic state. Time-resolved, excited state URLS studies in different solvents reveal mode-dependent kinetics and picosecond vibrational relaxation dynamics of high frequency vibrations. After excitation, a gradual increase in intensity is observed for all Raman bands, which reflects the structural reorganization of Franck-Condon excited, non-planar rotamers to a planar conformation. It is argued that this excited state planarization is also responsible for its high fluorescence quantum yield. The time dependent peak positions of high frequency vibrations provide additional information: a rapid, sub-picosecond decrease in peak frequency, followed by a slower increase, indicates the extent of conjugation during different phases of excited state relaxation. The CC triple (-C≡C-) bond responds somewhat faster to structural reorganization than the CC double (>C=C<) bonds. This study deepens our understanding of the excited state of BPEB and analogous linear pi-conjugated systems and may thus contribute to the advancement of polymeric "molecular wires."
Flute mode waves near the lower hybrid frequency excited by ion rings in velocity space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cattell, C.; Hudson, M.
1982-01-01
Discrete emissions at the lower hybrid frequency are often seen on the S3-3 satellite. Simultaneous observation of perpendicularly heated ions suggests that these ions may provide the free energy necessary to drive the instability. Studies of the dispersion relation for flute modes excited by warm ion rings in velocity space show that waves are excited with real frequencies near the lower hybrid frequency and with growth rates ranging from about 0.01 to 1 times the ion cyclotron frequency. Numerical results are therefore consistent with the possibility that the observed ions are the free energy source for the observed waves.
Single mode excitation of microtubules using a double slit ultrasound device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samarbakhsh, Abdorreza; Tuszynski, Jack
2010-03-01
Microtubules (MTs) are a major part of the cytoskeleton of all eukaryotic cells. They directly contribute to the process of cell division by forming mitotic spindles and providing force for the segregation of chromosomes. In this work we present analytical solutions to the problem of the vibrational dynamics of a MT that is attached at its two ends (of relevance mitosis) inside a viscous solution, driven by an ultrasound plane wave. We have shown that the ultrasound plane waves excite all modes of microtubule vibration at the same time which prevents the generation of resonance with a large enough amplitude. Specifically, when the MT is excited with a plane wave, the amplitude of each mode is inversely proportional to its mode number. Having a large enough amplitude for the vibrational effect is crucial in order to maximize the bending moment of a MT. Also achieving resonance is important in order to establish frequency control on the system. In order to overcome this difficulty, we propose to excite just a single mode of the MT using an ultrasound generation device using a double slit design that allows for both the frequency control and optimized energy transfer to the MT.
Collective modes in three-dimensional magnonic vortex crystals
Hänze, Max; Adolff, Christian F.; Schulte, Benedikt; Möller, Jan; Weigand, Markus; Meier, Guido
2016-01-01
Collective modes in three-dimensional crystals of stacked permalloy disks with magnetic vortices are investigated by ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. The size of the arrangements is increased step by step to identify the different contributions to the interaction between the vortices. These contributions are the key requirement to understand complex dynamics of three dimensional vortex crystals. Both vertical and horizontal coupling determine the collective modes. In-plane dipoles strongly influence the interaction between the disks in the stacks and lead to polarity-dependent resonance frequencies. Weaker contributions discern arrangements with different polarities and circularities that result from the lateral coupling of the stacks and the interaction of the core regions inside a stack. All three contributions are identified in the experiments and are explained in a rigid particle model. PMID:26932833
Electron pair escape from fullerene cage via collective modes
Schüler, Michael; Pavlyukh, Yaroslav; Bolognesi, Paolo; Avaldi, Lorenzo; Berakdar, Jamal
2016-01-01
Experiment and theory evidence a new pathway for correlated two-electron release from many-body compounds following collective excitation by a single photon. Using nonequilibrium Green’s function approach we trace plasmon oscillations as the key ingredient of the effective electron-electron interaction that governs the correlated pair emission in a dynamic many-body environment. Results from a full ab initio implementation for C60 fullerene are in line with experimental observations. The findings endorse the correlated two-electron photoemission as a powerful tool to access electronic correlation in complex systems. PMID:27086559
Collective modes in light nuclei from first principles.
Dytrych, T; Launey, K D; Draayer, J P; Maris, P; Vary, J P; Saule, E; Catalyurek, U; Sosonkina, M; Langr, D; Caprio, M A
2013-12-20
Results for ab initio no-core shell model calculations in a symmetry-adapted SU(3)-based coupling scheme demonstrate that collective modes in light nuclei emerge from first principles. The low-lying states of 6Li, 8Be, and 6He are shown to exhibit orderly patterns that favor spatial configurations with strong quadrupole deformation and complementary low intrinsic spin values, a picture that is consistent with the nuclear symplectic model. The results also suggest a pragmatic path forward to accommodate deformation-driven collective features in ab initio analyses when they dominate the nuclear landscape.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coppi, B.
2017-03-01
The radiation emission from Shining Black Holes is most frequently observed to have nonthermal features. It is therefore appropriate to consider relevant collective processes in plasmas surrounding black holes that contain high energy particles with nonthermal distributions in momentum space. A fluid description with significant temperature anisotropies is the simplest relevant approach. These anisotropies are shown to have a critical influence on: (a) the existence and characteristics of stationary plasma and field ring configurations, (b) the excitation of "thermo-gravitational modes" driven by temperature anisotropies and gradients that involve gravity and rotation, (c) the generation of magnetic fields over macroscopic scale distances, and (d) the transport of angular momentum.
Travel Mode Detection with Varying Smartphone Data Collection Frequencies
Shafique, Muhammad Awais; Hato, Eiji
2016-01-01
Smartphones are becoming increasingly popular day-by-day. Modern smartphones are more than just calling devices. They incorporate a number of high-end sensors that provide many new dimensions to smartphone experience. The use of smartphones, however, can be extended from the usual telecommunication field to applications in other specialized fields including transportation. Sensors embedded in the smartphones like GPS, accelerometer and gyroscope can collect data passively, which in turn can be processed to infer the travel mode of the smartphone user. This will solve most of the shortcomings associated with conventional travel survey methods including biased response, no response, erroneous time recording, etc. The current study uses the sensors’ data collected by smartphones to extract nine features for classification. Variables including data frequency, moving window size and proportion of data to be used for training, are dealt with to achieve better results. Random forest is used to classify the smartphone data among six modes. An overall accuracy of 99.96% is achieved, with no mode less than 99.8% for data collected at 10 Hz frequency. The accuracy is observed to decrease with decrease in data frequency, but at the same time the computation time also decreases. PMID:27213380
Travel Mode Detection with Varying Smartphone Data Collection Frequencies.
Shafique, Muhammad Awais; Hato, Eiji
2016-05-18
Smartphones are becoming increasingly popular day-by-day. Modern smartphones are more than just calling devices. They incorporate a number of high-end sensors that provide many new dimensions to smartphone experience. The use of smartphones, however, can be extended from the usual telecommunication field to applications in other specialized fields including transportation. Sensors embedded in the smartphones like GPS, accelerometer and gyroscope can collect data passively, which in turn can be processed to infer the travel mode of the smartphone user. This will solve most of the shortcomings associated with conventional travel survey methods including biased response, no response, erroneous time recording, etc. The current study uses the sensors' data collected by smartphones to extract nine features for classification. Variables including data frequency, moving window size and proportion of data to be used for training, are dealt with to achieve better results. Random forest is used to classify the smartphone data among six modes. An overall accuracy of 99.96% is achieved, with no mode less than 99.8% for data collected at 10 Hz frequency. The accuracy is observed to decrease with decrease in data frequency, but at the same time the computation time also decreases.
Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Pu, Ruifeng; Granatstein, Victor L.
2015-07-06
In recent years, there was an active development of high-power, sub-terahertz (sub-THz) gyrotrons for numerous applications. For example, a 0.67 THz gyrotron delivering more than 200 kW with about 20% efficiency was developed. This record high efficiency was achieved because the gyrotron operated in a high-order TE{sub 31,8}-mode with the power of ohmic losses less than 10% of the power of outgoing radiation. That gyrotron operated at the fundamental cyclotron resonance, and a high magnetic field of about 27 T was created by a pulse solenoid. For numerous applications, it is beneficial to use gyrotrons at cyclotron harmonics which can operate in available cryomagnets with fields not exceeding 15 T. However, typically, the gyrotron operation at harmonics faces severe competition from parasitic modes at the fundamental resonance. In the present paper, we consider a similar 0.67 THz gyrotron designed for operation in the same TE{sub 31,8}-mode, but at the second harmonic. We focus on two nonlinear effects typical for interaction between the fundamental and second harmonic modes, viz., the mode suppression and the nonlinear excitation of the mode at the fundamental harmonic by the second harmonic oscillations. Our study includes both the analytical theory and numerical simulations performed with the self-consistent code MAGY. The simulations show that stable second harmonic operation in the TE{sub 31,8} mode is possible with only modest sacrifice of efficiency and power.
Magnetic stochasticity and transport due to nonlinearly excited subdominant microtearing modes
Hatch, D. R.; Jenko, F.; Doerk, H.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.; Nevins, W. M.
2013-01-15
Subdominant, linearly stable microtearing modes are identified as the main mechanism for the development of magnetic stochasticity and transport in gyrokinetic simulations of electromagnetic ion temperature gradient driven plasma microturbulence. The linear eigenmode spectrum is examined in order to identify and characterize modes with tearing parity. Connections are demonstrated between microtearing modes and the nonlinear fluctuations that are responsible for the magnetic stochasticity and electromagnetic transport, and nonlinear coupling with zonal modes is identified as the salient nonlinear excitation mechanism. A simple model is presented, which relates the electromagnetic transport to the electrostatic transport. These results may provide a paradigm for the mechanisms responsible for electromagnetic stochasticity and transport, which can be examined in a broader range of scenarios and parameter regimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Ya-Li; Gong, Ling-Li; Che, Kai-Jun; Li, Sen-Sen; Chu, Cheng-Xu; Cai, Zhi-Ping; Yang, Chaoyong James; Chen, Lu-Jian
2017-05-01
We examined the end-pumped lasing behaviors of dye doped cholesteric liquid crystal (DDCLC) microshells which were fabricated by glass capillary microfluidics. Several kinds of mode resonances, including distributed feedback, Fabry-Pérot (FP), and whispering gallery (WG) modes, can be robustly constructed in each individual DDCLC microshell by varying the beam diameter, namely, tuning the DDCLC gain area. The FP and WG modes were further confirmed experimentally, and the corresponding lasing mechanisms are clearly revealed from the unique material characteristics of DDCLC and the geometrical structure of the microshell. Additionally, we demonstrated that the osmotic pressure can be used to shrink/expand the microshell, productively tuning the excitation of lasing modes in a controlled manner. We wish our findings can provide a new insight into the design of DDCLC microlasers with tunable optical properties.
He, H. D.; Zheng, G. Y.; Long, Y. X.; He, Z. X.; Jiang, H. B.; Shen, Y.; Wang, L. F.; Dong, J. Q.; Fu, G. Y.; Sheng, Z. M.
2010-08-15
The internal kink (fishbone) modes, driven by barely passing energetic ions (EIs), are numerically studied with the spatial distribution of the EIs taking into account. It is found that the modes with frequencies comparable to the toroidal precession frequencies are excited by resonant interaction with the EIs. Positive and negative density gradient dominating cases, corresponding to off- and near-axis depositions of neutral beam injection (NBI), respectively, are analyzed in detail. The most interesting and important feature of the modes is that there exists a second stable regime in higher {beta}{sub h} (=pressure of EIs/toroidal magnetic pressure) range, and the modes may only be excited by the barely passing EIs in a region of {beta}{sub th1}<{beta}{sub h}<{beta}{sub th2} ({beta}{sub th} is threshold or critical beta of EIs). Besides, the unstable modes require minimum density gradients and minimum radial positions of NBI deposition. The physics mechanism for the existence of the second stable regime is discussed. The results may provide a means of reducing or even preventing the loss of NBI energetic ions and increasing the heating efficiency by adjusting the pitch angle and driving the system into the second stable regime fast enough.
Coherent phonon spectroscopy of non-fully symmetric modes using resonant terahertz excitation
Huber, T. Huber, L.; Johnson, S. L.; Ranke, M.; Ferrer, A.
2015-08-31
We use intense terahertz (THz) frequency electromagnetic pulses generated via optical rectification in an organic crystal to drive vibrational lattice modes in single crystal Tellurium. The coherent modes are detected by measuring the polarization changes of femtosecond laser pulses reflecting from the sample surface, resulting in a phase-resolved detection of the coherent lattice motion. We compare the data to a model of Lorentz oscillators driven by the near-single-cycle broadband THz pulse. The demonstrated technique of optically probed coherent phonon spectroscopy with THz frequency excitation could prove to be a viable alternative to other time-resolved spectroscopic methods like standard THz time domain spectroscopy.
Evolution of l-photon excited thermo vacuum state in a single-mode damping channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Rui; Fan, Hong-Yi
2016-01-01
In this paper, we investigate how a kind of non-Gaussian states (l-photon excited thermo vacuum state Cla†l|0(β)>) evolves in a single-mode damping channel. We find that it evolves into a Laguerre-polynomial-weighted real-fictitious squeezed thermo vacuum state, which exhibits strong decoherence and its original nonclassicality fades. In particular, when l = 0, in this damping process the thermo squeezing effect decreases while the fictitious-mode vacuum becomes chaotic. In overcoming the difficulty of calculation, we employ the summation method within ordered product of operators, a new generating function formula about two-variable Hermite polynomials is derived.
Investigation of quantum dot passively mode-locked lasers with excited-state transition.
Cheng, Hsu-Chieh; Lee, Chien-Ping
2013-11-04
Monolithic passively mode-locked quantum dot lasers with excited-state transition were investigated in a broad operating range without ground-state lasing. Optical and electrical characteristics of these mode locked lasers were studied in detail at different levels of injection current and absorber bias. Very different behaviors in the evolution of the hysteresis, the optical spectra and the evolution of repetition frequency were observed between our lasers and conventional quantum dot lasers with ground-state transition. Possible mechanisms behind these observed phenomena were proposed and discussed. A minimum pulse width of 3.3 ps and an externally compressed pulse width of 0.78 ps were obtained.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prasad, C. B.; Mei, Chuh
1987-01-01
Multiple-mode nonlinear analysis is carried out for beams subjected to acoustic excitation. Effects of both nonlinear damping and large-deflection are included in the analysis in an attempt to explain the experimental phenomena of aircraft panels excited at high sound pressure levels; that is the broadening of the strain response peaks and the increase of modal frequency. An amplitude dependent nonlinear damping model is used in the anlaysis to study the effects and interactions of multiple modes, nonlinear stiffness and nonlinear damping on the random response of beams. Mean square maximum deflection, mean square maximum strain, and spectral density function of maximum strain for simple supported and clamped beams are obtained. It is shown analytically that nonlinear damping contributes significantly to the broadening of the response peak and to the mean square deflection and strain.
Intermediate energy electron impact excitation of composite vibrational modes in phenol.
Neves, R F C; Jones, D B; Lopes, M C A; Nixon, K L; de Oliveira, E M; da Costa, R F; Varella, M T do N; Bettega, M H F; Lima, M A P; da Silva, G B; Brunger, M J
2015-05-21
We report differential cross section results from an experimental investigation into the electron impact excitation of a number of the low-lying composite (unresolved) vibrational modes in phenol (C6H5OH). The measurements were carried out at incident electron energies in the range 15-40 eV and for scattered-electron angles in the range 10-90°. The energy resolution of those measurements was typically ∼80 meV. Calculations, using the GAMESS code, were also undertaken with a B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level model chemistry, in order to enable us to assign vibrational modes to the features observed in our energy loss spectra. To the best of our knowledge, the present cross sections are the first to be reported for vibrational excitation of the C6H5OH molecule by electron impact.
Draxler, Simone; Brust, Thomas; Malkmus, Stephan; DiGirolamo, Jessica A.; Lees, Watson J.; Zinth, Wolfgang; Braun, Markus
2010-01-01
Summary The ring-opening reaction of a trifluorinated indolylfulgide has been studied as a function of temperature and optical pre-excitation where it was found that reaction times decreased as temperature increased from 10.3 ps at 12 °C to 7.6 ps at 60 °C. Simultaneously, the quantum yields for the ring-opening reaction grew from 3.1% (12 °C) to 5.0% (60 °C). When the reaction was started from a nonequilibrium state generated by a directly preceding ring-closure process, the ring-opening reaction became faster and the quantum efficiency increased by more than a factor of three. Analysis of the experimental results points to mode-specific photochemistry in that the promoting, photochemically active modes of the photoreaction are efficiently excited by the directly preceding ring-closure reaction. PMID:19562131
Intermediate energy electron impact excitation of composite vibrational modes in phenol
Neves, R. F. C.; Jones, D. B.; Lopes, M. C. A.; Nixon, K. L.; Oliveira, E. M. de; Lima, M. A. P.; Costa, R. F. da; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Silva, G. B. da; Brunger, M. J.
2015-05-21
We report differential cross section results from an experimental investigation into the electron impact excitation of a number of the low-lying composite (unresolved) vibrational modes in phenol (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH). The measurements were carried out at incident electron energies in the range 15–40 eV and for scattered-electron angles in the range 10–90°. The energy resolution of those measurements was typically ∼80 meV. Calculations, using the GAMESS code, were also undertaken with a B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level model chemistry, in order to enable us to assign vibrational modes to the features observed in our energy loss spectra. To the best of our knowledge, the present cross sections are the first to be reported for vibrational excitation of the C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH molecule by electron impact.
Comparison of electric dipole and magnetic loop antennas for exciting whistler modes
Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.
2016-08-15
The excitation of low frequency whistler modes from different antennas has been investigated experimentally in a large laboratory plasma. One antenna consists of a linear electric dipole oriented across the uniform ambient magnetic field B{sub 0}. The other antenna is an elongated loop with dipole moment parallel to B{sub 0}. Both antennas are driven by the same rf generator which produces a rf burst well below the electron cyclotron frequency. The antenna currents as well as the wave magnetic fields from each antenna are measured. Both the antenna currents and the wave fields of the loop antenna exceed that of the electric dipole by two orders of magnitude. The conclusion is that loop antennas are far superior to dipole antennas for exciting large amplitude whistler modes, a result important for active wave experiments in space plasmas.
Comparison of electric dipole and magnetic loop antennas for exciting whistler modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.
2016-08-01
The excitation of low frequency whistler modes from different antennas has been investigated experimentally in a large laboratory plasma. One antenna consists of a linear electric dipole oriented across the uniform ambient magnetic field B0. The other antenna is an elongated loop with dipole moment parallel to B0. Both antennas are driven by the same rf generator which produces a rf burst well below the electron cyclotron frequency. The antenna currents as well as the wave magnetic fields from each antenna are measured. Both the antenna currents and the wave fields of the loop antenna exceed that of the electric dipole by two orders of magnitude. The conclusion is that loop antennas are far superior to dipole antennas for exciting large amplitude whistler modes, a result important for active wave experiments in space plasmas.
Collective, stochastic and nonequilibrium behavior of highly excited hadronic matter
Carruthers, P.
1983-01-01
We discuss selected problems concerning the dynamic and stochasticc behavior of highly excited matter, particularly the QCD plasma. For the latter we consider the equation of state, kinetics, quasiparticles, flow properties and possible chaos and turbulence. The promise of phase space distribution functions for covariant transport and kinetic theory is stressed. The possibility and implications of a stochastic bag are spelled out. A simplified space-time model of hadronic collisions is pursued, with applications to A-A collisions and other matters. The domain wall between hadronic and plasma phase is of potential importance: its thickness and relation to surface tension are noticed. Finally we reviewed the recently developed stochastic cell model of multiparticle distributions and KNO scaling. This topic leads to the notion that fractal dimensions are involved in a rather general dynamical context. We speculate that various scaling phenomena are independent of the full dynamical structure, depending only on a general stochastic framework having to do with simple maps and strange attractors. 42 references.
Long-Range Quantum Ising Spin Glasses at T=0: Gapless Collective Excitations and Universality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreanov, A.; Müller, M.
2012-10-01
We solve the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model in a transverse field Γ deep in its quantum glass phase at zero temperature. We show that the glass phase is critical everywhere, exhibiting collective excitations with a gapless Ohmic spectral function. Using an effective potential approach, we interpret the latter as arising from disordered collective excitations behaving like weakly coupled, underdamped oscillators. For a small transverse field Γ, the low-frequency spectrum takes a form independent of the fluctuation strength Γ.
Long-range quantum Ising spin glasses at t=0: gapless collective excitations and universality.
Andreanov, A; Müller, M
2012-10-26
We solve the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model in a transverse field Γ deep in its quantum glass phase at zero temperature. We show that the glass phase is critical everywhere, exhibiting collective excitations with a gapless Ohmic spectral function. Using an effective potential approach, we interpret the latter as arising from disordered collective excitations behaving like weakly coupled, underdamped oscillators. For a small transverse field Γ, the low-frequency spectrum takes a form independent of the fluctuation strength Γ.
Numerical study of the quasinormal mode excitation of Kerr black holes
Dorband, Ernst Nils; Diener, Peter; Tiglio, Manuel; Berti, Emanuele; Schnetter, Erik
2006-10-15
We present numerical results from three-dimensional evolutions of scalar perturbations of Kerr black holes. Our simulations make use of a high-order accurate multiblock code which naturally allows for adapted grids and smooth inner (excision) and outer boundaries. We focus on the quasinormal ringing phase, presenting a systematic method for extraction of the quasinormal mode frequencies and amplitudes and comparing our results against perturbation theory. The detection of a single mode in a ringdown waveform allows for a measurement of the mass and spin of a black hole; a multimode detection would allow a test of the Kerr nature of the source. Since the possibility of a multimode detection depends on the relative mode amplitude, we study this topic in some detail. The amplitude of each mode depends exponentially on the starting time of the quasinormal regime, which is not defined unambiguously. We show that this time-shift problem can be circumvented by looking at appropriately chosen relative mode amplitudes. From our simulations we extract the quasinormal frequencies and the relative and absolute amplitudes of corotating and counterrotating modes (including overtones in the corotating case). We study the dependence of these amplitudes on the shape of the initial perturbation, the angular dependence of the mode, and the black hole spin, comparing against results from perturbation theory in the so-called asymptotic approximation. We also compare the quasinormal frequencies from our numerical simulations with predictions from perturbation theory, finding excellent agreement. For rapidly rotating black holes (of spin j=0.98) we can extract the quasinormal frequencies of not only the fundamental mode, but also of the first two overtones. Finally we study under what conditions the relative amplitude between given pairs of modes gets maximally excited and present a quantitative analysis of rotational mode-mode coupling. The main conclusions and techniques of our
Noncontact excitation of guided waves (A0 mode) using an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fromme, Paul
2016-02-01
Fatigue damage can develop in aircraft structures at locations of stress concentration, such as fasteners, and has to be detected before reaching a critical size to ensure safe aircraft operation. Guided ultrasonic waves offer an efficient method for the detection and characterization of such defects in large aerospace structures. Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT) for the noncontact excitation of guided ultrasonic waves were developed. The transducer development for the specific excitation of the A0 Lamb wave mode with an out-of-plane Lorentz force is explained. The achieved radial and angular dependency of the excited guided wave pulses were measured using a noncontact laser interferometer. Based on the induced eddy currents in the plate a theoretical model was developed. The application of the developed transducers for defect detection in aluminum components using fully noncontact guided wave measurements was demonstrated. Excitation of the A0 Lamb wave mode was achieved using the developed EMAT transducer and the guided wave propagation and scattering was measured using a noncontact laser interferometer.
Resolving sugar puckers in RNA excited states exposes slow modes of repuckering dynamics.
Clay, Mary C; Ganser, Laura R; Merriman, Dawn K; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M
2017-08-21
Recent studies have shown that RNAs exist in dynamic equilibrium with short-lived low-abundance 'excited states' that form by reshuffling base pairs in and around non-canonical motifs. These conformational states are proposed to be rich in non-canonical motifs and to play roles in the folding and regulatory functions of non-coding RNAs but their structure proves difficult to characterize given their transient nature. Here, we describe an approach for determining sugar pucker conformation in RNA excited states through nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of C1΄ and C4΄ rotating frame spin relaxation (R1ρ) in uniformly 13C/15N labeled RNA samples. Application to HIV-1 TAR exposed slow modes of sugar repuckering dynamics at the μs and ms timescale accompanying transitions between non-helical (C2΄-endo) to helical (C3΄-endo) conformations during formation of two distinct excited states. In contrast, we did not obtain any evidence for slow sugar repuckering dynamics for nucleotides in a variety of structural contexts that do not undergo non-helical to helical transitions. Our results outline a route for significantly improving the conformational characterization of RNA excited states and suggest that slow modes of repuckering dynamics gated by transient changes in secondary structure are quite common in RNA. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Non-hydrodynamic transverse collective excitations in hard-sphere fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bryk, Taras; Huerta, Adrian; Hordiichuk, V.; Trokhymchuk, A. D.
2017-08-01
Collective excitations in hard-sphere fluids were studied in a wide range of wave numbers and packing fractions η by means of molecular dynamics simulations. We report the observation of non-hydrodynamic transverse excitations for packing fractions η ≥ 0.395 in the shape of transverse current spectral functions. Dispersion of longitudinal excitations in the whole range of packing fractions shows a negative deviation from the linear hydrodynamic law with increasing wave numbers even for dense hard-sphere fluids where the transverse excitations were observed. These results do not support a recent proposal within the "Frenkel line" approach that the positive sound dispersion in liquids is defined by transverse excitations. We report calculations of the cutoff "Frenkel frequencies" for transverse excitations in hard-sphere fluids and discuss their consistency with the estimated dispersions of shear waves.
Non-hydrodynamic transverse collective excitations in hard-sphere fluids.
Bryk, Taras; Huerta, Adrian; Hordiichuk, V; Trokhymchuk, A D
2017-08-14
Collective excitations in hard-sphere fluids were studied in a wide range of wave numbers and packing fractions η by means of molecular dynamics simulations. We report the observation of non-hydrodynamic transverse excitations for packing fractions η≥0.395 in the shape of transverse current spectral functions. Dispersion of longitudinal excitations in the whole range of packing fractions shows a negative deviation from the linear hydrodynamic law with increasing wave numbers even for dense hard-sphere fluids where the transverse excitations were observed. These results do not support a recent proposal within the "Frenkel line" approach that the positive sound dispersion in liquids is defined by transverse excitations. We report calculations of the cutoff "Frenkel frequencies" for transverse excitations in hard-sphere fluids and discuss their consistency with the estimated dispersions of shear waves.
Phase space interrogation of the empirical response modes for seismically excited structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paul, Bibhas; George, Riya C.; Mishra, Sudib K.
2017-07-01
Conventional Phase Space Interrogation (PSI) for structural damage assessment relies on exciting the structure with low dimensional chaotic waveform, thereby, significantly limiting their applicability to large structures. The PSI technique is presently extended for structure subjected to seismic excitations. The high dimensionality of the phase space for seismic response(s) are overcome by the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), decomposing the responses to a number of intrinsic low dimensional oscillatory modes, referred as Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). Along with their low dimensionality, a few IMFs, retain sufficient information of the system dynamics to reflect the damage induced changes. The mutually conflicting nature of low-dimensionality and the sufficiency of dynamic information are taken care by the optimal choice of the IMF(s), which is shown to be the third/fourth IMFs. The optimal IMF(s) are employed for the reconstruction of the Phase space attractor following Taken's embedding theorem. The widely referred Changes in Phase Space Topology (CPST) feature is then employed on these Phase portrait(s) to derive the damage sensitive feature, referred as the CPST of the IMFs (CPST-IMF). The legitimacy of the CPST-IMF is established as a damage sensitive feature by assessing its variation with a number of damage scenarios benchmarked in the IASC-ASCE building. The damage localization capability, remarkable tolerance to noise contamination and the robustness under different seismic excitations of the feature are demonstrated.
Chavez-Pirson, A; Chu, S T
1999-01-01
We solve numerically the three-dimensional vector form of Maxwell's equation for the situation of near-field excitation and collection of luminescence from a single quantum dot, using a scanning near-field optical fibre probe with subwavelength resolution. We highlight the importance of polarization-dependent effects in both the near-field excitation and collection processes. Applying a finite-difference time domain method, we calculate the complete vector fields emerging from a realistic probe structure which is in close proximity to a semiconductor surface. We model the photoluminescence from the quantum dot in terms of electric dipoles of different polarization directions, and determine the near-field luminescence images of the dot captured by the same probe. We show that a collimating effect in the high index semiconductor significantly improves the spatial resolution in the excitation-collection mode. We find that the spatial resolution, image shape and collection efficiency of near-field luminescence imaging strongly depend on the polarization direction as represented by the orientation of the radiating electric dipoles inside the quantum dot.
Collective modes in the color flavor-locked phase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anglani, Roberto; Mannarelli, Massimo; Ruggieri, Marco
2011-05-01
We study the low-energy effective action for some collective modes of the color flavor-locked (CFL) phase of QCD. This phase of matter has long been known to be a superfluid because by picking a phase its order parameter breaks the quark-number U(1)B symmetry spontaneously. We consider the modes describing fluctuations in the magnitude of the condensate, namely the Higgs mode, and in the phase of the condensate, namely the Nambu-Goldstone (NG) (or Anderson-Bogoliubov) mode associated with the breaking of U(1)B. By employing as microscopic theory the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, we reproduce known results for the Lagrangian of the NG field to the leading order in the chemical potential and extend such results evaluating corrections due to the gap parameter. Moreover, we determine the interaction terms between the Higgs and the NG field. This study paves the way for a more reliable study of various dissipative processes in rotating compact stars with a quark matter core in the CFL phase.
Collective modes in the color flavor-locked phase.
Anglani, R.; Mannarelli, M.; Ruggieri, M.
2011-05-17
We study the low-energy effective action for some collective modes of the color flavor-locked (CFL) phase of QCD. This phase of matter has long been known to be a superfluid because by picking a phase its order parameter breaks the quark-number U(1){sub B} symmetry spontaneously. We consider the modes describing fluctuations in the magnitude of the condensate, namely the Higgs mode, and in the phase of the condensate, namely the Nambu-Goldstone (NG) (or Anderson-Bogoliubov) mode associated with the breaking of U(1){sub B}. By employing as microscopic theory the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, we reproduce known results for the Lagrangian of the NG field to the leading order in the chemical potential and extend such results evaluating corrections due to the gap parameter. Moreover, we determine the interaction terms between the Higgs and the NG field. This study paves the way for a more reliable study of various dissipative processes in rotating compact stars with a quark matter core in the CFL phase.
Excitation of Single-Mode Lamb Waves at High-Frequency-Thickness Products.
Khalili, Pouyan; Cawley, Peter
2016-02-01
Guided wave inspection is used extensively in petrochemical plants to check for defects such as corrosion. Long-range low-frequency inspection can be used to detect relatively large defects, while higher frequency inspection provides improved sensitivity to small defects, but the presence of multiple dispersive modes makes it difficult to implement. This paper investigates the possibility of exciting a single-mode Lamb wave with low dispersion at a frequency thickness of around 20 MHz-mm. It is shown by finite element (FE) analysis backed up by experiments that a signal dominated by the A1 mode can be generated, even in a region where many modes have similar phase velocities. The A1 mode has relatively little motion at the plate surface which means that only a small reflection is generated at features such as T-joints; this is verified numerically. It is also expected that it will be relatively unaffected by surface roughness or attenuative coatings. These features are very similar to those of the higher order mode cluster (HOMC) reported by other authors, and it is shown that the A1 mode shape is very similar to the deflected shape reported in HOMC.
Dantan, A.; Marler, J. P.; Albert, M.; Guenot, D.; Drewsen, M.
2010-09-03
We report on a novel noninvasive method to determine the normal mode frequencies of ion Coulomb crystals in traps based on the resonance enhanced collective coupling between the electronic states of the ions and an optical cavity field at the single photon level. Excitations of the normal modes are observed through a Doppler broadening of the resonance. An excellent agreement with the predictions of a zero-temperature uniformly charged liquid plasma model is found. The technique opens up for investigations of the heating and damping of cold plasma modes, as well as the coupling between them.
Energy-dependent collective excitations in Os and Pt isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Budaca, A. I.; Budaca, R.
2017-08-01
An exactly solvable model is constructed by considering an energy-dependent harmonic oscillator potential in the β part of the Bohr Hamiltonian separated adiabatically from the γ-angular degrees of freedom. The energy dependence is linear and introduced in the string constant. The fundamental implications of the energy dependence in quantum theory are thoroughly discussed in connection with the slope parameter. The numerical applications of the model are found to match the collective features for extended chains of even-even Os and Pt isotopes, which exhibit a smooth evolution in the slope of the energy dependence.
Observation of subcritical geodesic acoustic mode excitation in the large helical device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ido, T.; Itoh, K.; Lesur, M.; Osakabe, M.; Shimizu, A.; Ogawa, K.; Nishiura, M.; Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Kosuga, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Ida, K.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, S.-I.; the LHD Experiment Group
2017-07-01
The abrupt and strong excitation of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) has been found in the large helical device (LHD), when the frequency of a chirping energetic particle-driven GAM (EGAM) approaches twice that of the GAM frequency. The temporal evolution of the phase relation between the abrupt GAM and the chirping EGAM is common in all events. The result indicates a coupling between the GAM and the EGAM. In addition, the nonlinear evolution of the growth rate of the GAM is observed, and there is a threshold in the amplitude of the GAM for the appearance of nonlinear behavior. A threshold in the amplitude of the EGAM for the abrupt excitation of the GAM is also observed. According to one theory (Lesur et al 2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 015003, Itoh et al 2016 Plasma Phys. Rep. 42 418) the observed abrupt phenomenon can be interpreted as the excitation of the subcritical instability of the GAM. The excitation of a subcritical instability requires a trigger and a seed with sufficient amplitude. The observed threshold in the amplitude of the GAM seems to correspond with the threshold in the seed, and the threshold in the amplitude of the EGAM seems to correspond with the threshold in the magnitude of the trigger. Thus, the observed threshold supports the interpretation that the abrupt phenomenon is the excitation of a subcritical instability of the GAM.
Single-particle and collective excitations in 62Ni
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albers, M.; Zhu, S.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Gellanki, J.; Ragnarsson, I.; Alcorta, M.; Baugher, T.; Bertone, P. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; David, H. M.; Deacon, A. N.; DiGiovine, B.; Gade, A.; Hoffman, C. R.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A.; Nair, C.; Rogers, A. M.; Seweryniak, D.
2016-09-01
Background: Level sequences of rotational character have been observed in several nuclei in the A =60 mass region. The importance of the deformation-driving π f7 /2 and ν g9 /2 orbitals on the onset of nuclear deformation is stressed. Purpose: A measurement was performed in order to identify collective rotational structures in the relatively neutron-rich 62Ni isotope. Method: The 26Mg(48Ca,2 α 4 n γ )62Ni complex reaction at beam energies between 275 and 320 MeV was utilized. Reaction products were identified in mass (A ) and charge (Z ) with the fragment mass analyzer (FMA) and γ rays were detected with the Gammasphere array. Results: Two collective bands, built upon states of single-particle character, were identified and sizable deformation was assigned to both sequences based on the measured transitional quadrupole moments, herewith quantifying the deformation at high spin. Conclusions: Based on cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations and comparisons with deformed bands in the A =60 mass region, the two rotational bands are understood as being associated with configurations involving multiple f7 /2 protons and g9 /2 neutrons, driving the nucleus to sizable prolate deformation.
Collective amplitude mode fluctuations in a flat band superconductor formed at a semimetal surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kauppila, V. J.; Hyart, T.; Heikkilä, T. T.
2016-01-01
We study the fluctuations of the amplitude (i.e., the Higgs-Anderson) mode in a superconducting system of coupled Dirac particles proposed as a model for possible surface or interface superconductivity in rhombohedral graphite. This system also serves as a generic model of a topological semimetal with an interaction-driven transition on its surface. We show that the absence of Fermi energy and vanishing of the excitation gap of the collective amplitude mode in the model leads to a large fluctuation contribution to thermodynamic quantities, such as the heat capacity. As a consequence, the mean-field theory becomes inaccurate, indicating that the interactions lead to a strongly correlated state. We also present a microscopic derivation of the Ginzburg-Landau theory corresponding to this model.
Mode excitation in a generator of diffraction radiation with a multistage interaction space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miroshnichenko, V. S.; Senkevich, E. B.; Pivovarova, A. G.; Yudintsev, D. V.
2010-08-01
We present the results of studying theoretically and experimentally the peculiarities of mode excitation in a generator of diffraction radiation with the two- and three-cascade interaction space in one open resonator. To describe the multistage interaction mechanism, the theoretical model used considers the excitation of the TEM0nq modes, which have n in-phase field “spots,” i.e., cascades, along the direction of the electron beam motion. It is shown that even the use of the two-cascade interaction space with the TEM01q modes allows one to reduce the starting current of the generator by 1.91 times. The results of studying experimentally the two-cascade generator in the 5 and 1.5-mm wavelength ranges are presented. The in-phase property of the electron beam with the resonance field was achieved by disrupting the periodicity of the lattice slots at the center of the interaction space. The output power of the two-stage generator of 5-mm diffraction radiation in the TEM013 mode ranged from 3 to 5 W. We also observed a 4-5-fold increase in the starting current for the regime of surface waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorelik, Vladimir S.; Sidorov, Nikolay V.; Sverbil, Pavel P.; Vodchits, Alexander I.
2016-11-01
The excitation of longitudinal and transversal electromagnetic waves in lithium niobate and tantalate crystals is of interest for establish the conditions of coherent longitudinal and transversal waves generation in media and in vacuum. In this paper the results of laser excitation of transversal and longitudinal polar modes in these crystals are presented. We have measured spontaneous Raman spectra of lithium niobate and tantalate crystals in 0° (forward), 90°, and 180° (backward) scattering geometries. We have observed Raman peaks, related to fundamental transversal and longitudinal A1(Z) and E((X,Y) polar optical modes. In addition, there were pseudoscalar symmetry A2 peaks, forbidden by selection rules in Raman spectra for point group C3v. This was explained by reducing of the point group from C3v to C3 due to the presence of impurities in real crystals. Besides, the acoustic biphonon at low frequency has been observed. High intensity of spontaneous A1(Z)LO and A1(Z)TO Raman satellites gives the opportunity for generation of coherent longitudinal and transversal terahertz waves in lithium niobate and tantalate crystals with the help of Stimulated Raman Scattering under using high-power laser pumping. The presence of pseudoscalar and biphonons mode in low frequency region results in the strong interaction with fundamental soft mode and sharp central peak near the phase transition.
Model for Quasinormal Mode Excitation by a Particle Plunging into a Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mark, Zachary; Zimmerman, Aaron; Yang, Huan; Chen, Yanbei
2016-03-01
It is known that the late time gravitational waveform produced by a particle plunging into a Kerr black hole is well described by a sum of quasinormal modes. However it is not yet understood how the early part of the waveform gives way to the quasinormal mode description, which diverges at early times, nor how the inhomogenous part of the waveform contributes. Motivated by, we offer a model for quasinormal mode excitation by a particle plunging into a Schwarzschild black hole. To develop our model we study approximations to the Regge-Wheeler equation that allow for a closed-form expression for the frequency-domain Green's function, which we use to isolate the component of the waveform that should be identified with quasinormal ringing. Our description of quasinormal ringing does not diverge at early times and reveals that quasinormal ringing should be understood in analogy with a damped harmonic oscillator experiencing a transient driving source.
Asymptotic persistence of collective modes in shear flows
Mahajan, S.M. |; Rogava, A.D. |
1998-03-31
A new nonasymptotic method is presented that reveals an unexpected richness in the spectrum of fluctuations sustained by a shear flow with nontrivial arbitrary mean kinematics. The vigor of the method is illustrated by analyzing a two-dimensional, compressible hydrodynamic shear flow. The temporal evolution of perturbations spans a wide range of nonexponential behavior from growth-cum oscillations to monotonic growth. The principal characteristic of the revealed exotic collective modes in their asymptotic persistence. {open_quotes}Echoing{close_quotes} as well as unstable (including parametrically-driven) solutions are displayed. Further areas of application, for both the method and the new physics, are outlined.
Two-collective Mode Entanglement in a Four-level Atomic Ensemble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiao-Xia; Hu, Xiang-Ming; Cheng, Xu-Xin; Cui, Hai-Ning
2017-09-01
We propose a theoretical method to obtain two-collective mode entanglement in a four-level atomic ensemble. One collective mode is produced due to the Raman atomic coherence, the acquisition of another collective mode is ascribed to the quantum interference in two four-wave mixing processes. We show that two-collective mode and two original single modes are also in the entangled state in experimentally accessible parameter regimes.
Low-frequency Raman modes and electronic excitations in atomically thin MoS2 films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Hualing; Zhu, Bairen; Liu, Kai; Fan, Jiahe; Cui, Xiaodong; Zhang, Q. M.
2012-12-01
Atomically thin MoS2 crystals have been recognized as quasi-two-dimensional semiconductors with remarkable physical properties. We report our Raman scattering measurements on multilayer and monolayer MoS2, especially in the low-frequency range (<50 cm-1). We find two low-frequency Raman modes with a contrasting thickness dependence. When increasing the number of MoS2 layers, one mode shows a significant increase in frequency while the other decreases following a 1/N (N denotes the number of unit layers) trend. With the aid of first-principles calculations we assign the former as the shear mode E2g2. The latter is distinguished as the compression vibrational mode, similar to the surface vibration of other epitaxial thin films. The opposite evolution of the two modes with thickness demonstrates vibrational modes in an atomically thin crystal as well as a more precise way to characterize the thickness of atomically thin MoS2 films. In addition, we observe a broad feature around 38 cm-1(5 meV) which is visible only under near-resonance excitation and pinned at a fixed energy, independent of thickness. We interpret the feature as an electronic Raman scattering associated with the spin-orbit coupling induced splitting in a conduction band at K points in their Brillouin zone.
Normal Mode Analysis on the Relaxation of AN Excited Nitromethane Molecule in Argon Bath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivera-Rivera, Luis A.; Wagner, Albert F.
2017-06-01
In our previous work [Rivera-Rivera et al. J. Chem. Phys. 142, 014303 (2015).] classical molecular dynamics simulations followed, in an Ar bath, the relaxation of nitromethane (CH_3NO_2) instantaneously excited by statistically distributing 50 kcal/mol among all its internal degrees of freedom. The 300 K Ar bath was at pressures of 10 to 400 atm. Both rotational and vibrational energies exhibited multi-exponential decay. This study explores mode-specific mechanisms at work in the decay process. With the separation of rotation and vibration developed by Rhee and Kim [J. Chem. Phys. 107, 1394 (1997).], one can show that the vibrational kinetic energy decomposes only into vibrational normal modes while the rotational and Coriolis energies decompose into both vibrational and rotational normal modes. Then the saved CH_3NO_2 positions and momenta can be converted into mode-specific energies whose decay over 1000 ps can be monitored. The results identify vibrational and rotational modes that promote/resist energy lost and drive multi-exponential behavior. In addition to mode-specificity, the results show disruption of IVR with increasing pressure.
Single-particle and collective excitations in Ni62
Albers, M.; Zhu, S.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; ...
2016-09-01
In this study, level sequences of rotational character have been observed in several nuclei in the A = 60 mass region. The importance of the deformation-driving πf7/2 and νg9/2 orbitals on the onset of nuclear deformation is stressed. A measurement was performed in order to identify collective rotational structures in the relatively neutron-rich 62Ni isotope. Here, the 26Mg(48Ca,2α4nγ)62Ni complex reaction at beam energies between 275 and 320 MeV was utilized. Reaction products were identified in mass (A) and charge (Z) with the fragment mass analyzer (FMA) and γ rays were detected with the Gammasphere array. As a result, two collectivemore » bands, built upon states of single-particle character, were identified and sizable deformation was assigned to both sequences based on the measured transitional quadrupole moments, herewith quantifying the deformation at high spin. In conclusion, based on cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations and comparisons with deformed bands in the A = 60 mass region, the two rotational bands are understood as being associated with configurations involving multiple f7/2 protons and g9/2 neutrons, driving the nucleus to sizable prolate deformation.« less
Collective modes and ultrasonic attenuation in a pseudogapped superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shtyk, A. V.; Feigel'man, M. V.
2017-08-01
We develop a theory of collective modes in a model of strongly disordered s -wave superconductor with a localization-induced pseudogap ΔP, that is much larger than superconducting gap Δ . Then we applied the obtained results to the calculation of the ultrasound decay rate α (ω ) at low-frequencies ω ≪kBT /ℏ . We show that at low temperatures T ≪Tc the magnitude of the decay rate α (ω ) is controlled by the ratio of T /Δ , while single-particle gap ΔP does enter the result for α (ω ) . Thus, we propose a new method to measure the collective gap Δ in a situation when strong pseudogap is present.
Role of cavity degeneracy for high-order mode excitation in end-pumped solid-state lasers.
Barré, Nicolas; Romanelli, Marco; Brunel, Marc
2014-02-15
The possibility of exciting laser modes such as Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) or Ince-Gaussian (IG) modes is discussed on the basis of a gain-matching integral. We reach the conclusion that, using tight pumping and away from degeneracy regions, only the IG(n,n)(e) modes can be excited. Furthermore, pure high-order modes with circular or elliptical nodal lines can never be excited. Only an approximation of such modes, which we call quasi-IG or quasi-LG modes, can be observed and only when the cavity is partially degenerate. We provide experimental results in perfect agreement with the theory and discuss the exact nature of the profiles observed at degeneracy in our experiments and elsewhere in the literature.
Single-Photon Interference due to Motion in an Atomic Collective Excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whiting, D. J.; Šibalić, N.; Keaveney, J.; Adams, C. S.; Hughes, I. G.
2017-06-01
We experimentally demonstrate the heralded generation of bichromatic single photons from an atomic collective spin excitation (CSE). The photon arrival times display collective quantum beats, a novel interference effect resulting from the relative motion of atoms in the CSE. A combination of velocity-selective excitation with strong laser dressing and the addition of a magnetic field allows for exquisite control of this collective beat phenomenon. The present experiment uses a diamond scheme with near-IR photons that can be extended to include telecommunications wavelengths or modified to allow storage and retrieval in an inverted-Y scheme.
Detection of elliptical polarization and mode splitting in discrete Schumann resonance excitations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sentman, D. D.
1989-01-01
Elliptical polarization and mode splitting have been detected in the magnetic component of discrete, well defined Schumann resonance excitations. These ELF excitations, which are large electromagnetic transients of approximately 1 s duration, are called Q-bursts and typically occur every few minutes. They are believed to be the signature of the impulsive excitation of the earth-ionosphere cavity by ultra-large lightning currents. In this paper the magnetic polarization and spectral characteristics of four large Q-bursts are examined in detail using a new analysis technique. Two events display right-hand polarization and two display left-hand polarization. The theoretical polarization properties of the central and side multiplets of the Schumann resonances are used to define a local orthogonal coordinate system in the measurement frame in which these components may be separated. Maximum entropy spectrums computed separately for what are identified to be the central and side multiplets in this coordinate system show distinctly different eigenfrequencies for the lowest mode near 7.5 Hz. For the limited number of cases examined the magnitude of the line splitting detected using this technique is roughly 1.4-1.8 Hz, larger by nearly a factor of two than theoretical or observed values of the splitting previously reported. The frequencies of the side multiplets may lie either above or below the frequency of the central multiplet.
Detection of elliptical polarization and mode splitting in discrete Schumann resonance excitations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sentman, D. D.
1989-01-01
Elliptical polarization and mode splitting have been detected in the magnetic component of discrete, well defined Schumann resonance excitations. These ELF excitations, which are large electromagnetic transients of approximately 1 s duration, are called Q-bursts and typically occur every few minutes. They are believed to be the signature of the impulsive excitation of the earth-ionosphere cavity by ultra-large lightning currents. In this paper the magnetic polarization and spectral characteristics of four large Q-bursts are examined in detail using a new analysis technique. Two events display right-hand polarization and two display left-hand polarization. The theoretical polarization properties of the central and side multiplets of the Schumann resonances are used to define a local orthogonal coordinate system in the measurement frame in which these components may be separated. Maximum entropy spectrums computed separately for what are identified to be the central and side multiplets in this coordinate system show distinctly different eigenfrequencies for the lowest mode near 7.5 Hz. For the limited number of cases examined the magnitude of the line splitting detected using this technique is roughly 1.4-1.8 Hz, larger by nearly a factor of two than theoretical or observed values of the splitting previously reported. The frequencies of the side multiplets may lie either above or below the frequency of the central multiplet.
Anda, André; De Vico, Luca; Hansen, Thorsten
2017-06-08
Light-harvesting system 2 (LH2) executes the primary processes of photosynthesis in purple bacteria; photon absorption, and energy transportation to the reaction center. A detailed mechanistic insight into these operations is obscured by the complexity of the light-harvesting systems, particularly by the chromophore-environment interaction. In this work, we focus on the effects of the protein residues that are ligated to the bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) and construct potential energy surfaces of the ground and first optically excited state for the various BChl-residue systems where we in each case consider two degrees of freedom in the intermolecular region. We find that the excitation energies are only slightly affected by the considered modes. In addition, we see that axial ligands and hydrogen-bonded residues have opposite effects on both excitation energies and oscillator strengths by comparing to the isolated BChls. Our results indicate that only a small part of the chromophore-environment interaction can be associated with the intermolecular region between a BChl and an adjacent residue, but that it may be possible to selectively raise or lower the excitation energy at the axial and planar residue positions, respectively.
Persistence of well-defined collective excitations in a molten transition metal.
Bermejo, F. J.; Saboungi, M. L.; Price, D. L.; Alvarez, M.; Roessli, B.; Cabrillo, C.; Ivanov, A.; Materials Science Division; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas; Paul Scherrer Inst.; Inst. Laue Langevin
2000-07-02
Well-defined microscopic collective excitations are found in liquid Ni at 1763 K by means of inelastic neutron scattering. Such excitations are supported by the liquid despite an anharmonic character of its thermodynamic functions. Consideration of the detailed shape of the interionic pair potential provides a way to understand why atomic motions at microscopic scales behave in a way much closer to the alkali metals than to the liquefied rare gases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daniel, Timothy; Fortuner, Auberry; Abawi, Ahmad; Kirsteins, Ivars; Marston, Philip
2016-11-01
The modulated radiation pressure (MRP) of ultrasound has been widely used to selectively excite low frequency modes of fluid objects. We previously used MRP to excite less compliant metallic object in water including the low frequency modes of a circular metal plate in water. A larger focused ultrasonic transducer allows us to drive modes of larger more-realistic targets. In our experiments solid targets are suspended by strings or supported on sand and the modulated ultrasound is focused on the target's surface. Target sound emissions were recorded and a laser vibrometer was used to measure the surface velocity of the target to give the magnitude of the target response. The source transducer was driven with a doublesideband suppressed carrier voltage as in. By varying the modulation frequency and monitoring target response, resonant frequencies can be measured and compared to finite element models. We also demonstrate the radiation torque of a focused first-order acoustic vortex beam associated with power absorption in the Stokes layer adjacent to a sphere. Funded by ONR.
Non-contact mode excitation of small structures in air using ultrasound radiation force
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, Thomas M.; Purdham, John C.; Fatemi, Mostafa; Kinnick, Randall R.; Greenleaf, James F.
2005-04-01
With the advent of MEMS, modal analysis of small structures is increasingly important. However, conventional excitation techniques normally require contact, which may not be feasible for small objects. We present a non-contact method that uses interference of ultrasound frequencies in air to produce low-frequency excitation of structures. Objects studied included hard-drive HGA suspensions and MEMS devices. The vibration induced by the ultrasound radiation force was varied in a wide range from 0 Hz to 50 kHz. Object motion was detected using a laser vibrometer; measured frequencies agreed with expected values. Also demonstrated was the unique capability to selectively enhance or suppress modes independently. For example, the ratio of the vibrational amplitudes of the 175 Hz first-bending and 1.33 kHz torsional modes of a small cantilever could be changed from in excess of 10:1 to less than 1:10 by shifting the ultrasound modulation phase 90 degrees. Similar changes were obtained for a 3 mm square MEMS mirror in the ratios of vibration amplitude around its two separate axes. Torsional modes of a hard-drive suspension could be selectively enhanced by over a factor of two by moving the ultrasound focus point from near the center to near the edge of the suspension.
Photonic crystal fiber modal interferometer based on thin-core-fiber mode exciter.
Miao, Yinping; Ma, Xixi; Wu, Jixuan; Song, Binbin; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Bo; Yao, Jianquan
2015-11-10
A thin-core-fiber excited photonic crystal fiber modal interferometer has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. By employing a thin-core fiber as the mode exciter, both of the core and cladding modes propagate in the photonic crystal fiber and interfere with each other. The experimental results show that the transmission dips corresponding to different-order modes have various strain responses with opposite shift directions. The strain sensitivity could be improved to 58.57 pm/με for the applied strain from 0 to 491 με by utilizing the wavelength interval between the dips with opposite shift directions. Moreover, due to the pure silica property of the employed photonic crystal fiber, the proposed fiber modal interferometer exhibits a low-temperature sensitivity of about 0.56 pm/°C within a temperature range from 26.4°C (room temperature) to 70°C. Additionally, the proposed fiber modal interferometer has several advantages, such as good stability, compact structure, and simple fabrication. Therefore, it is more applicable for strain measurement with reducing temperature cross-sensitivity.
Min, Fuhong Wang, Yaoda; Peng, Guangya; Wang, Enrong
2016-08-15
The bifurcation and Lyapunov exponent for a single-machine-infinite bus system with excitation model are carried out by varying the mechanical power, generator damping factor and the exciter gain, from which periodic motions, chaos and the divergence of system are observed respectively. From given parameters and different initial conditions, the coexisting motions are developed in power system. The dynamic behaviors in power system may switch freely between the coexisting motions, which will bring huge security menace to protection operation. Especially, the angle divergences due to the break of stable chaotic oscillation are found which causes the instability of power system. Finally, a new adaptive backstepping sliding mode controller is designed which aims to eliminate the angle divergences and make the power system run in stable orbits. Numerical simulations are illustrated to verify the effectivity of the proposed method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Min, Fuhong; Wang, Yaoda; Peng, Guangya; Wang, Enrong; Auth, Jane A.
2016-08-01
The bifurcation and Lyapunov exponent for a single-machine-infinite bus system with excitation model are carried out by varying the mechanical power, generator damping factor and the exciter gain, from which periodic motions, chaos and the divergence of system are observed respectively. From given parameters and different initial conditions, the coexisting motions are developed in power system. The dynamic behaviors in power system may switch freely between the coexisting motions, which will bring huge security menace to protection operation. Especially, the angle divergences due to the break of stable chaotic oscillation are found which causes the instability of power system. Finally, a new adaptive backstepping sliding mode controller is designed which aims to eliminate the angle divergences and make the power system run in stable orbits. Numerical simulations are illustrated to verify the effectivity of the proposed method.
Flight and analytical investigations of a structural mode excitation system on the YF-12A airplane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goforth, E. A.; Murphy, R. C.; Beranek, J. A.; Davis, R. A.
1987-01-01
A structural excitation system, using an oscillating canard vane to generate force, was mounted on the forebody of the YF-12A airplane. The canard vane was used to excite the airframe structural modes during flight in the subsonic, transonic, and supersonic regimes. Structural modal responses generated by the canard vane forces were measured at the flight test conditions by airframe-mounted accelerometers. Correlations of analytical and experimental aeroelastic results were made. Doublet lattice, steady state double lattice with uniform lag, Mach box, and piston theory all produced acceptable analytical aerodynamic results within the restrictions that apply to each. In general, the aerodynamic theory methods, carefully applied, were found to predict the dynamic behavior of the YF-12A aircraft adequately.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Groele, Joseph; Foster, John
2016-09-01
Plasma ignition of submerged gas bubbles reduces the breakdown voltage required to introduce plasma into a liquid. It is possible to further reduce the breakdown voltage of bubbles in liquid water. Local enhancement of the electric field through bubble shape mode activation combined with volume modulation for decreased internal pressure and neutral density is a potential pathway for minimizing breakdown voltage. Although electrohydraulic control of bubble shape has been investigated, for the purpose of reducing breakdown voltage, the quantitative benefits of accessing bubble volume modes remain unexplored. Submerged bubble volume modulation may be achieved by sonically or electrohydraulically driving a time-varying sinusoidal field at the Minnaert resonance frequency. Volume mode activation as a possible pathway to reduced breakdown voltage is demonstrated using Rayleigh-Plesset modeling of the transient bubble radius under an applied sinusoidal pressure signal. Results from an experimental investigation aimed at exciting volume modes are also presented. Additionally, results from preliminary experiments aimed at breaking down a volume mode oscillating bubble as a function of internal bubble pressure is presented.
Antenna Effects on Excitation of Surface-Wave Modes in 915MHz UHF Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagatsu, Masaaki; Ito, Akira; Sugai, Hideo; Toyoda, Naoki
2000-10-01
In comparison with 2.45 GHz, the 915 MHz surface-wave(SW) discharge enables one to produce larger and more uniform plasmas without density jump. The discharge power efficiency strongly depends on the SW modes excited by antenna. In this paper, we compare four types of slot antenna, that is, a crossed, two transverse, two longitudinal and four combined slots in 915 MHz SW plasma of 40 cm in diameter. The transverse magnetic (TM) modes having mode numbers of m=3, n=2 and m=1, n=4, i.e., TM_32 and TM_14 modes, were observed just below the square quartz window in both the cases of two-longitudinal slots and crossed slot antennas. Theoretical analysis of TM modes in the present geometry agrees with the results of spatial distribution measurements of electric fields. Depending on the antenna structure, the plasma production efficiency strongly changed. To understand such behaviours, we introduce a simple analytical model simulating a waveguide-resonator system. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Science Research from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture in Japan.
In-gap collective mode spectrum of the topological Kondo insulator SmB6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuhrman, W. T.; Nikolić, P.
2014-11-01
Samarium hexaboride (SmB6) is the first strongly correlated material with a recognized nontrivial band-structure topology. Its electron correlations are seen by inelastic neutron scattering as a coherent collective excitation at the energy of 14 meV. Here, we calculate the spectrum of this mode using a perturbative slave-boson method. Our starting point is the recently constructed Anderson model that properly captures the band-structure topology of SmB6. Most self-consistent renormalization effects are captured by a few phenomenological parameters whose values are fitted to match the calculated and experimentally measured mode spectrum in the first Brillouin zone. A simple band-structure of low-energy quasiparticles in SmB6 is also modeled through this fitting procedure because the important renormalization effects due to Coulomb interactions are hard to calculate by ab initio methods. Despite involving uncontrolled approximations, the slave-boson calculation is capable of producing a fairly good quantitative match of the energy spectrum, and a qualitative match of the spectral weight throughout the first Brillouin zone. We find that the "fitted" band structure required for this match indeed puts SmB6 in the class of strong topological insulators. Our analysis thus provides a detailed physical picture of how the SmB6 band topology arises from strong electron interactions, and paints the collective mode as magnetically active exciton.
Superfluidity and collective modes in Rashba spin-orbit coupled Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Lianyi; Huang, Xu-Guang
2013-10-01
We present a theoretical study of the superfluidity and the corresponding collective modes in two-component atomic Fermi gases with s-wave attraction and synthetic Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The general effective action for the collective modes is derived from the functional path integral formalism. By tuning the spin-orbit coupling from weak to strong, the system undergoes a crossover from an ordinary BCS/BEC superfluid to a Bose-Einstein condensate of rashbons. We show that the properties of the superfluid density and the Anderson-Bogoliubov mode manifest this crossover. At large spin-orbit coupling, the superfluid density and the sound velocity become independent of the strength of the s-wave attraction. The two-body interaction among the rashbons is also determined. When a Zeeman field is turned on, the system undergoes quantum phase transitions to some exotic superfluid phases which are topologically nontrivial. For the two-dimensional system, the nonanalyticities of the thermodynamic functions and the sound velocity across the phase transition are related to the bulk gapless fermionic excitation which causes infrared singularities. The superfluid density and the sound velocity behave nonmonotonically: they are suppressed by the Zeeman field in the normal superfluid phase, but get enhanced in the topological superfluid phase. The three-dimensional system is also studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tas, Murat; Tanatar, B.
2008-09-01
We calculate the collective excitation modes of strongly coupled bilayer charged Bose systems. We employ the dielectric matrix formulation to study the correlation effects within the random-phase approximation (RPA), the self consistent field approximation Singwi, Tosi, Land, and Sjölander (STLS), and the quasilocalized charge approximation (QLCA), which satisfies the third-frequency-moment (⟨ω3⟩) sum rule. We find that the QLCA predicts a long-wavelength correlation-induced energy gap in the out-of-phase plasmon mode, similar to the situation in electronic bilayer systems. The energy gap and the plasmon density of states are studied as a function of interlayer separation and coupling parameter rs . The results should be helpful for experimental investigations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boudjemâa, Abdelâali; Guebli, Nadia
2017-10-01
Using the time-dependent Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov approach, where the condensate is coupled with the thermal cloud and the anomalous density, we study the equilibrium and the dynamical properties of three-dimensional quantum-degenerate Bose gas at finite temperature. Effects of the anomalous correlations on the condensed fraction and the critical temperature are discussed. In uniform Bose gas, useful expressions for the Bogoliubov excitations spectrum, the first and second sound, the condensate depletion and the superfluid fraction are derived. Our results are tested by comparing the findings computed by quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We present also a systematic investigation of the collective modes of a Bose condensate confined in an external trap. Our predictions are in qualitative agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results. We show in particular that our theory is capable of explaining the so-called anomalous behavior of the m=0 mode.
Gyrotron with a sectioned cavity based on excitation of a far-from-cutoff operating mode
Bandurkin, I. V.; Kalynov, Yu. K.; Osharin, I. V.; Savilov, A. V.
2016-01-15
A typical problem of weakly relativistic low-power gyrotrons (especially in the case of operation at high cyclotron harmonics) is the use of long cavities ensuring extremely high diffraction Q-factors for the operating near-cutoff waves. As a result, a great share of the rf power radiated by electrons is spent in Ohmic losses. In this paper, we propose to use a sectioned cavity with π-shifts of the wave phase between sections. In such a cavity, a far-from-cutoff axial mode of the operating cavity having a decreased diffraction Q-factor is excited by the electron beam in a gyrotron-like regime.
Unpaired Majorana modes in Josephson-Junction Arrays with gapless bulk excitations
Pino, M.; Tsvelik, A.; Ioffe, L. B.
2015-11-06
In this study, the search for Majorana bound states in solid-state physics has been limited to materials that display a gap in their bulk spectrum. We show that such unpaired states appear in certain quasi-one-dimensional Josephson-junction arrays with gapless bulk excitations. The bulk modes mediate a coupling between Majorana bound states via the Ruderman-Kittel-Yosida-Kasuya mechanism. As a consequence, the lowest energy doublet acquires a finite energy difference. For a realistic set of parameters this energy splitting remains much smaller than the energy of the bulk eigenstates even for short chains of length L~10.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia, Ricardo; Martinez, Nicolas F.; Patil, Shivprasad; Lozano, Jose R.
2007-03-01
We demonstrate that the compositional sensitivity of an atomic force microscope is enhanced by the simultaneous excitation of its first two normal eigenmodes^1-2. The coupling of those modes by the non-linear probe-surface interactions enables to map compositional changes in several conjugated molecular materials with a phase shift sensitivity that is about two orders of magnitude higher than the one achieved in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy. *T.R. Rodriguez and R. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 449 (2004) *N.F. Martinez, S. Patil, J.R. Lozano and R. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 153115 (2006)
Debnath, P. K.; Chakrabarti, Barnali
2010-10-15
We study the instability of collective excitations of a three-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate with repulsive and attractive interactions in a shallow trap designed as a quadratic plus a quartic potential. By using a correlated many-body theory, we determine the excitation modes and probe the critical behavior of collective modes, having a crucial dependence on the anharmonic parameter. We examine the power-law behavior of monopole frequency near criticality. In Gross-Pitaevskii variational treatment [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1576 (1998)] the power-law exponent is determined as one-fourth power of (1-(A/A{sub cr})), A is the number of condensate atoms and A{sub cr} is the critical number near collapse. We observe that the power-law exponent becomes (1/6) in our calculation for the pure harmonic trap and it becomes (1/7), for traps with a small anharmonic distortion. However for large anharmonicity the power law breaks down.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debnath, P. K.; Chakrabarti, Barnali
2010-10-01
We study the instability of collective excitations of a three-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate with repulsive and attractive interactions in a shallow trap designed as a quadratic plus a quartic potential. By using a correlated many-body theory, we determine the excitation modes and probe the critical behavior of collective modes, having a crucial dependence on the anharmonic parameter. We examine the power-law behavior of monopole frequency near criticality. In Gross-Pitaevskii variational treatment [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.80.1576 80, 1576 (1998)] the power-law exponent is determined as one-fourth power of (1-(A)/(Acr)), A is the number of condensate atoms and Acr is the critical number near collapse. We observe that the power-law exponent becomes (1)/(6) in our calculation for the pure harmonic trap and it becomes (1)/(7), for traps with a small anharmonic distortion. However for large anharmonicity the power law breaks down.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jianchao; Hu, Qiming; Ding, Yonghua; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Yu, Qingquan; Yang, Zhoujun; Chen, Zhipeng; Li, Da; Rao, Bo; Wang, Nengchao; Zhuang, Ge; the J-TEXT Team
2017-08-01
The excitation of internal m = 1 mode during application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is observed on J-TEXT tokamak. It is found that the sawtooth oscillation disappears after RMPs penetration, and subsequently an internal m = 1 mode with a frequency around 2 kHz appears, were m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively. In addition, the internal m = 1 mode often coexists with a rotating m/n = 2/1 tearing mode, and its frequency increases by about 0.5 kHz when the 2/1 tearing mode is locked by RMPs. The bispectrum analysis proves that the m = 1 mode interacts with the rotating 2/1 tearing mode, which implies the mode coupling between these two modes. The frequency of m = 1 mode increases for higher electron density. These results reveal that, the internal m = 1 mode can be excited by RMPs and coexist with both locked and rotating 2/1 mode due to toroidal mode coupling.
Selective excitation of high-Q resonant modes in a bottle/quasi-cylindrical microresonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Yongchao; Jin, Xueying; Wang, Keyi
2016-08-01
We fabricate a bottle/quasi-cylindrical microresonator by using a fusion splicer. This method does not require a real-time control of the translation stages and can easily fabricate a resonator with expected size and shape. Selective excitation of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) in the resonator is realized with a fiber taper coupled at various positions of the resonator along the bottle axis. Most importantly, we obtain a clean and regular spectrum with very high quality factor (Q) modes up to 3.1×107 in the quasi-cylindrical region of the resonator. Moreover, we package the coupling system into a whole device that can be moved freely. The vibration performance tests of the packaged device show that the coupling system with the taper coupled at the quasi-cylindrical region has a remarkable anti-vibration ability. The portability and robustness of the device make it attractive in practical applications.
Fountaine, Katherine T; Kendall, Christian G; Atwater, Harry A
2014-05-05
We report design methods for achieving near-unity broadband light absorption in sparse nanowire arrays, illustrated by results for visible absorption in GaAs nanowires on Si substrates. Sparse (<5% fill fraction) nanowire arrays achieve near unity absorption at wire resonant wavelengths due to coupling into 'leaky' radial waveguide modes of individual wires and wire-wire scattering processes. From a detailed conceptual development of radial mode resonant absorption, we demonstrate two specific geometric design approaches to achieve near unity broadband light absorption in sparse nanowire arrays: (i) introducing multiple wire radii within a small unit cell array to increase the number of resonant wavelengths, yielding a 15% absorption enhancement relative to a uniform nanowire array and (ii) tapering of nanowires to introduce a continuum of diameters and thus resonant wavelengths excited within a single wire, yielding an 18% absorption enhancement over a uniform nanowire array.
Hamiltonian theory of the FQHE edge: Collective modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Hoang; Joglekar, Yogesh; Murthy, Ganpathy
2003-03-01
We study the collective modes of the fractional quantum Hall edge states using the Hamiltonian formalism [1]. While most theoretical approaches start with an effective bosonic theory [2] in which all fermions are integrated out (an exception is the approach based on Chern-Simons theory [3]), the Hamiltonian theory treats the composite fermions as fully interacting. We obtain the gapless edge-modes using a conserving approximation which respects the constraints [4]. The implications of our study to the tunneling experiments into the edge of a fractional quantum Hall system [5] are discussed. [1] R.Shankar and G.Murthy, Phys.Rev.Lett. 79, 4437 (1997). [2] X.-G.Wen, Phys.Rev.Lett. 64, 2206 (1990); D.-H.Lee and X.-G.Wen, cond-mat/9809160; A.Lopez and E.Fradkin, Phys.Rev.B 59, 15323 (1999); U. Zulicke and A.H.MacDonald, Phys.Rev.B 60, 1837 (1999); V.J.Goldman and E.V.Tsiper, Phys.Rev.Lett. 86, 5841 (2001); S.S.Mandal and J.K.Jain, Phys.Rev.Lett. 89, 096801 (2002). [3] L.S.Levitov, A.V.Shytov, and B.I.Halperin, Phys. Rev. B 64, 075322 (2001). [4] N. Read, Phys.Rev.B 58, 16262 (1998); G. Murthy, Phys.Rev.B 64, 195310 (2001). [5] A.M.Chang et.al., Phys.Rev.Lett. 86, 143 (2000).
Collective modes at the fractional quantum Hall edge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joglekar, Yogesh; Murthy, Ganpathy
2002-03-01
The fractional quantum Hall edge has been a continuing source of new ideas [1] and experimental results [2] for some time. Most theoretical approaches start with an effective bosonic theory [1] in which all fermions have been integrated out (an exception is the approach based on Chern-Simons theory [3]). Our approach is based on the lowest Landau level Hamiltonian theory of the FQHE [4]. In this theory, composite fermions are fully interacting, and We obtain the collective modes using a conserving approximation which respects the constraints. We present the edge-mode dispersions for various simple fractions. 1. X.-G.Wen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2206 (1990); A.Lopez and E.Fradkin, Phys. Rev. B 59, 15323 (1999); U. Zulicke and A.H.MacDonald, Phys. Rev. B 60, 2837 (1999); D.-H.Lee and X.-G.Wen, cond-mat/9809160. 2. A.M.Chang et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 143 (2000). 3. L.S.Levitov, A.V.Shytov, and B.I.Halperin, Phys. Rev. B 64, 075322 (2001). 4. R. Shankar and G. Murthy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4437 (1997).
Superfluidity and collective modes in Rashba spin–orbit coupled Fermi gases
He, Lianyi; Huang, Xu-Guang
2013-10-15
We present a theoretical study of the superfluidity and the corresponding collective modes in two-component atomic Fermi gases with s-wave attraction and synthetic Rashba spin–orbit coupling. The general effective action for the collective modes is derived from the functional path integral formalism. By tuning the spin–orbit coupling from weak to strong, the system undergoes a crossover from an ordinary BCS/BEC superfluid to a Bose–Einstein condensate of rashbons. We show that the properties of the superfluid density and the Anderson–Bogoliubov mode manifest this crossover. At large spin–orbit coupling, the superfluid density and the sound velocity become independent of the strength of the s-wave attraction. The two-body interaction among the rashbons is also determined. When a Zeeman field is turned on, the system undergoes quantum phase transitions to some exotic superfluid phases which are topologically nontrivial. For the two-dimensional system, the nonanalyticities of the thermodynamic functions and the sound velocity across the phase transition are related to the bulk gapless fermionic excitation which causes infrared singularities. The superfluid density and the sound velocity behave nonmonotonically: they are suppressed by the Zeeman field in the normal superfluid phase, but get enhanced in the topological superfluid phase. The three-dimensional system is also studied. -- Highlights: •The general effective action for Rashba spin–orbit coupled Fermi superfluids is derived. •The evolution of the collective modes manifests the BCS/BEC-rashbon crossover. •The superfluid properties are universal at large spin–orbit coupling. •The sound velocity behaves nonanalytically across the quantum phase transition.
Effective lattice model for the collective modes in a Fermi liquid with spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Abhishek; Maslov, Dmitrii L.
2017-04-01
A Fermi liquid (FL) with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) supports a special type of collective modes—chiral spin waves—which are oscillations of magnetization that occur even in the absence of the external magnetic field. We study the chiral spin waves of a two-dimensional FL in the presence of both the Rashba and Dresselhaus types of SOC and also subject to the in-plane magnetic field. We map the system of coupled kinetic equations for the angular harmonics of the occupation number onto an effective one-dimensional tight-binding model, in which the lattice sites correspond to angular-momentum channels. Linear-in-momentum SOC ensures that the effective tight-binding model has only nearest-neighbor hopping on a bipartite lattice. In this language, the continuum of spin-flip particle-hole excitations becomes a conduction band of the lattice model, whereas electron-electron interaction, parametrized by harmonics of the Landau function, is mapped onto lattice defects of both on-site and bond type. The collective modes correspond to bound states formed by such defects. All the features of the collective-mode spectrum receive natural explanation in the lattice picture as resulting from the competition between on-site and bond defects.
Instability modes excited by natural screech tones in a supersonic rectangular jet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raman, Ganesh; Rice, Edward J.
1993-01-01
The evolution of hydrodynamic instability modes self-excited by harmonically related natural screech tones was experimentally investigated. A convergent rectangular nozzle with an aspect ratio of 9.63 was used to produce a supersonic shock containing jet. Measurements in the flow-field were made using standard hot-film probes positioned only in the subsonic (outer) portions of the flow. The hydrodynamic instability mode observed in the shear layer at the screech frequency was observed to be antisymmetric (sinuous) about the smaller dimension of the jet, whereas its harmonic was observed to be symmetric (varicose). In addition, the near-field noise measurements indicated that the radiated screech tone noise was out of phase on either side of the small jet dimension whereas its harmonic was in phase over the same region. To our knowledge such an observation on the nature of the harmonic has thus far gone unreported and therefore is the focus of the present work. The hydrodynamic instability modes occurring at the screech frequency and its harmonic satisfied the conditions for resonance. Detailed measurements of the coherent wave evolution in the streamwise and spanwise directions indicated that strong spanwise variations were present beyond x/h = 8. Details of the screech noise radiated by the coherent instability modes are also presented in this paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Bo; Antonsen, Thomas; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven; Ma, Tzuhsuan; Shvets, Gennady
Electronic chiral edge states in Quantum Hall Effect systems has attracted a lot of attention in recent years because of its unique directionality and robustness against scattering from disorder. Its electromagnetic counterpart can be found in photonic crystals, which is a material with periodic dielectric constant. Here we present the experimental results demonstrating the unidirectional edge mode inside a bi-anisotropic meta-waveguide (BMW) structure. It is a parallel plate waveguide with metal rods placed in a hexagonal lattice. Half of the rods are attached to the top plate while the other half are attached to the bottom plate creating a domain wall. The edge mode is excited by two loop antennas placed perpendicular to each other within one wavelength, generating a rotating magnetic dipole that couples to the left or right-going mode. The transmission measurement are taken along the BMW boundary and shows high transmission only around the edge, thus confirming the presence of an edge mode. We also demonstrated that very high directivity can be achieved when the input amplitude and phase of the two loop antennas are tuned properly This work is funded by the ONR under Grants No. N00014130474 and N000141512134, and the Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials (CNAM).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maher, Nicola; Marotzke, Jochem
2017-04-01
Natural climate variability is found in observations, paleo-proxies, and climate models. Such climate variability can be intrinsic internal variability or externally forced, for example by changes in greenhouse gases or large volcanic eruptions. There are still questions concerning how external forcing, both natural (e.g., volcanic eruptions and solar variability) and anthropogenic (e.g., greenhouse gases and ozone) may excite both interannual modes of variability in the climate system. This project aims to address some of these problems, utilising the large ensemble of the MPI-ESM-LR climate model. In this study we investigate the statistics of four modes of interannual variability, namely the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Using the 100-member ensemble of MPI-ESM-LR the statistical properties of these modes (amplitude and standard deviation) can be assessed over time. Here we compare the properties in the pre-industrial control run, historical run and future scenarios (RCP4.5, RCP2.6) and present preliminary results.
Collective excitations of the hybrid atomic-molecular Bose-Einstein condensates
Gupta, Moumita; Dastidar, Krishna Rai
2010-06-15
We investigate the low-energy excitations of the spherically and axially trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to a molecular Bose gas by coherent Raman transitions. We apply the sum-rule approach of many-body response theory to derive the low-lying collective excitation frequencies of the hybrid atom-molecular system. The atomic and molecular ground-state densities obtained in Gross-Pitaevskii and modified Gross-Pitaevskii (including the higher order Lee-Huang-Yang term in interatomic interaction) approaches are used to find out the individual energy components and hence the excitation frequencies. We obtain different excitation energies for different angular momenta and study their characteristic dependence on the effective Raman detuning, the scattering length for atom-atom interaction, and the intensities of the coupling lasers. We show that the inclusion of the higher-order nonlinear interatomic interaction in modified Gross-Pitaevskii approach introduces significant corrections to the ground-state properties and the excitation frequencies both for axially and spherically trapped coupled {sup 87}Rb condensate system with the increase in the s-wave scattering length (for peak gas-parameter {>=}10{sup -3}). It has been shown that the excitation frequencies decrease with the increase in the effective Raman detuning as well as the s-wave scattering length, whereas excitation frequencies increase with the increase in the atom-molecular coupling strength. The frequencies in modified Gross-Pitaevskii approximation exhibit an upward trend after a certain value of scattering length and also largely deviate from the Gross-Pitaevskii results with the increase in s-wave scattering length. The strong dependence of excitation frequencies on the laser intensities used for Raman transitions manifests the role of atom-molecular coupling strength on the control of collective excitations. The collective excitation frequencies for the hybrid atom-molecular BEC differ
Collective modes and thermodynamics of the liquid state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trachenko, K.; Brazhkin, V. V.
2016-01-01
Strongly interacting, dynamically disordered and with no small parameter, liquids took a theoretical status between gases and solids with the historical tradition of hydrodynamic description as the starting point. We review different approaches to liquids as well as recent experimental and theoretical work, and propose that liquids do not need classifying in terms of their proximity to gases and solids or any categorizing for that matter. Instead, they are a unique system in their own class with a notably mixed dynamical state in contrast to pure dynamical states of solids and gases. We start with explaining how the first-principles approach to liquids is an intractable, exponentially complex problem of coupled non-linear oscillators with bifurcations. This is followed by a reduction of the problem based on liquid relaxation time τ representing non-perturbative treatment of strong interactions. On the basis of τ, solid-like high-frequency modes are predicted and we review related recent experiments. We demonstrate how the propagation of these modes can be derived by generalizing either hydrodynamic or elasticity equations. We comment on the historical trend to approach liquids using hydrodynamics and compare it to an alternative solid-like approach. We subsequently discuss how collective modes evolve with temperature and how this evolution affects liquid energy and heat capacity as well as other properties such as fast sound. Here, our emphasis is on understanding experimental data in real, rather than model, liquids. Highlighting the dominant role of solid-like high-frequency modes for liquid energy and heat capacity, we review a wide range of liquids: subcritical low-viscous liquids, supercritical state with two different dynamical and thermodynamic regimes separated by the Frenkel line, highly-viscous liquids in the glass transformation range and liquid-glass transition. We subsequently discuss the fairly recent area of liquid-liquid phase transitions, the
Collective magnetic excitations of C4-symmetric magnetic states in iron-based superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scherer, Daniel D.; Eremin, Ilya; Andersen, Brian M.
2016-11-01
We study the collective magnetic excitations of the recently discovered C4-symmetric spin-density-wave states of iron-based superconductors with particular emphasis on their orbital character based on an itinerant multiorbital approach. This is important since the C4-symmetric spin-density-wave states exist only at moderate interaction strengths where damping effects from a coupling to the continuum of particle-hole excitations strongly modify the shape of the excitation spectra compared to predictions based on a local moment picture. We uncover a distinct orbital polarization inherent to magnetic excitations in C4-symmetric states, which provide a route to identify the different commensurate magnetic states appearing in the continuously updated phase diagram of the iron-pnictide family.
Control of the electronic phase of a manganite by mode-selective vibrational excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rini, Matteo; Tobey, Ra'anan; Dean, Nicky; Itatani, Jiro; Tomioka, Yasuhide; Tokura, Yoshinori; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Cavalleri, Andrea
2007-09-01
Controlling a phase of matter by coherently manipulating specific vibrational modes has long been an attractive (yet elusive) goal for ultrafast science. Solids with strongly correlated electrons, in which even subtle crystallographic distortions can result in colossal changes of the electronic and magnetic properties, could be directed between competing phases by such selective vibrational excitation. In this way, the dynamics of the electronic ground state of the system become accessible, and new insight into the underlying physics might be gained. Here we report the ultrafast switching of the electronic phase of a magnetoresistive manganite via direct excitation of a phonon mode at 71meV (17THz). A prompt, five-order-of-magnitude drop in resistivity is observed, associated with a non-equilibrium transition from the stable insulating phase to a metastable metallic phase. In contrast with light-induced and current-driven phase transitions, the vibrationally driven bandgap collapse observed here is not related to hot-carrier injection and is uniquely attributed to a large-amplitude Mn-O distortion. This corresponds to a perturbation of the perovskite-structure tolerance factor, which in turn controls the electronic bandwidth via inter-site orbital overlap. Phase control by coherent manipulation of selected metal-oxygen phonons should find extensive application in other complex solids-notably in copper oxide superconductors, in which the role of Cu-O vibrations on the electronic properties is currently controversial.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Bo; Lai, Kueifu; Yu, Yang; Ma, Tzuhsuan; Shvets, Gennady; Anlage, Steven M.
2016-11-01
Photonic topological insulators are an interesting class of materials whose photonic band structure can have a band gap in the bulk while supporting topologically protected unidirectional edge modes. Recent studies on bianisotropic metamaterials that emulate the electronic quantum spin Hall effect using its electromagnetic analog are examples of such systems with a relatively simple and elegant design. In this paper, we present a rotating magnetic dipole antenna, composed of two perpendicularly oriented coils, that can efficiently excite the unidirectional topologically protected surface waves in the bianisotropic metawaveguide (BMW) structure recently realized by T. Ma et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 127401 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.127401] despite the fact that the BMW medium does not break time-reversal invariance. In addition to achieving a high directivity, the antenna can be tuned continuously to excite reflectionless edge modes in the two opposite directions at various amplitude ratios. We demonstrate its performance through experiments and compare the results to simulation results.
Effects of transport coefficients on excitation of flare-induced standing slow-mode waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tongjiang; Ofman, Leon; Davila, Joseph
2017-08-01
The flare-excited longitudinal intensity oscillations in hot flaring loops have been recently detected by SDO/AIA, and interpreted as the slow-mode standing waves. By means of the seismology technique we have, for the first time, determined the transport coefficients in the hot (>9 MK) flare plasma, and found that thermal conductivity is suppressed by at least 3 times and viscosity coefficient is enhanced by a factor of 15 as the upper limit (Wang et al. 2015, ApJL, 811, L13). In this presentation, we first discuss possible causes for conduction suppression and viscosity enhancements. Then we use the nonlinear MHD simulations to validate the seismology method that is based on linear analytical analysis, and demonstrate the inversion scheme for determining transport coefficients using numerical parametric study. Finally, we show how the seismologically-determined transport coefficients are crucial for understanding the excitation of the observed standing slow-mode waves in coronal loops and the heating of the loop plasma by a footpoint flare.
Thermal chiral vortical and magnetic waves: New excitation modes in chiral fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Murchikova, Elena
2017-06-01
In certain circumstances, chiral (parity-violating) medium can be described hydrodynamically as a chiral fluid with microscopic quantum anomalies. Possible examples of such systems include strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma, liquid helium 3He-A, neutron stars and the Early Universe. We study first-order hydrodynamics of a chiral fluid on a vortex background and in an external magnetic field. We show that there are two previously undiscovered modes describing heat waves propagating along the vortex and magnetic field. We call them the Thermal Chiral Vortical Wave and Thermal Chiral Magnetic Wave. We also identify known gapless excitations of density (chiral vortical and chiral magnetic waves) and transverse velocity (chiral Alfvén wave). We demonstrate that the velocity of the chiral vortical wave is zero, when the full hydrodynamic framework is applied, and hence the wave is absent and the excitation reduces to the charge diffusion mode. We also comment on the frame-dependent contributions to the obtained propagation velocities.
Thermal chiral vortical and magnetic waves: New excitation modes in chiral fluids
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Murchikova, Elena
2017-03-24
In certain circumstances, chiral (parity-violating) medium can be described hydrodynamically as a chiral fluid with microscopic quantum anomalies. Possible examples of such systems include strongly coupled quark–gluon plasma, liquid helium 3He-A, neutron stars and the Early Universe. Here, we study first-order hy-drodynamics of a chiral fluid on a vortex background and in an external magnetic field. We show that there are two previously undiscovered modes describing heat waves propagating along the vortex and magnetic field. We call them the Thermal Chiral Vortical Wave and Thermal Chiral Magnetic Wave. We also identify known gapless excitations of density (chiral vortical and chiralmore » magnetic waves) and transverse velocity (chiral Alfvén wave). We also demonstrate that the velocity of the chiral vortical wave is zero, when the full hydrodynamic framework is applied, and hence the wave is absent and the excitation reduces to the charge diffusion mode. We also comment on the frame-dependent contributions to the obtained propagation velocities.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, D. F.; Liu, A. D.; Lan, T.; Yu, C. X.; Cheng, J.; Qiu, Z. Y.; Zhao, H. L.; Shen, H. G.; Yan, L. W.; Dong, J. Q.; Xu, M.; Zhao, K. J.; Duan, X. R.; Liu, Y.; Chen, R.; Zhang, S. B.; Sun, X.; Xie, J. L.; Li, H.; Liu, W. D.
2017-04-01
Coexisting dual kinetic geodesic acoustic modes (KGAMs) with similar characteristics have been observed with Langmuir probe arrays in the edge plasma of HL-2A tokamak with low density Ohmic discharge. The dual KGAMs are named a low-frequency GAM (LFGAM) and a high-frequency GAM (HFGAM), respectively. By changing the line averaged density from 1.0× {{10}19}~{{\\text{m}}-3} to 0.7× {{10}19}~{{\\text{m}}-3} , the study of n e and T e profiles indicate that collision damping rate plays a crucial role on exciting of dual KGAMs, especially for the higher frequency branch (HFGAM). With the application of modulating techniques, we provide direct proof that nonlinear interactions between GAMs and ambient turbulence (AT) show great difference at different radial positions. At the exciting position of GAM, the amplitude modulation of AT is dominant, indicating that GAM is generated in the energy-conserving triad interaction. After the exciting of GAMs, they will propagate both inward and outward. During the propagation, the phase modulation of AT is dominant, GAMs can rarely gain energy from AT, yet they can give back-reactions on AT through shearing effect.
Motobayashi, Kenta; Kim, Yousoo; Arafune, Ryuichi; Ohara, Michiaki; Ueba, Hiromu; Kawai, Maki
2014-05-21
We present a novel reaction mechanism for a single adsorbed molecule that proceeds via simultaneous excitation of two different vibrational modes excited by inelastic tunneling electrons from a scanning tunneling microscope. Specifically, we analyze the dissociation of a single dimethyl disulfide (DMDS, (CH3S)2) molecule on Cu(111) by using a versatile theoretical method, which permits us to simulate reaction rates as a function of sample bias voltage. The reaction is induced by the excitation of C-H stretch and S-S stretch modes by a two-electron process at low positive bias voltages. However, at increased voltages, the dissociation becomes a single-electron process that excites a combination mode of these stretches, where excitation of the C-H stretch is the energy source and excitation of the S-S stretch mode enhances the anharmonic coupling rate. A much smaller dissociation yield (few orders of magnitude) at negative bias voltages is understood in terms of the projected density of states of a single DMDS on Cu(111), which reflects resonant excitation through the molecular orbitals.
Motobayashi, Kenta; Kim, Yousoo; Arafune, Ryuichi; Ohara, Michiaki; Ueba, Hiromu; Kawai, Maki
2014-05-21
We present a novel reaction mechanism for a single adsorbed molecule that proceeds via simultaneous excitation of two different vibrational modes excited by inelastic tunneling electrons from a scanning tunneling microscope. Specifically, we analyze the dissociation of a single dimethyl disulfide (DMDS, (CH{sub 3}S){sub 2}) molecule on Cu(111) by using a versatile theoretical method, which permits us to simulate reaction rates as a function of sample bias voltage. The reaction is induced by the excitation of C-H stretch and S-S stretch modes by a two-electron process at low positive bias voltages. However, at increased voltages, the dissociation becomes a single-electron process that excites a combination mode of these stretches, where excitation of the C-H stretch is the energy source and excitation of the S-S stretch mode enhances the anharmonic coupling rate. A much smaller dissociation yield (few orders of magnitude) at negative bias voltages is understood in terms of the projected density of states of a single DMDS on Cu(111), which reflects resonant excitation through the molecular orbitals.
Two-dimensional collective Hamiltonian for chiral and wobbling modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Q. B.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhao, P. W.; Jolos, R. V.; Meng, J.
2016-10-01
A two-dimensional collective Hamiltonian (2DCH) on both azimuth and polar motions in triaxial nuclei is proposed to investigate the chiral and wobbling modes. In the 2DCH, the collective potential and the mass parameters are determined from three-dimensional tilted axis cranking (TAC) calculations. The broken chiral and signature symmetries in the TAC solutions are restored by the 2DCH. The validity of the 2DCH is illustrated with a triaxial rotor (γ =-30∘ ) coupling to one h11 /2 proton particle and one h11 /2 neutron hole. By diagonalizing the 2DCH, the angular momenta and energy spectra are obtained. These results agree with the exact solutions of the particle rotor model (PRM) at high rotational frequencies. However, at low frequencies, the energies given by the 2DCH are larger than those by the PRM due to the underestimation of the mass parameters. In addition, with increasing angular momentum, the transitions from the chiral vibration to chiral rotation and further to longitudinal wobbling motion have been presented in the 2DCH.
Two-Dimensional Collective Hamiltonian for Chiral and Wobbling Modes
Chen, Q. B.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhao, P. W.; ...
2016-10-03
Here, a two-dimensional collective Hamiltonian (2DCH) on both azimuth and polar motions in triaxial nuclei is proposed to investigate the chiral and wobbling modes. In the 2DCH, the collective potential and the mass parameters are determined from three-dimensional tilted axis cranking (TAC) calculations. The broken chiral and signature symmetries in the TAC solutions are restored by the 2DCH. The validity of the 2DCH is illustrated with a triaxial rotor (γ= -30°) coupling to one h11/2 proton particle and one h11/2 neutron hole. By diagonalizing the 2DCH, the angular momenta and energy spectra are obtained. These results agree with the exactmore » solutions of the particle rotor model (PRM) at high rotational frequencies. However, at low frequencies, the energies given by the 2DCH are larger than those by the PRM due to the underestimation of the mass parameters. In addition, with increasing angular momentum, the transitions from the chiral vibration to chiral rotation and further to longitudinal wobbling motion have been presented in the 2DCH.« less
Two-Dimensional Collective Hamiltonian for Chiral and Wobbling Modes
Chen, Q. B.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhao, P. W.; Jolos, R. V.; Meng, J.
2016-10-03
Here, a two-dimensional collective Hamiltonian (2DCH) on both azimuth and polar motions in triaxial nuclei is proposed to investigate the chiral and wobbling modes. In the 2DCH, the collective potential and the mass parameters are determined from three-dimensional tilted axis cranking (TAC) calculations. The broken chiral and signature symmetries in the TAC solutions are restored by the 2DCH. The validity of the 2DCH is illustrated with a triaxial rotor (γ= -30°) coupling to one h_{11/2} proton particle and one h_{11/2} neutron hole. By diagonalizing the 2DCH, the angular momenta and energy spectra are obtained. These results agree with the exact solutions of the particle rotor model (PRM) at high rotational frequencies. However, at low frequencies, the energies given by the 2DCH are larger than those by the PRM due to the underestimation of the mass parameters. In addition, with increasing angular momentum, the transitions from the chiral vibration to chiral rotation and further to longitudinal wobbling motion have been presented in the 2DCH.
Two-Dimensional Collective Hamiltonian for Chiral and Wobbling Modes
Chen, Q. B.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhao, P. W.; Jolos, R. V.; Meng, J.
2016-10-03
Here, a two-dimensional collective Hamiltonian (2DCH) on both azimuth and polar motions in triaxial nuclei is proposed to investigate the chiral and wobbling modes. In the 2DCH, the collective potential and the mass parameters are determined from three-dimensional tilted axis cranking (TAC) calculations. The broken chiral and signature symmetries in the TAC solutions are restored by the 2DCH. The validity of the 2DCH is illustrated with a triaxial rotor (γ= -30°) coupling to one h_{11/2} proton particle and one h_{11/2} neutron hole. By diagonalizing the 2DCH, the angular momenta and energy spectra are obtained. These results agree with the exact solutions of the particle rotor model (PRM) at high rotational frequencies. However, at low frequencies, the energies given by the 2DCH are larger than those by the PRM due to the underestimation of the mass parameters. In addition, with increasing angular momentum, the transitions from the chiral vibration to chiral rotation and further to longitudinal wobbling motion have been presented in the 2DCH.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pietralla, N.; Beck, O.; Besserer, J.; von Brentano, P.; Eckert, T.; Fischer, R.; Fransen, C.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Jäger, D.; Jolos, R. V.; Kneissl, U.; Krischok, B.; Margraf, J.; Maser, H.; Nord, A.; Pitz, H. H.; Rittner, M.; Schiller, A.; Zilges, A.
1997-02-01
Photon scattering experiments have been performed on the heavy deformed nuclei 178,180Hf using an Eγ < 4 MeV bremsstrahlung beam as a continuous energy photon source. Numerous dipole excitations have been identified from the spectra of high-resolution Ge γ detectors. Spins, K quantum numbers, dipole excitation strengths, and level widths, have been extracted from the scattering cross sections. From the measured level widths lifetimes of 67 levels can be deduced. The excitation strength of the scissors mode is discussed and extends the systematics from the neighboring rare earth nuclei. Besides the ΔK = 1 excitations other dipole excitations have been observed that are distinguished from the scissors mode states by their different decay behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Cheng-Chien; van Veenendaal, Michel; Devereaux, Thomas P.; Wohlfeld, Krzysztof
2015-04-01
Using a combined analytical and numerical approach, we study the collective spin and orbital excitations in a spin-orbital chain under a crystal field. Irrespective of the crystal-field strength, these excitations can be universally described by fractionalized fermions. The fractionalization phenomenon persists and contrasts strikingly with the case of a spin chain, where fractionalized spinons cannot be individually observed but confined to form magnons in a strong magnetic field. In the spin-orbital chain, each of the fractional quasiparticles carries both spin and orbital quantum numbers, and the two variables are always entangled in the collective excitations. Our result further shows that the recently reported separation phenomenon occurs when crystal fields fully polarize the orbital degrees of freedom. In this case, however, the spinon and orbiton dynamics are decoupled solely because of a redefinition of the spin and orbital quantum numbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Biaobin; Lu, Yalin; He, Zhigang; Li, Weiwei; Jia, Qika; Wang, Lin
2017-02-01
The cylindrical dielectric loaded waveguide (DLW) supports a discrete set of modes, which can be excited by electron beam passing through the structure, and the high-order modes can be the harmonics of the fundamental one by properly choosing the parameters of the DLW. By using a train of electron bunches, repeated at the fundamental frequency of the DLW, as the driving source, coherent and simultaneous excitation of multi-modes can be expected. With this proposed scheme, multi-color narrow-band THz radiation with high pulse power and high frequency can be obtained simultaneously.
Effects of excitation around jet preferred mode Strouhal number in high-speed jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuo, Ching-Wen; Cluts, Jordan; Samimy, Mo
2017-04-01
It has been widely reported in the literature that the jet preferred mode Strouhal number varies over a large range of 0.2-0.6, depending upon the facility where the measurement is made as well as the measurement techniques and the location in the jet plume where the measurement is taken. This study investigates this wide variation and potential explanations for it. Active flow control is used to show that the jet is receptive to excitation over a large range of Strouhal numbers and azimuthal modes. The wide variation in the preferred mode Strouhal number is shown to be tightly linked to the evolution, spacing, and scale of the coherent flow structures, which dominate the jet shear layer's development. The low-end of the range is determined by the minimum Strouhal number at which structures begin to interact with one another in the jet plume. Below this range, structures have no significant effect on the plume's statistical properties. For Strouhal numbers at the high-end of the range, the development of coherent flow structures shifts upstream toward the nozzle exit and the structures disintegrate earlier in the jet plume. The earlier development and disintegration prevent these structures from strongly impacting the entire flowfield. The results imply that upstream perturbations in the flow present in various facilities could be responsible for the variations in the measured jet preferred mode Strouhal number. Experimental results from schlieren imaging and near- and far-field microphone measurements are used to investigate the preferred mode Strouhal number across this range.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asgari-Targhi, M.; Coppi, B.
2016-10-01
The radiation emission from Shining Black Holes is most frequently observed to have non-thermal features. It is therefore appropriate to consider relevant collective processes of plasmas surrounding black holes that contain high energy particles with non-thermal distributions in momentum space. For simplicity we use a fluid description considering the case where significant temperature anisotropies are present. These anisotropies are shown to have a critical influence on: a) the existence and characteristics of stationary plasma and field configurations; b) the excitation of magneto-gravitational modes driven by temperature anisotropies and differential rotation; c) the generation of magnetic fields over macroscopic scale distances; d) the outward transport of angular momentum. Sponsored in part by the U.S. D.O.E.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filinov, A.
2016-07-01
A two-component, two-dimensional (2D) dipolar bosonic system in the bilayer geometry is considered. By performing quantum Monte Carlo simulations in a wide range of layer spacings we analyze in detail the pair correlation functions, the static response function, and the kinetic and interaction energies. By reducing the layer spacing we observe a transition from weakly to strongly bound dimer states. The transition is accompanied by the onset of short-range correlations, suppression of the superfluid response, and rotonization of the excitation spectrum. A dispersion law and a dynamic structure factor for the in-phase (symmetric) and out-of-phase (antisymmetric) collective modes during the dimerization is studied in detail with the stochastic reconstruction method and the method of moments. The antisymmetric mode spectrum is most strongly influenced by suppression of the inlayer superfluidity (specified by the superfluid fraction γs=ρs/ρ ). In a pure superfluid (normal fluid) phase, only an acoustic [optical (gapped)] mode is recovered. In a partially superfluid phase, both are present simultaneously, and the dispersion splits into two branches corresponding to a normal and a superfluid component. The spectral weight of the acoustic mode scales linearly with γs. This weight transfers to the optical branch when γs is reduced due to formation of dimer states. In summary, we demonstrate how the interlayer dimerization in dipolar bilayers can be uniquely identified by static and dynamic properties.
Tang, Sai Chun; Clement, Gregory T
2008-02-01
The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using harmonic cancellation for a therapeutic ultrasound transducer excited by a switched-mode power converter without an additional output filter. A switching waveform without the third harmonic was created by cascading two switched-mode power inverter modules at which their output waveforms were pi/3 phase shifted from each other. A PSPICE simulation model for the power converter output stage was developed. The simulated results were in good agreement with the measurement. The waveform and harmonic contents of the acoustic pressure generated by a 1-MHz, self-focused piezoelectric transducer with and without harmonic cancellation have been evaluated. Measured results indicated that the acoustic third harmonicto- fundamental ratio at the focus was small (-48 dB) with harmonic cancellation, compared to that without harmonic cancellation (-20 dB). The measured acoustic levels of the fifth harmonic for both cases with and without harmonic cancellation also were small (-46 dB) compared to the fundamental. This study shows that it is viable to drive a piezoelectric ultrasound transducer using a switched-mode power converter without the requirement of an additional output filter in many high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications.
Enhanced Third Harmonic Generation in Single Germanium Nanodisks Excited at the Anapole Mode.
Grinblat, Gustavo; Li, Yi; Nielsen, Michael P; Oulton, Rupert F; Maier, Stefan A
2016-07-13
We present an all-dielectric germanium nanosystem exhibiting a strong third order nonlinear response and efficient third harmonic generation in the optical regime. A thin germanium nanodisk shows a pronounced valley in its scattering cross section at the dark anapole mode, while the electric field energy inside the disk is maximized due to high confinement within the dielectric. We investigate the dependence of the third harmonic signal on disk size and pump wavelength to reveal the nature of the anapole mode. Each germanium nanodisk generates a high effective third order susceptibility of χ((3)) = 4.3 × 10(-9) esu, corresponding to an associated third harmonic conversion efficiency of 0.0001% at an excitation wavelength of 1650 nm, which is 4 orders of magnitude greater than the case of an unstructured germanium reference film. Furthermore, the nonlinear conversion via the anapole mode outperforms that via the radiative dipolar resonances by about 1 order of magnitude, which is consistent with our numerical simulations. These findings open new possibilities for the optimization of upconversion processes on the nanoscale through the appropriate engineering of suitable dielectric materials.
Anisotropic hybrid excitation modes in monolayer and double-layer phosphorene on polar substrates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saberi-Pouya, S.; Vazifehshenas, T.; Salavati-fard, T.; Farmanbar, M.
2017-09-01
We investigate the anisotropic hybrid surface optical (SO) phonon-plasmon dispersion relations in monolayer and double-layer phosphorene systems located on the polar substrates, such as SiO2, h -BN, and Al2O3 . We calculate these hybrid modes by using the dynamical dielectric function in the random phase approximation in which the electron-electron interaction and long-range electric field generated by the substrate SO phonons via Fröhlich interaction are taken into account. In the long-wavelength limit, we obtain some analytical expressions for the hybrid SO phonon-plasmon dispersion relations which agree with those obtained from the loss function. Our results indicate a strong anisotropy in SO phonon-plasmon modes, which are stronger along the light-mass direction in our heterostructures. Furthermore, we find that the type of substrate has a significant effect on the dispersion relations of the coupled modes. Importantly, the hybrid excitations are apparently sensitive to the misalignment and separation between layers in double-layer phosphorene.
G. Ciovati; P. Kneisel
2005-05-01
Simultaneous excitation of both modes has been carried out on a CEBAF single cell cavity. The cavity has two beam pipe side-ports for each mode for input and pick-up couplers. Coupling to the TE011 mode is done by magnetic loop couplers while for the TM010 mode coaxial antennas are used. Simultaneous excitation of both TM and TE modes has been proposed recently for superconducting photoinjector applications to take advantage of the accelerating electric field of the TM mode, combined with the focusing magnetic field of the TE mode. The TE011 mode has the property of having zero surface electric field, surface magnetic field orthogonal to the one in the TM010 mode and concentrated in the iris/wall regions of the cavity. The presence of both modes in the cavity at the same time can also be used to investigate the so-called high field Q-drop in the TM010 mode. This paper will present some preliminary result on the test of the single cell cavity at 2 K.
Magnetochromic sensing and size-dependent collective excitations in iron oxide nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Neal, Kenneth R.; Patete, Jonathan M.; Chen, Peng; Nanavati, Ruhani; Holinsworth, Brian S.; Smith, Jacqueline M.; Marques, Carlos; Simonson, Jack W.; Aronson, Meigan C.; McGill, Stephen A.; Wong, Stanislaus S.; Musfeldt, Janice L.
2017-03-01
We combine optical and magneto-optical spectroscopies with complementary vibrational and magnetic property measurements to reveal finite length scale effects in nanoscale α -Fe2O3 . Analysis of the d -to-d on-site excitations uncovers enhanced color contrast at particle sizes below approximately 75 nm due to size-induced changes in spin-charge coupling that are suppressed again below the superparamagnetic limit. These findings provide a general strategy for amplifying magnetochromism in α -Fe2O3 and other iron-containing nanomaterials that may be useful for advanced sensing applications. We also unravel the size dependence of collective excitations in this iconic antiferromagnet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaefer, H.; Kabanov, V. V.; Demsar, J.
2014-01-01
The interplay between the electronic and structural subsystems has strong implications on the character of collective excitations in cooperative systems. Their detailed understanding can provide important information on the coupling mechanisms and coupling strengths in such systems. With the recent developments in femtosecond time-resolved optical probes, numerous advantages with respect to conventional time-integrated probes have been put forward. Owing to their high dynamic range, high-frequency resolution, fast data acquisition, and an inherent access to phases of coherent excitations, they provide direct access to the interplay between various degrees of freedom. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of time-resolved optical data on blue bronzes (K0.3MoO3 and Rb0.3MoO3), prototype quasi-one-dimensional charge-density wave (CDW) systems. Numerous coherent (Raman active) modes appear upon the phase transition into the CDW state. We analyze the temperature dependence of mode frequencies, their damping times, as well as their oscillator strengths and phases using the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model. We demonstrate that these low-temperature modes are a result of linear coupling between the Fermi surface nesting driven modulation of the conduction electron density and the normal-state phonons at the CDW wave vector, and determine their coupling strengths. Moreover, we are able to identify the nature of excitation of these coupled modes, as well as the nature of the probing mechanisms in this type of experiments. We demonstrate that in incommensurate CDW systems, femtosecond optical excitation initially suppresses the electronic density modulation, while the reflectivity changes at frequencies far above the CDW induced gap in the single-particle excitation spectrum are governed by the modulation of interband transitions caused by lattice motion. This approach can be readily extended to more complex systems with spatially modulated ground states.
Gravitational Waves from F-modes Excited by the Inspiral of Highly Eccentric Neutron Star Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chirenti, Cecilia; Gold, Roman; Miller, M. Coleman
2017-03-01
As gravitational wave instrumentation becomes more sensitive, it is interesting to speculate about subtle effects that could be analyzed using upcoming generations of detectors. One such effect that has great potential for revealing the properties of very dense matter is fluid oscillations of neutron stars. These have been found in numerical simulations of the hypermassive remnants of double neutron star mergers and of highly eccentric neutron star orbits. Here we focus on the latter and sketch out some ideas for the production, gravitational-wave detection, and analysis of neutron star oscillations. These events will be rare (perhaps up to several tens per year could be detected using third-generation detectors such as the Einstein Telescope or the Cosmic Explorer), but they would have unique diagnostic power for the analysis of cold, catalyzed, dense matter. Furthermore, these systems are unusual in that analysis of the tidally excited f-modes of the stars could yield simultaneous measurements of their masses, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers, using the frequency, damping time, and amplitude of the modes. They would thus present a nearly unique opportunity to test the I-Love-Q relation observationally. The analysis of such events will require significant further work in nuclear physics and general relativistic nonlinear mode coupling, and thus we discuss further directions that will need to be pursued. For example, we note that for nearly grazing encounters, numerical simulations show that the energy delivered to the f-modes may be up to two orders of magnitude greater than predicted in the linear theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauscher, E. A.; van Bise, W. L.
2001-10-01
SPECIFIC PLASMA IONOSPHERIC EXCITATIONS MODES IN THE IONOSPHERE PRODUCED BY SPACE VEHICLE LAUNCH AND RE ENTRY AND NATURAL PHENOMENA We have examined both experimentally and theoretically the formation and excitation of highly well defined specific wave forms of plasma excitation in the D, E, F(1) and F(2) and sometimes G layers of the earth?s ionosphere. In our formal study period from October 1989 until December 1996, we measured 41 distinct events out of a possible 73 events utilizing ground based sensitive T1050 magnetometers. In five cases more than two to three stations were displayed and detected the same ionospheric excitations. Sometimes background noise was high and dominated the signals, but under good measurement conditions signals appeared to be 50 to 70 dbm over the background noise floor. Specific frequencies of the D-layer appeared around 5.2 to 6.52 Hz and E layer excitations were from 10.48 to 12.8 Hz. Sometimes an F double peak appeared around 15 to 17 Hz as excited by space shuttle activity and delta rockets and in several cases, large scale volcanism. A theoretical model has been developed which describes sustained long duration and long range coherent plasma excitation modes which occur when the ionospheric layers are shock excited. Alfven-like velocities of propogation are calculated in these ionospheric layer. Some Schumann resonates were observed from 7 to 8 Hz.
Excitation of kinetic geodesic acoustic modes by drift waves in nonuniform plasmas
Qiu, Z.; Chen, L.; Zonca, F.
2014-02-15
Effects of system nonuniformities and kinetic dispersiveness on the spontaneous excitation of Geodesic Acoustic Mode (GAM) by Drift Wave (DW) turbulence are investigated based on nonlinear gyrokinetic theory. The coupled nonlinear equations describing parametric decay of DW into GAM and DW lower sideband are derived and then solved both analytically and numerically to investigate the effects on the parametric decay process due to system nonuniformities, such as nonuniform diamagnetic frequency, finite radial envelope of DW pump, and kinetic dispersiveness. It is found that the parametric decay process is a convective instability for typical tokamak parameters when finite group velocities of DW and GAM associated with kinetic dispersiveness and finite radial envelope are taken into account. When, however, nonuniformity of diamagnetic frequency is taken into account, the parametric decay process becomes, time asymptotically, a quasi-exponentially growing absolute instability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narasimhan, M. S.; Govind, K. R.
1988-08-01
The design and experimental studies on a corrugated circular cyclindrical waveguide antenna that is feed-excited in the TE11 mode with suppressed far-out sidelobes are reported. To reduce the spillover in the region theta = 90 deg - 180 deg, an attempt was made to introduce circumferential corrugations on the outer surface of the waveguide wall. The design criterion used was that a minimum of 11 corrugations per wavelength were used, and in all there were 25 corrugations. The reason for selecting 25 corrugations was to ensure that the conduction currents induced on the outer walls of the guide were attenuated substantially and did not contribute to the far-out sidelobes. Measured E-plane and H-plane radiation patterns of the feeds and the corrugated waveguide are presented.
Culture meets collective action: Exciting synergies and some lessons to learn for the future
van Zomeren, Martijn; Louis, Winnifred R.
2017-01-01
In this introduction to the special issue of Group Processes & Intergroup Relations on “Culture and Collective Action” we emphasize the importance of the special issue topic for the development of the field. Specifically, we highlight the globalization of collective action and the internationalization of the social-psychological study of collective action, both of which point to culture as a missing link for this field. We thus propose that the next step is to move toward a proper cultural psychology of collective action—a social psychology in which culture is an integral part. This special issue provides a first step toward such a broad and integrative psychological understanding of collective action, but comes with promises as well as problems. We discuss both the exciting synergies and some lessons to learn for the future, and conclude that a focus on culture will facilitate the development of the rich and fascinating field of the social psychology of collective action. PMID:28546783
Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. IV. Receiving antennas and reciprocity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.
2015-07-01
Antenna radiation patterns are an important property of antennas. Reciprocity holds in free space and the radiation patterns for exciting and receiving antennas are the same. In anisotropic plasmas, radiation patterns are complicated by the fact that group and phase velocities differ and certain wave properties like helicity depend on the direction of wave propagation with respect to the background magnetic field B0. Interference and wave focusing effects are different than in free space. Reciprocity does not necessarily hold in a magnetized plasma. The present work considers the properties of various magnetic antennas used for receiving whistler modes. It is based on experimental data from exciting low frequency whistler modes in a large uniform laboratory plasma. By superposition of linear waves from different antennas, the radiation patterns of antenna arrays are derived. Plane waves are generated and used to determine receiving radiation patterns of different receiving antennas. Antenna arrays have radiation patterns with narrow lobes, whose angular position can be varied by physical rotation or electronic phase shifting. Reciprocity applies to broadside antenna arrays but not to end fire arrays which can have asymmetric lobes with respect to B0. The effect of a relative motion between an antenna and the plasma has been modeled by the propagation of a short wave packet moving along a linear antenna array. An antenna moving across B0 has a radiation pattern characterized by an oscillatory "whistler wing." A receiving antenna in motion can detect any plane wave within the group velocity resonance cone. The radiation pattern also depends on loop size relative to the wavelength. Motional effects prevent reciprocity. The concept of the radiation pattern loses its significance for wave packets since the received signal does not only depend on the antenna but also on the properties of the wave packet. The present results are of fundamental interest and of relevance to
Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. IV. Receiving antennas and reciprocity
Stenzel, R. L. Urrutia, J. M.
2015-07-15
Antenna radiation patterns are an important property of antennas. Reciprocity holds in free space and the radiation patterns for exciting and receiving antennas are the same. In anisotropic plasmas, radiation patterns are complicated by the fact that group and phase velocities differ and certain wave properties like helicity depend on the direction of wave propagation with respect to the background magnetic field B{sub 0}. Interference and wave focusing effects are different than in free space. Reciprocity does not necessarily hold in a magnetized plasma. The present work considers the properties of various magnetic antennas used for receiving whistler modes. It is based on experimental data from exciting low frequency whistler modes in a large uniform laboratory plasma. By superposition of linear waves from different antennas, the radiation patterns of antenna arrays are derived. Plane waves are generated and used to determine receiving radiation patterns of different receiving antennas. Antenna arrays have radiation patterns with narrow lobes, whose angular position can be varied by physical rotation or electronic phase shifting. Reciprocity applies to broadside antenna arrays but not to end fire arrays which can have asymmetric lobes with respect to B{sub 0}. The effect of a relative motion between an antenna and the plasma has been modeled by the propagation of a short wave packet moving along a linear antenna array. An antenna moving across B{sub 0} has a radiation pattern characterized by an oscillatory “whistler wing.” A receiving antenna in motion can detect any plane wave within the group velocity resonance cone. The radiation pattern also depends on loop size relative to the wavelength. Motional effects prevent reciprocity. The concept of the radiation pattern loses its significance for wave packets since the received signal does not only depend on the antenna but also on the properties of the wave packet. The present results are of fundamental
Li, H.T.; Yang, Z.; Zu, J.; Qin, W. Y.
2016-08-15
This paper presents the modeling and parametric analysis of the recently proposed nonlinear compressive-mode energy harvester (HC-PEH) under harmonic excitation. Both theoretical and experimental investigations are performed in this study over a range of excitation frequencies. Specially, a distributed parameter electro-elastic model is analytically developed by means of the energy-based method and the extended Hamilton’s principle. An analytical formulation of bending and stretching forces are derived to gain insight on the source of nonlinearity. Furthermore, the analytical model is validated against with experimental data and a good agreement is achieved. Both numerical simulations and experiment illustrate that the harvester exhibits a hardening nonlinearity and hence a broad frequency bandwidth, multiple coexisting solutions and a large-amplitude voltage response. Using the derived model, a parametric study is carried out to examine the effect of various parameters on the harvester voltage response. It is also shown from parametric analysis that the harvester’s performance can be further improved by selecting the proper length of elastic beams, proof mass and reducing the mechanical damping.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parkin, E. R.; Bicknell, G. V.
2013-02-01
Global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of turbulent accretion disks are presented which start from fully equilibrium initial conditions in which the magnetic forces are accounted for and the induction equation is satisfied. The local linear theory of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is used as a predictor of the growth of magnetic field perturbations in the global simulations. The linear growth estimates and global simulations diverge when nonlinear motions—perhaps triggered by the onset of turbulence—upset the velocity perturbations used to excite the MRI. The saturated state is found to be independent of the initially excited MRI mode, showing that once the disk has expelled the initially net flux field and settled into quasi-periodic oscillations in the toroidal magnetic flux, the dynamo cycle regulates the global saturation stress level. Furthermore, time-averaged measures of converged turbulence, such as the ratio of magnetic energies, are found to be in agreement with previous works. In particular, the globally averaged stress normalized to the gas pressure \\overline{< α_P> } = 0.034, with notably higher values achieved for simulations with higher azimuthal resolution. Supplementary tests are performed using different numerical algorithms and resolutions. Convergence with resolution during the initial linear MRI growth phase is found for 23-35 cells per scale height (in the vertical direction).
Chromospheric Heating and the Excitation of Magnetic Tube Waves Through p-Mode Buffeting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hindman, Bradley W.
1997-05-01
The dissipation of magnetic tube waves may be the primary source of energy in the thermal balance of the solar chromosphere and corona. In this paper, I compute an upper limit on the energy flux of tube waves that can be driven into the chromosphere if the waves are excited by buffeting of magnetic flux tubes by p--modes. In addition, I estimate the p--mode line widths which result from this transfer of energy from the modes to the flux tube waves. To obtain the upper limit, I assume that the solar magnetic field has a fibril structure consisting of a large set of well--separated, identical tubes. Each tube is axisymmetric, vertical and slender. I approximate the solar atmosphere with a truncated isentropic polytrope, chosen such that it's upper surface matches the tau_ {5000}=1 layer of the photospheric model of Maltby (1986). The response of the fibrils is described using the thin flux tube approximation, ignoring multiple scattering between the tubes, and assuming that the p--modes force the tubes incoherently. The effects of the region above the surface of the polytrope, where a flaring flux tube is poorly represented by the thin flux equations, are simulated through a boundary condition applied at the polytrope's surface. By varying this boundary condition the influence of any upper atmosphere can be reproduced. To compute an upper limit, I chose the boundary condition which optimizes the upward flux of waves. I find that the largest flux of tube waves that can be sent into chromosphere is 29 ergs cm(-2) s(-1) for a fibril field with a 1% filling factor. This flux is miniscule when compared to the energy flux necessary to heat the chromosphere or corona. Therefore, tube waves generated by the buffeting of magnetic fibrils by acoustic waves are inconsequential in the energy balance of the upper atmosphere. Furthermore, using the same boundary conditions, I find that the line width of a p--mode due to the absorption of that mode by the fibrils can be a
Collective and single-particle excitations in two-dimensional dipolar Bose gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filinov, A.; Bonitz, M.
2012-10-01
The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in two-dimensional dipolar systems has been studied recently by path integral Monte Carlo simulations [A. Filinov , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.105.070401 105, 070401 (2010)]. Here, we complement this analysis and study temperature-coupling strength dependence of the density (particle-hole) and single-particle (SP) excitation spectra both in superfluid and normal phases. The dynamic structure factor, S(q,ω), of the longitudinal excitations is rigorously reconstructed with full information on damping. The SP spectral function, A(q,ω), is worked out from the one-particle Matsubara Green's function. A stochastic optimization method is applied for reconstruction from imaginary times. In the superfluid regime sharp energy resonances are observed in both the density and SP excitations. The involved hybridization of both spectra is discussed. In contrast, in the normal phase, when there is no coupling, the density modes, beyond acoustic phonons, are significantly damped. Our results generalize previous zero-temperature analyses based on variational many-body wave functions [F. Mazzanti , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.110405 102, 110405 (2009); D. Hufnagl , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.065303 107, 065303 (2011)], where the underlying physics of the excitation spectrum and the role of the condensate has not been addressed.
Dong, Zheng-Gao; Liu, Hui; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Li, Tao; Wang, Shu-Ming; Cao, Jing-Xiao; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Zhang, X
2010-10-11
An otherwise dark magnetic dipole resonance in a split-ring resonator can be excited electrically with a Fano-type profile once the symmetric environment for this resonator is broken with respect to the polarized electric-field direction of incident waves. When this asymmetrically induced narrow resonance coincides with a broad dipolar resonance at an identical frequency regime, the metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) window can be formed. We demonstrate that this environmental-asymmetry condition can be introduced dielectrically as well as plasmonically, either resonantly or nonresonantly, which indicates the plasmon coupling between different resonant modes is not responsible for the dark mode excitation. Thus, this result should contribute to the physical understanding on dark-mode excitation pathway for EIT-like phenomenon in plasmonic metamaterials.
Electronic and mechanical properties of collective-mode conductors
Bourne, L.C.
1988-01-01
The author measured the elastic properties of the collective mode conductors K{sub 0.3}MoO{sub 3}, URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}. K{sub 0.3}MoO{sub 3} has an anisotropic modulus anomaly at the Charge-Density-Wave (CDW) transition temperature compared to a theoretical model of CDW formation; also, no change was found in elastic properties from CDW depinning. URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} has anomalies in both the modulus and the dissipation near 18 K due to the formation of a Charge- or Spin-Density Wave. La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} shows a dramatic lattice softening that may be related to the superconducting mechanism, and a small modulus anomaly at T{sub c} used to predict the corresponding specific heat anomaly. The elastic properties of the CDW conductors TaS{sub 3} and NbSe{sub 3} have been measured in the presence of ac, dc, and combined ac and dc electric fields. For both materials, the application of ac fields E{sub ac} in the MHz range softens the crystal lattice. The author substituted isotopes of oxygen, barium, and copper in the high-T{sub c} superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} and isotopes of oxygen in La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4}. The measured shifts in T{sub c}'s are much smaller than those expected from the conventional BCS phonon-induced electron pairing mechanism.
TOPICAL REVIEW: Shapes and collectivity of exotic nuclei via low-energy Coulomb excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Görgen, Andreas
2010-10-01
The way in which an atomic nucleus responds to excitations, whether by promoting individual nucleons into higher shells or by collective rotation or vibration, reveals many details of the underlying nuclear structure. The response of the nucleus is closely related to its macroscopic shape. Low-energy Coulomb excitation provides a well-understood means of exciting atomic nuclei, allowing the measurement of static and dynamic electromagnetic moments as a probe of the nuclear wavefunctions. Owing to the availability of radioactive heavy-ion beams with energies near the Coulomb barrier, it is now possible to study the shape and collectivity of short-lived nuclei far from β stability (the so-called exotic nuclei), providing a particularly stringent test of modern theoretical nuclear structure models. This review gives an introduction to the experimental techniques related to low-energy Coulomb excitation with radioactive ion beams and summarizes the results that were obtained over the last 10 years for a wide variety of exotic nuclei at various laboratories employing the isotope separation on-line technique.
Qu, J Y; Huang, Z; Hua, J
2000-07-01
We present an imaging technique for the correction of geometrical effects in fluorescence measurement of optically thick, turbid media such as human tissue. Specifically, we use the cross-polarization method to reject specular reflection and enhance the diffusive backscattering of polarized fluorescence excitation light from the turbid media. We correct the nonuniformity of the image field caused by the excitation-and-collection geometry of a fluorescence imaging system by normalizing the fluorescence image to the cross-polarized reflection image. The ratio image provides a map of relative fluorescence yield, defined as the ratio of emerging fluorescence power to incident excitation, over the surface of an imaged homogeneous turbid medium when fluorescence excitation-and-collection geometries vary in a wide range. We investigate the mechanism of ratio imaging by using Monte Carlo modeling. Our findings show that this technique could have a potential use in the detection of early cancer, which usually starts from a superficial layer of tissue, based on the contrast in the tissue fluorescence of an early lesion and of the surrounding normal tissue.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loon Lee, Kean; Proukakis, Nick P.
2016-11-01
The non-equilibrium dynamics of trapped ultracold atomic gases, or mixtures thereof, is an extremely rich subject. Despite 20 years of studies, and remarkable progress mainly on the experimental front, numerous open question remain, related to the growth, relaxation and thermalisation of such systems, and there is still no universally accepted theory for their theoretical description. In this paper we discuss one of the state-of-the-art kinetic approaches, which gives an intuitive picture of the physical processes happening at the microscopic scale, being broadly applicable both below and above the critical region (but not within the critical region itself, where fluctuations become dominant and symmetry breaking takes place). Specifically, the ‘Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin’ (ZNG) scheme provides a self-consistent description of the coupling between the condensate and the thermal atoms, including the collisions between these two subsystems. It has been successfully tested against experiments in various settings, including investigation of collective modes (e.g. monopole, dipole and quadrupole modes), dissipation of topological excitations (solitons and vortices) as well as surface evaporative cooling. Here, we show that the ZNG model can capture two important aspects of non-equilibrium dynamics for both single-component and two-component BECs: the Kohn mode (the undamped dipole oscillation independent of interactions and temperature) and (re)thermalisation leading to condensate growth following sudden evaporation. Our simulations, performed in a spherically symmetric trap reveal (i) an interesting two-stage dynamics and the emergence of a prominent monopole mode in the evaporative cooling of a single-component Bose gas, and (ii) the long thermalisation time associated with the sympathetic cooling of a realistic two-component mixture. Related open questions arise about the mechanisms and the nature of thermalisation in such systems, where further controlled
Excitability, mixed-mode oscillations and transition to chaos in a stochastic ice ages model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexandrov, D. V.; Bashkirtseva, I. A.; Ryashko, L. B.
2017-03-01
Motivated by an important geophysical significance, we consider the influence of stochastic forcing on a simple three-dimensional climate model previously derived by Saltzman and Sutera. A nonlinear dynamical system governing three physical variables, the bulk ocean temperature, continental and marine ice masses, is analyzed in deterministic and stochastic cases. It is shown that the attractor of deterministic model is either a stable equilibrium or a limit cycle. We demonstrate that the process of continental ice melting occurs with a noise-dependent time delay as compared with marine ice melting. The paleoclimate cyclicity which is near 100 ky in a wide range of model parameters abruptly increases in the vicinity of a bifurcation point and depends on the noise intensity. In a zone of stable equilibria, the 3D climate model under consideration is extremely excitable. Even for a weak random noise, the stochastic trajectories demonstrate a transition from small- to large-amplitude stochastic oscillations (SLASO). In a zone of stable cycles, SLASO transitions are analyzed too. We show that such stochastic transitions play an important role in the formation of a mixed-mode paleoclimate scenario. This mixed-mode dynamics with the intermittency of large- and small-amplitude stochastic oscillations and coherence resonance are investigated via analysis of interspike intervals. A tendency of dynamic paleoclimate to abrupt and rapid glaciations and deglaciations as well as its transition from order to chaos with increasing noise are shown.
Self-fabricated single mode waveguide in fluoride glass excited by self-channeled plasma filaments
Cho, Sung-Hak; Chang, Won-Seok; Kim, Jae-Goo; Whang, Kyoung-Hyun
2007-09-17
Self-fabricated permanent structure of single mode waveguide in optical fluoride glasses was demonstrated using the self-channeled plasma filament excited by a femtosecond (130 fs) Ti:sapphire laser ({lambda}{sub p}=790 nm). The photoinduced refractive index modification in ZrF{sub 4}-BaF{sub 2}-LaF{sub 3}-AlF{sub 3}-NaF glasses reached a length of approximately 10-15 mm from the input surface of the optical glass with the diameters ranging from 5 to 8 {mu}m at the input intensities of more than 1.0x10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}. The graded refractive index profiles were fabricated to be a symmetric form from the center of optical fluoride glass, and a maximum value of refractive index change ({delta}n) was measured to be 1.3x10{sup -2}. The beam profile of the output beam transmitted through the modified region showed that the photoinduced refractive index modification produced a permanent structure of single mode waveguide.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Jinwu
2005-03-01
We study the interlayer coherent incompressible phase in trilayer quantum Hall systems (TLQH) at total filling factor νT=1 from three approaches: Mutual composite fermion (MCF), composite boson (CB), and wave function approach. Just like in bilayer quantum Hall system, CB approach is superior than MCF approach in studying TLQH with broken symmetry. The Hall and Hall drag resistivities are found to be quantized at h/e2 . Two neutral gapless modes with linear dispersion relations are identified and the ratio of the two velocities is close to 3 . The excitation spectra are classified into two classes, charge neutral bosonic two-body bound states and charge ±1 fermionic three-body bound states. In general, there are two two-body Kosterlize-Thouless (KT) transition temperatures and one three-body KT transition. The charge ±1 three-body fermionic bound states may be the main dissipation source of transport measurements. The broken symmetry in terms of SU (3) algebra is studied. The structure of excitons and their flowing patterns are given. The coupling between the two Goldstone modes will lead to the broadening in the zero-bias peak in the interlayer correlated tunnelings of the TLQH. Several interesting features unique to TLQH are outlined. Limitations of the CB approach are also pointed out.
Coronal Seismology of Flare-Excited Standing Slow-Mode Waves Observed by SDO/AIA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tongjiang; Ofman, Leon; Davila, Joseph M.
2016-05-01
Flare-excited longitudinal intensity oscillations in hot flaring loops have been recently detected by SDO/AIA in 94 and 131 Å bandpasses. Based on the interpretation in terms of a slow-mode wave, quantitative evidence of thermal conduction suppression in hot (>9 MK) loops has been obtained for the first time from measurements of the polytropic index and phase shift between the temperature and density perturbations (Wang et al. 2015, ApJL, 811, L13). This result has significant implications in two aspects. One is that the thermal conduction suppression suggests the need of greatly enhanced compressive viscosity to interpret the observed strong wave damping. The other is that the conduction suppression provides a reasonable mechanism for explaining the long-duration events where the thermal plasma is sustained well beyond the duration of impulsive hard X-ray bursts in many flares, for a time much longer than expected by the classical Spitzer conductive cooling. In this study, we model the observed standing slow-mode wave in Wang et al. (2015) using a 1D nonlinear MHD code. With the seismology-derived transport coefficients for thermal conduction and compressive viscosity, we successfully simulate the oscillation period and damping time of the observed waves. Based on the parametric study of the effect of thermal conduction suppression and viscosity enhancement on the observables, we discuss the inversion scheme for determining the energy transport coefficients by coronal seismology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Ping; Wang, HuiLi; Fan, RongWei; Chen, DeYing; Xia, YuanQin; Yu, Xin; Wang, JiaLing; Jiang, YuGang
2012-12-01
A recently developed time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (tr-CARS) technique allows the measurement of vibrational coherences with high frequency differences with the ambient environment. The method is based on the short spatial extension of femtosecond pulses with a broadband tunable nonlinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) and an internal time delay between the probe and pump/Stokes pulse pair in the CARS process. The different beat frequencies between Raman modes can be selectively detected as oscillations in the tr-CARS transient signal with the broadband tunable NOPA. In this work, we aim at the Raman C—H stretching vibrations from 2800 cm-1 to 3000 cm-1, within which the different vibrational modes in both ethanol and methanol are selectively excited and simultaneously detected. The high time resolution of the experimental set-up allows one to monitor the vibrational coherence dynamics and to observe the quantum beat phenomena on a terahertz scale. This investigation indicates that the femtosecond tr-CARS technique is a powerful tool for the real-time monitoring and detection of molecular and biological agents, including airborne contaminants such as bacterial spores, viruses and their toxins.
Patel, Vishesha; Malinovsky, Vladimir S.; Malinovskaya, Svetlana
2010-06-15
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy has been a major tool of investigation of biological structures as it contains the vibrational signature of molecules. A quantum control method based on chirped pulse adiabatic passage was recently proposed for selective excitation of a predetermined vibrational mode in CARS microscopy [Malinovskaya and Malinovsky, Opt. Lett. 32, 707 (2007)]. The method utilizes the chirp sign variation at the peak pulse amplitude and gives a robust adiabatic excitation of the desired vibrational mode. Using this method, we investigate the impact of coupling between vibrational modes in molecules on controllability of excitation of the CARS signal. We analyze two models of two coupled two-level systems (TLSs) having slightly different transitional frequencies. The first model, featuring degenerate ground states of the TLSs, gives robust adiabatic excitation and maximum coherence in the resonant TLS for positive value of the chirp. In the second model, implying nondegenerate ground states in the TLSs, a population distribution is observed in both TLSs, resulting in a lack of selectivity of excitation and low coherence. It is shown that the relative phase and coupling between the TLSs play an important role in optimizing coherence in the desired vibrational mode and suppressing unwanted transitions in CARS microscopy.
Lee, Jae Sung; Han, Sanghoon; Shirdel, Javid; Koo, Sukmo; Sadiq, Diyar; Lienau, Christoph; Park, Namkyoo
2011-06-20
We compare single- and double-sided excitation methods of adiabatic surface plasmon polariton (SPP) wave superfocusing for scattering-type metallic near-field scanning optical microscopy (s-NSOM). Using the results of full 3D finite difference time domain analyses, the differences in field enhancement factors are explained and reveal the mode selectivity of a conical NSOM tip for adiabatic SPP superfocusing. Exploiting the mode-symmetric nature of the tip further, we also show that it is possible to selectively confine either the electric or magnetic field at the NSOM tip apex, by simply adjusting the relative phase between the SPP waves in the double-sided excitation approach.
Collective 2+ 1 excitations in 206Po and 208,210Rn
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grahn, T.; Pakarinen, J.; Jokiniemi, L.; Albers, M.; Auranen, K.; Bauer, C.; Bernards, C.; Blazhev, A.; Butler, P. A.; Bönig, S.; Damyanova, A.; De Coster, T.; De Witte, H.; Elseviers, J.; Gaffney, L. P.; Huyse, M.; Herzáň, A.; Jakobsson, U.; Julin, R.; Kesteloot, N.; Konki, J.; Kröll, Th.; Lewandowski, L.; Moschner, K.; Peura, P.; Pfeiffer, M.; Radeck, D.; Rahkila, P.; Rapisarda, E.; Reiter, P.; Reynders, K.; Rudiger, M.; Salsac, M.-D.; Sambi, S.; Scheck, M.; Seidlitz, M.; Siebeck, B.; Steinbach, T.; Stolze, S.; Suhonen, J.; Thoele, P.; Thürauf, M.; Warr, N.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Werner, V.; Veselsky, M.; Vogt, A.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.; Zielińska, M.
2016-11-01
In the present study, B(E2; 2+1→ 0+1) values have been measured in the 208,210Rn and 206Po nuclei through Coulomb excitation of re-accelerated radioactive beams in inverse kinematics at CERN-ISOLDE. These nuclei have been proposed to lie in, or at the boundary of the region where the seniority scheme should persist. However, contributions from collective excitations are likely to be present when moving away from the N=126 closed shell. Such an effect is confirmed by the observed increased collectivity of the 2+1→ 0+1 transitions. Experimental results have been interpreted with the aid of theoretical studies carried out within the BCS-based QRPA framework.
26 CFR 301.6302-1 - Mode or time of collection of taxes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... time of collection of taxes. (a) Employment and excise taxes. For provisions relating to the mode or time of collection of certain employment and excise taxes and the use of authorized financial... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mode or time of collection of taxes. 301.6302-1...
Kottke, M.; Schulte, T.; Hellweg, D.; Drenkelforth, S.; Ertmer, W.; Arlt, J. J.; Cacciapuoti, L.
2005-11-15
We measure the frequency of the low m=0 quadrupolar excitation mode of weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensates in the transition region from the three-dimensional (3D) to the 1D mean-field regime. Various effects shifting the frequency of the mode are discussed. In particular we take the dynamic coupling of the condensate with the thermal component at finite temperature into account using a time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov treatment developed by Giorgini [Phys. Rev. A, 61, 063615 (2000)]. We show that the frequency rises in the transition from 3D to 1D, in good agreement with the theoretical prediction of Menotti and Stringari [Phys. Rev. A 66, 043610 (2002)].
Emergence of an excitonic collective mode in the dilute electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takada, Yasutami
2016-12-01
By comparing two expressions for the polarization function Π (q ,i ω ) given in terms of two different local-field factors, G+(q ,i ω ) and Gs(q ,i ω ) , we have derived the kinetic-energy-fluctuation (or sixth-power) sum rule for the momentum distribution function n (p ) in the three-dimensional electron gas. With use of this sum rule, together with the total-number (or second-power) and the kinetic-energy (or fourth-power) sum rules, we have obtained n (p ) in the low-density electron gas at negative compressibility (namely, rs>5.25 with rs being the conventional density parameter) up to rs≈22 by improving on the interpolation scheme due to Gori-Giorge and Ziesche proposed in 2002. The obtained results for n (p ) combined with the improved form for Gs(q ,ω +i 0+) are employed to calculate the dynamical structure factor S (q ,ω ) to reveal that a giant peak, even bigger than the plasmon peak, originating from an excitonic collective mode made of electron-hole pair excitations, emerges in the low-ω region at |q | near 2 pF (pF: the Fermi wave number). Connected with this mode, we have discovered a singular point in the retarded dielectric function at ω =0 and |q | ≈2 pF .
Collective excitations of 96Ru by means of (p ,p'γ ) experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hennig, A.; Ahn, T.; Anagnostatou, V.; Blazhev, A.; Cooper, N.; Derya, V.; Elvers, M.; Endres, J.; Goddard, P.; Heinz, A.; Hughes, R. O.; Ilie, G.; Mineva, M. N.; Petkov, P.; Pickstone, S. G.; Pietralla, N.; Radeck, D.; Ross, T. J.; Savran, D.; Spieker, M.; Werner, V.; Zilges, A.
2015-12-01
Background: One-phonon mixed-symmetry quadrupole excitations are a well-known feature of near-spherical, vibrational nuclei. Their interpretation as a fundamental building block of vibrational structures is supported by the identification of multiphonon states resulting from a coupling of fully-symmetric and mixed-symmetric quadrupole phonons. In addition, the observation of strong M 1 transitions between low-lying 3- and 4+ states has been interpreted as an evidence for one-phonon mixed-symmetry excitations of octupole and hexadecapole character. Purpose: The aim of the present study is to identify collective one- and two-phonon excitations in the heaviest stable N =52 isotone 96Ru based on a measurement of absolute M 1 , E 1 , and E 2 transition strengths. Methods: Inelastic proton-scattering experiments have been performed at the Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory (WNSL), Yale University, and the Institute for Nuclear Physics (IKP), University of Cologne. From the acquired proton-γ and γ γ coincidence data we deduced spins of excited states, γ -decay branching ratios, and multipole mixing ratios, as well as lifetimes of excited states via the Doppler-shift attenuation method (DSAM). Results: Based on the new experimental data on absolute transition strengths, we identified the 2+ and 3+ members of the two-phonon mixed-symmetry quintuplet (21,ms +⊗21,s +) . Furthermore, we observed strong M 1 transitions between low-lying 3- and 4+ states suggesting one-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric octupole and hexadecapole components in their wave functions, respectively. The experimental results are compared to s d g -IBM-2 and shell-model calculations. Conclusions: Both the s d g -IBM-2 and the shell-model calculations are able to describe key features of mixed-symmetry excitations of 96Ru. Moreover, they support the one-phonon mixed-symmetry hexadecapole assignment of the experimental 42+ state.
Theory of highly charged ion energy gain spectroscopy of molecular collective excitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucas, A. A.; Benedek, G.; Sunjic, M.; Echenique, P. M.
2011-01-01
This paper discusses the physical mechanism by which a highly charged, energetic ion partly neutralized by electron transfers from a target—a large molecule, a cluster or a solid surface—can create target collective excitations in the process. We develop an analysis for the system of a highly charged ion flying by a fullerene molecule. Our analysis offers a new explanation for the periodic oscillations observed in the high-resolution energy gain spectra of energetic Arq+ ions (q=8, 13, 14, 15) flying by C60 molecules. For the Arq+→Ar(q-s)+ spectra with q=13-15 and s=1 or 2, the observed oscillations of 6 eV periodicity are assigned to energy losses due to multiple, Poissonian excitations of C60 π-plasmons (6 eV quantum). The excitation energy quanta are subtracted from the kinetic energy gained by the ion when one or at most two electrons are transferred to increasingly deep Rydberg states of the ion. The observed 3 eV periodicity for q=8 arises from the specific Rydberg energy levels of ArVIII (Ar7+). The first few shallow levels of this ion are separated by about 3 eV, while some of the pairs of adjacent, deeper levels are also separated by 3 eV. Each deep-level pair produces two interdigitated, Poissonian series of 6 eV π-plasmon excitation peaks resulting in an apparent periodicity of 3 eV throughout the spectra. The broad σ-plasmons (25 eV quantum) are found to contribute a background continuum to the medium- and high-energy regions of the observed spectra. The physical model analyzed here indicates that electronic collective excitations in several other systems could be studied by highly charged ion energy gain spectroscopy at sufficient resolution.
Quadrupole Collectivity beyond N=28: Intermediate-Energy Coulomb Excitation of Ar47,48
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winkler, R.; Gade, A.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Brown, B. A.; Glasmacher, T.; Grinyer, G. F.; Meharchand, R.; McDaniel, S.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Weisshaar, D.
2012-05-01
We report on the first experimental study of quadrupole collectivity in the very neutron-rich nuclei Ar47,48 using intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation. These nuclei are located along the path from doubly magic Ca to collective S and Si isotopes, a critical region of shell evolution and structural change. The deduced B(E2) transition strengths are confronted with large-scale shell-model calculations in the sdpf shell using the state-of-the-art SDPF-Uand EPQQM effective interactions. The comparison between experiment and theory indicates that a shell-model description of Ar isotopes around N=28 remains a challenge.
Quadrupole collectivity beyond N = 28: intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation of (47,48)Ar.
Winkler, R; Gade, A; Baugher, T; Bazin, D; Brown, B A; Glasmacher, T; Grinyer, G F; Meharchand, R; McDaniel, S; Ratkiewicz, A; Weisshaar, D
2012-05-04
We report on the first experimental study of quadrupole collectivity in the very neutron-rich nuclei (47,48)Ar using intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation. These nuclei are located along the path from doubly magic Ca to collective S and Si isotopes, a critical region of shell evolution and structural change. The deduced B(E2) transition strengths are confronted with large-scale shell-model calculations in the sdpf shell using the state-of-the-art SDPF-Uand EPQQM effective interactions. The comparison between experiment and theory indicates that a shell-model description of Ar isotopes around N=28 remains a challenge.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crawford, T. M.; Covington, M.; Parker, G. J.
2003-01-01
We measure quantized spin waves excited by a spatially inhomogeneous pulsed magnetic field in patterned NiFe thin films by inductive detection of the dynamic magnetization. When anisotropy and numerically calculated demagnetizing fields are included in the magnetostatic Damon Eshbach spin-wave dispersion relation, the predicted mode frequencies agree closely with measurements. Micromagnetic calculations predict the correct mode frequencies and agree remarkably well with time-domain measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mancilla-Almonacid, D.; Arias, R. E.
2017-06-01
The excitation of the linear spin wave modes of a soft ferromagnetic free layer of a nanopillar structure through dc-ac currents that traverse the structure is studied, as well as with ac magnetic fields. There is interest in understanding the magnetization dynamics in these structures since they may be used as microwave sources when these nano-oscillators enter into auto-oscillatory regimes. The free layer is a soft ferromagnet, like Permalloy, in the shape of a circular disk, with a very small thickness in the range of the exchange length. Using a description of the magnetization dynamics in terms of a Hamiltonian for weakly interacting waves, we determine the spin wave modes of the structure under two approximations: a very thin film limit, and under a model that includes the effect of the full magnetostatic interaction. We consider direct and parametric excitations of different spin wave modes with ac currents, i.e., with exciting frequency approximately equal to the frequency of the mode or to twice its value, respectively. The Oersted field mainly plays a role in the direct resonant excitation of the modes. Our main conclusion is that for a dc current below the critical value necessary for the development of auto-oscillations, using parametric excitation, a very high value of the ac current is necessary to reach the auto-oscillatory behavior in this geometry. However, if the out-of-plane component of the spin transfer torque is high enough, the ac critical current for auto-oscillations is significantly reduced, leading to a signature for its detection. We comment on parallel pumping and transverse excitation using ac magnetic fields.
Bafile, Ubaldo; Guarini, Eleonora; Barocchi, Fabrizio
2006-06-01
In the Q range where inelastic x-ray and neutron scattering are applied to the study of acoustic collective excitations in fluids, various models of the dynamic structure factor S(Q, omega) generalize in different ways the results obtained from linearized-hydrodynamics theory in the Q-->0 limit. Here we show that the models most commonly fitted to experimental S(Q, omega) spectra can be given a unified formulation. In this way, direct comparisons among the results obtained by fitting different models become now possible to a much larger extent than ever. We also show that a consistent determination of the dispersion curve and of the propagation Q range of the excitations is possible, whichever model is used. We derive an exact formula which describes in all cases the dispersion curve and allows for the first quantitative understanding of its shape, by assigning specific and distinct roles to the various structural, thermal, and damping effects that determine the Q dependence of the mode frequencies. The emerging picture describes the acoustic modes as Q-dependent harmonic oscillators whose characteristic frequency is explicitly renormalized in an exact way by the relaxation processes, which also determine, through the widths of both the inelastic and the elastic lines, the whole shape of collective-excitation spectra.
PHOTOEMISSION AS A PROBE OF THE COLLECTIVE EXCITATIONS IN CONDENSED MATTER SYSTEMS.
JOHNSON, P.D.; VALLA, T.
2006-08-01
New developments in instrumentation have recently allowed photoemission measurements to be performed with very high energy and momentum resolution.[1] This has allowed detailed studies of the self-energy corrections to the lifetime and mass renormalization of excitations in the vicinity of the Fermi level. These developments come at an opportune time. Indeed the discovery of high temperature superconductivity in the cuprates and related systems is presenting a range of challenges for condensed matter physics.[2] Does the mechanism of high T{sub c} superconductivity represent new physics? Do we need to go beyond Landau's concept of the Fermi liquid?[3] What, if any, is the evidence for the presence or absence of quasiparticles in the excitation spectra of these complex oxides? The energy resolution of the new instruments is comparable to or better than the energy or temperature scale of superconductivity and the energy of many collective excitations. As such, photoemission has again become recognized as an important probe of condensed matter. Studies of the high T{sub c} superconductors and related materials are aided by the observation that they are two dimensional. To understand this, we note that the photoemission process results in both an excited photoelectron and a photohole in the final state. Thus the experimentally measured photoemission peak is broadened to a width reflecting contributions from both the finite lifetime of the photohole and the momentum broadening of the outgoing photoelectron.
Liu, Yingxiang; Shen, Qiangqiang; Shi, Shengjun; Deng, Jie; Chen, Weishan; Wang, Liang
2017-06-27
A novel exciting method for a sandwich type piezoelectric transducer operating in longitudinal-bending hybrid vibration modes is proposed and discussed, in which the piezoelectric elements for the excitations of the longitudinal and bending vibrations share the same axial location, but correspond to different partitions. Whole-piece type piezoelectric plates with three separated partitions are used, in which the center partitions generate the first longitudinal vibration, while the upper and lower partitions produce the second bending vibration. Detailed comparisons between the proposed exciting method and the traditional one were accomplished by finite element method (FEM) calculations, which were further verified by experiments. Compared with the traditional exciting method using independent longitudinal ceramics and bending ceramics, the proposed method achieves higher electromechanical coupling factors and larger vibration amplitudes, especially for the bending vibration mode. This novel exciting method for longitudinal-bending hybrid vibrations has not changed the structural dimensions of the sandwich transducer, but markedly improves the mechanical output ability, which makes it very helpful and meaningful in designing new piezoelectric actuators operated in longitudinal-bending hybrid vibration modes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pitchappa, Prakash; Manjappa, Manukumara; Ho, Chong Pei; Singh, Ranjan; Singh, Navab; Lee, Chengkuo
2016-11-01
We report experimental results of the active switching of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) analogue by controlling the dark mode excitation pathways in a microelectromechanical system based tri-atomic metamolecule, operating in the terahertz spectral region. The tri-atomic metamolecule consists of two bright cut wire resonators (CWRs) on either side of the dark split ring resonators (SRRs). Each of the CWRs can independently excite the dark inductive-capacitive resonance mode of the SRRs through inductive coupling, and this allows for the dual pathways of dark mode excitation. The CWRs are made movable along the out-of-plane direction and electrically isolated to achieve selective reconfiguration. Hence, by controlling the physical position of these CWRs, the excitation pathways can be actively reconfigured. This enables the strong excitation of EIT analogue at 0.65 THz, only when one of the pathways is made accessible. Moreover, the transparency peak is completely modulated when both pathways are made either inaccessible or equally accessible. The proposed approach of realizing independent control of constituent resonators in a multi-resonator coupled system, enables the realization of efficient slow light devices and tunable high-Q resonators in terahertz spectral region.
Shinohara, S.; Tanikawa, T.; Motomura, T.
2014-09-15
A flat type, segmented multi-loop antenna was developed in the Tokai Helicon Device, built for producing high-density helicon plasma, with a diameter of 20 cm and an axial length of 100 cm. This antenna, composed of azimuthally splitting segments located on four different radial positions, i.e., r = 2.8, 4.8, 6.8, and 8.8 cm, can excite the azimuthal mode number m of 0, ±1, and ±2 by a proper choice of antenna feeder parts just on the rear side of the antenna. Power dependencies of the electron density n{sub e} were investigated with a radio frequency (rf) power less than 3 kW (excitation frequency ranged from 8 to 20 MHz) by the use of various types of antenna segments, and n{sub e} up to ∼5 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} was obtained after the density jump from inductively coupled plasma to helicon discharges. Radial density profiles of m = 0 and ±1 modes with low and high rf powers were measured. For the cases of these modes after the density jump, the excited mode structures derived from the magnetic probe measurements were consistent with those expected from theory on helicon waves excited in the plasma.
Shinohara, S; Tanikawa, T; Motomura, T
2014-09-01
A flat type, segmented multi-loop antenna was developed in the Tokai Helicon Device, built for producing high-density helicon plasma, with a diameter of 20 cm and an axial length of 100 cm. This antenna, composed of azimuthally splitting segments located on four different radial positions, i.e., r = 2.8, 4.8, 6.8, and 8.8 cm, can excite the azimuthal mode number m of 0, ±1, and ±2 by a proper choice of antenna feeder parts just on the rear side of the antenna. Power dependencies of the electron density ne were investigated with a radio frequency (rf) power less than 3 kW (excitation frequency ranged from 8 to 20 MHz) by the use of various types of antenna segments, and n(e) up to ~5 × 10(12) cm(-3) was obtained after the density jump from inductively coupled plasma to helicon discharges. Radial density profiles of m = 0 and ±1 modes with low and high rf powers were measured. For the cases of these modes after the density jump, the excited mode structures derived from the magnetic probe measurements were consistent with those expected from theory on helicon waves excited in the plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinohara, S.; Tanikawa, T.; Motomura, T.
2014-09-01
A flat type, segmented multi-loop antenna was developed in the Tokai Helicon Device, built for producing high-density helicon plasma, with a diameter of 20 cm and an axial length of 100 cm. This antenna, composed of azimuthally splitting segments located on four different radial positions, i.e., r = 2.8, 4.8, 6.8, and 8.8 cm, can excite the azimuthal mode number m of 0, ±1, and ±2 by a proper choice of antenna feeder parts just on the rear side of the antenna. Power dependencies of the electron density ne were investigated with a radio frequency (rf) power less than 3 kW (excitation frequency ranged from 8 to 20 MHz) by the use of various types of antenna segments, and ne up to ˜5 × 1012 cm-3 was obtained after the density jump from inductively coupled plasma to helicon discharges. Radial density profiles of m = 0 and ±1 modes with low and high rf powers were measured. For the cases of these modes after the density jump, the excited mode structures derived from the magnetic probe measurements were consistent with those expected from theory on helicon waves excited in the plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, Hongchen; Li, Faxin
2017-04-01
The non-dispersive fundamental shear horizontal (SH0) and torsional [T(0,1)] waves are extremely useful in guidedwave-based inspection techniques. However, excitation of SH0 and T(0,1) waves using piezoelectrics is always a challenge. In this work, firstly, a newly defined face-shear d24 PZT wafer is proposed to excite and receive SH0 wave mode. The d24 wafer is in-plane poled and its working electric field is applied along another orthogonal in-plane direction. Both finite element simulations and experiments show that single SH0 mode can be excited by using the d24 wafer along two orthogonal directions (0° and 90°). Then an omnidirectional SH0 wave piezoelectric transducer (OSHPT) is developed which consists of a circular array of twelve face-shear d24 trapezoidal PZT elements. Results show that the proposed OSH-PT exhibits good omnidirectional properties, no matter it is used as a SH0 wave transmitter or receiver. Finally, the development of a T(0,1) wave transducer for pipes based on a ring array of d24 PZT elements is described. Both finite element simulations and experiments show that the d24 elements ring can excite single T(0,1) mode and suppress all the unwanted non-axisymmetric modes. This work may greatly promote the applications of SH0 and T(0,1) waves in nondestructive testing (NDT) and structural health monitoring (SHM).
Surface-Coupling to Collective Modes and Non-Conventional Sources of Coherent X-Rays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogacz, S. Alexander
Chapter 1 introduces basic concepts of the Landau theory of normal Fermi liquid. In its framework both the Landau and Landau-Silin kinetic equations are derived together with the energy flow theorem and the specular boundary condition. In Chapter 2 the Landau equation, subject to the specular boundary condition, is solved in the collisionless regime for a sample of normal ('3)He excited by a surface perturbation of arbitrary (omega) and fixed k. The energy flux through the boundary calculated as a function of the surface wave velocity, (omega)/k, displays a sharp resonant -like maximum at the longitudinal zero-sound velocity, a sharp maximum of the derivative at the transverse zero -sound velocity and a cut-off discontinuity below the Fermi velocity. In Chapter 3 a similar technique is proposed for probing the particle-hole and collective excitations in normal ('3)He via a magnetic surface wave of arbitrary (omega) and fixed k generated by the meander-line coil. The power absorption spectrum displays singularities associated with the l = 0 spin mode and a Doppler-shifted spin resonance of the particle-hole excitations. In Chapter 4 the same magnetic perturbation is applied to a ferromagnet. The energy flux through the boundary obtained as a self-consistent solution to the Bloch equation and the Maxwell equations, subject to appropriate boundary conditions displays a sharp resonant-like absorption maximum at the frequency of the Damon-Eshbach surface mode and the abrupt cut-off below the threshold frequency for the bulk spin waves. Chapter 5 explores the idea of using a superlattice as an undulator for a free electron laser. A purely classical treatment of relativisitic positrons channeling through the superlattice performed in a self-consistent fashion involving the wave equation for the radiating e.m. field and the kinetic equation for the positrons leads to the positive gain coefficient for a forward radiating field. Matching the Kumakhov channeling resonance to
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merchant, D. H.; Gates, R. M.; Straayer, J. W.
1975-01-01
The effect of localized structural damping on the excitability of higher-order large space telescope spacecraft modes is investigated. A preprocessor computer program is developed to incorporate Voigt structural joint damping models in a finite-element dynamic model. A postprocessor computer program is developed to select critical modes for low-frequency attitude control problems and for higher-frequency fine-stabilization problems. The selection is accomplished by ranking the flexible modes based on coefficients for rate gyro, position gyro, and optical sensor, and on image-plane motions due to sinusoidal or random PSD force and torque inputs.
Eremeev, Grigory; Geng, Rongli; Palczewski, Ari
2011-07-01
We have studied thermal breakdown in several multicell superconducting radiofrequency cavity by simultaneous excitation of two TM{sub 010} passband modes. Unlike measurements done in the past, which indicated a clear thermal nature of the breakdown, our measurements present a more complex picture with interplay of both thermal and magnetic effects. JLab LG-1 that we studied was limited at 40.5 MV/m, corresponding to B{sub peak} = 173 mT, in 8{pi}/9 mode. Dual mode measurements on this quench indicate that this quench is not purely magnetic, and so we conclude that this field is not the fundamental limit in SRF cavities.
High-energy collective electronic excitations in free-standing single-layer graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wachsmuth, P.; Hambach, R.; Kinyanjui, M. K.; Guzzo, M.; Benner, G.; Kaiser, U.
2013-08-01
In this joint experimental and theoretical work, we investigate collective electronic excitations (plasmons) in free-standing, single-layer graphene. The energy- and momentum-dependent electron energy-loss function was measured up to 50eV along two independent in-plane symmetry directions (ΓM and ΓK) over the first Brillouin zone by momentum-resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope. We compare our experimental results with corresponding time-dependent density-functional theory calculations. For finite momentum transfers, good agreement with experiments is found if crystal local-field effects are taken into account. In the limit of small and vanishing momentum transfers, we discuss differences between calculations and the experimentally obtained electron energy-loss functions of graphene due to a finite momentum resolution and out-of-plane excitations.
Magnetochromic sensing and size-dependent collective excitations in iron oxide nanoparticles
O'Neal, Kenneth R.; Patete, Jonathan M.; Chen, Peng; ...
2017-03-10
We combine optical and magneto-optical spectroscopies with complementary vibrational and magnetic property measurements to reveal finite length scale effects in nanoscale α–Fe2O3. Analysis of the d-to-d on-site excitations uncovers enhanced color contrast at particle sizes below approximately 75 nm due to size-induced changes in spin-charge coupling that are suppressed again below the superparamagnetic limit. These findings provide a general strategy for amplifying magnetochromism in α–Fe2O3 and other iron-containing nanomaterials that may be useful for advanced sensing applications. Lastly, we also unravel the size dependence of collective excitations in this iconic antiferromagnet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Tsun-Hsu; Wang, Hsin-Hu; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung
2016-03-01
In comparison to more developed optical method for microparticle manipulation like optical tweezers, an optopiezoelectric actuating system could provide force output that is several orders higher. Taking advantages of photoconductive materials, the concept of integrating a virtual electrode in a distributed opto-piezoelectric actuators was developed for real-time in-situ spatial tailoring for vast varieties of applications in biochips, smart structures, etc. In this study, photoconductive material titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc) was used as the active ingredient to enable the virtual electrode in an opto-piezoelectric material based distributed actuator. By illuminating light of proper wavelength and enough intensity onto TiOPc photoconductive material, the effective impedance of the illuminated portion of TiOPc could drop significantly. The contributions of using additives in the TiOPc photoconductive electrode to adjust the electrical properties was investigated for optimization. Further, the two-mode excited linear ultrasonic motor was also studied and the feasibility to integrate the TiOPc photoconductive electrode was discussed. The flexibility provided by this newly developed system could potential deliver versatile performance in biochip applications.
Casimir-Polder interactions in the presence of thermally excited surface modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laliotis, Athanasios; de Silans, Thierry Passerat; Maurin, Isabelle; Ducloy, Martial; Bloch, Daniel
2014-07-01
The temperature dependence of the Casimir-Polder interaction addresses fundamental issues for understanding vacuum and thermal fluctuations. It is highly sensitive to surface waves, which, in the near field, govern the thermal emission of a hot surface. Here we use optical reflection spectroscopy to monitor the atom-surface interaction potential between a Cs*(7D3/2) atom and a hot sapphire surface at distances of ~100 nm. In our experiments, that explore a large range of temperatures (500-1,000 K), the surface is at thermal equilibrium with the vacuum. The observed increase of the interaction with temperature, by up to 50%, relies on the coupling between atomic virtual transitions in the infrared range and thermally excited surface-polariton modes. We extrapolate our findings to a broad distance range, from the isolated atom to the short distances relevant to physical chemistry. Our work also opens the prospect of controlling atom-surface interactions by engineering thermal fields.
Casimir-Polder interactions in the presence of thermally excited surface modes.
Laliotis, Athanasios; Passerat de Silans, Thierry; Maurin, Isabelle; Ducloy, Martial; Bloch, Daniel
2014-07-09
The temperature dependence of the Casimir-Polder interaction addresses fundamental issues for understanding vacuum and thermal fluctuations. It is highly sensitive to surface waves, which, in the near field, govern the thermal emission of a hot surface. Here we use optical reflection spectroscopy to monitor the atom-surface interaction potential between a Cs*(7D3/2) atom and a hot sapphire surface at distances of ~100 nm. In our experiments, that explore a large range of temperatures (500-1,000 K), the surface is at thermal equilibrium with the vacuum. The observed increase of the interaction with temperature, by up to 50%, relies on the coupling between atomic virtual transitions in the infrared range and thermally excited surface-polariton modes. We extrapolate our findings to a broad distance range, from the isolated atom to the short distances relevant to physical chemistry. Our work also opens the prospect of controlling atom-surface interactions by engineering thermal fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yashkir, O. V.; Yashkir, Yu N.
1987-06-01
A theoretical investigation is made of nonlinear excitation of planar waveguide modes at frequencies ω when external plane optical waves of frequency ω1 are incident on the waveguide surface. The general formulas for the efficiency of the excitation of modes by a monochromatic wave are obtained and analyzed for the case of self-interaction of the ω = ω1 + ω1 - ω1 type and by a biharmonic wave in the case of generation of the difference frequency ω = ω1 - ω1'. The efficiency of parametric conversion of waveguide modes ω accompanied by an increase of the frequency to the range ω' is considered for the case when the sum frequency ω + ω1 = ω1' is generated. The numerical method developed by the authors is used to analyze the characteristic features of these processes in some specific cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Satoh, Kazuhiro
1989-08-01
Numerical studies are made out the behavior of a random neural network in which each neuron is coupled to a certain number of randomly chosen neurons. Such a random-net serves as a simple model for an elemental sub-network of the cortex. Neurons are regarded as binary decision elements, and they synchronously update their values in discrete time steps according to a deterministic equation (the McCulloch-Pitts model). It is found that each random-net containing one hundred neurons has only a few kinds of characteristic modes of excitation. Periods of these modes are usually less than ten steps when the number of connections per neuron is two to five. For the random-net containing one thousand neurons, an excited mode is practically aperiodic. When the refractory period is introduced, however, a nearly periodic oscillation takes place in the activity of the network.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kushwaha, Manvir S.
2013-04-01
intersubband single-particle as well as collective excitations], the loss functions for the IES and the Raman intensity for the ILS. We observe that it is the collective (plasmon) excitations that largely contribute to the predominant peaks in the energy-loss and the Raman spectra. The inductive reasoning is that the IES can be a potential alternative of the overused ILS for investigating collective excitations in quantum wires. We trust that this research work shall be useful to all - from novice to expert and from theorist to experimentalist - who believe in the power of traditional science.
Shelke, Amit; Kundu, Tribikram; Amjad, Umar; Hahn, Katrin; Grill, Wolfgang
2011-03-01
Selective modes of guided Lamb waves are generated in a laminated aluminum plate for damage detection using a broadband piezoelectric transducer structured with a rigid electrode. Appropriate excitation frequencies and modes for inspection are selected from theoretical and experimental dispersion curves. Dispersion curves are obtained experimentally by short time Fourier transform of the transient signals. Sensitivity of antisymmetric and symmetric modes for delamination detection are investigated. The antisymmetric mode is found to be more reliable for delamination detection. Unlike other studies, in which the attenuation of the propagating waves is related to the extent of the internal damage, in this investigation, the changes in the time-of-flight (TOF) of guided Lamb waves are related to the damage progression. The mode conversion phenomenon of Lamb waves during progressive delamination is investigated. Close matching between the theoretical and experimentally derived dispersion curves and TOF assures the reliability of the results presented here.
Hamiltonian Lattice Studies of Pionic Collective Excitations in the Non-linear Sigma Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chin, Siu A.
2001-04-01
The latticization of the non-linear sigma model reduces a chiral meson field theory to an O(4) spin system with quantum fluctuations. By solving the resulting lattice Hamiltonian by Monte Carlo methods, the dynamics and thermodynamics of pions can be determined non-perturbatively. In particular, the mas gap of pionic collective excitations with quantum number of vector mesons can be determined as the chiral phase transition is approached. Results based on a newly discovered 4th order method of solving for the ground state of a quantum many-body Hamitonian will be presented.
Ichou, Farid; Schwarzenberg, Adrian; Lesage, Denis; Alves, Sandra; Junot, Christophe; Machuron-Mandard, Xavier; Tabet, Jean-Claude
2014-06-01
Reproducibility among different types of excitation modes is a major bottleneck in the field of tandem mass spectrometry library development in metabolomics. In this study, we specifically evaluated the influence of collision voltage and activation time parameters on tandem mass spectrometry spectra for various excitation modes [collision-induced dissociation (CID), pulsed Q dissociation (PQD) and higher-energy collision dissociation (HCD)] of Orbitrap-based instruments. For this purpose, internal energy deposition was probed using an approach based on Rice-Rampserger-Kassel-Marcus modeling with three thermometer compounds of different degree of freedom (69, 228 and 420) and a thermal model. This model treats consecutively the activation and decomposition steps, and the survival precursor ion populations are characterized by truncated Maxwell-Boltzmann internal energy distributions. This study demonstrates that the activation time has a significant impact on MS/MS spectra using the CID and PQD modes. The proposed model seems suitable to describe the multiple collision regime in the PQD and HCD modes. Linear relationships between mean internal energy and collision voltage are shown for the latter modes and the three thermometer molecules. These results suggest that a calibration based on the collision voltage should provide reproducible for PQD, HCD to be compared with CID in tandem in space instruments. However, an important signal loss is observed in PQD excitation mode whatever the mass of the studied compounds, which may affect not only parent ions but also fragment ions depending on the fragmentation parameters. A calibration approach for the CID mode based on the variation of activation time parameter is more appropriate than one based on collision voltage. In fact, the activation time parameter in CID induces a modification of the collisional regime and thus helps control the orientation of the fragmentation pathways (competitive or consecutive dissociations
Multi-hop Whistler-Mode ELF/VLF Signals and Triggered Emissions Excited by the HAARP HF Heater
2004-12-28
Multi-hop whistler-mode ELF/VLF signals and triggered emissions excited by the HAARP HF heater U. S. Inan,1 M. Gol-kowski,1 D. L. Carpenter,1 N...accepted 24 November 2004; published 28 December 2004. [1] Modulated heating of the lower ionosphere with the HAARP HF heater is used to excite 1–2 kHz...are believed to be amplified, and are accompanied by triggered emissions. Simultaneous observations near (30 km) HAARP show 2-hop signals which travel
A generalized tool for accurate time-domain separation of excited modes in spin-torque oscillators
Siracusano, Giulio Puliafito, Vito; Finocchio, Giovanni
2014-05-07
We propose and develop an advanced signal processing technique that, combined with micromagnetic simulations, is able to deeply describe the non-stationary behavior of spin-torque oscillators, both in terms of time domain and spatial distribution of the magnetization dynamics. The Hilbert-Huang Transform is used for the identification of the time traces of each oscillation in a multimode excitation and enhanced with masking signals and the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition. We emphasize that the technique developed here is general and can be used for any physical non-linear system in the presence of multimode dynamical excitation or intermittence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiang; Cannon, Patrick; Zhou, Chen; Honary, Farideh; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu
2016-04-01
Recent ionospheric modification experiments performed at Tromsø, Norway, have indicated that X-mode pump wave is capable of stimulating high-frequency enhanced plasma lines, which manifests the excitation of parametric instability. This paper investigates theoretically how the observation can be explained by the excitation of parametric instability driven by X-mode pump wave. The threshold of the parametric instability has been calculated for several recent experimental observations at Tromsø, illustrating that our derived equations for the excitation of parametric instability for X-mode heating can explain the experimental observations. According to our theoretical calculation, a minimum fraction of pump wave electric field needs to be directed along the geomagnetic field direction in order for the parametric instability threshold to be met. A full-wave finite difference time domain simulation has been performed to demonstrate that a small parallel component of pump wave electric field can be achieved during X-mode heating in the presence of inhomogeneous plasma.
Crucial Role of Internal Collective Modes in Underdoped Cuprates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mallik, Aabhaas V.; Yadav, Umesh K.; Medhi, Amal; Krishnamurthy, H. R.; Shenoy, Vijay B.
The enigmatic cuprate superconductors have attracted resurgent interest with several recent reports and discussions of competing orders in the underdoped side. Motivated by this, here we address the natural question of frailty of the d-wave superconducting state in underdoped cuprates. Using a combination of theoretical approaches we study a t - J like model. We report an - as yet unexplored - instability that is brought about by an ``internal'' fluctuation (anti-symmetric mode) of the d-wave state. This new theoretical result helps in understanding recent ARPES and STM studies. We also suggest further experiments to uncover this physics. Work supported by CSIR, UGC, DST and DAE.
Dual collection mode optical microscope with single-pixel detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez, A. D.; Clemente, P.; Fernández-Alonso, Mercedes; Tajahuerce, E.; Lancis, J.
2015-07-01
In this work we have developed a single-pixel optical microscope that provides both re ection and transmission images of the sample under test by attaching a diamond pixel layout DMD to a commercial inverted microscope. Our system performs simultaneous measurements of re ection and transmission modes. Besides, in contrast with a conventional system, in our single-element detection system both images belong, unequivocally, to the same plane of the sample. Furthermore, we have designed an algorithm to modify the shape of the projected patterns that improves the resolution and prevents the artifacts produced by the diamond pixel architecture.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, W. B.; Dettinger, M. D.; Cayan, D. R.; White, Warren B.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Cayan, Daniel R.
Global average upper ocean temperatures anomalies of +/-0.05°K fluctuate in fixed phase with decadal signals in the Sun's irradiance of +/-0.5 Watts m-2 over the past 100 years (White et al., 1997), but its amplitude is 2 to 3 times that expected from the transient Stefan-Boltzmann radiation balance (White et al., 1988). Examining global patterns of upper ocean temperature and lower troposphere winds, we find the internal interannual mode of variability in Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system with global-average upper ocean temperature anomalies of +/-0.05°K occurring naturally, independent of changing solar irradiance (White et al., 2000). Yet coherence and phase statistics indicate that the observed internal decadal mode in Earth's ocean -atmosphere terrestrial system is excited by the decadal signal in the Sun's irradiance. To understand the thermodynamics of this association we conduct a global-average upper ocean heat budget utilizing upper ocean temperatures from the SIO reanalysis and air-sea heat and momentum fluxes from the COADS reanalysis, finding the source of decadal global warming to be the reduction in trade wind intensity across the tropics, decreasing global average latent heat flux out of the ocean. We demonstrate that this reduction in trade wind intensity in the Pacific Ocean is governed by a delayed action oscillator mechanism in the ocean-atmosphere system differing little from that used to explain the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (Graham and White, 1988). We operate an intermediate coupled model of this delayed action oscillator, normally driven by white noise, by superimposing the Stefan-Boltzmann upper ocean temperature response to decadal changes in the Sun's irradiance. We find the latter, with weak amplitude of +/-0.02°K and non-random phase, is able to excite a decadal signal in this delayed action oscillator, yielding a damped resonance response of +/-0.1°K in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, with dissipation provided by
Fast color flow mode imaging using plane wave excitation and temporal encoding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jorgen A.
2005-04-01
In conventional ultrasound color flow mode imaging, a large number (~500) of pulses have to be emitted in order to form a complete velocity map. This lowers the frame-rate and temporal resolution. A method for color flow imaging in which a few (~10) pulses have to be emitted to form a complete velocity image is presented. The method is based on using a plane wave excitation with temporal encoding to compensate for the decreased SNR, resulting from the lack of focusing. The temporal encoding is done with a linear frequency modulated signal. To decrease lateral sidelobes, a Tukey window is used as apodization on the transmitting aperture. The data are beamformed along the direction of the flow, and the velocity is found by 1-D cross correlation of these data. First the method is evaluated in simulations using the Field II program. Secondly, the method is evaluated using the experimental scanner RASMUS and a 7 MHz linear array transducer, which scans a circulating flowrig. The velocity of the blood mimicking fluid in the flowrig is constant and parabolic, and the center of the scanned area is situated at a depth of 40 mm. A CFM image of the blood flow in the flowrig is estimated from two pulse emissions. At the axial center line of the CFM image, the velocity is estimated over the vessel with a mean relative standard deviation of 2.64% and a mean relative bias of 6.91%. At an axial line 5 mm to the right of the center of the CFM image, the velocity is estimated over the vessel with a relative standard deviation of 0.84% and a relative bias of 5.74%. Finally the method is tested on the common carotid artery of a healthy 33-year-old male.
LaForge, A. C.; Drabbels, M.; Brauer, N. B.; Coreno, M.; Devetta, M.; Di Fraia, M.; Finetti, P.; Grazioli, C.; Katzy, R.; Lyamayev, V.; Mazza, T.; Mudrich, M.; O'Keeffe, P.; Ovcharenko, Y.; Piseri, P.; Plekan, O.; Prince, K. C.; Richter, R.; Stranges, S.; Callegari, C.; Möller, T.; Stienkemeier, F.
2014-01-01
Free electron lasers (FELs) offer the unprecedented capability to study reaction dynamics and image the structure of complex systems. When multiple photons are absorbed in complex systems, a plasma-like state is formed where many atoms are ionized on a femtosecond timescale. If multiphoton absorption is resonantly-enhanced, the system becomes electronically-excited prior to plasma formation, with subsequent decay paths which have been scarcely investigated to date. Here, we show using helium nanodroplets as an example that these systems can decay by a new type of process, named collective autoionization. In addition, we show that this process is surprisingly efficient, leading to ion abundances much greater than that of direct single-photon ionization. This novel collective ionization process is expected to be important in many other complex systems, e.g. macromolecules and nanoparticles, exposed to high intensity radiation fields. PMID:24406316
Conformational dynamics in a dipeptide after single-mode vibrational excitation.
Dian, Brian C; Longarte, Asier; Zwier, Timothy S
2002-06-28
The dynamics of conformational isomerization are explored in a methyl-capped dipeptide, N-acetyl-tryptophan methyl amide (NATMA), using infrared-ultraviolet (IR-UV) hole-filling and IR-induced population transfer spectroscopies. IR radiation selectively excites individual NH stretch vibrational fundamentals of single conformations of the molecule in the early portions of a gas-phase expansion, and then this excited population is collisionally recooled into its conformational minima for subsequent conformation-specific detection. Efficient isomerization is induced by the IR excitation that redistributes population between the same conformations that have population in the absence of IR excitation. The quantum yields for transfer of the population into the various conformational minima depend uniquely on which conformation is excited and on which NH stretch vibration is excited within a given conformation.
Extracting Equation of State of a Trapped Gas from the Frequency of its Collective Excitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olchanyi, Maxim; Perrin, Hélène
2013-05-01
We address the question of a relationship between frequency of small collective excitations of an unknown trapped cold gas and its Equation of State (EoS). In particular, we compare the frequency-EoS relationship obtained using a nonlinear double amplitude-coordinate perturbative expansion [M. Olshanii, H. Perrin, V. Lorent, PRL 105, 095302 (2010)] with the formula resulting from a scaling variational anzats [G.E. Astrakharchik, R. Combescot, X. Leyronas, S. Stringari, PRL 95, 030404 (2005)] and show that for power-law EoS's, the two agree exactly. We further compare predictions of both methods with ab initio numerical results. We argue that the frequencies of collective excitations represent a new reliable second thermodynamical axis, to complement the existing one, based on density profiles [N. Navon, S. Nascimbène, F. Chevy, C. Salomon, Science 328, 729 (2010)]. Supported by ONR, NSF, and IFRAF. Laboratoire de physique des lasers is UMR 7538 of CNRS and Paris 13 University.
Quantum Phase Transitions and Collective Modes in d-Wave Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vojta, Matthias; Sachdev, Subir
Fluctuations near second-order quantum phase transitions in d-wave superconductors can cause strong damping of fermionic excitations, as observed in photoemission experiments. The damping of the gapless nodal quasiparticles can arise naturally in the quantum-critical region of a transition with an additional spin-singlet, zero momentum order parameter; we argue that the transition to a dx^2-y^2+ i dxy pairing state is the most likely possibility in this category. On the other hand, the gapped antinodal quasiparticles can be strongly damped by the coupling to antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations arising from the proximity to a Neel-ordered state. We review some aspects of the low-energy field theories for both transitions and the corresponding quantum-critical behavior.In addition, we discuss the spectral properties of the collective modes associated with the proximity to a superconductor with dx^2-y^2+ i dxy symmetry, and implications for experiments.
Mou, Daixiang; Jiang, Rui; Taufour, Valentin; Flint, Rebecca; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Wen, J. S.; Xu, Z. J.; Gu, Genda; Kaminski, Adam
2015-04-08
We use a tunable laser angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study the electronic properties of the prototypical multiband BCS superconductor MgB_{2}. Our data reveal a strong renormalization of the dispersion (kink) at ~65meV, which is caused by the coupling of electrons to the E_{2g} phonon mode. In contrast to cuprates, the 65 meV kink in MgB_{2} does not change significantly across T_{c}. More interestingly, we observe strong coupling to a second, lower energy collective mode at a binding energy of 10 meV. As a result, this excitation vanishes above T_{c} and is likely a signature of the elusive Leggett mode.
Collective-mode dynamics in a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhu; Zhai, Hui
2012-10-01
Recently a spin-orbit-coupled Bose condensate has been realized experimentally using two-photon Raman coupling, and this condensate exhibits two distinct equilibrium phases known as the plane wave phase and the stripe phase at equilibrium. In this Rapid Communication we show that such condensate exhibits unique dynamic behaviors, which originate from interactions and are absent in a noninteracting system. In the plane wave phase, a dipole mode will induce a breathing mode in its perpendicular plane and vice versa. This is a cooperation effect between spin-velocity locking and spin-dependent interaction. While in the stripe phase, a breathing mode will induce the sliding mode of the density stripe along its perpendicular direction. This reflects the fact that the sliding mode is the gapless excitation in this phase due to spontaneous spatial translation symmetry breaking.
Near-field techniques for probing collective modes of anisotropic superconducting thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stinson, H. T.; Wu, J. S.; Jiang, B. Y.; Fei, Z.; Rodin, A. S.; Chapler, B.; McLeod, A. S.; Castro-Neto, A.; Lee, Y. S.; Fogler, M. M.; Basov, D. N.
2014-03-01
We propose the use of scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) to characterize the collective mode spectrum of anisotropic superconductors. To probe the dispersion of collective modes with large in-plane momenta, specifically surface plasmons and guided wave modes, we model the real-space interference patterns of modes launched by the sharp s-SNOM tip and their reflections off physical and electronic boundaries. In addition, we show that s-SNOM spectroscopy allows for a direct probe of the c-axis superfluid density in underdoped anisotropic superconductors with nanoscale spatial resolution.
Wang, S.-Y.; Boyanovsky, D.; Vega, H. J. de; Lee, D.-S.; Ng, Y. J.
2000-03-15
We study the transport coefficients, damping rates, and mean free paths of soft fermion collective excitations in a hot fermion-gauge-scalar plasma with the goal of understanding the main physical mechanisms that determine transport of chirality in scenarios of nonlocal electroweak baryogenesis. The focus is on identifying the different transport coefficients for the different branches of soft collective excitations of the fermion spectrum. These branches correspond to collective excitations with opposite ratios of chirality to helicity and different dispersion relations. By combining results from the hard thermal loop (HTL) resummation program with a novel mechanism of fermion damping through heavy scalar decay, we obtain a robust description of the different damping rates and mean free paths for the soft collective excitations to leading order in HTL and lowest order in the Yukawa coupling. The space-time evolution of wave packets of collective excitations unambiguously reveals the respective mean free paths. We find that whereas both the gauge and scalar contribution to the damping rates are different for the different branches, the difference of mean free paths for both branches is mainly determined by the decay of the heavy scalar into a hard fermion and a soft collective excitation. We argue that these mechanisms are robust and are therefore relevant for nonlocal scenarios of baryogenesis either in the standard model or extensions thereof. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Yan, S.
1992-01-01
A systematic study for the NH[sub 2] inversional mode in aniline and para substituted anilines has been performed using the techniques of fluorescence excitation and dispersed emission in supersonic jet. The transitions of the nitrogen inversion mode in aniline and para substituted anilines have been assigned in both the fluorescence excitation and dispersed emission spectra, which are strongly supported by the evidence of a large deuterium shift, the presence of a strong hot band, and the intense second overtone transition of the amino inversion in the excitation spectra of all the aniline molecules. The potential surface of each aniline has been fit using the observed inversional levels in both the ground and excited states. The molecular structure of each aniline has been investigated based on the experimental results. The NH[sub 2] torsional transition is assigned in the excitation spectrum of each aniline molecule for the first time. The absence of a torsional hot band and no observable tunneling splitting in the NH[sub 2] torsional mode indicates that the NH[sub 2] torsion mode in the anilines must have a very high first quanta in the ground state. The mechanism of I[sup 2][sub 0] and T[sup 2][sub 0] splittings in the excitation spectrum of p-toluidine has been explained by using molecular symmetry. The splittings are caused by the torsion-torsion coupling between the NH[sub 2] and CH[sub 3] groups. The structure of p-amino-p[prime]-methyl-trans-stilbene (PPTS) has been studied by spectroscopic methods and X-ray diffraction. The nearly planar geometry of the proton donor in the PPTS crystal dimer provides important evidence that the structure of gas phase PPTS is planar in the ground state. The absence of the hot band and I[sup 2][sub 0] in the excitation spectrum of PPTS indicates that the potential surface of PPTS must be a single well in both states, which is consistent with the X-ray result.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antoni, TH.; Jung, K.; Ehrhardt, H.; Chang, E. S.
1986-01-01
At 2 eV, the simultaneous rotational-vibrational cross sections for the fundamental modes are found to be well described by the Born formula with just long-range interactions. However, this result is not obtained for pure vibrational excitation (Q branch) in the Raman-active Fermi diads. At 3.8 eV, the infrared-active v2 and v3 cross sections agree with a previous theory incorporating resonant and direct scattering coherently. Measurements on the Raman-active v1 mode indicate that theories need to account for the Fermi resonance.
Ndao, Abdoulaye; Salut, Roland; Baida, Fadi I.; Belkhir, Abderrahmane
2013-11-18
We present here the fabrication and the optical characterization of slanted annular aperture arrays engraved into silver film. An experimental enhanced transmission based on the excitation of the cutoff-less plasmonic guided mode of the nano-waveguides (the transmission electron microscopy mode) is demonstrated and agrees well with the theoretical predicted results. By the way, even if it is less efficient (70% → 20%), an enhanced transmission can occur at larger wavelength value (720 nm–930 nm) compared to conventional annular aperture arrays structure by correctly setting the metal thickness.
Two-photon excited whispering-gallery mode ultraviolet laser from an individual ZnO microneedle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, G. P.; Xu, C. X.; Zhu, J.; Lv, C. G.; Cui, Y. P.
2009-02-01
Wurtzite structural ZnO microneedles with hexagonal cross section were fabricated by vapor-phase transport method and an individual microneedle was employed as a lasing microcavity. Under excitation of a femtosecond pulse laser with 800 nm wavelength, the ultraviolet (UV) laser emission was obtained, which presented narrow linewidth and high Q value. The UV emission, resonant mechanism, and laser mode characteristics were discussed in detail. The results demonstrated that the UV laser originated from the whispering-gallery mode induced by two-photon absorption assisted by Rabi oscillation.
Zhou, Xiuli; Norris, Theodore B.; Hörl, Anton; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Herzing, Andrew A.
2014-12-14
We have characterized the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in silver nanowires using spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the scanning transmission electron microscope. Non-symmetric EELS spectra due to high-k SPR propagation along the nanowire and spectral shifts due to higher-order mode excitation are observed when the beam is positioned near the tip of the nanowire. When the beam is far from the tip region and on the side of nanowire, no spectral shifts are observed as the beam is scanned in the radial direction of the nanowire. The experimental spectra are compared with three different theoretical approaches: direct numerical calculation of the energy loss, analytical models for energy loss, and numerical simulations using an optical model. All three models reproduce the spectral shifts as the electron beam approaches the cap of the nanowire. The analytical model reveals the origin of the shifts in high-order plasmon mode excitation.
Yang, Hongyan; Li, Jianqing; Xiao, Gongli
2014-06-10
In this paper, we propose a novel multilayer insulation structure in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) plasmonic waveguide to explore the possibility of increasing surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode excitation. Numerical investigations show that the effective refractive index of the multilayer insulation structure affects symmetric SPP mode excitation. The significant enhancement of electric field intensity in horizontal and vertical profiles with a dipole in SiO2 compared with in Al2O3 is observed in the proposed MIM plasmonic waveguides due to a combination of the improved optical density and dipole radiation intensities under a low refractive index. The Au/SiO2/Al2O3/SiO2/Au geometry shows the best enhancement performances, which can serve as an excellent guideline for designing and optimizing a high-performance SPP source using a multilayer insulation structure.
Shaw, Pankaj Kumar Sekar Iyengar, A. N.
2015-12-15
We report on the experimental observation of canard orbit and mixed mode oscillations (MMOs) in an excitable glow discharge plasma induced by an external magnetic field perturbation using a bar magnet. At a small value of magnetic field, small amplitude quasiperiodic oscillations were excited, and with the increase in the magnetic field, large amplitude oscillations were excited. Analyzing the experimental results, it seems that the magnetic field could be playing the role of noise for such nonlinear phenomena. It is observed that the noise level increases with the increase in magnetic field strength. The experimental results have also been corroborated by a numerical simulation using a FitzHugh-Nagumo like macroscopic model derived from the basic plasma equations and phenomenology, where the noise has been included to represent the internal plasma noise. This macroscopic model shows MMO in the vicinity of the canard point when an external noise is added.
Pang, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Xie, Zhentian; Wang, Chunsheng; Vigneron, Daniel B
2011-11-01
Double-tuned radio-frequency (RF) coils for heteronuclear mangentic resonance (MR) require sufficient electromagnetic isolation between the two resonators operating at two Larmor frequencies and independent tuning in order to attain highly efficient signal acquisition at each frequency. In this work, a novel method for double-tuned coil design at 7T based on the concept of common-mode differential-mode (CMDM) was developed and tested. Common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) currents exist within two coupled parallel transmission lines, e.g., microstrip lines, yielding two different current distributions. The electromagnetic (EM) fields of the CM and DM are orthogonal to each other, and thus, the two modes are intrinsically EM decoupled. The modes can be tuned independently to desired frequencies, thus satisfying the requirement of dual-frequency MR applications. To demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed CMDM technique, CMDM surface coils and volume coils using microstrip transmission line for (1)H and (13)C MRI/MRSI were designed, constructed, and tested at 7T. Bench test results showed that the isolations between the two frequency channels of the CMDM surface coil and volume coil were better than -30 and -25 dB, respectively. High quality MR phantom images were also obtained using the CMDM coils. The performance of the CMDM technique was validated through a comparison with the conventional two-pole design method at 7T. The proposed CMDM technique can be also implemented by using other coil techniques such as lumped element method, and can be applied to designing double-tuned parallel imaging coil arrays. Furthermore, if the two resonant modes of a CMDM coil were tuned to the same frequency, the CMDM coil becomes a quadrature coil due to the intrinsic orthogonal field distribution of CM and DM.
1986-11-01
Excitation of the Internal Vibrational Mode of a Diatomic Molecule Adsorbed on a Metal Surface m by ’ Andre Peremans, Jacques Darville , Jean-Marie...Andre Peremans, Jacques Darville , Jean-Marie Gilles and Thomas F. George 13. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Yr. Mo.. Dayl As...ON A METAL SURFACE h Andr& Peremans , Jacques Darville and Jean-Marie Gilles _ _ _ _ Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Mol6culaire de Surface Accesnion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stinson, H. T.; Wu, J. S.; Jiang, B. Y.; Fei, Z.; Rodin, A. S.; Chapler, B. C.; McLeod, A. S.; Castro Neto, A.; Lee, Y. S.; Fogler, M. M.; Basov, D. N.
2014-07-01
We investigate near-field infrared spectroscopy and superfluid polariton imaging experiments on conventional and unconventional superconductors. Our modeling shows that near-field spectroscopy can measure the magnitude of the superconducting energy gap in Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-like superconductors with nanoscale spatial resolution. We demonstrate how the same technique can measure the c-axis plasma frequency, and thus the c-axis superfluid density, of layered unconventional superconductors with a similar spatial resolution. Our modeling also shows that near-field techniques can image superfluid surface mode interference patterns near physical and electronic boundaries. We describe how these images can be used to extract the collective mode dispersion of anisotropic superconductors with subdiffractional spatial resolution.
Goldstone Mode Induced by Skyrmions and Collective Modes in Disordered Quantum Hall Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanazawa, I.
2015-10-01
We have proposed the effective Lagrangian density for the skyrmion-like solitons around the filling factor v ∼ 1, and have introduced the massless gauge field (Goldstone mode) induced by the hedgehog-like solitons. We have discussed the skyrmion glassy behaviour.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kojima, H.; Matsumoto, H.; Omura, Y.; Tsurutani, B. T.
1989-01-01
An ion beam resonates with R-mode waves at a high-frequency RH mode and a low-frequency RL mode. The nonlinear evolution of ion beam-generated RH waves is studied here by one-dimensional hybrid computer experiments. Both wave-particle and subsequent wave-wave interactions are examined. The competing process among coexisting RH and RL mode beam instabilities and repeated decay instabilities triggered by the beam-excited RH mode waves is clarified. It is found that the quenching of the RH instability is not caused by a thermal spreading of the ion beam, but by the nonlinear wave-wave coupling process. The growing RH waves become unstable against the decay instability. This instability involves a backward-traveling RH electromagnetic wave and a forward-traveling longitudinal sound wave. The inverse cascading process is found to occur faster than the growth of the RL mode. Wave spectra decaying from the RH waves weaken as time elapses and the RL mode waves become dominant at the end of the computer experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulchin, Yu N.; Vitrik, O. B.; Lantsov, A. D.
2008-01-01
The features of the correlation processing of a speckle pattern obtained after transmission of radiation from a single-fibre multimode interferometer (SMI) with few modes through a diffusion transparency are studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that this approach eliminates the influence of polarisation mode beats and of higher-order modes typical for the two-mode excitation of a SMI and allows the measurement of the elongation of a sensitive fibre piece by exciting few modes in a multimode interferometer.
Collective Modes in Multiband Superconductors: Rigorous Study Based on the Ward-Takahashi Relations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koyama, Tomio
2014-07-01
A rigorous theory based on the Ward-Takahashi (WT) relations originating from U(1) gauge symmetry is presented for the collective phase oscillation modes in multiband superconductors. The existence of the massless Nambu-Goldstone mode in the superconducting state including the time-reversal-symmetry-breaking phase can be rigorously proved by using the WT relations. We also discuss the approximations in calculating the phase oscillation modes in systems with an interaction causing the gap renormalization.
Collective modes in strongly correlated yukawa liquids: waves in dusty plasmas.
Kalman, G; Rosenberg, M; DeWitt, H E
2000-06-26
We determine the collective mode structure of a strongly correlated Yukawa fluid, with the purpose of analyzing wave propagation in a strongly coupled dusty plasma. We identify a longitudinal plasmon and a transverse shear mode. The dispersion is characterized by a low- k acoustic behavior, a frequency maximum well below the plasma frequency, and a high- k merging of the two modes around the Einstein frequency of localized oscillations. The damping effect of collisions between neutrals and dust grains is estimated.
Renormalization of Collective Modes in Large-Scale Neural Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moirogiannis, Dimitrios; Piro, Oreste; Magnasco, Marcelo O.
2017-03-01
The bulk of studies of coupled oscillators use, as is appropriate in Physics, a global coupling constant controlling all individual interactions. However, because as the coupling is increased, the number of relevant degrees of freedom also increases, this setting conflates the strength of the coupling with the effective dimensionality of the resulting dynamics. We propose a coupling more appropriate to neural circuitry, where synaptic strengths are under biological, activity-dependent control and where the coupling strength and the dimensionality can be controlled separately. Here we study a set of N→ ∞ strongly- and nonsymmetrically-coupled, dissipative, powered, rotational dynamical systems, and derive the equations of motion of the reduced system for dimensions 2 and 4. Our setting highlights the statistical structure of the eigenvectors of the connectivity matrix as the fundamental determinant of collective behavior, inheriting from this structure symmetries and singularities absent from the original microscopic dynamics.
Renormalization of Collective Modes in Large-Scale Neural Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moirogiannis, Dimitrios; Piro, Oreste; Magnasco, Marcelo O.
2017-05-01
The bulk of studies of coupled oscillators use, as is appropriate in Physics, a global coupling constant controlling all individual interactions. However, because as the coupling is increased, the number of relevant degrees of freedom also increases, this setting conflates the strength of the coupling with the effective dimensionality of the resulting dynamics. We propose a coupling more appropriate to neural circuitry, where synaptic strengths are under biological, activity-dependent control and where the coupling strength and the dimensionality can be controlled separately. Here we study a set of N→ ∞ strongly- and nonsymmetrically-coupled, dissipative, powered, rotational dynamical systems, and derive the equations of motion of the reduced system for dimensions 2 and 4. Our setting highlights the statistical structure of the eigenvectors of the connectivity matrix as the fundamental determinant of collective behavior, inheriting from this structure symmetries and singularities absent from the original microscopic dynamics.
Multiscale theory of collective and quasiparticle modes in quantum nanosystems.
Ortoleva, P; Iyengar, S S
2008-04-28
A quantum nanosystem (such as a quantum dot, nanowire, superconducting nanoparticle, or superfluid nanodroplet) involves widely separated characteristic lengths. These lengths range from the average nearest-neighbor distance between the constituent fermions or bosons, or the lattice spacing for a conducting metal, to the overall size of the quantum nanosystem (QN). This suggests the wave function has related distinct dependencies on the positions of the constituent fermions and bosons. We show how the separation of scales can be used to generate a multiscale perturbation scheme for solving the wave equation. Results for electrons or other fermions show that, to lowest order, the wave function factorizes into an antisymmetric (fermion) part and a symmetric (bosonlike) part. The former manifests the short-range/exclusion-principle behavior, while the latter corresponds to collective behaviors, such as plasmons, which have a boson character. When the constituents are bosons, multiscale analysis shows that, to lowest order, the wave function can also factorize into short- and long-scale parts. However, to ensure that the product wave function has overall symmetric particle label exchange behavior, there could, in principle, be states of the boson nanosystem where both the short- and long-scale factors are either boson- or fermionlike; the latter "dual fermion" states are, due to their exclusion-principle-like character, of high energy (i.e., single particle states cannot be multiply occupied). The multiscale perturbation analysis is used to argue for the existence of a coarse-grained wave equation for bosonlike collective behaviors. Quasiparticles, with effective mass and interactions, emerge naturally as consequences of the long-scale dynamics of the constituent particles. The multiscale framework holds promise for facilitating QN computer simulations and novel approximation schemes.
Photo-thermal quartz tuning fork excitation for dynamic mode atomic force microscope
Bontempi, Alexia; Teyssieux, Damien; Thiery, Laurent; Hermelin, Damien; Vairac, Pascal; Friedt, Jean-Michel
2014-10-13
A photo-thermal excitation of a Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF) for topographic studies is introduced. The non-invasive photo-thermal excitation presents practical advantages compared to QTF mechanical and electrical excitations, including the absence of the anti-resonance and its associated phase rotation. Comparison between our theoretical model and experiments validate that the optical transduction mechanism is a photo-thermal rather than photo-thermoacoustic phenomenon. Topographic maps in the context of near-field microscopy distance control have been achieved to demonstrate the performance of the system.
Szilner, S.; Jelavic-Malenica, D.; Soic, N.; Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Sahin, E.; Silvestri, R.; Stefanini, A. M.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Haas, F.; Lebhertz, D.; Bouhelal, M.; Caurier, E.; Courtin, S.; Goasduff, A.; Nowacki, F.; Ur, C. A.; Beghini, S.; Farnea, E.
2011-07-15
New {gamma} transitions have been identified in argon isotopes in {sup 40}Ar + {sup 208}Pb multiple transfer reactions by exploiting, in a fragment-{gamma} measurement, the new generation of magnetic spectrometers based on trajectory reconstruction coupled to large {gamma} arrays. The coupling of single-particle degrees of freedom to nuclear vibration quanta was discussed. The interpretation of the newly observed states within a particle-phonon coupling picture was used to consistently follow, via their excitation energies, the evolution of collectivity in odd Ar isotopes. The proposed level schemes are supported by the results of sd-pf shell-model calculations, which have been also employed to evaluate the strength functions of the populated states.
Linear response approach to collective electronic excitations of solids and surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Zhe; Gao, Shiwu
2009-03-01
We have developed a parallel computer program for the study of dynamic response of periodic systems. It computes the linear response of an interacting many-electron system from its ground-state electronic structures, which are obtained from ab initio band structure calculations in the plane-wave and pseudopotential scheme. As test examples, we applied this program to calculate the linear response of bulk aluminum and a beryllium monolayer. The excitation spectra show prominent plasmon resonances, which compare well with the available data and previous calculations. For surfaces or thin films, we found that removing periodicity perpendicular to the surface gives a more reliable description of the low-energy excitation spectra, especially in the long-wavelength limit. Program summaryProgram title: Dresponse Catalogue identifier: AECK_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECK_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 49 098 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11 836 088 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90/MPI Computer: Any architecture with a Fortran 90 compiler Operating system: Any Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes RAM: 50 MB-2 GB per processor depending on system size Classification: 7.3 External routines: BLAS ( http://www.netlib.org/blas/), Lapack ( http://www.netlib.org/lapack/), MPI ( http://www-unix.mcs.anl.gov/mpi/), abinit (for ground-state calculations, http://www.abinit.org/) Nature of problem: The dynamic response of bulk and surface systems. It is usually dominated by collective electronic excitations (plasmons) at low-energy range. Solution method: The ground-state wavefunctions are obtained from ab initio density-functional calculation in the planewave and
Outer-shell excitation mechanisms and static-mode laser-fluorescence spectroscopy of sputtered atoms
Gruen, D.M.; Pellin, M.J.; Young, C.E.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; DeWald, A.B.
1982-01-01
A review of the literature on atoms sputtered in electronically excited states is given together with a discussion of various mechanisms that have been proposed to account for the observations. The major observational features that have emerged from the older studies may be summarized as follows: (1) the kinetic energies of neutral atoms in highly excited electronic states are 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than E/sub b/, the surface binding energy; (2) relative yields show approximately exponential dependence on excitation energy with characteristic temperatures measured in thousands of degrees; (43) absolute yields are lower by 2-3 orders of magnitude than secondary ion yields which themselves are usually very small compared to total sputtering yields. In many cases, excited-state yields increase 1-2 orders of magnitude as a result of surface oxidation. 83 references.
Long, Yongbing; Shen, Liang; Xu, Haitao; Deng, Haidong; Li, Yuanxing
2016-08-31
Graphene perfect absorbers with ultranarrow bandwidth are numerically proposed by employing a subwavelength dielectric grating to excite the guided-mode resonance of one-dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs). Critical coupling of the guided-mode resonance of 1DPCs to graphene can produce perfect absorption with a ultranarrow bandwidth of 0.03 nm. The quality factor of the absorption peak reaches a ultrahigh value of 20000. It is also found that the resonant absorption peaks can be tuned by controlling the dispersion line of the guided mode and the period of the grating. When the parameters of the grating and the 1DPCs are suitably set, the perfect absorption peaks can be tuned to any randomly chosen wavelength in the visible wavelength range.
Long, Yongbing; Shen, Liang; Xu, Haitao; Deng, Haidong; Li, Yuanxing
2016-01-01
Graphene perfect absorbers with ultranarrow bandwidth are numerically proposed by employing a subwavelength dielectric grating to excite the guided-mode resonance of one-dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs). Critical coupling of the guided-mode resonance of 1DPCs to graphene can produce perfect absorption with a ultranarrow bandwidth of 0.03 nm. The quality factor of the absorption peak reaches a ultrahigh value of 20000. It is also found that the resonant absorption peaks can be tuned by controlling the dispersion line of the guided mode and the period of the grating. When the parameters of the grating and the 1DPCs are suitably set, the perfect absorption peaks can be tuned to any randomly chosen wavelength in the visible wavelength range. PMID:27577721
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yong; Yan, Zhenya
2017-01-01
The effect of derivative nonlinearity and parity-time-symmetric (PT -symmetric) potentials on the wave propagation dynamics is explored in the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation, where the physically interesting Scarf-II and harmonic-Hermite-Gaussian potentials are chosen. We study numerically the regions of unbroken and broken linear PT -symmetric phases and find some stable bright solitons of this model in a wide range of potential parameters even though the corresponding linear PT -symmetric phases are broken. The semielastic interactions between particular bright solitons and exotic incident waves are illustrated such that we find that particular nonlinear modes almost keep their shapes after interactions even if the exotic incident waves have evidently been changed. Moreover, we exert the adiabatic switching on PT -symmetric potential parameters such that a stable nonlinear mode with the unbroken linear PT -symmetric phase can be excited to another stable nonlinear mode belonging to the broken linear PT -symmetric phase.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hardi, J. S.; Oschwald, M.
2016-07-01
The intact length of the dense oxygen core from an oxygen-hydrogen shear coaxial rocket injector was measured. The measurements were made in a rectangular rocket combustor with optical access and acoustic forcing. The combustor was operated at chamber pressures of 40 and 60 bar, with either ambient temperature or cryogenic hydrogen. The multielement injection spray is subjected to forced transverse gas oscillations of two different acoustic resonance modes; the first transverse (1T) mode at 4200 Hz and the first combined longitudinal-transverse (1L1T) at 5500 Hz. Intact core length is measured from high-speed shadowgraph imaging. The dependence of intact core length with increasing acoustic amplitude is compared for the two modes of excitation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Shu-Chun; Otsuka, Kenju
2010-02-01
This study reports a method of creating vortex array laser beams by superposing high-order laser modes on their rotated replicas. An interferometer configuration was used to convert these high-order laser modes to vortex array laser beams containing multi vortexes aligned in an almost square manner. To generate this kind vortex array laser beams, this study reports systematic approaches to the selective excitation of high-order laser modes in end-pumped solid-state lasers with laser resonators and asymmetric pumping. The resulting vortex array laser beams can be used as optical tweezers and atom traps in the form of two-dimensional arrays, or to study the transfer of angular momentum to micro particles or atoms (Bose-Einstein condensate).
Resonant and non-resonant internal kink modes excited by the energetic electrons on HL-2A tokamak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, L. M.; Chen, W.; Jiang, M.; Shi, Z. B.; Ji, X. Q.; Ding, X. T.; Li, Y. G.; Ma, R. R.; Shi, P. W.; Song, S. D.; Yuan, B. S.; Zhou, Y.; Ma, R.; Song, X. M.; Dong, J. Q.; Xu, M.; Liu, Y.; Yan, L. W.; Yang, Q. W.; Xu, Y. H.; Duan, X. R.; HL-2A Team
2017-03-01
Strong resonant and non-resonant internal kink modes (abbreviated as RKs and NRKs, respectively), which are also called resonant and non-resonant fishbones, are observed on HL-2A tokamak with high-power ECRH + ECCD‑ (or ECRH) and ECRH + ECCD+, respectively. (‘Resonant’ derives from the existence of q = 1 surface (the resonant surface), and ‘non-resonant’ originates from the absence of q = 1 surface ({{q}\\text{min}}>1 ). ECCD+ and ECCD‑ mean the driving direction of energetic electrons is the same and opposite to plasma current, respectively.) RK has features of periodic strong bursting amplitude and rapid chirping-down frequency, but NRK usually has the saturated amplitude, slow changed or constant frequency and long-lasting time. The NRK excited by energetic electrons is found for the first time. The reversed q-profiles are formed, and q min decreases during plasma current ramp-up. The value of q min is slightly smaller and a bit bigger than unity for RK and NRK conditions, respectively. The internal kink mode (IKM) structures of RKs and NRKs are confirmed by the ECEI system. Although there are different current drive directions of ECCD for excitation of RK and NRK, they all propagate in electron diamagnetic directions in poloidal. The radial mode structures, frequency and growth rate for IKMs are obtained by solving the dispersion relationship. The NRK is stable when q min is larger than a certain value, and with the decreasing q min the frequency drops, but the growth rate almost keeps constant when {{q}\\text{min}}>1 . This result is in agreement with experimental observation. Studying IKMs excited by energetic electrons can provide important experimental experiences for ITER, because the NRKs may be excited by high-power non-inductive drive of ECCD or ECRH in the operation of hybrid scenarios.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pei, Youbin; Xiang, Nong; Hu, Youjun; Todo, Y.; Li, Guoqiang; Shen, Wei; Xu, Liqing
2017-03-01
Kinetic-MagnetoHydroDynamic hybrid simulations are carried out to investigate fishbone modes excited by fast ions on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. The simulations use realistic equilibrium reconstructed from experiment data with the constraint of the q = 1 surface location (q is the safety factor). Anisotropic slowing down distribution is used to model the distribution of the fast ions from neutral beam injection. The resonance condition is used to identify the interaction between the fishbone mode and the fast ions, which shows that the fishbone mode is simultaneously in resonance with the bounce motion of the trapped particles and the transit motion of the passing particles. Both the passing and trapped particles are important in destabilizing the fishbone mode. The simulations show that the mode frequency chirps down as the mode reaches the nonlinear stage, during which there is a substantial flattening of the perpendicular pressure of fast ions, compared with that of the parallel pressure. For passing particles, the resonance remains within the q = 1 surface, while, for trapped particles, the resonant location moves out radially during the nonlinear evolution. In addition, parameter scanning is performed to examine the dependence of the linear frequency and growth rate of fishbones on the pressure and injection velocity of fast ions.
Kadhane, U; Misra, D; Singh, Y P; Tribedi, Lokesh C
2003-03-07
Projectile deexcitation Lyman x-ray emission following electron capture and K excitation has been studied in collisions of bare and Li-like sulphur ions (of energy 110 MeV) with fullerenes (C(60)/C(70)) and different gaseous targets. The intensity ratios of different Lyman x-ray lines in collisions with fullerenes are found to be substantially lower than those for the gas targets, both for capture and excitation. This has been explained in terms of a model based on "solidlike" effect, namely, wakefield induced stark mixing of the excited states populated via electron capture or K excitation: a collective phenomenon of plasmon excitation in the fullerenes under the influence of heavy, highly charged ions.
Solar seismology. II - The stochastic excitation of the solar p-modes by turbulent convection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldreich, P.; Keeley, D. A.
1977-01-01
We test the hypothesis that the solar p-modes are stabilized by damping due to turbulent viscosity in the convective zone. Starting from the assumption that the modes are stable, we calculate expectation values for the modal energies. We find that the interaction between a p-mode and the turbulent convection is such that the modal energy tends toward equipartition with the kinetic energy of turbulent eddies whose lifetimes are comparable to the modal period. From the calculated values of the modal energies, we compute rms surface velocity amplitudes. Our predicted rms surface velocities range from 0.01 cm/sec for the fundamental radial mode to 0.6 cm/sec for the radial mode whose period is approximately 5 minutes. The predicted surface velocities for the low order p-modes are much smaller than the velocities inferred from recent observations.
Solar seismology. II - The stochastic excitation of the solar p-modes by turbulent convection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldreich, P.; Keeley, D. A.
1977-01-01
We test the hypothesis that the solar p-modes are stabilized by damping due to turbulent viscosity in the convective zone. Starting from the assumption that the modes are stable, we calculate expectation values for the modal energies. We find that the interaction between a p-mode and the turbulent convection is such that the modal energy tends toward equipartition with the kinetic energy of turbulent eddies whose lifetimes are comparable to the modal period. From the calculated values of the modal energies, we compute rms surface velocity amplitudes. Our predicted rms surface velocities range from 0.01 cm/sec for the fundamental radial mode to 0.6 cm/sec for the radial mode whose period is approximately 5 minutes. The predicted surface velocities for the low order p-modes are much smaller than the velocities inferred from recent observations.
Effects of Berry Curvature on the Collective Modes of Ultracold Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, Hannah M.; Cooper, Nigel R.
2013-11-01
Topological energy bands have important geometrical properties described by the Berry curvature. We show that the Berry curvature changes the hydrodynamic equations of motion for a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate, and causes significant modifications to the collective mode frequencies. We illustrate our results for the case of two-dimensional Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a Zeeman field. Using an operator approach, we derive the effects of Berry curvature on the dipole mode in very general settings. We show that the sizes of these effects can be large and readily detected in experiment. Collective modes therefore provide a sensitive way to measure geometrical properties of energy bands.
Investigation of the coupling of the momentum distribution of a BEC with its collective of modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henn, Emanuel; Tavares, Pedro; Fritsch, Amilson; Vivanco, Franklin; Telles, Gustavo; Bagnato, Vanderlei
In our group we have a strong research line on quantum turbulence and the general investigation of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) subjected to oscillatory excitations. Inside this research line we investigate first the behavior of the normal modes of the BEC under this excitation and observe a non-linear behavior in the amplitude of the quadrupolar mode. Also, inside this same procedure of investigation we study the momentum distribution of a BEC to understand if it is possible to extract Kolmogorov like excitation spectra which would point to a turbulent state of matter. The condensate is perturbed, and we let it evolve in-trap after which we perform standard time-of- flight absorption imaging. The momentum distribution is extracted and analyzed as a function of the in-trap free evolution time for a 2D projected cloud. We show that the momentum distribution has its features varying periodically with the same frequency as the quadrupolar mode displayed by the atomic gas hinting at a strong coupling of both. The main consequence of that one cannot be assertive about the quantitative features of the extract spectrum of momentum and we can only rely on its qualitative features. Financial Support: FAPESP, CNPq.
Collective modes of a one-dimensional trapped atomic Bose gas at finite temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Hui; Xianlong, Gao; Liu, Xia-Ji
2014-07-01
We theoretically investigate collective modes of a one-dimensional (1D) interacting Bose gas in a harmonic tras at finite temperatures, by using a variational approach and the local density approximation. We find that the temperature dependence of collective mode frequencies is notably different in the weakly and strongly interacting regimes. Therefore, the experimental measurement of collective modes could provide a sensitive probe for different quantum phases of a 1D trapped Bose gas, realized by tuning the interatomic interaction strength and temperature. Our prediction on the temperature dependence of the breathing mode frequency is in good qualitative agreement with an earlier experimental measurement for a weakly interacting 1D Bose gas of rubidium-87 atoms in harmonic traps [Moritz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 250402 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.250402].
Multiple hot-carrier collection in photo-excited graphene Moiré superlattices
Wu, Sanfeng; Wang, Lei; Lai, You; Shan, Wen-Yu; Aivazian, Grant; Zhang, Xian; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Xiao, Di; Dean, Cory; Hone, James; Li, Zhiqiang; Xu, Xiaodong
2016-01-01
In conventional light-harvesting devices, the absorption of a single photon only excites one electron, which sets the standard limit of power-conversion efficiency, such as the Shockley-Queisser limit. In principle, generating and harnessing multiple carriers per absorbed photon can improve efficiency and possibly overcome this limit. We report the observation of multiple hot-carrier collection in graphene/boron-nitride Moiré superlattice structures. A record-high zero-bias photoresponsivity of 0.3 A/W (equivalently, an external quantum efficiency exceeding 50%) is achieved using graphene’s photo-Nernst effect, which demonstrates a collection of at least five carriers per absorbed photon. We reveal that this effect arises from the enhanced Nernst coefficient through Lifshtiz transition at low-energy Van Hove singularities, which is an emergent phenomenon due to the formation of Moiré minibands. Our observation points to a new means for extremely efficient and flexible optoelectronics based on van der Waals heterostructures. PMID:27386538
Sokolov, V I; Marusin, N V; Molchanova, S I; Savelyev, A G; Khaydukov, E V; Panchenko, V Ya
2014-11-30
The problem of reflection of a TE-polarised Gaussian light beam from a layered structure under conditions of resonance excitation of waveguide modes using a total internal reflection prism is considered. Using the spectral approach we have derived the analytic expressions for the mode propagation lengths, widths and depths of m-lines (sharp and narrow dips in the angular dependence of the specular reflection coefficient), depending on the structure parameters. It is shown that in the case of weak coupling, when the propagation lengths l{sub m} of the waveguide modes are mainly determined by the extinction coefficient in the film, the depth of m-lines grows with the mode number m. In the case of strong coupling, when l{sub m} is determined mainly by the radiation of modes into the prism, the depth of m-lines decreases with increasing m. The change in the TE-polarised Gaussian beam shape after its reflection from the layered structure is studied, which is determined by the energy transfer from the incident beam into waveguide modes that propagate along the structure by the distance l{sub m}, are radiated in the direction of specular reflection and interfere with a part of the beam reflected from the working face of the prism. It is shown that this interference can lead to the field intensity oscillations near m-lines. The analysis of different methods for determining the parameters of thin-film structures is presented, including the measurement of mode angles θ{sub m} and the reflected beam shape. The methods are based on simultaneous excitation of a few waveguide modes in the film with a strongly focused monochromatic Gaussian beam, the waist width of which is much smaller than the propagation length of the modes. As an example of using these methods, the refractive index and the thickness of silicon monoxide film on silica substrate at the wavelength 633 nm are determined. (fibre and integrated-optical structures)
Castro Palacio, J C; Velazquez Abad, L; Lombardi, A; Aquilanti, V; Rubayo Soneíra, J
2007-05-07
Molecular dynamics simulations and both normal mode and hyperspherical mode analyses of NO-doped Kr solid are carried out in order to get insights into the structural relaxation of the medium upon electronic excitation of the NO molecule. A combined study is reported on the time evolution of the cage radius and on the density of vibrational states, according to the hyperspherical and normal mode analyses. For the hyperspherical modes, hyper-radial and grand angular contributions are considered. For the normal modes, radial and tangential contributions are examined. Results show that the first shell radius dynamics is driven by modes with frequencies at approximately 47 and approximately 15 cm-1. The first one is related to the ultrafast regime where a large part of the energy is transmitted to the lattice and the second one to relaxation and slow redistribution of the energy. The density of vibrational states gamma(omega) is characterized by a broad distribution of bands peaking around the frequencies of approximately 13, approximately 19, approximately 25, approximately 31, approximately 37, approximately 47, and approximately 103 cm-1 (very small band). The dominant modes in the relaxation process were at 14.89, 23.49, and 53.78 cm-1; they present the largest amplitudes and the greatest energy contributions. The mode at 14.89 cm-1 is present in both the fit of the first shell radius and in the hyper-radial kinetic energy spectrum and resulted the one with the largest amplitude, although could not be revealed by the total kinetic energy power spectrum.
Control of self-excitation mode in thermoacoustic system using heat phase adjuster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kido, Aiko; Sakamoto, Shin-ichi; Taga, Kazusa; Watanabe, Yoshiaki
2016-07-01
The capability of a heat phase adjuster (HPA) to control the resonance mode in a loop-tube-type thermoacoustic system by locally heating the outside is experimentally investigated. It is shown that the HPA enables the resonance mode of the tube to shift to lower modes with higher thermoacoustic conversion efficiency, thus significantly enhancing the energy conversion efficiency. The transition of the resonance mode due to the stepwise change in the input electric power to the HPA is also investigated. As a result, it is demonstrated that the resonance mode changes with the temperature and a threshold exists for the HPA temperature at which the transition is induced. These results suggest the possibility of externally controlling a loop-tube-type thermoacoustic system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xuechen; Niu, Dongying; Yin, Zengqian; Fang, Tongzhen; Wang, Long
2012-08-01
The characteristics of dielectric barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage are simulated in atmospheric pressure helium based on a one-dimensional fluid model. A stepped discharge is obtained per half voltage cycle with gas gap width less than 2 mm by the simulation, which is different to the pulsed discharge excited by a sinusoidal voltage. For the stepped discharge, the plateau duration increases with increasing the voltage amplitude and decreasing the gas gap. Therefore, uniform discharge with high temporal duty ratio can be realized with small gap through increasing the voltage amplitude. The maximal densities of both electron and ion appear near the anode and the electric field is almost uniformly distributed along the gap, which indicates that the stepped discharge belongs to a Townsend mode. In contrast to the stepped discharge with small gas gap, a pulsed discharge can be obtained with large gas gap. Through analyzing the spatial density distributions of electron and ion and the electric field, the pulsed discharge is in a glow mode. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics are analyzed for the above mentioned discharges under different gas gaps, from which the different discharge modes are verified.
High Energy Plasmas, General Relativity and Collective Modes in the Vicinity of Black Holes*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coppi, B.
2009-05-01
Plasmas around black holes can take different equilibrium configurations^1 from those known from fluid theory as the vertical Lorentz compression due to plasma currents can overtake that of the gravitational force. In a disk with a ``seed'' magnetic field, axisymmetric modes as well as tri-dimensional spirals can be excited by the combined effects of the radial gradient of the plasma rotation frequency and of the plasma pressure gradient^2. The spirals' properties depend strongly on their vertical structure^3. Axisymmetric modes can produce vertical counter-flows of thermal energy and particles and be candidates for the origin of the winds emanating from disks in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN's)^2. The excitation of radially localized density spirals corotating with the plasma near a black hole can provide an explanation for^4 the observed Quasi Periodic Oscillations (QPO's) of the X-ray emission from compact objects. Convective spiral modes^3 that are purely oscillatory in time and not localized radially can acquire their amplitudes from coupling to unstable modes and provide transport^3 of angular momentum toward the outer region of the disk structure.*Sponsored in part by the U.S. DOE. ^1B. Coppi and F. Rousseau, Ap. J., 641, 458 (2006). ^2B. Coppi, Europhys. Letters 82, 19001 (2008). ^3B. Coppi, MIT/LNS Report 08/08, submitted to A&A (2008). ^4B. Coppi and P. Rebusco, Paper P5.154, E.P.S. Conf. Pl. Phys. (Crete, 2008).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Labombard, B.; Golfinopoulos, T.; Parker, R.; Burke, W.; Leccacorvi, R.; Vieira, R.; Zaks, J.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Marmar, E.; Porkolab, M.; Wolfe, S.; Woskov, P.; Wuktich, S.
2011-10-01
Experiments indicate that short wavelength, drift-Alfvenic turbulence largely sets the transport levels in the plasma edge: pressure gradients in L and H-mode are `clamped' at canonical values of the MHD parameter (αMHD) ; broadband and coherent fluctuations have strong magnetic signatures, with k⊥ρs ~ 0.1 being prominent. A quasi-coherent mode (50 kHz < f < 150 kHz, 1 < k⊥ < 2 cm-1) drives particle transport in C-Mod's EDA H-modes, making them steady-state without ELMs. With the idea of exciting, controlling or otherwise exploiting this transport behavior, we are developing a novel, high k⊥ antenna system to drive drift-Alfvenic modes at the outer midplane with k⊥ ~ 1.5 cm-1. A `shoelace' style winding is placed in close proximity to the last-closed flux surface. In principle, this scheme inductively drives parallel current fluctuations that mimic intrinsic plasma fluctuations but at larger amplitude. Details of the antenna system design, its planned modes of operation and initial results will be presented. Supported by USDoE award DE-FC02-99ER54512.
Enhanced modes excitation in photonic crystal fiber by long-period gratings for sensing application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Shijie; Zhu, Yinian
2016-03-01
Evanescent-wave sensing platform is proposed by two interrogating schemes, core-cladding coupling and core-cladding-core coupling and re-coupling, in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber (ESM-PCF) with long-period gratings (LPGs). The sensing characteristics are experimentally investigated by stress relaxation technique and point-by-point grating inscription via CO2 laser. It shows that the evanescent wave in cladding mode is significantly increased due to LPGs, compared with in core mode only. The introduced concept will further help explore the PCF evanescent-wave sensing and its applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Yuxi; Stepanenko, Vladimir; Kaiser, Theo E.; Würthner, Frank; Scheblykin, Ivan G.
2011-12-01
Water-induced reorganization of individual one-dimensional J-aggregates of perylene bisimide (PBI) dyes was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence spectra and decay kinetics of individual J-aggregates immobilized on glass surfaces were measured under a dry nitrogen atmosphere and under humid conditions. The fluorescence properties of PBI J-aggregates arisen from collective excitons under dry nitrogen atmosphere were changed to those of non-interacting dye monomers when water vapor was introduced into the environment (sample chamber). Time-dependent changes of the fluorescence spectra and lifetimes upon exposure to water vapor suggest an initial coordination of water molecules at defect sites leading to the formation of H-type dimer units that act as exciton quenchers, and a subsequent slower disintegration of the hydrogen-bonded J-aggregate into monomers that lack resonance coupling. Our present studies resulted in a direct demonstration of how drastically the optical properties of molecular ensembles and characteristics of their excited states can be changed by delicate reorganization of dye molecules at nanometre scales.Water-induced reorganization of individual one-dimensional J-aggregates of perylene bisimide (PBI) dyes was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence spectra and decay kinetics of individual J-aggregates immobilized on glass surfaces were measured under a dry nitrogen atmosphere and under humid conditions. The fluorescence properties of PBI J-aggregates arisen from collective excitons under dry nitrogen atmosphere were changed to those of non-interacting dye monomers when water vapor was introduced into the environment (sample chamber). Time-dependent changes of the fluorescence spectra and lifetimes upon exposure to water vapor suggest an initial coordination of water molecules at defect sites leading to the formation of H-type dimer units that act as exciton quenchers, and a subsequent slower disintegration of the hydrogen
Desorption of Hydrogen from Si(111) by Resonant Excitation of the Si-H Vibrational Stretch Mode
Liu, Zhiheng; Feldman, Leonard C.; Tolk, Norman; Zhang, Zhenyu; Cohen, Philip I
2006-01-01
Past efforts to achieve selective bond scission by vibrational excitation have been thwarted by energy thermalization. Here we report resonant photodesorption of hydrogen from a Si(111) surface using tunable infrared radiation. The wavelength dependence of the desorption yield peaks at 0.26 electron volt: the energy of the Si-H vibrational stretch mode. The desorption yield is quadratic in the infrared intensity. A strong H/D isotope effect rules out thermal desorption mechanisms, and electronic effects are not applicable in this low-energy regime. A molecular mechanism accounting for the desorption event remains elusive.
Magnetostatic spin wave modes excitation in yttrium-iron-garnet film under various temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaack, M.; Jun, S.; Nikitov, S. A.; Pelzl, J.
1999-09-01
Temperature-dependent magnetostatic spin wave modes spectra in a ferromagnetic thin film of yttrium-iron-garnet are investigated by means of conventional and photothermally modulated ferromagnetic resonance techniques. Values for the anisotropy field are derived from the evaluation of resonance spectra. In the wide range of temperature the resonance characteristics of spin wave modes spectra are consistent with the Damon-Eshbach theory. Close to the Curie temperature they, however, strongly deviate from the theoretical predictions.
Fishbone Mode Excited by Deeply Trapped Energetic Beam Ions in EAST
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Ting; Wu, Bin; Xu, Liqing; Hu, Chundong; Zang, Qing; Ding, Siye; Li, Yingying; Wu, Xingquan; Wang, Jinfang; Shen, Biao; Zhong, Guoqiang; Li, Hao; Shi, Tonghui; EAST Team
2016-06-01
This paper describes the fishbone mode phenomena during the injection of high-power neutral beams in EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak). The features of the fishbone mode are presented. The change in frequency of the mode during a fishbone burst is from 1 kHz to 6 kHz. The nonlinear behavior of the fishbone mode is analyzed by using a prey-predator model, which is consistent with the experimental results. This model indicates that the periodic oscillations of the fishbone mode always occur near the critical value of fast ion beta. Furthermore, the neutral beam analysis for the discharge is done by using the NUBEAM module of the TRANSP code. According to the numerical simulation results and theoretical calculation, it can be concluded that the fishbone mode is driven by the deeply trapped energetic beam ions in EAST. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB101001, 2014DFG61950 and 2013GB112003) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11175211 and 11275233)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braviner, Harry J.; Ogilvie, Gordon I.
2015-02-01
We model a tidally forced star or giant planet as a Maclaurin spheroid, decomposing the motion into the normal modes found by Bryan. We first describe the general prescription for this decomposition and the computation of the tidal power. Although this formalism is very general, forcing due to a companion on a misaligned, circular orbit is used to illustrate the theory. The tidal power is plotted for a variety of orbital radii, misalignment angles, and spheroid rotation rates. Our calculations are carried out including all modes of degree l ≤ 4, and the same degree of gravitational forcing. Remarkably, we find that for close orbits (a/R* ≈ 3) and rotational deformations that are typical of giant planets (e ≈ 0.4) the l = 4 component of the gravitational potential may significantly enhance the dissipation through resonance with surface gravity modes. There are also a large number of resonances with inertial modes, with the tidal power being locally enhanced by up to three orders of magnitude. For very close orbits (a/R* ≈ 3), the contribution to the power from the l = 4 modes is roughly the same magnitude as that due to the l = 3 modes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyack, Rufus; Wu, Chien-Te; Anderson, Brandon M.; Levin, K.
2017-06-01
In this paper we demonstrate the necessity of including the generally omitted collective-mode contributions in calculations of the Meissner effect for nonuniform superconductors. We consider superconducting pairing with nonzero center-of-mass momentum, as is possibly relevant to high transition temperature cuprates, cold atoms, and color superconductors in quantum chromodynamics. For the concrete example of the Fulde-Ferrell phase we present a quantitative calculation of the superfluid density, showing not only that the collective-mode contributions are appreciable but also that they derive from the amplitude mode of the order parameter. This latter mode is generally viewed as being invisible in conventional superconductors. However, our analysis shows that it is extremely important in pair-density-wave-type superconductors, where it destroys stable superfluidity well before the mean-field order parameter vanishes.
Surface Collective Modes in the Topological Insulators Bi2 Se3 and Bi0.5 Sb1.5 Te3 -xSex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kogar, A.; Vig, S.; Thaler, A.; Wong, M. H.; Xiao, Y.; Reig-i-Plessis, D.; Cho, G. Y.; Valla, T.; Pan, Z.; Schneeloch, J.; Zhong, R.; Gu, G. D.; Hughes, T. L.; MacDougall, G. J.; Chiang, T.-C.; Abbamonte, P.
2015-12-01
We used low-energy, momentum-resolved inelastic electron scattering to study surface collective modes of the three-dimensional topological insulators Bi2 Se3 and Bi0.5 Sb1.5 Te3 -xSex . Our goal was to identify the "spin plasmon" predicted by Raghu and co-workers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 116401 (2010)]. Instead, we found that the primary collective mode is a surface plasmon arising from the bulk, free carriers in these materials. This excitation dominates the spectral weight in the bosonic function of the surface χ"(q ,ω ) at THz energy scales, and is the most likely origin of a quasiparticle dispersion kink observed in previous photoemission experiments. Our study suggests that the spin plasmon may mix with this other surface mode, calling for a more nuanced understanding of optical experiments in which the spin plasmon is reported to play a role.
Baldini, Edoardo; Mann, Andreas; Borroni, Simone; Arrell, Christopher; van Mourik, Frank; Carbone, Fabrizio
2016-01-01
A femtosecond pump-probe setup is described that is optimised for broadband transient reflectivity experiments on solid samples over a wide temperature range. By combining high temporal resolution and a broad detection window, this apparatus can investigate the interplay between coherent collective modes and high-energy electronic excitations, which is a distinctive characteristic of correlated electron systems. Using a single-shot readout array detector at frame rates of 10 kHz allows resolving coherent oscillations with amplitudes <10−4. We demonstrate its operation on the charge-transfer insulator La2CuO4, revealing coherent phonons with frequencies up to 13 THz and providing access into their Raman matrix elements. PMID:27990455
Collective charge excitations of the two-dimensional electride Ca2N
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cudazzo, Pierluigi; Gatti, Matteo
2017-09-01
Ca2N is a layered material that has been recently identified as a two-dimensional (2D) electride, an unusual ionic compound in which electrons serve as anions. The electronic properties of 2D electrides attract considerable interest as the anionic electrons, which form a 2D layer sandwiched between atomic planes, are highly mobile as they are not attached to any ion. Here, on the basis of first-principles time-dependent density-functional theory calculations, we investigate the collective excitations of the electrons—i.e., the plasmons—in Ca2N as a function of wave vector q . Our calculations reveal an intrinsic negative in-plane dispersion of the anionic plasmon, in striking contrast with the homogeneous electron gas. Moreover, for wave vectors q normal to the planes, we find a long-lived plasmon that continues to exist well beyond the first Brillouin zone. This is a mark of the electronic inhomogeneities in the charge response that Ca2N shares with other layered materials like transition-metal dichalcogenides and MgB2. Finally, we compare the plasmon properties of Ca2N in its bulk and monolayer forms, which shows the effect of the different electronic structures and dimensionalities.
Higher-harmonic collective modes in a trapped gas from second-order hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, W. E.; Romatschke, P.
2017-02-01
Utilizing a second-order hydrodynamics formalism, the dispersion relations for the frequencies and damping rates of collective oscillations as well as spatial structure of these modes up to the decapole oscillation in both two- and three- dimensional gas geometries are calculated. In addition to higher-order modes, the formalism also gives rise to purely damped ‘non-hydrodynamic’ modes. We calculate the amplitude of the various modes for both symmetric and asymmetric trap quenches, finding excellent agreement with an exact quantum mechanical calculation. We find that higher-order hydrodynamic modes are more sensitive to the value of shear viscosity, which may be of interest for the precision extraction of transport coefficients in Fermi gas systems.
Higher-harmonic collective modes in a trapped gas from second-order hydrodynamics
Lewis, William E.; Romatschke, P.
2017-02-21
Utilizing a second-order hydrodynamics formalism, the dispersion relations for the frequencies and damping rates of collective oscillations as well as spatial structure of these modes up to the decapole oscillation in both two- and three- dimensional gas geometries are calculated. In addition to higher-order modes, the formalism also gives rise to purely damped "non-hydrodynamic" modes. We calculate the amplitude of the various modes for both symmetric and asymmetric trap quenches, finding excellent agreement with an exact quantum mechanical calculation. Furthermore, we find that higher-order hydrodynamic modes are more sensitive to the value of shear viscosity, which may be of interestmore » for the precision extraction of transport coefficients in Fermi gas systems.« less
Collective Excitations of a Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensate in the Presence of a 1D Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fort, C.; Cataliotti, F. S.; Fallani, L.; Ferlaino, F.; Maddaloni, P.; Inguscio, M.
2003-04-01
We study low-lying collective modes of an elongated 87Rb condensate produced in a 3D magnetic harmonic trap with the addition of a 1D periodic potential which is provided by a laser standing wave along the axial direction. While the transverse breathing mode remains unperturbed, quadrupole and dipole oscillations along the optical lattice are strongly modified. Precise measurements of the collective mode frequencies at different heights of the optical barriers provide a stringent test of the theoretical model recently introduced [
Español, Malena I; Rotstein, Horacio G
2015-06-01
The Oregonator is the simplest chemically plausible model for the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. We investigate the response of the Oregonator to sinusoidal inputs with amplitudes and frequencies within plausible ranges. We focus on a regime where the unforced Oregonator is excitable (with no sustained oscillations). We use numerical simulations and dynamical systems tools to both characterize the response patterns and explain the underlying dynamic mechanisms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Español, Malena I.; Rotstein, Horacio G.
2015-06-01
The Oregonator is the simplest chemically plausible model for the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. We investigate the response of the Oregonator to sinusoidal inputs with amplitudes and frequencies within plausible ranges. We focus on a regime where the unforced Oregonator is excitable (with no sustained oscillations). We use numerical simulations and dynamical systems tools to both characterize the response patterns and explain the underlying dynamic mechanisms.
Photo-excited charge carriers suppress sub-terahertz phonon mode in silicon at room temperature.
Liao, Bolin; Maznev, A A; Nelson, Keith A; Chen, Gang
2016-10-12
There is a growing interest in the mode-by-mode understanding of electron and phonon transport for improving energy conversion technologies, such as thermoelectrics and photovoltaics. Whereas remarkable progress has been made in probing phonon-phonon interactions, it has been a challenge to directly measure electron-phonon interactions at the single-mode level, especially their effect on phonon transport above cryogenic temperatures. Here we use three-pulse photoacoustic spectroscopy to investigate the damping of a single sub-terahertz coherent phonon mode by free charge carriers in silicon at room temperature. Building on conventional pump-probe photoacoustic spectroscopy, we introduce an additional laser pulse to optically generate charge carriers, and carefully design temporal sequence of the three pulses to unambiguously quantify the scattering rate of a single-phonon mode due to the electron-phonon interaction. Our results confirm predictions from first-principles simulations and indicate the importance of the often-neglected effect of electron-phonon interaction on phonon transport in doped semiconductors.
Photo-excited charge carriers suppress sub-terahertz phonon mode in silicon at room temperature
Liao, Bolin; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, Keith A.; ...
2016-10-12
There is a growing interest in the mode-by-mode understanding of electron and phonon transport for improving energy conversion technologies, such as thermoelectrics and photovoltaics. Whereas remarkable progress has been made in probing phonon–phonon interactions, it has been a challenge to directly measure electron–phonon interactions at the single-mode level, especially their effect on phonon transport above cryogenic temperatures. Here in this paper, we use three-pulse photoacoustic spectroscopy to investigate the damping of a single sub-terahertz coherent phonon mode by free charge carriers in silicon at room temperature. Building on conventional pump–probe photoacoustic spectroscopy, we introduce an additional laser pulse to opticallymore » generate charge carriers, and carefully design temporal sequence of the three pulses to unambiguously quantify the scattering rate of a single-phonon mode due to the electron–phonon interaction. Our results confirm predictions from first-principles simulations and indicate the importance of the often-neglected effect of electron–phonon interaction on phonon transport in doped semiconductors.« less
Photo-excited charge carriers suppress sub-terahertz phonon mode in silicon at room temperature
Liao, Bolin; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, Keith A.; Chen, Gang
2016-10-12
There is a growing interest in the mode-by-mode understanding of electron and phonon transport for improving energy conversion technologies, such as thermoelectrics and photovoltaics. Whereas remarkable progress has been made in probing phonon–phonon interactions, it has been a challenge to directly measure electron–phonon interactions at the single-mode level, especially their effect on phonon transport above cryogenic temperatures. Here in this paper, we use three-pulse photoacoustic spectroscopy to investigate the damping of a single sub-terahertz coherent phonon mode by free charge carriers in silicon at room temperature. Building on conventional pump–probe photoacoustic spectroscopy, we introduce an additional laser pulse to optically generate charge carriers, and carefully design temporal sequence of the three pulses to unambiguously quantify the scattering rate of a single-phonon mode due to the electron–phonon interaction. Our results confirm predictions from first-principles simulations and indicate the importance of the often-neglected effect of electron–phonon interaction on phonon transport in doped semiconductors.
Photo-excited charge carriers suppress sub-terahertz phonon mode in silicon at room temperature
Liao, Bolin; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, Keith A.; Chen, Gang
2016-01-01
There is a growing interest in the mode-by-mode understanding of electron and phonon transport for improving energy conversion technologies, such as thermoelectrics and photovoltaics. Whereas remarkable progress has been made in probing phonon–phonon interactions, it has been a challenge to directly measure electron–phonon interactions at the single-mode level, especially their effect on phonon transport above cryogenic temperatures. Here we use three-pulse photoacoustic spectroscopy to investigate the damping of a single sub-terahertz coherent phonon mode by free charge carriers in silicon at room temperature. Building on conventional pump–probe photoacoustic spectroscopy, we introduce an additional laser pulse to optically generate charge carriers, and carefully design temporal sequence of the three pulses to unambiguously quantify the scattering rate of a single-phonon mode due to the electron–phonon interaction. Our results confirm predictions from first-principles simulations and indicate the importance of the often-neglected effect of electron–phonon interaction on phonon transport in doped semiconductors. PMID:27731406
Dynamical structure factors and excitation modes of the bilayer Heisenberg model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lohöfer, M.; Coletta, T.; Joshi, D. G.; Assaad, F. F.; Vojta, M.; Wessel, S.; Mila, F.
2015-12-01
Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations along with higher-order spin-wave theory, bond-operator and strong-coupling expansions, we analyze the dynamical spin structure factor of the spin-half Heisenberg model on the square-lattice bilayer. We identify distinct contributions from the low-energy Goldstone modes in the magnetically ordered phase and the gapped triplon modes in the quantum disordered phase. In the antisymmetric (with respect to layer inversion) channel, the dynamical spin structure factor exhibits a continuous evolution of spectral features across the quantum phase transition, connecting the two types of modes. Instead, in the symmetric channel, we find a depletion of the spectral weight when moving from the ordered to the disordered phase. While the dynamical spin structure factor does not exhibit a well-defined distinct contribution from the amplitude (or Higgs) mode in the ordered phase, we identify an only marginally damped amplitude mode in the dynamical singlet structure factor, obtained from interlayer bond correlations, in the vicinity of the quantum critical point. These findings provide quantitative information in direct relation to possible neutron or light scattering experiments in a fundamental two-dimensional quantum-critical spin system.
Photo-excited charge carriers suppress sub-terahertz phonon mode in silicon at room temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Bolin; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, Keith A.; Chen, Gang
2016-10-01
There is a growing interest in the mode-by-mode understanding of electron and phonon transport for improving energy conversion technologies, such as thermoelectrics and photovoltaics. Whereas remarkable progress has been made in probing phonon-phonon interactions, it has been a challenge to directly measure electron-phonon interactions at the single-mode level, especially their effect on phonon transport above cryogenic temperatures. Here we use three-pulse photoacoustic spectroscopy to investigate the damping of a single sub-terahertz coherent phonon mode by free charge carriers in silicon at room temperature. Building on conventional pump-probe photoacoustic spectroscopy, we introduce an additional laser pulse to optically generate charge carriers, and carefully design temporal sequence of the three pulses to unambiguously quantify the scattering rate of a single-phonon mode due to the electron-phonon interaction. Our results confirm predictions from first-principles simulations and indicate the importance of the often-neglected effect of electron-phonon interaction on phonon transport in doped semiconductors.
Laboratory experiment on the excitation of whistler-mode chorus waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Xin; van Compernolle, Bart; Bortnik, Jacob; Decyk, Viktor; Thorne, Richard
2016-10-01
Whistler-mode chorus waves play an important role in accelerating electrons to relativistic energies in the heart of the outer radiation belt, as well as in precipitating electrons to the atmosphere. An experiment in the Large Plasma Device at UCLA generates both broadband and discrete chirping whistler-mode emissions using a gyrating electron beam injected into a cold background plasma. The mode structure of these emissions is identified using a phase-correlation technique. The emission forms of the whistler waves depend on plasma density, beam density and magnetic field profiles. A kinetic simulation in accordance with the experiment shows an initial relaxation of the electron beam by Langmuir waves and subsequently growing whistler waves through cyclotron resonance and Landau resonance. The research was funded by the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation by Grant DE-SC0010578 and was also funded by NASA Grant NNX16AG21G.
Multiple-mode excitation in spin-transfer nanocontacts with dynamic polarizer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, N.; Wang, X. L.; Qin, W.; Yeung, S. H.; Kwok, D. T. K.; Wong, H. F.; Xue, Q.; Chu, P. K.; Leung, C. W.; Ruotolo, A.
2011-06-01
We report our study on the emission response of a magnetic nanocontact with dynamic polarizer in perpendicular magnetic field. In this configuration three modes are accessible, two of which correspond to the precessional motion of a vortex in one of the two ferromagnetic layers with the other working as a static polarizer. At high currents a third mode can be observed that is ascribed to the simultaneous precession of two vortices, one in each layer, with the other layer working as a dynamic polarizer.
Nazarov, Alexey E; Barykov, Vadim Yu; Ivanov, Anatoly I
2016-03-31
A model of photoinduced ultrafast charge separation and ensuing charge recombination into the ground state has been developed. The model includes explicit description of the formation and evolution of nonequilibrium state of both the intramolecular vibrations and the surrounding medium. An effect of the high-frequency intramolecular vibrational mode excitation by a pumping pulse on ultrafast charge separation and charge recombination kinetics has been investigated. Simulations, in accord with experiment, have shown that the effect may be both positive (the vibrational mode excitation increases the charge-transfer rate constant) and negative (opposite trend). The effect on charge separation kinetics is predicted to be bigger than that on the charge recombination rate but nevertheless the last is large enough to be observable. The amplitude of both effects falls with decreasing vibrational relaxation time constant, but the effects are expected to be observable up to the time constants as short as 200 fs. Physical interpretation of the effects has been presented. Comparisons with the experimental data have shown that the simulations, in whole, provide results close to that obtained in the experiment. The reasons of the deviations have been discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chirenti, Cecilia; Gold, Roman; Miller, M. Coleman
2017-08-01
After the first recent detections of gravitational waves from binary black holes, we expect to observe next gravitational radiation from neutron stars in the near future. Most interestingly, the signal from neutron star binaries could also carry information about the equation of state of cold, catalyzed, dense matter in the interior of neutron stars, which is in a regime not accessible to nuclear and particle physics experiments on Earth. For analyzing this information, more advanced gravitational wave detectors will be needed, such as third-generation detectors like the Einstein Telescope or the Cosmic Explorer. Besides the gravitational wave signal produced by the orbital motion and merger of the binary, a rich spectrum of characteristic fluid oscillations is expected to be produced with low amplitude in the ringdown. The frequencies and physical properties of these modes have been extensively studied in linear perturbation theory (both Newtonian and relativistic) and they have already been found in numerical relativity simulations of isolated neutron stars and of hypermassive remnants of double neutron star mergers. Due to the high frequency of the fundamental (f-)modes, of the order of 1-2 kHz, the resonant excitation of these modes is not expected to be detectable in circular binaries. However, highly eccentric binaries could have the potential for exciting f-modes in their close passages, and recent numerical relativity simulations indicate that the energy deposited in the f-modes could be up to two orders of magnitude greater than predicted in the linear theory. The merger of highly eccentric neutron star binaries will be rare events, but we estimate that up to several tens could be detected per year out to the redshifts ~2-6 accessible with third-generation instruments. Finally, we note that the information from the amplitude, frequency and damping time of the f-modes can be used for simultaneously measuring the masses, moments of inertia and tidal Love
Mitchell, Deborah G; Johnson, Alan M; Johnson, Jeremy A; Judd, Kortney A; Kim, Kilyoung; Mayhew, Maurine; Powell, Amber L; Sevy, Eric T
2008-02-14
Relaxation of highly vibrationally excited 1,2-, 1,3-, and 1,4-difluorobenzne (DFB) by collisions with carbon dioxide has been investigated using diode laser transient absorption spectroscopy. Vibrationally hot DFB (E' approximately 41,000 cm(-1)) was prepared by 248 nm excimer laser excitation followed by rapid radiationless relaxation to the ground electronic state. Collisions between hot DFB isomers and CO2 result in large amounts of rotational and translational energy transfer from the hot donors to the bath. The CO2 nascent rotational population distribution of the high-J (J = 58-80) tail of the 00(0)0 state was probed at short times following the excimer laser pulse to measure rate constants and probabilities for collisions populating these states. The amount of translational energy gained by CO2 during collisions was determined using Doppler spectroscopy to measure the width of the absorption line for each transition. The energy transfer probability distribution function, P(E,E'), for the large DeltaE tail was obtained by resorting the state-indexed energy transfer probabilities as a function of DeltaE. P(E,E') was fit to a biexponential function to determine the average energy transferred in a single DFB/CO2 collision and fit parameters describing the shape of P(E,E'). P(E,E') fit parameters for DFB/CO2 and the previously studied C6F6/CO2 system are compared to various donor molecular properties. A model based on Fermi's Golden Rule indicates that the shape of P(E,E') is primarily determined by the low-frequency out-of-plane donor vibrational modes. A fractional mode population analysis is performed, which suggests that for energy transfer from DFB and C6F6 to CO2 the two key donor vibrational modes from which energy leaks out of the donor into the bath are nu11 and nu16. These "gateway" modes are some of the same modes determined to be the most efficient energy transfer modes by quantum scattering studies of benzene/He collisions.
Excitation of travelling torsional normal modes in an Earth's core model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gillet, N.; Jault, D.; Canet, E.
2017-09-01
The proximity between the 6 yr recurrence time of the torsional Alfvén waves that have been inferred in the Earth's outer core over 1940-2010 and their 4 yr traveltime across the fluid core is nicely explained if these travelling waves are to be considered as normal modes. We discuss to what extent the emergence of free torsional modes from a stochastic forcing in the fluid core is compatible with some dissipation, specifically with an electromagnetic torque strong enough to account for the observed length of day variations of 6 yr period. In a spherical cavity enclosed by an insulating mantle, torsional normal modes consist of standing waves. In the presence of a conducting mantle, they transform into outward travelling waves very similar to the torsional waves that have been detected in the Earth's outer core. With such a resonant response a periodic forcing is not required to explain the regular recurrence of torsional waves; neither is the search for a source of motions in the vicinity of the cylindrical surface tangent to the inner core, where travelling waves seem to emerge. We discuss these results in the light of the reflection properties of torsional waves at the equator. We are able to reproduce the properties found for geophysical time-series of geostrophic flows (detection of a normal mode, almost total absorption at the equator) if the conductance of the lowermost mantle is 3 × 107 to 108 S.
Nonlinear excitation of convective cells by interchange modes and spectrum cascade processes
Pavlenko, V.P.; Weiland, J.
1980-04-01
Convective cell formation due to interchange modes has been studied. The spectral cascade processes between such waves have been considered in the limit k/sub parallel/=0 where the influence of gravity is particularly strong. Possibilities for up conversion are found.
Libration induced stretching mode excitation for pump-probe spectroscopy in pure liquid water.
Amir, Wafa; Gallot, Guilhem; Hache, François
2004-10-22
We developed an experimental approach to study pure liquid water in the infrared and avoid thermal effects. This technique is based on libration induced stretching excitation of water molecules. A direct correspondence between frequencies within the libration and OH stretching bands is demonstrated. Energy diffusion is studied in pure liquid water by measuring wave packet dynamics of OH stretching vibrator with infrared femtosecond spectroscopy. Wave packet dynamics reveals ultrafast energy dynamics and reflects 130 fs intermolecular energy transfer between water vibrators. Energy diffusion is almost two orders of magnitude faster than self diffusion in water.
Yoshida, Kyohei; Hachiya, Kan; Okumura, Kensuke; Mishima, Kenta; Inukai, Motoharu; Torgasin, Konstantin; Omer, Mohamed; Sonobe, Taro; Zen, Heishun; Negm, Hani; Kii, Toshiteru; Masuda, Kai; Ohgaki, Hideaki
2013-10-28
Mode-selective phonon excitation by a mid-infrared laser (MIR-FEL) is demonstrated via anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements of 6H-silicon carbide (SiC). Irradiation of SiC with MIR-FEL and a Nd-YAG laser at 14 K produced a peak where the Raman shift corresponds to a photon energy of 119 meV (10.4 μm). This phenomenon is induced by mode-selective phonon excitation through the irradiation of MIR-FEL, whose photon energy corresponds to the photon-absorption of a particular phonon mode.
Goehring, Jenny L.; Neff, Donna L.; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L.; Hughes, Michelle L.
2014-01-01
This study compared pitch ranking, electrode discrimination, and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) spatial excitation patterns for adjacent physical electrodes (PEs) and the corresponding dual electrodes (DEs) for newer-generation Cochlear devices (Cochlear Ltd., Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia). The first goal was to determine whether pitch ranking and electrode discrimination yield similar outcomes for PEs and DEs. The second goal was to determine if the amount of spatial separation among ECAP excitation patterns (separation index, Σ) between adjacent PEs and the PE-DE pairs can predict performance on the psychophysical tasks. Using non-adaptive procedures, 13 subjects completed pitch ranking and electrode discrimination for adjacent PEs and the corresponding PE-DE pairs (DE versus each flanking PE) from the basal, middle, and apical electrode regions. Analysis of d′ scores indicated that pitch-ranking and electrode-discrimination scores were not significantly different, but rather produced similar levels of performance. As expected, accuracy was significantly better for the PE-PE comparison than either PE-DE comparison. Correlations of the psychophysical versus ECAP Σ measures were positive; however, not all test/region correlations were significant across the array. Thus, the ECAP separation index is not sensitive enough to predict performance on behavioral tasks of pitch ranking or electrode discrimination for adjacent PEs or corresponding DEs. PMID:25096106
Monte Carlo calculations of diatomic molecule gas flows including rotational mode excitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoshikawa, K. K.; Itikawa, Y.
1976-01-01
The direct simulation Monte Carlo method was used to solve the Boltzmann equation for flows of an internally excited nonequilibrium gas, namely, of rotationally excited homonuclear diatomic nitrogen. The semi-classical transition probability model of Itikawa was investigated for its ability to simulate flow fields far from equilibrium. The behavior of diatomic nitrogen was examined for several different nonequilibrium initial states that are subjected to uniform mean flow without boundary interactions. A sample of 1000 model molecules was observed as the gas relaxed to a steady state starting from three specified initial states. The initial states considered are: (1) complete equilibrium, (2) nonequilibrium, equipartition (all rotational energy states are assigned the mean energy level obtained at equilibrium with a Boltzmann distribution at the translational temperature), and (3) nonequipartition (the mean rotational energy is different from the equilibrium mean value with respect to the translational energy states). In all cases investigated the present model satisfactorily simulated the principal features of the relaxation effects in nonequilibrium flow of diatomic molecules.
Goehring, Jenny L; Neff, Donna L; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L; Hughes, Michelle L
2014-08-01
This study compared pitch ranking, electrode discrimination, and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) spatial excitation patterns for adjacent physical electrodes (PEs) and the corresponding dual electrodes (DEs) for newer-generation Cochlear devices (Cochlear Ltd., Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia). The first goal was to determine whether pitch ranking and electrode discrimination yield similar outcomes for PEs and DEs. The second goal was to determine if the amount of spatial separation among ECAP excitation patterns (separation index, Σ) between adjacent PEs and the PE-DE pairs can predict performance on the psychophysical tasks. Using non-adaptive procedures, 13 subjects completed pitch ranking and electrode discrimination for adjacent PEs and the corresponding PE-DE pairs (DE versus each flanking PE) from the basal, middle, and apical electrode regions. Analysis of d' scores indicated that pitch-ranking and electrode-discrimination scores were not significantly different, but rather produced similar levels of performance. As expected, accuracy was significantly better for the PE-PE comparison than either PE-DE comparison. Correlations of the psychophysical versus ECAP Σ measures were positive; however, not all test/region correlations were significant across the array. Thus, the ECAP separation index is not sensitive enough to predict performance on behavioral tasks of pitch ranking or electrode discrimination for adjacent PEs or corresponding DEs.
Heisenberg symmetry and collective modes of one dimensional unitary correlated fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abhinav, Kumar; Chandrasekhar, B.; Vyas, Vivek M.; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2017-02-01
The correlated fermionic many-particle system, near infinite scattering length, reveals an underlying Heisenberg symmetry in one dimension, as compared to an SO (2 , 1) symmetry in two dimensions. This facilitates an exact map from the interacting to the non-interacting system, both with and without a harmonic trap, and explains the short-distance scaling behavior of the wave-function. Taking advantage of the phenomenological Calogero-Sutherland-type interaction, motivated by the density functional approach, we connect the ground-state energy shift, to many-body correlation effect. For the excited states, modes at integral values of the harmonic frequency ω are predicted in one dimension, in contrast to the breathing modes with frequency 2ω in two dimensions.
Qualitative analysis of collective mode frequency shifts in L-alanine using terahertz spectroscopy.
Taulbee, Anita R; Heuser, Justin A; Spendel, Wolfgang U; Pacey, Gilbert E
2009-04-01
We have observed collective mode frequency shifts in deuterium-substituted L-alanine, three of which have previously only been calculated. Terahertz (THz) absorbance spectra were acquired at room temperature in the spectral range of 66-90 cm(-1), or 2.0-2.7 THz, for L-alanine (L-Ala) and four L-Ala compounds in which hydrogen atoms (atomic mass = 1 amu) were substituted with deuterium atoms (atomic mass = 2 amu): L-Ala-2-d, L-Ala-3,3,3-d(3), L-Ala-2,3,3,3-d(4), and L-Ala-d(7). The absorbance maxima of two L-Ala collective modes in this spectral range were recorded for multiple spectral measurements of each compound, and the magnitude of each collective mode frequency shift due to increased mass of these specific atoms was evaluated for statistical significance. Calculations were performed which predict the THz absorbance frequencies based on the estimated reduced mass of the modes. The shifts in absorbance maxima were correlated with the location(s) of the substituted deuterium atom(s) in the L-alanine molecule, and the atoms contributing to the absorbing delocalized mode in the crystal structure were deduced using statistics described herein. The statistical analyses presented also indicate that the precision of the method allows reproducible frequency shifts as small as 1 cm(-1) or 0.03 THz to be observed and that these shifts are not random error in the measurement.
Brauer, S. O.; Kustom, R. L.; Uslenghi, P. L.E.
1994-05-31
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is in the process of building a positron accelerator and storage ring, the Advanced Photo source (APS). The RF system for the APS storage ring uses 16 cylindrical TM010-like, reentrant cavities operating at 351.93 MHz to resupply energy lost by the beam due to synchrotron radiation. The stored beam will have approximately 60 bunches, 5 mA per bunch, for a total beam current of 300 mA. Calculations of the threshold current for coupled-bench instabilities in the storage ring have indicated that several beam-induced higher-order modes (HOMs) will reduce the threshold for beam stability and therefore should be damped. Previous data taken using a pillbox cavity showed that it is likely that some of these modes couple, through the coupling loop, from the storage ring cavity into the waveguide. This study investigates the electric and magnetic field configuration of each HOM present in the waveguide. A pillbox and a prototype storage ring cavity, together with various WR2300 waveguide components, are used to obtain the measurements needed for the determination of the mode configuration of the HOMs at the frequencies of interest. To avoid the development of beam instabilities due to the existence of these HOMs in the rf cavity, damping of the modes will be required. The HOMs present in the rf cavity coupling into the loop coupler and traveling through the coupler into the waveguide, may allow damping of some of the HOMs by insertion of dampers into the waveguide adjacent to each cavity.
Direct picosecond time resolution of unimolecular reactions initiated by local mode excitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scherer, N. F.; Doany, F. E.; Zewail, A. H.; Perry, J. W.
1986-01-01
Attention is given to the first results of direct, picosec measurements of the Delta-nu(OH) 5 local mode transition of H2O2. These time-resolved studies yield a direct measure of the unimolecular dissociation rate, and furnish a lower limit for the rate of energy redistribution from the OH stretch to the O-O reaction coordinate. The data thus determined may be used to ascertain the domain of validity for statistical unimolecular reaction rate theories.
Excitation and separation of vortex modes in twisted air-core fiber.
Ye, Jingfu; Li, Yan; Han, Yanhua; Deng, Duo; Guo, Zhongyi; Gao, Jianmin; Sun, Qiaoqun; Liu, Yi; Qu, Shiliang
2016-04-18
An air-core fiber imposed by torsion is investigated in this paper. We refer to this kind of fiber as twisted air-core fiber (TAF). It has been demonstrated that the eigenstates of the TAF consist of guided optical vortex waves with different propagation constants of a different effective index. With the increase of the twist rate, TAF could separate the OAM modes which are near degenerate or degenerate in the air-core fiber. The separation of OAM modes in TAF is conductive to ultralong distance propagation with low crosstalk. TAF could be considered as an ideal candidate fiber for OAM based optical communication. Moreover, we investigated the twisted air-core photonic crystal fiber (TAPCF) which can improve the relative energy distribution of the OAM modes. Compared with TAF, more energy is located in the ring shaped core, which is conductive to ultralong distance propagation. TAF and TAPCF are of potential interest for increasing channel capacity in optical telecommunications, and the result is also of interest to the photonic crystal community.
Walther, M; Plochocka, P; Fischer, B; Helm, H; Uhd Jepsen, P
2002-01-01
We present well-resolved absorption spectra of biological molecules in the far-IR (FIR) spectral region recorded by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). As an illustrative example we discuss the absorption spectra of benzoic acid, its monosubstitutes salicylic acid (2-hydroxy-benzoic acid), 3- and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) in the spectral region between 18 and 150 cm(-1). The spectra exhibit distinct features originating from low-frequency vibrational modes caused by intra- or intermolecular collective motion and lattice modes. Due to the collective origin of the observed modes the absorption spectra are highly sensitive to the overall structure and configuration of the molecules, as well as their environment. The THz-TDS procedure can provide a direct fingerprint of the molecular structure or conformational state of a compound.
Collective behavior of Cr3 + ions in ruby revealed by whispering gallery modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourhill, Jeremy; Goryachev, Maxim; Farr, Warrick G.; Tobar, Michael E.
2015-08-01
We present evidence for the collective action of Cr3 + ion impurities in a highly concentrated ruby crystal coupled to microwave whispering gallery modes (WGMs). The cylindrical geometry of the crystal allows the creation of superradiant or "spin-mode" doublets, with spatial structures similar to that of WGMs. The formation of these spin patterns allows us to observe directly different selection rules, namely, wave number and azimuthal phase matching. The demonstration is made via an avoided level crossing between spin and photon mode doublets as well as absence of coupling between spin modes of different wave numbers. The effect is observable due to strong spin-photon coupling (67 MHz) exceeding both spin ensemble and cavity losses as well as the photon doublet splitting. We demonstrate that a four harmonic oscillator model not only with coupling between photon resonances (0.43 MHz) but also with a spin doublet (73 MHz) is necessary to accurately describe these results.
High-frequency resonances and weakly damped collective modes in highly anisotropic Q1D conductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolesnichenko, Yu. A.; Peschansky, V. G.; Stepanenko, D. I.
2017-02-01
It is shown that weakly damped electromagnetic waves with polarization perpendicular to the direction of highest conductivity can propagate in highly anisotropic organic conductors of the quasi-one dimensional type in a magnetic field. The dispersion relations are analyzed numerically and simple analytic expressions are obtained for the spectrum of the collective modes in a number of limiting cases.
Evaluation of sample hemolysis in blood collected by S-Monovette using vacuum or aspiration mode.
Lippi, Giuseppe; Avanzini, Paola; Musa, Roberta; Sandei, Franca; Aloe, Rosalia; Cervellin, Gianfranco
2013-01-01
In vitro hemolysis can be induced by several biological and technical sources, and may be worsened by forced aspiration of blood in vacuum tubes. This study was aimed to compare the probability of hemolysis by drawing blood with a commercial evacuated blood collection tube, and S-Monovette used either in the "vacuum" or "aspiration" mode. The study population consisted in 20 healthy volunteers. A sample was drawn into 4.0 mL BD Vacutainer serum tube from a vein of one upper arm. Two other samples were drawn with a second venipuncture from a vein of the opposite arm, into 4.0 mL S-Monovette serum tubes, by both vacuum an aspiration modes. After separation, serum potassium, lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and hemolysis index (HI) were tested on Beckman Coulter DxC. In no case the HI exceed the limit of significant hemolysis. As compared with BD Vacutainer, no significant differences were observed for potassium and LD using S-Monovette with vacuum method. Significant increased values of both parameters were however found in serum collected into BD Vacutainer and S-Monovette by vacuum mode, compared to serum drawn by S-Monovette in aspiration mode. The mean potassium bias was 2.2% versus BD Vacutainer and 2.4% versus S-Monovette in vacuum mode, that of LD was 2.7% versus BD Vacutainer and 2.1% versus S-Monovette in vacuum mode. None of these variations exceeded the allowable total error. Although no significant macro-hemolysis was observed with any collection system, the less chance of producing micro-hemolysis by S-Monovette in aspiration mode suggest that this device may be used when a difficult venipuncture combined with the vacuum may increase the probability of spurious hemolysis.
Chen, Yong; Yan, Zhenya
2017-01-01
The effect of derivative nonlinearity and parity-time-symmetric (PT-symmetric) potentials on the wave propagation dynamics is explored in the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation, where the physically interesting Scarf-II and harmonic-Hermite-Gaussian potentials are chosen. We study numerically the regions of unbroken and broken linear PT-symmetric phases and find some stable bright solitons of this model in a wide range of potential parameters even though the corresponding linear PT-symmetric phases are broken. The semielastic interactions between particular bright solitons and exotic incident waves are illustrated such that we find that particular nonlinear modes almost keep their shapes after interactions even if the exotic incident waves have evidently been changed. Moreover, we exert the adiabatic switching on PT-symmetric potential parameters such that a stable nonlinear mode with the unbroken linear PT-symmetric phase can be excited to another stable nonlinear mode belonging to the broken linear PT-symmetric phase.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKenzie, Ross Hugh
A brief overview of past experimental and theoretical investigations of the linear and nonlinear interaction of zero sound with the order parameter collective modes in superfluid ^3He-B is given before introducing the quasiclassical (QC) theory of superfluid ^3He. A new approach to calculating the linear and nonlinear response is presented. The QC propagator is calculated by expanding the low energy Dyson's equation in powers of the nonequilibrium self energy. The expression given for the expansion coefficients, involving products of pairs of equilibrium Green's functions, has a simple diagrammatic representation, and establishes a connection between the QC theory and other theoretical formalisms which have been used to investigate the collective modes. It is shown that the expansion coefficients satisfy Onsager-like relations and some identities required by gauge and galilean invariance. Consequently, this new approach to deriving dynamical equations for the collective modes is more efficient and transparent than solving the QC transport equations. This new approach is used to investigate the linear coupling of zero sound to the order parameter collective modes in weakly inhomogeneous superfluid ^3 He. It makes tractable the treatment of (nonlinear) parametric processes involving zero sound and the collective modes. It is shown that the approximate particle-hole symmetry of the ^3He Fermi liquid determines important selection rules for nonlinear acoustic processes, just as it is well known to do for linear processes. Analogues with nonlinear optics guide the derivation, solution and interpretation of the dynamical equations for a three-wave resonance between two zero sound waves and the J = 2 ^+ order parameter collective mode. It is shown that stimulated Raman scattering and two phonon absorption of zero sound by the J = 2^+ collective mode should be observable when the pump sound wave has energy density larger than about one percent of the superfluid
η collective mode as A1 g Raman resonance in cuprate superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montiel, X.; Kloss, T.; Pépin, C.; Benhabib, S.; Gallais, Y.; Sacuto, A.
2016-01-01
We discuss the possible existence of a spin singlet excitation with charge ±2 (η mode) originating the A1 g Raman resonance in cuprate superconductors. This η mode relates the d -wave superconducting singlet pairing channel to a d -wave charge channel. We show that the η boson forms a particle-particle bound state below the 2 Δ threshold of the particle-hole continuum where Δ is the maximum d -wave gap. Within a generalized random phase approximation and Bethe-Salpeter approximation study, we find that this mode has energies similar to the resonance observed with inelastic neutron scattering below the superconducting (SC) coherent peak at 2 Δ in various SC cuprate compounds. We show that it is a very good candidate for the resonance observed in Raman scattering below the 2 Δ peak in the A1 g symmetry. Since the η mode sits in the S =0 channel, it may be observable via Raman, x-ray, or electron energy loss spectroscopy probes.
Saito, Teruo; Tatematsu, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Yuusuke; Ikeuchi, Shinji; Ogasawara, Shinya; Yamada, Naoki; Ikeda, Ryosuke; Ogawa, Isamu; Idehara, Toshitaka
2012-10-12
Dynamic mode interaction between fundamental and second-harmonic modes has been observed in high-power sub-terahertz gyrotrons [T. Notake et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 225002 (2009); T. Saito et al. Phys. Plasmas 19, 063106 (2012)]. Interaction takes place between a parasitic fundamental or first-harmonic (FH) mode and an operating second-harmonic (SH) mode, as well as among SH modes. In particular, nonlinear excitation of the parasitic FH mode in the hard self-excitation regime with assistance of a SH mode in the soft self-excitation regime was clearly observed. Moreover, both cases of stable two-mode oscillation and oscillation of the FH mode only were observed. These observations and theoretical analyses of the dynamic behavior of the mode interaction verify the nonlinear hard self-excitation of the FH mode.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez-Reyes, S. J.; García, R. A.; Jiménez, A.; Chaplin, W. J.
2003-09-01
We have used observations made by the Global Oscillations at Low Frequency (GOLF) and the Variability of Irradiance and Gravity Oscillations Sun Photometer (VIRGO/SPM) instruments on board the ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory satellite to study variations in the excitation and damping of low angular degree (low-l) solar p-modes on the rising phase of activity cycle 23. Our analysis includes a correction procedure that for the first time allows GOLF data to be ``treated'' as a single homogeneous set, thereby compensating for the change of operational configuration partway through the mission. Over the range 2.5<=ν<=3.5mHz, we uncover an increase in damping and decrease in mode power that is consistent with previous findings. Furthermore, an excellent level of agreement is found between the variations extracted from the GOLF and VIRGO/SPM data. We find no net long-term changes to the modal energy supply rate. However, an analysis of the residuals uncovers the presence of a quasi-periodic signature of period ~1.5 yr (most pronounced for SPM). While it is true that several workers claim to have uncovered similar periodicities in other phenomena related to the near-surface layers of the Sun here, we are at present more inclined to attribute our finding to an artifact of the mode-fitting procedure. We also uncover a significant change in the asymmetry of mode peaks in the GOLF data, as found in previous studies of much longer data sets. These assumed that the dominant contribution to this arose from the switch in operating configuration partway through the mission (which altered the depth in the solar atmosphere sampled by the instrument). However, our preliminary analysis of data collected over the 100 day period beginning 2002 November 19-when the instrument switched back to its original configuration-suggests that this change may have a solar cycle component.
Collective Clusterization in Nuclei and Excited Compound Systems: The Dynamical Cluster-Decay Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Raj K.
Clustering is a general feature of light, N = Z, α-like stable nuclei for both the ground and (intrinsic) excited states. This phenomenon is observed in spontaneous decays of heavy radioactive nuclei, and seems to play an important role in the decay of excited compound systems formed in heavy ion reactions. It is also shown to be present in exotic light-halo, super-heavy and super-superheavy nuclei.
Nonaxial shapes of even–even lantanide and actinide nuclei in excited collective states
Nadirbekov, M. S. Bozarov, O. A.
2016-07-15
Quadrupole-type excited states of even–even nuclei are studied on the basis of arbitrary-triaxiality model. It is shown that the inclusion of high-order terms in the expansion of the rotational-energy operator in the variable γ improves substantially agreement between our theoretical results and respective experimental data. The proposed model makes it possible to explain the intricate character of the spectrum of excited states of even–even lanthanide and actinide nuclei.
A Switched-Mode Breast Coil for 7 T MRI Using Forced-Current Excitation
Bosshard, John C.; Rispoli, Joseph V.; Dimitrov, Ivan E.; Cheshkov, Sergey; McDougall, Mary Preston; Malloy, Craig; Wright, Steven M.
2015-01-01
In high-field magnetic resonance imaging, the radio frequency wavelength within the human body is comparable to anatomical dimensions, resulting in B1 inhomogeneity and nonuniform sensitivity patterns. Thus, this relatively short wavelength presents engineering challenges for RF coil design. In this study, a bilateral breast coil for 1H imaging at 7 T was designed and constructed using forced-current excitation. By forcing equal current through the coil elements, we reduce the effects of coupling between the elements to simplify tuning and to ensure a uniform field across both breasts. To combine the benefits of the higher power efficiency of a unilateral coil with the bilateral coverage of a bilateral coil, a switching circuit was implemented to allow the coil to be reconfigured for imaging the left, right, or both breasts. PMID:25706501
Gilmore, Adam Matthew
2014-01-01
Contemporary spectrofluorimeters comprise exciting light sources, excitation and emission monochromators, and detectors that without correction yield data not conforming to an ideal spectral response. The correction of the spectral properties of the exciting and emission light paths first requires calibration of the wavelength and spectral accuracy. The exciting beam path can be corrected up to the sample position using a spectrally corrected reference detection system. The corrected reference response accounts for both the spectral intensity and drift of the exciting light source relative to emission and/or transmission detector responses. The emission detection path must also be corrected for the combined spectral bias of the sample compartment optics, emission monochromator, and detector. There are several crucial issues associated with both excitation and emission correction including the requirement to account for spectral band-pass and resolution, optical band-pass or neutral density filters, and the position and direction of polarizing elements in the light paths. In addition, secondary correction factors are described including (1) subtraction of the solvent's fluorescence background, (2) removal of Rayleigh and Raman scattering lines, as well as (3) correcting for sample concentration-dependent inner-filter effects. The importance of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable calibration and correction protocols is explained in light of valid intra- and interlaboratory studies and effective spectral qualitative and quantitative analyses including multivariate spectral modeling.
2011-07-18
Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “ Erbium - doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091114 (2005...these acoustic whispering gallery modes is widely used in on- chip microdevices [2,3] to allow Raman- [4] and Erbium - [5] lasers , parametric...Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415(6872), 621–623 (2002). 5. L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M
Analysis of some modes of multibody decays of low excited actinide nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pyatkov, Yu V.; Kamanin, D. V.; Alexandrov, A. A.; Alexandrova, I. A.; Goryainova, Z. I.; Lavrova, J. E.; Mkaza, N.; Malaza, V.; Kuznetsova, E. A.; Strekalovsky, A. O.; Strekalovsky, O. V.; Zhuchko, V. E.
2017-01-01
Careful studies of the fission fragments mass correlation distributions let us to reveal specific linear structures in the region of a big missing mass. It became possible due to applying of effective cleaning of this region from the background linked with scattered fragments. One of the most pronounced structure looks like a rectangle bounded by the magic nuclei. The fission events aggregated in the rectangle show a very low total kinetic energy. We propose possible scenario of forming and decay of the multi-cluster prescission configuration decisive for the experimental findings. This approach is valid as well for treating of another rare decay modes discovered in the past.
Coulomb excitations of monolayer germanene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shih, Po-Hsin; Chiu, Yu-Huang; Wu, Jhao-Ying; Shyu, Feng-Lin; Lin, Ming-Fa
2017-01-01
The feature-rich electronic excitations of monolayer germanene lie in the significant spin-orbit coupling and the buckled structure. The collective and single-particle excitations are diversified by the magnitude and direction of transferred momentum, the Fermi energy and the gate voltage. There are four kinds of plasmon modes, according to the unique frequency- and momentum-dependent phase diagrams. They behave as two-dimensional acoustic modes at long wavelength. However, for the larger momenta, they might change into another kind of undamped plasmons, become the seriously suppressed modes in the heavy intraband e–h excitations, keep the same undamped plasmons, or decline and then vanish in the strong interband e–h excitations. Germanene, silicene and graphene are quite different from one another in the main features of the diverse plasmon modes.
Coulomb excitations of monolayer germanene
Shih, Po-Hsin; Chiu, Yu-Huang; Wu, Jhao-Ying; Shyu, Feng-Lin; Lin, Ming-Fa
2017-01-01
The feature-rich electronic excitations of monolayer germanene lie in the significant spin-orbit coupling and the buckled structure. The collective and single-particle excitations are diversified by the magnitude and direction of transferred momentum, the Fermi energy and the gate voltage. There are four kinds of plasmon modes, according to the unique frequency- and momentum-dependent phase diagrams. They behave as two-dimensional acoustic modes at long wavelength. However, for the larger momenta, they might change into another kind of undamped plasmons, become the seriously suppressed modes in the heavy intraband e–h excitations, keep the same undamped plasmons, or decline and then vanish in the strong interband e–h excitations. Germanene, silicene and graphene are quite different from one another in the main features of the diverse plasmon modes. PMID:28091555
Light-induced collective pseudospin precession resonating with Higgs mode in a superconductor.
Matsunaga, Ryusuke; Tsuji, Naoto; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Sugioka, Arata; Makise, Kazumasa; Uzawa, Yoshinori; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen; Aoki, Hideo; Shimano, Ryo
2014-09-05
Superconductors host collective modes that can be manipulated with light. We show that a strong terahertz light field can induce oscillations of the superconducting order parameter in NbN with twice the frequency of the terahertz field. The result can be captured as a collective precession of Anderson's pseudospins in ac driving fields. A resonance between the field and the Higgs amplitude mode of the superconductor then results in large terahertz third-harmonic generation. The method we present here paves a way toward nonlinear quantum optics in superconductors with driving the pseudospins collectively and can be potentially extended to exotic superconductors for shedding light on the character of order parameters and their coupling to other degrees of freedom. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Nonradiating and radiating modes excited by quantum emitters in open epsilon-near-zero cavities
Liberal, Iñigo; Engheta, Nader
2016-01-01
Controlling the emission and interaction properties of quantum emitters (QEs) embedded within an optical cavity is a key technique in engineering light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, as well as in the development of quantum information processing. State-of-the-art optical cavities are based on high quality factor photonic crystals and dielectric resonators. However, wealthier responses might be attainable with cavities carved in more exotic materials. We theoretically investigate the emission and interaction properties of QEs embedded in open epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) cavities. Using analytical methods and numerical simulations, we demonstrate that open ENZ cavities present the unique property of supporting nonradiating modes independently of the geometry of the external boundary of the cavity (shape, size, topology, etc.). Moreover, the possibility of switching between radiating and nonradiating modes enables a dynamic control of the emission by, and the interaction between, QEs. These phenomena provide unprecedented degrees of freedom in controlling and trapping fields within optical cavities, as well as in the design of cavity opto- and acoustomechanical systems. PMID:27819047
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitra, Vramori; Prakash, N. Hari; Solomon, Infant; Megalingam, Mariammal; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen; Sarma, Arun; Sarma, Bornali
2017-02-01
The typical phenomena of mixed mode oscillations and their associated nonlinear behaviors have been investigated in collisionless magnetized plasma oscillations in a DC glow discharge plasma system. Plasma is produced between a cylindrical mesh grid and a constricted anode. A spherical mesh grid of 80% optical transparency is kept inside a cylindrical grid to produce an inverted fireball. Three Langmuir probes are kept in the ambient plasma to measure the floating potential fluctuations at different positions of the chamber. It has been observed that under certain conditions of discharge voltages and magnetic fields, the mixed mode oscillation phenomena (MMOs) appears, and it shows a sequential alteration with the variation of the magnetic fields and probe positions. Low frequency instability has been observed consistently in various experimental conditions. The mechanisms of the low frequency instabilities along with the origin of the MMOs have been qualitatively explained. Extensive linear and nonlinear analysis using techniques such as fast Fourier transform, recurrence quantification analysis, and the well-known statistical computing, skewness, and kurtosis are carried out to explore the complex dynamics of the MMO appearing in the plasma oscillations under various discharge conditions and external magnetic fields.
Zukeran, Akinori; Looy, P.C.; Chakrabarti, A.; Berezin, A.A.; Jayaram, S.; Cross, J.D.; Ito, Tairo; Chang, J.S.
1999-10-01
High particle collection efficiency in terms of particle weight/volume mg/m{sup 3} is well achieved by a conventional electrostatic precipitator (ESP). However, the collection efficiencies in terms of number density for the ultrafine (particle size between 0.01--0.1 {micro}m) or submicrometer particles by a conventional ESP are still relatively low. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the collection efficiency for ultrafine particles. In this paper, attempts have been made to improve the ultrafine particle collection efficiency by controlling dust loading, as well as using the short pulse energizations. The present version of the ESP consists of three sets of wire-plate-type electrodes. For the ESP under dc operation modes, experimental results show that the collection efficiency for dc applied voltage decreases with increasing dust loading when particle density is larger than 2.5 x 10{sup 10} particles/m{sup 3} due to inefficient collections of ultrafine particles. However, under pulse operating modes without dc bias, high particle collection efficiency for ultrafine particles was obtained, which is thought to be due to the enhancement of particle charging by electrons.
Selective excitation of Fabry-Perot or whispering-gallery mode-type lasing in GaN microrods
Baek, Hyeonjun; Hyun, Jerome K.; Chung, Kunook; Oh, Hongseok; Yi, Gyu-Chul
2014-11-17
Lasing from long semiconductor nanorods is dictated by Fabry-Perot (FP) resonances whereas that from large-diameter microrods is determined by whispering gallery modes (WGMs). Lengths and diameters intermediate between the two systems represent an important size regime for photonics and electronics, but have not been studied in detail. Here, we report on the detection of FP and WGM lasing emissions from a single GaN microrod, and demonstrate the ability to switch between the two lasing mechanisms by translating the excitation beam along the microrod. The competition between FP and WGM-type lasing was studied by finite-difference time-domain simulation and statistical analysis by measuring microrods of various diameters. Finally, control over the relative lasing intensities originating from either FPs or WGMs was demonstrated by tuning the polarization of the emission.
Allmond, James M
2016-01-01
The synthesis of Coulomb excitation and decay offers very practical advantages in the study of nuclear shapes and collectivity. For instance, Coulomb excitation is unique in its ability to measure the electric quadrupole moments, i.e., I2 ||M(E2)||I1 matrix elements, of excited, non-isomeric states in atomic nuclei, providing information on the intrinsic shape. However, the Coulomb excitation analysis and structural inter- pretation can be strongly dependent upon weak transitions or decay branches, which are often obscured by the Compton background. Transitions of particular interest are those low in energy and weak in intensity due to the E 5 attenuation factor. These weak decay branches can often be determined with high precision from -decay studies. Recently, 106Mo and 110Cd were studied by both Coulomb excitation and decay. Preliminary results of new weak decay branches following decay of 110mAg to 110Cd are presented; these results will challenge competing interpretations based on vibrations and configuration mixing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allmond, J. M.
2016-09-01
The synthesis of Coulomb excitation and β decay offers very practical advantages in the study of nuclear shapes and collectivity. For instance, Coulomb excitation is unique in its ability to measure the electric quadrupole moments, i.e., < I_2^π allel M(E2)allel I_1^π > matrix elements, of excited, non-isomeric states in atomic nuclei, providing information on the intrinsic shape. However, the Coulomb excitation analysis and structural interpretation can be strongly dependent upon weak transitions or decay branches, which are often obscured by the Compton background. Transitions of particular interest are those low in energy and weak in intensity due to the Eγ5 attenuation factor. These weak decay branches can often be determined with high precision from β-decay studies. Recently, 106Mo and 110Cd were studied by both Coulomb excitation and β decay. Preliminary results of new weak decay branches following β decay of 110mAg to 110Cd are presented; these results will challenge competing interpretations based on vibrations and configuration mixing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, Hongchen; Huan, Qiang; Wang, Qiangzhong; Li, Faxin
2017-02-01
Excitation of single fundamental torsional wave T(0, 1) mode is of practical importance in inspecting or monitoring the structural integrity of pipelines, as T(0, 1) wave is the only non-dispersive mode in pipe-like structures. This work presents a piezoelectric ring array to excite and receive single T(0, 1) mode which is made up of a series of equally-spaced face-shear d24 PZT elements around the pipe. Firstly, we proposed that single T(0, 1) mode can be excited by the piezoelectric ring, when the number of d24 PZT elements is slightly greater than n, where F(n, 2) is the highest circumferential order flexural torsional mode within the frequency bandwidth of the drive signal. Then this proposed principle was confirmed by finite element simulations. Later, experimental testing was conducted on a 100 mm outer diameter, 3 mm thick aluminum pipe. Results show that the ring of 24 face-shear d24 PZT elements can suppress all the non-axisymmetric flexural modes at the excitation frequency of 150 kHz so that single T(0, 1) mode is generated. Moreover, such a piezoelectric ring transducer can also filter flexural modes and receive the T(0, 1) mode only at 150 kHz. Note that here the highest circumferential order flexural torsional mode within the frequency bandwidth is F(20, 2), so the experimental results are in good agreement with the proposed principle. The presented ring of face-shear d24 PZT elements is very suitable for severing as the T(0, 1) wave transducer in structural health monitoring system, as it is cost-effective and no external load is required for operation.
Choke Flange for High Power RF Components Excited by TE01 Mode
Yeremian, A.Dian; /SLAC
2009-12-11
A multifaceted program to study high gradient structures and properties of RF breakdown is under way at SLAC. This program includes testing of simplified versions of traveling wave and standing wave structures at 11.4 GHz. [Dolgashev] RF power is fed into these structures using a TE01 mode-launcher. An RF flange is used to connect the mode-launcher to the test-structure. The rf currents flow through either the stainless steel lip on the flange or, in an alternate assembly, through a copper gasket pressed between the same stainless steel lips. In a recent experiment with a single cell traveling wave structure, a flange with stainless steel lips was irreversibly damaged at RF power about 90 MW and {approx}100 ns pulse length. We suggest an alternative flange that does not rely on metal-to-metal contact in the rf power transfer region. The idea is to use an asymmetric choke flange, where the choke grove is cut into a conflate flange on the mode-launcher. The structures themselves will have a simpler, flat conflate flange with rounded corners on the vacuum side. The Vacuum seal is achieved with a Cu gasket between these two flanges above the RF region. We have designed a flange with a choke which is almost field free in the vacuum gasket region, whose technical specifications and RF properties are presented below. Design simulations were conducted using HFSS, a 3D finite element code that solves electromagnetic fields in complex structures. Figure 1 demonstrates the projected physical look of the choke flange, while the table next to it lists the critical parameters. The maximum electric field for in this geometry is on axis at 33.6MV/m for 100 MW input. The electric field near the gasket, meaning at the top of the choke gap is at 125kV/m or 1.25kV/cm. Figure 2 demonstrates the electric field strength profile in the geometry for 100 MW input power. The maximum magnetic field for in this geometry is near the pipe at 59kA/m for 100 MW input. The magnetic field at the
Efficient excitation of a two-level atom by a single photon in a propagating mode
Wang Yimin; Minar, Jiri; Sheridan, Lana; Scarani, Valerio
2011-06-15
State mapping between atoms and photons, and photon-photon interactions play an important role in scalable quantum information processing. We consider the interaction of a two-level atom with a quantized propagating pulse in free space and study the probability P{sub e}(t) of finding the atom in the excited state at any time t. This probability is expected to depend on (i) the quantum state of the pulse field and (ii) the overlap between the pulse and the dipole pattern of the atomic spontaneous emission. We show that the second effect is captured by a single parameter {Lambda}(set-membership sign)[0,8{pi}/3], obtained by weighting the dipole pattern with the numerical aperture. Then, P{sub e}(t) can be obtained by solving time-dependent Heisenberg-Langevin equations. We provide detailed solutions for both single-photon Fock state and coherent states and for various temporal shapes of the pulses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanner, Christian; Manca, Carine; Leutwyler, Samuel
2005-05-01
The excited-state hydrogen-atom transfer (ESHAT) reaction of the 7-hydroxyquinoline•(NH3)3 cluster involves a crossing from the initially excited π1π* to a π1σ* state. The nonadiabatic coupling between these states induces homolytic dissociation of the O-H bond and H-atom transfer to the closest NH3 molecule, forming a biradical structure denoted HT1, followed by two more Grotthus-type translocation steps along the ammonia wire. We investigate this reaction at the configuration interaction singles level, using a basis set with diffuse orbitals. Intrinsic reaction coordinate calculations of the enol→HT1 step predict that the H-atom transfer is preceded and followed by extensive twisting and bending of the ammonia wire, as well as large O -H⋯NH3 hydrogen bond contraction and expansion. The calculations also predict an excited-state proton transfer path involving synchronous proton motions; however, it lies 20-25kcal/mol above the ESHAT path. Higher singlet and triplet potential curves are calculated along the ESHAT reaction coordinate: Two singlet-triplet curve crossings occur within the HT1 product well and intersystem crossing to these Tn states branches the reaction back to the enol reactant side, decreasing the ESHAT yield. In fact, a product yield of ≈40% 7-ketoquinoline•(NH3)3 is experimentally observed. The vibrational mode selectivity of the enol→HT1 reaction step [C. Manca, C. Tanner, S. Coussan, A. Bach, and S. Leutwyler, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 2578 (2004)] is shown to be due to the large sensitivity of the diffuse πσ* state to vibrational displacements along the intermolecular coordinates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Décanini, Yves; Folacci, Antoine; Ould El Hadj, Mohamed
2015-07-01
With the possibility of testing massive gravity in the context of black hole physics in mind, we consider the radiation produced by a particle plunging from slightly below the innermost stable circular orbit into a Schwarzschild black hole. In order to circumvent the difficulties associated with black hole perturbation theory in massive gravity, we use a toy model in which we replace the graviton field with a massive scalar field and consider a linear coupling between the particle and this field. We compute the waveform generated by the plunging particle and study its spectral content. This permits us to highlight and interpret some important effects occurring in the plunge regime which are not present for massless fields, such as (i) the decreasing and vanishing, as the mass parameter increases, of the signal amplitude generated when the particle moves on quasicircular orbits near the innermost stable circular orbit; and (ii) in addition to the excitation of the quasinormal modes, the excitation of the quasibound states of the black hole.