Magnetization reversal using excitation of collective modes in nanodot matrices
Elyasi, Mehrdad; Bhatia, Charanjit S.; Yang, Hyunsoo
2015-01-01
The large arrays of magnetic dots are the building blocks of magnonic crystals and the emerging bit patterned media for future recording technology. In order to fully utilize the functionalities of high density magnetic nanodots, a method for the selective reversal of a single nanodot in a matrix of dots is desired. We have proposed a method for magnetization reversal of a single nanodot with microwave excitation in a matrix of magneto-statically interacting dots. The method is based on the excitation of collective modes and the spatial anomaly in the microwave power absorption. We perform numerical simulations to demonstrate the possibility of switching a single dot from any initial state of a 3 by 3 matrix of dots, and develop a theoretical model for the phenomena. We discuss the applicability of the proposed method for introducing defect modes in magnonic crystals as well as for future magnetic recording. PMID:25601554
The collective excitation of g-modes in the sun
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolff, C. L.
1980-01-01
Oscillations of the solar interior (linear g-modes) may be strongly driven by the collective influence of all the modes upon the nuclear reactions in the core. This heretofore neglected effect could couple the modes, reduce the effective amplitudes near the center, and spatially concentrate most of the oscillation energy into just a portion of the radiative interior. If operating at sufficient strength, this can reverse the conventional conclusion, drawn from single mode calculations, that almost all solar g-modes are damped. Furthermore, it would put the theory into rough harmony with three otherwise troubling observations: (1) the 'low' neutrino flux measured by Davis (1978), (2) the high correspondence found by Wolff (1976) between recurrence periods in solar activity and the rotational beat periods of g-modes, and (3) the fluctuations in the sun's diameter which imply g-mode activity at high angular harmonics (Hill and Caudell 1979). A nonlinear expression is derived for the local rate of work done on an array of oscillation modes by the nuclear reactions. Three additional tests of the model are suggested.
Collective excitations of atoms and field modes in coupled cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enaki, Nicolae A.; Bazgan, Sergiu
2014-04-01
The exact solution for the system formed from two or three q-bits doped in coupled cavities is discussed. The problem of indistinguishability between the excited radiators and the photons is analyzed using the intrinsic symmetry of the system. It is demonstrated that the solution is drastically simplified when the radiators and photons are considered as new polariton excitations. The exact solution of the Schrödinger equation is obtained for single and two excitations in each cavity considering the indistinguishability principle. This approach opens new possibilities for the interpretation of quantum entangled states in comparison with the traditional distinct situation (see e.g. Napoli and Messina 2001 Fortschr. Phys. 49 1059; Enaki and Bazgan 2013 Phys. Scr. T153 014022) due to the decrease in the number of degrees of freedom in the system. Considering that the energy of coupling between the radiators and the photons is larger than that of the coupling with an external vacuum field, we have found the master equation for the dumping of collective excitations. The time dependence of the population for new dressed quasi-levels of energy is obtained by solving the master equation analytically and numerically.
Collective excitations in quantum Hall liquid crystals: Single-mode approximation calculations
Lapilli, Cintia M.; Wexler, Carlos
2006-02-15
A variety of recent experiments probing the low-temperature transport properties of quantum Hall systems have suggested an interpretation in terms of liquid crystalline mesophases dubbed quantum Hall liquid crystals. The single mode approximation (SMA) has been a useful tool for the determination of the excitation spectra of various systems such as phonons in {sup 4}He and in the fractional quantum Hall effect. In this paper we calculate (via the SMA) the spectrum of collective excitations in a quantum Hall liquid crystal by considering nematic, tetratic, and hexatic generalizations of Laughlin's trial wave function having twofold, fourfold, and sixfold broken rotational symmetry, respectively. In the limit of zero wave vector q the dispersion of these modes is singular, with a gap that is dependent on the direction along which q=0 is approached for nematic and tetratic liquid crystalline states, but remains regular in the hexatic state, as permitted by the fourth order wave-vector dependence of the (projected) oscillator strength and static structure factor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahrami, A.; Tavares, P. E. S.; Fritsch, A. R.; Tonin, Y. R.; Telles, G. D.; Bagnato, V. S.; Henn, E. A. L.
2015-07-01
We investigate the momentum distribution of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) under the effect of an external small oscillatory perturbation. The condensate is perturbed, and we let it evolve in-trap after which we perform standard time-of-flight absorption imaging. The momentum distribution is extracted and analyzed as a function of the in-trap free evolution time. We show that the momentum distribution has its features varying periodically with the same frequency as the quadrupolar mode displayed by the atomic gas. We discuss the consequences of this finding for the study of turbulent atomic BECs.
Competition between collective and noncollective excitation modes at high spin in Ba124
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Khatib, A.; Singh, A. K.; Hübel, H.; Bringel, P.; Bürger, A.; Domscheit, J.; Neußer-Neffgen, A.; Schönwaßer, G.; Hagemann, G. B.; Hansen, C. Ronn; Herskind, B.; Sletten, G.; Wilson, J. N.; Timár, J.; Algora, A.; Dombrádi, Zs.; Gál, J.; Kalinka, G.; Molnár, J.; Nyakó, B. M.; Sohler, D.; Zolnai, L.; Clark, R. M.; Cromaz, M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Ward, D.; Amro, H.; Ma, W. C.; Kmiecik, M.; Maj, A.; Styczen, J.; Zuber, K.; Hauschild, K.; Korichi, A.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Roccaz, J.; Siem, S.; Hannachi, F.; Scheurer, J. N.; Bednarczyk, P.; Byrski, Th.; Curien, D.; Dorvaux, O.; Duchêne, G.; Gall, B.; Khalfallah, F.; Piqueras, I.; Robin, J.; Görgen, A.; Juhász, K.; Patel, S. B.; Evans, A. O.; Rainovski, G.; Benzoni, G.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Leoni, S.; Mason, P.; Million, B.; Paleni, A.; Sacchi, R.; Wieland, O.; Petrache, C. M.; Petrache, D.; Rana, G. La; Moro, R.; De Angelis, G.; Lisle, J. C.; Cederwall, B.; Lagergren, K.; Lieder, R. M.; Podsvirova, E.; Gast, W.; Jäger, H.; Redon, N.
2006-07-01
High-spin states in Ba124 were investigated in two experiments using the Ni64(Ni64, 4n)Ba124 reaction at three different beam energies. In-beam γ-ray coincidences were measured with the Euroball and Gammasphere detector arrays. In the experiment with Euroball, the CsI detector array Diamant was employed to discriminate against charged-particle channels. Six new rotational bands were observed in Ba124, and previously known bands were extended to higher spins. One of the bands shows a transition from collective to noncollective behavior at high spins. Configuration assignments are suggested on the basis of comparison with cranked shell model and cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations.
Collective excitations in neutron-star crusts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamel, N.; Page, D.; Reddy, S.
2016-01-01
We explore the spectrum of low-energy collective excitations in the crust of a neutron star, especially in the inner region where neutron-proton clusters are immersed in a sea of superfluid neutrons. The speeds of the different modes are calculated systematically from the nuclear energy density functional theory using a Skyrme functional fitted to essentially all experimental atomic mass data.
Collective excitations in itinerant spiral magnets
Kampf, A.P.
1996-01-01
We investigate the coupled charge and spin collective excitations in the spiral phases of the two-dimensional Hubbard model using a generalized random-phase approximation. Already for small doping the spin-wave excitations are strongly renormalized due to low-energy particle-hole excitations. Besides the three Goldstone modes of the spiral state the dynamical susceptibility reveals an extra zero mode for low doping and strong coupling values signaling an intrinsic instability of the homogeneous spiral state. In addition, near-zero modes are found in the vicinity of the spiral pitch wave number for out-of-plane spin fluctuations. Their origin is found to be the near degeneracy with staggered noncoplanar spiral states which, however, are not the lowest energy Hartree-Fock solutions among the homogeneous spiral states. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Gilson, Erik P.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Efthimion, Philip C.; Majeski, Richard; Startsev, Edward A.; Wang, Hua; Koppell, Stewart; Talley, Matthew
2013-05-15
Transverse dipole and quadrupole modes have been excited in a one-component cesium ion plasma trapped in the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) in order to characterize their properties and understand the effect of their excitation on equivalent long-distance beam propagation. The PTSX device is a compact laboratory Paul trap that simulates the transverse dynamics of a long, intense charge bunch propagating through an alternating-gradient transport system by putting the physicist in the beam's frame of reference. A pair of arbitrary function generators was used to apply trapping voltage waveform perturbations with a range of frequencies and, by changing which electrodes were driven with the perturbation, with either a dipole or quadrupole spatial structure. The results presented in this paper explore the dependence of the perturbation voltage's effect on the perturbation duration and amplitude. Perturbations were also applied that simulate the effect of random lattice errors that exist in an accelerator with quadrupole magnets that are misaligned or have variance in their field strength. The experimental results quantify the growth in the equivalent transverse beam emittance that occurs due to the applied noise and demonstrate that the random lattice errors interact with the trapped plasma through the plasma's internal collective modes. Coherent periodic perturbations were applied to simulate the effects of magnet errors in circular machines such as storage rings. The trapped one component plasma is strongly affected when the perturbation frequency is commensurate with a plasma mode frequency. The experimental results, which help to understand the physics of quiescent intense beam propagation over large distances, are compared with analytic models.
Collective Excitations in Electron-Hole Bilayers
Kalman, G. J.; Hartmann, P.; Donko, Z.; Golden, K. I.
2007-06-08
We report a combined analytic and molecular dynamics analysis of the collective mode spectrum of a bipolar (electron-hole) bilayer in the strong coupling classical limit. A robust, isotropic energy gap is identified in the out-of-phase spectra, generated by the combined effect of correlations and of the excitation of the bound dipoles. In the in-phase spectra we identify longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes wholly maintained by correlations. Strong nonlinear generation of higher harmonics of the fundamental dipole oscillation frequency and the transfer of harmonics between different modes is observed.
Collective charge excitations along cell membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manousakis, E.
2005-07-01
A significant part of the thin layers of counter-ions adjacent to the exterior and interior surfaces of a cell membrane form quasi-two-dimensional (2D) layers of mobile charge. Collective charge density oscillations, known as plasmon modes, in these 2D charged systems of counter-ions are predicted in the present paper. This is based on a calculation of the self-consistent response of this system to a fast electric field fluctuation. The possibility that the membrane channels might be using these excitations to carry out fast communication is suggested and experiments are proposed to reveal the existence of such excitations.
Mitigation of mode instabilities by dynamic excitation of fiber modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otto, Hans-Jürgen; Jauregui, Cesar; Stutzki, Fabian; Jansen, Florian; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas
2013-03-01
By dynamically varying the power content of the excited fiber modes of the main amplifier of a fiber-based MOPA system at high average output power levels, it was possible to mitigate mode instabilities to a large extent. In order to achieve the excitation variation, we used an acousto-optic deflector in front of the Yb-doped rod-type fiber. Therewith, it was possible to significantly increase both the average and the instantaneous minimum power content of the fundamental mode. This, consequently, led to a substantial improvement of the beam quality and pointing stability at power levels well beyond the threshold of mode instabilities.
Fletcher, Daniel A.; Kino, Gordon S.
2002-11-05
A lens system including a collection lens and a microlens spaced from the collection lens adjacent the region to be observed. The diameter of the observablel region depends substantially on the radius of the microlens.
Mode Selective Excitation Using Coherent Control Spectroscopy
Singh, Ajay K.; Konradi, Jakow; Materny, Arnulf; Sarkar, Sisir K.
2008-11-14
Femtosecond time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) gives access to ultrafast molecular dynamics. However, femtosecond laser pulses are spectrally broad and therefore coherently excite several molecular modes. While the temporal resolution is high, usually no mode-selective excitation is possible. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of selectively exciting specific molecular vibrations in solution phase with shaped fs laser excitation using a feedback-controlled optimization technique guided by an evolutionary algorithm. This approach is also used to obtain molecule-specific CARS spectra from a mixture of different substances. The optimized phase structures of the fs pulses are characterized to get insight into the control process. Possible applications of the spectrum control are discussed.
Interchange mode excited by trapped energetic ions
Nishimura, Seiya
2015-07-15
The kinetic energy principle describing the interaction between ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes with trapped energetic ions is revised. A model is proposed on the basis of the reduced ideal MHD equations for background plasmas and the bounce-averaged drift-kinetic equation for trapped energetic ions. The model is applicable to large-aspect-ratio toroidal devices. Specifically, the effect of trapped energetic ions on the interchange mode in helical systems is analyzed. Results show that the interchange mode is excited by trapped energetic ions, even if the equilibrium states are stable to the ideal interchange mode. The energetic-ion-induced branch of the interchange mode might be associated with the fishbone mode in helical systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gayen, Saurabh; Behera, Surjyo; Bose, Shyamalendu
2006-03-01
The Raman spectra of a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) consist of three types of modes; (i) the high frequency G-mode arising out of tangential oscillations of carbon atoms, (ii) D-mode due to the defects in the nanotube and (iii) the low frequency radial breathing mode (RBM) resulting out of radial oscillations of the carbon atoms. In this paper we theoretically investigate the effects of collective oscillations of electrons (plasmons) on the G and RBM modes in the Raman spectra of a filled and unfilled metallic SWNT. Inclusion of plasmon and the filling (rattler) atom produces four peaks in the Raman spectra in general. The positions and relative strengths of the Raman peaks [1] depend upon phonon frequencies of the nanotube and that of the filling atoms, the plasmon frequency, the strength of the electron-phonon interaction, strength of the interactions between the nanotube phonons and rattler phonon and radius of the nanotube [2]. Usually the intensity of the G-mode is higher than that of RBM. For heavier filling atoms the frequency of the rattler phonon is lower in value, which may broaden the peak to such an extent that it may disappear in the background spectrum altogether. 1.S.M. Bose et al., Physica B 351, 129 (2004) 2. S.M. Bose, S.Gayen and S. Behera, Phys. Rev. B 72, 153402 (2005).
Atmospheric Excitation of Planetary Normal Modes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tanimoto, Toshiro
2001-01-01
The objectives of this study were to: (1) understand the phenomenon of continuous free oscillations of the Earth and (2) examine the idea of using this phenomenon for planetary seismology. We first describe the results on (1) and present our evaluations of the idea (2) in the final section. In 1997, after almost forty years since the initial attempt by Benioff et al, continuous free oscillations of the Earth were discovered. Spheroidal fundamental modes between 2 and 7 millihertz are excited continuously with acceleration amplitudes of about 0.3-0.5 nanogals. The signal is now commonly found in virtually all data recorded by STS-1 type broadband seismometers at quiet sites. Seasonal variation in amplitude and the existence of two coupled modes between the atmosphere and the solid Earth support that these oscillations are excited by the atmosphere. Stochastic excitation due to atmospheric turbulence is a favored mechanism, providing a good match between theory and data. The atmosphere has ample energy to support this theory because excitation of these modes require only 500-10000 W whereas the atmosphere contains about 117 W of kinetic energy. An application of this phenomenon includes planetary seismology, because other planets may be oscillating due to atmospheric excitation. The interior structure of planets could be learned by determining the eigenfrequencies in the continuous free oscillations. It is especially attractive to pursue this idea for tectonically quiet planets, since quakes may be too infrequent to be recorded by seismic instruments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldreich, Peter; Murray, Norman; Kumar, Pawan
1994-01-01
We investigate the rates at which energy is supplied to individual p-modes as a function of their frequencies nu and angular degrees l. The observationally determined rates are compared with those calculated on the hypothesis that the modes are stochastically excited by turbulent convection. The observationally determined excitation rate is assumed to be equal to the product of the mode's energy E and its (radian) line width Gamma. We obtain E from the mode's mean square surface velocity with the aid of its velocity eigenfuction. We assume that Gamma measures the mode's energy decay rate, even though quasi-elastic scattering may dominate true absorption. At fixed l, E(Gamma) arises as nu(exp 7) at low nu, reaches a peak at nu approximately equal 3.5 mHz, and then declines as nu(exp 4.4) at higher nu . At fixed nu, E(Gamma) exhibits a slow decline with increasing l. To calculate energy input rates, P(sub alpha), we rely on the mixing-length model of turbulent convection. We find entropy fluctuations to be about an order of magnitude more effective than the Reynolds stress in exciting p-modes . The calculated P(sub alpha) mimic the nu(exp 7) dependence of E(Gamma) at low nu and the nu(exp -4.4) dependence at high nu. The break of 11.4 powers in the nu-dependence of E(Gamma) across its peak is attributed to a combination of (1) the reflection of high-frequency acoustic waves just below the photosphere where the scale height drops precipitously and (2) the absence of energy-bearing eddies with short enough correlation times to excite high-frequency modes. Two parameters associated with the eddy correlation time are required to match the location and shape of the break. The appropriate values of these parameters, while not unnatural, are poorly constrained by theory. The calculated P(sub alpha) can also be made to fit the magnitude of E(Gamma) with a reasonable value for the eddy aspect ratio. Our resutls suggest a possible explanation for the decline of mode energy
Collective excitations in soft-sphere fluids.
Bryk, Taras; Gorelli, Federico; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Santoro, Mario; Scopigno, Tullio
2014-10-01
Despite that the thermodynamic distinction between a liquid and the corresponding gas ceases to exist at the critical point, it has been recently shown that reminiscence of gaslike and liquidlike behavior can be identified in the supercritical fluid region, encoded in the behavior of hypersonic waves dispersion. By using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and calculations within the approach of generalized collective modes, we provide an accurate determination of the dispersion of longitudinal and transverse collective excitations in soft-sphere fluids. Specifically, we address the decreasing rigidity upon density reduction along an isothermal line, showing that the positive sound dispersion, an excess of sound velocity over the hydrodynamic limit typical for dense liquids, displays a nonmonotonic density dependence strictly correlated to that of thermal diffusivity and kinematic viscosity. This allows rationalizing recent observation parting the supercritical state based on the Widom line, i.e., the extension of the coexistence line. Remarkably, we show here that the extremals of transport properties such as thermal diffusivity and kinematic viscosity provide a robust definition for the boundary between liquidlike and gaslike regions, even in those systems without a liquid-gas binodal line. Finally, we discuss these findings in comparison with recent results for Lennard-Jones model fluid and with the notion of the "rigid-nonrigid" fluid separation lines. PMID:25375488
Collective dynamical skyrmion excitations in a magnonic crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mruczkiewicz, M.; Gruszecki, P.; Zelent, M.; Krawczyk, M.
2016-05-01
We investigate theoretically the magnetization dynamics in a skyrmion magnonic crystal. Collective excitations are studied in a chain of touching ferromagnetic nanodots in a skyrmion magnetic configuration. The determined dispersion relation of coupled skyrmions shows a periodic dependence on the wave vector, a characteristic feature of the band structure in magnonic crystals. By spatial analysis of the magnetization amplitude in the magnonic bands we identify the excited modes as breathing and clockwise gyrotropic dynamic skyrmions. Propagating with a negative and positive group velocity, respectively, these high- and low-frequency excitations can be further explored theoretically and experimentally for fundamental properties and technological applications in spintronics and magnonics.
Nuclear collective excitations: A relativistic density functional approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piekarewicz, J.
2015-08-01
Density functional theory provides the most promising, and likely unique, microscopic framework to describe nuclear systems ranging from finite nuclei to neutron stars. Properly optimized energy density functionals define a new paradigm in nuclear theory where predictive capability is possible and uncertainty quantification is demanded. Moreover, density functional theory offers a consistent approach to the linear response of the nuclear ground state. In this paper, we review the fundamental role played by nuclear collective modes in uncovering novel excitations and in guiding the optimization of the density functional. Indeed, without collective excitations the determination of the density functional remains incomplete. Without collective excitations, the equation of state of neutron-rich matter continues to be poorly constrained. We conclude with a discussion of some of the remaining challenges in this field and propose a path forward to address these challenges.
Collective excitations in layered organic conductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonačić Lošić, Ž.; Bjeliš, A.; Županović, P.
2010-06-01
We apply the dielectric formalism within random phase approximation (RPA) and G0W0 approximation to the tight-binding multi-band systems with the three-dimensional long-range Coulomb interaction in order to calculate the one-particle spectral function for TTF-TCNQ, and to investigate dielectric properties of quasi-two-dimensional conductor ‧-(BEDT-TTF)2SF5CH2CF2SO3. In the model with two one-dimensional electron bands per donor and acceptor chains, appropriate for TTF-TCNQ, the RPA dielectric response comprises a low energy collective mode due to the strong coupling between the plasmon and the dipolar modes, together with the mode at order of magnitude higher energies. The first mode is responsible for the absence of low-energy quasi-particles and the appearance of broad dispersion at low energies in the spectral function. The wide structure at higher energies is due the second mode. These results are in the qualitative agreement with the ARPES data. In the model with two conducting bands, one one-dimensional and the other two-dimensional, which can be applied to ‧-(BEDT-TTF)2SF5CH2CF2SO3, the coupling between the plasmon and the dipolar mode leads to the appearance of the low energy collective mode perpendicular to the stacks, while the low energy dipolar mode persists along the stacks, as is observed in optical measurements.
Selective mode excitation in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galea, A. D.; Couny, F.; Coupland, S.; Roberts, P. J.; Sabert, H.; Knight, J. C.; Birks, T. A.; Russell, Philip St. J.
2005-04-01
Modes are selectively excited by launching light through the cladding from the side into a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Measuring the total output power at the end of the fiber as a function of the angle of incidence of the exciting laser beam provides a powerful diagnostic for characterizing the cladding bandgap. Furthermore, various types of modes on either side of the bandgap are excited individually, and their near-field images are obtained.
Collective Modes in a Quantum Solid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gazit, Snir; Podolsky, Daniel; Nonne, Heloise; Auerbach, Assa; Arovas, Daniel P.
2016-08-01
We provide a theoretical explanation for the optical modes observed in inelastic neutron scattering on the bcc solid phase of helium 4 [T. Markovich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 195301 (2002)]. We argue that these excitations are amplitude (Higgs) modes associated with fluctuations of the crystal order parameter within the unit cell. We present an analysis of the modes based on an effective Ginzburg-Landau model, classify them according to their symmetry properties, and compute their signature in inelastic neutron scattering experiments. In addition, we calculate the dynamical structure factor by means of an ab intio quantum Monte Carlo simulation and find a finite frequency excitation at zero relative momentum.
Low-Energy Dipole Modes of Excitation Below the Neutron Separation Energy
Tonchev, A. P.; Howell, C. R.; Tornow, W.; Angell, C.; Boswell, M.; Karwowski, H. J.; Kelley, J. H.; Tsoneva, N.
2006-03-13
The nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments have been performed at the High Intensity Gamma Source (HI{gamma}S) on 138Ba nuclei using four 60% efficient HPGe detectors. Excitation energies, spin, parities, and decay branching ratios were measured for the low-energy dipole modes of excitations. Experimental results on the parity measurement below the neutron separation energy shows that all dipole states in this energy region exhibit E1 excitation. These results are consistent with theoretical prediction of the collective isoscalar nature of this low-energy mode of excitation.
Nuclear collective excitations in a two-phase coexistence region
Aguirre, R. M.; De Paoli, A. L.
2011-04-15
The relation between collective modes and phase transitions in nuclear matter is examined. The dispersion relations for the low-lying excitations in a linear approach are evaluated within a Landau-Fermi liquid scheme by assuming coexisting phases in thermodynamical equilibrium. Temperature and isospin composition are used as relevant parameters. The in-medium nuclear interaction is provided by a recently proposed density functional model. The low density liquid-gas phase transition is taken as a typical situation for examination. We found significative modifications in the energy spectrum, within a certain range of temperatures and isospin asymmetry, due to the separation of matter into independent phases. The influence of the electromagnetic interaction over the dispersion relation of these collective excitations is also examined.
Magnetotail dynamics excited by the streaming tearing mode
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sato, T.; Walker, R. J.
1982-01-01
Magnetotail reconnection in the presence of plasma streaming parallel to the neutral sheet is modeled. The tearing mode is excited much more violently in the case with parallel plasma flow in the plasma sheet than in the case with no flow. The flow patterns for the nonlinear resistive tearing mode and the streaming tearing mode are much more complex than those for the linear tearing mode. Flow vortices are observed in both cases.
Excitation of inertial modes in an experimental spherical Couette flow.
Rieutord, Michel; Triana, Santiago Andrés; Zimmerman, Daniel S; Lathrop, Daniel P
2012-08-01
Spherical Couette flow (flow between concentric rotating spheres) is one of flows under consideration for the laboratory magnetic dynamos. Recent experiments have shown that such flows may excite Coriolis restored inertial modes. The present work aims to better understand the properties of the observed modes and the nature of their excitation. Using numerical solutions describing forced inertial modes of a uniformly rotating fluid inside a spherical shell, we first identify the observed oscillations of the Couette flow with nonaxisymmetric, retrograde, equatorially antisymmetric inertial modes, confirming first attempts using a full sphere model. Although the model has no differential rotation, identification is possible because a large fraction of the fluid in a spherical Couette flow rotates rigidly. From the observed sequence of the excited modes appearing when the inner sphere is slowed down by step, we identify a critical Rossby number associated with a given mode, below which it is excited. The matching between this critical number and the one derived from the phase velocity of the numerically computed modes shows that these modes are excited by an instability likely driven by the critical layer that develops in the shear layer, staying along the tangent cylinder of the inner sphere. PMID:23005851
Collective excitations and dust particles in space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilra, D. P.
1972-01-01
It is shown that observed bands at 2200 A and in the 10 micron region are most probably due to collective excitations of dust particles. The following specific conclusions are drawn: (1) the 2200 A interstellar band is very likely due to graphite particles; (2) these graphite particles should be very small, approximately spherical, and should have no coating whatsoever; (3) the identification of circumstellar and interstellar silicates from the observations in the 10 micron region does not seem to be correct; (4) very valuable information about the shape of the circumstellar and interstellar dust particles can be obtained directly from observations; and (5) narrow band polarization measurements in the spectral regions of these bands will be very helpful in determining the shape of the particles.
Cavity modes and their excitations in elliptical plasmonic patch nanoantennas.
Chakrabarty, Ayan; Wang, Feng; Minkowski, Fred; Sun, Kai; Wei, Qi-Huo
2012-05-21
We present experimental and theoretical studies of two dimensional periodic arrays of elliptical plasmonic patch nanoantennas. Experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the azimuthal symmetry breaking of the metal patches leads to the occurrence of even and odd resonant cavity modes and the excitation geometries dependent on their modal symmetries. We show that the cavity modes can be described by the product of radial and angular Mathieu functions with excellent agreements with both simulations and experiments. The effects of the patch periodicity on the excitation of the surface plasmon and its coupling with the cavity modes are also discussed. PMID:22714147
Necessary conditions for mode interactions in parametrically excited waves.
Epstein, T; Fineberg, J
2008-04-01
We study the spatial and temporal structure of nonlinear states formed by parametrically excited waves on a fluid surface (Faraday instability), in a highly dissipative regime. Short-time dynamics reveal that 3-wave interactions between different spatial modes are only observed when the modes' peak values occur simultaneously. The temporal structure of each mode is functionally described by the Hill's equation and is unaffected by which nonlinear interaction is dominant. PMID:18517955
Collective Modes in a Quantum Solid.
Gazit, Snir; Podolsky, Daniel; Nonne, Heloise; Auerbach, Assa; Arovas, Daniel P
2016-08-19
We provide a theoretical explanation for the optical modes observed in inelastic neutron scattering on the bcc solid phase of helium 4 [T. Markovich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 195301 (2002)]. We argue that these excitations are amplitude (Higgs) modes associated with fluctuations of the crystal order parameter within the unit cell. We present an analysis of the modes based on an effective Ginzburg-Landau model, classify them according to their symmetry properties, and compute their signature in inelastic neutron scattering experiments. In addition, we calculate the dynamical structure factor by means of an ab intio quantum Monte Carlo simulation and find a finite frequency excitation at zero relative momentum. PMID:27588863
Collective charge excitation in low dimensional organic salts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naka, Makoto; Ishihara, Sumio
2013-03-01
Electronic ferroelectricity is known as phenomena where electric polarization is attributed to the charge order without inversion symmetry. This is seen in some transition metal oxides, e.g. LuFe2O4, and charge transfer salts. Quasi 2-dimesional organic salt kappa-(ET)2Cu2(CN)3\\ is one of the electronic ferroelectricities. Two ET molecules construct a dimer and are arranged on a triangular lattice. Recently, it is reported that a dielectric anomaly is experimentally observed around 30K. An origin of this dielectric anomaly is thought to be an ?electronic? dipole generated by a localized hole in one side of the ET molecules in dimers. Motivated by the experimental results, we study charge dynamics in dimer-Mott insulating system with internal charge degree of freedom in a dimer. We adopt the three kinds of models, extended Hubbard model, V-t model and its effective pseudo-spin model. We analyze these models by utilizing the exact diagonalization method and spin wave approximation, and focus on the collective charge excitation. In the ground state, paraelectric dimer-Mott phase and ferroelectric charge ordered phase compete with each other. We find the low-energy intra-dimer charge excitations which show a strong light polarization dependence. The collective excitation mode which is observable by light being parallel to the electric polarization shows a softening and a remarkable frequency dispersion around the phase boundary. This collective charge excitation of the ?electronic? dipole explains the recently observed peak structure in optical conductivity for the THz region.
Gravitational Effects on Collective Modes of Superfluid Shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padavić, Karmela; Sun, Kuei; Lannert, Courtney; Vishveshwara, Smitha
We study the effects of gravity on collective excitations of shell-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). Superfluid shells are of general interest as examples of hollow geometries that can be produced in ultracold atoms in bubble-trap potentials or optical lattices. Our approach to analyzing superfluid shells is based on a Gross-Pitaevskii mean field theory and hydrodynamic equations derived from it. Considering a spherically symmetric BEC in general, there are distinct collective excitation spectra for the cases of a fully filled sphere and a very thin shell. Furthermore, an adiabatic change in the potential producing a slow transition from one geometry to the other shows a characteristic evolution. Given that in most realistic experimental conditions gravity cannot be neglected we investigate its effects on the equilibrium profile and the collective modes in the very thin shell limit. We analytically obtain the full excitation spectrum for the thin shell geometry and account for gravity perturbatively at length and energy scales that describe a stable matter-wave bubble. We find that gravity breaks spherical symmetry of the equilibrium density profile and affects the collective excitations by coupling adjacent modes in the angular direction.
Collective oscillations and coupled modes in confined microfluidic droplet arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiller, Ulf D.; Fleury, Jean-Baptiste; Seemann, Ralf; Gompper, Gerhard
Microfluidic droplets have a wide range of applications ranging from analytic assays in cellular biology to controlled mixing in chemical engineering. Ensembles of microfluidic droplets are interesting model systems for non-equilibrium many-body phenomena. When flowing in a microchannel, trains of droplets can form microfluidic crystals whose dynamics are governed by long-range hydrodynamic interactions and boundary effects. In this contribution, excitation mechanisms for collective waves in dense and confined microfluidic droplet arrays are investigated by experiments and computer simulations. We demonstrate that distinct modes can be excited by creating specific `defect' patterns in flowing droplet trains. While longitudinal modes exhibit a short-lived cascade of pairs of laterally displacing droplets, transversely excited modes form propagating waves that behave like microfluidic phonons. We show that the confinement induces a coupling between longitudinal and transverse modes. We also investigate the life time of the collective oscillations and discuss possible mechanisms for the onset of instabilities. Our results demonstrate that microfluidic phonons can exhibit effects beyond the linear theory, which can be studied particularly well in dense and confined systems. This work was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. SE 1118/4.
Higher order mode excitations in gyro-amplifiers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, K. T.; Calame, J. P.; Danly, B. G.; Levush, B.; Garven, M.; Antonsen, T.
2001-05-01
In gyro-devices, a nonlinear output taper is often employed as the transition from the near cutoff radius of the interaction circuit to a much larger output waveguide. The tapers are usually designed to avoid passive mode conversion, and thus do not consider the effect of a bunched beam. However, recent simulations with the self-consistent MAGY code [Botton et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 882 (1998)] indicate that higher order mode interactions with the bunched electron beam can substantially compromise the mode purity of the rf output. The interaction in the taper region is traveling wave in nature, and is strongly dependent on the residual beam bunching characteristics resulting from the upstream operating mode interaction. An experiment has been performed to quantify the rf output mode content from a Ka-band gyroklystron. The agreement between salient theoretical and measured rf output characteristics confirms the existence of higher order mode excitation in output tapers as predicted by theory.
Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. II. Antenna arrays
Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.
2014-12-15
The excitation of whistler modes from magnetic loop antennas has been investigated experimentally. The field topology of the excited wave driven by a single loop antenna has been measured for different loop orientations with respect to the uniform background field. The fields from two or more antennas at different locations are then created by superposition of the single-loop data. It is shown that an antenna array can produce nearly plane waves which cannot be achieved with single antennas. By applying a phase shift along the array, oblique wave propagation is obtained. This allows a meaningful comparison with plane wave theory. The Gendrin mode and oblique cyclotron resonance are demonstrated. Wave helicity and polarization in space and time are demonstrated and distinguished from the magnetic helicity of the wave field. The superposition of two oblique plane whistler modes produces in a “whistler waveguide” mode whose polarization and helicity properties are explained. The results show that single point measurements cannot properly establish the wave character of wave packets. The laboratory observations are relevant for excitation and detection of whistler modes in space plasmas.
Higher Order Mode Excitations in Gyro-amplifiers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Khanh
2000-10-01
A key element in the design of gyro-amplifier RF structures is the minimization of unwanted modes. For example, a nonlinear output taper is often employed in the transition from the near cutoff radius of the interacting circuit to a much larger output waveguide, which also serves as the collector. The taper designs are usually done without considering the effect of a bunched beam. However, recent simulations [1] with the self-consistent MAGY code [2] reveal that higher order mode interactions with the bunched electron beam can substantially compromise the mode purity of the RF output. The interaction in the taper region is that of a travelling-wave type and is strongly dependent on the beam bunching characteristics resulting from previous interaction with the operating mode in the interacting circuit. Subsequent to this prediction, an experiment was performed to measure the RF output mode content from a Ka-band gyro-klystron at the Naval Research Laboratory. The agreement between salient theoretical and measured RF output characteristics confirms the existence higher order mode excitation in output tapers as predicted by theory. Another example of the need to employ self-consistent theoretical model in the design of gyro-amplifier RF structures is the phenomenon of beam-induced RF excitation in drift sections, which are cutoff to the operating mode and are used to separate cavities in gyroklystron amplifiers. This non-resonant RF excitation is at the drive frequency and the RF field structure is that of the operating mode. The RF amplitude is found to scale linearly with the bunched beam current. The presence of RF in the drift section has important thermal implications in the design and use of lossy dielectrics in drift-sections, especially for high-average power devices. [1] K. Nguyen, et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Science, in press 2000. [2] M. Botton, et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Science, V.26, p.882, June 1998.
Inspection of bonded composites using selectively excited ultrasonic modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krauss, Gordon Gustav
Improved methods of nondestructive testing (NDT) of multi-layered composites are vital for fundamental research in composites fabrication and performance. Fast, accurate NDT methods can also be used to predict catastrophic in-use failure and to reduce costly rejects during the manufacture of composite parts. Commercial normal incidence inspection techniques have generally yielded reliable detection of large areas of delamination and damage. They fail, however, to detect defects within thin bonded regions, such as disbonds, debonds, kissing bonds, and porosity. We have developed and studied a nondestructive testing technique designed to be sensitive to flaws in the bond area of adhesively bonded anisotropic materials. The technique utilizes specific ultrasonic modes which are selected through a priori modeling of the composite as a single anisotropic elastic layer. The displacement and stress profiles of the modes within the fluid loaded layer are evaluated. A propagating mode that is predicted to be highly sensitive to the bond area is then utilized in the inspection. The inspection is carried out with an apparatus designed and constructed to excite and detect the selected ultrasonic mode. The apparatus uses transducers oriented at the theoretically optimal incident angle to excite the desired mode, using a tone burst between 0.5 and 10.0 MHz. We monitor with a second transducer changes in the amplitude of the leaky component of the mode propagating in the plate. By using this apparatus we have experimentally distinguished changes in the bond areas of adhesively bonded aluminum plates and carbon-epoxy composite plates of unidirectional and quasi-isotropic lay-up, The radiated leaky wave amplitudes from poorly bonded plates were less than 50% of those from corresponding well bonded plates. We observed no significant changes in the amplitudes of normal incidence pulse-echo signals for these specimens. These results demonstrate that selective mode excitation can
On fast radial propagation of parametrically excited geodesic acoustic mode
Qiu, Z.; Chen, L.; Zonca, F.
2015-04-15
The spatial and temporal evolution of parametrically excited geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) initial pulse is investigated both analytically and numerically. Our results show that the nonlinearly excited GAM propagates at a group velocity which is, typically, much larger than that due to finite ion Larmor radius as predicted by the linear theory. The nonlinear dispersion relation of GAM driven by a finite amplitude drift wave pump is also derived, showing a nonlinear frequency increment of GAM. Further implications of these findings for interpreting experimental observations are also discussed.
Exotic modes of excitation in proton rich nuclei
Paar, N.
2011-11-30
The framework of relativistic energy density functional has been applied in description of excitation phenomena in nuclei close to the proton drip line. In particular, low-lying dipole excitations have been studied using relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation, based on effective Lagrangians with density dependent meson nucleon couplings. In the isovector dipole channel, the occurrence of pronounced low-lying dipole peaks is predicted, corresponding to the proton pygmy dipole resonance. Since this exotic mode still awaits its experimental confirmation, systematic calculations have been conducted within a pool of neutron deficient nuclei, in order to identify the best possible candidates for measurements.
Spin-wave modes and their intense excitation effects in Skyrmion crystals.
Mochizuki, Masahito
2012-01-01
We theoretically study spin-wave modes and their intense excitations activated by microwave magnetic fields in the Skyrmion-crystal phase of insulating magnets by numerically analyzing a two-dimensional spin model using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. Two peaks of spin-wave resonances with frequencies of ∼1 GHz are found for in-plane ac magnetic field where distribution of the out-of-plane spin components circulates around each Skyrmion core. Directions of the circulations are opposite between these two modes, and hence the spectra exhibit a salient dependence on the circular polarization of irradiating microwave. A breathing-type mode is also found for an out-of-plane ac magnetic field. By intensively exciting these collective modes, melting of the Skyrmion crystal accompanied by a redshift of the resonant frequency is achieved within nanoseconds. PMID:22304290
Micromagnetic study of excitation modes of an artificial skyrmion crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, B. F.; Wen, Y.; Yan, M.; Sun, L.; Cao, R. X.; Wu, D.; You, B.; Jiang, Z. S.; Ding, H. F.
2015-11-01
We present a micromagnetic study on the eigen excitations of an artificial skyrmion crystal, which has been experimentally confirmed to be stable at room temperature without the need of any Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction (DMI). Three in-plane rotational modes and one breathing-type mode are identified. We find the intrinsic origin of the dynamics of skyrmion crystal is the nontrivial magnetic texture instead of DMI. And the rotational direction of a skyrmion is solely determined by the sign of the skyrmion number, irrespective of its circulation sense, evidencing the topological nature of the magnetic skyrmion.
Asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons by dark mode coupling.
Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Quan; Li, Quan; Xu, Yuehong; Gu, Jianqiang; Tian, Zhen; Ouyang, Chunmei; Liu, Yongmin; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili
2016-02-01
Control over surface plasmons (SPs) is essential in a variety of cutting-edge applications, such as highly integrated photonic signal processing systems, deep-subwavelength lasing, high-resolution imaging, and ultrasensitive biomedical detection. Recently, asymmetric excitation of SPs has attracted enormous interest. In free space, the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials has been widely investigated to uniquely manipulate the electromagnetic waves. In the near field, we show that the dark mode coupling mechanism of the classical EIT effect enables an exotic and straightforward excitation of SPs in a metasurface system. This leads to not only resonant excitation of asymmetric SPs but also controllable exotic SP focusing by the use of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. Our experimental findings manifest the potential of developing plasmonic metadevices with unique functionalities. PMID:26989777
Asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons by dark mode coupling
Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Quan; Li, Quan; Xu, Yuehong; Gu, Jianqiang; Tian, Zhen; Ouyang, Chunmei; Liu, Yongmin; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili
2016-01-01
Control over surface plasmons (SPs) is essential in a variety of cutting-edge applications, such as highly integrated photonic signal processing systems, deep-subwavelength lasing, high-resolution imaging, and ultrasensitive biomedical detection. Recently, asymmetric excitation of SPs has attracted enormous interest. In free space, the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials has been widely investigated to uniquely manipulate the electromagnetic waves. In the near field, we show that the dark mode coupling mechanism of the classical EIT effect enables an exotic and straightforward excitation of SPs in a metasurface system. This leads to not only resonant excitation of asymmetric SPs but also controllable exotic SP focusing by the use of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. Our experimental findings manifest the potential of developing plasmonic metadevices with unique functionalities. PMID:26989777
Are Resonant Helioseimic Modes Excited by Solar Flares?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leibacher, John W.; Baudin, Frédéric; Rabello Soares, Maria Cristina
2016-05-01
We critically examine reports that flares have been observed to excite resonant p-modes by:-looking in detail at the results of the ring-diagram analysis in terms of duty cycle and center-to-limb variation of ring-diagram power.-applying the same analysis to the Halloween flare using GONG and MDI data.-assessing the stability in terms of oscillation power of both instruments.
KIC 8164262: A Heartbeat Star with a Resonantly Excited Mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hambleton, Kelly Marie; Kurtz, Donald Wayne; thompson, susan; Fuller, Jim
2015-08-01
With the advent of high precision photometry from the Kepler satellite, a new layer of interesting and astounding astronomical objects has been revealed: heartbeat stars are an example of such objects. Heartbeat stars are eccentric ellipsoidal variables that undergo strong tidal interactions at the time of closest approach, when the stars are almost in contact. The consequence of these interactions is not only the deformation and mutual irradiation of the stars at periastron, but in many of these objects (~20%) we observe tidally induced pulsations. Tidally induced pulsations are pulsations driven by the tidal forcing of the binary star companion. They can be easily distinguished from other pulsations as they occur at precise multiples of the orbital frequency. Moreover, we have identified several objects where the tidally excited modes are undergoing resonance. This occurs when the tidal forces are in resonance with an eigenfrequency of one of the stellar components. In this paper we present KIC 8164262, a prime example of a heartbeat star with a resonantly excited mode. We provide the results of spectral modelling combined with extensive binary light and radial velocity curve modelling, generated using PHOEBE and MCMC. We further discuss why resonant locking, which has been theorised as the mechanism that keeps a system in resonance, is likely acting on this system. Finally, we describe the theoretical implications of tidally induced and resonantly excited modes, and their effects on binary star evolution.
Collective modes in the fluxonium qubit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Catelani, Gianluigi; Viola, Giovanni
2015-03-01
In the fluxonium qubit, an array comprising a large number of identical Josephson junctions form a so-called superinductance. The superinductance is connected to a junction - the phase slip element - with a smaller Josephson energy and a different charging energy. We investigate the effects of unavoidable capacitive couplings to ground as well as non-linearities of the superinductance: they both introduce interactions between the low-energy qubit degree of freedom and higher-energy collective modes of the circuit. We also consider the role of the additional capacitances that are used to couple the qubit to a resonator for driving and read-out. We show that the interactions with the collective modes can affect not only the spectrum of the qubit but also its coherence. Work supported in part by the EU under REA Grant Agreement No. CIG-618258.
Interpretation of the nonlinear mode excitation in the ITER gyrotron
Nusinovich, G. S.; Sinitsyn, O. V.
2007-11-15
This study was motivated by an interesting physical effect observed in experiments with a 1 MW, 170 GHz, continuous-wave gyrotron developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency for plasma heating and current drive in ITER [see, e.g., Fusion Eng. Des. 55, issues 2-3 (2001)]. In these experiments, the gyrotron switching from a parasitic mode to the operating one was observed with the increase in external magnetic field in the region of hard self-excitation of the operating mode where it cannot be excited from the noise level in the absence of other modes. Below, the theory describing this effect is developed. The switching mechanism caused by merging and disappearance of two (one stable and another unstable) equilibrium states with nonzero amplitudes of both modes is proposed. It is found that the present theory can correctly interpret experimental results qualitatively, but the lack of experimental data does not let the authors carry out some simulations more adequate to experimental conditions.
Collective excitation spectra of transitional even nuclei
Quentin, P. Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay . Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse); Deloncle, I.; Libert, J. . Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse); Sauvage, J. . Inst. de Physique Nucleaire)
1990-11-06
This talk is dealing with the nuclear low energy collective motion as described in the context of microscopic versions of the Bohr Hamiltonian. Two different ways of building microscopically Bohr collective Hamiltonians will be sketched; one within the framework of the Generator Coordinate Method, the other using the Adiabatic Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock-Boholyubov approximation. A sample of recent results will be presented which pertains to the description of transitional even nuclei and to the newly revisited phenomenon of superdeformation at low spin.
Variety of c-Axis Collective Excitations in Layered Multigap Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ota, Yukihiro; Machida, Masahiko; Koyama, Tomio
2011-04-01
We present a dynamical theory for the phase differences along a stacked direction of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJ’s) in layered multigap superconductors, motivated by the discovery of highly anisotropic iron-based superconductors with thick perovskite-type blocking layers. The dynamical equations describing ac and dc intrinsic Josephson effects peculiar to multigap IJJ’s are derived, and collective Leggett mode excitations in addition to the Josephson plasma established in single-gap IJJ’s are predicted. The dispersion relations of their collective modes are explicitly displayed, and the remarkable peculiarity of the Leggett mode is demonstrated.
Search for intrinsic collective excitations in {sup 152}Sm
Kulp, W. D.; Wood, J. L.; Allmond, J. M.; Garrett, P. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A. B.; Hua, H.; Teng, R.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Choudry, S. N.; McEllistrem, M. T.; McKay, C. J.; Orce, J. N.; Dashdorj, D.; Mynk, M. G.; Yates, S. W.
2008-06-15
The 685 keV excitation energy of the first excited 0{sup +} state in {sup 152}Sm makes it an attractive candidate to explore expected two-phonon excitations at low energy. Multiple-step Coulomb excitation and inelastic neutron scattering studies of {sup 152}Sm are used to probe the E2 collectivity of excited 0{sup +} states in this 'soft' nucleus and the results are compared with model predictions. No candidates for two-phonon K{sup {pi}}=0{sup +}quadrupole vibrational states are found. A 2{sup +},K=2 state with strong E2 decay to the first excited K{sup {pi}}=0{sup +} band and a probable 3{sup +} band member are established.
Collective modes in asymmetric ultracold Fermi systems
Gubankova, Elena; Mannarelli, Massimo; Sharma, Rishi
2010-09-15
We derive the long wavelength effective action for the collective modes in systems of fermions interacting via a short-range s-wave attraction, featuring unequal chemical potentials for the two fermionic species (asymmetric systems). As a consequence of the attractive interaction, fermions form a condensate that spontaneously breaks the U(1) symmetry associated with total number conservation. Therefore at sufficiently small temperatures and asymmetries, the system is a superfluid. We reproduce previous results for the stability conditions of the system as a function of the four-fermion coupling and asymmetry. We obtain these results analyzing the coefficients of the low energy effective Lagrangian of the modes describing fluctuations in the magnitude (Higgs mode) and in the phase (Nambu-Goldstone, or Anderson-Bogoliubov, mode) of the difermion condensate. We find that for certain values of parameters, the mass of the Higgs mode decreases with increasing mismatch between the chemical potentials of the two populations, if we keep the scattering length and the gap parameter constant. Furthermore, we find that the energy cost for creating a position dependent fluctuation of the condensate is constant in the gapped region and increases in the gapless region. These two features may lead to experimentally detectable effects. As an example, we argue that if the superfluid is put in rotation, the square of the radius of the outer core of a vortex should sharply increase on increasing the asymmetry, when we pass through the relevant region in the gapless superfluid phase. Finally, by gauging the global U(1) symmetry, we relate the coefficients of the effective Lagrangian of the Nambu-Goldstone mode with the screening masses of the gauge field.
Collective and noncollective excitations in 122Te
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nag, Somnath; Singh, A. K.; Ragnarsson, I.; Hübel, H.; Al-Khatib, A.; Bringel, P.; Engelhardt, C.; Neußer-Neffgen, A.; Hagemann, G. B.; Herskind, B.; Sletten, G.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Clark, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Benzoni, G.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Chowdhury, P.
2013-10-01
High-spin states in 122Te were populated in the reaction 82Se(48Ca, α4n)122Te at a beam energy of 200 MeV and γ-ray coincidences were measured with the Gammasphere spectrometer. The previously known level scheme was extended to considerably higher spin. Maximally aligned states and several high-energy transitions feeding into some of these levels were observed. In addition, seven collective high-spin bands were discovered for the first time in this nucleus. The experimental results are compared with cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky model calculations and possible configuration assignments to the new high-spin structures are discussed.
Analysis of excitation and collection geometries for planar waveguide immunosensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, Douglas A.; Dyer, Shellee; Fowers, David; Herron, James N.
1993-05-01
We demonstrate the use of a two-channel flowcell for fluorescent immunoassays. The flowcell contains a planar silica waveguide for evanescent excitation of the fluorophores, and the planar waveguide surface provides the solid support for immobilization of the antibodies. The detection system is composed of a grating spectrometer and a CCD camera for spectral characterization of the emitted signals. Two methods of sensing have been studied: a displacement-type technique and a sandwich-type assay. The sensitivity achieved for measuring concentrations of HCG by the sandwich method is sub-picomolar. Also, we have experimentally compared the signal strengths for two alternative ways of excitation and collection, and determine that waveguide excitation/side collection has some practical advantages over side excitation/waveguide collection.
Grating assisted optical waveguide coupler to excite individual modes of a multi-mode waveguide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bremer, K.; Lochmann, S.; Roth, B.
2015-12-01
Spatial division multiplexing (SDM) in the form of mode division multiplexing (MDM) in multi-mode (MM) waveguides is currently explored to overcome the capacity limitation of single-mode (SM) waveguides in data transmission technology. In this work a new approach towards mode selective optical waveguide couplers to multiplex and demultiplex individual modes of MM waveguides is presented. We discuss a grating assisted mode selective optical waveguide coupler and evaluate numerically its coupling efficiency. The approach relies on a grating structure in a SM waveguide which is used to excite individual modes of an adjacent unmodified MM waveguide via evanescent field coupling. The simulations verify that by using the grating structure and tailoring the grating period, light from the SM waveguide can be coupled selectively into the fundamental mode or any higher-order mode of a MM waveguide with high efficiency and low crosstalk to adjacent mode-channels. The results indicate the potential of the grating assisted waveguide coupler approach for future applications in on-chip photonic networks and the (de)multiplexing of individual modes of MM waveguides.
Excitation of Slow-Modes in Network Magnetic Elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kato, Y.; Steiner, O.; Steffen, M.; Suematsu, Y.
2012-05-01
From radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations of the solar atmosphere we have found a new mechanism for the excitation of longitudinal slow modes within magnetic flux concentrations. It is found that the convective downdrafts in the immediate surroundings of magnetic elements are responsible for the excitation of slow modes. The coupling between the external downdraft and the plasma motion internal to the flux concentration is mediated by the inertial forces of the downdraft that act on the magnetic flux concentration. These forces pump the internal atmosphere in the downward direction, which entails a fast downflow in the photospheric and chromospheric layers of the magnetic element. Subsequent to the transient pumping phase, the atmosphere rebounds, causing a slow mode traveling along the magnetic flux concentration in the upward direction and developing into a shock wave in chromospheric heights, possibly capable of producing some kind of dynamic fibril. This event occurs recurrently. We compare the power spectra of the temperature and velocity of the flux-sheet atmosphere to the corresponding spectra of the unmagnetized atmosphere.
Electron plasma dynamics during autoresonant excitation of the diocotron mode
Baker, C. J. Danielson, J. R. Hurst, N. C. Surko, C. M.
2015-02-15
Chirped-frequency autoresonant excitation of the diocotron mode is used to move electron plasmas confined in a Penning-Malmberg trap across the magnetic field for advanced plasma and antimatter applications. Plasmas of 10{sup 8} electrons, with radii small compared to that of the confining electrodes, can be moved from the magnetic axis to ≥90% of the electrode radius with near unit efficiency and reliable angular positioning. Translations of ≥70% of the wall radius are possible for a wider range of plasma parameters. Details of this process, including phase and displacement oscillations in the plasma response and plasma expansion, are discussed, as well as possible extensions of the technique.
Fast excitation of geodesic acoustic mode by energetic particle beams
Cao, Jintao; Qiu, Zhiyong; Zonca, Fulvio
2015-12-15
A new mechanism for geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) excitation by a not fully slowed down energetic particle (EP) beam is analyzed to explain experimental observations in Large Helical Device. It is shown that the positive velocity space gradient near the lower-energy end of the EP distribution function can strongly drive the GAM unstable. The new features of this EP-induced GAM (EGAM) are: (1) no instability threshold in the pitch angle; (2) the EGAM frequency can be higher than the local GAM frequency; and (3) the instability growth rate is much larger than that driven by a fully slowed down EP beam.
Exotic modes of excitation in deformed neutron-rich nuclei
Yoshida, Kenichi
2011-05-06
Low-lying dipole excitation mode in neutron-rich Mg isotopes close to the drip line is investigated in the framework of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and the quasiparticle random-phase approximation employing the Skyrme and the pairing energy-density functionals. It is found that the low-lying dipole-strength distribution splits into the K{sup {pi}} = 0{sup -} and 1{sup -} components due to the nuclear deformation. The low-lying dipole strength increases as the neutron drip-line is approached.
Thermally excited modes in a pure electron plasma.
Anderegg, F; Shiga, N; Danielson, J R; Dubin, D H E; Driscoll, C F; Gould, R W
2003-03-21
Thermally excited plasma modes are observed in near-thermal-equilibrium pure electron plasmas over a temperature range of 0.05
High energy components and collective modes in thermonuclear plasmas
Coppi, B.; Cowley, S.; Detragiache, P.; Kulsrud, R.; Pegoraro, F.
1986-02-01
The theory of a class of collective modes of a thermonuclear magnetically confined plasma, with frequencies in the range of the ion cyclotron frequency and of its harmonics, is presented. These modes can be excited by their resonant cyclotron interaction with a plasma component of relatively high energy particles characterized by a strongly anisotropic distribution in velocity space. Normal modes that are spatially localized by the inhomogeneity of the plasma density are found. This ensures that the energy gained by their resonant interaction is not convected away. The mode spatial localization can be significantly altered by the magnetic field inhomogeneity for a given class of plasma density profiles. Special attention is devoted to the case of a spin polarized plasma, where the charged products of fusion reactions are anisotropically distributed. We show that for the mode of polarization that enhances nuclear reaction rates the tritium will be rapidly depolarized to toroidal configurations with relatively mild gradients of the confining magnetic field. 18 refs., 9 figs.
Large angular scale CMB anisotropy from an excited initial mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sojasi, A.; Mohsenzadeh, M.; Yusofi, E.
2016-07-01
According to inflationary cosmology, the CMB anisotropy gives an opportunity to test predictions of new physics hypotheses. The initial state of quantum fluctuations is one of the important options at high energy scale, as it can affect observables such as the CMB power spectrum. In this study a quasi-de Sitter inflationary background with approximate de Sitter mode function built over the Bunch-Davies mode is applied to investigate the scale-dependency of the CMB anisotropy. The recent Planck constraint on spectral index motivated us to examine the effect of a new excited mode function (instead of pure de Sitter mode) on the CMB anisotropy at large angular scales. In so doing, it is found that the angular scale-invariance in the CMB temperature fluctuations is broken and in the limit ℓ < 200 a tiny deviation appears. Also, it is shown that the power spectrum of CMB anisotropy is dependent on a free parameter with mass dimension H << M * < M p and on the slow-roll parameter ɛ. Supported by the Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Rasht, Iran
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Margulis, Vl. A.; Makarov, S. V.; Piterimova, T. V.; Gaiduk, E. A.
2003-05-01
Using a mean-field approximation, we have developed a systematic treatment of collective electronic modes in a semiconductor superlattice (SL) in the presence of strong electric and magnetic fields parallel to the SL axis. The spectrum of collective modes with zero wavevector along the SL axis is shown to consist of a principle magnetoplasmon mode and an infinite set of Bernstein-like modes. For non-zero wavevector along the SL axis, in addition to the cyclotron modes, extra collective modes are found at the frequencies \\vert Nω_c± Mω_s\\vert, which we call cyclotron-Stark modes (ω_c and ω_s are respectively the cyclotron and Stark frequencies, N and M are integer numbers). The frequencies of the modes propagating in “oblique” direction with respect to the SL axis show oscillatory behavior as a function of electric field strength. All the modes considered have very weak spatial dispersion and they are not Landau damped. The specific predictions made for the dispersion relations of the collective excitations should be observable in resonant Raman scattering experiments.
Influence of collective effects on lifetimes of condensed excited states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zmuidzinas, Jonas Stasys
1987-01-01
The possibility that collective effects may dramatically influence autoionization-limited lifetimes of condensed excited states is investigated in the context of a two-band model of an insulator in a strong magnetic field. Two different mechanisms for suppressing autoionization are discussed which may prevent the potentially catastrophic destruction of the excited state. Under appropriate circumstances, the residual low-density Auger electrons may be confined in a superconducting state and paired by excitonic fluctuations in the conduction band.
Bryk, Taras; Wax, J-F
2016-05-21
Using a combination of ab initio molecular dynamics and several fit models for dynamic structure of liquid metals, we explore an issue of possible manifestation of non-acoustic collective excitations in longitudinal dynamics having liquid Na as a case study. A model with two damped harmonic oscillators (DHOs) in time domain is used for analysis of the density-density time correlation functions. Another similar model with two propagating contributions and three lowest exact sum rules is considered, as well as an extended hydrodynamic model known as thermo-viscoelastic one which permits two types of propagating modes outside the hydrodynamic region to be used for comparison with ab initio obtained time correlation functions and calculations of dispersions of collective excitations. Our results do not support recent suggestions that, even in simple liquid metals, non-hydrodynamics transverse excitations contribute to the longitudinal collective dynamics and can be detected as a DHO-like spectral shape at their transverse frequency. We found that the thermo-viscoelastic dynamic model permits perfect description of the density-density and current-current time correlation functions of the liquid Na in a wide range of wave numbers, which implies that the origin of the non-hydrodynamic collective excitations contributing to longitudinal dynamics can be short-wavelength heat waves. PMID:27208952
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bryk, Taras; Wax, J.-F.
2016-05-01
Using a combination of ab initio molecular dynamics and several fit models for dynamic structure of liquid metals, we explore an issue of possible manifestation of non-acoustic collective excitations in longitudinal dynamics having liquid Na as a case study. A model with two damped harmonic oscillators (DHOs) in time domain is used for analysis of the density-density time correlation functions. Another similar model with two propagating contributions and three lowest exact sum rules is considered, as well as an extended hydrodynamic model known as thermo-viscoelastic one which permits two types of propagating modes outside the hydrodynamic region to be used for comparison with ab initio obtained time correlation functions and calculations of dispersions of collective excitations. Our results do not support recent suggestions that, even in simple liquid metals, non-hydrodynamics transverse excitations contribute to the longitudinal collective dynamics and can be detected as a DHO-like spectral shape at their transverse frequency. We found that the thermo-viscoelastic dynamic model permits perfect description of the density-density and current-current time correlation functions of the liquid Na in a wide range of wave numbers, which implies that the origin of the non-hydrodynamic collective excitations contributing to longitudinal dynamics can be short-wavelength heat waves.
Suppression of higher mode excitation in a high gain relativistic klystron amplifier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Jin, X.; Li, Z. H.; Tang, C. X.
2012-02-01
Suppressing higher mode excitation is very important in the high gain relativistic klystron amplifier because higher mode can seriously degrade klystron performance and cause pulse shortening. The mechanism of higher mode self-excitation is explored in the PIC simulation, and it is shown the coupling between cavities is the main cause of higher mode self-excitation. The coupling forms the positive feedback loop for higher mode to be excited just like that in the oscillator circuit. The formula for startup current of higher mode self-excitation is developed based on the coupling between cavities. And the corresponding methods are taken to avoid higher mode self-excitation. Finally, mode control is realized in the RKA with output power up to 1.02 GW when driven power is only few kilowatts.
Collective excitations in liquid CD4: Neutron scattering and molecular-dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guarini, E.; Bafile, U.; Barocchi, F.; Demmel, F.; Formisano, F.; Sampoli, M.; Venturi, G.
2005-12-01
We have investigated the dynamic structure factor S(Q,ω) of liquid CD4 at T = 97.7 K in the wave vector range 2 <= Q/nm-1 <= 15 by means of neutron scattering and molecular-dynamics simulation, in order to study the centre-of-mass collective dynamics. The agreement between the experimental spectra and those simulated using a recent ab initio based intermolecular potential is good, particularly at low Q. Underdamped collective excitations, detected in the whole experimental Q-range, characterize the dynamics of liquid CD4 as markedly different from that of other molecular liquids. Also, the energy and damping of collective excitations in methane are shown to differ considerably, even at the lowest measured Q-values, from those of linearized hydrodynamic modes. An empirical relation, able to reconcile the different wave vector ranges of mode propagation observed in disparate liquids, is investigated.
Dynamics of the collective modes of an inhomogeneous spin ensemble in a cavity
Wesenberg, Janus H.; Kurucz, Zoltan; Moelmer, Klaus
2011-02-15
We study the excitation dynamics of an inhomogeneously broadened spin ensemble coupled to a single cavity mode. The collective excitations of the spin ensemble can be described in terms of generalized spin waves, and, in the absence of the cavity, the free evolution of the spin ensemble can be described as a drift in the wavenumber without dispersion. In this article we show that the dynamics in the presence of coupling to the cavity mode can be described solely by a modified time evolution of the wavenumbers. In particular, we show that collective excitations with a well-defined wavenumber pass without dispersion from negative to positive-valued wavenumbers without populating the zero wavenumber spin wave mode. The results are relevant for multimode collective quantum memories where qubits are encoded in different spin waves.
Collective excitations on a surface of topological insulator
2012-01-01
We study collective excitations in a helical electron liquid on a surface of three-dimensional topological insulator. Electron in helical liquid obeys Dirac-like equation for massless particles and direction of its spin is strictly determined by its momentum. Due to this spin-momentum locking, collective excitations in the system manifest themselves as coupled charge- and spin-density waves. We develop quantum field-theoretical description of spin-plasmons in helical liquid and study their properties and internal structure. Value of spin polarization arising in the system with excited spin-plasmons is calculated. We also consider the scattering of spin-plasmons on magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities and external potentials, and show that the scattering occurs mainly into two side lobes. Analogies with Dirac electron gas in graphene are discussed. PACS: 73.20.Mf; 73.22.Lp; 75.25.Dk. PMID:22376744
Excitation of external kink mode by trapped energetic particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, S. C.; Xu, X. Y.; Liu, Y. Q.; Wang, Z. R.
2016-05-01
An unstable fishbone-like non-resonant external kink mode (FLEM) is numerically found to be driven by the precessional drift motion of trapped energetic particles (EPs) in both reversed-field pinch (RFP) and tokamak plasmas, even under the ideal wall boundary condition. In the presence of a sufficiently large fraction of trapped energetic ions in high beta plasmas, the FLEM instability may occur. The excitation condition is discussed in detail. The frequency of the FLEM is linked to the precessional drift frequency of EPs, and varies with the plasma flow speed. Therefore, it is usually much higher than that of the typical resistive wall mode (RWM). In general, the growth rate of FLEM does not depend on the wall resistivity. However, the wall position can significantly affect the mode’s property. The drift kinetic effects from thermal particles (mainly due to the transit resonance of passing particles) play a stabilizing role on FLEMs. In the presence of EPs, the FLEM and the RWM can co-exist or even couple to each other, depending on the plasma parameters. The FLEM instabilities in RFP and tokamaks have rather similar physics nature, although certain sub-dominant characters appear differently in the two configurations.
Minola, M; Dellea, G; Gretarsson, H; Peng, Y Y; Lu, Y; Porras, J; Loew, T; Yakhou, F; Brookes, N B; Huang, Y B; Pelliciari, J; Schmitt, T; Ghiringhelli, G; Keimer, B; Braicovich, L; Le Tacon, M
2015-05-29
We used resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) with and without analysis of the scattered photon polarization, to study dispersive spin excitations in the high temperature superconductor YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{6+x} over a wide range of doping levels (0.1≤x≤1). The excitation profiles were carefully monitored as the incident photon energy was detuned from the resonant condition, and the spin excitation energy was found to be independent of detuning for all x. These findings demonstrate that the largest fraction of the spin-flip RIXS profiles in doped cuprates arises from magnetic collective modes, rather than from incoherent particle-hole excitations as recently suggested theoretically [Benjamin et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 247002 (2014)]. Implications for the theoretical description of the electron system in the cuprates are discussed. PMID:26066453
Collective spin excitation in finite size array of patterned magnonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piao, H.-G.; Shim, J.-H.; Pan, L.; Yu, S.-C.; Kim, D.-H.
2016-04-01
We explore further details of the collectively excited spin wave mode in finite arrays of elliptically shaped ferromagnetic nanoelements as two-dimensional magnonic crystals by means of micromagnetic simulations. Under a pulsed magnetic driving field, collective spin wave modes were intensively investigated with variation of nanoelement dimensions and interelement separation as structural parameters of the magnonic crystal as well as changing the applied bias magnetic field. Via observing and analyzing the dynamic behavior of collective spin wave modes, we have found that the dynamic behavior strongly depends on the bias magnetic field with a quasi-linear dependency. The quasi-linear dependency of spin wave frequency transition can be achieved to a high sensitivity of the pT/Hz level. By modulating the magnonic crystal lattice structures and the bias magnetic field, the spin wave dynamic behavior is tunable which might be a promising property for a future magnonic crystal application and multifunctional sensors.
Experimental studies of collective excitations of a BEC in light-induced gauge fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chuan-Hsun; Niffenegger, Robert; Blasing, David; Olson, Abraham; Chen, Yong P.
2015-05-01
We present our experimental studies of collective modes including spin dipole mode and scissors mode of a 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in the presence of Raman light-induced gauge fields and synthetic spin-orbit coupling (SOC). By Raman dressing the mf spin states within the F =1 manifold, we engineer atoms' energy-momentum dispersion to create synthetic SOC, and spin dependent synthetic electric and magnetic fields. We have used spin dependent synthetic electric fields to make two BECs with different spins oscillate and collide in the optical trap. We have studied the effects of SOC on both the momentum damping and thermalization behaviors of the BECs when undergoing such spin dipole oscillations. We have also used spatially dependent synthetic electric fields to excite the scissors mode, which has been used as a probe for superfluidity. We have investigated the effects of the synthetic gauge fields and SOC on the measured scissors mode.
Excitation of ultrasharp trapped-mode resonances in mirror-symmetric metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Shengyan; Liu, Zhe; Xia, Xiaoxiang; E, Yiwen; Tang, Chengchun; Wang, Yujin; Li, Junjie; Wang, Li; Gu, Changzhi
2016-06-01
We experimentally demonstrate a metamaterial structure composed of two mirror-symmetric joint split ring resonators (JSRRs) that support extremely sharp trapped-mode resonance with a large modulation depth in the terahertz region. Contrary to the regular mirror-arranged SRR arrays in which both the subradiant inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance and quadrupole-mode resonance can be excited, our designed structure features a metallic microstrip bridging the adjacent SRRs, which leads to the emergence of an otherwise inaccessible ultrahigh-quality-factor resonance. The ultrasharp resonance occurs near the Wood-Rayleigh anomaly frequency, and the underlying mechanism can be attributed to the strong coupling between the in-plane propagating collective lattice surface mode originating from the array periodicity and localized surface plasmon resonance in mirror-symmetric coupled JSRRs, which dramatically reduces radiative damping. The ultrasharp resonance shows great potential for multifunctional applications such as plasmonic switching, low-power nonlinear processing, and chemical and biological sensing.
Collective excitations in Na2IrO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Igarashi, Jun-Ichi; Nagao, Tatsuya
2016-01-01
We study the collective excitations of Na2IrO3 in an itinerant electron approach. We consider a multi-orbital tight-binding model with the electron transfer between the Ir 5d states mediated via oxygen 2p states and the direct d-d transfer on a honeycomb lattice. The one-electron energy as well as the ground state energy are investigated within the Hartree-Fock approximation. When the direct d-d transfer is weak, we obtain nearly flat energy bands due to the formation of quasimolecular orbitals, and the ground state exhibits the zigzag spin order. The evaluation of the density-density correlation function within the random phase approximation shows that the collective excitations emerge as bound states. For an appropriate value of the direct d-d transfer, some of them are concentrated in the energy region ω <50 meV (magnetic excitations) while the others lie in the energy region ω >350 meV (excitonic excitations). This behaviour is consistent with the resonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectra. We also show that the larger values of the direct d-d transfer are unfavourable in order to explain the observed aspects of Na2IrO3 such as the ordering pattern of the ground state and the excitation spectrum. These findings may indicate that the direct d-d transfer is suppressed by the structural distortions in the view of excitation spectroscopy, as having been pointed out in the ab initio calculation.
Collective excitations in Na2IrO3.
Igarashi, Jun-Ichi; Nagao, Tatsuya
2016-01-20
We study the collective excitations of Na2IrO3 in an itinerant electron approach. We consider a multi-orbital tight-binding model with the electron transfer between the Ir 5d states mediated via oxygen 2p states and the direct d-d transfer on a honeycomb lattice. The one electron energy as well as the ground state energy are investigated within the Hartree-Fock approximation. When the direct d-d transfer is weak, we obtain nearly flat energy bands due to the formation of quasimolecular orbitals, and the ground state exhibits the zigzag spin order. The evaluation of the density-density correlation function within the random phase approximation shows that the collective excitations emerge as bound states. For an appropriate value of the direct d-d transfer, some of them are concentrated in the energy region ω<50 meV(magnetic excitations) while the others lie in the energy region ω>350 meV (excitonic excitations). This behaviour is consistent with the resonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectra. We also show that the larger values of the direct d-d transfer are unfavourable in order to explain the observed aspects of Na2IrO3 such as the ordering pattern of the ground state and the excitation spectrum. These findings may indicate that the direct d-d transfer is suppressed by the structural distortions in the view of excitation spectroscopy, as having been pointed out in the ab initio calculation. PMID:26683496
Retardation effects on collective excitations in correlated superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golden, Kenneth I.; Kalman, G.; Miao, Limin; Snapp, Robert R.
1998-04-01
The authors analyze the effects of electrodynamic retardation on the collective modes in an unmagnetized infinite superlattice modeled as an array of parallel two-dimensional plasma layers embedded in a dielectric substrate. The present work concentrates for the most part on correlated semiconductor superlattices, although the model is equally well suited to metallic superlattices consisting of an alternating array of thin metal layers and thick insulator slabs (e.g., 50 Å Al layers and 500 Å Al2O3 slabs). The analysis is based on the transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) dispersion relations recently formulated by the authors in the retarded quasilocalized charge approximation (RQLCA) [K. I. Golden, G. Kalman, L. Miao, and R. R. Snapp, Phys. Rev. B 55, 16 349 (1997)]. In the nonretarded limit, the QLCA mode structure consists of (i) an isolated in-phase plasmon mode, (ii) a band of gapped plasmons, (iii) an in-phase acoustic shear mode, and (iv) a band of gapped shear modes. This paper presents numerical and approximate analytical solutions of the long-wavelength RQLCA dispersion relations for the collective modes (i)-(iv) all the way down to very small wave numbers where retardation effects can be especially pronounced. Additionally, this work presents insightful approximate analytical formulas for the electromagnetic mode frequencies and gap widths, which add to the literature on the infinite sequences of TM- and TE-polarized electromagnetic bands. Some noteworthy effects that emerge from this study are as follows: (a) The appearance of ultralow frequency shear modes arising from the combined effect of retardation and strong coulomb interactions; the quasilocalization basis of the theory suggests that these modes can propagate when the two-dimensional plasma layers are in a crystalline phase. (b) A negative random-phase approximation shift in the bulk-plasma frequency induced by electrodynamic retardation; this effect can be appreciable in
Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. I. Basic properties
Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.
2014-12-15
Properties of magnetic loop antennas for exciting electron whistler modes have been investigated in a large laboratory plasma. The parameter regime is that of large plasma frequency compared to the cyclotron frequency and signal frequency below half the cyclotron frequency. The antenna diameter is smaller than the wavelength. Different directions of the loop antenna relative to the background magnetic field have been measured for small amplitude waves. The differences in the topology of the wave magnetic field are shown from measurements of the three field components in three spatial directions. The helicity of the wave magnetic field and of the hodogram of the magnetic vector in space and time are clarified. The superposition of wave fields is used to investigate the properties of two antennas for small amplitude waves. Standing whistler waves are produced by propagating two wave packets in opposite directions. Directional radiation is obtained with two phased loops separated by a quarter wavelength. Rotating antenna fields, produced with phased orthogonal loops at the same location, do not produce directionality. The concept of superposition is extended in a Paper II to generate antenna arrays for whistlers. These produce nearly plane waves, whose propagation angle can be varied by the phase shifting the currents in the array elements. Focusing of whistlers is possible. These results are important for designing antennas on spacecraft or diagnosing and heating of laboratory plasmas.
Observation of the first excited transverse mode in guided matter waves.
Dall, R G; Hodgman, S S; Manning, A G; Truscott, A G
2011-04-01
In direct analogy to the textbook example of light guided in a few-mode fiber (FMF), we report the observation of the first excited mode of an optically guided atomic beam. We selectively excite the atomic analog of the LP₀₁ optical mode by controlling the energy distribution of ultracold atoms loaded into the guide, resulting in a modal structure dominated by a 47(2)% population in the first excited transverse mode. The ability to guide lower-order modes has been essential to demonstrating optical effects such as multimode interferometry, slow light, and entanglement, and an atomic analog to a FMF may lead to similarly useful applications. PMID:21479006
Higgs amplitude mode in the BCS superconductors Nb1-xTi(x)N induced by terahertz pulse excitation.
Matsunaga, Ryusuke; Hamada, Yuki I; Makise, Kazumasa; Uzawa, Yoshinori; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen; Shimano, Ryo
2013-08-01
Ultrafast responses of BCS superconductor Nb(1-x)Ti(x)N films in a nonadiabatic excitation regime were investigated by using terahertz (THz) pump-THz probe spectroscopy. After an instantaneous excitation with the monocycle THz pump pulse, a transient oscillation emerges in the electromagnetic response in the BCS gap energy region. The oscillation frequency coincides with the asymptotic value of the BCS gap energy, indicating the appearance of the theoretically anticipated collective amplitude mode of the order parameter, namely the Higgs amplitude mode. Our result opens a new pathway to the ultrafast manipulation of the superconducting order parameter by optical means. PMID:23952432
Sensitivity of nonlinear photoionization to resonance substructure in collective excitation
Mazza, T.; Karamatskou, A.; Ilchen, M.; Bakhtiarzadeh, S.; Rafipoor, A. J.; O’Keeffe, P.; Kelly, T. J.; Walsh, N.; Costello, J. T.; Meyer, M.; Santra, R.
2015-04-09
Collective behaviour is a characteristic feature in many-body systems, important for developments in fields such as magnetism, superconductivity, photonics and electronics. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the optically nonlinear response of collective excitations. Here we demonstrate how the nonlinear interaction of a many-body system with intense XUV radiation can be used as an effective probe for characterizing otherwise unresolved features of its collective response. Resonant photoionization of atomic xenon was chosen as a case study. The excellent agreement between experiment and theory strongly supports the prediction that two distinct poles underlie the giant dipole resonance. Our results pave the way towards a deeper understanding of collective behaviour in atoms, molecules and solid-state systems using nonlinear spectroscopic techniques enabled by modern short-wavelength light sources.
Sensitivity of nonlinear photoionization to resonance substructure in collective excitation
Mazza, T.; Karamatskou, A.; Ilchen, M.; Bakhtiarzadeh, S.; Rafipoor, A. J.; O'Keeffe, P.; Kelly, T. J.; Walsh, N.; Costello, J. T.; Meyer, M.; Santra, R.
2015-01-01
Collective behaviour is a characteristic feature in many-body systems, important for developments in fields such as magnetism, superconductivity, photonics and electronics. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the optically nonlinear response of collective excitations. Here we demonstrate how the nonlinear interaction of a many-body system with intense XUV radiation can be used as an effective probe for characterizing otherwise unresolved features of its collective response. Resonant photoionization of atomic xenon was chosen as a case study. The excellent agreement between experiment and theory strongly supports the prediction that two distinct poles underlie the giant dipole resonance. Our results pave the way towards a deeper understanding of collective behaviour in atoms, molecules and solid-state systems using nonlinear spectroscopic techniques enabled by modern short-wavelength light sources. PMID:25854939
Sensitivity of nonlinear photoionization to resonance substructure in collective excitation
Mazza, T.; Karamatskou, A.; Ilchen, M.; Bakhtiarzadeh, S.; Rafipoor, A. J.; O’Keeffe, P.; Kelly, T. J.; Walsh, N.; Costello, J. T.; Meyer, M.; et al
2015-04-09
Collective behaviour is a characteristic feature in many-body systems, important for developments in fields such as magnetism, superconductivity, photonics and electronics. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the optically nonlinear response of collective excitations. Here we demonstrate how the nonlinear interaction of a many-body system with intense XUV radiation can be used as an effective probe for characterizing otherwise unresolved features of its collective response. Resonant photoionization of atomic xenon was chosen as a case study. The excellent agreement between experiment and theory strongly supports the prediction that two distinct poles underlie the giant dipole resonance. Our results pavemore » the way towards a deeper understanding of collective behaviour in atoms, molecules and solid-state systems using nonlinear spectroscopic techniques enabled by modern short-wavelength light sources.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ekardt, W.
1987-09-01
The wave-vector dispersion of collective modes in small particles is investigated within the time-dependent local-density approximation as applied to a self-consistent jellium particle. It is shown that the dispersion of the volume plasmons can be understood from that in an infinite electron gas. For a given multipole an optimum wave vector exists for the quasiresonant excitation of the volume mode but not for the surface mode. It is pointed out that-for the volume modes-the hydrodynamic approximation gives a reasonable first guess for the relation between frequencies and size-quantized wave vectors.
Wave modes of collective vortex gyration in dipolar-coupled-dot-array magnonic crystals
Han, Dong-Soo; Vogel, Andreas; Jung, Hyunsung; Lee, Ki-Suk; Weigand, Markus; Stoll, Hermann; Schütz, Gisela; Fischer, Peter; Meier, Guido; Kim, Sang-Koog
2013-01-01
Lattice vibration modes are collective excitations in periodic arrays of atoms or molecules. These modes determine novel transport properties in solid crystals. Analogously, in periodical arrangements of magnetic vortex-state disks, collective vortex motions have been predicted. Here, we experimentally observe wave modes of collective vortex gyration in one-dimensional (1D) periodic arrays of magnetic disks using time-resolved scanning transmission x-ray microscopy. The observed modes are interpreted based on micromagnetic simulation and numerical calculation of coupled Thiele equations. Dispersion of the modes is found to be strongly affected by both vortex polarization and chirality ordering, as revealed by the explicit analytical form of 1D infinite arrays. A thorough understanding thereof is fundamental both for lattice vibrations and vortex dynamics, which we demonstrate for 1D magnonic crystals. Such magnetic disk arrays with vortex-state ordering, referred to as magnetic metastructure, offer potential implementation into information processing devices. PMID:23877284
Wave modes of collective vortex gyration in dipolar-coupled-dot-array magnonic crystals.
Han, Dong-Soo; Vogel, Andreas; Jung, Hyunsung; Lee, Ki-Suk; Weigand, Markus; Stoll, Hermann; Schütz, Gisela; Fischer, Peter; Meier, Guido; Kim, Sang-Koog
2013-01-01
Lattice vibration modes are collective excitations in periodic arrays of atoms or molecules. These modes determine novel transport properties in solid crystals. Analogously, in periodical arrangements of magnetic vortex-state disks, collective vortex motions have been predicted. Here, we experimentally observe wave modes of collective vortex gyration in one-dimensional (1D) periodic arrays of magnetic disks using time-resolved scanning transmission x-ray microscopy. The observed modes are interpreted based on micromagnetic simulation and numerical calculation of coupled Thiele equations. Dispersion of the modes is found to be strongly affected by both vortex polarization and chirality ordering, as revealed by the explicit analytical form of 1D infinite arrays. A thorough understanding thereof is fundamental both for lattice vibrations and vortex dynamics, which we demonstrate for 1D magnonic crystals. Such magnetic disk arrays with vortex-state ordering, referred to as magnetic metastructure, offer potential implementation into information processing devices. PMID:23877284
Collective excitations in a superfluid of color-flavor locked quark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Kenji; Iida, Kei
2005-04-01
We investigate collective excitations coupled with baryon density in a system of massless three-flavor quarks in the collisionless regime. By using the Nambu Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model in the mean-field approximation, we field-theoretically derive the spectra both for the normal and color-flavor locked (CFL) superfluid phases at zero temperature. In the normal phase, we obtain usual zero sound as a low-lying collective mode in the particle-hole (vector) channel. In the CFL phase, the nature of collective excitations varies in a way dependent on whether the excitation energy, ω, is larger or smaller than the threshold given by twice the pairing gap Δ, at which pair excitations with nonzero total momentum become allowed to break up into two quasiparticles. For ω≪2Δ, a phonon corresponding to fluctuations in the U(1) phase of Δ appears as a sharp peak in the particle-particle (“H”) channel. We reproduce the property known from low-energy effective theories that this mode propagates at a velocity of vH=1/√(3) in the low momentum regime; the decay constant fH obtained in the NJL model is identical with the QCD result obtained in the mean-field approximation. We also find that, as the momentum of the phonon increases, the excitation energy goes up and asymptotically approaches ω=2Δ. Above the threshold for pair excitations (ω>2Δ), zero sound manifests itself in the vector channel. By locating the zero sound pole of the vector propagator in the complex energy plane, we investigate the attenuation and energy dispersion relation of zero sound. In the long wavelength limit, the phonon mode, the only low-lying excitation, has its spectral weight in the H channel alone, while the spectral function vanishes in the vector channel. This is due to nontrivial mixing between the H and vector channels in the superfluid medium. We finally extend our study to the case of nonzero temperature. We demonstrate how Landau damping smears the phonon peak in the finite
Collective magneto-polariton excitation in a terahertz photonic cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qi; Lou, Minhan; Li, Xinwei; Chabanov, Andrey; Reno, John; Pan, Wei; Watson, John; Manfra, Michael; Kono, Junichiro
Collective excitations in solids offer new opportunities for quantum optical studies. Many-body interactions inherent to condensed matter systems can lead to novel phenomena that cannot be achieved in traditional atomic systems. Here, we report collective ultrastrong light-matter coupling in a two-dimensional electron gas in a high- Q terahertz photonic-crystal cavity in a magnetic field. We directly observed time-domain vacuum Rabi oscillations, whose frequency was found to be proportional to the square root of N (where N is the carrier density), evidence for the collective nature of ultrastrong coupling. In addition, a small but definite blue shift due to the diamagnetic term in the Hamiltonian was observed for the polariton frequencies, which is another signature of ultrastrong light-matter coupling. Furthermore, the high- Q cavity suppressed the superradiant decay of cyclotron resonance, which resulted in unprecedentedly narrow intrinsic cyclotron resonance linewidths (~5.6 GHz at 2 K). Our method is also applicable to many classes of strongly correlated systems with collective many-body excitations in the terahertz range, opening a door to the fascinating physics of terahertz many-body cavity QED.
Local excitation and collection in polymeric fluorescent microstructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henrique, Franciele Renata; Mendonca, Cleber Renato
2016-04-01
Integrated photonics has gained attention in recent years due to its wide range of applications which span from biology to optical communications. The use of polymer-based platforms for photonic devices is of great interest because organic compounds can be easily incorporated to polymers, enabling modifications to the system physical properties. The two-photon polymerization technique has emerged as an interesting tool for the production of three-dimensional polymeric microstructures. However, for their further incorporation in photonic devices it is necessary to develop methods to perform optical excitation and signal collection on such microstructures. With such purpose, we demonstrate approaches to perform local excitation and collection in polymeric microstructures doped with fluorescent dyes, employing tapered fibers. The obtained results indicate that fiber tapers are suitable to couple light in and out of fluorescent polymeric microstructures, paving the way for their incorporation in photonic devices. We also show that microstructures doped with more than one dye can be used as built-in broadband light sources to photonic circuits and their emission spectrum can be tuned by the right choice of the excitation position.
Charge-exchange modes of excitation in deformed neutron-rich nuclei
Yoshida, Kenichi
2015-10-15
Gamow-Teller (GT) mode of excitation and β-decay properties of deformed neutron-rich even-N Zr isotopes are investigated in a self-consistent Skyrme energy-density-functional approach, in which the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equation is solved in the coordinate space and the proton-neutron Quasiparticle-RPA equation is solved in the quasiparticle basis. It is found that a stronger collectivity is generated for the GT giant resonance as an increase in the neutron number. Furthermore, we find that the T = 0 pairing enhances the low-lying GT strengths cooperatively with the T = 1 pairing correlation depending on the microscopic structure of the low-lying mode and the shell structure around the Fermi levels, and that the enhanced strength shortens the β-decay half-lives by at most an order of magnitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lisenkov, Ivan; Tyberkevych, Vasyl; Nikitov, Sergey; Slavin, Andrei
2016-06-01
A general theory of collective spin-wave edge modes in semi-infinite and finite periodic arrays of magnetic nanodots having uniform dynamic magnetization (macrospin approximation) is developed. The theory is formulated using a formalism of multivectors of magnetization dynamics, which allows one to study edge modes in arrays having arbitrarily complex primitive cells and lattice structure. The developed formalism can describe spin-wave edge modes localized both at the physical edges of the array and at the internal "domain walls" separating the array regions existing in different static magnetization states. Using a perturbation theory, in the framework of the developed formalism, it is possible to calculate damping of the edge modes and to describe their excitation by external variable magnetic fields. The theory is illustrated on the following practically important examples: (i) calculation of the FMR absorption in a finite nanodot array having the shape of a right triangle; (ii) calculation of the spectra of nonreciprocal spin-wave edge modes, including the modes at the physical edges of an array and modes at the domain walls inside the array; and (iii) study of the influence of the domain wall modes on the FMR spectrum of an array existing in a nonideal chessboard antiferromagnetic ground state.
Collective Excitations in InAs Well Intersubband Transitions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Jian-Zhong; Ning, Cun-Zheng
2003-01-01
Intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum well are studied using a density matrix theory that goes beyond the Hartree-Fock approximation by including the full second order electron-electron scattering terms in the polarization equation for the first time. Even though the spectral features remain qualitatively similar to the results obtained with dephasing rate approximation, significant quantitative changes result from such a more detailed treatment of dephasing. More specifically, we show how the interplay of the two fundamental collective excitations, the Fermi-edge singularity and the intersubband plasmon, leads to significant changes in lineshape as the electron density varies.
Phase velocity spectrum analysis for a time delay comb transducer for guided wave mode excitation
Quarry, M J; Rose, J L
2000-09-26
A theoretical model for the analysis of ultrasonic guided wave mode excitation of a comb transducer with time delay features was developed. Time delay characteristics are included via a Fourier transform into the frequency domain. The phase velocity spectrum can be used to determine the mode excitation on the phase velocity dispersion curves for a given structure. Experimental and theoretical results demonstrate the tuning of guided wave modes using a time delay comb transducer.
Planar Defect Modes Excited at the Band Edge of Three-dimensional Photonic Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iida, Masaru; Tani, Masahiko; Sakai, Kiyomi; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Kitahara, Hideaki; Tohme, Takuya; Wada Takeda, Mitsuo
2004-09-01
We experimentally and numerically studied planar defect modes excited at band-edge resonant mode frequencies in three-dimensional photonic crystals. We identified the observed peaks as the defect modes using the spectrum calculated at the defect layer. The spectrum also clarifies the difference between these modes and ordinary band-edge resonant modes. The calculated spatial distribution of the electric field in the defect modes shows that the defect modes have a characteristic field concentration in the band-edge resonant mode.
Collective excitations in 2D hard-disc fluid.
Huerta, Adrian; Bryk, Taras; Trokhymchuk, Andrij
2015-07-01
Collective dynamics of a two-dimensional (2D) hard-disc fluid was studied by molecular dynamics simulations in the range of packing fractions that covers states up to the freezing. Some striking features concerning collective excitations in this system were observed. In particular, the short-wavelength shear waves while being absent at low packing fractions were observed in the range of high packing fractions, just before the freezing transition in a 2D hard-disc fluid. In contrast, the so-called "positive sound dispersion" typically observed in dense Lennard-Jones-like fluids, was not detected for the 2D hard-disc fluid. The ratio of specific heats in the 2D hard-disc fluid shows a monotonic increase with density approaching the freezing, resembling in this way the similar behavior in the vicinity of the Widom line in the case of supercritical fluids. PMID:25595625
Strong interaction between electrons and collective excitations in the multiband superconductor MgB2
Mou, Daixiang; Jiang, Rui; Taufour, Valentin; Flint, Rebecca; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Wen, J. S.; Xu, Z. J.; Gu, Genda; Kaminski, Adam
2015-04-08
We use a tunable laser angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study the electronic properties of the prototypical multiband BCS superconductor MgB2. Our data reveal a strong renormalization of the dispersion (kink) at ~65meV, which is caused by the coupling of electrons to the E2g phonon mode. In contrast to cuprates, the 65 meV kink in MgB2 does not change significantly across Tc. More interestingly, we observe strong coupling to a second, lower energy collective mode at a binding energy of 10 meV. As a result, this excitation vanishes above Tc and is likely a signature of the elusive Leggett mode.
Dhakal, Ashim; Raza, Ali; Peyskens, Frédéric; Subramanian, Ananth Z; Clemmen, Stéphane; Le Thomas, Nicolas; Baets, Roel
2015-10-19
We develop and experimentally verify a theoretical model for the total efficiency η0 of evanescent excitation and subsequent collection of spontaneous Raman signals by the fundamental quasi-TE and quasi-TM modes of a generic photonic channel waveguide. Single-mode silicon nitride (Si3N4) slot and strip waveguides of different dimensions are used in the experimental study. Our theoretical model is validated by the correspondence between the experimental and theoretical absolute values within the experimental errors. We extend our theoretical model to silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) channel waveguides and study η0 as a function of index contrast, polarization of the mode and the geometry of the waveguides. We report nearly 2.5 (4 and 5) times larger η0 for the fundamental quasi-TM mode when compared to η0 for the fundamental quasi-TE mode of a typical Si3N4 (TiO2 and SOI) strip waveguide. η0 for the fundamental quasi-TE mode of a typical Si3N4, (TiO2 and SOI) slot waveguide is about 7 (22 and 90) times larger when compared to η0 for the fundamental quasi-TE mode of a strip waveguide of the similar dimensions. We attribute the observed enhancement to the higher electric field discontinuity present in high index contrast waveguides. PMID:26480401
Collective spin excitations in 2D paramagnet with dipole interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsiberkin, Kirill
2016-02-01
The collective spin excitations in the unbounded 2D paramagnetic system with dipole interactions are studied. The model Hamiltonian includes Zeeman energy and dipole interaction energy, while the exchange vanishes. The system is placed into a constant uniform magnetic field which is orthogonal to the lattice plane. It provides the equilibrium state with spin ordering along the field direction, and the saturation is reached at zero temperature. We consider the deviations of spin magnetic moments from its equilibrium position along the external field. The Holstein-Primakoff representation is applied to spin operators in low-temperature approximation. When the interaction between the spin waves is negligible and only two-magnon terms are taken into account, the Hamiltonian diagonalisation is possible. We obtain the dispersion relation for spin waves in the square and hexagonal honeycomb lattice. Bose-Einstein statistics determine the average number of spin deviations, and total system magnetization. The lattice structure does not influence on magnetization at the long-wavelength limit. The dependencies of the relative magnetization and longitudinal susceptibility on temperature and external field intensity are found. The internal energy and specific heat of the Bose gas of spin waves are calculated. The collective spin excitations play a significant role in the properties of the paramagnetic system at low temperature and strong external magnetic field.
User-friendly software for modeling collective spin wave excitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahn, Steven; Peterson, Peter; Fishman, Randy; Ehlers, Georg
There exists a great need for user-friendly, integrated software that assists in the scientific analysis of collective spin wave excitations measured with inelastic neutron scattering. SpinWaveGenie is a C + + software library that simplifies the modeling of collective spin wave excitations, allowing scientists to analyze neutron scattering data with sophisticated models fast and efficiently. Furthermore, one can calculate the four-dimensional scattering function S(Q,E) to directly compare and fit calculations to experimental measurements. Its generality has been both enhanced and verified through successful modeling of a wide array of magnetic materials. Recently, we have spent considerable effort transforming SpinWaveGenie from an early prototype to a high quality free open source software package for the scientific community. S.E.H. acknowledges support by the Laboratory's Director's fund, ORNL. Work was sponsored by the Division of Scientific User Facilities, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zocher, E.
1987-12-01
A multiport hybrid mode exciter with axial mode feed, generating each of the two orthogonally polarized sum and difference radiation patterns was developed. The modes TE11, TE11*, TE01, TM01 excited by mode couplers in different sections of the circular main waveguide are transferred using a conical corrugated transition to hybrid modes HE11, HE11* and to the classical modes of the TE01 and the TM02 type in the next cylindrical corrugated waveguide section. These modes are radiated by a conical corrugated horn. The principles applied for the design of mode couplers and feed networks are illustrated. Using theoretical results, the dimensioning of the corrugated waveguide components with reduced disturbing modes is explained. The measured radiation patterns show good rotational symmetry, low sidelobes and very small cross polarization levels.
Collective modes in a uniform Fermi gas with Feshbach resonances
Huang, Beibing; Wan, Shaolong
2007-05-15
The collective modes in a uniform fermionic atomic gas with Feshbach resonance are investigated with the path integral method in the frame of a fermion-boson model Hamiltonian. We mainly concentrated on the long-wavelength and low-frequency limits at T=0 K and got an analytical expression for the collective modes across the whole BCS-Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) crossover. We completely recover the Anderson-Bogoliubov modes in the BCS limit and the Bogoliubov modes of the bosonic systems in the BEC limit. The numerical results show that there exists a continuous interpolation for sound velocity between BCS and BEC limits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozich, V.; Szyc, Ł.; Nibbering, E. T. J.; Werncke, W.; Elsaesser, T.
2009-04-01
Vibrational relaxation after spectrally selective excitation within the NH stretching band of adenine-thymine base pairs in DNA oligomers was studied by subpicosecond infrared-pump/anti-Stokes Raman-probe spectroscopy. The decay of the different NH stretching vibrations populates distinct accepting modes in the NH bending range with a rise time of 0.6 ps that is close to the NH stretching decay times. The population of thymine fingerprint modes after excitation of the adenine antisymmetric NH 2 stretching mode points to an ultrafast excitation transfer to the thymine NH stretching vibration before relaxation. The nonequilibrium fingerprint populations decay on a time scale of several picoseconds.
Critical quadrupole fluctuations and collective modes in iron pnictide superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thorsmølle, V. K.; Khodas, M.; Yin, Z. P.; Zhang, Chenglin; Carr, S. V.; Dai, Pengcheng; Blumberg, G.
2016-02-01
The multiband nature of iron pnictides gives rise to a rich temperature-doping phase diagram of competing orders and a plethora of collective phenomena. At low dopings, the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural transition is closely followed by a spin-density-wave transition both being in close proximity to the superconducting phase. A key question is the nature of high-Tc superconductivity and its relation to orbital ordering and magnetism. Here we study the NaFe1 -xCoxAs superconductor using polarization-resolved Raman spectroscopy. The Raman susceptibility displays critical enhancement of nonsymmetric charge fluctuations across the entire phase diagram, which are precursors to a d -wave Pomeranchuk instability at temperature θ (x ) . The charge fluctuations are interpreted in terms of quadrupole interorbital excitations in which the electron and hole Fermi surfaces breathe in-phase. Below Tc, the critical fluctuations acquire coherence and undergo a metamorphosis into a coherent in-gap mode of extraordinary strength.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Zhongqiang; Au, Francis T. K.
2016-04-01
The vibration mode shapes are often used to identify damage of bridges because the mode shapes are not only important modal properties but also sensitive to damage. However, the key issue is how to conveniently obtain the mode shapes of a bridge in service. Traditional methods invariably require installation of instruments on the bridge for collection of dynamic responses for constructing mode shapes, which are both costly and inconvenient. Therefore a method is developed to construct the mode shapes of simply supported bridges based on Hilbert Transform using only vehicle acceleration response for identification of the location of damage. Firstly, an algorithm is devised to construct the mode shapes by using the dynamic responses extracted from a moving vehicle under impact excitation. Then, based on these intermediate results, the coordinate modal assurance criterion in conjunction with suitable wavelets is used to identify the location of damage. Compared with the traditional methods, the proposed method uses only the information from the moving vehicle. Moreover, additional impact excitation on the vehicle helps to excite the bridge. This helps to improve the accuracy by overcoming the adverse effects of measurement noise and road surface roughness, which leads to high accuracy of damage detection. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, some numerical studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of measurement noise, road surface roughness and multiple locations of damage on the accuracy of results.
Higher Order Parametric Excitation Modes for Spaceborne Quadrupole Mass Spectrometers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gershman, D. J.; Block, B. P.; Rubin, M.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Zurbuchen, T. H.
2011-01-01
This paper describes a technique to significantly improve upon the mass peak shape and mass resolution of spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMSs) through higher order auxiliary excitation of the quadrupole field. Using a novel multiresonant tank circuit, additional frequency components can be used to drive modulating voltages on the quadrupole rods in a practical manner, suitable for both improved commercial applications and spaceflight instruments. Auxiliary excitation at frequencies near twice that of the fundamental quadrupole RF frequency provides the advantages of previously studied parametric excitation techniques, but with the added benefit of increased sensed excitation amplitude dynamic range and the ability to operate voltage scan lines through the center of upper stability islands. Using a field programmable gate array, the amplitudes and frequencies of all QMS signals are digitally generated and managed, providing a robust and stable voltage control system. These techniques are experimentally verified through an interface with a commercial Pfeiffer QMG422 quadrupole rod system.When operating through the center of a stability island formed from higher order auxiliary excitation, approximately 50% and 400% improvements in 1% mass resolution and peak stability were measured, respectively, when compared with traditional QMS operation. Although tested with a circular rod system, the presented techniques have the potential to improve the performance of both circular and hyperbolic rod geometry QMS sensors.
Higher order parametric excitation modes for spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometers
Gershman, D. J.; Block, B. P.; Rubin, M.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.
2011-12-15
This paper describes a technique to significantly improve upon the mass peak shape and mass resolution of spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMSs) through higher order auxiliary excitation of the quadrupole field. Using a novel multiresonant tank circuit, additional frequency components can be used to drive modulating voltages on the quadrupole rods in a practical manner, suitable for both improved commercial applications and spaceflight instruments. Auxiliary excitation at frequencies near twice that of the fundamental quadrupole RF frequency provides the advantages of previously studied parametric excitation techniques, but with the added benefit of increased sensed excitation amplitude dynamic range and the ability to operate voltage scan lines through the center of upper stability islands. Using a field programmable gate array, the amplitudes and frequencies of all QMS signals are digitally generated and managed, providing a robust and stable voltage control system. These techniques are experimentally verified through an interface with a commercial Pfeiffer QMG422 quadrupole rod system. When operating through the center of a stability island formed from higher order auxiliary excitation, approximately 50% and 400% improvements in 1% mass resolution and peak stability were measured, respectively, when compared with traditional QMS operation. Although tested with a circular rod system, the presented techniques have the potential to improve the performance of both circular and hyperbolic rod geometry QMS sensors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeBock, M. F. M.; Classen, I. G. J.; Busch, C.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Koslowski, H. R.; Unterberg, B.; TEXTOR Team
2008-01-01
For fusion reactors, based on the principle of magnetic confinement, it is important to avoid so-called magnetic islands or tearing modes. They reduce confinement and can be the cause of major disruptions. One class of magnetic islands is that of the perturbation field driven modes. This perturbation field can, for example, be the intrinsic error field. Theoretical work predicts a strong relationship between plasma rotation and the excitation of perturbation field modes. Experimentally, the theory on mode excitation and plasma rotation has been confirmed on several tokamaks. In those experiments, however, the control over the plasma rotation velocity and direction, and over the externally applied perturbation field was limited. In this paper experiments are presented that were carried out at the TEXTOR tokamak. Two tangential neutral beam injectors and a set of helical perturbation coils, called the dynamic ergodic divertor (DED), provide control over both the plasma rotation and the external perturbation field in TEXTOR. This made it possible to set up a series of experiments to test the theory on mode excitation and plasma rotation in detail. The perturbation field induced by the DED not only excites magnetic islands, it also sets up a layer near the plasma boundary where the magnetic field is stochastic. It will be shown that this stochastic field alters both the rotational response of the plasma on the perturbation field and the threshold for mode excitation. It therefore has to be included in an extended theory on mode excitation.
Interplay of Collective Excitations in Quantum Well Intersubband Resonances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Jian-Zhong; Ning, C. Z.
2003-01-01
Intersubband resonances in a semiconductor quantum well (QW) display some of the most fascinating features involving various collective excitations such as Fermi-edge singularity (FES) and intersubband plasmon (ISP). Using a density matrix approach, we treated many-body effects such as depolarization, vertex correction, and self-energy consistently for a two-subband system. We found a systematic change in resonance spectra from FES-dominated to ISP-dominated features, as QW- width or electron density is varied. Such an interplay between FES and ISP significantly changes both line shape and peak position of the absorption spectrum. In particular, we found that a cancellation of FES and ISP undresses the resonant responses and recovers the single-particle features of absorption for semiconductors with a strong nonparabolicity such as InAs, leading to a dramatic broadening of the absorption spectrum.
Collective mode at Lifshitz transition in iron-pnictide superconductors.
Rodriguez, J P
2016-09-21
We obtain the exact low-energy spectrum of two mobile holes in a t-J model for an isolated layer in an iron-pnictide superconductor. The minimum d xz and d yz orbitals per iron atom are included, with no hybridization between the two. After tuning the Hund coupling to a putative quantum critical point (QCP) that separates a commensurate spin-density wave from a hidden-order antiferromagnet at half filling, we find an s-wave hole-pair groundstate and a d-wave hole-pair excited state. Near the QCP, both alternate in sign between hole Fermi surface pockets at the Brillouin zone center and emergent electron Fermi surface pockets at momenta that correspond to commensurate spin-density waves (cSDW). The dependence of the energy splitting with increasing Hund coupling yields evidence for a true QCP in the thermodynamic limit near the putative one, at which the s-wave and d-wave Cooper pairs are degenerate. A collective s-to-d-wave oscillation of the macroscopic superconductor that couples to orthorhombic shear strain is also identified. Its resonant frequency is predicted to collapse to zero at the QCP in the limit of low hole concentration. This implies degeneracy of Cooper pairs with s, d and [Formula: see text] symmetry in the corresponding quantum critical state. We argue that the critical state describes Cooper pairs in hole-doped iron superconductors at the Lifshitz transition, where electron bands first rise above the Fermi level. We thereby predict that the s-to-d-wave collective mode observed by Raman spectroscopy in Ba1-x K x Fe2As2 at optimal doping should also be observed at higher doping near the Lifshitz transition. PMID:27419913
Collective mode at Lifshitz transition in iron-pnictide superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, J. P.
2016-09-01
We obtain the exact low-energy spectrum of two mobile holes in a t-J model for an isolated layer in an iron-pnictide superconductor. The minimum d xz and d yz orbitals per iron atom are included, with no hybridization between the two. After tuning the Hund coupling to a putative quantum critical point (QCP) that separates a commensurate spin-density wave from a hidden-order antiferromagnet at half filling, we find an s-wave hole-pair groundstate and a d-wave hole-pair excited state. Near the QCP, both alternate in sign between hole Fermi surface pockets at the Brillouin zone center and emergent electron Fermi surface pockets at momenta that correspond to commensurate spin-density waves (cSDW). The dependence of the energy splitting with increasing Hund coupling yields evidence for a true QCP in the thermodynamic limit near the putative one, at which the s-wave and d-wave Cooper pairs are degenerate. A collective s-to-d-wave oscillation of the macroscopic superconductor that couples to orthorhombic shear strain is also identified. Its resonant frequency is predicted to collapse to zero at the QCP in the limit of low hole concentration. This implies degeneracy of Cooper pairs with s, d and s+\\text{i}d symmetry in the corresponding quantum critical state. We argue that the critical state describes Cooper pairs in hole-doped iron superconductors at the Lifshitz transition, where electron bands first rise above the Fermi level. We thereby predict that the s-to-d-wave collective mode observed by Raman spectroscopy in Ba1‑x K x Fe2As2 at optimal doping should also be observed at higher doping near the Lifshitz transition.
Wu, Feng
2016-06-01
We present a quantum mechanical study of mode-specific tunneling upon fundamental excitation in malonaldehyde with a multidimensional theory that utilizes the saddle-point normal coordinates. We find that a ring-deformation normal mode is as essential as the well-known imaginary-frequency normal mode in the multidimensional investigation. The changes in tunneling splittings upon fundamental excitation are calculated. The results are competitive with those from a recently developed mixed classical-quantum method. Moreover, the results are qualitatively consistent with experiment for about half of all the modes. PMID:27192182
Selective excitation of higher order modes in hollow-core PCF via prism-coupling.
Trabold, Barbara M; Novoa, David; Abdolvand, Amir; Russell, Philip St J
2014-07-01
Prism-coupling through the microstructured cladding is used to selectively excite individual higher order modes in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). Mode selection is achieved by varying the angle between the incoming beam and the fiber axis, in order to match the axial wavevector component to that of the desired mode. The technique allows accurate measurement of the effective indices and transmission losses of modes of arbitrary order, even those with highly complex transverse field distributions that would be extremely difficult to excite by conventional endfire coupling. PMID:24978724
Characterization of superconducting radiofrequency breakdown by two-mode excitation
Eremeev, Grigory V.; Palczewski, Ari D.
2014-01-14
We show that thermal and magnetic contributions to the breakdown of superconductivity in radiofrequency (RF) fields can be separated by applying two RF modes simultaneously to a superconducting surface. We develop a simple model that illustrates how mode-mixing RF data can be related to properties of the superconductor. Within our model the data can be described by a single parameter, which can be derived either from RF or thermometry data. Our RF and thermometry data are in good agreement with the model. We propose to use mode-mixing technique to decouple thermal and magnetic effects on RF breakdown of superconductors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sedelnikova, O. V.; Bulusheva, L. G.; Asanov, I. P.; Yushina, I. V.; Okotrub, A. V.
2014-04-01
Effect of corrugation of hexagonal carbon network on the collective electron excitations has been studied using optical absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in conjunction with density functional theory calculations. Onion-like carbon (OLC) was taken as a material, where graphitic mantle enveloping agglomerates of multi-shell fullerenes is strongly curved. Experiments showed that positions of π and π + σ plasmon modes as well as π → π* absorption peak are substantially redshifted for OLC as compared with those of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and thermally exfoliated graphite consisted of planar sheets. This effect was reproduced in behavior of dielectric functions of rippled graphite models calculated within the random phase approximation. We conclude that the energy of electron excitations in graphitic materials could be precisely tuned by a simple bending of hexagonal network without change of topology. Moreover, our investigation suggests that in such materials optical exciton can transfer energy to plasmon non-radiatively.
Sedelnikova, O. V. Bulusheva, L. G.; Okotrub, A. V.; Asanov, I. P.; Yushina, I. V.
2014-04-21
Effect of corrugation of hexagonal carbon network on the collective electron excitations has been studied using optical absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in conjunction with density functional theory calculations. Onion-like carbon (OLC) was taken as a material, where graphitic mantle enveloping agglomerates of multi-shell fullerenes is strongly curved. Experiments showed that positions of π and π + σ plasmon modes as well as π → π* absorption peak are substantially redshifted for OLC as compared with those of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and thermally exfoliated graphite consisted of planar sheets. This effect was reproduced in behavior of dielectric functions of rippled graphite models calculated within the random phase approximation. We conclude that the energy of electron excitations in graphitic materials could be precisely tuned by a simple bending of hexagonal network without change of topology. Moreover, our investigation suggests that in such materials optical exciton can transfer energy to plasmon non-radiatively.
Nonlinear excitation of subcritical fast ion-driven modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lesur, M.; Itoh, K.; Ido, T.; Itoh, S.-I.; Kosuga, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Inagaki, S.; Osakabe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Shimizu, A.; Ida, K.; the LHD experiment group
2016-05-01
In collisionless plasma, it is known that linearly stable modes can be destabilized (subcritically) by the presence of structures in phase-space. The growth of such structures is a nonlinear, kinetic mechanism, which provides a channel for free-energy extraction, different from conventional inverse Landau damping. However, such nonlinear growth requires the presence of a seed structure with a relatively large threshold in amplitude. We demonstrate that, in the presence of another, linearly unstable (supercritical) mode, wave–wave coupling can provide a seed, which can lead to subcritical instability by either one of two mechanisms. Both mechanisms hinge on a collaboration between fluid nonlinearity and kinetic nonlinearity. If collisional velocity diffusion is low enough, the seed provided by the supercritical mode overcomes the threshold for nonlinear growth of phase-space structure. Then, the supercritical mode triggers the conventional subcritical instability. If collisional velocity diffusion is too large, the seed is significantly below the threshold, but can still grow by a sustained collaboration between fluid and kinetic nonlinearities. Both of these subcritical instabilities can be triggered, even when the frequency of the supercritical mode is rapidly sweeping. These results were obtained by modeling the subcritical mode kinetically, and the impact of the supercritical mode by simple wave–wave coupling equations. This model is applied to bursty onset of geodesic acoustic modes in an LHD experiment. The model recovers several key features such as relative amplitude, timescales, and phase relations. It suggests that the strongest bursts are subcritical instabilities, with sustained collaboration between fluid and kinetic nonlinearities.
Excitation of collective modes in a quantum flute
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torfason, Kristinn; Manolescu, Andrei; Molodoveanu, Valeriu; Gudmundsson, Vidar
2012-06-01
We use a generalized master equation (GME) formalism to describe the nonequilibrium time-dependent transport of Coulomb interacting electrons through a short quantum wire connected to semi-infinite biased leads. The contact strength between the leads and the wire is modulated by out-of-phase time-dependent potentials that simulate a turnstile device. We explore this setup by keeping the contact with one lead at a fixed location at one end of the wire, whereas the contact with the other lead is placed on various sites along the length of the wire. We study the propagation of sinusoidal and rectangular pulses. We find that the current profiles in both leads depend not only on the shape of the pulses, but also on the position of the second contact. The current reflects standing waves created by the contact potentials, like in a wind musical instrument (for example, a flute), but occurring on the background of the equilibrium charge distribution. The number of electrons in our quantum “flute” device varies between two and three. We find that for rectangular pulses the currents in the leads may flow against the bias for short time intervals, due to the higher harmonics of the charge response. The GME is solved numerically in small time steps without resorting to the traditional Markov and rotating wave approximations. The Coulomb interaction between the electrons in the sample is included via the exact diagonalization method. The system (leads plus sample wire) is described by a lattice model.
Observation of beam-excited dipole modes in traveling wave accelerator structures
Vetter, A.M.; Adamski, J.L.; Gallagher, W.J.
1985-10-01
Beamline tests on a series of waveguide models have recently been completed at the Boeing Radiation Effects Laboratory. The purpose of these tests has been to study beam excitation of the dipole modes which participate in regenerative and cumulative beam breakup processes in RF linac waveguides. Cell excitation patterns, dependence on transverse beam displacement from the axis, and comparative excitation levels in waveguides of different design were measured.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Shailesh; Lausen, Jens L.; Garcia-Ortiz, Cesar E.; Andersen, Sebastian K. H.; Roberts, Alexander S.; Radko, Ilya P.; Smith, Cameron L. C.; Kristensen, Anders; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.
2016-02-01
Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamonds are interesting due to their remarkable characteristics that are well suited to applications in quantum-information processing and magnetic field sensing, as well as representing stable fluorescent sources. Multiple NV centers in nanodiamonds (NDs) are especially useful as biological fluorophores due to their chemical neutrality, brightness and room-temperature photostability. Furthermore, NDs containing multiple NV centers also have potential in high-precision magnetic field and temperature sensing. Coupling NV centers to propagating surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes gives a base for lab-on-a-chip sensing devices, allows enhanced fluorescence emission and collection which can further enhance the precision of NV-based sensors. Here, we investigate coupling of multiple NV centers in individual NDs to the SPP modes supported by silver surfaces protected by thin dielectric layers and by gold V-grooves (VGs) produced via the self-terminated silicon etching. In the first case, we concentrate on monitoring differences in fluorescence spectra obtained from a source ND, which is illuminated by a pump laser, and from a scattering ND illuminated only by the fluorescence-excited SPP radiation. In the second case, we observe changes in the average NV lifetime when the same ND is characterized outside and inside a VG. Fluorescence emission from the VG terminations is also observed, which confirms the NV coupling to the VG-supported SPP modes.
Dynamical aspects of phonon-phonon coupling in collective mode damping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cataldo, H. M.; Hernández, E. S.; Dorso, C. O.
1987-04-01
We present an extension of the Quantal Brownian Motion (QBM) model of vibration damping that incorporates phonon-phonon or phonon-(two-particle-two-hole) interactions as sources of dissipative evolution of the excited mode. Starting from the Schrödinger-on Neumann equation of motion, a reduction procedure combined with the proper approximations leads to coupled, nonlinear master equations for the density vectors of the separate oscillators. The fermionic heat bath remains equilibrated at temperature T. The evolution of the phonon system is numerically analyzed under different initial conditions that simulate excitation of one or more collective vibrations, for several strengths of mode-mode coupling. It is found that in the majority of cases the system reaches statistical equilibrium with relaxation times that can be extracted from the numerical treatment.
Excitation of surface modes by electron beam in semi-bounded quantum plasma
Mohamed, B. F.; Elbasha, N. M.
2015-10-15
The excitation of the TM surface modes due to the interaction of electron beam with a semi-bounded quantum magnetized plasma is investigated. The generated current and the perturbed densities of the electron beam and plasma are obtained. The wave equation that describes the excited fields has been solved to obtain the dispersion relation for these modes. It is found that the quantum effects play important role for frequencies less and bigger than plasma frequency such that the phase velocity of modes increases with increasing the quantum effects compared to the classical case. It has also been displayed that in the absence of external magnetic field, the surface modes appear in the all regions of the wavelength while they have been only excited for high wavenumber in the presence of the magnetic field. Besides, it has been shown that the dispersion curves of the modes depend essentially on the density ratio of beam and plasma.
Yang Xuefeng; Cui Jian; Zhang Yuan; Liu Yue
2012-07-15
The dispersion relations of the externally and thermally (naturally) excited dust lattice modes (both longitudinal and transverse) in two-dimensional Debye-Yukawa complex plasma crystals are investigated. The dispersion relations are calculated numerically by taking the neutral gas damping effects into account and the numerical results are in agreement with the experimental data given by Nunomura et al.[Phys. Rev. E 65, 066402 (2002)]. It is found that for the mode excited by an external disturbance with a real frequency, the dispersion properties are changed at a critical frequency near where the group velocity of the mode goes to zero. Therefore, the high frequency branch with negative dispersion cannot be reached. In contrast, for the thermally excited mode, the dispersion curve can extend all the way to the negative dispersion region, while a 'cut-off' wave number exists at the long wavelength end of the dispersion in the transverse mode.
Minimizing the Excitation of Parasitic Modes of Vibration in Slender Power Ultrasonic Devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathieson, A.; Lucas, M.
The design of slender power ultrasonic devices can often be challenging due to the excitation of parasitic modes of vibration during operation. The excitation of these modes is known to manifest from behaviors such as modal coupling which if not controlled or designed out of the system can, under operational conditions, lead to poor device performance and device failure. However, a report published by the authors has indicted that the excitation of these modes of vibration could be minimized through device design, specifically careful location of the piezoceramic stack. This paper illustrates that it is possible, through piezoceramic stack position, to minimize modal coupling between a parasitic mode and the tuned longitudinal mode of vibration for slender ultrasonic devices.
Collective modes at a surface of a topological insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jhih-Sheng; Fogler, M. M.; Basov, D. N.
2015-03-01
We investigate hybrid plasmon-phonon modes of a polar topological insulator that originate from interaction among the quasiparticles of surface and bulk states, and also optical phonons. As an example, we study electron-doped Bi2Se3. We analyze the dispersion of the collective modes of this compound for (i) a bulk sample with a depletion layer created by acceptor adsorbates on the surface and (ii) a thin film. In the first case, we show that a depletion layer gives rise to two energy-momentum regions, where the surface states dominate the collective modes over the bulk carriers. In a thin film, the phonons are more prominent than the bulk carriers. The anisotropy of the phonon response makes the thin film behaves as a waveguide. We discuss how these various collective modes can be detected by scanning near-field optical microscopy. Supported by ONR and UCOP.
Nonlinear dynamics and collective excitations in layered superconducting structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zel'Tser, A. S.; Kivshar', Iu. S.; Soboleva, T. K.
1991-06-01
Nonlinear excitations in layered superconducting structures representing a system of interacting extended Josephson junctions are investigated theoretically. The possibility of the propagation of dynamic supersolitons, localized vortex lattice density excitations, in such a system is demonstrated. Particular attention is given to soliton excitations of two types: kinks and envelope solitons. The relaxation of dynamic kinks is investigated numerically.
Instability of insulating states in optical lattices due to collective phonon excitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yukalov, V. I.; Ziegler, K.
2015-02-01
The effect of collective phonon excitations on the properties of cold atoms in optical lattices is investigated. These phonon excitations are collective excitations, whose appearance is caused by intersite atomic interactions correlating the atoms, and they do not arise without such interactions. These collective excitations should not be confused with lattice vibrations produced by an external force. No such force is assumed. But the considered phonons are purely self-organized collective excitations, characterizing atomic oscillations around lattice sites, due to intersite atomic interactions. It is shown that these excitations can essentially influence the possibility of atoms' being localized. The states that would be insulating in the absence of phonon excitations can become delocalized when these excitations are taken into account. This concerns long-range as well as local atomic interactions. To characterize the region of stability, the Lindemann criterion is used.
Correlation between excitation of Alfven modes and degradation of ICRF heating efficiency in TFTR
Bernabei, S.; Chang, Z.; Darrow, D.
1997-05-01
Alfven modes are excited by energetic ions in TFTR during intense minority ICRF heating. There is a clear threshold in rf power above which the modes are destabilized. The net effect of these modes is the increase of the fast ion losses, with an associated saturation of the ion tail energy and of the efficiency of the heating. Typically, several modes are excited with progressive n-numbers, with frequencies in the neighborhood of 200 kHz. Results suggest that Energetic Particle Modes (EPM), mostly unseen by the Mirnov coils, are generated near the center and are responsible for the ion losses. Stronger global TAE modes, which are destabilized by the stream of displaced fast ions, appear responsible only for minor losses.
Bochkova, Elena; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; de Lustrac, André; Lupu, Anatole
2016-01-15
We provide evidence for the mechanism of direct dark mode excitation in a metasurface composed of bi-layered Z-shaped enantiomeric meta-atoms. The electromagnetic behavior of the structure is investigated through both numerical simulations and experimental measurements in the microwave domain. We demonstrate direct field coupling excitation of second higher order electric mode under normal incidence based only on symmetry matching conditions. The proposed approach provides a better flexibility in engineering dark mode resonances that do not rely on hybridization mechanism and presents important advantages for multi-spectral sensor applications. PMID:26766727
The energy flux of MHD wave modes excited by realistic photospheric drivers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedun, Viktor; Von Fay-Siebenburgen, Erdélyi Robert; Mumford, Stuart
The mechanism(s) responsible for solar coronal heating are still an unresolved and challenging task. In the framework of 3D numerical modelling of MHD wave excitation and propagation in the strongly stratified solar atmosphere we analyse the mode coupling and estimate the wave energy partition which can be supplied to the upper layers of the solar atmosphere by locally decomposed slow, fast and Alfven modes. These waves are excited by a number of realistic photospheric drivers which are mimicking the random granular buffeting, the coherent global solar oscillations and swirly motion observed in e.g. magnetic bright points. Based on a self-similar approach, a realistic magnetic flux tubes configuration is constructed and implemented in the VALIIIC model of the solar atmosphere. A novel method for decomposing the velocity perturbations into parallel, perpendicular and azimuthal components in 3D geometry is developed using field lines to trace a volume of constant energy flux. This method is used to identify the excited wave modes propagating upwards from the photosphere and to compute the percentage energy contribution of each mode. We have found, that for all cases where torsional motion is present, the main contribution to the flux (60%) is by Alfven wave. In the case of the vertical driver it is found to mainly excite the fast- and slow-sausage modes and a horizontal driver primarily excites the slow kink mode.
Mode-locked solid state lasers using diode laser excitation
Holtom, Gary R.
2012-03-06
A mode-locked laser employs a coupled-polarization scheme for efficient longitudinal pumping by reshaped laser diode bars. One or more dielectric polarizers are configured to reflect a pumping wavelength having a first polarization and to reflect a lasing wavelength having a second polarization. An asymmetric cavity provides relatively large beam spot sizes in gain medium to permit efficient coupling to a volume pumped by a laser diode bar. The cavity can include a collimation region with a controlled beam spot size for insertion of a saturable absorber and dispersion components. Beam spot size is selected to provide stable mode locking based on Kerr lensing. Pulse durations of less than 100 fs can be achieved in Yb:KGW.
Symmetry breaking induced excitations of dark plasmonic modes in multilayer graphene ribbons.
Dai, Y Y; Chen, A; Xia, Y Y; Han, D Z; Liu, X H; Shi, L; Zi, J
2016-09-01
Multilayer graphene can support multiple plasmon bands. If structured into graphene ribbons, they can support multiple localized plasmonic modes with interesting optical properties. However, not all such plasmonic modes can be excited directly due to the constrains of the structural symmetry. We show by numerical simulations that by breaking the symmetry all plasmonic modes can be excited. We discuss the general principles and properties of two-layer graphene ribbons and then extend to multilayer graphene ribbons. In multilayer graphene ribbons with different ribbon widths, a tunable broadband absorption can be attained due to the excitations of all plasmonic modes. Our results suggest that these symmetry-broken multilayer graphene ribbons could offer more degrees of freedom in designing photonic devices. PMID:27607610
Low-Energy Electron Impact Excitation of the (010) Bending Mode of CO2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huo, Winifred M.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
Low-energy electron impact excitation of the fundamental modes of CO2 has been extensively studied, both experimentally and theoretically. Much attention has been paid to the virtual state feature in the the (100) mode excitation and the (sup 2)II(sub upsilon) resonance feature around 3.8 eV, which is observable in all three fundamental modes. For the excitation of the (010) mode away from the resonance region, the Born dipole approximation was generally considered adequate. The present study employs the Born dipole approximation to treat the long range interaction and the Schwinger multichannel method for the short range interaction. The roles of the two interaction potentials will be compared.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stepanov, E. A.; van Loon, E. G. C. P.; Katanin, A. A.; Lichtenstein, A. I.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Rubtsov, A. N.
2016-01-01
We propose an efficient dual boson scheme, which extends the dynamical mean-field theory paradigm to collective excitations in correlated systems. The theory is fully self-consistent both on the one- and on the two-particle level, thus describing the formation of collective modes as well as the renormalization of electronic and bosonic spectra on equal footing. The method employs an effective impurity model comprising both fermionic and bosonic hybridization functions. Only single- and two-electron Green's functions of the reference problem enter the theory, due to the optimal choice of the self-consistency condition for the effective bosonic bath. We show that the theory is naturally described by a dual Luttinger-Ward functional and obeys the relevant conservation laws.
Aiba, N.; Hirota, M.
2015-08-15
In a rotating toroidal plasma surrounded by a resistive wall, it is shown that linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities can be excited by interplay between the resistive wall mode (RWM) and stable ideal MHD modes, where the RWM can couple with not only a stable external kink mode but also various stable Alfvén eigenmodes that abound in a toroidal plasma. The RWM growth rate is shown to peak repeatedly as the rotation frequency reaches specific values for which the frequencies of the ideal MHD modes are Doppler-shifted to the small RWM frequency. Such destabilization can be observed even when the RWM in a static plasma is stable. A dispersion relation clarifies that the unstable mode changes from the RWM to the ideal MHD mode destabilized by wall resistivity when the rotation frequency passes through these specific values. The unstable mode is excited at these rotation frequencies even though plasma rotation also tends to stabilize the RWM from the combination of the continuum damping and the ion Landau damping.
N-mode coherence in collective neutrino oscillations
Raffelt, Georg G.
2011-05-15
We study two-flavor neutrino oscillations in a homogeneous and isotropic ensemble under the influence of neutrino-neutrino interactions. For any density there exist forms of collective oscillations that show self-maintained coherence. They can be classified by a number N of linearly independent functions that describe all neutrino modes as linear superpositions. What is more, the dynamics is equivalent to another ensemble with the same effective density, consisting of N modes with discrete energies E{sub i} with i=1,...,N. We use this equivalence to derive the analytic solution for two-mode (bimodal) coherence, relevant for spectral-split formation in supernova neutrinos.
Crossover of collective modes and positive sound dispersion in supercritical state.
Fomin, Yu D; Ryzhov, V N; Tsiok, E N; Brazhkin, V V; Trachenko, K
2016-11-01
Supercritical state has been viewed as an intermediate state between gases and liquids with largely unknown physical properties. Here, we address the important ability of supercritical fluids to sustain collective excitations. We directly study propagating modes on the basis of correlation functions calculated in molecular dynamics simulations and find that the supercritical system sustains propagating solid-like transverse modes below the Frenkel line but not above where there is one longitudinal mode only. Important thermodynamic implications of this finding are discussed. We directly detect positive sound dispersion (PSD) below the Frenkel line where transverse modes are operative and quantitatively explain its magnitude on the basis of transverse and longitudinal velocities. PSD disappears above the Frenkel line which therefore demarcates the supercritical phase diagram into two areas where PSD does and does not operate. PMID:27603524
Collective excitations in doped two-leg quantum spin ladders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blumberg, Girsh
2004-03-01
Investigation of the charge and spin dynamics of spin 1/2 quasi one-dimensional Sr_14Cu_24O_41 ladder compound has attracting attention because of the critical nature of its magnetic ground state and the relevance to the phase diagram of the high-Tc superconductors. Understanding the competition between the insulating states at low hole concentrations and superconducting pairing at higher hole densities has emerged as a key feature of the problem in cuprates. We use ultra-low frequency Raman spectroscopy as well as linear and nonlinear electrical response over about 10 decades of frequency to identify the insulating state of self-doped Sr_14Cu_24O_41 ladders as a weakly pinned, sliding spin/charge density wave with non-linear conductivity and a giant dielectric response (ɛ1 10^6) that persists to remarkably high temperatures [1]. We also performed structural studies in the density wave state by anomalous X-ray diffraction at the O K- and Cu L- edges. At sharp resonance with O K- pre-edge we observed peak that corresponds to commensurate with the lattice charge density modulation with period of five ladder steps. Intriguingly, the density wave peak intensity drops rapidly when excitation energy is detuned from the pre-edge resonance suggesting that the lattice does not respond to the charge modulation and therefore the density modulation is driven by anti-ferromagnetic interactions. Similar density wave correlations were found in ladders with higher hole concentration that show metallic-like conductivity and are superconducting under pressure. Our results demonstrate that the superconducting state in cuprates is competing with a crystalline charge ordered state and suggest that the transport in metallic ladders, which is similar to transport in underdoped high-Tc cuprates, is driven by a collective electronic response [2]. 1. G. Blumberg et al, Science 297, 584 (2002). 2. A. Gozar et al, PRL91, 087401 (2003); PRL87, 197202 (2001).
Coexisting single-particle and collective excitations in 70As
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haring-Kaye, R. A.; Elder, R. M.; Döring, J.; Tabor, S. L.; Volya, A.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Bender, P. C.; Medina, N. H.; Morrow, S. I.; Oliviera, J. R. B.; Tripathi, V.
2015-10-01
High-spin states in 70As were studied using the 55Mn(18O,3 n ) fusion-evaporation reaction at a beam energy of 50 MeV. Prompt γ -γ coincidences were measured using the Florida State University Compton-suppressed Ge array consisting of three Clover detectors and seven single-crystal detectors. A reinvestigation of the known level scheme resulted in the addition of 32 new transitions and the rearrangement of 10 others. The high-spin decay pattern of yrast negative-parity states was modified and enhanced extensively. Spins were assigned based on directional correlation of oriented nuclei ratios. Lifetimes of seven excited states were measured using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. The B (E 2 ) rates inferred from the lifetimes of states in the yrast positive-parity band imply substantial collectivity, in agreement with the results of previous studies. Substantial signature splitting and large alternations in the B (M 1 ) strengths were observed in this band as well, supporting the interpretation of an aligned π g9 /2⊗ν g9 /2 intrinsic configuration for this structure beginning at the lowest 9+ state. Large-scale shell-model calculations performed for 70As reproduce the relative energy differences between adjacent levels and the B (M 1 ) rates in the yrast positive-parity band rather well, but underestimate the B (E 2 ) strengths. The g9 /2 orbital occupancies for the lowest 9+ state predicted by the shell-model calculations provide additional evidence of a stretched π g9 /2⊗ν g9 /2 configuration for this state.
Phase diagram and collective excitations in an excitonic insulator from an orbital physics viewpoint
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasu, Joji; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Naka, Makoto; Ishihara, Sumio
2016-05-01
An excitonic-insulating system is studied from a viewpoint of the orbital physics in strongly correlated electron systems. An effective model Hamiltonian for low-energy electronic states is derived from the two-orbital Hubbard model with a finite-energy difference corresponding to the crystalline-field splitting. The effective model is represented by the spin operators and the pseudospin operators for the spin-state degrees of freedom. The ground-state phase diagram is analyzed by the mean-field approximation. In addition to the low-spin state and high-spin state phases, two kinds of the excitonic-insulating phases emerge as a consequence of the competition between the crystalline-field effect and the Hund coupling. Transitions to the excitonic phases are classified to an Ising-type transition resulted from a spontaneous breaking of the Z2 symmetry. Magnetic structures in the two excitonic-insulating phases are different from each other: an antiferromagnetic order and a spin nematic order. Collective excitations in each phase are examined using the generalized spin-wave approximation. Characteristics in the Goldstone modes in the excitonic-insulating phases are studied through the calculations of the dynamical correlation functions for the spins and pseudospin operators. Both the transverse and longitudinal spin excitation modes are active in the two excitonic-insulating phases in contrast to the low-spin state and high-spin state phases. Relationships of the present results to the perovskite cobalt oxides are discussed.
Morozov, V.G.; Mukhai, A.N.
1988-10-01
Long-wave collective oscillations in a system of parametric spin waves of a ferromagnet are studied on the basis of the kinetic equations for the Wigner distribution functions of the magnons. A study is made of the linear response of the magnetization m to a change in the internal field h (in the case of deviation of a packet of parametric waves from a stationary state), and boundary-value problem for finding the eigenfrequencies of the collective modes in a sample of finite volume is formulated. It is shown that allowance for the influence of the boundary conditions leads to discreteness of the frequency spectrum of the collective modes in the region of wave numbers q of the order of the reciprocal sample dimension L/sup /minus/1/. For a spherical sample, expressions are obtained for the discrete frequencies of long-wave collective modes corresponding to oscillations with longitudinal component h/sub z/ of the internal field that does not depend on the coordinate z. Criteria for stability of stationary states of the ferromagnet with respect to the excitation of auto-oscillations are obtained.
Mugarza, Aitor; Shimizu, Tomoko K.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel
2009-05-07
Tunneling electrons in a scanning tunneling microscope were used to excite specific vibrational quantum states of adsorbed water and hydroxyl molecules on a Ru(0 0 0 1) surface. The excited molecules relaxed by transfer of energy to lower energy modes, resulting in diffusion, dissociation, desorption, and surface-tip transfer processes. Diffusion of H{sub 2}O molecules could be induced by excitation of the O-H stretch vibration mode at 445 meV. Isolated molecules required excitation of one single quantum while molecules bonded to a C atom required at least two quanta. Dissociation of single H{sub 2}O molecules into H and OH required electron energies of 1 eV or higher while dissociation of OH required at least 2 eV electrons. In contrast, water molecules forming part of a cluster could be dissociated with electron energies of 0.5 eV.
Bryk, Taras; Ruocco, G.; Scopigno, T.
2015-09-14
Unlike phonons in crystals, the collective excitations in liquids cannot be treated as propagation of harmonic displacements of atoms around stable local energy minima. The viscoelasticity of liquids, reflected in transition from the adiabatic to elastic high-frequency speed of sound and in absence of the long-wavelength transverse excitations, results in dispersions of longitudinal (L) and transverse (T) collective excitations essentially different from the typical phonon ones. Practically, nothing is known about the effect of high pressure on the dispersion of collective excitations in liquids, which causes strong changes in liquid structure. Here dispersions of L and T collective excitations in liquid Li in the range of pressures up to 186 GPa were studied by ab initio simulations. Two methodologies for dispersion calculations were used: direct estimation from the peak positions of the L/T current spectral functions and simulation-based calculations of wavenumber-dependent collective eigenmodes. It is found that at ambient pressure, the longitudinal and transverse dynamics are well separated, while at high pressures, the transverse current spectral functions, density of vibrational states, and dispersions of collective excitations yield evidence of two types of propagating modes that contribute strongly to transverse dynamics. Emergence of the unusually high-frequency transverse modes gives evidence of the breakdown of a regular viscoelastic theory of transverse dynamics, which is based on coupling of a single transverse propagating mode with shear relaxation. The explanation of the observed high-frequency shift above the viscoelastic value is given by the presence of another branch of collective excitations. With the pressure increasing, coupling between the two types of collective excitations is rationalized within a proposed extended viscoelastic model of transverse dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bryk, Taras; Ruocco, G.; Scopigno, T.; Seitsonen, Ari P.
2015-09-01
Unlike phonons in crystals, the collective excitations in liquids cannot be treated as propagation of harmonic displacements of atoms around stable local energy minima. The viscoelasticity of liquids, reflected in transition from the adiabatic to elastic high-frequency speed of sound and in absence of the long-wavelength transverse excitations, results in dispersions of longitudinal (L) and transverse (T) collective excitations essentially different from the typical phonon ones. Practically, nothing is known about the effect of high pressure on the dispersion of collective excitations in liquids, which causes strong changes in liquid structure. Here dispersions of L and T collective excitations in liquid Li in the range of pressures up to 186 GPa were studied by ab initio simulations. Two methodologies for dispersion calculations were used: direct estimation from the peak positions of the L/T current spectral functions and simulation-based calculations of wavenumber-dependent collective eigenmodes. It is found that at ambient pressure, the longitudinal and transverse dynamics are well separated, while at high pressures, the transverse current spectral functions, density of vibrational states, and dispersions of collective excitations yield evidence of two types of propagating modes that contribute strongly to transverse dynamics. Emergence of the unusually high-frequency transverse modes gives evidence of the breakdown of a regular viscoelastic theory of transverse dynamics, which is based on coupling of a single transverse propagating mode with shear relaxation. The explanation of the observed high-frequency shift above the viscoelastic value is given by the presence of another branch of collective excitations. With the pressure increasing, coupling between the two types of collective excitations is rationalized within a proposed extended viscoelastic model of transverse dynamics.
Plasma confinement regimes and collective modes characterizing them
Coppi, B.; Zhou, T.
2012-10-15
A unified theory is presented for the modes that are excited at the edge of the plasma column and are important signatures of the advanced confinement regimes into which magnetically confined plasmas can be driven. In particular, the so-called EDA H-Regime, the Elmy H-Regime, and the I-Regime are considered. The modes that are identified theoretically have characteristics that are consistent with or have anticipated those of the modes observed experimentally for each of the investigated regimes. The phase velocities, the produced transport processes, the frequencies, the wavelengths, and the consistency with the direction of spontaneous rotation are the factors considered for comparison with the relevant experiments. The quasi-coherent mode [I. Cziegler, Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2011] that is present in the EDA H-Regime has a phase velocity in the direction of the ion diamagnetic velocity in the plasma reference frame. Consequently, this is identified as a ballooning mode near finite Larmor radius marginal stability involving the effects of transverse ion viscosity and other dissipative effects. In this regime, impurities are driven outward by the combined effects of the local temperature gradients of the impurities and their thermal conductivity, while in the Elmy H-Regime impurities are driven toward the center of the plasma column. In the I-Regimes, the excited 'Heavy Particle' modes [B. Coppi and T. Zhou, Phys. Plasmas 19, 012302 (2012); Phys. Lett. A 375, 2916 (2011)] are not of the ballooning kind and are shown to expel the impurities toward the plasma edge in the presence of significant fluctuations. These modes can have a finite frequency of oscillation with a phase velocity in the direction of the electron diamagnetic velocity or they can be nearly purely growing, explaining why there are I-Regimes where fluctuations are not observed. Instead, the modes considered for the Elmy H-Regime are of the ballooning
Elliptically polarized modes for the unidirectional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons.
Compaijen, Paul J; Malyshev, Victor A; Knoester, Jasper
2016-02-22
We propose a new method for the directional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons by a metal nanoparticle antenna, based on the elliptical polarization of the normal modes of the antenna when it is in close proximity to a metallic substrate. The proposed theoretical model allows for the full characterization of the modes, giving the dipole configuration, frequency and lifetime. As a proof of principle, we have performed calculations for a dimer antenna and we report that surface plasmon polaritons can be excited in a given direction with an intensity of more than two orders of magnitude larger than in the opposite direction. Furthermore, using the fact that the response to any excitation can be written as a superposition of the normal modes, we show that this directionality can easily be accessed by exciting the system with a local source or a plane wave. Lastly, exploiting the interference between the normal modes, the directionality can be switched for a specific excitation. We envision the proposed mechanism to be a very useful tool for the design of antennas in layered media. PMID:26907039
Nanoscale spintronic oscillators based on the excitation of confined soliton modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finocchio, G.; Puliafito, V.; Komineas, S.; Torres, L.; Ozatay, O.; Hauet, T.; Azzerboni, B.
2013-10-01
This paper demonstrates how to excite complex soliton modes in nanomagnets with perpendicular to plane magnetic anisotropy driven by the non-uniform injection of a spin-polarized current. We addressed the study toward two different scenarios, in the first the excitation of two rotating bubble/antibubble pairs is predicted, in the second one, by means of the topological density, we characterized the dissipative droplet recently measured as single constrained bubble/antibubble pair. Our results are important for the theoretical understanding of how to control the spatial structure of soliton modes for application in spintronics, magnonics, and domain wall devices.
Bijnen, R. M. W. van; Parker, N. G.; Kokkelmans, S. J. J. M. F.; Martin, A. M.; O'Dell, D. H. J.
2010-09-15
We present a general method for obtaining the exact static solutions and collective excitation frequencies of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with dipolar atomic interactions in the Thomas-Fermi regime. The method incorporates analytic expressions for the dipolar potential of an arbitrary polynomial density profile, thereby reducing the problem of handling nonlocal dipolar interactions to the solution of algebraic equations. We comprehensively map out the static solutions and excitation modes, including non-cylindrically-symmetric traps, and also the case of negative scattering length where dipolar interactions stabilize an otherwise unstable condensate. The dynamical stability of the excitation modes gives insight into the onset of collapse of a dipolar BEC. We find that global collapse is consistently mediated by an anisotropic quadrupolar collective mode, although there are two trapping regimes in which the BEC is stable against quadrupole fluctuations even as the ratio of the dipolar to s-wave interactions becomes infinite. Motivated by the possibility of a fragmented condensate in a dipolar Bose gas due to the partially attractive interactions, we pay special attention to the scissors modes, which can provide a signature of superfluidity, and identify a long-range restoring force which is peculiar to dipolar systems. As part of the supporting material for this paper we provide the computer program used to make the calculations, including a graphical user interface.
Local mode excitation and direct unimolecular reaction rate measurements in tetramethyldioxetane
Cannon, B.D.; Crim, F.F.
1981-08-15
Direct excitation of overtone vibrations combined with time-resolved detection of product chemiluminescence produces both overtone vibration excitation spectra and directly measured unimolecular decay rates of tetramethyldioxetane. The spectra show increasingly pure local mode character in higher vibrational levels and exhibit splittings which arise from nonequivalent sites occupied by methyl hydrogens. The temporal evolution of the signal reflects the unimolecular decomposition rate of the highly vibrationally excited molecule, and comparing the observed behavior to Rice--Ramsperger--Kassel--Marcus theory calculations shows that they adequately describe the decomposition if properly averaged over the thermal vibrational energy content of the molecule.
DE-1 and COSMOS 1809 observations of lower hybrid waves excited by VLF whistler mode waves
Bell, T.F.; Inan, U.S.; Lauben, D.; Sonwalkar, V.S.; Helliwell, R.A.; Sobolev, Ya.P.; Chmyrev, V.M.; Gonzalez, S.
1994-04-15
Past work demonstrates that strong lower hybrid (LH) waves can be excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves throughout large regions of the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere. The effects of the excited LH waves upon the suprathermal ion population in the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere depend upon the distribution of LH wave amplitude with wavelength {lambda}. The present work reports plasma wave data from the DE-1 and COSMOS 1809 spacecraft which suggests that the excited LH wave spectrum has components for which {lambda} {le} 3.5 m when excitation occurs at a frequency roughly equal to the lower hybrid resonance frequency. This wavelength limit is a factor of {approximately} 3 below that reported in past work and suggests that the excited LH waves can interact with suprathermal H{sup +} ions with energy {le} 6 eV. This finding supports recent work concerning the heating of suprathermal ions above thunderstorm cells. 19 refs., 3 figs.
DE-1 and COSMOS 1809 observations of lower hybrid waves excited by VLF whistler mode waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bell, T. F; Inan, U. S.; Lauben, D.; Sonwalkar, V. S.; Helliwell, R. A.; Sobolev, Ya. P.; Chmyrev, V. M.; Gonzalez, S.
1994-01-01
Past work demostrates that strong lower hybrid (LH) waves can be excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves throughout large regions of the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere. The effects of the excited LH waves upon the suprathermal ion population in the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere depend upon the distribution of LH wave amplitude with wavelength lambda. The present work reports plasma wave data from the DE-1 and COSMOS 1809 spacecraft which suggests that the excited LH wave spectrum has components for which lambda less than or equal to 3.5 m when excitation occurs at a frequency roughly equal to the local lower hybrid resonance frequency. This wavelength limit is a factor of approximately 3 below that reported in past work and suggests that the excited LH waves can interact with suprathermal H(+) ions with energy less than or equal to 6 eV. This finding supports recent work concerning the heating of suprathermal ions above thunderstorm cells.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bryk, Taras; Mryglod, Ihor; Scopigno, Tullio; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Gorelli, Federico; Santoro, Mario
2010-07-01
The approach of generalized collective modes is applied to the study of dispersion curves of collective excitations along isothermal lines of supercritical pure Lennard-Jones fluid. An effect of structural relaxation and other nonhydrodynamic relaxation processes on the dispersion law is discussed. A simple analytical expression for the dispersion law in the long-wavelength region of acoustic excitations is obtained within a three-variable viscoelastic model of generalized hydrodynamics. It is shown that the deviation from the linear dependence in the long-wavelength region can be either "positive" or "negative" depending on the ratio between the high-frequency (elastic) and isothermal speed of sound. An effect of thermal fluctuations on positive and negative dispersion is estimated from the analytical solution of a five-variable thermoviscoelastic model that generalizes the results of the viscoelastic treatment. Numerical results are reported for a Lennard-Jones supercritical fluid along two isothermal lines T∗=1.71,4.78 with different densities and discussed along the theoretical expressions derived.
Direct observation of dynamic modes excited in a magnetic insulator by pure spin current.
Demidov, V E; Evelt, M; Bessonov, V; Demokritov, S O; Prieto, J L; Muñoz, M; Ben Youssef, J; Naletov, V V; de Loubens, G; Klein, O; Collet, M; Bortolotti, P; Cros, V; Anane, A
2016-01-01
Excitation of magnetization dynamics by pure spin currents has been recently recognized as an enabling mechanism for spintronics and magnonics, which allows implementation of spin-torque devices based on low-damping insulating magnetic materials. Here we report the first spatially-resolved study of the dynamic modes excited by pure spin current in nanometer-thick microscopic insulating Yttrium Iron Garnet disks. We show that these modes exhibit nonlinear self-broadening preventing the formation of the self-localized magnetic bullet, which plays a crucial role in the stabilization of the single-mode magnetization oscillations in all-metallic systems. This peculiarity associated with the efficient nonlinear mode coupling in low-damping materials can be among the main factors governing the interaction of pure spin currents with the dynamic magnetization in high-quality magnetic insulators. PMID:27608533
Direct observation of dynamic modes excited in a magnetic insulator by pure spin current
Demidov, V. E.; Evelt, M.; Bessonov, V.; Demokritov, S. O.; Prieto, J. L.; Muñoz, M.; Ben Youssef, J.; Naletov, V. V.; de Loubens, G.; Klein, O.; Collet, M.; Bortolotti, P.; Cros, V.; Anane, A.
2016-01-01
Excitation of magnetization dynamics by pure spin currents has been recently recognized as an enabling mechanism for spintronics and magnonics, which allows implementation of spin-torque devices based on low-damping insulating magnetic materials. Here we report the first spatially-resolved study of the dynamic modes excited by pure spin current in nanometer-thick microscopic insulating Yttrium Iron Garnet disks. We show that these modes exhibit nonlinear self-broadening preventing the formation of the self-localized magnetic bullet, which plays a crucial role in the stabilization of the single-mode magnetization oscillations in all-metallic systems. This peculiarity associated with the efficient nonlinear mode coupling in low-damping materials can be among the main factors governing the interaction of pure spin currents with the dynamic magnetization in high-quality magnetic insulators. PMID:27608533
Resonance Excitation of Longitudinal High Order Modes in Project X Linac
Khabiboulline, T.N.; Sukhanov, A.AUTHOR = Awida, M.; Gonin, I.; Lunin, A.AUTHOR = Solyak, N.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab
2012-05-01
Results of simulation of power loss due to excitation of longitudinal high order modes (HOMs) in the accelerating superconducting RF system of CW linac of Project X are presented. Beam structures corresponding to the various modes of Project X operation are considered: CW regime for 3 GeV physics program; pulsed mode for neutrino experiments; and pulsed regime, when Project X linac operates as a driver for Neutrino Factory/Muon Collider. Power loss and associated heat load due to resonance excitation of longitudinal HOMs are shown to be small in all modes of operation. Conclusion is made that HOM couplers can be removed from the design of superconducting RF cavities of Project X linac.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warren, Gary
1988-01-01
The SOS code is used to compute the resonance modes (frequency-domain information) of sample devices and separately to compute the transient behavior of the same devices. A code, DOT, is created to compute appropriate dot products of the time-domain and frequency-domain results. The transient behavior of individual modes in the device is then plotted. Modes in a coupled-cavity traveling-wave tube (CCTWT) section excited beam in separate simulations are analyzed. Mode energy vs. time and mode phase vs. time are computed and it is determined whether the transient waves are forward or backward waves for each case. Finally, the hot-test mode frequencies of the CCTWT section are computed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S.; Madami, M.; Carlotti, G.; Yang, Z.; Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O.; Kostylev, M.
2016-05-01
In the developing field of magnonics, it is very important to achieve tailoring of spin wave propagation by both a proper combination of materials with different magnetic properties and their nanostructuring on the submicrometric scale. With this in mind, we have exploited deep ultraviolet lithography, in combination with the tilted shadow deposition technique, to fabricate arrays of closely spaced bilayer nanowires (NWs), with separation d =100 nm and periodicity a =440 nm , having bottom and top layers made of permalloy and iron, respectively. The NWs have either a "rectangular" cross section (bottom and upper layers of equal width) or an "L-shaped" cross section (upper layer of half width). The frequency dispersion of collective spin wave excitations in the above bilayered NW arrays has been measured by the Brillouin light-scattering technique while sweeping the wave vector perpendicularly to the wire length over three Brillouin zones of the reciprocal space. For the rectangular NWs, the lowest-frequency fundamental mode, characterized by a quasiuniform profile of the amplitude of the dynamic magnetization across the NW width, exhibits a sizable and periodic frequency dispersion. A similar dispersive mode is also present in L-shaped NWs, but the mode amplitude is concentrated in the thin side of the NWs. The width and the center frequency of the magnonic band associated with the above fundamental modes have been analyzed, showing that both can be tuned by varying the external applied field. Moreover, for the L-shaped NWs it is shown that there is also a second dispersive mode, at higher frequency, characterized by an amplitude concentrated in the thick side of the NW. These experimental results have been quantitatively reproduced by an original numerical model that includes a two-dimensional Green's function description of the dipole field of the dynamic magnetization and interlayer exchange coupling between the layers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beltran Madrigal, Josslyn; Berthel, Martin; Gardillou, Florent; Tellez Limon, Ricardo; Couteau, Christophe; Barbier, Denis; Drezet, Aurelien; Salas-Montiel, Rafael; Huant, Serge; Blaize, Sylvain; Geng, Wei
2015-10-01
Several works have already shown that the excitation of plasmonic structures through waveguides enables a strong light confinement and low propagation losses [1]. This kind of excitation is currently exploited in areas such as biosensing [2], nanocircuits[3] and spectroscopy[4]. The efficient excitation of surface plasmon modes (SPP) with guided modes supported by high-index-contrast waveguides, such as silicon-on-insulator waveguides, had already been shown [1,5]. However, the use of weakconfined guided modes of a glass ion exchanged waveguide as a SPP excitation source represents a technological challenge, because the mismatch between the size of their respective electromagnetic modes is so high that the resultant coupling loss is unacceptable for practical applications. In this work, we describe how an adiabatic taper structure formed by an intermediate high-index-contrast layer placed between a plasmonic structure and an ion-exchanged waveguide decreases the mismatch between effective indices, size, and shape of the guided modes. This hybrid structure concentrates the electromagnetic energy from the micrometer to the nanometer scale with low coupling losses to radiative modes. The electromagnetic mode confined to the high-index-contrast waveguide then works as an efficient source of SPP supported by metallic nanostructures placed on its surface. We theoretically studied the modal properties and field distribution along the adiabatic coupler structure. In addition, we fabricated a high-index-contrast waveguide by electron beam lithography and thermal evaporation on top of an ion-exchanged waveguide on glass. This structure was characterized with the use of near field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM). Numerical simulations were compared with the experimental results. [1] N. Djaker, R. Hostein, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. Rigneault, and J. Wenger, J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 16250 (2010). [2] P. Debackere, S. Scheerlinck, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Opt. Express 14
The Photoresponse of Atomic Nuclei: Collective Excitations and Photodissociation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zilges, A.; Babilon, M.; van den Berg, A. M.; Galaviz, D.; Hasper, J.; Harakeh, M. N.; Lindenberg, K.; Müller, S.; Ramspeck, K.; Savran, D.; Sonnabend, K.; Volz, S.; Wörtche, H. J.; Zarza, M.
2006-04-01
The dipole strength distribution of atomic nuclei below the particle threshold has been investigated systematically in photon scattering experiments. A concentration of electric dipole strength around 7 MeV exhausting up to 1% of the Energy Weighted Sum Rule has been observed in all nuclei studied so far. The detailed structure of these excitations and the connection to a resonance-like concentration of E1 strength above the threshold found in neutron-rich radioactive nuclei is still not understood. The latest strength measurements and new experiments with hadrons to study the isospin character of the excitations are discussed.
Selective mode excitation in finite size plasma crystals by diffusely reflected laser light
Schablinski, Jan; Block, Dietmar
2015-02-15
The possibility to use diffuse reflections of a laser beam to exert a force on levitating dust particles is studied experimentally. Measurements and theoretical predictions are found to be in good agreement. Further, the method is applied to test the selective excitation of breathing-like modes in finite dust clusters.
Using Fast Neutrons to Study Collective Nuclear Excitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yates, S. W.
2013-03-01
For many years, the inelastic scattering of accelerator-produced fast neutrons has been used at the University of Kentucky to study nuclei which have been described as vibrational Recent data which have emerged from studies with this reaction and from other probes is reviewed, and conclusions about the applicability of the vibrational phonon description for multiphonon quadrupole and octupole excitations are given.
Isomeric States and Collective Excitations of Heaviest Nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Jolos, R. V.; Kuzmina, A. N.; Malov, L. A.; Shirikova, N. Yu.; Sushkov, A. V.
2013-03-01
The isotopic dependence of two-quasiparticle isomeric states in Fm and No is treated. An α-decay chain through the isomeric states of super-heavy nuclei is demonstrated. The excitation energies and the structure of the low lying states with Kπ = 0‒ 1‒ 2‒ are calculated with the quasiparticle phonon model.
Novel Piezoelectric Fiber Transducers for Mode Selective Excitation and Detection of Lamb Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koehler, B.; Frankenstein, B.; Schubert, F.; Barth, M.
2009-03-01
One of the most widely applied methods for Structural Health Monitoring of plate like structures, shells and tubes is based on the transmission and reception of guided elastic waves. But, dispersion of various wave modes leads to complex signals which are difficult to interpret. Piezoelectric fiber patches (PFP) have been developed which can be used to excite and detect Lamb waves. These are of low thickness having the potential to be integrated into structures. This paper deals with a novel method to excite PFP. By this method a Lamb modes can be both excited and detected selectively. In addition, also directivity can be realized. These sensors can be used to simplify the interpretation of the acoustic signals considerably.
Injection locking of an electronic maser in the hard excitation mode
Yakunina, K. A.; Kuznetsov, A. P.; Ryskin, N. M.
2015-11-15
The phenomenon of hard excitation is natural for many electronic oscillators. In particular, in a gyrotron, a maximal efficiency is often attained in the hard excitation regime. In this paper, we study the injection-locking phenomena using two models of an electronic maser in the hard excitation mode. First, bifurcation analysis is performed for the quasilinear model described by ordinary differential equations for the slow amplitude and phase. Two main scenarios of transition to the injection-locked mode are described, which are generalizations of the well-known phase-locking and suppression mechanisms. The results obtained for the quasilinear model are confirmed by numerical simulations of a gyrotron with fixed Gaussian structure of the RF field.
Injection locking of an electronic maser in the hard excitation mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yakunina, K. A.; Kuznetsov, A. P.; Ryskin, N. M.
2015-11-01
The phenomenon of hard excitation is natural for many electronic oscillators. In particular, in a gyrotron, a maximal efficiency is often attained in the hard excitation regime. In this paper, we study the injection-locking phenomena using two models of an electronic maser in the hard excitation mode. First, bifurcation analysis is performed for the quasilinear model described by ordinary differential equations for the slow amplitude and phase. Two main scenarios of transition to the injection-locked mode are described, which are generalizations of the well-known phase-locking and suppression mechanisms. The results obtained for the quasilinear model are confirmed by numerical simulations of a gyrotron with fixed Gaussian structure of the RF field.
Zhou, Yanyan; Luan, Feng; Gu, Bobo; Yu, Xia
2015-02-23
Metallic diffraction grating coupler is investigated for controlled excitation of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of different radial orders. Based on effective mode index calculations and finite difference time domain method, it is found that higher radial order WGMs can be separated from the fundamental modes by sending them into the opposite propagation direction. By phase-matching designs, the metallic diffraction grating provides extra freedom to switch propagation directions, and is able to selectively enhance or suppress different radial-order WGMs. Such structure offers a simple and practical configuration for various WGM applications including liquid sensing, band pass filtering and fiber lasers. PMID:25836534
Collective modes in three-dimensional magnonic vortex crystals
Hänze, Max; Adolff, Christian F.; Schulte, Benedikt; Möller, Jan; Weigand, Markus; Meier, Guido
2016-01-01
Collective modes in three-dimensional crystals of stacked permalloy disks with magnetic vortices are investigated by ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. The size of the arrangements is increased step by step to identify the different contributions to the interaction between the vortices. These contributions are the key requirement to understand complex dynamics of three dimensional vortex crystals. Both vertical and horizontal coupling determine the collective modes. In-plane dipoles strongly influence the interaction between the disks in the stacks and lead to polarity-dependent resonance frequencies. Weaker contributions discern arrangements with different polarities and circularities that result from the lateral coupling of the stacks and the interaction of the core regions inside a stack. All three contributions are identified in the experiments and are explained in a rigid particle model. PMID:26932833
Collective modes in three-dimensional magnonic vortex crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hänze, Max; Adolff, Christian F.; Schulte, Benedikt; Möller, Jan; Weigand, Markus; Meier, Guido
2016-03-01
Collective modes in three-dimensional crystals of stacked permalloy disks with magnetic vortices are investigated by ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. The size of the arrangements is increased step by step to identify the different contributions to the interaction between the vortices. These contributions are the key requirement to understand complex dynamics of three dimensional vortex crystals. Both vertical and horizontal coupling determine the collective modes. In-plane dipoles strongly influence the interaction between the disks in the stacks and lead to polarity-dependent resonance frequencies. Weaker contributions discern arrangements with different polarities and circularities that result from the lateral coupling of the stacks and the interaction of the core regions inside a stack. All three contributions are identified in the experiments and are explained in a rigid particle model.
Collective modes in light nuclei from first principles.
Dytrych, T; Launey, K D; Draayer, J P; Maris, P; Vary, J P; Saule, E; Catalyurek, U; Sosonkina, M; Langr, D; Caprio, M A
2013-12-20
Results for ab initio no-core shell model calculations in a symmetry-adapted SU(3)-based coupling scheme demonstrate that collective modes in light nuclei emerge from first principles. The low-lying states of 6Li, 8Be, and 6He are shown to exhibit orderly patterns that favor spatial configurations with strong quadrupole deformation and complementary low intrinsic spin values, a picture that is consistent with the nuclear symplectic model. The results also suggest a pragmatic path forward to accommodate deformation-driven collective features in ab initio analyses when they dominate the nuclear landscape. PMID:24483740
Emerging modes of collective cell migration induced by geometrical constraints
Vedula, Sri Ram Krishna; Leong, Man Chun; Lai, Tan Lei; Hersen, Pascal; Kabla, Alexandre J.; Lim, Chwee Teck; Ladoux, Benoît
2012-01-01
The role of geometrical confinement on collective cell migration has been recognized but has not been elucidated yet. Here, we show that the geometrical properties of the environment regulate the formation of collective cell migration patterns through cell–cell interactions. Using microfabrication techniques to allow epithelial cell sheets to migrate into strips whose width was varied from one up to several cell diameters, we identified the modes of collective migration in response to geometrical constraints. We observed that a decrease in the width of the strips is accompanied by an overall increase in the speed of the migrating cell sheet. Moreover, large-scale vortices over tens of cell lengths appeared in the wide strips whereas a contraction-elongation type of motion is observed in the narrow strips. Velocity fields and traction force signatures within the cellular population revealed migration modes with alternative pulling and/or pushing mechanisms that depend on extrinsic constraints. Force transmission through intercellular contacts plays a key role in this process because the disruption of cell–cell junctions abolishes directed collective migration and passive cell–cell adhesions tend to move the cells uniformly together independent of the geometry. Altogether, these findings not only demonstrate the existence of patterns of collective cell migration depending on external constraints but also provide a mechanical explanation for how large-scale interactions through cell–cell junctions can feed back to regulate the organization of migrating tissues. PMID:22814373
Collective Modes in Strongly Coupled Electronic Bilayer Liquids
Kalman, G.; Valtchinov, V.; Valtchinov, V.; Golden, K.I.
1999-04-01
We present the first reliable calculation of the collective mode structure of a strongly coupled electronic bilayer. The calculation is based on a classical model through the 3rd frequency-moment-sum rule preserving quasi-localized-charge approximation, using the recently calculated hypernetted-chain pair correlation functions. The out-of-phase spectrum shows an energy gap at k=0 and the absence of a previously conjectured dynamical instability. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}
Collective Bulk and Edge Modes through the Quantum Phase Transition in Graphene at ν = 0
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murthy, Ganpathy; Shimshoni, Efrat; Fertig, Herbert
Undoped graphene in a strong, tilted magnetic field exhibits a radical change in conduction upon changing the tilt-angle, which can be attributed to a quantum phase transition from a canted antiferromagnetic (CAF) to a ferromagnetic (FM) bulk state at filling factor ν = 0 . This behavior signifies a change in the nature of the collective ground state and excitations across the transition. Using the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation, we study the collective neutral (particle-hole) excitations in the two phases, both in the bulk and on the edge of the system. The CAF has gapless neutral modes in the bulk, whereas the FM state supports only gapped modes in its bulk. At the edge, however, only the FM state supports gapless charge-carrying states. Linear response functions are computed to elucidate their sensitivity to the various modes. The response functions demonstrate that the two phases can be distinguished by the evolution of a local charge pulse at the edge. NSF 1066293 (Aspen), US-Israel BSF 2012120 (GM, EF,HAF), ISF 231/14 (ES), NSF-DMR 1306897 (GM), NSF-DMR 1506460 (HAF).
Wexler, Adam D; Drusová, Sandra; Woisetschläger, Jakob; Fuchs, Elmar C
2016-06-28
In this experiment liquid water is subject to an inhomogeneous electric field (∇(2)Ea≈ 10(10) V m(2)) using a high voltage (20 kV) point-plane electrode system. Using interferometry it was found that the application of a strong electric field gradient to water generates local changes in the refractive index of the liquid, polarizes the surface and creates a downward moving electro-convective jet. A maximum temperature difference of 1 °C is measured in the immediate vicinity of the point electrode. Raman spectroscopy performed on water reveals an enhancement of the vibrational collective modes (3250 cm(-1)) as well as an increase in the local mode (3490 cm(-1)) energy. This bimodal enhancement indicates that the spectral changes are not due to temperature changes. The intense field gradient thus establishes an excited subpopulation of vibrational oscillators far from thermal equilibrium. Delocalization of the collective vibrational mode spatially expands this excited population beyond the microscale. Hindered rotational freedom due to electric field pinning of molecular dipoles retards the heat flow and generates a chemical potential gradient. These changes are responsible for the observed changes in the refractive index and temperature. It is demonstrated that polar liquids can thus support local non-equilibrium thermodynamic transient states critical to biochemical and environmental processes. PMID:27253197
Discrete excitation of mode pulses using a diode-pumped solid-state digital laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngcobo, Sandile; Bell, Teboho
2016-03-01
In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate novel method of generating discrete excitation of on-demand Lagaurre-Gaussian (LG) mode pulses, in a diode pumped solid-state digital laser. The digital laser comprises of an intra-cavity spatial light modulator (SLM) that acts as an end-mirror of the resonator for uploading digital holograms, for the selection of discrete LG modes and controlling the quality facto, Q of the resonator. Discrete excitation of LG mode pulses of azimuthal-order l of 0, 1, 2, with zero radial-order (p = 0) were generated. Pulses of duration 200 ms and intensities as high as 1 mW with repetition speed of 60 Hz were produced at 1 um wavelength. The maximum peak power-conversion efficiency measured was 1.3%.
Travel Mode Detection with Varying Smartphone Data Collection Frequencies.
Shafique, Muhammad Awais; Hato, Eiji
2016-01-01
Smartphones are becoming increasingly popular day-by-day. Modern smartphones are more than just calling devices. They incorporate a number of high-end sensors that provide many new dimensions to smartphone experience. The use of smartphones, however, can be extended from the usual telecommunication field to applications in other specialized fields including transportation. Sensors embedded in the smartphones like GPS, accelerometer and gyroscope can collect data passively, which in turn can be processed to infer the travel mode of the smartphone user. This will solve most of the shortcomings associated with conventional travel survey methods including biased response, no response, erroneous time recording, etc. The current study uses the sensors' data collected by smartphones to extract nine features for classification. Variables including data frequency, moving window size and proportion of data to be used for training, are dealt with to achieve better results. Random forest is used to classify the smartphone data among six modes. An overall accuracy of 99.96% is achieved, with no mode less than 99.8% for data collected at 10 Hz frequency. The accuracy is observed to decrease with decrease in data frequency, but at the same time the computation time also decreases. PMID:27213380
Travel Mode Detection with Varying Smartphone Data Collection Frequencies
Shafique, Muhammad Awais; Hato, Eiji
2016-01-01
Smartphones are becoming increasingly popular day-by-day. Modern smartphones are more than just calling devices. They incorporate a number of high-end sensors that provide many new dimensions to smartphone experience. The use of smartphones, however, can be extended from the usual telecommunication field to applications in other specialized fields including transportation. Sensors embedded in the smartphones like GPS, accelerometer and gyroscope can collect data passively, which in turn can be processed to infer the travel mode of the smartphone user. This will solve most of the shortcomings associated with conventional travel survey methods including biased response, no response, erroneous time recording, etc. The current study uses the sensors’ data collected by smartphones to extract nine features for classification. Variables including data frequency, moving window size and proportion of data to be used for training, are dealt with to achieve better results. Random forest is used to classify the smartphone data among six modes. An overall accuracy of 99.96% is achieved, with no mode less than 99.8% for data collected at 10 Hz frequency. The accuracy is observed to decrease with decrease in data frequency, but at the same time the computation time also decreases. PMID:27213380
Excitation of (2,1) neoclassical tearing modes by mode coupling with (1,1) internal mode in EAST
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Tonghui; Wan, Baonian; Shen, Biao; Sun, Youwen; Qian, Jinping; Hu, Liqun; Gong, Xianzu; Liu, Guangjun; Luo, Zhengping; Zhong, Guoqiang; Xu, Liqing; Zhang, Jizong; Lin, Shiyao; Jie, Yinxian; Wang, Fudi; Lv, Bo; the EAST Team
2013-05-01
Neoclassical tearing modes (NTM) are observed in discharges with auxiliary heating LH+ICRF and LH only during H-mode in EAST. The m/n = 2/1 NTM is triggered by strongly coupling with an m/n = 1/1 internal mode. Here, LH and ICRF are the abbreviations of lower hybrid resonance heating and ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating, respectively. The mode number of the NTM is m/n = 2/1, where m is the poloidal mode number and n is the toroidal mode number. Just before the triggering of NTMs, an m/n = 1/1 internal mode appears in the soft x-ray emission at plasma centre when the intensity of hard x-ray (IHX) reaches a critical value. The mode, characterized by frequency chirping in the spectrum, may be related to suprathermal electrons produced by LH. The saturated magnetic island width wsat of the NTM is strongly correlated with poloidal βp. Normalized βN,onset and the magnetic island critical width wcrit increase with electron temperature Te.
Electron pair escape from fullerene cage via collective modes
Schüler, Michael; Pavlyukh, Yaroslav; Bolognesi, Paolo; Avaldi, Lorenzo; Berakdar, Jamal
2016-01-01
Experiment and theory evidence a new pathway for correlated two-electron release from many-body compounds following collective excitation by a single photon. Using nonequilibrium Green’s function approach we trace plasmon oscillations as the key ingredient of the effective electron-electron interaction that governs the correlated pair emission in a dynamic many-body environment. Results from a full ab initio implementation for C60 fullerene are in line with experimental observations. The findings endorse the correlated two-electron photoemission as a powerful tool to access electronic correlation in complex systems. PMID:27086559
Electron pair escape from fullerene cage via collective modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schüler, Michael; Pavlyukh, Yaroslav; Bolognesi, Paolo; Avaldi, Lorenzo; Berakdar, Jamal
2016-04-01
Experiment and theory evidence a new pathway for correlated two-electron release from many-body compounds following collective excitation by a single photon. Using nonequilibrium Green’s function approach we trace plasmon oscillations as the key ingredient of the effective electron-electron interaction that governs the correlated pair emission in a dynamic many-body environment. Results from a full ab initio implementation for C60 fullerene are in line with experimental observations. The findings endorse the correlated two-electron photoemission as a powerful tool to access electronic correlation in complex systems.
Exotic modes of excitation and weak interaction rates at finite temperature
Paar, N.
2011-10-28
The interplay of isospin asymmetry and finite temperature in nuclei plays an important role on properties of nuclear excitations and weak interaction rates in stellar environment. Recently a fully self-consistent microscopic framework, based on Hartree-Fock plus random phase approximation using Skyrme functionals, has been introduced for description of excitations and weak-interaction cross sections at finite temperature. Another self-consistent framework involving nuclei at finite temperature has also been developed within relativistic mean field theory using effective Lagrangians with density dependent meson-nucleon vertex functions. Nuclear excitations are studied using finite temperature random phase approximation for the range of temperatures T = 0-2 MeV, as well as in nuclei far from stability. In the focus of research are the structure properties of exotic modes of excitation (e.g. pygmy dipole resonances) and charge-exchange modes (e.g. Gamow-Teller resonances and forbidden transitions). It is shown that finite temperature effects include novel low-energy multipole excitations and modifications of the Gamow-Teller transition spectra. Using a representative set of Skyrme functionals, as well as covariant energy density functional with DD-ME2 parameterization, both theory frameworks have been applied in calculations of electron-capture cross sections relevant in the stage of supernova precollapse.
Collective hypersonic excitations in strongly multiple scattering colloids.
Still, T; Gantzounis, G; Kiefer, D; Hellmann, G; Sainidou, R; Fytas, G; Stefanou, N
2011-04-29
Unprecedented low-dispersion high-frequency acoustic excitations are observed in dense suspensions of elastically hard colloids. The experimental phononic band structure for SiO(2) particles with different sizes and volume fractions is well represented by rigorous full-elastodynamic multiple-scattering calculations. The slow phonons, which do not relate to particle resonances, are localized in the surrounding liquid medium and stem from coherent multiple scattering that becomes strong in the close-packing regime. Such rich phonon-matter interactions in nanostructures, being still unexplored, can open new opportunities in phononics. PMID:21635048
Development of collective structures over noncollective excitations in 139Nd
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhowal, S.; Gangopadhyay, G.; Petrache, C. M.; Ragnarsson, I.; Singh, A. K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Hübel, H.; Neußer-Neffgen, A.; Al-Khatib, A.; Bringel, P.; Bürger, A.; Nenoff, N.; Schönwaßer, G.; Hagemann, G. B.; Herskind, B.; Jensen, D. R.; Sletten, G.; Fallon, P.; Görgen, A.; Bednarczyk, P.; Curien, D.; Korichi, A.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Rao, B. V. T.; Reddy, T. S.; Singh, Nirmal
2011-08-01
High-spin states in 139Nd were investigated using the reaction 96Zr(48Ca,5n) at a beam energy of 195 MeV and γ-ray coincidences were acquired with the Euroball spectrometer. Apart from several dipole bands at medium excitation energy, three quadrupole bands have been observed at high spin. Linking transitions connecting two of the high-spin bands to low-energy states have been observed. Calculations based on the cranked-Nilsson-Strutinsky formalism have been used to assign configurations for the high-spin quadrupole bands.
Flute mode waves near the lower hybrid frequency excited by ion rings in velocity space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cattell, C.; Hudson, M.
1982-01-01
Discrete emissions at the lower hybrid frequency are often seen on the S3-3 satellite. Simultaneous observation of perpendicularly heated ions suggests that these ions may provide the free energy necessary to drive the instability. Studies of the dispersion relation for flute modes excited by warm ion rings in velocity space show that waves are excited with real frequencies near the lower hybrid frequency and with growth rates ranging from about 0.01 to 1 times the ion cyclotron frequency. Numerical results are therefore consistent with the possibility that the observed ions are the free energy source for the observed waves.
Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Pu, Ruifeng; Granatstein, Victor L.
2015-07-06
In recent years, there was an active development of high-power, sub-terahertz (sub-THz) gyrotrons for numerous applications. For example, a 0.67 THz gyrotron delivering more than 200 kW with about 20% efficiency was developed. This record high efficiency was achieved because the gyrotron operated in a high-order TE{sub 31,8}-mode with the power of ohmic losses less than 10% of the power of outgoing radiation. That gyrotron operated at the fundamental cyclotron resonance, and a high magnetic field of about 27 T was created by a pulse solenoid. For numerous applications, it is beneficial to use gyrotrons at cyclotron harmonics which can operate in available cryomagnets with fields not exceeding 15 T. However, typically, the gyrotron operation at harmonics faces severe competition from parasitic modes at the fundamental resonance. In the present paper, we consider a similar 0.67 THz gyrotron designed for operation in the same TE{sub 31,8}-mode, but at the second harmonic. We focus on two nonlinear effects typical for interaction between the fundamental and second harmonic modes, viz., the mode suppression and the nonlinear excitation of the mode at the fundamental harmonic by the second harmonic oscillations. Our study includes both the analytical theory and numerical simulations performed with the self-consistent code MAGY. The simulations show that stable second harmonic operation in the TE{sub 31,8} mode is possible with only modest sacrifice of efficiency and power.
Collective modes in the color flavor-locked phase.
Anglani, R.; Mannarelli, M.; Ruggieri, M.
2011-05-17
We study the low-energy effective action for some collective modes of the color flavor-locked (CFL) phase of QCD. This phase of matter has long been known to be a superfluid because by picking a phase its order parameter breaks the quark-number U(1){sub B} symmetry spontaneously. We consider the modes describing fluctuations in the magnitude of the condensate, namely the Higgs mode, and in the phase of the condensate, namely the Nambu-Goldstone (NG) (or Anderson-Bogoliubov) mode associated with the breaking of U(1){sub B}. By employing as microscopic theory the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, we reproduce known results for the Lagrangian of the NG field to the leading order in the chemical potential and extend such results evaluating corrections due to the gap parameter. Moreover, we determine the interaction terms between the Higgs and the NG field. This study paves the way for a more reliable study of various dissipative processes in rotating compact stars with a quark matter core in the CFL phase.
Excitation of unstable TAEs and stable n=0 modes in Alcator C-Mod
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sears, J.; Bader, A.; Parker, R. R.; Kramer, G. J.
2009-11-01
Toroidicity-induced Alfv'en Eigenmodes (TAEs) are weakly damped MHD modes in tokamak plasmas. The modes occur at discrete frequencies near φTAE=vA/2qR, ( vA=B/√μ0ρ ) in a gap of the continuous spectrum of Alfv'en waves. Unstable TAEs are excited by ICRF heating of at least 3.5 MW in Alcator C-Mod L-mode plasmas. These unstable modes have toroidal mode numbers in the range of n=-6 to n=6. In contrast, stable resonant modes that are observed in these plasmas at similar and lower ICRF powers by the Active MHD diagnostic in the TAE frequency range commonly have toroidal mode numbers of n=0, which precludes a TAE or EAE identity. The origin of these modes is explored with the NOVA-K code, and the destabilizing role of the energetic hydrogen tail as measured by the Neutral Particle Analyzer is presented.
Magnetic stochasticity and transport due to nonlinearly excited subdominant microtearing modes
Hatch, D. R.; Jenko, F.; Doerk, H.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.; Nevins, W. M.
2013-01-15
Subdominant, linearly stable microtearing modes are identified as the main mechanism for the development of magnetic stochasticity and transport in gyrokinetic simulations of electromagnetic ion temperature gradient driven plasma microturbulence. The linear eigenmode spectrum is examined in order to identify and characterize modes with tearing parity. Connections are demonstrated between microtearing modes and the nonlinear fluctuations that are responsible for the magnetic stochasticity and electromagnetic transport, and nonlinear coupling with zonal modes is identified as the salient nonlinear excitation mechanism. A simple model is presented, which relates the electromagnetic transport to the electrostatic transport. These results may provide a paradigm for the mechanisms responsible for electromagnetic stochasticity and transport, which can be examined in a broader range of scenarios and parameter regimes.
Normal-mode splitting with large collective cooperativity
Tuchman, A. K.; Long, R.; Vrijsen, G.; Boudet, J.; Lee, J.; Kasevich, M. A.
2006-11-15
We report the observation of normal-mode splitting of the atom-cavity dressed states in both the fluorescence and transmission spectra for large atom number and observe subnatural linewidths in this regime. We also implement a method of utilizing the normal-mode splitting to observe Rabi oscillations on the {sup 87}Rb ground state hyperfine clock transition. We demonstrate a large collective cooperativity, C=1.2x10{sup 4}, which, in combination with large atom number, N{approx}2x10{sup 5}, offers the potential to realize an absolute phase sensitivity better than that achieved by state-of-the-art atomic fountain clocks or inertial sensors operating near the quantum projection noise limit.
M = +1, ± 1 and ± 2 mode helicon wave excitation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, J.-H.; Yun, S.-M.; Chang, H.-Y.
1996-11-01
The characteristics of M=+1, ± 1 and ± 2 modes helicon wave excited using a solenoid antenna, Nagoya type III and quadrupole antenna respectively are first investigated. The solenoid antenna is constructed by winding a copper cable on a quartz discharge tube. Two dimensional cross-field measurements of ArII optical emission induced by hot electrons are made to investigate RF power deposition: Components of the wave magnetic field measured with a single-turn, coaxial magnetic probe were compared with the field patterns computed for M=+1, ± 1 and ± 2 modes. The M=+1 mode plasma produced by the solenoid antenna has a cylindrical high intensity plasma column, which center is empty. This cylindrical high intensity column results from the rotation of the cross-sectional electric field pattern (right hand circularly polarization). The radial plasma density profile has a peak at r=2.5cm with axisymmetry. It has been found that the radial profile of the plasma density is in good agreement with the computed power deposition profile. The radial profiles of the wave magnetic field are in good agreement with computations. The plasma excited by Nagoya type III antenna has two high intensity columns which results from the linear combination of M=+1 and -1 modes (i.e. plane polarization). The radial plasma density profile is in good agreement with emission intensity profile of ArII line (488nm). The plasma excited by quadrupole antenna has four high intensity columns which results from the linear combination of M=+2 and -2 modes (i.e. plane polarization). In the M=± 2 modes, the radial plasma density profile is also in good agreement with emission intensity profile of ArII line.
Tuning a material's properties through the excitation of localized defect modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serra Garcia, Marc; Lydon, Joseph; Daraio, Chiara
2015-03-01
Technological applications such as acoustic super-lenses and vibration mitigation devices require materials with extreme mechanical properties (Very high, zero, or negative stiffness). These properties can be achieved through buckling instabilities, local resonances and phase transitions, mechanisms that are limited to particular frequencies, strains or temperatures. In this talk I will present an alternative mechanism to tune the stiffness of a lattice. The mechanism is based on the excitation of a nonlinear localized defect mode. The oscillation of the defect mode affects the bulk properties of the lattice. This is due to the thermal expansion of the defect mode and the nonlinear coupling between the mode amplitude and the strain of the lattice. Due to the singular properties of nonlinear systems near bifurcation points, the lattice can achieve an arbitrarily large stiffness. It is possible to select point of the force-displacement relation that is being tuned by selecting the defect's excitation frequency and amplitude. Depending on the nonlinear interaction potential at the defect site, the stiffness can be tuned to extremely positive or extremely negative values. While our theoretical and experimental results have been obtained in a granular crystal, the analysis suggests that an equivalent effect should be present in other lattices with localized modes and nonlinearity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, H. D.; Dong, J. Q.; Fu, G. Y.; Zheng, G. Y.; Sheng, Z. M.; Long, Y. X.; He, Z. X.; Jiang, H. B.; Shen, Y.; Wang, L. F.
2010-08-01
The internal kink (fishbone) modes, driven by barely passing energetic ions (EIs), are numerically studied with the spatial distribution of the EIs taking into account. It is found that the modes with frequencies comparable to the toroidal precession frequencies are excited by resonant interaction with the EIs. Positive and negative density gradient dominating cases, corresponding to off- and near-axis depositions of neutral beam injection (NBI), respectively, are analyzed in detail. The most interesting and important feature of the modes is that there exists a second stable regime in higher βh (=pressure of EIs/toroidal magnetic pressure) range, and the modes may only be excited by the barely passing EIs in a region of βth1<βh<βth2 (βth is threshold or critical beta of EIs). Besides, the unstable modes require minimum density gradients and minimum radial positions of NBI deposition. The physics mechanism for the existence of the second stable regime is discussed. The results may provide a means of reducing or even preventing the loss of NBI energetic ions and increasing the heating efficiency by adjusting the pitch angle and driving the system into the second stable regime fast enough.
Evolution of l-photon excited thermo vacuum state in a single-mode damping channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Rui; Fan, Hong-Yi
2016-01-01
In this paper, we investigate how a kind of non-Gaussian states (l-photon excited thermo vacuum state Cla†l|0(β)>) evolves in a single-mode damping channel. We find that it evolves into a Laguerre-polynomial-weighted real-fictitious squeezed thermo vacuum state, which exhibits strong decoherence and its original nonclassicality fades. In particular, when l = 0, in this damping process the thermo squeezing effect decreases while the fictitious-mode vacuum becomes chaotic. In overcoming the difficulty of calculation, we employ the summation method within ordered product of operators, a new generating function formula about two-variable Hermite polynomials is derived.
Coherent phonon spectroscopy of non-fully symmetric modes using resonant terahertz excitation
Huber, T. Huber, L.; Johnson, S. L.; Ranke, M.; Ferrer, A.
2015-08-31
We use intense terahertz (THz) frequency electromagnetic pulses generated via optical rectification in an organic crystal to drive vibrational lattice modes in single crystal Tellurium. The coherent modes are detected by measuring the polarization changes of femtosecond laser pulses reflecting from the sample surface, resulting in a phase-resolved detection of the coherent lattice motion. We compare the data to a model of Lorentz oscillators driven by the near-single-cycle broadband THz pulse. The demonstrated technique of optically probed coherent phonon spectroscopy with THz frequency excitation could prove to be a viable alternative to other time-resolved spectroscopic methods like standard THz time domain spectroscopy.
Spontaneous emission from an excited atom in the presence of N atoms and M modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cummings, F. W.
1985-05-01
The spontaneous emission of an excited two-level atom into a system of N nonexcited atoms of the same type (with N much greater than 1) in the presence of M electromagnetic-field modes is investigated analytically, applying the Hamiltonian formulation of Dicke (1954) studied by Jaynes and Cummings (1963), Tavis and Cummings (1968), and Buley and Cummings (1964). It is shown that the trapping of radiation in the system seen when one EM mode is present does not persist as M approaches N. The feasibility of an experimental verification of these phenomena is discussed.
Monopole Modes of Excitation in Deformed Neutron-rich Mg Isotopes
Yoshida, Kenichi
2009-08-26
The giant monopole resonance (GMR) and the low-frequency mode of monopole excitation in neutron-rich magnesium isotopes close to the drip line are investigated by means of the deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and quasiparticle random-phase approximations. It is found that the GMR has a two-peak structure due to the deformation. The lower-energy resonance is generated associated with the coupling to the K{sup p}i = 0{sup +} component of the giant quadrupole resonance. Besides the GMR, we obtain the soft K{sup p}i = 0{sup +} mode below the neutron emission threshold energy.
Coherent phonon spectroscopy of non-fully symmetric modes using resonant terahertz excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, T.; Ranke, M.; Ferrer, A.; Huber, L.; Johnson, S. L.
2015-08-01
We use intense terahertz (THz) frequency electromagnetic pulses generated via optical rectification in an organic crystal to drive vibrational lattice modes in single crystal Tellurium. The coherent modes are detected by measuring the polarization changes of femtosecond laser pulses reflecting from the sample surface, resulting in a phase-resolved detection of the coherent lattice motion. We compare the data to a model of Lorentz oscillators driven by the near-single-cycle broadband THz pulse. The demonstrated technique of optically probed coherent phonon spectroscopy with THz frequency excitation could prove to be a viable alternative to other time-resolved spectroscopic methods like standard THz time domain spectroscopy.
Intermediate energy electron impact excitation of composite vibrational modes in phenol
Neves, R. F. C.; Jones, D. B.; Lopes, M. C. A.; Nixon, K. L.; Oliveira, E. M. de; Lima, M. A. P.; Costa, R. F. da; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Silva, G. B. da; Brunger, M. J.
2015-05-21
We report differential cross section results from an experimental investigation into the electron impact excitation of a number of the low-lying composite (unresolved) vibrational modes in phenol (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH). The measurements were carried out at incident electron energies in the range 15–40 eV and for scattered-electron angles in the range 10–90°. The energy resolution of those measurements was typically ∼80 meV. Calculations, using the GAMESS code, were also undertaken with a B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level model chemistry, in order to enable us to assign vibrational modes to the features observed in our energy loss spectra. To the best of our knowledge, the present cross sections are the first to be reported for vibrational excitation of the C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH molecule by electron impact.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prasad, C. B.; Mei, Chuh
1987-01-01
Multiple-mode nonlinear analysis is carried out for beams subjected to acoustic excitation. Effects of both nonlinear damping and large-deflection are included in the analysis in an attempt to explain the experimental phenomena of aircraft panels excited at high sound pressure levels; that is the broadening of the strain response peaks and the increase of modal frequency. An amplitude dependent nonlinear damping model is used in the anlaysis to study the effects and interactions of multiple modes, nonlinear stiffness and nonlinear damping on the random response of beams. Mean square maximum deflection, mean square maximum strain, and spectral density function of maximum strain for simple supported and clamped beams are obtained. It is shown analytically that nonlinear damping contributes significantly to the broadening of the response peak and to the mean square deflection and strain.
Spontaneous excitation of geodesic acoustic mode by toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Zhiyong; Chen, Liu; Zonca, Fulvio
2013-02-01
Spontaneous nonlinear excitation of geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) by toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE) is studied within the framework of gyrokinetic theory. The dispersion relation for the parametric decays of a pump TAE mode into a TAE lower sideband and a GAM is derived. It is shown that, in the ideal MHD first stability region, the condition for spontaneous excitation of GAM by TAEs is ω20 > V2A/(4q2R20), in which, ω0 is the pump TAE real frequency, V A is the Alfvén speed, q is the safety factor and R0 is the torus major radius. The corresponding threshold condition is also derived and suggests the decay process as an effective saturation mechanism for TAE.
Markers of pathological excitability derived from principal dynamic modes of hippocampal neurons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Eunji E.; Zalay, Osbert C.; Serletis, Demitre; Carlen, Peter L.; Bardakjian, Berj L.
2012-10-01
Transformation of principal dynamic modes (PDMs) under epileptogenic conditions was investigated by computing the Volterra kernels in a rodent epilepsy model derived from a mouse whole hippocampal preparation, where epileptogenesis was induced by altering the concentrations of Mg2 + and K+ of the perfusate for different levels of excitability. Both integrating and differentiating PDMs were present in the neuronal dynamics, and both of them increased in absolute magnitude for increased excitability levels. However, the integrating PDMs dominated at all levels of excitability in terms of their relative contributions to the overall response, whereas the dominant frequency responses of the differentiating PDMs were shifted to higher ranges under epileptogenic conditions, from ripple activities (75-200 Hz) to fast ripple activities (200-500 Hz).
Markers of pathological excitability derived from principal dynamic modes of hippocampal neurons.
Kang, Eunji E; Zalay, Osbert C; Serletis, Demitre; Carlen, Peter L; Bardakjian, Berj L
2012-10-01
Transformation of principal dynamic modes (PDMs) under epileptogenic conditions was investigated by computing the Volterra kernels in a rodent epilepsy model derived from a mouse whole hippocampal preparation, where epileptogenesis was induced by altering the concentrations of Mg(2 +) and K(+) of the perfusate for different levels of excitability. Both integrating and differentiating PDMs were present in the neuronal dynamics, and both of them increased in absolute magnitude for increased excitability levels. However, the integrating PDMs dominated at all levels of excitability in terms of their relative contributions to the overall response, whereas the dominant frequency responses of the differentiating PDMs were shifted to higher ranges under epileptogenic conditions, from ripple activities (75-200 Hz) to fast ripple activities (200-500 Hz). PMID:22871606
Asymptotic persistence of collective modes in shear flows
Mahajan, S.M. |; Rogava, A.D. |
1998-03-31
A new nonasymptotic method is presented that reveals an unexpected richness in the spectrum of fluctuations sustained by a shear flow with nontrivial arbitrary mean kinematics. The vigor of the method is illustrated by analyzing a two-dimensional, compressible hydrodynamic shear flow. The temporal evolution of perturbations spans a wide range of nonexponential behavior from growth-cum oscillations to monotonic growth. The principal characteristic of the revealed exotic collective modes in their asymptotic persistence. {open_quotes}Echoing{close_quotes} as well as unstable (including parametrically-driven) solutions are displayed. Further areas of application, for both the method and the new physics, are outlined.
Mode Locking of Spin Waves Excited by Direct Currents in Microwave Nano-oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rezende, S. M.; de Aguiar, F. M.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Azevedo, A.
2007-02-01
A spin-wave theory is presented which explains the frequency pulling and mode locking observed when two closely spaced spin-transfer nanometer-scale oscillators with slightly different frequencies are separately driven in the same magnetic thin film by spin-polarized carriers at high direct-current densities. The theory confirms recent experimental evidence that the origin of the phenomena lies in the nonlinear interaction between two overlapping spin waves excited in the magnetic nanostructure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tanaka, Motohiko; Sato, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, A.
1989-01-01
The excitation of the kinetic Alfven wave by resonant mode conversion and longitudinal heating of the plasma by the kinetic Alfven wave were demonstrated on the basis of a macroscale particle simulation. The longitudinal electron current was shown to be cancelled by the ions. The kinetic Alfven wave produced an ordered motion of the plasma particles in the wave propagation direction. The electrons were pushed forward along the ambient magnetic field by absorbing the kinetic Alfven wave through the Landau resonance.
Noncontact excitation of guided waves (A0 mode) using an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fromme, Paul
2016-02-01
Fatigue damage can develop in aircraft structures at locations of stress concentration, such as fasteners, and has to be detected before reaching a critical size to ensure safe aircraft operation. Guided ultrasonic waves offer an efficient method for the detection and characterization of such defects in large aerospace structures. Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT) for the noncontact excitation of guided ultrasonic waves were developed. The transducer development for the specific excitation of the A0 Lamb wave mode with an out-of-plane Lorentz force is explained. The achieved radial and angular dependency of the excited guided wave pulses were measured using a noncontact laser interferometer. Based on the induced eddy currents in the plate a theoretical model was developed. The application of the developed transducers for defect detection in aluminum components using fully noncontact guided wave measurements was demonstrated. Excitation of the A0 Lamb wave mode was achieved using the developed EMAT transducer and the guided wave propagation and scattering was measured using a noncontact laser interferometer.
Collective, stochastic and nonequilibrium behavior of highly excited hadronic matter
Carruthers, P.
1983-01-01
We discuss selected problems concerning the dynamic and stochasticc behavior of highly excited matter, particularly the QCD plasma. For the latter we consider the equation of state, kinetics, quasiparticles, flow properties and possible chaos and turbulence. The promise of phase space distribution functions for covariant transport and kinetic theory is stressed. The possibility and implications of a stochastic bag are spelled out. A simplified space-time model of hadronic collisions is pursued, with applications to A-A collisions and other matters. The domain wall between hadronic and plasma phase is of potential importance: its thickness and relation to surface tension are noticed. Finally we reviewed the recently developed stochastic cell model of multiparticle distributions and KNO scaling. This topic leads to the notion that fractal dimensions are involved in a rather general dynamical context. We speculate that various scaling phenomena are independent of the full dynamical structure, depending only on a general stochastic framework having to do with simple maps and strange attractors. 42 references.
Damping of confined excitation modes of one-dimensional condensates in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trallero-Giner, C.; Santiago-Pérez, Darío G.; Chung, Ming-Chiang; Marques, G. E.; Cipolatti, R.
2015-10-01
We study the damping of the collective excitations of Bose-Einstein condensates in a harmonic trap potential loaded in an optical lattice. In the presence of a confining potential the system is inhomogeneous and the collective excitations are characterized by a set of discrete confined phononlike excitations. We derive a general convenient analytical description for the damping rate, which takes into account the trapping potential and the optical lattice for the Landau and Beliaev processes at any temperature T . At high temperature or weak spatial confinement, we show that both mechanisms display a linear dependence on T . In the quantum limit, we find that the Landau damping is exponentially suppressed at low temperatures and the total damping is independent of T . Our theoretical predictions for the damping rate under the thermal regime is in complete correspondence with the experimental values reported for the one-dimensional (1D) condensate of sodium atoms. We show that the laser intensity can tune the collision process, allowing a resonant effect for the condensate lifetime. Also, we study the influence of the attractive or repulsive nonlinear terms on the decay rate of the collective excitations. A general expression for the renormalized Goldstone frequency is obtained as a function of the 1D nonlinear self-interaction parameter, laser intensity, and temperature.
Direct excitation of TE11 mode in a relativistic backward wave oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Renzhen; Zhang, Yuchuan; Li, Jiawei; Song, Zhimin; Sun, Jun
2016-02-01
A relativistic backward wave oscillator for directly generating TE11 mode is proposed. An axially asymmetric slow wave structure and a sectioned annular cathode are introduced to suppress the TM01 mode and excite the TE11 mode. A pre-modulation dual-cavity, which allows part of the backward power to propagate into the diode region, is adopted to optimize the electron beam bunch, indicating that the conventional design principle that the diode region and the beam-wave interaction region should be isolated can be broken to increase the interaction efficiency. Particle-in-cell simulations show that when the diode voltage is 780 kV, and beam current is 6.1 kA, a microwave with power of 2.0 GW, and frequency of 9.25 GHz can be obtained, corresponding to an efficiency of 42%. Furthermore, the main output mode is TE11 mode, and the power of the cross-polarized mode is less than 10% within the calculation time of 50 ns.
The radiation performance of offset reflector antennas with horn feeds excited by high order modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thielen, Herbert
1988-07-01
The physical reasons for alignment errors in the antenna tracking of asymmetric reflector systems were investigated. The radiation behavior of offset reflector antennas, employing higher-order modes was theoretically and experimentally analyzed. In the case of TE21-mode excitation, a cross-polarization component is produced in single-reflector antennas due to feed tilt which is considerably larger than with the communication mode (TE11 or HE11 mode). In the case of circular polarization, this causes a null shift amounting to 1/10 or 1/5 of the half-power beam width of the main lobe. No null shift exists for the TM01- and TE01-modes. When the TE21-mode is used, the cross-polarization component is considerably smaller for dual-offset than for single-reflector antennas. In the case of ground station antennas where beam-waveguides consisting of two reflectors are used, a similar performance is obtained as for single-reflector antennas.
Detection of elliptical polarization and mode splitting in discrete Schumann resonance excitations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sentman, D. D.
1989-01-01
Elliptical polarization and mode splitting have been detected in the magnetic component of discrete, well defined Schumann resonance excitations. These ELF excitations, which are large electromagnetic transients of approximately 1 s duration, are called Q-bursts and typically occur every few minutes. They are believed to be the signature of the impulsive excitation of the earth-ionosphere cavity by ultra-large lightning currents. In this paper the magnetic polarization and spectral characteristics of four large Q-bursts are examined in detail using a new analysis technique. Two events display right-hand polarization and two display left-hand polarization. The theoretical polarization properties of the central and side multiplets of the Schumann resonances are used to define a local orthogonal coordinate system in the measurement frame in which these components may be separated. Maximum entropy spectrums computed separately for what are identified to be the central and side multiplets in this coordinate system show distinctly different eigenfrequencies for the lowest mode near 7.5 Hz. For the limited number of cases examined the magnitude of the line splitting detected using this technique is roughly 1.4-1.8 Hz, larger by nearly a factor of two than theoretical or observed values of the splitting previously reported. The frequencies of the side multiplets may lie either above or below the frequency of the central multiplet.
Collective Excitations of Bose-Einstein Condensates In Isotropic and Slightly Anisotropic Traps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barentine, Andrew; Lobser, Dan; Lewandowski, Heather; Cornell, Eric
2014-05-01
Boltzmann proved that the monopole mode of a thermal gas in an isotropic, harmonic and 3D trap is undamped. Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs) are not classical gases and their weakly interacting nature causes damping at finite temperature in a 3D monopole mode. The large parameter space of the TOP (Time-averaged Orbiting Potential) trap allows for precise control of the trap geometry. Exciting a monopole mode in a BEC as well as its canonical thermal cloud in the hydrodynamic regime will allow us to investigate damping effects in isotropic and slightly anisotropic traps. Funding : NSF,NIST,ONR
Superfluidity and collective modes in Rashba spin–orbit coupled Fermi gases
He, Lianyi; Huang, Xu-Guang
2013-10-15
We present a theoretical study of the superfluidity and the corresponding collective modes in two-component atomic Fermi gases with s-wave attraction and synthetic Rashba spin–orbit coupling. The general effective action for the collective modes is derived from the functional path integral formalism. By tuning the spin–orbit coupling from weak to strong, the system undergoes a crossover from an ordinary BCS/BEC superfluid to a Bose–Einstein condensate of rashbons. We show that the properties of the superfluid density and the Anderson–Bogoliubov mode manifest this crossover. At large spin–orbit coupling, the superfluid density and the sound velocity become independent of the strength of the s-wave attraction. The two-body interaction among the rashbons is also determined. When a Zeeman field is turned on, the system undergoes quantum phase transitions to some exotic superfluid phases which are topologically nontrivial. For the two-dimensional system, the nonanalyticities of the thermodynamic functions and the sound velocity across the phase transition are related to the bulk gapless fermionic excitation which causes infrared singularities. The superfluid density and the sound velocity behave nonmonotonically: they are suppressed by the Zeeman field in the normal superfluid phase, but get enhanced in the topological superfluid phase. The three-dimensional system is also studied. -- Highlights: •The general effective action for Rashba spin–orbit coupled Fermi superfluids is derived. •The evolution of the collective modes manifests the BCS/BEC-rashbon crossover. •The superfluid properties are universal at large spin–orbit coupling. •The sound velocity behaves nonanalytically across the quantum phase transition.
Two modes of a plasma jet excited by a direct current voltage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xuechen; Zhang, Panpan; Bao, Wenting; Jia, Pengying; Chu, Jingdi
2016-04-01
A plasma jet excited by a direct current voltage is developed to generate a diffuse plasma plume by blowing atmospheric pressure argon. Results show that the plume discharge operates in a single-pulsed mode or a continuous one depending on the applied voltage. For the single-pulsed mode, the discharge frequency increases with increasing the applied voltage or the air concentration, while it keeps almost constant with increasing the argon flow rate. The discharge dynamics at the breakdown stage indicate that the light emission propagates along the gas flow at a velocity in the order of 104 m s-1. The spatially resolved emission intensity at the afterglow stage of the pulsed discharge manifests a stratification into dark and bright luminous regions along the gas flow. For the continuous mode, however, the emission intensity gradually decreases along the gas flow. It is found that the continuous discharge is in a Townsend discharge regime judged from both the positive slope of the voltage-current curve and the small current density on the cathode surface. Based on optical emission spectroscopy, excited electron temperature and gas temperature of the plasma plume are obtained by a Boltzmann plot and fitting the spectra of OH radicals, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bell, T. F.; Inan, U. S.; Platino, M.; Pickett, J. S.; Kossey, P. A.; Kennedy, E. J.
2004-03-01
We report new observations from the CLUSTER spacecraft of strong excitation of lower hybrid (LH) waves by electromagnetic (EM) whistler mode waves at altitudes >=20,000 km outside the plasmasphere. Previous observations of this phenomenon occurred at altitudes <=7000 km. The excitation mechanism appears to be linear mode coupling in the presence of small scale plasma density irregularities. These observations provide strong evidence that EM whistler mode waves are continuously transformed into LH waves as the whistler mode waves propagate at high altitudes beyond L ~ 4. This may explain the lack of lightning generated whistlers observed in this same region of space.
Flight and analytical investigations of a structural mode excitation system on the YF-12A airplane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goforth, E. A.; Murphy, R. C.; Beranek, J. A.; Davis, R. A.
1987-01-01
A structural excitation system, using an oscillating canard vane to generate force, was mounted on the forebody of the YF-12A airplane. The canard vane was used to excite the airframe structural modes during flight in the subsonic, transonic, and supersonic regimes. Structural modal responses generated by the canard vane forces were measured at the flight test conditions by airframe-mounted accelerometers. Correlations of analytical and experimental aeroelastic results were made. Doublet lattice, steady state double lattice with uniform lag, Mach box, and piston theory all produced acceptable analytical aerodynamic results within the restrictions that apply to each. In general, the aerodynamic theory methods, carefully applied, were found to predict the dynamic behavior of the YF-12A aircraft adequately.
Entanglement spectrum and entangled modes of highly excited states in random XX spin chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pouranvari, Mohammad; Yang, Kun
We examine the newly developed real space renormalization group method of finding excited eigenstate (RSRG-X) of the XX spin-1/2 chain, from entanglement perspectives. Eigenmodes of the entanglement Hamiltonian, especially the maximally entangled mode (that contributes the most to the entanglement entropy) and corresponding entanglement energies are studied and compared with predictions of RSRG-X. Our numerical results demonstrate the accuracy of the RSRG-X method in the strong disorder limit, and quantify its error when applied to weak disorder regime. Overall, our results validate the RSRG-X method qualitatively, but as in the case of real space renormalization group method for the ground state (RSRG) there are quantitative errors for weaker randomness, and also such error grows with increasing temperature/excitation energy density.
Collective modes and thermodynamics of the liquid state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trachenko, K.; Brazhkin, V. V.
2016-01-01
Strongly interacting, dynamically disordered and with no small parameter, liquids took a theoretical status between gases and solids with the historical tradition of hydrodynamic description as the starting point. We review different approaches to liquids as well as recent experimental and theoretical work, and propose that liquids do not need classifying in terms of their proximity to gases and solids or any categorizing for that matter. Instead, they are a unique system in their own class with a notably mixed dynamical state in contrast to pure dynamical states of solids and gases. We start with explaining how the first-principles approach to liquids is an intractable, exponentially complex problem of coupled non-linear oscillators with bifurcations. This is followed by a reduction of the problem based on liquid relaxation time τ representing non-perturbative treatment of strong interactions. On the basis of τ, solid-like high-frequency modes are predicted and we review related recent experiments. We demonstrate how the propagation of these modes can be derived by generalizing either hydrodynamic or elasticity equations. We comment on the historical trend to approach liquids using hydrodynamics and compare it to an alternative solid-like approach. We subsequently discuss how collective modes evolve with temperature and how this evolution affects liquid energy and heat capacity as well as other properties such as fast sound. Here, our emphasis is on understanding experimental data in real, rather than model, liquids. Highlighting the dominant role of solid-like high-frequency modes for liquid energy and heat capacity, we review a wide range of liquids: subcritical low-viscous liquids, supercritical state with two different dynamical and thermodynamic regimes separated by the Frenkel line, highly-viscous liquids in the glass transformation range and liquid-glass transition. We subsequently discuss the fairly recent area of liquid-liquid phase transitions, the
Collective modes and thermodynamics of the liquid state.
Trachenko, K; Brazhkin, V V
2016-01-01
Strongly interacting, dynamically disordered and with no small parameter, liquids took a theoretical status between gases and solids with the historical tradition of hydrodynamic description as the starting point. We review different approaches to liquids as well as recent experimental and theoretical work, and propose that liquids do not need classifying in terms of their proximity to gases and solids or any categorizing for that matter. Instead, they are a unique system in their own class with a notably mixed dynamical state in contrast to pure dynamical states of solids and gases. We start with explaining how the first-principles approach to liquids is an intractable, exponentially complex problem of coupled non-linear oscillators with bifurcations. This is followed by a reduction of the problem based on liquid relaxation time τ representing non-perturbative treatment of strong interactions. On the basis of τ, solid-like high-frequency modes are predicted and we review related recent experiments. We demonstrate how the propagation of these modes can be derived by generalizing either hydrodynamic or elasticity equations. We comment on the historical trend to approach liquids using hydrodynamics and compare it to an alternative solid-like approach. We subsequently discuss how collective modes evolve with temperature and how this evolution affects liquid energy and heat capacity as well as other properties such as fast sound. Here, our emphasis is on understanding experimental data in real, rather than model, liquids. Highlighting the dominant role of solid-like high-frequency modes for liquid energy and heat capacity, we review a wide range of liquids: subcritical low-viscous liquids, supercritical state with two different dynamical and thermodynamic regimes separated by the Frenkel line, highly-viscous liquids in the glass transformation range and liquid-glass transition. We subsequently discuss the fairly recent area of liquid-liquid phase transitions, the
Unpaired Majorana modes in Josephson-Junction Arrays with gapless bulk excitations
Pino, M.; Tsvelik, A.; Ioffe, L. B.
2015-11-06
In this study, the search for Majorana bound states in solid-state physics has been limited to materials that display a gap in their bulk spectrum. We show that such unpaired states appear in certain quasi-one-dimensional Josephson-junction arrays with gapless bulk excitations. The bulk modes mediate a coupling between Majorana bound states via the Ruderman-Kittel-Yosida-Kasuya mechanism. As a consequence, the lowest energy doublet acquires a finite energy difference. For a realistic set of parameters this energy splitting remains much smaller than the energy of the bulk eigenstates even for short chains of length L~10.
Unpaired Majorana Modes in Josephson-Junction Arrays with Gapless Bulk Excitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pino, M.; Tsvelik, A. M.; Ioffe, L. B.
2015-11-01
The search for Majorana bound states in solid-state physics has been limited to materials that display a gap in their bulk spectrum. We show that such unpaired states appear in certain quasi-one-dimensional Josephson-junction arrays with gapless bulk excitations. The bulk modes mediate a coupling between Majorana bound states via the Ruderman-Kittel-Yosida-Kasuya mechanism. As a consequence, the lowest energy doublet acquires a finite energy difference. For a realistic set of parameters this energy splitting remains much smaller than the energy of the bulk eigenstates even for short chains of length L ˜10 .
Unpaired Majorana Modes in Josephson-Junction Arrays with Gapless Bulk Excitations.
Pino, M; Tsvelik, A M; Ioffe, L B
2015-11-01
The search for Majorana bound states in solid-state physics has been limited to materials that display a gap in their bulk spectrum. We show that such unpaired states appear in certain quasi-one-dimensional Josephson-junction arrays with gapless bulk excitations. The bulk modes mediate a coupling between Majorana bound states via the Ruderman-Kittel-Yosida-Kasuya mechanism. As a consequence, the lowest energy doublet acquires a finite energy difference. For a realistic set of parameters this energy splitting remains much smaller than the energy of the bulk eigenstates even for short chains of length L∼10. PMID:26588406
Gyrotron with a sectioned cavity based on excitation of a far-from-cutoff operating mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandurkin, I. V.; Kalynov, Yu. K.; Osharin, I. V.; Savilov, A. V.
2016-01-01
A typical problem of weakly relativistic low-power gyrotrons (especially in the case of operation at high cyclotron harmonics) is the use of long cavities ensuring extremely high diffraction Q-factors for the operating near-cutoff waves. As a result, a great share of the rf power radiated by electrons is spent in Ohmic losses. In this paper, we propose to use a sectioned cavity with π-shifts of the wave phase between sections. In such a cavity, a far-from-cutoff axial mode of the operating cavity having a decreased diffraction Q-factor is excited by the electron beam in a gyrotron-like regime.
Nonlinear excitation of polariton cavity modes in ZnO single nanocombs.
Capeluto, M G; Grinblat, G; Tirado, M; Comedi, D; Bragas, A V
2014-03-10
Tunable second harmonic (SH) polaritons have been efficiently generated in ZnO nanocombs, when the material is excited close to half of the band-gap. The nonlinear signal couples to the nanocavity modes, and, as a result, Fabry-Pérot resonances with high Q factors of about 500 are detected. Due to the low effective volume of the confined modes, matter-light interaction is very much enhanced. This effect lowers the velocity of the SH polariton in the material by 50 times, and increases the SH confinement inside the nanocavity due to this higher refractive index. We also show that the SH phase-matching condition is achieved through LO-phonon mediation. Finally, birrefringence of the crystal produces a strong SH intensity dependence on the input polarization, with a high polarization contrast, which could be used as a mechanism for light switching in the nanoscale. PMID:24663874
Selective excitation of high-Q resonant modes in a bottle/quasi-cylindrical microresonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Yongchao; Jin, Xueying; Wang, Keyi
2016-08-01
We fabricate a bottle/quasi-cylindrical microresonator by using a fusion splicer. This method does not require a real-time control of the translation stages and can easily fabricate a resonator with expected size and shape. Selective excitation of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) in the resonator is realized with a fiber taper coupled at various positions of the resonator along the bottle axis. Most importantly, we obtain a clean and regular spectrum with very high quality factor (Q) modes up to 3.1×107 in the quasi-cylindrical region of the resonator. Moreover, we package the coupling system into a whole device that can be moved freely. The vibration performance tests of the packaged device show that the coupling system with the taper coupled at the quasi-cylindrical region has a remarkable anti-vibration ability. The portability and robustness of the device make it attractive in practical applications.
Slow-Mode Oscillations of Hot Loops Excited at Flaring Footpoints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, T.; Liu, W.; Ofman, L.; Davila, J.
2012-05-01
The analysis of a hot loop oscillation event using SOHO/SUMER, GOES SXI, and RHESSI observations is presented. Damped Doppler shift oscillations were detected in the Fe xix line by SUMER, and interpreted as a fundamental standing slow mode. The evolution of soft X-ray emission from GOES/SXI and hard X-ray sources from RHESSI suggests that the oscillations of a large loop are triggered by a small flare, which may be produced by interaction (local reconnection) of this large loop with a small loop at its footpoint. This study provides clear evidence supporting our early conjecture that the slow-mode standing waves in hot coronal loops are excited by impulsive heating (small or microflares) at the loop's footpoint.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bell, T. F.; Ngo, H. D.
1990-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical model for electrostatic lower hybrid waves excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves propagating in regions of the magnetosphere and the topside ionosphere, where small-scale magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities are thought to exist. In this model, the electrostatic waves are excited by linear mode coupling as the incident electromagnetic whistler mode waves scatter from the magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities. Results indicate that high-amplitude short-wavelength (5 to 100 m) quasi-electrostatic whistler mode waves can be excited when electromagnetic whistler mode waves scatter from small-scale planar magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities in the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gadzuk, J. W.
1998-09-01
The phenomenon of breathing mode excitation or bound-state wavepacket squeezing and spreading driven by a time-dependent oscillator frequency (due to either a transient force constant or mass) is considered here. An easily implemented theory of stimulated wavepacket dynamics for near-harmonic systems is presented which describes a variety of generic time dependences such as single sudden excitation, double switching (excitation/time delay/de-excitation) and decaying initially excited states which characterize many processes in spectroscopy, pump-probe control in intramolecular dynamics, and femtochemistry. The model is used as the theoretical basis for understanding such diverse phenomena as quantum excitation due to temporary neutron capture, stimulated bond-breaking resulting in delocalization, desorption, or dissociation, and breathing mode excitation of ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattices. Whilst the first two examples are speculative, results for transient wavepacket dynamics of the occupied excited optical lattice are in accord with recent experimental observations reported by the NIST Laser Cooling Group. Emphasis on the inherent theoretical simplicity and the multidisciplinary aspects of near-harmonic breathing mode excitation, as exemplified by the specific realizations considered here, has been a major intent of this topical review.
The Blazhko Effect and Additional Excited Modes in RR Lyrae Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benkő, J. M.; Szabó, R.
2015-08-01
Recent photometric space missions, such as CoRoT and Kepler, revealed that many RR Lyrae stars pulsate—beyond their main radial pulsation mode—in low-amplitude modes. Space data seem to indicate a clear trend that, namely, overtone (RRc) stars and modulated fundamental (RRab) RR Lyrae stars ubiquitously show additional modes, while non-Blazhko RRab stars never do. Two Kepler stars (V350 Lyr and KIC 7021124), however, apparently seemed to break this rule: they were classified as non-Blazhko RRab stars showing additional modes. We processed Kepler pixel photometric data of these stars. We detected a small amplitude (but significant) Blazhko effect for both stars by using the resulting light curves and O-C diagrams. This finding strengthens the apparent connection between the Blazhko effect and the excitation of additional modes. In addition, it yields a potential tool for detecting Blazhko stars through the additional frequency patterns, even if we have only short but accurate time series observations. V350 Lyr shows the smallest amplitude multiperiodic Blazhko effect ever detected.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Bo; Antonsen, Thomas; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven; Ma, Tzuhsuan; Shvets, Gennady
Electronic chiral edge states in Quantum Hall Effect systems has attracted a lot of attention in recent years because of its unique directionality and robustness against scattering from disorder. Its electromagnetic counterpart can be found in photonic crystals, which is a material with periodic dielectric constant. Here we present the experimental results demonstrating the unidirectional edge mode inside a bi-anisotropic meta-waveguide (BMW) structure. It is a parallel plate waveguide with metal rods placed in a hexagonal lattice. Half of the rods are attached to the top plate while the other half are attached to the bottom plate creating a domain wall. The edge mode is excited by two loop antennas placed perpendicular to each other within one wavelength, generating a rotating magnetic dipole that couples to the left or right-going mode. The transmission measurement are taken along the BMW boundary and shows high transmission only around the edge, thus confirming the presence of an edge mode. We also demonstrated that very high directivity can be achieved when the input amplitude and phase of the two loop antennas are tuned properly This work is funded by the ONR under Grants No. N00014130474 and N000141512134, and the Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials (CNAM).
On the importance of collective excitations for thermal transport in graphene
Gill-Comeau, Maxime; Lewis, Laurent J.
2015-05-11
We use equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study heat transport in bulk single-layer graphene. Through a modal analysis of the MD trajectories employing a time-domain formulation, we find that collective excitations involving flexural acoustic (ZA) phonons, which have been neglected in the previous MD studies, actually dominate the heat flow, generating as much as 78% of the flux. These collective excitations are, however, much less significant if the atomic displacements are constrained in the lattice plane. Although relaxation is slow, we find graphene to be a regular (non-anomalous) heat conductor for sample sizes of order 40 μm and more.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grujic, Katarina; Hole, J. Patrick; Hellesø, Olav Gaute; Wilkinson, James S.
2006-02-01
Optical microsphere resonators, with their exceptionally low optical losses and high Q-factors, are attracting a lot of interest in integrated optics and related fields. Not being accessible by free-space beams, whispering gallery modes (WGM) of a microsphere resonator require near-field coupler devices. Efficient evanescent coupling has been demonstrated previously by using thin tapered fibres, fibre half-block couplers, angle-polished fibres and bulk prisms. In this work, we demonstrate WGM excitation in microspheres, from 8 to 15 μm in diameter, by using an integrated optics channel waveguide. Light from a tunable laser was coupled into a single mode K + ion-exchanged channel waveguide formed in BK7 glass substrate. Dry borosilicate glass microspheres were dispersed on the substrate surface. Polystyrene microspheres were suspended in electrolyte water solution and confined in a closed cell on top of the waveguide. The light was coupled to the particles sitting on the waveguide surface. The scattered light was observed through the microscope. As the laser wavelength was tuned, the observed images were recorded with a CCD camera. WGM excitation was observed through the increased scattered light intensity at certain wavelengths. In the case of glass microspheres and a Ti:Sapphire tunable laser, the obtained resonance quality (Q-) factors were about 400. The resonances observed in polystyrene microspheres using a tunable diode laser had lower Q-factors and were deteriorating with decreasing particle size.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohl, Andreas; Tergeist, Mathias; Oueslati, Hatem; Jain, Jayesh R.; Herbig, Christian; Ostermeyer, Georg-Peter; Reckmann, Hanno
2015-04-01
Drilling system applications are subject to torsional vibrations that are induced by self-excitation mechanisms. A common mechanism is a falling characteristic of contact or cutting forces with respect to the relative velocity between the bit and the formation. To mitigate the effects of this mechanism, it is important to identify modes that are the most likely to be excited. However, in complex structures the identification of critical mode shapes is no trivial task. This paper discusses a criterion derived to identify critical torsional modes in drilling systems that are prone to self-excitation. Basic assumptions are a falling (velocity-weakening) characteristic of the contact forces and only one contributing mode. Multiple contact forces along the structure can be considered with different contact characteristics. Contributing parameters are angular eigenfrequency, deflection of the mode shape at the contact points, modal damping of the examined mode, and the slope of the characteristic of the contact forces at the operating point. In a case study of a drilling system the derived criterion is tested. The case study focuses on torsional vibrations excited by cutting forces observed in field measurements with high amplitudes and accelerations. The corresponding modes are localized to the so-called bottomhole assembly (BHA) at the end of the drilling system. Numerical results from a finite element analysis are compared to downhole measurements to verify the critical modes that are identified with the criterion. In addition, mass and stiffness changes along the structure are intentionally induced to beneficially influence mode shapes. Results indicate that reducing the mode shape at the source of vibration (bit) decreases the excitability of this mode shape.
Collective Excitations of Bose-Einstein Condensates In Isotropic and Slightly Anisotropic Traps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barentine, Andrew; Lobser, Dan; Lewandowski, Heather; Cornell, Eric
2014-03-01
Boltzmann proved that the monopole mode of a thermal gas in an isotropic, harmonic and 3D trap is undamped. Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs) are not classical gases and their weakly interacting nature causes damping in a 3D monopole mode. The large parameter space of the TOP (Time-averaged Orbiting Potential) trap allows for precise control of the trap geometry. Exciting a monopole mode in a BEC as well as its canonical thermal cloud allows us to investigate damping effects in isotropic and slightly anisotropic traps for both hydrodynamic and collisionless regimes. We also hope to achieve a greater understanding of the frequency shifts due to anharmonicity in the trap in order to apply this to our research on quasi-2D monopole modes. Funding: NSF, NIST, ONR
Motobayashi, Kenta; Kim, Yousoo; Arafune, Ryuichi; Ohara, Michiaki; Ueba, Hiromu; Kawai, Maki
2014-05-21
We present a novel reaction mechanism for a single adsorbed molecule that proceeds via simultaneous excitation of two different vibrational modes excited by inelastic tunneling electrons from a scanning tunneling microscope. Specifically, we analyze the dissociation of a single dimethyl disulfide (DMDS, (CH{sub 3}S){sub 2}) molecule on Cu(111) by using a versatile theoretical method, which permits us to simulate reaction rates as a function of sample bias voltage. The reaction is induced by the excitation of C-H stretch and S-S stretch modes by a two-electron process at low positive bias voltages. However, at increased voltages, the dissociation becomes a single-electron process that excites a combination mode of these stretches, where excitation of the C-H stretch is the energy source and excitation of the S-S stretch mode enhances the anharmonic coupling rate. A much smaller dissociation yield (few orders of magnitude) at negative bias voltages is understood in terms of the projected density of states of a single DMDS on Cu(111), which reflects resonant excitation through the molecular orbitals.
Collective excitations of the hybrid atomic-molecular Bose-Einstein condensates
Gupta, Moumita; Dastidar, Krishna Rai
2010-06-15
We investigate the low-energy excitations of the spherically and axially trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to a molecular Bose gas by coherent Raman transitions. We apply the sum-rule approach of many-body response theory to derive the low-lying collective excitation frequencies of the hybrid atom-molecular system. The atomic and molecular ground-state densities obtained in Gross-Pitaevskii and modified Gross-Pitaevskii (including the higher order Lee-Huang-Yang term in interatomic interaction) approaches are used to find out the individual energy components and hence the excitation frequencies. We obtain different excitation energies for different angular momenta and study their characteristic dependence on the effective Raman detuning, the scattering length for atom-atom interaction, and the intensities of the coupling lasers. We show that the inclusion of the higher-order nonlinear interatomic interaction in modified Gross-Pitaevskii approach introduces significant corrections to the ground-state properties and the excitation frequencies both for axially and spherically trapped coupled {sup 87}Rb condensate system with the increase in the s-wave scattering length (for peak gas-parameter {>=}10{sup -3}). It has been shown that the excitation frequencies decrease with the increase in the effective Raman detuning as well as the s-wave scattering length, whereas excitation frequencies increase with the increase in the atom-molecular coupling strength. The frequencies in modified Gross-Pitaevskii approximation exhibit an upward trend after a certain value of scattering length and also largely deviate from the Gross-Pitaevskii results with the increase in s-wave scattering length. The strong dependence of excitation frequencies on the laser intensities used for Raman transitions manifests the role of atom-molecular coupling strength on the control of collective excitations. The collective excitation frequencies for the hybrid atom-molecular BEC differ
Bernabei, S.; Chang, Z.; Darrow, D.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Fu, G.Y.; Hoang, G.T.; Hosea, J.C.; Majeski, R.; Phillips, C.K.; Rogers, J.H.; Schilling, G.; Wilson, J.R.
1997-04-01
Alfv{acute e}n modes are excited by energetic ions in TFTR during intense minority ICRF heating. There is a clear threshold in rf power above which the modes are distabilized. The net effect of these modes is the increase of the fast ion losses, with an associated saturation of the ion tail energy and of the efficiency of the heating. Typically, several modes are excited with progressive n-numbers, with frequencies in the neighborhood of 200 kHz. Results suggest that Energetic Particle Modes (EPM), mostly unseen by the Mirnov coils, are generated near the center and are responsible for the ion losses. Stronger global TAE modes, which are destabilized by the stream of displaced fast ions, appear responsible only for minor losses. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Study of Collective Dipole Excitations below the Giant Dipole Resonance at HI{gamma}S
Tonchev, A. P.; Howell, C. R.; Tornow, W.; Angell, C.; Boswell, M.; Karwowski, H. J.; Chyzh, A.; Kelley, J. H.; Tsoneva, N.; Wu, Y. K.
2007-02-26
The High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source utilizing intra-cavity back-scattering of free electron laser photons from relativistic electrons allows one to produce a unique beam of high-flux gamma rays with 100% polarization and selectable energy and energy resolution which is ideal for low-energy {gamma}-ray scattering experiments. Nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments have been performed on N=82 nuclei. High sensitivity studies of E1 and M1 excitations at energies close to the neutron emission threshold have been performed. The method allows the determination of excitation energies, spin, parities, and decay branching ratios of the pygmy dipole mode of excitation. The observations are compared with calculations using statistical and quasi-particle random-phase approximations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Cheng-Chien; van Veenendaal, Michel; Devereaux, Thomas P.; Wohlfeld, Krzysztof
2015-04-01
Using a combined analytical and numerical approach, we study the collective spin and orbital excitations in a spin-orbital chain under a crystal field. Irrespective of the crystal-field strength, these excitations can be universally described by fractionalized fermions. The fractionalization phenomenon persists and contrasts strikingly with the case of a spin chain, where fractionalized spinons cannot be individually observed but confined to form magnons in a strong magnetic field. In the spin-orbital chain, each of the fractional quasiparticles carries both spin and orbital quantum numbers, and the two variables are always entangled in the collective excitations. Our result further shows that the recently reported separation phenomenon occurs when crystal fields fully polarize the orbital degrees of freedom. In this case, however, the spinon and orbiton dynamics are decoupled solely because of a redefinition of the spin and orbital quantum numbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bell, T. F.; Inan, U. S.; Platino, M.; Pickett, J.; Kossey, P. A.; Kennedy, E. J.
2003-12-01
We report new observations from the CLUSTER spacecraft of strong excitation of lower hybrid waves by electromagnetic whistler mode waves at altitudes of roughly 20,000 km outside the plasmasphere. Previous observations of this phenomenon have been limited to altitudes less than 7000 km. The excitation mechanism appears to be linear mode coupling in the presence of small scale plasma density irregularities. The wavelengths of the excited lower hybrid waves, as deduced from their doppler shifts, appear to lie in the 15 - 1500 m range. These observations provide strong evidence that electromagnetic whistler mode waves are continuously transformed into lower hybrid waves as the whistler mode waves propagate at high altitudes beyond L = 4. This finding may explain the lack of lightning generated whistlers observed in this same region of space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Joseph T. C.; Lee, Keseok
2013-11-01
Experiments of Asai, et al. (2011) confirm earlier experiments of Sato & Okada (1966), Peterson & Hama (1976) that, for sufficiently slender axisymmetric bodies of revolution placed in a stream parallel to the axes, only convectively unstable modes exist. However, in the downstream nonlinear region, the present theoretical/computational work shows that the imposition of the most unstable helical modes results in the generation of a stationary harmonic-helical mode that persists downstream. This is elucidated from energy transfer mechanism from the mean flow and inter-mode energy transfer via triad interactions. While absolute unstable modes behind bluff bodies of revolution are a natural occurrence according to the linear theory, the presence of such modes behind very slender bodies of revolution is a consequence of downstream nonlinear interactions between the excited helical modes.
Enhanced Third Harmonic Generation in Single Germanium Nanodisks Excited at the Anapole Mode.
Grinblat, Gustavo; Li, Yi; Nielsen, Michael P; Oulton, Rupert F; Maier, Stefan A
2016-07-13
We present an all-dielectric germanium nanosystem exhibiting a strong third order nonlinear response and efficient third harmonic generation in the optical regime. A thin germanium nanodisk shows a pronounced valley in its scattering cross section at the dark anapole mode, while the electric field energy inside the disk is maximized due to high confinement within the dielectric. We investigate the dependence of the third harmonic signal on disk size and pump wavelength to reveal the nature of the anapole mode. Each germanium nanodisk generates a high effective third order susceptibility of χ((3)) = 4.3 × 10(-9) esu, corresponding to an associated third harmonic conversion efficiency of 0.0001% at an excitation wavelength of 1650 nm, which is 4 orders of magnitude greater than the case of an unstructured germanium reference film. Furthermore, the nonlinear conversion via the anapole mode outperforms that via the radiative dipolar resonances by about 1 order of magnitude, which is consistent with our numerical simulations. These findings open new possibilities for the optimization of upconversion processes on the nanoscale through the appropriate engineering of suitable dielectric materials. PMID:27331867
g-MODE EXCITATION DURING THE PRE-EXPLOSIVE SIMMERING OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
Piro, Anthony L.
2011-09-01
Prior to the explosive burning of a white dwarf (WD) that makes a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), the star 'simmers' for {approx}10{sup 3} yr in a convecting, carbon-burning region. I estimate the excitation of g-modes by convection during this phase and explore their possible effect on the WD. As these modes propagate from the core of the WD toward its surface, their amplitudes grow with decreasing density. Once the modes reach nonlinear amplitudes, they break and deposit their energy into a shell of mass {approx}10{sup -4} M{sub sun}. This raises the surface temperature by {approx}4 x 10{sup 8} K, which is sufficient to ignite a layer of helium, as is expected to exist for some SN Ia scenarios. This predominantly synthesizes {sup 40}Ca, but some amount of {sup 28}Si, {sup 32}S, and {sup 44}Ti may also be present. These ashes are expanded out with the subsequent explosion up to velocities of {approx}20, 000 km s{sup -1}, which may explain the high velocity features (HVFs) seen in many SNe Ia. The appearance of HVFs would therefore be a useful discriminant for determining between progenitors, since a flammable helium-rich layer will not be present for accretion from a C/O WD as in a merger scenario. I also discuss the implications of {sup 44}Ti production.
Mid-infrared Otto excitation of transverse electric modes in doped graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos-Mendieta, F.
2015-04-01
We have studied numerically the excitation of surface modes of transverse electric polarization in doped graphene. Using the prism-based Otto configuration, the electromagnetic resonances were found within ultra-tiny angular windows of width of order of Δ θ i = 10-3 degrees or lower, beyond the critical angle where evanescent fields are already available. We obtained absorption peaks of angular position strongly dependent on the prism-graphene separation d, which is larger than dc, the cutoff prism-graphene separation. We prove numerically that dc depends on the graphene parameters and can be written as d c = α / 2 , where α ( ω ) is the decay length of the electromagnetic field of the modes. With doping levels of Fermi energy 0.2 eV ≤ μ ≤ 0.3 eV, we found resonances within the range of 80-145 THz. The numerical calculations show the mayor role played by the graphene losses that, indeed, can obliterate the mode resonance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filinov, A.
2016-07-01
A two-component, two-dimensional (2D) dipolar bosonic system in the bilayer geometry is considered. By performing quantum Monte Carlo simulations in a wide range of layer spacings we analyze in detail the pair correlation functions, the static response function, and the kinetic and interaction energies. By reducing the layer spacing we observe a transition from weakly to strongly bound dimer states. The transition is accompanied by the onset of short-range correlations, suppression of the superfluid response, and rotonization of the excitation spectrum. A dispersion law and a dynamic structure factor for the in-phase (symmetric) and out-of-phase (antisymmetric) collective modes during the dimerization is studied in detail with the stochastic reconstruction method and the method of moments. The antisymmetric mode spectrum is most strongly influenced by suppression of the inlayer superfluidity (specified by the superfluid fraction γs=ρs/ρ ). In a pure superfluid (normal fluid) phase, only an acoustic [optical (gapped)] mode is recovered. In a partially superfluid phase, both are present simultaneously, and the dispersion splits into two branches corresponding to a normal and a superfluid component. The spectral weight of the acoustic mode scales linearly with γs. This weight transfers to the optical branch when γs is reduced due to formation of dimer states. In summary, we demonstrate how the interlayer dimerization in dipolar bilayers can be uniquely identified by static and dynamic properties.
G. Ciovati; P. Kneisel
2005-05-01
Simultaneous excitation of both modes has been carried out on a CEBAF single cell cavity. The cavity has two beam pipe side-ports for each mode for input and pick-up couplers. Coupling to the TE011 mode is done by magnetic loop couplers while for the TM010 mode coaxial antennas are used. Simultaneous excitation of both TM and TE modes has been proposed recently for superconducting photoinjector applications to take advantage of the accelerating electric field of the TM mode, combined with the focusing magnetic field of the TE mode. The TE011 mode has the property of having zero surface electric field, surface magnetic field orthogonal to the one in the TM010 mode and concentrated in the iris/wall regions of the cavity. The presence of both modes in the cavity at the same time can also be used to investigate the so-called high field Q-drop in the TM010 mode. This paper will present some preliminary result on the test of the single cell cavity at 2 K.
Beta decay properties of the collective scissors mode 1+-states in 50Cr
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zenginerler, Zemine; Yakut, Hakan; Kuliev, Ali Akbar; Guliyev, Ekber
2014-03-01
The beta decay properties of collective IπK = 1+1 states in doubly even deformed 50Cr nucleus are investigated in the framework of the random-phase approximation (RPA). The model Hamiltonian includes restoring rotational invariance of the deformed single particle Hamiltonian forces and the spin-spin interactions. The present investigation demonstrates an advantage the rotational invariant model (R-QRPA) over the rotational non-invariant model (RN-QRPA). For a more complete comparison with the experimental data, we calculate to the log ft values as well as the energies and B(M1) value of the excited 1+-states. The calculated energy spectrum of 50Cr nucleus demonstrates a very rich ft strength structure in accordance to experiment. The agreement between the calculated energy spectrum and the logft values of the scissors mode excitations with the available experimental data is quite good. One of the authors (Z.Z) would like to acknowledge that this work is performed of the Fellowship No:2219 under the TUBITAK-TURKEY.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rigo, E.; Aparicio, F. J.; Vanacharla, M. R.; Larcheri, S.; Guider, R.; Han, B.; Pucker, G.; Pavesi, L.
2014-03-01
A silicon oxynitride channel waveguide based evanescent-field optical transducer is presented for lab-on-chip application. The optical biosensor detects luminescent bioanalytes infiltrated within a reactor well realized across the waveguide. As a main novelty, the sensing mechanism proposed makes use of the evanescent-field propagating in the waveguide to both excite and to collect the fluorescent signal. To understand the chip behavior, its design and collection efficiency were analyzed by finite-difference time-domain simulations in comparison with similar structures differing in the bioreactor thickness and therefore in the excitation and collection mechanisms. It is demonstrated that the best efficiency and performance are reached for the proposed dual evanescent field approach. Characterization of the optical losses and fluorescence measurements from a dye solution infiltrated in the bioreactor well validate the proposed working concept.
Huysmans, G.T.A.; Kerner, W.; Borba, D.; Holties, H.A.; Goedbloed, J.P.
1995-05-01
The active excitation of global Alfven modes using the saddle coils in the Joint European Torus (JET) [{ital Plasma} {ital Physics} {ital and} {ital Controlled} {ital Nuclear} {ital Fusion} {ital Research} 1984, Proceedings of the 10th International Conference, London (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1985), Vol. 1, p. 11] as the external antenna, will provide information on the damping of global modes without the need to drive the modes unstable. For the modeling of the Alfven mode excitation, the toroidal resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code CASTOR (Complex Alfven Spectrum in TORoidal geometry) [18{ital th} {ital EPS} {ital Conference} {ital On} {ital Controlled} {ital Fusion} {ital and} {ital Plasma} {ital Physics}, Berlin, 1991, edited by P. Bachmann and D. C. Robinson (The European Physical Society, Petit-Lancy, 1991), Vol. 15, Part IV, p. 89] has been extended to calculate the response to an external antenna. The excitation of a high-performance, high beta JET discharge is studied numerically. In particular, the influence of a finite pressure is investigated. Weakly damped low-{ital n} global modes do exist in the gaps in the continuous spectrum at high beta. A pressure-driven global mode is found due to the interaction of Alfven and slow modes. Its frequency scales solely with the plasma temperature, not like a pure Alfven mode with a density and magnetic field.
Excitation of kinetic geodesic acoustic modes by drift waves in nonuniform plasmas
Qiu, Z.; Chen, L.; Zonca, F.
2014-02-15
Effects of system nonuniformities and kinetic dispersiveness on the spontaneous excitation of Geodesic Acoustic Mode (GAM) by Drift Wave (DW) turbulence are investigated based on nonlinear gyrokinetic theory. The coupled nonlinear equations describing parametric decay of DW into GAM and DW lower sideband are derived and then solved both analytically and numerically to investigate the effects on the parametric decay process due to system nonuniformities, such as nonuniform diamagnetic frequency, finite radial envelope of DW pump, and kinetic dispersiveness. It is found that the parametric decay process is a convective instability for typical tokamak parameters when finite group velocities of DW and GAM associated with kinetic dispersiveness and finite radial envelope are taken into account. When, however, nonuniformity of diamagnetic frequency is taken into account, the parametric decay process becomes, time asymptotically, a quasi-exponentially growing absolute instability.
Ruiz-Martin, M. D.; Jimenez-Ruiz, M.; Bermejo, F. J.
2006-03-01
The spectra of collective excitations of liquid and glassy tellurium have been studied by means of inelastic neutron scattering. Here we report on the dynamics of liquid Te as measured at two different temperatures, just above melting (T{sub m}=723 K) and at {approx}1000 K as well as the glass that is studied at room temperature. Estimates for the velocity of propagating excitations for both temperatures have been obtained from the experimental data, and a contrasting behavior is found with respect to anomalies shown by the adiabatic sound velocity measured by ultrasound methods. The origin of such differences is finally discussed.
Collective Modes and f-Wave Pairing Interactions in Superfluid {sup 3}He
Davis, J. P.; Choi, H.; Pollanen, J.; Halperin, W. P.
2006-09-15
Precision measurements of collective mode frequencies in superfluid {sup 3}He-B are sensitive to quasiparticle and f-wave pairing interactions. Measurements were performed at various pressures using interference of transverse sound in an acoustic cavity. We fit the measured collective mode frequencies, which depend on the strength of f-wave pairing and the Fermi liquid parameter F{sub 2}{sup s}, to theoretical predictions and discuss what implications these values have for observing new order parameter collective modes.
Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. IV. Receiving antennas and reciprocity
Stenzel, R. L. Urrutia, J. M.
2015-07-15
Antenna radiation patterns are an important property of antennas. Reciprocity holds in free space and the radiation patterns for exciting and receiving antennas are the same. In anisotropic plasmas, radiation patterns are complicated by the fact that group and phase velocities differ and certain wave properties like helicity depend on the direction of wave propagation with respect to the background magnetic field B{sub 0}. Interference and wave focusing effects are different than in free space. Reciprocity does not necessarily hold in a magnetized plasma. The present work considers the properties of various magnetic antennas used for receiving whistler modes. It is based on experimental data from exciting low frequency whistler modes in a large uniform laboratory plasma. By superposition of linear waves from different antennas, the radiation patterns of antenna arrays are derived. Plane waves are generated and used to determine receiving radiation patterns of different receiving antennas. Antenna arrays have radiation patterns with narrow lobes, whose angular position can be varied by physical rotation or electronic phase shifting. Reciprocity applies to broadside antenna arrays but not to end fire arrays which can have asymmetric lobes with respect to B{sub 0}. The effect of a relative motion between an antenna and the plasma has been modeled by the propagation of a short wave packet moving along a linear antenna array. An antenna moving across B{sub 0} has a radiation pattern characterized by an oscillatory “whistler wing.” A receiving antenna in motion can detect any plane wave within the group velocity resonance cone. The radiation pattern also depends on loop size relative to the wavelength. Motional effects prevent reciprocity. The concept of the radiation pattern loses its significance for wave packets since the received signal does not only depend on the antenna but also on the properties of the wave packet. The present results are of fundamental
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauscher, E. A.; van Bise, W. L.
2001-10-01
SPECIFIC PLASMA IONOSPHERIC EXCITATIONS MODES IN THE IONOSPHERE PRODUCED BY SPACE VEHICLE LAUNCH AND RE ENTRY AND NATURAL PHENOMENA We have examined both experimentally and theoretically the formation and excitation of highly well defined specific wave forms of plasma excitation in the D, E, F(1) and F(2) and sometimes G layers of the earth?s ionosphere. In our formal study period from October 1989 until December 1996, we measured 41 distinct events out of a possible 73 events utilizing ground based sensitive T1050 magnetometers. In five cases more than two to three stations were displayed and detected the same ionospheric excitations. Sometimes background noise was high and dominated the signals, but under good measurement conditions signals appeared to be 50 to 70 dbm over the background noise floor. Specific frequencies of the D-layer appeared around 5.2 to 6.52 Hz and E layer excitations were from 10.48 to 12.8 Hz. Sometimes an F double peak appeared around 15 to 17 Hz as excited by space shuttle activity and delta rockets and in several cases, large scale volcanism. A theoretical model has been developed which describes sustained long duration and long range coherent plasma excitation modes which occur when the ionospheric layers are shock excited. Alfven-like velocities of propogation are calculated in these ionospheric layer. Some Schumann resonates were observed from 7 to 8 Hz.
Slow-Mode Oscillations of Hot Coronal Loops Excited at Flaring Footpoints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tongjiang; Liu, W.; Ofman, L.; Davila, J. M.
2011-05-01
A large number of strongly damped oscillations in hot coronal loops have been observed by SOHO/SUMER in the past decade in Doppler shifts of flaring (>6 MK) lines (Fe XIX and Fe XXI). These oscillations with periods on the order of 10-30 min were interpreted as fundamental standing slow modes. They often manifest features such as recurrence and association with a flow (100-300 km/s) pulse preceding to the oscillation, which suggests that they are likely driven by microflares at the footpoints. With coordinated RHESSI observations, we have found a dozen such events supporting this conjecture. A typical event is presetned here. By analyzing RHESSI hard X-ray and GOES/SXI soft X-ray emissions as well as SUMER Doppler shifts, we identify the flare that triggers the loop oscillations. From RHESSI spectra, we measure physical parameters such as temperature, emission measure, and thermal/non-thermal energy contents as functions of time. We discuss the wave excitation mechanism based on these observations. Our results provide important observational constraints that can be used for improving theoretical models of magnetosonic wave excitation, and for coronal seismology.
Pure low-frequency flexural mode of [011]c poled relaxor-PbTiO3 single crystals excited by k32 mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Gang; Jiang, Wenhua; Zhu, Jiaqi; Cao, Wenwu
2012-05-01
Rhombohedral phase relaxor-PbTiO3 solid solution single crystals poled along [011]c exhibits superior lateral extensional piezoelectric response, which enables the excitation of a pure low frequency flexural mode with a bridge-type electrode configuration. For the ternary 0.24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2) O3-0.46Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.30PbTiO3 single crystal poled along [011]c, the electromechanical coupling factor of the flexural mode reached as high as 0.66, and the resonance frequency of this mode can be easily made in kHz range, making it possible to fabricate very small size low frequency sensors and actuators. We have delineated theoretically the coupling between flexural mode and other modes and realized a strong pure flexure mode.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serebrennikov, Aleksey M.
2011-10-01
In the framework of linear electrodynamics, the theory of the resonant interaction of multipolar modes in the many body system and associated numerical techniques are proposed in the present paper. The theory rests upon certain integral field equations derived on the basis of the Stratton-Chu integral transforms, the Atkinson-Wilcox and multipole expansions. For the case of spherical geometry of the bodies, the half part of these field equations is reduced to a set of closed form dispersion relations which describe the excitation of nonradiating modes in the particle cluster of arbitrary complexity. For clusters with developed translation symmetry, we propose the method for solving the field equations which is characterized by an effective numerical scaling. For perfectly periodic one dimensional systems (chains), this scaling has a linear character. On the basis of the proposed theory and numerical technique the method of synthesis of chain plasmonic waveguides with low radiation losses is considered. Different checks targeted on the verification of the approaches are fulfilled.
Coronal Seismology of Flare-Excited Standing Slow-Mode Waves Observed by SDO/AIA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tongjiang; Ofman, Leon; Davila, Joseph M.
2016-05-01
Flare-excited longitudinal intensity oscillations in hot flaring loops have been recently detected by SDO/AIA in 94 and 131 Å bandpasses. Based on the interpretation in terms of a slow-mode wave, quantitative evidence of thermal conduction suppression in hot (>9 MK) loops has been obtained for the first time from measurements of the polytropic index and phase shift between the temperature and density perturbations (Wang et al. 2015, ApJL, 811, L13). This result has significant implications in two aspects. One is that the thermal conduction suppression suggests the need of greatly enhanced compressive viscosity to interpret the observed strong wave damping. The other is that the conduction suppression provides a reasonable mechanism for explaining the long-duration events where the thermal plasma is sustained well beyond the duration of impulsive hard X-ray bursts in many flares, for a time much longer than expected by the classical Spitzer conductive cooling. In this study, we model the observed standing slow-mode wave in Wang et al. (2015) using a 1D nonlinear MHD code. With the seismology-derived transport coefficients for thermal conduction and compressive viscosity, we successfully simulate the oscillation period and damping time of the observed waves. Based on the parametric study of the effect of thermal conduction suppression and viscosity enhancement on the observables, we discuss the inversion scheme for determining the energy transport coefficients by coronal seismology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Ping; Wang, HuiLi; Fan, RongWei; Chen, DeYing; Xia, YuanQin; Yu, Xin; Wang, JiaLing; Jiang, YuGang
2012-12-01
A recently developed time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (tr-CARS) technique allows the measurement of vibrational coherences with high frequency differences with the ambient environment. The method is based on the short spatial extension of femtosecond pulses with a broadband tunable nonlinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) and an internal time delay between the probe and pump/Stokes pulse pair in the CARS process. The different beat frequencies between Raman modes can be selectively detected as oscillations in the tr-CARS transient signal with the broadband tunable NOPA. In this work, we aim at the Raman C—H stretching vibrations from 2800 cm-1 to 3000 cm-1, within which the different vibrational modes in both ethanol and methanol are selectively excited and simultaneously detected. The high time resolution of the experimental set-up allows one to monitor the vibrational coherence dynamics and to observe the quantum beat phenomena on a terahertz scale. This investigation indicates that the femtosecond tr-CARS technique is a powerful tool for the real-time monitoring and detection of molecular and biological agents, including airborne contaminants such as bacterial spores, viruses and their toxins.
Patel, Vishesha; Malinovsky, Vladimir S.; Malinovskaya, Svetlana
2010-06-15
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy has been a major tool of investigation of biological structures as it contains the vibrational signature of molecules. A quantum control method based on chirped pulse adiabatic passage was recently proposed for selective excitation of a predetermined vibrational mode in CARS microscopy [Malinovskaya and Malinovsky, Opt. Lett. 32, 707 (2007)]. The method utilizes the chirp sign variation at the peak pulse amplitude and gives a robust adiabatic excitation of the desired vibrational mode. Using this method, we investigate the impact of coupling between vibrational modes in molecules on controllability of excitation of the CARS signal. We analyze two models of two coupled two-level systems (TLSs) having slightly different transitional frequencies. The first model, featuring degenerate ground states of the TLSs, gives robust adiabatic excitation and maximum coherence in the resonant TLS for positive value of the chirp. In the second model, implying nondegenerate ground states in the TLSs, a population distribution is observed in both TLSs, resulting in a lack of selectivity of excitation and low coherence. It is shown that the relative phase and coupling between the TLSs play an important role in optimizing coherence in the desired vibrational mode and suppressing unwanted transitions in CARS microscopy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bafile, Ubaldo; Guarini, Eleonora; Barocchi, Fabrizio
2006-06-01
In the Q range where inelastic x-ray and neutron scattering are applied to the study of acoustic collective excitations in fluids, various models of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,ω) generalize in different ways the results obtained from linearized-hydrodynamics theory in the Q→0 limit. Here we show that the models most commonly fitted to experimental S(Q,ω) spectra can be given a unified formulation. In this way, direct comparisons among the results obtained by fitting different models become now possible to a much larger extent than ever. We also show that a consistent determination of the dispersion curve and of the propagation Q range of the excitations is possible, whichever model is used. We derive an exact formula which describes in all cases the dispersion curve and allows for the first quantitative understanding of its shape, by assigning specific and distinct roles to the various structural, thermal, and damping effects that determine the Q dependence of the mode frequencies. The emerging picture describes the acoustic modes as Q -dependent harmonic oscillators whose characteristic frequency is explicitly renormalized in an exact way by the relaxation processes, which also determine, through the widths of both the inelastic and the elastic lines, the whole shape of collective-excitation spectra.
Bafile, Ubaldo; Guarini, Eleonora; Barocchi, Fabrizio
2006-06-01
In the Q range where inelastic x-ray and neutron scattering are applied to the study of acoustic collective excitations in fluids, various models of the dynamic structure factor S(Q, omega) generalize in different ways the results obtained from linearized-hydrodynamics theory in the Q-->0 limit. Here we show that the models most commonly fitted to experimental S(Q, omega) spectra can be given a unified formulation. In this way, direct comparisons among the results obtained by fitting different models become now possible to a much larger extent than ever. We also show that a consistent determination of the dispersion curve and of the propagation Q range of the excitations is possible, whichever model is used. We derive an exact formula which describes in all cases the dispersion curve and allows for the first quantitative understanding of its shape, by assigning specific and distinct roles to the various structural, thermal, and damping effects that determine the Q dependence of the mode frequencies. The emerging picture describes the acoustic modes as Q-dependent harmonic oscillators whose characteristic frequency is explicitly renormalized in an exact way by the relaxation processes, which also determine, through the widths of both the inelastic and the elastic lines, the whole shape of collective-excitation spectra. PMID:16906814
Bafile, Ubaldo; Guarini, Eleonora
2006-06-15
In the Q range where inelastic x-ray and neutron scattering are applied to the study of acoustic collective excitations in fluids, various models of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,{omega}) generalize in different ways the results obtained from linearized-hydrodynamics theory in the Q{yields}0 limit. Here we show that the models most commonly fitted to experimental S(Q,{omega}) spectra can be given a unified formulation. In this way, direct comparisons among the results obtained by fitting different models become now possible to a much larger extent than ever. We also show that a consistent determination of the dispersion curve and of the propagation Q range of the excitations is possible, whichever model is used. We derive an exact formula which describes in all cases the dispersion curve and allows for the first quantitative understanding of its shape, by assigning specific and distinct roles to the various structural, thermal, and damping effects that determine the Q dependence of the mode frequencies. The emerging picture describes the acoustic modes as Q-dependent harmonic oscillators whose characteristic frequency is explicitly renormalized in an exact way by the relaxation processes, which also determine, through the widths of both the inelastic and the elastic lines, the whole shape of collective-excitation spectra.
TOPICAL REVIEW: Shapes and collectivity of exotic nuclei via low-energy Coulomb excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Görgen, Andreas
2010-10-01
The way in which an atomic nucleus responds to excitations, whether by promoting individual nucleons into higher shells or by collective rotation or vibration, reveals many details of the underlying nuclear structure. The response of the nucleus is closely related to its macroscopic shape. Low-energy Coulomb excitation provides a well-understood means of exciting atomic nuclei, allowing the measurement of static and dynamic electromagnetic moments as a probe of the nuclear wavefunctions. Owing to the availability of radioactive heavy-ion beams with energies near the Coulomb barrier, it is now possible to study the shape and collectivity of short-lived nuclei far from β stability (the so-called exotic nuclei), providing a particularly stringent test of modern theoretical nuclear structure models. This review gives an introduction to the experimental techniques related to low-energy Coulomb excitation with radioactive ion beams and summarizes the results that were obtained over the last 10 years for a wide variety of exotic nuclei at various laboratories employing the isotope separation on-line technique.
Tarana, Michal; Houfek, Karel; Horacek, Jiri; Fabrikant, Ilya I.
2011-11-15
We present a study of dissociative electron attachment and vibrational excitation processes in electron collisions with the CF{sub 3}Cl molecule. The calculations are based on the two-dimensional nuclear dynamics including the C-Cl symmetric stretch coordinate and the CF{sub 3} symmetric deformation (umbrella) coordinate. The complex potential energy surfaces are calculated using the ab initio R-matrix method. The results for dissociative attachment and vibrational excitation of the umbrella mode agree quite well with experiment whereas the cross section for excitation of the C-Cl symmetric stretch vibrations is about a factor-of-three too low in comparison with experimental data.
Li, Mubing; Manson, J. R.; Graham, Andrew P.
2001-04-15
The probabilities of multiple excitation (multiphonon transfer) of decoupled, oscillating adsorbates on a surface via impact by an atom or molecule are discussed using a dynamical scattering model, and comparisons are made with helium scattering results for carbon monoxide adsorbed on metal surfaces. The scattering model, which contains no free adjustable parameters, is shown to predict correctly the angular dependence of the distribution of the multiphonon excitations in addition to the variation with incident energy and adsorbate frequency. Furthermore, the model is used to calculate the excitation probability of other vibrational modes that have not yet been observed using helium-atom scattering.
Collective excitations and thermodynamics of disordered state: new insights into an old problem.
Brazhkin, V V; Trachenko, K
2014-10-01
Disorder has been long considered as a formidable foe of theoretical physicists in their attempts to understand systems' behavior. Here, we review recently accumulated data and propose that, from the point of view of calculating thermodynamic properties, the problem of disorder may not be as severe as has been hitherto assumed. We particularly emphasize that, contrary to the long-held view, collective excitations do not decay in disordered systems. We subsequently discuss recent experimental, theoretical, and modeling results related to collective excitations in disordered media, and show how these results pave the way to understanding thermodynamics of disordered systems: glasses, liquids, supercritical fluids, and spin glasses. An interesting insight from the recent work is the realization that most important changes of thermodynamic properties of the disordered system are governed only by its fundamental length, the interatomic separation. We discuss how the proposed theory relates to the previous approaches based on a general many-body statistical mechanics framework. PMID:25180672
Nishida, Shuhei; Kobayashi, Dai; Sakurada, Takeo; Nakazawa, Tomonori; Hoshi, Yasuo; Kawakatsu, Hideki
2008-12-15
The authors present an optically based method combining photothermal excitation and laser Doppler velocimetry of higher cantilever vibration modes for dynamic atomic force microscopy in liquid. The frequency spectrum of a silicon cantilever measured in water over frequencies ranging up to 10 MHz shows that the method allows us to excite and detect higher modes, from fundamental to fifth flexural, without enhancing spurious resonances. By reducing the tip oscillation amplitude using higher modes, the average tip-sample force gradient due to chemical bonds is effectively increased to achieve high-spatial-resolution imaging in liquid. The method's performance is demonstrated by atomic resolution imaging of a mica surface in water obtained using the second flexural mode with a small tip amplitude of 99 pm; individual atoms on the surface with small height differences of up to 60 pm are clearly resolved.
Kottke, M.; Schulte, T.; Hellweg, D.; Drenkelforth, S.; Ertmer, W.; Arlt, J. J.; Cacciapuoti, L.
2005-11-15
We measure the frequency of the low m=0 quadrupolar excitation mode of weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensates in the transition region from the three-dimensional (3D) to the 1D mean-field regime. Various effects shifting the frequency of the mode are discussed. In particular we take the dynamic coupling of the condensate with the thermal component at finite temperature into account using a time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov treatment developed by Giorgini [Phys. Rev. A, 61, 063615 (2000)]. We show that the frequency rises in the transition from 3D to 1D, in good agreement with the theoretical prediction of Menotti and Stringari [Phys. Rev. A 66, 043610 (2002)].
Collective excitations of 96Ru by means of (p ,p'γ ) experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hennig, A.; Ahn, T.; Anagnostatou, V.; Blazhev, A.; Cooper, N.; Derya, V.; Elvers, M.; Endres, J.; Goddard, P.; Heinz, A.; Hughes, R. O.; Ilie, G.; Mineva, M. N.; Petkov, P.; Pickstone, S. G.; Pietralla, N.; Radeck, D.; Ross, T. J.; Savran, D.; Spieker, M.; Werner, V.; Zilges, A.
2015-12-01
Background: One-phonon mixed-symmetry quadrupole excitations are a well-known feature of near-spherical, vibrational nuclei. Their interpretation as a fundamental building block of vibrational structures is supported by the identification of multiphonon states resulting from a coupling of fully-symmetric and mixed-symmetric quadrupole phonons. In addition, the observation of strong M 1 transitions between low-lying 3- and 4+ states has been interpreted as an evidence for one-phonon mixed-symmetry excitations of octupole and hexadecapole character. Purpose: The aim of the present study is to identify collective one- and two-phonon excitations in the heaviest stable N =52 isotone 96Ru based on a measurement of absolute M 1 , E 1 , and E 2 transition strengths. Methods: Inelastic proton-scattering experiments have been performed at the Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory (WNSL), Yale University, and the Institute for Nuclear Physics (IKP), University of Cologne. From the acquired proton-γ and γ γ coincidence data we deduced spins of excited states, γ -decay branching ratios, and multipole mixing ratios, as well as lifetimes of excited states via the Doppler-shift attenuation method (DSAM). Results: Based on the new experimental data on absolute transition strengths, we identified the 2+ and 3+ members of the two-phonon mixed-symmetry quintuplet (21,ms +⊗21,s +) . Furthermore, we observed strong M 1 transitions between low-lying 3- and 4+ states suggesting one-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric octupole and hexadecapole components in their wave functions, respectively. The experimental results are compared to s d g -IBM-2 and shell-model calculations. Conclusions: Both the s d g -IBM-2 and the shell-model calculations are able to describe key features of mixed-symmetry excitations of 96Ru. Moreover, they support the one-phonon mixed-symmetry hexadecapole assignment of the experimental 42+ state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carroll, Lewis
2014-02-01
We are developing a new dose calibrator for nuclear pharmacies that can measure radioactivity in a vial or syringe without handling it directly or removing it from its transport shield “pig”. The calibrator's detector comprises twin opposing scintillating crystals coupled to Si photodiodes and current-amplifying trans-resistance amplifiers. Such a scheme is inherently linear with respect to dose rate over a wide range of radiation intensities, but accuracy at low activity levels may be impaired, beyond the effects of meager photon statistics, by baseline fluctuation and drift inevitably present in high-gain, current-mode photodiode amplifiers. The work described here is motivated by our desire to enhance accuracy at low excitations while maintaining linearity at high excitations. Thus, we are also evaluating a novel “pulse-mode” analog signal processing scheme that employs a linear threshold discriminator to virtually eliminate baseline fluctuation and drift. We will show the results of a side-by-side comparison of current-mode versus pulse-mode signal processing schemes, including perturbing factors affecting linearity and accuracy at very low and very high excitations. Bench testing over a wide range of excitations is done using a Poisson random pulse generator plus an LED light source to simulate excitations up to ˜106 detected counts per second without the need to handle and store large amounts of radioactive material.
Shinohara, S; Tanikawa, T; Motomura, T
2014-09-01
A flat type, segmented multi-loop antenna was developed in the Tokai Helicon Device, built for producing high-density helicon plasma, with a diameter of 20 cm and an axial length of 100 cm. This antenna, composed of azimuthally splitting segments located on four different radial positions, i.e., r = 2.8, 4.8, 6.8, and 8.8 cm, can excite the azimuthal mode number m of 0, ±1, and ±2 by a proper choice of antenna feeder parts just on the rear side of the antenna. Power dependencies of the electron density ne were investigated with a radio frequency (rf) power less than 3 kW (excitation frequency ranged from 8 to 20 MHz) by the use of various types of antenna segments, and n(e) up to ~5 × 10(12) cm(-3) was obtained after the density jump from inductively coupled plasma to helicon discharges. Radial density profiles of m = 0 and ±1 modes with low and high rf powers were measured. For the cases of these modes after the density jump, the excited mode structures derived from the magnetic probe measurements were consistent with those expected from theory on helicon waves excited in the plasma. PMID:25273728
Shinohara, S.; Tanikawa, T.; Motomura, T.
2014-09-15
A flat type, segmented multi-loop antenna was developed in the Tokai Helicon Device, built for producing high-density helicon plasma, with a diameter of 20 cm and an axial length of 100 cm. This antenna, composed of azimuthally splitting segments located on four different radial positions, i.e., r = 2.8, 4.8, 6.8, and 8.8 cm, can excite the azimuthal mode number m of 0, ±1, and ±2 by a proper choice of antenna feeder parts just on the rear side of the antenna. Power dependencies of the electron density n{sub e} were investigated with a radio frequency (rf) power less than 3 kW (excitation frequency ranged from 8 to 20 MHz) by the use of various types of antenna segments, and n{sub e} up to ∼5 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} was obtained after the density jump from inductively coupled plasma to helicon discharges. Radial density profiles of m = 0 and ±1 modes with low and high rf powers were measured. For the cases of these modes after the density jump, the excited mode structures derived from the magnetic probe measurements were consistent with those expected from theory on helicon waves excited in the plasma.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merchant, D. H.; Gates, R. M.; Straayer, J. W.
1975-01-01
The effect of localized structural damping on the excitability of higher-order large space telescope spacecraft modes is investigated. A preprocessor computer program is developed to incorporate Voigt structural joint damping models in a finite-element dynamic model. A postprocessor computer program is developed to select critical modes for low-frequency attitude control problems and for higher-frequency fine-stabilization problems. The selection is accomplished by ranking the flexible modes based on coefficients for rate gyro, position gyro, and optical sensor, and on image-plane motions due to sinusoidal or random PSD force and torque inputs.
Eremeev, Grigory; Geng, Rongli; Palczewski, Ari
2011-07-01
We have studied thermal breakdown in several multicell superconducting radiofrequency cavity by simultaneous excitation of two TM{sub 010} passband modes. Unlike measurements done in the past, which indicated a clear thermal nature of the breakdown, our measurements present a more complex picture with interplay of both thermal and magnetic effects. JLab LG-1 that we studied was limited at 40.5 MV/m, corresponding to B{sub peak} = 173 mT, in 8{pi}/9 mode. Dual mode measurements on this quench indicate that this quench is not purely magnetic, and so we conclude that this field is not the fundamental limit in SRF cavities.
Phases, collective modes, and nonequilibrium dynamics of dissipative Rydberg atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ray, S.; Sinha, S.; Sengupta, K.
2016-03-01
We use a density matrix formalism to study the equilibrium phases and nonequilibrium dynamics of a system of dissipative Rydberg atoms in an optical lattice within mean-field theory. We provide equations for the fixed points of the density matrix evolution for atoms with infinite on-site repulsion and analyze these equations to obtain their Mott-insulator-superfluid (MI-SF) phase boundary. A stability analysis around these fixed points provides us with the excitation spectrum of the atoms both in the MI and SF phases. We study the nature of the MI-SF critical point in the presence of finite dissipation of Rydberg excitations, discuss the fate of the superfluid order parameter of the atoms in the presence of such dissipation in the weak-coupling limit using a coherent state representation of the density matrix, and extend our analysis to Rydberg atoms with finite on-site interaction via numerical solution of the density matrix equations. Finally, we vary the boson (atom) hopping parameter J and the dissipation parameter Γ according to a linear ramp protocol. We study the evolution of entropy of the system following such a ramp and show that the deviation of the entropy from its steady-state value for the latter protocol exhibits power-law behavior as a function of the ramp time. We discuss experiments that can test our theory.
Interplay between collective and single particle excitations around neutron-rich doubly-magic nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leoni, S.
2016-05-01
The excitation spectra of nuclei with one or two particles outside a doubly-magic core are expected to be dominated, at low energy, by the couplings between phonon excitations of the core and valence particles. A survey of the experimental situation is given for some nuclei lying in close proximity of neutron-rich doubly-magic systems, such as 47,49Ca, 133Sb and 210Bi. Data are obtained with various types of reactions (multinucleon transfer with heavy ions, cold neutron capture and neutron induced fission of 235U and 241Pu targets), with the employment of complex detection systems based on HPGe arrays. A comparison with theoretical calculations is also presented, in terms of large shell model calculations and of a phenomenological particle-phonon model. In the case of 133Sb, a new microscopic "hybrid" model is introduced: it is based on the coupling between core excitations (both collective and non-collective) of the doubly-magic core and the valence nucleon, using the Skyrme effective interaction in a consistent way.
Casimir-Polder interactions in the presence of thermally excited surface modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laliotis, Athanasios; de Silans, Thierry Passerat; Maurin, Isabelle; Ducloy, Martial; Bloch, Daniel
2014-07-01
The temperature dependence of the Casimir-Polder interaction addresses fundamental issues for understanding vacuum and thermal fluctuations. It is highly sensitive to surface waves, which, in the near field, govern the thermal emission of a hot surface. Here we use optical reflection spectroscopy to monitor the atom-surface interaction potential between a Cs*(7D3/2) atom and a hot sapphire surface at distances of ~100 nm. In our experiments, that explore a large range of temperatures (500-1,000 K), the surface is at thermal equilibrium with the vacuum. The observed increase of the interaction with temperature, by up to 50%, relies on the coupling between atomic virtual transitions in the infrared range and thermally excited surface-polariton modes. We extrapolate our findings to a broad distance range, from the isolated atom to the short distances relevant to physical chemistry. Our work also opens the prospect of controlling atom-surface interactions by engineering thermal fields.
Nuclear excitations as coupled one and two random-phase-approximation modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gambacurta, D.; Catara, F.; Grasso, M.; Sambataro, M.; Andrés, M. V.; Lanza, E. G.
2016-02-01
We present an extension of the random-phase approximation (RPA) where the RPA phonons are used as building blocks to construct the excited states. In our model, that we call double RPA (DRPA), we include up to two RPA phonons. This is an approximate and simplified way, with respect to the full second random-phase approximation (SRPA), to extend the RPA by including two-particle-two-hole configurations. Some limitations of the standard SRPA model, related to the violation of the stability condition, are not encountered in the DRPA. We also verify in this work that the energy-weighted sum rules are satisfied. The DRPA is applied to low-energy modes and giant resonances in the nucleus 16O. We show that the model (i) produces a global downwards shift of the energies with respect to the RPA spectra and (ii) provides a shift that is, however, strongly reduced compared to that generated by the standard SRPA. This model represents an alternative way of correcting for the SRPA anomalous energy shift, compared to a recently developed extension of the SRPA, where a subtraction procedure is applied. The DRPA provides results in good agreement with the experimental energies, with the exception of those low-lying states that have a dominant two-particle-two-hole nature. For describing such states, higher-order calculations are needed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Tsun-Hsu; Wang, Hsin-Hu; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung
2016-03-01
In comparison to more developed optical method for microparticle manipulation like optical tweezers, an optopiezoelectric actuating system could provide force output that is several orders higher. Taking advantages of photoconductive materials, the concept of integrating a virtual electrode in a distributed opto-piezoelectric actuators was developed for real-time in-situ spatial tailoring for vast varieties of applications in biochips, smart structures, etc. In this study, photoconductive material titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc) was used as the active ingredient to enable the virtual electrode in an opto-piezoelectric material based distributed actuator. By illuminating light of proper wavelength and enough intensity onto TiOPc photoconductive material, the effective impedance of the illuminated portion of TiOPc could drop significantly. The contributions of using additives in the TiOPc photoconductive electrode to adjust the electrical properties was investigated for optimization. Further, the two-mode excited linear ultrasonic motor was also studied and the feasibility to integrate the TiOPc photoconductive electrode was discussed. The flexibility provided by this newly developed system could potential deliver versatile performance in biochip applications.
Excitation of a non-radial mode in a millisecond X-ray pulsar XTE J1751-305
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Umin
2014-08-01
We discuss non-radial modes in mass-accreting and rapidly rotating neutron stars for the coherent frequency detected in a millisecond X-ray pulsar XTE J1751-305. The spin frequency of the pulsar is νspin ≅ 435 Hz and the identified frequency is νosc = 0.572 7595 × νspin. Assuming that the frequency detected is that in the corotating frame of the star, we examine r and g modes in the surface layer of accreting matter composed mostly of helium, inertial and r modes in the fluid core, and toroidal modes in the solid crust. We find that the r modes of l' = m = 1 and 2 excited by ɛ-mechanism in the surface layer can give the ratio κ = νosc/νspin ≃ 0.57 at νspin = 435 Hz, where m and l' are the azimuthal wavenumber and the harmonic degree of the modes. We also suggest a toroidal crust mode and a core r mode destabilized by gravitational wave emission for the observed ratio κ. We find that the amplitude of the core r mode of l' = m = 2 can be amplified at the surface layer by a large factor famp ˜ 102 at νspin = 435 Hz for a M = 1.4 M⊙ neutron-star model. This amplification, however, may not be large enough for the r-mode amplitude to be consistent with an estimation by Mahmoodifar & Strohmayer (2013).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Satoh, Kazuhiro
1989-08-01
Numerical studies are made out the behavior of a random neural network in which each neuron is coupled to a certain number of randomly chosen neurons. Such a random-net serves as a simple model for an elemental sub-network of the cortex. Neurons are regarded as binary decision elements, and they synchronously update their values in discrete time steps according to a deterministic equation (the McCulloch-Pitts model). It is found that each random-net containing one hundred neurons has only a few kinds of characteristic modes of excitation. Periods of these modes are usually less than ten steps when the number of connections per neuron is two to five. For the random-net containing one thousand neurons, an excited mode is practically aperiodic. When the refractory period is introduced, however, a nearly periodic oscillation takes place in the activity of the network.
Crucial Role of Internal Collective Modes in Underdoped Cuprates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mallik, Aabhaas V.; Yadav, Umesh K.; Medhi, Amal; Krishnamurthy, H. R.; Shenoy, Vijay B.
The enigmatic cuprate superconductors have attracted resurgent interest with several recent reports and discussions of competing orders in the underdoped side. Motivated by this, here we address the natural question of frailty of the d-wave superconducting state in underdoped cuprates. Using a combination of theoretical approaches we study a t - J like model. We report an - as yet unexplored - instability that is brought about by an ``internal'' fluctuation (anti-symmetric mode) of the d-wave state. This new theoretical result helps in understanding recent ARPES and STM studies. We also suggest further experiments to uncover this physics. Work supported by CSIR, UGC, DST and DAE.
Dual collection mode optical microscope with single-pixel detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez, A. D.; Clemente, P.; Fernández-Alonso, Mercedes; Tajahuerce, E.; Lancis, J.
2015-07-01
In this work we have developed a single-pixel optical microscope that provides both re ection and transmission images of the sample under test by attaching a diamond pixel layout DMD to a commercial inverted microscope. Our system performs simultaneous measurements of re ection and transmission modes. Besides, in contrast with a conventional system, in our single-element detection system both images belong, unequivocally, to the same plane of the sample. Furthermore, we have designed an algorithm to modify the shape of the projected patterns that improves the resolution and prevents the artifacts produced by the diamond pixel architecture.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kushwaha, Manvir S.
2013-04-01
intersubband single-particle as well as collective excitations], the loss functions for the IES and the Raman intensity for the ILS. We observe that it is the collective (plasmon) excitations that largely contribute to the predominant peaks in the energy-loss and the Raman spectra. The inductive reasoning is that the IES can be a potential alternative of the overused ILS for investigating collective excitations in quantum wires. We trust that this research work shall be useful to all - from novice to expert and from theorist to experimentalist - who believe in the power of traditional science.
Universal contact and collective excitations of a strongly interacting Fermi gas
Li Yun; Stringari, Sandro
2011-08-15
We study the relationship between Tan's contact parameter and the macroscopic dynamic properties of an ultracold trapped gas, such as the frequencies of the collective oscillations and the propagation of sound in one-dimensional (1D) configurations. We find that the value of the contact, extracted from the most recent low-temperature measurements of the equation of state near unitarity, reproduces with accuracy the experimental values of the collective frequencies of the radial breathing mode at the lowest temperatures. The available experiment results for the 1D sound velocities near unitarity are also investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozenblit, Fernando; Copelli, Mauro
2011-01-01
We study the effects of a probabilistic refractory period in the collective behavior of coupled discrete-time excitable cells (SIRS-like cellular automata). Using mean-field analysis and simulations, we show that a synchronized phase with stable collective oscillations exists even with non-deterministic refractory periods. Moreover, further increasing the coupling strength leads to a reentrant transition where the synchronized phase loses stability. In an intermediate regime, we also observe bistability (and consequently hysteresis) between a synchronized phase and an active but incoherent phase without oscillations. The onset of the oscillations appears in the mean-field equations as a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation, the nature of which (i.e. super- or subcritical) is determined by the first Lyapunov coefficient. This allows us to determine the borders of the oscillating and of the bistable regions. The mean-field prediction thus obtained agrees quantitatively with simulations of complete graphs and, for random graphs, qualitatively predicts the overall structure of the phase diagram. The latter can be obtained from simulations by defining an order parameter q suited for detecting collective oscillations of excitable elements. We briefly review other commonly used order parameters and show (via data collapse) that q satisfies the expected finite-size scaling relations.
Quantum Phase Transitions and Collective Modes in d-Wave Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vojta, Matthias; Sachdev, Subir
Fluctuations near second-order quantum phase transitions in d-wave superconductors can cause strong damping of fermionic excitations, as observed in photoemission experiments. The damping of the gapless nodal quasiparticles can arise naturally in the quantum-critical region of a transition with an additional spin-singlet, zero momentum order parameter; we argue that the transition to a dx^2-y^2+ i dxy pairing state is the most likely possibility in this category. On the other hand, the gapped antinodal quasiparticles can be strongly damped by the coupling to antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations arising from the proximity to a Neel-ordered state. We review some aspects of the low-energy field theories for both transitions and the corresponding quantum-critical behavior.In addition, we discuss the spectral properties of the collective modes associated with the proximity to a superconductor with dx^2-y^2+ i dxy symmetry, and implications for experiments.
Felten, T.; Schlickeiser, R.
2013-10-15
Using the general expressions for the magnetic fluctuation spectrum from uncorrelated plasma particles, it is shown that an isotropic, unmagnetized plasma with arbitrary momentum distribution function spontaneously emits an aperiodic, collective, transverse, damped mode. The collective mode with the dispersion relation γ(k) provides the strongest contribution to the magnetic field fluctuation spectrum. Its existence has been proven before for Maxwellian and Lorentzian plasma distribution functions. Here it is demonstrated that this collective aperiodic mode exists in any isotropic unmagnetized, irrespective of the explicit form of the momentum distribution of plasma particles.
Fluid-dynamical approach to collective modes in metal clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Providência, João, Jr.; de Haro, Raphael, Jr.
1994-01-01
A simple variational method has recently been used to obtain the bulk-plasmon dispersion relation in a metal. In the present work we investigate the eigenmodes of the valence electrons in a metal cluster considering a semiclassical version of the method presented by Andō and Nishizaki. As a variational function we consider the Slater determinant ||φ> which is related to the Slater determinant ||φ0>, describing the ground state, by means of the unitary transformation ||φ>=e(i/ħ)S||φ0>, where S(x,p,t)=χ(x,t)+1/2[p.s(x,t)+s(x,t).p]. We use a polynomial approximation to determine the dynamical fields χ(x,t) and s(x,t). It is shown that the eigensolutions satisfy the energy weighted sum rule and the cubic energy weighted sum rule. The spectrum of excited energies, as well as transition densities and currents are obtained for the sodium, aluminum, and silver.
Hu Ying; Liang Zhaoxin; Hu Bambi
2010-05-15
We investigate the combined effects of weak disorder and a two-dimensional (2D) optical lattice on the collective excitations of a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) at zero temperature. Accordingly, we generalize the hydrodynamic equations of superfluid for a weakly interacting Bose gas in a 2D optical lattice to include the effects of weak disorder. Our analytical results for the collective frequencies beyond the mean-field approximation reveal the peculiar role of disorder, interplaying with the 2D optical lattice and interatomic interaction, on elementary excitations along the 3D to 1D crossover. In particular, consequences of disorder on the phonon propagation and surface modes are analyzed in detail. The experimental scenario is also proposed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiang; Cannon, Patrick; Zhou, Chen; Honary, Farideh; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu
2016-04-01
Recent ionospheric modification experiments performed at Tromsø, Norway, have indicated that X-mode pump wave is capable of stimulating high-frequency enhanced plasma lines, which manifests the excitation of parametric instability. This paper investigates theoretically how the observation can be explained by the excitation of parametric instability driven by X-mode pump wave. The threshold of the parametric instability has been calculated for several recent experimental observations at Tromsø, illustrating that our derived equations for the excitation of parametric instability for X-mode heating can explain the experimental observations. According to our theoretical calculation, a minimum fraction of pump wave electric field needs to be directed along the geomagnetic field direction in order for the parametric instability threshold to be met. A full-wave finite difference time domain simulation has been performed to demonstrate that a small parallel component of pump wave electric field can be achieved during X-mode heating in the presence of inhomogeneous plasma.
A generalized tool for accurate time-domain separation of excited modes in spin-torque oscillators
Siracusano, Giulio Puliafito, Vito; Finocchio, Giovanni
2014-05-07
We propose and develop an advanced signal processing technique that, combined with micromagnetic simulations, is able to deeply describe the non-stationary behavior of spin-torque oscillators, both in terms of time domain and spatial distribution of the magnetization dynamics. The Hilbert-Huang Transform is used for the identification of the time traces of each oscillation in a multimode excitation and enhanced with masking signals and the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition. We emphasize that the technique developed here is general and can be used for any physical non-linear system in the presence of multimode dynamical excitation or intermittence.
Goldstone Mode Induced by Skyrmions and Collective Modes in Disordered Quantum Hall Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanazawa, I.
2015-10-01
We have proposed the effective Lagrangian density for the skyrmion-like solitons around the filling factor v ∼ 1, and have introduced the massless gauge field (Goldstone mode) induced by the hedgehog-like solitons. We have discussed the skyrmion glassy behaviour.
LaForge, A. C.; Drabbels, M.; Brauer, N. B.; Coreno, M.; Devetta, M.; Di Fraia, M.; Finetti, P.; Grazioli, C.; Katzy, R.; Lyamayev, V.; Mazza, T.; Mudrich, M.; O'Keeffe, P.; Ovcharenko, Y.; Piseri, P.; Plekan, O.; Prince, K. C.; Richter, R.; Stranges, S.; Callegari, C.; Möller, T.; Stienkemeier, F.
2014-01-01
Free electron lasers (FELs) offer the unprecedented capability to study reaction dynamics and image the structure of complex systems. When multiple photons are absorbed in complex systems, a plasma-like state is formed where many atoms are ionized on a femtosecond timescale. If multiphoton absorption is resonantly-enhanced, the system becomes electronically-excited prior to plasma formation, with subsequent decay paths which have been scarcely investigated to date. Here, we show using helium nanodroplets as an example that these systems can decay by a new type of process, named collective autoionization. In addition, we show that this process is surprisingly efficient, leading to ion abundances much greater than that of direct single-photon ionization. This novel collective ionization process is expected to be important in many other complex systems, e.g. macromolecules and nanoparticles, exposed to high intensity radiation fields. PMID:24406316
Collective modes in strongly correlated yukawa liquids: waves in dusty plasmas.
Kalman, G; Rosenberg, M; DeWitt, H E
2000-06-26
We determine the collective mode structure of a strongly correlated Yukawa fluid, with the purpose of analyzing wave propagation in a strongly coupled dusty plasma. We identify a longitudinal plasmon and a transverse shear mode. The dispersion is characterized by a low- k acoustic behavior, a frequency maximum well below the plasma frequency, and a high- k merging of the two modes around the Einstein frequency of localized oscillations. The damping effect of collisions between neutrals and dust grains is estimated. PMID:10991116
Electronic excitation as a mode of heat dissipation in laser-driven cluster plasmas
Rajeev, R.; Rishad, K. P. M.; Madhu Trivikram, T.; Krishnamurthy, M.
2013-12-15
Electrons streaming out of laser plasma are known for non-local heat transport and energy deposition by the ionization wave. At 100 eV electron temperature, since the electronic excitation cross section is comparable to that of ionization for Ar and CO{sub 2}, a non-local excitation wave akin to the ionization wave is envisaged where energy deposition in excitations forms a excited cluster sheath beyond the laser focus. Here, we show that nano-cluster systems have the right parameters to form such an exciton sheath and experimentally demonstrate this via charge transfer reactions.
Mou, Daixiang; Jiang, Rui; Taufour, Valentin; Flint, Rebecca; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Wen, J. S.; Xu, Z. J.; Gu, Genda; Kaminski, Adam
2015-04-08
We use a tunable laser angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study the electronic properties of the prototypical multiband BCS superconductor MgB_{2}. Our data reveal a strong renormalization of the dispersion (kink) at ~65meV, which is caused by the coupling of electrons to the E_{2g} phonon mode. In contrast to cuprates, the 65 meV kink in MgB_{2} does not change significantly across T_{c}. More interestingly, we observe strong coupling to a second, lower energy collective mode at a binding energy of 10 meV. As a result, this excitation vanishes above T_{c} and is likely a signature of the elusive Leggett mode.
Energetic ion excited long-lasting ``sword'' modes in tokamak plasmas with low magnetic shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Ruibin; Deng, Wei; Liu, Yi
2013-10-01
An m/ n = 1 mode driven by trapped fast ions with a sword-shape envelope of long-lasting (for hundreds of milliseconds) magnetic perturbation signals, other than conventional fishbones, is studied in this paper. The mode is usually observed in low shear plasmas. Frequency and growth rate of the mode and its harmonics are calculated and in good agreements with observations. The radial mode structure is also obtained and compared with that of fishbones. It is found that due to fast ion driven the mode differs from magnetohydrodynamic long lived modes (LLMs) observed in MAST and NSTX. On the other hand, due to the feature of weak magnetic shear, the mode is also significantly different from fishbones. The nonlinear evolution of the mode and its comparison with fishbones are further investigated to analyze the effect of the mode on energetic particle transport and confinement.
Ndao, Abdoulaye; Salut, Roland; Baida, Fadi I.; Belkhir, Abderrahmane
2013-11-18
We present here the fabrication and the optical characterization of slanted annular aperture arrays engraved into silver film. An experimental enhanced transmission based on the excitation of the cutoff-less plasmonic guided mode of the nano-waveguides (the transmission electron microscopy mode) is demonstrated and agrees well with the theoretical predicted results. By the way, even if it is less efficient (70% → 20%), an enhanced transmission can occur at larger wavelength value (720 nm–930 nm) compared to conventional annular aperture arrays structure by correctly setting the metal thickness.
Yan, S.
1992-01-01
A systematic study for the NH[sub 2] inversional mode in aniline and para substituted anilines has been performed using the techniques of fluorescence excitation and dispersed emission in supersonic jet. The transitions of the nitrogen inversion mode in aniline and para substituted anilines have been assigned in both the fluorescence excitation and dispersed emission spectra, which are strongly supported by the evidence of a large deuterium shift, the presence of a strong hot band, and the intense second overtone transition of the amino inversion in the excitation spectra of all the aniline molecules. The potential surface of each aniline has been fit using the observed inversional levels in both the ground and excited states. The molecular structure of each aniline has been investigated based on the experimental results. The NH[sub 2] torsional transition is assigned in the excitation spectrum of each aniline molecule for the first time. The absence of a torsional hot band and no observable tunneling splitting in the NH[sub 2] torsional mode indicates that the NH[sub 2] torsion mode in the anilines must have a very high first quanta in the ground state. The mechanism of I[sup 2][sub 0] and T[sup 2][sub 0] splittings in the excitation spectrum of p-toluidine has been explained by using molecular symmetry. The splittings are caused by the torsion-torsion coupling between the NH[sub 2] and CH[sub 3] groups. The structure of p-amino-p[prime]-methyl-trans-stilbene (PPTS) has been studied by spectroscopic methods and X-ray diffraction. The nearly planar geometry of the proton donor in the PPTS crystal dimer provides important evidence that the structure of gas phase PPTS is planar in the ground state. The absence of the hot band and I[sup 2][sub 0] in the excitation spectrum of PPTS indicates that the potential surface of PPTS must be a single well in both states, which is consistent with the X-ray result.
Zhou, Xiuli; Norris, Theodore B.; Hörl, Anton; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Herzing, Andrew A.
2014-12-14
We have characterized the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in silver nanowires using spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the scanning transmission electron microscope. Non-symmetric EELS spectra due to high-k SPR propagation along the nanowire and spectral shifts due to higher-order mode excitation are observed when the beam is positioned near the tip of the nanowire. When the beam is far from the tip region and on the side of nanowire, no spectral shifts are observed as the beam is scanned in the radial direction of the nanowire. The experimental spectra are compared with three different theoretical approaches: direct numerical calculation of the energy loss, analytical models for energy loss, and numerical simulations using an optical model. All three models reproduce the spectral shifts as the electron beam approaches the cap of the nanowire. The analytical model reveals the origin of the shifts in high-order plasmon mode excitation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaw, Pankaj Kumar; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.; Nurujjaman, Md.
2015-12-01
We report on the experimental observation of canard orbit and mixed mode oscillations (MMOs) in an excitable glow discharge plasma induced by an external magnetic field perturbation using a bar magnet. At a small value of magnetic field, small amplitude quasiperiodic oscillations were excited, and with the increase in the magnetic field, large amplitude oscillations were excited. Analyzing the experimental results, it seems that the magnetic field could be playing the role of noise for such nonlinear phenomena. It is observed that the noise level increases with the increase in magnetic field strength. The experimental results have also been corroborated by a numerical simulation using a FitzHugh-Nagumo like macroscopic model derived from the basic plasma equations and phenomenology, where the noise has been included to represent the internal plasma noise. This macroscopic model shows MMO in the vicinity of the canard point when an external noise is added.
Shaw, Pankaj Kumar Sekar Iyengar, A. N.
2015-12-15
We report on the experimental observation of canard orbit and mixed mode oscillations (MMOs) in an excitable glow discharge plasma induced by an external magnetic field perturbation using a bar magnet. At a small value of magnetic field, small amplitude quasiperiodic oscillations were excited, and with the increase in the magnetic field, large amplitude oscillations were excited. Analyzing the experimental results, it seems that the magnetic field could be playing the role of noise for such nonlinear phenomena. It is observed that the noise level increases with the increase in magnetic field strength. The experimental results have also been corroborated by a numerical simulation using a FitzHugh-Nagumo like macroscopic model derived from the basic plasma equations and phenomenology, where the noise has been included to represent the internal plasma noise. This macroscopic model shows MMO in the vicinity of the canard point when an external noise is added.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, R. J.; Wang, G.; Canning, F. X.; Davis, B. A.
2006-12-01
A procedure is outlined for determining compressed representations of the plane wave response matrix (P matrix) for transverse magnetic scattering with respect to the z axis from convex cylinders. The method is based on the determination of band-limited spectral modes that excite spatially localized solutions to the wave equation and satisfy global boundary conditions. Numerical examples indicate that the proposed method provides a representation of the P matrix with reduced computational complexity.
Holzmann, Daniela; Ritsch, Helmut
2015-12-14
Collective coherent scattering of laser light induces strong light forces between polarizable point particles. These dipole forces are strongly enhanced in magnitude and distance within the field of an optical waveguide so that at low temperature the particles self-order in strongly bound regular patterns. The stationary configurations typically exhibit super-radiant scattering with strong particle and light confinement. Here we study collective excitations of such self-consistent crystalline particle-light structures as function of particle number and pump strength. Multiple scattering and absorption modify the collective particle-field eigenfrequencies and create eigenmodes of surprisingly complex nature. For larger arrays this often leads to dynamical instabilities and disintegration of the structures even if additional damping is present. PMID:26698971
Shooshtary, S; Solbach, K
2015-08-01
A 7 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system with parallel transmission (pTx) for 32 near-magnet Cartesian feedback loop power amplifiers (PA) with output power of 1kW is under construction at Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Variation of load impedance due to mutual coupling of neighborhood coils in the array may lead to instability of the Cartesian feedback loop amplifier. MRI safety requires unconditional stability of the PAs at any load. In order to avoid instability in the pTx system, conditions and limits of stability have to be investigated for every possible excitation mode for the coil array. In this work, an efficient method of stability check for an array of two transmit channels (Tx) with Cartesian feedback loop amplifier and a selective excitation mode for the coil array is proposed which allows extension of stability investigations to a large pTx array with any arbitrary excitation mode for the coil array. PMID:26736573
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kojima, H.; Matsumoto, H.; Omura, Y.; Tsurutani, B. T.
1989-01-01
An ion beam resonates with R-mode waves at a high-frequency RH mode and a low-frequency RL mode. The nonlinear evolution of ion beam-generated RH waves is studied here by one-dimensional hybrid computer experiments. Both wave-particle and subsequent wave-wave interactions are examined. The competing process among coexisting RH and RL mode beam instabilities and repeated decay instabilities triggered by the beam-excited RH mode waves is clarified. It is found that the quenching of the RH instability is not caused by a thermal spreading of the ion beam, but by the nonlinear wave-wave coupling process. The growing RH waves become unstable against the decay instability. This instability involves a backward-traveling RH electromagnetic wave and a forward-traveling longitudinal sound wave. The inverse cascading process is found to occur faster than the growth of the RL mode. Wave spectra decaying from the RH waves weaken as time elapses and the RL mode waves become dominant at the end of the computer experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, M. V.
2010-07-01
In 1966, Leggett used a two-band superconductor to show that a new collective mode could exist at low temperatures, corresponding to a counterflow of the superconducting condensates in each band. Here, the theory of electronic Raman scattering in a superconductor by Klein and Dierker (1984) is extended to a multiband superconductor. Raman scattering creates particle/hole (p/h) pairs. In the relevant A1g symmetry, the attraction that produces pairing necessarily couples excitations of superconducting pairs to these p/h excitations. In the Appendix, it is shown that for zero wave-vector transfer q , this coupling modifies the Raman response and makes the long-range Coulomb correction null. The two-band result is applied to MgB2 where this coupling activates Leggett’s collective mode. His simple limiting case is obtained when the interband attractive potential is decreased to a value well below that given by local-density approximation (LDA) theory. The peak from Leggett’s mode is studied as the potential is increased through the theoretical value. With realistic MgB2 parameters, the peak broadens through decay into the continuum above the smaller ( π band) superconducting gap. Finite q effects are also taken into account, yielding a Raman peak that agrees well in energy with the experimental result by Blumberg [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 227002 (2007)]10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.227002. This approach is also applied to the q=0 , two-band model of the Fe pnictides considered by Chubukov [Phys. Rev. B 79, 220501(R) (2009)]10.1103/PhysRevB.79.220501.
Hiyama, Takashi; Miyazaki, Koushi; Satoh, Hironori
1996-06-01
A fuzzy logic excitation system has been proposed to enhance the overall stability of power systems. The proposed excitation system has two control loops. One is the voltage control loop which achieves the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) function, and the other is the damping control loop which gives the PSS function. Simple fuzzy logic control rules are applied to both loops. The input signal to the voltage control loop is the terminal voltage, and the input signal to the damping control loop is the real power output. Simulation studies show the advantages of the fuzzy logic excitation system.
Photo-thermal quartz tuning fork excitation for dynamic mode atomic force microscope
Bontempi, Alexia; Teyssieux, Damien; Thiery, Laurent; Hermelin, Damien; Vairac, Pascal; Friedt, Jean-Michel
2014-10-13
A photo-thermal excitation of a Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF) for topographic studies is introduced. The non-invasive photo-thermal excitation presents practical advantages compared to QTF mechanical and electrical excitations, including the absence of the anti-resonance and its associated phase rotation. Comparison between our theoretical model and experiments validate that the optical transduction mechanism is a photo-thermal rather than photo-thermoacoustic phenomenon. Topographic maps in the context of near-field microscopy distance control have been achieved to demonstrate the performance of the system.
Pulskamp, Jeffrey S; Bedair, Sarah S; Polcawich, Ronald G; Smith, Gabriel L; Martin, Joel; Power, Brian; Bhave, Sunil A
2012-05-01
This paper reports theoretical analysis and experimental results on a numerical electrode shaping design technique that permits the excitation of arbitrary modes in arbitrary geometries for piezoelectric resonators, for those modes permitted to exist by the nonzero piezoelectric coefficients and electrode configuration. The technique directly determines optimal electrode shapes by assessing the local suitability of excitation and detection electrode placement on two-port resonators without the need for iterative numerical techniques. The technique is demonstrated in 61 different electrode designs in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film on silicon RF micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) plate, beam, ring, and disc resonators for out-of-plane flexural and various contour modes up to 200 MHz. The average squared effective electromechanical coupling factor for the designs was 0.54%, approximately equivalent to the theoretical maximum value of 0.53% for a fully electroded length-extensional mode beam resonator comprised of the same composite. The average improvement in S(21) for the electrode-shaped designs was 14.6 dB with a maximum improvement of 44.3 dB. Through this piezoelectric electrodeshaping technique, 95% of the designs showed a reduction in insertion loss. PMID:22622990
Nonradial modes in RR Lyrae stars from the OGLE Collection of Variable Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Netzel, H.; Smolec, R.; Moskalik, P.
2016-05-01
The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) is a great source of top-quality photometry of classical pulsators. A collection of variable stars from the fourth part of the project contains more than 38 000 RR Lyrae stars. These stars pulsate mostly in the radial fundamental mode (RRab), in radial first overtone (RRc) or in both modes simultaneously (RRd). Analysis of the OGLE data allowed to detect additional nonradial modes in RRc and in RRd stars. We have found more than 260 double-mode stars with characteristic period ratio of the additional (shorter) period to first overtone period around 0.61, increasing the number of known stars of this type by a factor of 10. Stars from the OGLE sample form three nearly parallel sequences in the Petersen diagram. Some stars show more than one nonradial mode simultaneously. These modes belong to different sequences.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borovšak, M.; Stojchevska, L.; Sutar, P.; Mertelj, T.; Mihailovic, D.
2016-03-01
We present a systematic study of the single-particle and collective excitations by femtosecond transient reflectivity measurements in single crystals η -Mo4O11 , investigating the dynamics as a function of temperature with two different pump photon energies (3.1 and 1.55 eV). A remarkable slowing down of the relaxation dynamics is observed at the first charge density wave (CDW) transition at TCDW1=105 K associated with hidden one-dimensional Fermi surface (FS) nesting. In contrast, the appearance of the second transition at TCDW2 associated with further CDW ordering is barely perceptible. The coherent response can be described well by the displacive coherent excitation model of Zeiger et al. [Phys. Rev. B 45, 768 (1992), 10.1103/PhysRevB.45.768] assuming a coupling of phonons to the photoexcited quasiparticles. The coupling of the collective modes to the electronic order parameter is found to be weak. The exponential relaxation is discussed in terms of single-particle relaxation and an overdamped collective mode.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hardi, J. S.; Oschwald, M.
2016-07-01
The intact length of the dense oxygen core from an oxygen-hydrogen shear coaxial rocket injector was measured. The measurements were made in a rectangular rocket combustor with optical access and acoustic forcing. The combustor was operated at chamber pressures of 40 and 60 bar, with either ambient temperature or cryogenic hydrogen. The multielement injection spray is subjected to forced transverse gas oscillations of two different acoustic resonance modes; the first transverse (1T) mode at 4200 Hz and the first combined longitudinal-transverse (1L1T) at 5500 Hz. Intact core length is measured from high-speed shadowgraph imaging. The dependence of intact core length with increasing acoustic amplitude is compared for the two modes of excitation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilde, Johannes; Schulze, Christian; Brüning, Robert; Duparré, Michael; Schröter, Siegmund
2015-03-01
Controlling the modal content coupled into an optical fiber can be desirable in many situations, e.g. for adjusting the sensitivity of the guided field distribution to external perturbations1. For this purpose we used a monolithic setup of a phase plate at a fiber input facet to excite selectively higher order modes, which theoretically can provide a mode purity of more than 99%. We investigated the capabilities of this approach by complete modal decomposition of the fiber output signals, considering the achievable mode purity with respect to several possible imperfections of the setup. The experiments are compared with detailed numerical simulations and show a high agreement. Additionally a comparison with a well known setup with free space phase plates2-4 was undertaken. This showed the monolithic setup to be energetically twice as efficient.
Long, Yongbing; Shen, Liang; Xu, Haitao; Deng, Haidong; Li, Yuanxing
2016-01-01
Graphene perfect absorbers with ultranarrow bandwidth are numerically proposed by employing a subwavelength dielectric grating to excite the guided-mode resonance of one-dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs). Critical coupling of the guided-mode resonance of 1DPCs to graphene can produce perfect absorption with a ultranarrow bandwidth of 0.03 nm. The quality factor of the absorption peak reaches a ultrahigh value of 20000. It is also found that the resonant absorption peaks can be tuned by controlling the dispersion line of the guided mode and the period of the grating. When the parameters of the grating and the 1DPCs are suitably set, the perfect absorption peaks can be tuned to any randomly chosen wavelength in the visible wavelength range. PMID:27577721
Long, Yongbing; Shen, Liang; Xu, Haitao; Deng, Haidong; Li, Yuanxing
2016-01-01
Graphene perfect absorbers with ultranarrow bandwidth are numerically proposed by employing a subwavelength dielectric grating to excite the guided-mode resonance of one-dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs). Critical coupling of the guided-mode resonance of 1DPCs to graphene can produce perfect absorption with a ultranarrow bandwidth of 0.03 nm. The quality factor of the absorption peak reaches a ultrahigh value of 20000. It is also found that the resonant absorption peaks can be tuned by controlling the dispersion line of the guided mode and the period of the grating. When the parameters of the grating and the 1DPCs are suitably set, the perfect absorption peaks can be tuned to any randomly chosen wavelength in the visible wavelength range. PMID:27577721
Investigation of the coupling of the momentum distribution of a BEC with its collective of modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henn, Emanuel; Tavares, Pedro; Fritsch, Amilson; Vivanco, Franklin; Telles, Gustavo; Bagnato, Vanderlei
In our group we have a strong research line on quantum turbulence and the general investigation of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) subjected to oscillatory excitations. Inside this research line we investigate first the behavior of the normal modes of the BEC under this excitation and observe a non-linear behavior in the amplitude of the quadrupolar mode. Also, inside this same procedure of investigation we study the momentum distribution of a BEC to understand if it is possible to extract Kolmogorov like excitation spectra which would point to a turbulent state of matter. The condensate is perturbed, and we let it evolve in-trap after which we perform standard time-of- flight absorption imaging. The momentum distribution is extracted and analyzed as a function of the in-trap free evolution time for a 2D projected cloud. We show that the momentum distribution has its features varying periodically with the same frequency as the quadrupolar mode displayed by the atomic gas hinting at a strong coupling of both. The main consequence of that one cannot be assertive about the quantitative features of the extract spectrum of momentum and we can only rely on its qualitative features. Financial Support: FAPESP, CNPq.
Controlled Rephasing of Single Collective Spin Excitations in a Cold Atomic Quantum Memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albrecht, Boris; Farrera, Pau; Heinze, Georg; Cristiani, Matteo; de Riedmatten, Hugues
2015-10-01
We demonstrate active control of inhomogeneous dephasing and rephasing for single collective atomic spin excitations (spin waves) created by spontaneous Raman scattering in a quantum memory based on cold 87Rb atoms. The control is provided by a reversible external magnetic field gradient inducing an inhomogeneous broadening of the atomic hyperfine levels. We demonstrate experimentally that active rephasing preserves the single photon nature of the retrieved photons. Finally, we show that the control of the inhomogeneous dephasing enables the creation of time-separated spin waves in a single ensemble followed by a selective read-out in time. This is an important step towards the implementation of a functional temporally multiplexed quantum repeater node.
Controlled Rephasing of Single Collective Spin Excitations in a Cold Atomic Quantum Memory.
Albrecht, Boris; Farrera, Pau; Heinze, Georg; Cristiani, Matteo; de Riedmatten, Hugues
2015-10-16
We demonstrate active control of inhomogeneous dephasing and rephasing for single collective atomic spin excitations (spin waves) created by spontaneous Raman scattering in a quantum memory based on cold 87Rb atoms. The control is provided by a reversible external magnetic field gradient inducing an inhomogeneous broadening of the atomic hyperfine levels. We demonstrate experimentally that active rephasing preserves the single photon nature of the retrieved photons. Finally, we show that the control of the inhomogeneous dephasing enables the creation of time-separated spin waves in a single ensemble followed by a selective read-out in time. This is an important step towards the implementation of a functional temporally multiplexed quantum repeater node. PMID:26550854
Solar seismology. II - The stochastic excitation of the solar p-modes by turbulent convection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldreich, P.; Keeley, D. A.
1977-01-01
We test the hypothesis that the solar p-modes are stabilized by damping due to turbulent viscosity in the convective zone. Starting from the assumption that the modes are stable, we calculate expectation values for the modal energies. We find that the interaction between a p-mode and the turbulent convection is such that the modal energy tends toward equipartition with the kinetic energy of turbulent eddies whose lifetimes are comparable to the modal period. From the calculated values of the modal energies, we compute rms surface velocity amplitudes. Our predicted rms surface velocities range from 0.01 cm/sec for the fundamental radial mode to 0.6 cm/sec for the radial mode whose period is approximately 5 minutes. The predicted surface velocities for the low order p-modes are much smaller than the velocities inferred from recent observations.
Excitation of coupled ion lattice-streaming carrier modes in high mobility semiconductors
Riyopoulos, S.
2009-03-15
Interaction between streaming carrier plasmons and lattice vibrations in ultrahigh mobility materials generates novel, hybrid, lattice-streaming carrier modes. The Boltzmann kinetic equation for a collisionless carrier response is employed to obtain a dispersion relation including the effects of thermal velocity spreads. The resulting slow electrostatic (ES) modes involve plasmon-phonon (PP) coupling, while the fast electromagnetic (EM) modes involve plasmon-photon-phonon coupling. There is an unstable parameter regime leading to spontaneous growth of slow ES PP modes from noise. Thermal spreads reduce but do not eliminate the growth rate. The fast EM modes are found to be stable and slightly damped over the parameter regime. Spontaneous growth of ES modes carries implications for terahertz generation in high mobility materials.
Linear response approach to collective electronic excitations of solids and surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Zhe; Gao, Shiwu
2009-03-01
We have developed a parallel computer program for the study of dynamic response of periodic systems. It computes the linear response of an interacting many-electron system from its ground-state electronic structures, which are obtained from ab initio band structure calculations in the plane-wave and pseudopotential scheme. As test examples, we applied this program to calculate the linear response of bulk aluminum and a beryllium monolayer. The excitation spectra show prominent plasmon resonances, which compare well with the available data and previous calculations. For surfaces or thin films, we found that removing periodicity perpendicular to the surface gives a more reliable description of the low-energy excitation spectra, especially in the long-wavelength limit. Program summaryProgram title: Dresponse Catalogue identifier: AECK_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECK_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 49 098 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11 836 088 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90/MPI Computer: Any architecture with a Fortran 90 compiler Operating system: Any Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes RAM: 50 MB-2 GB per processor depending on system size Classification: 7.3 External routines: BLAS ( http://www.netlib.org/blas/), Lapack ( http://www.netlib.org/lapack/), MPI ( http://www-unix.mcs.anl.gov/mpi/), abinit (for ground-state calculations, http://www.abinit.org/) Nature of problem: The dynamic response of bulk and surface systems. It is usually dominated by collective electronic excitations (plasmons) at low-energy range. Solution method: The ground-state wavefunctions are obtained from ab initio density-functional calculation in the planewave and
High Energy Plasmas, General Relativity and Collective Modes in the Vicinity of Black Holes*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coppi, B.
2009-05-01
Plasmas around black holes can take different equilibrium configurations^1 from those known from fluid theory as the vertical Lorentz compression due to plasma currents can overtake that of the gravitational force. In a disk with a ``seed'' magnetic field, axisymmetric modes as well as tri-dimensional spirals can be excited by the combined effects of the radial gradient of the plasma rotation frequency and of the plasma pressure gradient^2. The spirals' properties depend strongly on their vertical structure^3. Axisymmetric modes can produce vertical counter-flows of thermal energy and particles and be candidates for the origin of the winds emanating from disks in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN's)^2. The excitation of radially localized density spirals corotating with the plasma near a black hole can provide an explanation for^4 the observed Quasi Periodic Oscillations (QPO's) of the X-ray emission from compact objects. Convective spiral modes^3 that are purely oscillatory in time and not localized radially can acquire their amplitudes from coupling to unstable modes and provide transport^3 of angular momentum toward the outer region of the disk structure.*Sponsored in part by the U.S. DOE. ^1B. Coppi and F. Rousseau, Ap. J., 641, 458 (2006). ^2B. Coppi, Europhys. Letters 82, 19001 (2008). ^3B. Coppi, MIT/LNS Report 08/08, submitted to A&A (2008). ^4B. Coppi and P. Rebusco, Paper P5.154, E.P.S. Conf. Pl. Phys. (Crete, 2008).
Kadhane, U; Misra, D; Singh, Y P; Tribedi, Lokesh C
2003-03-01
Projectile deexcitation Lyman x-ray emission following electron capture and K excitation has been studied in collisions of bare and Li-like sulphur ions (of energy 110 MeV) with fullerenes (C(60)/C(70)) and different gaseous targets. The intensity ratios of different Lyman x-ray lines in collisions with fullerenes are found to be substantially lower than those for the gas targets, both for capture and excitation. This has been explained in terms of a model based on "solidlike" effect, namely, wakefield induced stark mixing of the excited states populated via electron capture or K excitation: a collective phenomenon of plasmon excitation in the fullerenes under the influence of heavy, highly charged ions. PMID:12689221
Sokolov, V I; Marusin, N V; Molchanova, S I; Savelyev, A G; Khaydukov, E V; Panchenko, V Ya
2014-11-30
The problem of reflection of a TE-polarised Gaussian light beam from a layered structure under conditions of resonance excitation of waveguide modes using a total internal reflection prism is considered. Using the spectral approach we have derived the analytic expressions for the mode propagation lengths, widths and depths of m-lines (sharp and narrow dips in the angular dependence of the specular reflection coefficient), depending on the structure parameters. It is shown that in the case of weak coupling, when the propagation lengths l{sub m} of the waveguide modes are mainly determined by the extinction coefficient in the film, the depth of m-lines grows with the mode number m. In the case of strong coupling, when l{sub m} is determined mainly by the radiation of modes into the prism, the depth of m-lines decreases with increasing m. The change in the TE-polarised Gaussian beam shape after its reflection from the layered structure is studied, which is determined by the energy transfer from the incident beam into waveguide modes that propagate along the structure by the distance l{sub m}, are radiated in the direction of specular reflection and interfere with a part of the beam reflected from the working face of the prism. It is shown that this interference can lead to the field intensity oscillations near m-lines. The analysis of different methods for determining the parameters of thin-film structures is presented, including the measurement of mode angles θ{sub m} and the reflected beam shape. The methods are based on simultaneous excitation of a few waveguide modes in the film with a strongly focused monochromatic Gaussian beam, the waist width of which is much smaller than the propagation length of the modes. As an example of using these methods, the refractive index and the thickness of silicon monoxide film on silica substrate at the wavelength 633 nm are determined. (fibre and integrated-optical structures)
Control of self-excitation mode in thermoacoustic system using heat phase adjuster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kido, Aiko; Sakamoto, Shin-ichi; Taga, Kazusa; Watanabe, Yoshiaki
2016-07-01
The capability of a heat phase adjuster (HPA) to control the resonance mode in a loop-tube-type thermoacoustic system by locally heating the outside is experimentally investigated. It is shown that the HPA enables the resonance mode of the tube to shift to lower modes with higher thermoacoustic conversion efficiency, thus significantly enhancing the energy conversion efficiency. The transition of the resonance mode due to the stepwise change in the input electric power to the HPA is also investigated. As a result, it is demonstrated that the resonance mode changes with the temperature and a threshold exists for the HPA temperature at which the transition is induced. These results suggest the possibility of externally controlling a loop-tube-type thermoacoustic system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dathe, Andre; Kliuiev, Pavel; Jatschka, Jacqueline; Hübner, Uwe; Ziegler, Mario; Thiele, Matthias; Trautmann, Steffen; Wirth, Janina; Garwe, Frank; Csaki, Andrea; Stranik, Ondrej; Fritzsche, Wolfgang
2015-08-01
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) in metallic nanostructures is an optical effect that can be exploited for the detection of small molecules. There is a broad range of metallic nanostructures supporting different SPR modes, and nanostructures can be even geometrically combined leading to the creation of new hybridised SPR modes. In our study, we investigated the properties of a hybridised SPR mode (gap modes GM) created by the placement of metallic nanoparticles onto metallic layers and its use as a sensitive sensor. A tunneling current passing through a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure can generate supported SPR modes that can be scattered through GM, which was experimentally confirmed. Moreover, we were able to experimentally follow the degradation of anisotropic (silver nanoprism) nanoparticles under ambient conditions in real time. Using atomic force microscopy and optical spectroscopy we observed an anisotropic corrosion that is starting from the tips of the nanoparticles.
Multiple hot-carrier collection in photo-excited graphene Moiré superlattices
Wu, Sanfeng; Wang, Lei; Lai, You; Shan, Wen-Yu; Aivazian, Grant; Zhang, Xian; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Xiao, Di; Dean, Cory; Hone, James; Li, Zhiqiang; Xu, Xiaodong
2016-01-01
In conventional light-harvesting devices, the absorption of a single photon only excites one electron, which sets the standard limit of power-conversion efficiency, such as the Shockley-Queisser limit. In principle, generating and harnessing multiple carriers per absorbed photon can improve efficiency and possibly overcome this limit. We report the observation of multiple hot-carrier collection in graphene/boron-nitride Moiré superlattice structures. A record-high zero-bias photoresponsivity of 0.3 A/W (equivalently, an external quantum efficiency exceeding 50%) is achieved using graphene’s photo-Nernst effect, which demonstrates a collection of at least five carriers per absorbed photon. We reveal that this effect arises from the enhanced Nernst coefficient through Lifshtiz transition at low-energy Van Hove singularities, which is an emergent phenomenon due to the formation of Moiré minibands. Our observation points to a new means for extremely efficient and flexible optoelectronics based on van der Waals heterostructures. PMID:27386538
Surface Collective Modes in the Topological Insulators Bi2 Se3 and Bi0.5 Sb1.5 Te3 -xSex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kogar, A.; Vig, S.; Thaler, A.; Wong, M. H.; Xiao, Y.; Reig-i-Plessis, D.; Cho, G. Y.; Valla, T.; Pan, Z.; Schneeloch, J.; Zhong, R.; Gu, G. D.; Hughes, T. L.; MacDougall, G. J.; Chiang, T.-C.; Abbamonte, P.
2015-12-01
We used low-energy, momentum-resolved inelastic electron scattering to study surface collective modes of the three-dimensional topological insulators Bi2 Se3 and Bi0.5 Sb1.5 Te3 -xSex . Our goal was to identify the "spin plasmon" predicted by Raghu and co-workers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 116401 (2010)]. Instead, we found that the primary collective mode is a surface plasmon arising from the bulk, free carriers in these materials. This excitation dominates the spectral weight in the bosonic function of the surface χ"(q ,ω ) at THz energy scales, and is the most likely origin of a quasiparticle dispersion kink observed in previous photoemission experiments. Our study suggests that the spin plasmon may mix with this other surface mode, calling for a more nuanced understanding of optical experiments in which the spin plasmon is reported to play a role.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, Sangwoon
Direct infrared absorption prepares CH4 in two nearly isoenergetic vibrationally excited states, the symmetric stretch-bend combination (nu 1 + nu4) and the antisymmetric stretch-bend combination (nu3 + nu4), for a study of the effect of stretching vibrations of CH4 on the reaction, CH4 + Cl( 2P3/2) → CH3 + HCl. Comparison of intensities in the action spectra with those in the simulated absorption spectra shows that vibrational excitation of methane to the nu1 + nu4 state promotes the reaction more efficiently than excitation to the nu3 + nu4 state by a factor of 1.9 +/- 0.5. The reduced symmetry of CH3D allows us to explore the relative reactivity of the fundamental symmetric and the antisymmetric C-H stretches. We excite three vibrational eigenstates of CH3D near 3000 cm -1 that contain different amounts of symmetric C-H stretch (nu 1), antisymmetric C-H stretch (nu4), and two quanta of bend (2nu5). Analyzing the action spectra with the simulation and the composition of the eigenstates reveals that the nu1 vibration is 6 +/- 1 times more reactive than the nu4 vibration. Ab initio calculations of the vibrational eigenfunctions along the reaction coordinate show that as the Cl atom approaches, the nu1 vibration of CH3D is transformed into localized vibrational excitation in the C-H bond pointing toward the Cl atom, promoting the reaction, and the nu 4 vibrational energy flows into the distal C-H bonds that remain unaffected during the reaction, consistent with our experimental results. Selective vibrational excitation permits control of the outcome of a reaction with two competing channels. Vibrational excitation of the first overtone of C-D stretch (2nu2) of CH3D at ˜4300 cm-1 exclusively increases the probability of breaking the C-D bond, yielding CH3 but no CH2D. By contrast, excitation of the nu1 vibration, the nu4 vibration, or the combination vibration of C-H stretch and CH3 umbrella bend (nu4 + nu3) preferentially promotes the H-atom abstraction to
Li Xuechen; Niu Dongying; Yin Zengqian; Fang Tongzhen; Wang Long
2012-08-15
The characteristics of dielectric barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage are simulated in atmospheric pressure helium based on a one-dimensional fluid model. A stepped discharge is obtained per half voltage cycle with gas gap width less than 2 mm by the simulation, which is different to the pulsed discharge excited by a sinusoidal voltage. For the stepped discharge, the plateau duration increases with increasing the voltage amplitude and decreasing the gas gap. Therefore, uniform discharge with high temporal duty ratio can be realized with small gap through increasing the voltage amplitude. The maximal densities of both electron and ion appear near the anode and the electric field is almost uniformly distributed along the gap, which indicates that the stepped discharge belongs to a Townsend mode. In contrast to the stepped discharge with small gas gap, a pulsed discharge can be obtained with large gas gap. Through analyzing the spatial density distributions of electron and ion and the electric field, the pulsed discharge is in a glow mode. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics are analyzed for the above mentioned discharges under different gas gaps, from which the different discharge modes are verified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xuechen; Niu, Dongying; Yin, Zengqian; Fang, Tongzhen; Wang, Long
2012-08-01
The characteristics of dielectric barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage are simulated in atmospheric pressure helium based on a one-dimensional fluid model. A stepped discharge is obtained per half voltage cycle with gas gap width less than 2 mm by the simulation, which is different to the pulsed discharge excited by a sinusoidal voltage. For the stepped discharge, the plateau duration increases with increasing the voltage amplitude and decreasing the gas gap. Therefore, uniform discharge with high temporal duty ratio can be realized with small gap through increasing the voltage amplitude. The maximal densities of both electron and ion appear near the anode and the electric field is almost uniformly distributed along the gap, which indicates that the stepped discharge belongs to a Townsend mode. In contrast to the stepped discharge with small gas gap, a pulsed discharge can be obtained with large gas gap. Through analyzing the spatial density distributions of electron and ion and the electric field, the pulsed discharge is in a glow mode. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics are analyzed for the above mentioned discharges under different gas gaps, from which the different discharge modes are verified.
Collective modes in charge-density waves and long-range Coulomb interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Virosztek, Attila; Maki, Kazumi
1993-07-01
We study theoretically the collective modes in charge-density waves in the presence of long-range Coulomb interaction. We find that earlier works by Takada and his collaborators are inadequate since they introduced inconsistent approximations in evaluating a variety of correlation functions. The amplitude mode is unaffected by the Coulomb interaction, while the phase mode splits into the phason with linear dispersion (i.e., acoustic mode) and the optical mode with an energy gap in the presence of the Coulomb interaction. In particular, we establish the temperature dependence of the phason velocity vφ. A comparison with recent neutron-scattering data on the phason velocity in the charge-density wave of a single crystal of blue bronze K0.3MoO3 indicates that mean-field theory which includes the long-range Coulomb interaction gives an excellent description of the observed phason velocity.
Enhanced modes excitation in photonic crystal fiber by long-period gratings for sensing application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Shijie; Zhu, Yinian
2016-03-01
Evanescent-wave sensing platform is proposed by two interrogating schemes, core-cladding coupling and core-cladding-core coupling and re-coupling, in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber (ESM-PCF) with long-period gratings (LPGs). The sensing characteristics are experimentally investigated by stress relaxation technique and point-by-point grating inscription via CO2 laser. It shows that the evanescent wave in cladding mode is significantly increased due to LPGs, compared with in core mode only. The introduced concept will further help explore the PCF evanescent-wave sensing and its applications.
Electron beam excitation of upstream waves in the whistler mode frequency range
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wong, Hung K.; Smith, Charles W.
1994-01-01
We examine whistler mode instabilities arising from electron beams in interplanetary space at 1 AU. Both parallel and obliquely propagating solutions are considered. We demonstrate that the generation of two simultaneous whistler mode waves is possible, and even reasonably likely, for beam parameters frequently encountered upstream of the Earth's bow shock and at interplanetary shocks. We also explore the generation of left-hand polarized waves at whistler mode frequencies under these same conditions. We offer both parametric variations derived from numerical solutions of the various instabilities as well as an analytical treatment of the problem which succeeds in unifying the various numerical results.
Collective Modes in Strongly Correlated Yukawa Liquids: Waves in Dusty Plasmas
Kalman, G.; Rosenberg, M.; DeWitt, H. E.
2000-06-26
We determine the collective mode structure of a strongly correlated Yukawa fluid, with the purpose of analyzing wave propagation in a strongly coupled dusty plasma. We identify a longitudinal plasmon and a transverse shear mode. The dispersion is characterized by a low-k acoustic behavior, a frequency maximum well below the plasma frequency, and a high-k merging of the two modes around the Einstein frequency of localized oscillations. The damping effect of collisions between neutrals and dust grains is estimated. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Collective excitation of /sup 172/Yb from inelastic. cap alpha. scattering at 36 MeV
Govil, I.M.; Fulbright, H.W.; Cline, D.
1987-10-01
The collective excitation of the natural parity states in /sup 172/Yb has been studied with 36 MeV ..cap alpha.. particles. An analysis of the ground-state band data through I/sup ..pi../ = 6/sup +/ gave deformation parameters ..beta../sub 2/ = +0.21 +- 0.01, ..beta../sub 4/ = -0.028 +- 0.004, and ..beta../sub 6/ = 0 +- 0.002. Two K/sup ..pi../ = 2/sup +/ bands, with band heads at 1465 and 1608 keV, and the ..beta.. vibrational K/sup ..pi../ = 0/sup +/ band with a 2/sup +/ state at 1118 keV are excited weakly. Other 2/sup +/ states at 2184, 2255, 2367, 2465, 2580, 2650, 2738, 2836, 2890, and 2955 keV are seen, and their isoscalar strengths are found for the first time. The B(E2) strengths found are roughly in agreement with interacting boson model predictions close to the SU(3) limit. At 1263 keV, the 4/sup +/ state of the K/sup ..pi../ = 3/sup +/ band is found to have an isoscalar E4 strength = 0.036 e/sup 2/b/sup 4/ (7 single particle units). A compilation plus reanalysis of earlier data exhibits unexpectedly strong E4 strength to the 4/sup +/ members of the lowest K = 2/sup +/ and 3/sup +/ bands in strongly deformed rare earth nuclei. The octupole strength in this nucleus lies mainly in four 3/sup -/ states at 1222, 1710, 1822, and 2030 keV with total isoscalar E3 strength of 0.147 e/sup 2/b/sup 3/. The results for the negative parity states are compared with the theory of Neergaerd and Vogel.
Entanglement of a two-mode field in a collective three-level atomic system
Tang Zhaohong; Li Gaoxiang
2011-12-15
The entanglement properties of two-mode field from a laser-driven collective three-level atomic system are investigated by taking into account the spontaneously generated coherence. Under some conditions, it is found that the entanglement between the two cavity modes can be significantly enhanced by the collectivity of the atoms compared to the case of independent atoms when the relative phase {Delta}{phi}={pi}. Moreover, the spontaneously generated coherence can also greatly enhance the entanglement in comparison to the case without this coherence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eriksson, Axel M.; Gorelik, Leonid Y.
2015-12-01
We theoretically study a doped graphene ribbon suspended over a trench and subject to an ac-electrical field polarized perpendicularly to the graphene plane. In such a system, the external ac-field is coupled to the relatively slow mechanical vibrations via plasmonic oscillations in the isolated graphene sheet. We show that the electrical field generates an effective pumping of the mechanical modes. It is demonstrated that in the case of underdamped plasma oscillation, a peculiar kind of geometrical resonance of the mechanical and plasma oscillations appear. The efficiency of pumping significantly increases when the wavenumber of the mechanical mode is in close agreement with the wavenumber of the plasma waves. The intensity of the pumping increases with the wavenumber of the mode. This phenomenon allows selective actuation of different mechanical modes, although the driving field is homogeneous.
Wong, J.S.; Moore, C.B.
1981-08-01
High overtone spectra of organic molecules can be interpreted using the local mode model for absorptions by the inequivalent C-H bonds. The spectra can be assigned using either observed C-H bond lengths or isolated fundamental frequencies. The spectra of trihalomethanes indicate that the dominant intramolecular mode coupling for the C-H stretching overtones is Fermi resonance with combination states with one less C-H stretching quantum plus two quanta of the C-H bending vibrations.
Vibrational modes in excited Rydberg states of acetone: A computational study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shastri, Aparna; Singh, Param Jeet
2016-04-01
Computational studies of electronically excited states of the acetone molecule [(CH3)2CO] and its fully deuterated isotopologue [(CD3)2CO] are performed using the time dependent density functional (TDDFT) methodology. In addition to vertical excitation energies for singlet and triplet states, equilibrium geometries and vibrational frequencies of the n=3 Rydberg states (3s, 3p and 3d) are obtained. This is the first report of geometry optimization and frequency calculations for the 3px, 3pz, 3dyz, 3dxy, 3dxz, 3dx2-y2 and 3dz2 Rydberg states. Results of the geometry optimization indicate that the molecule retains approximate C2V geometry in most of these excited Rydberg states, with the most significant structural change seen in the CCO bond angle which is found to be reduced from the ground state value. Detailed comparison of the computationally predicted vibrational wavenumbers with experimental studies helps to confirm several of the earlier vibronic assignments while leading to revised/new assignments for some of the bands. The important role of hot bands in analysis of the room temperature photoabsorption spectra of acetone is corroborated by this study. While the vibrational frequencies in excited Rydberg states are overall found to be close to those of the ionic ground state, geometry optimization and vibrational frequency computation for each excited state proves to be very useful to arrive at a consistent set of vibronic assignments. Isotopic substitution helps in consolidating and confirming assignments. An offshoot of this study is the interpretation of the band at ~8.47 eV as the π-3s Rydberg transition converging to the second ionization potential.
Fishbone Mode Excited by Deeply Trapped Energetic Beam Ions in EAST
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Ting; Wu, Bin; Xu, Liqing; Hu, Chundong; Zang, Qing; Ding, Siye; Li, Yingying; Wu, Xingquan; Wang, Jinfang; Shen, Biao; Zhong, Guoqiang; Li, Hao; Shi, Tonghui; EAST Team
2016-06-01
This paper describes the fishbone mode phenomena during the injection of high-power neutral beams in EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak). The features of the fishbone mode are presented. The change in frequency of the mode during a fishbone burst is from 1 kHz to 6 kHz. The nonlinear behavior of the fishbone mode is analyzed by using a prey-predator model, which is consistent with the experimental results. This model indicates that the periodic oscillations of the fishbone mode always occur near the critical value of fast ion beta. Furthermore, the neutral beam analysis for the discharge is done by using the NUBEAM module of the TRANSP code. According to the numerical simulation results and theoretical calculation, it can be concluded that the fishbone mode is driven by the deeply trapped energetic beam ions in EAST. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB101001, 2014DFG61950 and 2013GB112003) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11175211 and 11275233)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braviner, Harry J.; Ogilvie, Gordon I.
2015-02-01
We model a tidally forced star or giant planet as a Maclaurin spheroid, decomposing the motion into the normal modes found by Bryan. We first describe the general prescription for this decomposition and the computation of the tidal power. Although this formalism is very general, forcing due to a companion on a misaligned, circular orbit is used to illustrate the theory. The tidal power is plotted for a variety of orbital radii, misalignment angles, and spheroid rotation rates. Our calculations are carried out including all modes of degree l ≤ 4, and the same degree of gravitational forcing. Remarkably, we find that for close orbits (a/R* ≈ 3) and rotational deformations that are typical of giant planets (e ≈ 0.4) the l = 4 component of the gravitational potential may significantly enhance the dissipation through resonance with surface gravity modes. There are also a large number of resonances with inertial modes, with the tidal power being locally enhanced by up to three orders of magnitude. For very close orbits (a/R* ≈ 3), the contribution to the power from the l = 4 modes is roughly the same magnitude as that due to the l = 3 modes.
Desorption of Hydrogen from Si(111) by Resonant Excitation of the Si-H Vibrational Stretch Mode
Liu, Zhiheng; Feldman, Leonard C.; Tolk, Norman; Zhang, Zhenyu; Cohen, Philip I
2006-01-01
Past efforts to achieve selective bond scission by vibrational excitation have been thwarted by energy thermalization. Here we report resonant photodesorption of hydrogen from a Si(111) surface using tunable infrared radiation. The wavelength dependence of the desorption yield peaks at 0.26 electron volt: the energy of the Si-H vibrational stretch mode. The desorption yield is quadratic in the infrared intensity. A strong H/D isotope effect rules out thermal desorption mechanisms, and electronic effects are not applicable in this low-energy regime. A molecular mechanism accounting for the desorption event remains elusive.
Excitation of gap modes in a metal particle-surface system for sub-30 nm plasmonic lithography.
Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham; Sreekanth, Kandammathe Valiyaveedu
2009-03-15
In this Letter, a near-field optical excitation of gap modes in a metal particle-surface system for patterning periodic nanostructure is proposed and numerically demonstrated using the finite-difference time-domain method. It is observed that high-density sub-30 nm periodic structures were achievable by employing an aluminium nanosphere-silver surface system. A 2D resist profile cross section using the modified cellular automata model, which was obtained through this proposed configuration, is also presented. PMID:19282952
Kim, Judy E.; Tauber, Michael J.; Mathies, Richard A.
2003-01-01
The photoreaction quantum yield of rhodopsin is wavelength dependent: φ(λ) is reduced by up to 5% at wavelengths to the red of 500 nm but is invariant (φ = 0.65 ± 0.01) between 450 and 500 nm (Kim et al., 2001). To understand this nonstatistical internal conversion process, these results are compared with predictions of a Landau-Zener model for dynamic curve crossing. The initial distribution of excess photon energy in the 28 Franck-Condon active vibrational modes of rhodopsin is defined by a fully thermalized sum-over-states vibronic calculation. This calculation reveals that absorption by high-frequency unreactive modes (e.g., C=C stretches) increases as the excitation wavelength is shifted from 570 to 450 nm whereas relatively less energy is deposited into reactive low-frequency modes. This result qualitatively explains the experimentally observed wavelength dependence of φ(λ) for rhodopsin and reveals the importance of delocalized, torsional modes in the reactive pathway. PMID:12668457
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jian
1990-01-01
The electronic level structure of a doped semiconductor superlattice such as GaAs-Al_chiGa _{1-chi}As has been calculated self-consistently in a tight-binding envelope function approximation, where inhomogeneous potentials related to depletion regions in real systems have been incorporated. Fermi-level pinning associated with depletion regions at the ends of the superlattice gives rise to surface -localized states lying in the miniband gaps and exhibiting localized eigenstates. Varying barrier transparency and doping density are shown to affect the location of these surface levels within the minigap. The application of a gate voltage across the superlattice structure produces drastic changes ill the level structure, including transitions from the extended to localized behavior in some eigenstates concurrent to shifts in their energies. We further present a theoretical study of the far-infrared response of these systems using the d-parameter formalism. The d( omega) functions, which parametrize the optical response of surfaces, provide position and coupling strengths for all possible optically active modes. d parameters have been used in the study of surfaces and the formalism is adapted here to the study of semiconductor superlattice systems. Intra- and inter-miniband plasma modes as well as single-particle-like transitions, are studied in 'bulk' and in finite-size superlattices. A series of surface modes, related to the charge depletion in the end layers of the superlattice, are distinguishable from the bulk modes. These additional modes are characterized by strong oscillations of the induced charge density near the surface layers, in contrast to the bulk modes which exhibit oscillations throughout the superlattice. The d-parameter formalism is further developed to study a quasi-zero-dimensional quantum dot system with electrons confined inside dots.
Inelastic electron and Raman scattering from the collective excitations in quantum wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kushwaha, Manvir
2014-03-01
The nanofabrication technology has taught us that an m-dimensional confining potential imposed upon an n-dimensional electron gas paves the way to a quasi-(n- m)-dimensional electron gas, with m <= n and 1 <= n , m <= 3 . This is the road to the (semiconducting) quasi- n dimensional electron gas systems we have been happily traversing on now for almost two decades. Achieving quasi-one dimensional electron gas (Q-1DEG) led us to some mixed moments in this journey: while the reduced phase space for the scattering led us believe in the route to the faster electron devices, the proximity to the 1D systems left us in the dilemma of describing it as a Fermi liquid or as a Luttinger liquid. No one had ever suspected the potential of the former, but it took quite a while for some to convince the others on the latter. A realistic Q-1DEG system at the low temperatures is best describable as a Fermi liquid rather than as a Luttinger liquid. This has motivated us to employ the Bohm-Pines' full RPA to develop a systematic methodology for the inelastic electron and light scattering from the collective (plasmon) excitations in Q-1DEG [or quantum wires]. We will discuss in detail the results published in AIP Advances 3, 042103 (2013).
Constant Q measurements of collective modes in Mg{sub 70}Zn{sub 30} glass
Benmore, C.J. |; Sweeney, S. |; Robinson, R.A.; Egelstaff, P.A.; Suck, J.B.
1997-11-01
In this study the Neutron Brillouin Scattering technique has been used to measure longitudinal excitations in a magnesium-zinc glass at momentum transfers within the first pseudo-Brillouin zone. The measurements were performed at room temperature and constant momentum transfer, which enables the data to be readily and reliably compared with theory. The experimental results taken down to Q = 6.2 nm{sup {minus}1} and E = 27 meV show a 5 meV downward shift in the dispersion energy of the longitudinal optic mode of the glass when compared to theoretical predictions.
Collective behavior of Cr3 + ions in ruby revealed by whispering gallery modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourhill, Jeremy; Goryachev, Maxim; Farr, Warrick G.; Tobar, Michael E.
2015-08-01
We present evidence for the collective action of Cr3 + ion impurities in a highly concentrated ruby crystal coupled to microwave whispering gallery modes (WGMs). The cylindrical geometry of the crystal allows the creation of superradiant or "spin-mode" doublets, with spatial structures similar to that of WGMs. The formation of these spin patterns allows us to observe directly different selection rules, namely, wave number and azimuthal phase matching. The demonstration is made via an avoided level crossing between spin and photon mode doublets as well as absence of coupling between spin modes of different wave numbers. The effect is observable due to strong spin-photon coupling (67 MHz) exceeding both spin ensemble and cavity losses as well as the photon doublet splitting. We demonstrate that a four harmonic oscillator model not only with coupling between photon resonances (0.43 MHz) but also with a spin doublet (73 MHz) is necessary to accurately describe these results.
Excitation of inertial modes in a closed grid turbulence experiment under rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamriben, Cyril; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Moisy, Frédéric; Maas, Leo R. M.
2011-01-01
We report an experimental study of the decay of grid-generated turbulence in a confined geometry submitted to a global rotation. Turbulence is generated by rapidly towing a grid in a parallelepipedic water tank. The velocity fields of a large number of independent decays are measured in a vertical plane parallel to the rotation axis using a corotating particle image velocimetry system. We first show that, when a "simple" grid is used, a significant amount of the kinetic energy (typically 50%) is stored in a reproducible flow composed of resonant inertial modes. The spatial structure of those inertial modes, extracted by band-pass filtering, is found compatible with the numerical results of L. R. M. Maas [Fluid Dyn. Res. 33, 373 (2003)]. The possible coupling between these modes and turbulence suggests that turbulence cannot be considered as freely decaying in this configuration. We demonstrate however that these inertial modes may be significantly reduced (down to 15% of the total energy) by adding a set of inner tanks attached to the grid. These results suggest that it is possible to produce an effectively freely decaying rotating turbulence in a confined geometry.
Mechanisms of distributed and localized excitation of unsteady Görtler modes by free-stream vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, A. V.; Kachanov, Y. S.; Mischenko, D. A.
2014-12-01
The present study is devoted to the investigation of several, presumably most efficient, mechanisms of the production of non-stationary Görtler vortices in a laminar boundary layer on a concave wall due to scattering of 2D and 3D free-stream vortices by streamwise localized 3D and 2D surface and flow non-uniformities. The experiments were carried out by means of the method of controllable non-stationary disturbances. The interaction of downstream-propagating 3D free-stream vortices with the growing boundary layer, presenting natural 2D bas-flow non-uniformity, was found to lead to a rather efficient excitation of unsteady Görtler modes. This mechanism of distributed receptivity is able to modify considerably the growth rates of the excited Görtler vortices in comparison with the linear stability laws. In the present paper, definitions of the coefficients of distributed vortical receptivity are given and some estimates of values of these coefficients are reported. In spite of a high measurement accuracy and a rather broad range of examined parameters, no excitation of Görtler vortices due to other examined mechanisms was identified.
Light-induced collective pseudospin precession resonating with Higgs mode in a superconductor.
Matsunaga, Ryusuke; Tsuji, Naoto; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Sugioka, Arata; Makise, Kazumasa; Uzawa, Yoshinori; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen; Aoki, Hideo; Shimano, Ryo
2014-09-01
Superconductors host collective modes that can be manipulated with light. We show that a strong terahertz light field can induce oscillations of the superconducting order parameter in NbN with twice the frequency of the terahertz field. The result can be captured as a collective precession of Anderson's pseudospins in ac driving fields. A resonance between the field and the Higgs amplitude mode of the superconductor then results in large terahertz third-harmonic generation. The method we present here paves a way toward nonlinear quantum optics in superconductors with driving the pseudospins collectively and can be potentially extended to exotic superconductors for shedding light on the character of order parameters and their coupling to other degrees of freedom. PMID:25011555
Yoshida, Kyohei; Hachiya, Kan; Okumura, Kensuke; Mishima, Kenta; Inukai, Motoharu; Torgasin, Konstantin; Omer, Mohamed; Sonobe, Taro; Zen, Heishun; Negm, Hani; Kii, Toshiteru; Masuda, Kai; Ohgaki, Hideaki
2013-10-28
Mode-selective phonon excitation by a mid-infrared laser (MIR-FEL) is demonstrated via anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements of 6H-silicon carbide (SiC). Irradiation of SiC with MIR-FEL and a Nd-YAG laser at 14 K produced a peak where the Raman shift corresponds to a photon energy of 119 meV (10.4 μm). This phenomenon is induced by mode-selective phonon excitation through the irradiation of MIR-FEL, whose photon energy corresponds to the photon-absorption of a particular phonon mode.
η collective mode as A1 g Raman resonance in cuprate superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montiel, X.; Kloss, T.; Pépin, C.; Benhabib, S.; Gallais, Y.; Sacuto, A.
2016-01-01
We discuss the possible existence of a spin singlet excitation with charge ±2 (η mode) originating the A1 g Raman resonance in cuprate superconductors. This η mode relates the d -wave superconducting singlet pairing channel to a d -wave charge channel. We show that the η boson forms a particle-particle bound state below the 2 Δ threshold of the particle-hole continuum where Δ is the maximum d -wave gap. Within a generalized random phase approximation and Bethe-Salpeter approximation study, we find that this mode has energies similar to the resonance observed with inelastic neutron scattering below the superconducting (SC) coherent peak at 2 Δ in various SC cuprate compounds. We show that it is a very good candidate for the resonance observed in Raman scattering below the 2 Δ peak in the A1 g symmetry. Since the η mode sits in the S =0 channel, it may be observable via Raman, x-ray, or electron energy loss spectroscopy probes.
Monte Carlo calculations of diatomic molecule gas flows including rotational mode excitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoshikawa, K. K.; Itikawa, Y.
1976-01-01
The direct simulation Monte Carlo method was used to solve the Boltzmann equation for flows of an internally excited nonequilibrium gas, namely, of rotationally excited homonuclear diatomic nitrogen. The semi-classical transition probability model of Itikawa was investigated for its ability to simulate flow fields far from equilibrium. The behavior of diatomic nitrogen was examined for several different nonequilibrium initial states that are subjected to uniform mean flow without boundary interactions. A sample of 1000 model molecules was observed as the gas relaxed to a steady state starting from three specified initial states. The initial states considered are: (1) complete equilibrium, (2) nonequilibrium, equipartition (all rotational energy states are assigned the mean energy level obtained at equilibrium with a Boltzmann distribution at the translational temperature), and (3) nonequipartition (the mean rotational energy is different from the equilibrium mean value with respect to the translational energy states). In all cases investigated the present model satisfactorily simulated the principal features of the relaxation effects in nonequilibrium flow of diatomic molecules.
Goehring, Jenny L; Neff, Donna L; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L; Hughes, Michelle L
2014-08-01
This study compared pitch ranking, electrode discrimination, and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) spatial excitation patterns for adjacent physical electrodes (PEs) and the corresponding dual electrodes (DEs) for newer-generation Cochlear devices (Cochlear Ltd., Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia). The first goal was to determine whether pitch ranking and electrode discrimination yield similar outcomes for PEs and DEs. The second goal was to determine if the amount of spatial separation among ECAP excitation patterns (separation index, Σ) between adjacent PEs and the PE-DE pairs can predict performance on the psychophysical tasks. Using non-adaptive procedures, 13 subjects completed pitch ranking and electrode discrimination for adjacent PEs and the corresponding PE-DE pairs (DE versus each flanking PE) from the basal, middle, and apical electrode regions. Analysis of d' scores indicated that pitch-ranking and electrode-discrimination scores were not significantly different, but rather produced similar levels of performance. As expected, accuracy was significantly better for the PE-PE comparison than either PE-DE comparison. Correlations of the psychophysical versus ECAP Σ measures were positive; however, not all test/region correlations were significant across the array. Thus, the ECAP separation index is not sensitive enough to predict performance on behavioral tasks of pitch ranking or electrode discrimination for adjacent PEs or corresponding DEs. PMID:25096106
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weiß, Philipp S.; Narozhny, Boris N.; Schmalian, Jörg; Wölfle, Peter
2016-01-01
We study the temperature-dependent quantum correction to conductivity due to the interplay of spin density fluctuations and weak disorder for a two-dimensional metal near an antiferromagnetic (AFM) quantum critical point. AFM spin density fluctuations carry large momenta around the ordering vector Q and, at lowest order of the spin-fermion coupling, only scatter electrons between "hot spots" of the Fermi surface which are connected by Q . Earlier, it was seen that the quantum interference between AFM spin density fluctuations and soft diffusive modes of the disordered metal is suppressed, a consequence of the large-momentum scattering. The suppression of this interference results in a nonsingular temperature dependence of the corresponding interaction correction to conductivity. However, at higher order of the spin-fermion coupling, electrons on the entire Fermi surface can be scattered successively by two spin density fluctuations and, in total, suffer a small momentum transfer. This higher-order process can be described by composite modes which carry small momenta. We show that the interference between formally subleading composite modes and diffusive modes generates singular interaction corrections which ultimately dominate over the nonsingular first-order correction at low temperatures. We derive an effective low-energy theory from the spin-fermion model which includes the above-mentioned higher-order process implicitly and show that for weak spin-fermion coupling the small-momentum transfer is mediated by a composite propagator. Employing the conventional diagrammatic approach to impurity scattering, we find the correction δ σ ∝+ln2T for temperatures above an exponentially small crossover scale.
Direct picosecond time resolution of unimolecular reactions initiated by local mode excitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scherer, N. F.; Doany, F. E.; Zewail, A. H.; Perry, J. W.
1986-01-01
Attention is given to the first results of direct, picosec measurements of the Delta-nu(OH) 5 local mode transition of H2O2. These time-resolved studies yield a direct measure of the unimolecular dissociation rate, and furnish a lower limit for the rate of energy redistribution from the OH stretch to the O-O reaction coordinate. The data thus determined may be used to ascertain the domain of validity for statistical unimolecular reaction rate theories.
Excitation of LSE and LSM Modes of Loaded Rectangular Waveguides by Layers of Nanowire Metamaterial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crowne, Frank; Birdwell, Anthony; O'Regan, Terrance; Shah, Pankaj
2013-03-01
We describe the effect of an infinitesimal layer of oriented nanowires on the modes of an inhomogeneously loaded rectangular waveguide partially filled by a dielectric slab in the lower part of the guide volume with the upper part of the volume empty. The nanowires all lie flat on the upper surface of the slab, forming a thin layer between the dielectric- and air-filled guide volumes. This layer is modeled as an impedance boundary condition that couples the air-filled and dielectric-filled regions of the guide. The eigenmodes of such a guide are of two types: one with no electric field perpendicular to the slab, referred to as longitudinal-section electric (LSE), and one with no magnetic field perpendicular to the slab, referred to as longitudinal-section magnetic (LSM).1 Because they lie flat, the nanowires couple strongly to the LSE modes via the electric field of the latter, especially in the range of frequencies where dielectric moding takes place, providing data that contains and reveals the microdynamics of the wire aggregate in a contactless manner. Possible applications are discussed. 1 R. E. Collin, Field Theory of Guided Waves (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1960), ch.6.
Excitation and separation of vortex modes in twisted air-core fiber.
Ye, Jingfu; Li, Yan; Han, Yanhua; Deng, Duo; Guo, Zhongyi; Gao, Jianmin; Sun, Qiaoqun; Liu, Yi; Qu, Shiliang
2016-04-18
An air-core fiber imposed by torsion is investigated in this paper. We refer to this kind of fiber as twisted air-core fiber (TAF). It has been demonstrated that the eigenstates of the TAF consist of guided optical vortex waves with different propagation constants of a different effective index. With the increase of the twist rate, TAF could separate the OAM modes which are near degenerate or degenerate in the air-core fiber. The separation of OAM modes in TAF is conductive to ultralong distance propagation with low crosstalk. TAF could be considered as an ideal candidate fiber for OAM based optical communication. Moreover, we investigated the twisted air-core photonic crystal fiber (TAPCF) which can improve the relative energy distribution of the OAM modes. Compared with TAF, more energy is located in the ring shaped core, which is conductive to ultralong distance propagation. TAF and TAPCF are of potential interest for increasing channel capacity in optical telecommunications, and the result is also of interest to the photonic crystal community. PMID:27137269
Krebs, I.; Hölzl, M.; Lackner, K.; Günter, S.
2013-08-15
Nonlinear simulations of the early edge-localized mode (ELM) phase based on a typical type-I ELMy ASDEX Upgrade discharge have been carried out using the reduced MHD code JOREK. The analysis is focused on the evolution of the toroidal Fourier spectrum. It is found that during the nonlinear evolution, linearly subdominant low-n Fourier components, in particular the n = 1, grow to energies comparable with linearly dominant harmonics. A simple model is developed, based on the idea that energy is transferred among the toroidal harmonics via second order nonlinear interaction. The simple model reproduces and explains very well the early nonlinear evolution of the toroidal spectrum in the JOREK simulations. Furthermore, it is shown for the n = 1 harmonic, that its spatial structure changes significantly during the transition from linear to nonlinearly driven growth. The rigidly growing structure of the linearly barely unstable n = 1 reaches far into the plasma core. In contrast, the nonlinearly driven n= 1 has a rigidly growing structure localized at the plasma edge, where the dominant toroidal harmonics driving the n = 1 are maximal and in phase. The presented quadratic coupling model might explain the recent experimental observation of strong low-n components in magnetic measurements [Wenninger et al., “Non-linear magnetic perturbations during edge localized modes in TCV dominated by low n mode components,” Nucl. Fusion (submitted)].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez-Reyes, S. J.; García, R. A.; Jiménez, A.; Chaplin, W. J.
2003-09-01
We have used observations made by the Global Oscillations at Low Frequency (GOLF) and the Variability of Irradiance and Gravity Oscillations Sun Photometer (VIRGO/SPM) instruments on board the ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory satellite to study variations in the excitation and damping of low angular degree (low-l) solar p-modes on the rising phase of activity cycle 23. Our analysis includes a correction procedure that for the first time allows GOLF data to be ``treated'' as a single homogeneous set, thereby compensating for the change of operational configuration partway through the mission. Over the range 2.5<=ν<=3.5mHz, we uncover an increase in damping and decrease in mode power that is consistent with previous findings. Furthermore, an excellent level of agreement is found between the variations extracted from the GOLF and VIRGO/SPM data. We find no net long-term changes to the modal energy supply rate. However, an analysis of the residuals uncovers the presence of a quasi-periodic signature of period ~1.5 yr (most pronounced for SPM). While it is true that several workers claim to have uncovered similar periodicities in other phenomena related to the near-surface layers of the Sun here, we are at present more inclined to attribute our finding to an artifact of the mode-fitting procedure. We also uncover a significant change in the asymmetry of mode peaks in the GOLF data, as found in previous studies of much longer data sets. These assumed that the dominant contribution to this arose from the switch in operating configuration partway through the mission (which altered the depth in the solar atmosphere sampled by the instrument). However, our preliminary analysis of data collected over the 100 day period beginning 2002 November 19-when the instrument switched back to its original configuration-suggests that this change may have a solar cycle component.
A Switched-Mode Breast Coil for 7 T MRI Using Forced-Current Excitation
Bosshard, John C.; Rispoli, Joseph V.; Dimitrov, Ivan E.; Cheshkov, Sergey; McDougall, Mary Preston; Malloy, Craig; Wright, Steven M.
2015-01-01
In high-field magnetic resonance imaging, the radio frequency wavelength within the human body is comparable to anatomical dimensions, resulting in B1 inhomogeneity and nonuniform sensitivity patterns. Thus, this relatively short wavelength presents engineering challenges for RF coil design. In this study, a bilateral breast coil for 1H imaging at 7 T was designed and constructed using forced-current excitation. By forcing equal current through the coil elements, we reduce the effects of coupling between the elements to simplify tuning and to ensure a uniform field across both breasts. To combine the benefits of the higher power efficiency of a unilateral coil with the bilateral coverage of a bilateral coil, a switching circuit was implemented to allow the coil to be reconfigured for imaging the left, right, or both breasts. PMID:25706501
A Switched-Mode Breast Coil for 7 T MRI Using Forced-Current Excitation.
Cui, Jiaming; Bosshard, John C; Rispoli, Joseph V; Dimitrov, Ivan E; Cheshkov, Sergey; McDougall, Mary Preston; Malloy, Craig; Wright, Steven M
2015-07-01
In high-field magnetic resonance imaging, the radio frequency wavelength within the human body is comparable to anatomical dimensions, resulting in B1 inhomogeneity and nonuniform sensitivity patterns. Thus, this relatively short wavelength presents engineering challenges for RF coil design. In this study, a bilateral breast coil for (1)H imaging at 7 T was designed and constructed using forced-current excitation. By forcing equal current through the coil elements, we reduce the effects of coupling between the elements to simplify tuning and to ensure a uniform field across both breasts. To combine the benefits of the higher power efficiency of a unilateral coil with the bilateral coverage of a bilateral coil, a switching circuit was implemented to allow the coil to be reconfigured for imaging the left, right, or both breasts. PMID:25706501
Saito, Teruo; Tatematsu, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Yuusuke; Ikeuchi, Shinji; Ogasawara, Shinya; Yamada, Naoki; Ikeda, Ryosuke; Ogawa, Isamu; Idehara, Toshitaka
2012-10-12
Dynamic mode interaction between fundamental and second-harmonic modes has been observed in high-power sub-terahertz gyrotrons [T. Notake et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 225002 (2009); T. Saito et al. Phys. Plasmas 19, 063106 (2012)]. Interaction takes place between a parasitic fundamental or first-harmonic (FH) mode and an operating second-harmonic (SH) mode, as well as among SH modes. In particular, nonlinear excitation of the parasitic FH mode in the hard self-excitation regime with assistance of a SH mode in the soft self-excitation regime was clearly observed. Moreover, both cases of stable two-mode oscillation and oscillation of the FH mode only were observed. These observations and theoretical analyses of the dynamic behavior of the mode interaction verify the nonlinear hard self-excitation of the FH mode. PMID:23102316
Electron excitation collision strengths for positive atomic ions: a collection of theoretical data
Merts, A.L.; Mann, J.B.; Robb, W.D.; Magee, N.H. Jr.
1980-03-01
This report contains data on theoretical and experimental cross sections for electron impact excitation of positive atomic ions. It is an updated and corrected version of a preliminary manuscript which was used during an Atomic Data Workshop on Electron Excitation of Ions held at Los Alamos in November 1978. The current status of quantitative knowledge of collisional excitation collision strengths is shown for highly stripped ions where configuration mixing, relativistic and resonance effects may be important. The results show a reasonably satisfactory state for first-row isoelectronic ions and indicate that a considerable amount of work remains to be done for second-row and heavier ions.
Dong, Shan; Zhang, Anmin; Liu, Kai; Ji, Jianting; Ye, Y G; Luo, X G; Chen, X H; Ma, Xiaoli; Jie, Yinghao; Chen, Changfeng; Wang, Xiaoqun; Zhang, Qingming
2016-02-26
The recent renaissance of black phosphorus (BP) as a two-dimensional (2D) layered material has generated tremendous interest, but its unique structural characters underlying many of its outstanding properties still need elucidation. Here we report Raman measurements that reveal an ultralow-frequency collective compression mode (CCM) in BP, which is unprecedented among similar 2D layered materials. This novel CCM indicates an unusually strong interlayer coupling, and this result is quantitatively supported by a phonon frequency analysis and first-principles calculations. Moreover, the CCM and another branch of low-frequency Raman modes shift sensitively with changing number of layers, allowing an accurate determination of the thickness up to tens of atomic layers, which is considerably higher than previously achieved by using high-frequency Raman modes. These findings offer fundamental insights and practical tools for further exploration of BP as a highly promising new 2D semiconductor. PMID:26967441
Perturbative Approach to the Collective Modes in the TRSB Phase of Multiband Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koyama, Tomio
2016-06-01
We develop a perturbative theory for the collective oscillation modes of the superconducting gaps in the time-reversal-symmetry-breaking (TRSB) phase of multiband superconductors. A perturbative series that has the pole singularity originating from the phase oscillation modes is constructed in general N-band systems with complex superconducting gaps so as to satisfy the Ward-Takahashi identity. We also present the perturbative series that leads to the singularity in the amplitude channel. Numerical results for the spectral functions of both phase and amplitude oscillation modes are given in a three-band case in which the TRSB phase appears. The perturbative series that brings about the Anderson-Higgs mechanism is also clarified in multiband charged superconductors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Shan; Zhang, Anmin; Liu, Kai; Ji, Jianting; Ye, Y. G.; Luo, X. G.; Chen, X. H.; Ma, Xiaoli; Jie, Yinghao; Chen, Changfeng; Wang, Xiaoqun; Zhang, Qingming
2016-02-01
The recent renaissance of black phosphorus (BP) as a two-dimensional (2D) layered material has generated tremendous interest, but its unique structural characters underlying many of its outstanding properties still need elucidation. Here we report Raman measurements that reveal an ultralow-frequency collective compression mode (CCM) in BP, which is unprecedented among similar 2D layered materials. This novel CCM indicates an unusually strong interlayer coupling, and this result is quantitatively supported by a phonon frequency analysis and first-principles calculations. Moreover, the CCM and another branch of low-frequency Raman modes shift sensitively with changing number of layers, allowing an accurate determination of the thickness up to tens of atomic layers, which is considerably higher than previously achieved by using high-frequency Raman modes. These findings offer fundamental insights and practical tools for further exploration of BP as a highly promising new 2D semiconductor.
Choke Flange for High Power RF Components Excited by TE01 Mode
Yeremian, A.Dian; /SLAC
2009-12-11
A multifaceted program to study high gradient structures and properties of RF breakdown is under way at SLAC. This program includes testing of simplified versions of traveling wave and standing wave structures at 11.4 GHz. [Dolgashev] RF power is fed into these structures using a TE01 mode-launcher. An RF flange is used to connect the mode-launcher to the test-structure. The rf currents flow through either the stainless steel lip on the flange or, in an alternate assembly, through a copper gasket pressed between the same stainless steel lips. In a recent experiment with a single cell traveling wave structure, a flange with stainless steel lips was irreversibly damaged at RF power about 90 MW and {approx}100 ns pulse length. We suggest an alternative flange that does not rely on metal-to-metal contact in the rf power transfer region. The idea is to use an asymmetric choke flange, where the choke grove is cut into a conflate flange on the mode-launcher. The structures themselves will have a simpler, flat conflate flange with rounded corners on the vacuum side. The Vacuum seal is achieved with a Cu gasket between these two flanges above the RF region. We have designed a flange with a choke which is almost field free in the vacuum gasket region, whose technical specifications and RF properties are presented below. Design simulations were conducted using HFSS, a 3D finite element code that solves electromagnetic fields in complex structures. Figure 1 demonstrates the projected physical look of the choke flange, while the table next to it lists the critical parameters. The maximum electric field for in this geometry is on axis at 33.6MV/m for 100 MW input. The electric field near the gasket, meaning at the top of the choke gap is at 125kV/m or 1.25kV/cm. Figure 2 demonstrates the electric field strength profile in the geometry for 100 MW input power. The maximum magnetic field for in this geometry is near the pipe at 59kA/m for 100 MW input. The magnetic field at the
Orzada, Stephan; Maderwald, Stefan; Poser, Benedikt Andreas; Bitz, Andreas K; Quick, Harald H; Ladd, Mark E
2010-08-01
As the field strength and, therefore, the operational frequency in MRI is increased, the wavelength approaches the size of the human head/body, resulting in wave effects, which cause signal decreases and dropouts. Several multichannel approaches have been proposed to try to tackle these problems, including RF shimming, where each element in an array is driven by its own amplifier and modulated with a certain (constant) amplitude and phase relative to the other elements, and Transmit SENSE, where spatially tailored RF pulses are used. In this article, a relatively inexpensive and easy to use imaging scheme for 7 Tesla imaging is proposed to mitigate signal voids due to B(1)(+) field inhomogeneity. Two time-interleaved images are acquired using a different excitation mode for each. By forming virtual receive elements, both images are reconstructed together using GRAPPA to achieve a more homogeneous image, with only small SNR and SAR penalty in head and body imaging at 7 Tesla. PMID:20574991
Kantarci-Carsibasi, Nigar; Haliloglu, Turkan; Doruker, Pemra
2008-01-01
Conformational transitions between open/closed or free/bound states in proteins possess functional importance. We propose a technique in which the collective modes obtained from an anisotropic network model (ANM) are used in conjunction with a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation approach, to investigate conformational transition pathways and pathway intermediates. The ANM-MC technique is applied to adenylate kinase (AK) and hemoglobin. The iterative method, in which normal modes are continuously updated during the simulation, proves successful in accomplishing the transition between open-closed conformations of AK and tense-relaxed forms of hemoglobin (Cα− root mean square deviations between two end structures of 7.13 Å and 3.55 Å, respectively). Target conformations are reached by root mean-square deviations of 2.27 Å and 1.90 Å for AK and hemoglobin, respectively. The intermediate conformations overlap with crystal structures from the AK family within a 3.0-Å root mean-square deviation. In the case of hemoglobin, the transition of tense-to-relaxed passes through the relaxed state. In both cases, the lowest-frequency modes are effective during transitions. The targeted Monte Carlo approach is used without the application of collective modes. Both the ANM-MC and targeted Monte Carlo techniques can explore sequences of events in transition pathways with an efficient yet realistic conformational search. PMID:18676657
Imaging collective magnonic modes in 2D arrays of magnetic nanoelements.
Kruglyak, V V; Keatley, P S; Neudert, A; Hicken, R J; Childress, J R; Katine, J A
2010-01-15
We have used time resolved scanning Kerr microscopy to image collective spin wave modes within a 2D array of magnetic nanoelements. Long wavelength spin waves are confined within the array as if it was a continuous element of the same size but with effective material properties determined by the structure of the array and its constituent nanoelements. The array is an example of a magnonic metamaterial, the demonstration of which provides new opportunities within the emerging field of magnonics. PMID:20366622
Imaging Collective Magnonic Modes in 2D Arrays of Magnetic Nanoelements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruglyak, V. V.; Keatley, P. S.; Neudert, A.; Hicken, R. J.; Childress, J. R.; Katine, J. A.
2010-01-01
We have used time resolved scanning Kerr microscopy to image collective spin wave modes within a 2D array of magnetic nanoelements. Long wavelength spin waves are confined within the array as if it was a continuous element of the same size but with effective material properties determined by the structure of the array and its constituent nanoelements. The array is an example of a magnonic metamaterial, the demonstration of which provides new opportunities within the emerging field of magnonics.
Allmond, James M
2016-01-01
The synthesis of Coulomb excitation and decay offers very practical advantages in the study of nuclear shapes and collectivity. For instance, Coulomb excitation is unique in its ability to measure the electric quadrupole moments, i.e., I2 ||M(E2)||I1 matrix elements, of excited, non-isomeric states in atomic nuclei, providing information on the intrinsic shape. However, the Coulomb excitation analysis and structural inter- pretation can be strongly dependent upon weak transitions or decay branches, which are often obscured by the Compton background. Transitions of particular interest are those low in energy and weak in intensity due to the E 5 attenuation factor. These weak decay branches can often be determined with high precision from -decay studies. Recently, 106Mo and 110Cd were studied by both Coulomb excitation and decay. Preliminary results of new weak decay branches following decay of 110mAg to 110Cd are presented; these results will challenge competing interpretations based on vibrations and configuration mixing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Zhenya; Wen, Zichao; Konotop, Vladimir V.
2015-08-01
We report branches of explicit expressions for nonlinear modes in parity-time (PT )-symmetric potentials of several types. For the single-well and double-well potentials the found solutions are two-parametric and appear to be stable even when the PT symmetry of respective underlying linear models is broken. Based on the examples of these solutions we describe an algorithm of excitation of a stable nonlinear mode in a model whose linear limit is unstable. The method is based on the adiabatic change of the control parameter driving the mode along a branch bifurcating from a stable linear mode. The suggested algorithm is confirmed by extensive numerical simulations.
Bonhommeau, David; Valero, Rosendo; Truhlar, Donald G.; Jasper, Ahren W.
2009-06-21
Using previously developed potential energy surfaces and their couplings, non-Born-Oppenheimer trajectory methods are used to study the state-selected photodissociation of ammonia, prepared with up to six quanta of vibrational excitation in the symmetric ({nu}{sub 1}) or antisymmetric ({nu}{sub 3}) stretching modes of NH{sub 3}(A-tilde). The predicted dynamics is mainly electronically nonadiabatic (that is, it produces ground electronic state amino radicals). The small probability of forming the excited-state amino radical is found, for low excitations, to increase with total energy and to be independent of whether the symmetric or antisymmetric stretch is excited; however some selectivity with respect to exciting the antisymmetric stretch is found when more than one quantum of excitation is added to the stretches, and more than 50% of the amino radical are found to be electronically excited when six quanta are placed in the antisymmetric stretch. These results are in contrast to the mechanism inferred in recent experimental work, where excitation of the antisymmetric stretch by a single quantum was found to produce significant amounts of excited-state products via adiabatic dissociation at total energies of about 7.0 eV. Both theory and experiment predict a broad range of translational energies for the departing H atoms when the symmetric stretch is excited, but the present simulations do not reproduce the experimental translational energy profiles when the antisymmetric stretch is excited. The sensitivity of the predicted results to several aspects of the calculation is considered in detail, and the analysis leads to insight into the nature of the dynamics that is responsible for mode selectivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Idini, A.; Potel, G.; Barranco, F.; Vigezzi, E.; Broglia, R. A.
2015-09-01
A complete characterization of the structure of nuclei can be obtained by combining information arising from inelastic scattering, Coulomb excitation, and γ -decay, together with one- and two-particle transfer reactions. In this way it is possible to probe both the single-particle and collective components of the nuclear many-body wave function resulting from the coupling of these modes and, as a result, diagonalizing the low-energy Hamiltonian. We address the question of how accurately such a description can account for experimental observations in the case of superfluid nuclei. Our treatment goes beyond the traditional approach, in which these properties are calculated separately, and most often for systems near closed shells, based on perturbative approximations (weak coupling). It is concluded that renormalizing empirically and on equal footing bare single-particle and collective motion of open-shell nuclei in terms of self-energy (mass) and vertex corrections (screening), as well as particle-hole and pairing interactions through particle-vibration coupling (PVC), leads to a detailed, quantitative account of the data, constraining the possible values of the k mass, of the 1S0 bare N N interaction, and of the PVC strengths within a rather narrow window.
EUV emission of Xe-clusters excited by a high-repetition rate burst mode laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stiel, Holger; Vogt, Ulrich; Ter-Avetisyan, Sargis; Schnurer, Matthias; Will, Ingo; Nickles, Peter V.
2002-10-01
In this contribution we describe a laser plasma source for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) based on a Xe-cluster target. Although Xe-clusters as target systems for EUVL are known for some time, no attempts have been made for a systematic study of the influence of the laser parameters on the EUV-emission at a well defined Xe-aggregation. The MBI burst mode laser used offers some unique features: Within one burst (duration 800 μs) the repetition rate of single laser pulses can be adjusted between 30 and 1000 kHz. The average power per burst is about 5 kW at the maximum energy of 4 J/burst. The pulse duration of a single pulse can be adjusted from the ps- to ns-range. We have examined the EUV-emission from the Xe-cluster target within one burst of the laser as a function of single pulse intensity and repetition rate. Based on the measured EUV-spectra the conversion efficiency at 13.4 nm wavelength in dependence on pulse duration in the range from 30 ps to 3 ns were estimated.
Ogasawara, S.; Kubo, S.; Nishiura, M.; Tanaka, K.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Ito, S.; Takita, Y.; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Tatematsu, Y.; Saito, T.; Minami, R.; Kariya, T.; Imai, T.
2012-10-15
Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic requires a strong probing beam to diagnose a bulk and fast ion distribution function in fusion plasmas. A mega-watt gyrotron for electron cyclotron resonance heating is used as a probing beam in the large helical device. Spurious mode oscillations are often observed during the turning on/off phase of the modulation. The frequency spectra of the 77-GHz gyrotron output power have been measured, and then one of the spurious modes, which interferes with the CTS receiver system, is identified as the TE{sub 17,6} mode at the frequency of 74.7 GHz. The mode competition calculation indicates that the increase of the magnetic field strength at the gyrotron resonator can avoid such a spurious mode and excite only the main TE{sub 18,6} mode. The spurious radiation at the 74.7 GHz is experimentally demonstrated to be suppressed in the stronger magnetic field than that optimized for the high-power operation.
Ogasawara, S; Kubo, S; Nishiura, M; Tatematsu, Y; Saito, T; Tanaka, K; Shimozuma, T; Yoshimura, Y; Igami, H; Takahashi, H; Ito, S; Takita, Y; Kobayashi, S; Mizuno, Y; Okada, K; Minami, R; Kariya, T; Imai, T
2012-10-01
Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic requires a strong probing beam to diagnose a bulk and fast ion distribution function in fusion plasmas. A mega-watt gyrotron for electron cyclotron resonance heating is used as a probing beam in the large helical device. Spurious mode oscillations are often observed during the turning on/off phase of the modulation. The frequency spectra of the 77-GHz gyrotron output power have been measured, and then one of the spurious modes, which interferes with the CTS receiver system, is identified as the TE(17,6) mode at the frequency of 74.7 GHz. The mode competition calculation indicates that the increase of the magnetic field strength at the gyrotron resonator can avoid such a spurious mode and excite only the main TE(18,6) mode. The spurious radiation at the 74.7 GHz is experimentally demonstrated to be suppressed in the stronger magnetic field than that optimized for the high-power operation. PMID:23126903
Kumagai, Tsutaru Kishi, Tetsuo; Yano, Tetsuji
2015-03-21
Bubble-containing Nd{sup 3+}-doped tellurite glass microspheres were fabricated by localized laser heating technique to investigate their optical properties for use as microresonators. Fluorescence and excitation spectra measurements were performed by pumping with a tunable CW-Ti:Sapphire laser. The excitation spectra manifested several sharp peaks due to the conventional whispering gallery mode (WGM) when the pumping laser was irradiated to the edge part of the microsphere. However, when the excitation light was irradiated on the bubble position inside the microsphere, “non-WGM excitation” was induced, giving rise to numerous peaks at a broad wavelength range in the excitation spectra. Thus, efficient excitation was achieved over a wide wavelength range. Lasing threshold excited at the bubble position was much lower than that for the excitation at the edges of the microsphere. The lowest value of the laser threshold was 34 μW for a 4 μm sphere containing a 0.5 μm bubble. Efficiency of the excitation at the bubble position with broadband light was calculated to be 5 times higher than that for the edge of the microsphere. The bubble-containing microsphere enables efficient utilization of broadband light excitation from light-emitting diodes and solar light.
Koinov, Zlatko; Mendoza, Rafael; Fortes, Mauricio
2011-03-11
We address the question of whether superfluidity can survive in the case of fermion pairing between different species with mismatched Fermi surfaces using as an example a population-imbalanced mixture of {sup 6}Li atomic Fermi gas loaded in a two-dimensional optical lattice at nonzero temperatures. The collective mode is calculated from the Bethe-Salpeter equations in the general random phase approximation assuming a Fulde-Ferrell order parameter. The numerical solution shows that, in addition to low-energy (Goldstone) mode, two rotonlike minima exist, and therefore, the superfluidity can survive in this imbalanced system.
Stochastic resonance in collective exciton-polariton excitations inside a GaAs microcavity.
Abbaspour, H; Trebaol, S; Morier-Genoud, F; Portella-Oberli, M T; Deveaud, B
2014-08-01
We report the first observation of stochastic resonance in confined exciton polaritons. We evidence this phenomena by tracking the polaritons behavior through two stochastic resonance quantifiers namely the spectral magnification factor and the signal-to-noise ratio. The evolution of the stochastic resonance in the function of the modulation amplitude of the periodic excitation signal is studied. Our experimental observations are well reproduced by numerical simulations performed in the framework of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation under stochastic perturbation. PMID:25126934
Is it possible to enhance the nuclear Schiff moment by nuclear collective modes?
Auerbach, N. Dmitriev, V. F. Flambaum, V. V. Lisetskiy, A. Sen'kov, R. A. Zelevinsky, V. G.
2007-09-15
The nuclear Schiff moment is predicted to be enhanced in nuclei with static quadrupole and octupole deformation. The analogous suggestion of the enhanced contribution to the Schiff moment from the soft collective quadrupole and octupole vibrations in spherical nuclei is tested in the framework of the quasiparticle random phase approximation with separable quadrupole and octupole forces applied to the odd {sup 217-221}Ra and {sup 217-221}Rn isotopes. In this framework, we confirm the existence of the enhancement effect due to the soft modes, but only in the limit when the frequencies of quadrupole and octupole vibrations are close to zero.
Salasnich, Luca; Malomed, Boris A; Toigo, Flavio
2014-10-01
We propose a possibility to simulate the exciton-polariton (EP) system in the lossless limit, which is not currently available in semiconductor microcavities, by means of a simple optical dual-core waveguide, with one core carrying the nonlinearity and operating close to the zero-group-velocity-dispersion point, and the other core being linear and dispersive. Both two-dimensional (2D) and one-dimensional (1D) EP systems may be emulated by means of this optical setting. In the framework of this system, we find that, while the uniform state corresponding to the lower branch of the nonlinear dispersion relation is stable against small perturbations, the upper branch is always subject to the modulational instability. The stability and instability are verified by direct simulations too. We analyze collective excitations on top of the stable lower-branch state, which include a Bogoliubov-like gapless mode and a gapped one. Analytical results are obtained for the corresponding sound velocity and energy gap. The effect of a uniform phase gradient (superflow) on the stability is considered too, with a conclusion that the lower-branch state becomes unstable above a critical wave number of the flux. Finally, we demonstrate that the stable 1D state may carry robust dark solitons. PMID:25375613
Emergence of collective modes and tri-dimensional structures from epithelial confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deforet, M.; Hakim, V.; Yevick, H. G.; Duclos, G.; Silberzan, P.
2014-05-01
Many in vivo processes, including morphogenesis or tumour maturation, involve small populations of cells within a spatially restricted region. However, the basic mechanisms underlying the dynamics of confined cell assemblies remain largely to be deciphered and would greatly benefit from well-controlled in vitro experiments. Here we show that confluent epithelial cells cultured on finite population-sized domains, exhibit collective low-frequency radial displacement modes as well as stochastic global rotation reversals. A simple mathematical model, in which cells are described as persistent random walkers that adapt their motion to that of their neighbours, captures the essential characteristics of these breathing oscillations. As these epithelia mature, a tri-dimensional peripheral cell cord develops at the domain edge by differential extrusion, as a result of the additional degrees of freedom of the border cells. These results demonstrate that epithelial confinement alone can induce morphogenesis-like processes including spontaneous collective pulsations and transition from 2D to 3D.
Eremenco, Sonya; Coons, Stephen Joel; Paty, Jean; Coyne, Karin; Bennett, Antonia V; McEntegart, Damian
2014-07-01
The objective of this report was to address the use and mixing of data collection modes within and between trials in which patient-reported outcome (PRO) end points are intended to be used to support medical product labeling. The report first addresses the factors that should be considered when selecting a mode or modes of PRO data collection in a clinical trial, which is often when mixing is first considered. Next, a summary of how to "faithfully" migrate instruments is presented followed by a section on qualitative and quantitative study designs used to evaluate measurement equivalence of the new and original modes of data collection. Finally, the report discusses a number of issues that must be taken into account when mixing modes is deemed necessary or unavoidable within or between trials, including considerations of the risk of mixing at different levels within a clinical trial program and mixing between different types of platforms. In the absence of documented evidence of measurement equivalence, it is strongly recommended that a quantitative equivalence study be conducted before mixing modes in a trial to ensure that sufficient equivalence can be demonstrated to have confidence in pooling PRO data collected by the different modes. However, we also strongly discourage the mixing of paper and electronic field-based instruments and suggest that mixing of electronic modes be considered for clinical trials and only after equivalence has been established. If proceeding with mixing modes, it is important to implement data collection carefully in the trial itself in a planned manner at the country level or higher and minimize ad hoc mixing by sites or individual subjects. Finally, when mixing occurs, it must be addressed in the statistical analysis plan for the trial and the ability to pool the data must be evaluated to then evaluate treatment effects with mixed modes data. A successful mixed modes trial requires a "faithful migration," measurement equivalence
Xu, Z.; Fauchet, M.; Rella, C.W.
1995-12-31
Hydrogen in amorphous and crystalline silicon has been the topic of intense theoretical and experimental investigations for more than one decade. To better understand how the Si-H bonds interact with the Si matrix and how they can be broken, it would be useful to excite selectively these bonds and monitor the energy flow from the Si-H bonds into the bulk Si modes. One attractive way of exciting the Si-H modes selectively is with an infrared laser tuned to a Si-H vibrational mode. Unfortunately, up to now, this type of experiment had not been possible because of the lack of a laser producing intense, ultrashort pulses that are tunable in the mid infrared. In this presentation, we report the first measurement where a 1 picosecond long laser pulse was used to excite the Si-H stretching modes near 2000 cm{sup -1} and another identical laser pulse was used to measure the deexcitation from that specific vibrational mode. The laser was the Stanford free electron laser generating {approximately}1 ps-long pulses, tunable in the 5 {mu}m region and focussed to an intensity of {approximately}1 GW/cm{sup 2}. The pump-probe measurements were performed in transmission at room temperature on several 2 {mu}m thick a-Si:H films deposited on c-Si. Samples with predominant Si-H{sub 1} modes, predominant Si-H{sub n>1} modes and with a mixture of modes were prepared. The laser was tuned on resonance with either of these modes. Immediately after excitation, we observe a bleaching of the infrared absorption, which can be attributed to excitation of the Si-H mode. Beaching is expected since, as a result of anharmonicity, the detuning between the (E{sub 3} - E{sub 2}) resonance and the (E{sub 2} - E{sub 1}) resonance is larger than the laser bandwidth. Note that despite the anharmonicity, it should be possible to climb the vibrational ladder due to power broadening.
Hsueh, Chun-Hway; Li, Jia-Han; Hatab, Nahla A.; Gu, Baohua
2011-01-01
The discovery of single-molecule sensitivity via surfaceenhanced Raman scattering on resonantly excited noble metal nanoparticles has brought an increasing interest in its applications to the molecule detection and identification. Periodic gold bowtie nanostructures have recently been shown to give a large enhancement factor sufficient for single molecule detection. In this work, we simulate the plasmon resonance for periodic gold bowtie nanostructures. The difference between the dipole and the quadrupole resonances is described by examining the magnitude and phase of electric field, the bound surface charge, and the polarization. The gap size dependence of the field enhancement can be interpreted by considering cavity field enhancement. Also, additional enhancement is obtained through the long-range collective photonic effect when the bowtie array periodicity matches the resonance wavelength.
Sokolov, V I; Marusin, N V; Panchenko, V Ya; Savelyev, A G; Seminogov, V N; Khaydukov, E V
2013-12-31
We propose a method for measuring simultaneously the refractive index n{sub f}, extinction coefficient m{sub f} and thickness H{sub f} of thin films. The method is based on the resonant excitation of waveguide modes in the film by a TE- or a TM-polarised laser beam in the geometry of frustrated total internal reflection. The values of n{sub f}, m{sub f} and H{sub f} are found by minimising the functional φ = [N{sup -1}Σ{sup N}{sub i=1}(R{sub exp}(θ{sub i}) – R{sub thr}(θ{sub i})){sup 2}]{sup 1/2}, where R{sub exp}(θ{sub i}) and R{sub thr}(θ{sub i}) are the experimental and theoretical coefficients of reflection of the light beam from the interface between the measuring prism and the film at an angle of incidence θ{sub i}. The errors in determining n{sub f}, m{sub f} and H{sub f} by this method are ±2 × 10{sup -4}, ±1 × 10{sup -3} and ±0.5%, respectively. (fiber and integrated optics)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruzza, B.; Chelda, S.; Robert-Goumet, C.; Bideux, L.; Monier, G.
2010-01-01
The Multi-Mode Elastic Peak Electron Spectroscopy (MM-EPES) analysis is confined to incoherent electron elastic scattering and the use of variable primary energy. This experimental method is very sensitive to the surface region of the sample. However, for quantitative interpretation, the MM-EPES method needs jointly a Monte Carlo (MC) computer simulation of electron trajectories in the solid. In the present work, we proposed a new approach to calculate the percentage η e of elastic reflected electrons by the surface of a sample. This simulation takes into account the surface effects (i.e. surface plasmon), and the atoms arrangement in the substrate. The concept of the surface excitation parameter (SEP) is also presented. Computer simulations were performed on the three low index single crystals of Cu, Au, Si and Ag. The results confirm that the distribution of substrate atoms, according to the crystallographic structure, influences the intensity measured by EPES. A simple prediction formula was proposed to calculate η e for elastic electrons entering in a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) spectrometer which is the apparatus giving experimentally numerical values of the percentage η e.
Tserenpuntsag, B; Nelson, K; Lamjav, O; Triner, W; Smith, P; Kacica, M; McNutt, L-A
2009-01-01
This study compares two methods (a self-administered paper survey and a face-to-face interview) of collecting information about personal risk behaviours important for studies of HIV and other blood-borne pathogen transmissions in a developing country. In the framework of an epidemiological study conducted among 2504 donors in the Blood Center at the Ministry of Health, Mongolia, 2250 participants completed a short paper survey and 923 participants were interviewed concerning risk factors for hepatitis infections. A total of 669 individuals completed both surveys. McNemar's test and Kappa statistics were used to compare responses from both types of questionnaire. Kappa coefficients for health-care factors ranged from 0.57 (injection outside of hospital) to 0.81 (previous blood donation). Alcohol use and smoking were both reported more often in the interview than in the survey; the kappa coefficient was lowest (0.61) for alcohol use. While the prevalence of these behaviours depended on the mode of data collection, the association between behaviour and an outcome, hepatitis B surface antigen, was not substantially different between the two data collection methods. The results indicate that misclassification of risk behaviours is likely regardless of data collection method. However, in this study we found that biased estimates of prevalence likely did not substantially bias the estimates of association between risk factors and blood-borne infection. PMID:19103891
Development of collective structures over noncollective excitations in {sup 139}Nd
Bhowal, S.; Gangopadhyay, G.; Petrache, C. M.; Ragnarsson, I.; Singh, A. K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Huebel, H.; Neusser-Neffgen, A.; Al-Khatib, A.; Bringel, P.; Buerger, A.; Nenoff, N.; Schoenwasser, G.; Hagemann, G. B.; Herskind, B.; Jensen, D. R.; Sletten, G.; Fallon, P.; Goergen, A.; Bednarczyk, P.
2011-08-15
High-spin states in {sup 139}Nd were investigated using the reaction {sup 96}Zr({sup 48}Ca,5n) at a beam energy of 195 MeV and {gamma}-ray coincidences were acquired with the Euroball spectrometer. Apart from several dipole bands at medium excitation energy, three quadrupole bands have been observed at high spin. Linking transitions connecting two of the high-spin bands to low-energy states have been observed. Calculations based on the cranked-Nilsson-Strutinsky formalism have been used to assign configurations for the high-spin quadrupole bands.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brand, Christian; Winkler, Andreas; Hess, Peter; Miklós, András; Bozóki, Zoltán; Sneider, János
1995-06-01
The pulsed excitation of acoustic resonances was studied with a continuously monitoring photoacoustic detector system. Acoustic waves were generated in C2H4/N 2 gas mixtures by light absorption of the pulses from a transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser. The photoacoustic part consisted of high-Q cylindrical resonators (Q factor 820 for the first radial mode in N2) and two adjoining variable acoustic filter systems. The time-resolved signal was Fourier transformed to a frequency spectrum of high resolution. For the first radial mode a Lorentzian profile was fitted to the measured data. The outside noise suppression and the signal-to-noise ratio were investigated in a normal laboratory environment in the flow-through mode. The acoustic and electric filter system combined with the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tu, Yanfei; Kim, May E.; Shahriar, Selim M.
2014-10-01
Previously, we had proposed the technique of light shift imbalance induced blockade which leads to a condition where a collection of non-interacting atoms under laser excitation remains combined to a superposition of the ground and the fist excited states, thus realizing a collective state quantum bit which in turn can be used to realize a quantum computer. In this paper, we show first that the light shift imbalance by itself is actually not enough to produce such a blockade, and explain the reason by the limitation of our previous analysis had reached this constraint. We then show that by introducing Rydberg interaction, it is possible to achieve such a blockade for a wide range of parameters. Analytic arguments used to establish these results are confirmed by numerical simulations. The fidelity of coupled quantum gates based on such collective state qubits is highly insensitive to the exact number of atoms in the ensemble. As such, this approach may prove be viable for scalable quantum computing based on neutral atoms.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, J.; Hastings, D. E.
1991-01-01
Current collecting systems moving in the ionosphere will induce electromagnetic wave radiation. The commonly used static analysis is incapable of studying the situation when such systems undergo transient processes. A dynamic analysis has been developed, and the radiation excitation processes are studied. This dynamic analysis is applied to study the temporal wave radiation from the activation of current collecting systems in space. The global scale electrodynamic interactions between a space-station-like structure and the ionospheric plasma are studied. The temporal evolution and spatial propagation of the electric wave field after the activation are described. The wave excitations by tethered systems are also studied. The dependencies of the temporal Alfven wave and lower hybrid wave radiation on the activation time and the space system structure are discussed. It is shown that the characteristics of wave radiation are determined by the matching of two sets of characteristic frequencies, and a rapid change in the current collection can give rise to substantial transient radiation interference. The limitations of the static and linear analysis are examined, and the condition under which the static assumption is valid is obtained.
Zhang Pei; Baboi, Nicoleta; Jones, Roger M.; Shinton, Ian R. R.; Flisgen, Thomas; Glock, Hans-Walter
2012-08-15
We investigate the feasibility of beam position diagnostics using higher order mode (HOM) signals excited by an electron beam in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH. After careful theoretical and experimental assessment of the HOM spectrum, three modal choices have been narrowed down to fulfill different diagnostics requirements. These are localized dipole beam-pipe modes, trapped cavity modes from the fifth dipole band, and propagating modes from the first two dipole bands. These modes are treated with various data analysis techniques: modal identification, direct linear regression (DLR), and singular value decomposition (SVD). Promising options for beam diagnostics are found from all three modal choices. This constitutes the first prediction, subsequently confirmed by experiments, of trapped HOMs in third harmonic cavities, and also the first direct comparison of DLR and SVD in the analysis of HOM-based beam diagnostics.
Collective nuclear excitations with Skyrme-second random-phase approximation
Gambacurta, D.; Catara, F.; Grasso, M.
2010-05-15
Second random-phase approximation (RPA) calculations with a Skyrme force are performed to describe both high- and low-lying excited states in {sup 16}O. The coupling between one particle-one hole and two particle-two hole as well as that between two particle-two hole configurations among themselves are fully taken into account, and the residual interaction is never neglected; we do not resort therefore to a generally used approximate scheme where only the first kind of coupling is considered. The issue of the rearrangement terms in the matrix elements beyond the standard RPA will be considered in detail in a forthcoming paper. Two approximations are employed here for these rearrangement terms: they are either neglected or evaluated with the RPA procedure. As a general feature of second RPA results, a several-MeV shift of the strength distribution to lower energies is systematically found with respect to RPA distributions. A much more important fragmentation of the strength is also naturally provided by the second RPA owing to the huge number of two particle-two hole configurations. A better description of the excitation energies of the low-lying 0{sup +} and 2{sup +} states is obtained with the second RPA than with the RPA.
Sesnic, S.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Okabayashi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Bell, R.E.; Bernabei, S.; Chance, M.S.; Hatcher, R.E.; Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.; Manickam, J.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.F.; Sauthoff, N.R.; Holland, A.; Asakura, N.; Duperrex, P.A.; Fonck, R.J.; Gammel, G.M.; Greene, G.J.; Jiang, T.W.; Levinton, F.M.; Powell, E.T.; Roberts, D.W.; Qin, Y.
1993-06-01
High-frequency pressure-driven modes have been observed in high-poloidal-{beta} discharges in the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M). These modes are excited in a non-axisymmetric equilibrium characterized by a large, low frequency m{sub 1}=1/n{sub 1}=1 island, and they are capable of expelling fast ions. The modes reside on or very close to the q=1 surface, and have mode numbers with either m{sub h}=n{sub h} or (less probably) m{sub h}/n{sub h}=m{sub h}/(m{sub h}-1), with m{sub h} varying between 3 and 10. Occasionally, these modes are, simultaneously localized in the vicinity of the m{sub 1}=2/n{sub 1}=1 island. The high frequency modes near the q=1 surface also exhibit a ballooning character, being significantly stronger on the large major radius side of the plasma. When a large m{sub 1}=1/n{sub 1}=1 island is present the mode is poloidally localized in the immediate vicinity of the x-point of the island. The modes, which occur exclusively in high-{beta} discharges, appear to be driven by the plasma pressure or pressure gradient. They can thus be a manifestation of either a toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmode (TAE) at q=(2m{sub h}+ 1)/2n{sub h}, a kinetic ballooning mode (KBM), or some other type of pressure-driven mode. Theory predicts that the TAE mode is a gap mode, but the high frequency modes in PBX-M are found exclusively on or in the immediate neighborhood of magnetic surfaces with low rational numbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Yuen, D. A.
2005-05-01
Solutions of the free-oscillation amplitudes,excited by the recent Sumatran wallop, by Okal and Stein ( 2005 ) have revealed a linearly growing trend in the semi-log plot between amplitude and period from 300 seconds to around an hour. This tantalizing plot (http://www.earth.northwestern.edu/people/seth/research/sumatra.html ) is very much reminiscent of the Rayleigh-Jeans portion of the Planck function in radiation physics, which was called the ultra-violet catastrophe. This distinct signature at long periods shows that some other physics must intervene to neutralize this singular tendency at a longer timescale. Thus in earthquake thermo-mechanics the size of an earthquake or moment is analogous to temperature in statistical physics. In this vein we have studied the thermal-mechanical shear interaction within the framework of a two-dimensional time-dependent model wherein a realistic visco-elastic-plastic rheology is implemented, and the governing equations include the momentum equation without inertia, the rheological and energy equations. We have retained all mechanical heating terms and heating terms involving volumetric expansion in the energy eq uation. In our simulations wherein we have modeled a bending situation, we encou nter two basically different bifurcation phenomena at the brittle-ductile transition-zone in the lithosphere, which can be attributed to two different families of eigenmodes of the system. One in which the shear zone nucleates on thermal perturbations in the ductile field, and the second which is fully associated with elasto-plastic (brittle, pressure-dependent) displacements. A quartz slab has all two modes operating simultaneously at three different depth levels. The bottom of the crust is controlled by the elasto-visco-plastic mode while the top is controlled by the elasto-plastic mode. The exchange of the two modes appears to communicate on a sub-horizontal layer in a flip-flop fashion, which may yield a fractal-like signature in time
Surface collective modes in the topological insulators Bi2Se3 and Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3-xSex
Kogar, A.; Gu, G.; Vig, S.; Thaler, A.; Wong, M. H.; Xiao, Y.; Reig-i-Plessis, D.; Cho, G. Y.; Valla, T.; Pan, Z.; et al
2015-12-15
In this study, we used low-energy, momentum-resolved inelastic electron scattering to study surface collective modes of the three-dimensional topological insulators Bi2Se3 and Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3-xSex. Our goal was to identify the “spin plasmon” predicted by Raghu and co-workers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 116401 (2010)]. Instead, we found that the primary collective mode is a surface plasmon arising from the bulk, free carriers in these materials. This excitation dominates the spectral weight in the bosonic function of the surface χ''(q,ω) at THz energy scales, and is the most likely origin of a quasiparticle dispersion kink observed in previous photoemission experiments. Our study suggestsmore » that the spin plasmon may mix with this other surface mode, calling for a more nuanced understanding of optical experiments in which the spin plasmon is reported to play a role.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stebliy, Maxim; Ognev, Alexey; Samardak, Alexander; Chebotkevich, Ludmila; Verba, Roman; Melkov, Gennadiy; Tiberkevich, Vasil; Slavin, Andrei
2015-06-01
Magnetization reversal in finite chains and square arrays of closely packed cylindrical magnetic dots, having vortex ground state in the absence of the external bias field, has been studied experimentally by measuring static hysteresis loops, and also analyzed theoretically. It has been shown that the field Bn of a vortex nucleation in a dot as a function of the finite number N of dots in the array's side may exhibit a monotonic or an oscillatory behavior depending on the array geometry and the direction of the external bias magnetic field. The oscillations in the dependence Bn(N) are shown to be caused by the quantization of the collective soft spin wave mode, which corresponds to the vortex nucleation in a finite array of dots. These oscillations are directly related to the form and symmetry of the dispersion law of the soft SW mode: the oscillation could appear only if the minimum of the soft mode spectrum is not located at any of the symmetric points inside the first Brillouin zone of the array's lattice. Thus, the purely static measurements of the hysteresis loops in finite arrays of coupled magnetic dots can yield important information about the properties of the collective spin wave excitations in these arrays.
Kumar, D.; Barman, A.; Kłos, J. W.; Krawczyk, M.
2014-01-28
We present the observation of a complete bandgap and collective spin wave excitation in two-dimensional magnonic crystals comprised of arrays of nanoscale antidots and nanodots, respectively. Considering that the frequencies dealt with here fall in the microwave band, these findings can be used for the development of suitable magnonic metamaterials and spin wave based signal processing. We also present the application of a numerical procedure, to compute the dispersion relations of spin waves for any high symmetry direction in the first Brillouin zone. The results obtained from this procedure have been reproduced and verified by the well established plane wave method for an antidot lattice, when magnetization dynamics at antidot boundaries are pinned. The micromagnetic simulation based method can also be used to obtain iso–frequency contours of spin waves. Iso–frequency contours are analogous of the Fermi surfaces and hence, they have the potential to radicalize our understanding of spin wave dynamics. The physical origin of bands, partial and full magnonic bandgaps have been explained by plotting the spatial distribution of spin wave energy spectral density. Although, unfettered by rigid assumptions and approximations, which afflict most analytical methods used in the study of spin wave dynamics, micromagnetic simulations tend to be computationally demanding. Thus, the observation of collective spin wave excitation in the case of nanodot arrays, which can obviate the need to perform simulations, may also prove to be valuable.
Goudevenos, J; Katsouras, C; Graekas, G; Argiri, O; Giogiakas, V; Sideris, D
2000-01-01
OBJECTIVE—To describe the mode of presentation and the clinical course of patients with ventricular pre-excitation (Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome), with special emphasis on asymptomatic cases in the general population. METHODS—Over an eight year period (1990-97) a prospective population based survey of cases with WPW pattern was conducted in a defined population in north west Greece (340 000 inhabitants). ECGs with WPW pattern were obtained from a widespread pool of ECGs within the health system. RESULTS—During the study period, 157 cases with WPW pattern were identified (49 female, 108 male). Ages ranged from infants to 84 years, mean (SD) 49.1 (21.0) years in female and 39.6 (20.6) years in male subjects (p < 0.01); 78 (49%) had no history of syndrome related symptoms. Asymptomatic subjects (n = 77; 24 female, 53 male) were older than symptomatic subjects (mean age 46.7 (21.0) v 38.5 (20.6) years, p < 0.03). Documented supraventricular tachycardia was recorded in 27 patients (17%) and atrial fibrillation in 12 (8%) (mean age at first episode 31.2 (18.3) and 51.6 (20.7) years, respectively, p < 0.01). During follow up (mean 55 months) no case of sudden death occurred. Three asymptomatic subjects reported episodes of brief palpitation. CONCLUSIONS—WPW pattern is more common, and diagnosed at a younger age, in men than in women. About half the patients with WPW pattern on ECG are asymptomatic at diagnosis and tend to remain so thereafter. No sudden cardiac death occurred during the study period. Keywords: Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome; epidemiology PMID:10618331
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maiti, Saurabh; Maslov, Dmitrii L.
2015-04-01
A Fermi liquid with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is expected to support a new set of collective modes: oscillations of magnetization in the absence of the magnetic field. We show that these modes are damped by the electron-electron interaction even in the limit of an infinitely long wavelength (q =0 ). The linewidth of the collective mode is on the order of Δ¯ 2/EF , where Δ ¯ is a characteristic spin-orbit energy splitting and EF is the Fermi energy. Such damping is in stark contrast to known damping mechanisms of both charge and spin collective modes in the absence of SOC, all of which disappear at q =0 , and arises because none of the components of total spin is conserved in the presence of SOC.
Phase structure, collective modes, and the axial anomaly in dense QCD
Yamamoto, Naoki; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Tachibana, Motoi; Baym, Gordon
2007-10-01
Using a general Ginzburg-Landau effective Lagrangian, we study the topological structure and low-lying collective modes of dense QCD having both chiral and diquark condensates, for two and three massless flavors. As we found earlier, the QCD axial anomaly acts as an external field applied to the chiral condensate in a color superconductor and, as a new critical point emerges, leads to a crossover between the broken chiral symmetry and color superconducting phases. At intermediate densities where both chiral and diquark condensates are present, we derive a generalized Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation between the masses of pseudoscalar bosons and the magnitude of the chiral and diquark condensates. We show explicitly the continuity of the ordinary pion at low densities to a generalized pion at high densities.
Collective mode formulation of the response algorithm for solving Kohn-Sham equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auer, J.; Krotscheck, E.
2003-04-01
We have developed a "collective mode" version of the response-iteration algorithm for solving the nonlinear Kohn-Sham equations. The algorithm utilizes approximation methods for the density-density response function that are known from microscopic many-body theories of strongly interacting Fermi systems. The major advantage over our previously proposed algorithm (J. Auer and E. Krotscheck, Comput. Phys. Comm. 118 (1999) 139-144) is that the new method needs the computation of occupied states only. Using spherical jellium clusters with up to 2000 electrons as an example, we show that the approximations implicit to our new algorithms do not deteriorate the convergence rate. An even simpler version approximates the density-density response function by that of a charged bose gas with the same density. This algorithm converges somewhat more slowly, but still provides a viable method for solving Kohn-Sham equations for small clusters.
Self consistent theories of superfluid density and collective modes in BCS-BEC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyack, Rufus; Anderson, Brandon; Wu, Chien-Te; Levin, Kathryn
Establishing fully self consistent and sum rule compatible response functions in strongly correlated Fermi superfluids has been a historically challenging subject. In this talk, we present recent progress pertaining to response functions in many-body Fermi systems. We note that even in strict BCS theory, the textbook derivation of density and current response functions in the gradient expansion breaks certain conservation laws such as the compressibility sum rule. To include additional contributions that preserve all expected conservation laws, we show how to exploit Ward identities within two different t-matrix schemes. In this way we address the density-density response (including collective modes) and the superfluid density. Finally, we characterize approximations made in the literature where some consistency requirements have been dropped.
Concavity of the collective excitation branch of a Fermi gas in the BEC-BCS crossover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurkjian, H.; Castin, Y.; Sinatra, A.
2016-01-01
We study the concavity of the dispersion relation q ↦ωq of the bosonic excitations of a three-dimensional spin-1/2 unpolarized Fermi gas in the random-phase approximation. In the limit of small wave numbers q , we obtain analytically the spectrum up to order 5 in q . In the neighborhood of q =0 , a change in concavity between the convex Bose-Einstein condensation limit and the concave BCS limit takes place at Δ /μ ≃0.869 (1 /kFa ≃-0.144 ), where a is the scattering length between opposite spin fermions, kF is the Fermi wave number and Δ the gap according to BCS theory, and μ is the chemical potential. At that point the branch is concave due to a negative fifth-order term. Our results are supplemented by a numerical study that shows the border between the zone of the (q ,Δ ) plane where q ↦ωq is concave and the zone where it is convex.
Kimura, Daiju Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Yano, Keisuke; Imai, Youta; Kumakura, Sho; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki
2014-02-15
We are constructing a tandem type ECRIS. The first stage is large-bore with cylindrically comb-shaped magnet. We optimize the ion beam current and ion saturation current by a mobile plate tuner. They change by the position of the plate tuner for 2.45 GHz, 11–13 GHz, and multi-frequencies. The peak positions of them are close to the position where the microwave mode forms standing wave between the plate tuner and the extractor. The absorbed powers are estimated for each mode. We show a new guiding principle, which the number of efficient microwave mode should be selected to fit to that of multipole of the comb-shaped magnets. We obtained the excitation of the selective modes using new mobile plate tuner to enhance ECR efficiency.
Penedo, M. Hormeño, S.; Fernández-Martínez, I.; Luna, M.; Briones, F.; Raman, A.
2014-10-27
Recent developments in dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy where several eigenmodes are simultaneously excited in liquid media are proving to be an excellent tool in biological studies. Despite its relevance, the search for a reliable, efficient, and strong cantilever excitation method is still in progress. Herein, we present a theoretical modeling and experimental results of different actuation methods compatible with the operation of Atomic Force Microscopy in liquid environments: ideal acoustic, homogeneously distributed force, distributed applied torque (MAC Mode™), photothermal and magnetostrictive excitation. From the analysis of the results, it can be concluded that magnetostriction is the strongest and most efficient technique for higher eigenmode excitation when using soft cantilevers in liquid media.
Li, Xiaomin; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Fan; Zhou, Lei; Shen, Dengke; Yao, Chi; Zhao, Dongyuan
2013-01-01
Core/shell1/shell2/shell3 structured NaGdF4:Nd/NaYF4/NaGdF4:Nd,Yb,Er/NaYF4 nanocrystals were well designed and synthesized, each of the parts assume respective role and work together to achieve dual-mode upconverting (UC) and downconverting (DC) luminescence upon the low heat effect 800-nm excitation. Nd3+, Yb3+, Er3+ tri-doped NaGdF4:Nd,Yb,Er UC layer [NIR (800 nm)-to-Visible (540 nm)] with a constitutional efficient 800 nm excitable property were achieved for the in-vitro bioimaging with low auto-fluorescence and photo-damage effects. Moreover, typical NIR (800 nm)-to-NIR (860–895 nm) DC luminescence of Nd3+ has also been realized with this designed nanostructure. Due to the low heat effect, high penetration depth of the excitation and the high efficiency of the DC luminescence, the in-vivo high contrast DC imaging of a whole body nude mouse was achieved. We believe that such dual-mode luminescence NCs will open the door to engineering the excitation and emission wavelengths of NCs and will provide a new tool for a wide variety of applications in the fields of bioanalysis and biomedical. PMID:24346622
Li, Xiaomin; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Fan; Zhou, Lei; Shen, Dengke; Yao, Chi; Zhao, Dongyuan
2013-01-01
Core/shell1/shell2/shell3 structured NaGdF4:Nd/NaYF4/NaGdF4:Nd,Yb,Er/NaYF4 nanocrystals were well designed and synthesized, each of the parts assume respective role and work together to achieve dual-mode upconverting (UC) and downconverting (DC) luminescence upon the low heat effect 800-nm excitation. Nd(3+), Yb(3+), Er(3+) tri-doped NaGdF4:Nd,Yb,Er UC layer [NIR (800 nm)-to-Visible (540 nm)] with a constitutional efficient 800 nm excitable property were achieved for the in-vitro bioimaging with low auto-fluorescence and photo-damage effects. Moreover, typical NIR (800 nm)-to-NIR (860-895 nm) DC luminescence of Nd(3+) has also been realized with this designed nanostructure. Due to the low heat effect, high penetration depth of the excitation and the high efficiency of the DC luminescence, the in-vivo high contrast DC imaging of a whole body nude mouse was achieved. We believe that such dual-mode luminescence NCs will open the door to engineering the excitation and emission wavelengths of NCs and will provide a new tool for a wide variety of applications in the fields of bioanalysis and biomedical. PMID:24346622
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, Kyo-Hoon; Lee, Kwan-Woo; Pickett, Warren E.
2015-09-01
NbP is one member of a new class of nodal loop semimetals characterized by the cooperative effects of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and a lack of inversion center. Here transport and spectroscopic properties of NbP are evaluated using density functional theory methods. SOC together with the lack of inversion symmetry splits degeneracies, giving rise to "Russian doll nested" Fermi surfaces containing 4 ×10-4 electron (hole) carriers/f.u. Due to the modest SOC strength in Nb, the Fermi surfaces map out the Weyl nodal loops. Calculated structure around T*≈100 K in transport properties reproduces well the observed transport behavior only when SOC is included, attesting to the precision of the (delicate) calculations and the stoichiometry of the samples. Low-energy collective electron-hole excitations (plasmons) in the 20-60 meV range result from the nodal loop splitting.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, Luiz E.; Sturm, K.
1984-08-01
The Aschroft and Sturm two-band-model on the optical properties of Al is extended for finite k values and the dielectric function ɛ( k,ω) is evaluated for k parallel to the <100 > direction within nearly-free-electron degenerate perturbation theory. It is shown that a pair of (200) Bragg planes gives rise to another pole in the energy loss function Im[-1/ɛ( k,ω)] and hence to a collective mode which is of the same origin as the so-called zone boundary collective mode first proposed by Foo and Hopfield in Na. The dispersion and the strength of this (200)-zone boundary collective mode in Al are evaluated along the <100 > direction and the theoretical results agree very well with electron energy loss spectroscopy data. Comparison is also made with a numerical calculation by Singhal for some discrete k-values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrillo, C.; Sacchetti, F.; Guarini, E.; Bove, L. E.; Demmel, F.
2011-09-01
The ion dynamics of a saturated lithium ammonia solution was investigated by inelastic neutron scattering with optimized resolution. The experimental dispersion curve and mode damping, here carefully probed in a wave-vector range extending well below and above 1 Å-1, display visible anomalies around 0.8 Å-1. We relate the dispersion relation anomaly to the shape of the electron gas dielectric function, which screens the ion-ion potential in a way peculiar of the low electron density of the system. The increase of the damping around 0.8 Å-1 also supports the presence of a new decay channel for the collective excitations. An interpretation of these effects, based on the low electron-density properties of the lithium-ammonia solution, is proposed.
Kato, Yushi; Furuki, Hideyuki; Asaji, Toyohisa; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki
2006-03-15
Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) have been widely used for production of high-intensity multicharged ion beams. Making good use of microwave modes is proposed for enhancing the efficiency of ECR for production of multicharged ions (TAIKO II). We can assign the peak position of the electric field of the standing waves to the ECR zone in the directly excited cavity resonator, i.e., the vacuum chamber with the fixed and the mobile plates for selecting and tuning the modes. Periodicity of the extracted multicharged ion currents and plasma parameters is observed as the position of the mobile plate moves. We measure the intensity of the electric field in the ECR plasma by using the insulated semidipole probe and the standing waves are observed. The correlation between the production of multicharged ions and the microwave modes is clarified by measuring the electric field and plasma parameters in the circular cavity resonator.
Golfinopoulos, T.; LaBombard, B.; Parker, R. R.; Burke, W.; Davis, E.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Irby, J.; Leccacorvi, R.; Marmar, E.; Parkin, W.; Porkolab, M.; Terry, J.; Vieira, R.; Wolfe, S.
2014-05-15
A novel “Shoelace” antenna has been used to inductively excite a short-wavelength edge fluctuation in a tokamak boundary layer for the first time. The principal design parameters, k{sub ⊥}=1.5±0.1 cm{sup −1} and 45
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gascoyne, A.; Jain, R.; Hindman, B. W.
2014-07-01
We consider damping and absorption of solar p modes due to their energy loss to magnetic tube waves that can freely carry energy out of the acoustic cavity. The coupling of p modes and sausage tube waves is studied in a model atmosphere composed of a polytropic interior above which lies an isothermal upper atmosphere. The sausage tube waves, excited by p modes, propagate along a magnetic fibril which is assumed to be a vertically aligned, stratified, thin magnetic flux tube. The deficit of p-mode energy is quantified through the damping rate, Γ, and absorption coefficient, α. The variation of Γ and α as a function of frequency and the tube's plasma properties is studied in detail. Previous similar studies have considered only a subphotospheric layer, modeled as a polytrope that has been truncated at the photosphere. Such studies have found that the resulting energy loss by the p modes is very sensitive to the upper boundary condition, which, due to the lack of an upper atmosphere, have been imposed in a somewhat ad hoc manner. The model presented here avoids such problems by using an isothermal layer to model the overlying atmosphere (chromosphere, and, consequently, allows us to analyze the propagation of p-mode-driven sausage waves above the photosphere. In this paper, we restrict our attention to frequencies below the acoustic cut off frequency. We demonstrate the importance of coupling all waves (acoustic, magnetic) in the subsurface solar atmosphere with the overlying atmosphere in order to accurately model the interaction of solar f and p modes with sausage tube waves. In calculating the absorption and damping of p modes, we find that for low frequencies, below ≈3.5 mHz, the isothermal atmosphere, for the two-region model, behaves like a stress-free boundary condition applied at the interface (z = -z 0).
Gascoyne, A.; Jain, R.; Hindman, B. W. E-mail: r.jain@sheffield.ac.uk
2014-07-10
We consider damping and absorption of solar p modes due to their energy loss to magnetic tube waves that can freely carry energy out of the acoustic cavity. The coupling of p modes and sausage tube waves is studied in a model atmosphere composed of a polytropic interior above which lies an isothermal upper atmosphere. The sausage tube waves, excited by p modes, propagate along a magnetic fibril which is assumed to be a vertically aligned, stratified, thin magnetic flux tube. The deficit of p-mode energy is quantified through the damping rate, Γ, and absorption coefficient, α. The variation of Γ and α as a function of frequency and the tube's plasma properties is studied in detail. Previous similar studies have considered only a subphotospheric layer, modeled as a polytrope that has been truncated at the photosphere. Such studies have found that the resulting energy loss by the p modes is very sensitive to the upper boundary condition, which, due to the lack of an upper atmosphere, have been imposed in a somewhat ad hoc manner. The model presented here avoids such problems by using an isothermal layer to model the overlying atmosphere (chromosphere, and, consequently, allows us to analyze the propagation of p-mode-driven sausage waves above the photosphere. In this paper, we restrict our attention to frequencies below the acoustic cut off frequency. We demonstrate the importance of coupling all waves (acoustic, magnetic) in the subsurface solar atmosphere with the overlying atmosphere in order to accurately model the interaction of solar f and p modes with sausage tube waves. In calculating the absorption and damping of p modes, we find that for low frequencies, below ≈3.5 mHz, the isothermal atmosphere, for the two-region model, behaves like a stress-free boundary condition applied at the interface (z = –z{sub 0}).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morozov, Yevhenii; Kryuchyn, Andriy A.; Petrov, Viacheslav V.; Lapchuk, Anatoliy S.
2014-09-01
Results of numerical simulation of near-field optical data storage using microstrip probe are presented. Simulation is carried out on the basis of the finite-difference time-domain method. Features of the information reading process from the ROM and RW (based on the phase transmissions of Ge2Sb2Te5 film) formats of optical discs under illumination and illumination-collection mode are analyzed and considered. Mathematical modeling has shown that the signal from the ROM-format disc under illumination mode, despite the fact that the probe has a significant far-field transmission coefficient, has a large crosstalk and small spatial resolution (significantly worse than a size of probe aperture). Unlike illumination mode, signal under illumination-collection mode (pure near-field method) has a resolution close to the size of the aperture, good amplitude and contrast, as well as relatively low crosstalk. However, information reading under illumination-collection mode from RW-format disc is not able to get the same good quality signal. Therefore the further optimization of the method is required to improve the signal quality of RW format.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avram, Daniel; Florea, Mihaela; Tiseanu, Ion; Tiseanu, Carmen
2015-09-01
Herein, we report on the emission color tunability of Er doped BiOCl measured under up—conversion as well as x-ray excitation modes. The dependence of red (670 nm) to green emission (543 nm) ratio on Er concentration (1 and 5%), excitation wavelength into different (656.4, 802 and 976 nm) or across single Er absorption levels (965 ÷ 990 nm) and delay after the laser pulse (0.001 ÷ 1 ms) is discussed in terms of ground state absorption/excited state absorption and energy transfer up-conversion mechanisms. A first example of extended Er x-ray emission measured in the range of 500 to 1700 nm shows comparable emission intensities corresponding to 543 nm and 1500 nm based transitions. The present results together with our earlier report on the upconversion emission of Er doped BiOCl excited at 1500 nm, suggest that Er doped BiOCl may be considered an attractive system for optical and x-ray imaging applications.
Svoboda, K; Denk, W; Knox, W H; Tsuda, S
1996-09-01
A Cr:LiSrAlFl laser, pumped with a diffraction-limited laser diode and mode locked with a saturable Bragg reflector, produces 90-fs pulses at 860 nm with a cw power as high as 88 mW in two beams. It is shown that this recently developed, compact, solid-state laser can be used as an excitation source for two-photon laser scanning microscopy. Morphological and functional images of neocortical and cerebellar neurons were obtained with submicrometer three-dimensional resolution. Single dendritic spines could easily be resolved deep in scattering tissue. PMID:19876369
Diaz-Egea, Carlos; Abargues, Rafael; Martínez-Pastor, Juan P; Sigle, Wilfried; van Aken, Peter A; Molina, Sergio I
2015-12-01
Non-isolated nanoparticles show a plasmonic response that is governed by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) collective modes created by the nanoparticle aggregates. The individual and collective LSPR modes of silver nanoparticle aggregated by covalent binding by means of bifunctional molecular linkers are described in this study. Individual contributions to the collective modes are investigated at nanometer scale by means of energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy and compared to ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. It is found that the aspect ratio and the shape of the clusters are the two main contributors to the low-energy collective modes. PMID:26239880
Liu, Xia-Ji Hu, Hui
2014-11-15
We calculate the frequency of collective modes of a one-dimensional repulsively interacting Fermi gas with high-spin symmetry confined in harmonic traps at zero temperature. This is a system realizable with fermionic alkaline-earth-metal atoms such as {sup 173}Yb, which displays an exact SU(κ) spin symmetry with κ⩾2 and behaves like a spinless interacting Bose gas in the limit of infinite spin components κ→∞, namely high-spin bosonization. We solve the homogeneous equation of state of the high-spin Fermi system by using Bethe ansatz technique and obtain the density distribution in harmonic traps based on local density approximation. The frequency of collective modes is calculated by exactly solving the zero-temperature hydrodynamic equation. In the limit of large number of spin-components, we show that the mode frequency of the system approaches that of a one-dimensional spinless interacting Bose gas, as a result of high-spin bosonization. Our prediction of collective modes is in excellent agreement with a very recent measurement for a Fermi gas of {sup 173}Yb atoms with tunable spin confined in a two-dimensional tight optical lattice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naya, Masayuki; Mononobe, Shuji; Uma Maheswari, R.; Saiki, Tosiharu; Ohtsu, Motoichi
1996-02-01
We report on high resolution imaging by a collection-mode photon scanning tunneling microscope (c-mode PSTM). In our PSTM system, we have used a novel probe with a nanometric protrusion formed from a metal coated sharpened fiber. By using this probe, flagellar filaments of salmonella of diameter 25 nm could be imaged to have a full width at half maximum of 50 nm. Obtained images strongly depended on the separation of the sample to the probe, the diameter of the aperture, and polarization of the irradiated light. Comments on the origins of these dependencies are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nader Esfahani, Nima; Qiao, Xin; Peale, Robert E.; Buchwald, Walter R.; Hendrickson, Joshua R.; Cleary, Justin W.
2013-12-01
THz electromagnetic waves resonantly excite plasmons in the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) of high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) via grating-gate couplers. These excitations can induce measureable photoresponse. Biasing the grating gate tunes the photoresponse via control of 2DEG carrier density. Plasmons are investigated here in an InGaAs/InP HEMT with a 9 μm period grating gate at 78 and 106 GHz free-space radiation and 4K sample temperature. The dependence of the photoresponse on applied Source-Drain bias is also investigated. The minimum noise equivalent power (NEP) is estimated to be 113 pW/Hz1/2 , with maximum responsivity of 200 V/W. Such plasmonic alterations in channel conductance provide a means for voltage-tunable THz and sub-THz detectors or filters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hui, Shuai; Gao, Junhua; Wu, Xingzhi; Li, Zhongguo; Zou, Yousheng; Song, Yinglin; Cao, Hongtao
2016-06-01
We utilized a co-sputtering technique without any templates, featuring growing and etching synchronously, to delicately fabricate dense and ultrafine Ag nanowire arrays/alumina matrix composite films. Both the diameter and separation distance of the Ag nanowire arrays in the composites are not only within the scope of sub-10 nm but also tunable, which is very hard to accomplish for the conventional optical lithography- or template-based method. It is exhibited that the collective longitudinal plasmon resonance of the composite films, covering a wide range from visible to the near infrared region, is extremely sensitive to the geometrical parameters of the Ag nanowires, owing to the strong plasmonic coupling among neighboring nanowires. The experimental observations were also theoretically supported by the near-field electromagnetic numerical simulation. More interestingly, the fabricated composite films demonstrated ultrafast nonlinear optical response in the visible light region under femtosecond laser excitation, possessing a short relaxation time of 1.45 ps for the longitudinal mode (L mode) resonance. These results indicate that the proposed composite films as a building block with exotic optical properties could provide an opportunity to construct integrated nanodevices for plasmonic optical applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseini Jenab, S. M.; Kourakis, I.
2014-04-01
A series of numerical simulations based on a recurrence-free Vlasov kinetic algorithm presented earlier [Abbasi et al., Phys. Rev. E 84, 036702 (2011)] are reported. Electron-ion plasmas and three-component (electron-ion-dust) dusty, or complex, plasmas are considered, via independent simulations. Considering all plasma components modeled through a kinetic approach, the nonlinear behavior of ionic scale acoustic excitations is investigated. The focus is on Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) modes generated during the simulations. In particular, we aim at investigating the parametric dependence of the characteristics of BGK structures, namely of their time periodicity (τtrap) and their amplitude, on the electron-to-ion temperature ratio and on the dust concentration. In electron-ion plasma, an exponential relation between τtrap and the amplitude of BGK modes and the electron-to-ion temperature ratio is observed. It is argued that both characteristics, namely, the periodicity τtrap and amplitude, are also related to the size of the phase-space vortex which is associated with BGK mode creation. In dusty plasmas, BGK modes characteristics appear to depend on the dust particle density linearly.
Sun, Jin; Li, Guang; Liang, WanZhen
2015-07-14
A real-time time-dependent density functional theory coupled with the classical electrodynamics finite difference time domain technique is employed to systematically investigate the optical properties of hybrid systems composed of silver nanoparticles (NPs) and organic adsorbates. The results demonstrate that the molecular absorption spectra throughout the whole energy range can be enhanced by the surface plasmon resonance of Ag NPs; however, the absorption enhancement ratio (AER) for each absorption band differs significantly from the others, leading to the quite different spectral profiles of the hybrid complexes in contrast to those of isolated molecules or sole NPs. Detailed investigations reveal that the AER is sensitive to the energy gap between the molecular excitation and plasmon modes. As anticipated, two separate absorption bands, corresponding to the isolated molecules and sole NPs, have been observed at a large energy gap. When the energy gap approaches zero, the molecular excitation strongly couples with the plasmon mode to form the hybrid exciton band, which possesses the significantly enhanced absorption intensity, a red-shifted peak position, a surprising strongly asymmetric shape of the absorption band, and the nonlinear Fano effect. Furthermore, the dependence of surface localized fields and the scattering response functions (SRFs) on the geometrical parameters of NPs, the NP-molecule separation distance, and the external-field polarizations has also been depicted. PMID:26058430
Direct observation of collective modes coupled to molecular orbital-driven charge transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Hayes, Stuart A.; Keskin, Sercan; Corthey, Gastón; Hada, Masaki; Pichugin, Kostyantyn; Marx, Alexander; Hirscht, Julian; Shionuma, Kenta; Onda, Ken; Okimoto, Yoichi; Koshihara, Shin-ya; Yamamoto, Takashi; Cui, Hengbo; Nomura, Mitsushiro; Oshima, Yugo; Abdel-Jawad, Majed; Kato, Reizo; Miller, R. J. Dwayne
2015-12-01
Correlated electron systems can undergo ultrafast photoinduced phase transitions involving concerted transformations of electronic and lattice structure. Understanding these phenomena requires identifying the key structural modes that couple to the electronic states. We report the ultrafast photoresponse of the molecular crystal Me4P[Pt(dmit)2]2, which exhibits a photoinduced charge transfer similar to transitions between thermally accessible states, and demonstrate how femtosecond electron diffraction can be applied to directly observe the associated molecular motions. Even for such a complex system, the key large-amplitude modes can be identified by eye and involve a dimer expansion and a librational mode. The dynamics are consistent with the time-resolved optical study, revealing how the electronic, molecular, and lattice structures together facilitate ultrafast switching of the state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, Kanika; Sajal, Vivek; Kumar, Ravindra; Sharma, Navneet K.
2016-01-01
The decay instability of non-resonant beat mode is investigated in homogeneous, hot, and collision less plasma having transverse static magnetic field. Two counter-propagating X-mode lasers with frequency difference ω1˜ω2≥2 ωp and wave numbers k→ 1 and k→ 2 drive a non-resonant space charge beat wave at phase matching conditions of frequency ω0=ω1˜ω2 and wave numbers k→ 0=k→ 1+k→ 2 . The driven beat wave acts as a pump for decay instability and parametrically excites a pair of lower hybrid wave (ω,k → ) and sideband upper hybrid wave (ω3,k→ 3) propagating in sideward direction so that momentum remains conserved. The sideband wave couples with the driver beat wave to exert ponderomotive force on plasma electrons at frequency ω=ω0+ω3 . The oscillatory motion of plasma electrons due to ponderomotive force and lower hybrid wave causes density perturbation in plasma, which couples with oscillating beat mode by feedback mechanism and gives rise to a sideband wave at resonance. The maximum growth rate is achieved at scattering angels θs˜30 ° and θs˜150 ° . The growth rate becomes half by changing applied magnetic field from ˜90 T to ˜270 T . The suppression of decay instability can be beneficial for parametric excitation of fast plasma wave (coupled with slow plasma wave) by two counter-propagating lasers for electron acceleration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorfman, S.; Carter, T. A.
2015-05-01
The nonlinear three-wave interaction process at the heart of the parametric decay process is studied by launching counter-propagating Alfvén waves from antennas placed at either end of the Large Plasma Device [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)]. A resonance in the beat wave response produced by the two launched Alfvén waves is observed and is identified as a damped ion acoustic mode based on the measured dispersion relation. Other properties of the interaction including the spatial profile of the beat mode and response amplitude are also consistent with theoretical predictions for a three-wave interaction driven by a nonlinear ponderomotive force. A simple damped, driven oscillator model making use of the MHD equations well-predicts most of the observations, but the width of the resonance curve is still under investigation.
Dorfman, S.; Carter, T. A.
2015-05-15
The nonlinear three-wave interaction process at the heart of the parametric decay process is studied by launching counter-propagating Alfvén waves from antennas placed at either end of the Large Plasma Device [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)]. A resonance in the beat wave response produced by the two launched Alfvén waves is observed and is identified as a damped ion acoustic mode based on the measured dispersion relation. Other properties of the interaction including the spatial profile of the beat mode and response amplitude are also consistent with theoretical predictions for a three-wave interaction driven by a nonlinear ponderomotive force. A simple damped, driven oscillator model making use of the MHD equations well-predicts most of the observations, but the width of the resonance curve is still under investigation.
Dong, Hang; Zhang, Wenyuan; Zhou, Li; Ma, Yongli
2015-01-01
We investigate the transition and damping of low-energy collective modes in a trapped unitary Fermi gas by solving the Boltzmann-Vlasov kinetic equation in a scaled form, which is combined with both the T-matrix fluctuation theory in normal phase and the mean-field theory in order phase. In order to connect the microscopic and kinetic descriptions of many-body Feshbach scattering, we adopt a phenomenological two-fluid physical approach, and derive the coupling constants in the order phase. By solving the Boltzmann-Vlasov steady-state equation in a variational form, we calculate two viscous relaxation rates with the collision probabilities of fermion’s scattering including fermions in the normal fluid and fermion pairs in the superfluid. Additionally, by considering the pairing and depairing of fermions, we get results of the frequency and damping of collective modes versus temperature and s-wave scattering length. Our theoretical results are in a remarkable agreement with the experimental data, particularly for the sharp transition between collisionless and hydrodynamic behaviour and strong damping between BCS and unitary limits near the phase transition. The sharp transition originates from the maximum of viscous relaxation rate caused by fermion-fermion pair collision at the phase transition point when the fermion depair, while the strong damping due to the fast varying of the frequency of collective modes from BCS limit to unitary limit. PMID:26522094
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Hang; Zhang, Wenyuan; Zhou, Li; Ma, Yongli
2015-11-01
We investigate the transition and damping of low-energy collective modes in a trapped unitary Fermi gas by solving the Boltzmann-Vlasov kinetic equation in a scaled form, which is combined with both the T-matrix fluctuation theory in normal phase and the mean-field theory in order phase. In order to connect the microscopic and kinetic descriptions of many-body Feshbach scattering, we adopt a phenomenological two-fluid physical approach, and derive the coupling constants in the order phase. By solving the Boltzmann-Vlasov steady-state equation in a variational form, we calculate two viscous relaxation rates with the collision probabilities of fermion’s scattering including fermions in the normal fluid and fermion pairs in the superfluid. Additionally, by considering the pairing and depairing of fermions, we get results of the frequency and damping of collective modes versus temperature and s-wave scattering length. Our theoretical results are in a remarkable agreement with the experimental data, particularly for the sharp transition between collisionless and hydrodynamic behaviour and strong damping between BCS and unitary limits near the phase transition. The sharp transition originates from the maximum of viscous relaxation rate caused by fermion-fermion pair collision at the phase transition point when the fermion depair, while the strong damping due to the fast varying of the frequency of collective modes from BCS limit to unitary limit.
Dong, Hang; Zhang, Wenyuan; Zhou, Li; Ma, Yongli
2015-01-01
We investigate the transition and damping of low-energy collective modes in a trapped unitary Fermi gas by solving the Boltzmann-Vlasov kinetic equation in a scaled form, which is combined with both the T-matrix fluctuation theory in normal phase and the mean-field theory in order phase. In order to connect the microscopic and kinetic descriptions of many-body Feshbach scattering, we adopt a phenomenological two-fluid physical approach, and derive the coupling constants in the order phase. By solving the Boltzmann-Vlasov steady-state equation in a variational form, we calculate two viscous relaxation rates with the collision probabilities of fermion's scattering including fermions in the normal fluid and fermion pairs in the superfluid. Additionally, by considering the pairing and depairing of fermions, we get results of the frequency and damping of collective modes versus temperature and s-wave scattering length. Our theoretical results are in a remarkable agreement with the experimental data, particularly for the sharp transition between collisionless and hydrodynamic behaviour and strong damping between BCS and unitary limits near the phase transition. The sharp transition originates from the maximum of viscous relaxation rate caused by fermion-fermion pair collision at the phase transition point when the fermion depair, while the strong damping due to the fast varying of the frequency of collective modes from BCS limit to unitary limit. PMID:26522094
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenstein, B.; Shapiro, B. Ya.; Shapiro, I.
2015-08-01
It was recently shown that conventional phonon-electron interactions may induce a triplet pairing state in time-reversal invariant three-dimensional Dirac semimetals. Starting from the microscopic model of the isotropic Dirac semimetal, the Ginzburg-Landau equations for the vector order parameter is derived using the Gor'kov technique. The collective modes including gapless Goldstone modes and gapped Higgs modes of various polarizations are identified. They are somewhat analogous to the modes in the B phase of He3, although in the present case quantitatively there is a pronounced difference between longitudinal and transverse components. The difference is caused by the vector nature of the order parameter leading to two different coherence lengths or penetration depths. The system is predicted to be highly dissipative due to the Goldstone modes. The time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model in the presence of external fields is used to investigate some optical and magnetic properties of such superconductors. The ac conductivity of a clean sample depends on the orientation of the order parameter. It is demonstrated that the difference between the penetration depths results in rotation of the polarization vector of microwave passing a slab made of this material. The upper critical magnetic field Hc 2 was found. It turns out that at fields close to Hc 2 the order parameter orients itself perpendicular to the field direction. In certain range of parameters the triplet superconducting phase persists at arbitrarily high magnetic field like in some p -wave superconductors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jaehak; Kim, Junhoe; Kim, Bosung; Cho, Young-Jun; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Sang-Koog
2016-07-01
We performed micromagnetic numerical calculations to explore a cylindrical nanotube's magnetization dynamics and domain-wall (DW) motions driven by eigen-circular-rotating magnetic fields of different frequencies. We discovered the presence of two different localized DW oscillations as well as asymmetric ferromagnetic resonance precession and azimuthal spin-wave modes at the corresponding resonant frequencies of the circular-rotating fields. Associated with these intrinsic modes, there exist very contrasting DW motions of different speed and propagation direction for a given DW chirality. The direction and speed of the DW propagation were found to be controllable according to the rotation sense and frequency of noncontact circular-rotating fields. Furthermore, spin-wave emissions from the moving DW were observed at a specific field frequency along with their Doppler effect. This work furthers the fundamental understanding of soft magnetic nanotubes' intrinsic dynamic modes and spin-wave emissions and offers an efficient means of manipulating the speed and direction of their DW propagations.
Magdy S. Tawfik; Binh T. Pham; Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J. Lybeck
2011-09-01
Interest in implementing advanced Prognostic Health Management (PHM) systems in commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) has increased rapidly in recent years, with an overarching goal of implementing of improving the safety, reliability, and economics/profitability of the aging nuclear fleet and extending their service life in the most cost-effective manner. The PHM system utilizes prognostic tools to estimate the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or system of components based on current and predicted operating conditions. An effective implementation of the PHM system will anticipate and identify unique age-dependent degradation modes to provide early warning of emerging problems. Selection of the components and structures to be monitored is a crucial step for successful PHM implementation in NPPs. A selection framework is recommended for risk significant components (both safety-related and non-safety related) based on the Fussell-Vesely (F-V) Importance Measure and the Risk Achievement Worth (RAW) measure. For the selected components, a failure mode degradation library will be developed consisting of data corresponding to different failure/degradation modes. In lieu of constructing an expensive scaled test facility, several data sources are identified for populating the failure mode degradation library, including various national laboratories, universities, agencies, and industries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Hiroshi; Shiratsu, Taisuke
2016-05-01
Large magneto-optical (MO) responses at the energy of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), namely, surface magnetoplasmons, are demonstrated for the first time in thiolate-protected silver nanoparticles with magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy. The samples examined are decanethiol (DT)-, azobenzenethiol (ABT)-, and ABT/DT mixed-monolayer-protected Ag nanoparticles. ABT-protected Ag nanoparticles are somewhat aggregated and thus exhibit a broad, collective mode of plasmonic absorption, whereas other samples with highly-dispersed nanoparticles show an individual mode of LSPR absorption. In all Ag nanoparticles, a derivative-like MCD signal is observed under an applied magnetic field of 1.6 T, which can be explained in terms of two circular modes of magnetoplasmon caused by the increase (or decrease) in the Lorentz force imparted on the free electrons that oscillate in the left (or right) circular orbits in the nanosphere. For the Ag nanoparticles exhibiting an individual LSPR mode, in particular, simultaneous deconvolution analysis of UV-vis absorption and MCD spectra reveal that (i) the amplitude of the magnetoplasmonic component with lower frequency (ω-), resulting from the reduction in the confinement strength of collective electrons by the Lorentz force, is stronger than that with a higher frequency (ω+) (ii) the accurate shift or cyclotron frequency between two magnetoplasmonic modes (ωc = ω+ - ω-) is size-dependent, and presents a very large value with implications for the apparent enhancement of the local magnetic-field in the Ag nanoparticles. These results strongly suggest that the Ag-thiolate layer or Ag-S bonding on the nanoparticle surface plays a significant role in the MO enhancement.Large magneto-optical (MO) responses at the energy of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), namely, surface magnetoplasmons, are demonstrated for the first time in thiolate-protected silver nanoparticles with magnetic circular dichroism (MCD
Yao, Hiroshi; Shiratsu, Taisuke
2016-06-01
Large magneto-optical (MO) responses at the energy of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), namely, surface magnetoplasmons, are demonstrated for the first time in thiolate-protected silver nanoparticles with magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy. The samples examined are decanethiol (DT)-, azobenzenethiol (ABT)-, and ABT/DT mixed-monolayer-protected Ag nanoparticles. ABT-protected Ag nanoparticles are somewhat aggregated and thus exhibit a broad, collective mode of plasmonic absorption, whereas other samples with highly-dispersed nanoparticles show an individual mode of LSPR absorption. In all Ag nanoparticles, a derivative-like MCD signal is observed under an applied magnetic field of 1.6 T, which can be explained in terms of two circular modes of magnetoplasmon caused by the increase (or decrease) in the Lorentz force imparted on the free electrons that oscillate in the left (or right) circular orbits in the nanosphere. For the Ag nanoparticles exhibiting an individual LSPR mode, in particular, simultaneous deconvolution analysis of UV-vis absorption and MCD spectra reveal that (i) the amplitude of the magnetoplasmonic component with lower frequency (ω-), resulting from the reduction in the confinement strength of collective electrons by the Lorentz force, is stronger than that with a higher frequency (ω+); (ii) the accurate shift or cyclotron frequency between two magnetoplasmonic modes (ωc = ω+-ω-) is size-dependent, and presents a very large value with implications for the apparent enhancement of the local magnetic-field in the Ag nanoparticles. These results strongly suggest that the Ag-thiolate layer or Ag-S bonding on the nanoparticle surface plays a significant role in the MO enhancement. PMID:27188783
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pastells, Carme; Marco, M. Pilar; Merino, David; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Pasquardini, Laura; Pederzolli, Cecilia; Farnesi, Daniele; Berneschi, Simone; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero; Soria Huguet, Silvia
2015-03-01
We report the non linear fluorescence real-time detection of labeled IgG covalently bonded to the surface of a microspherical whispering gallery mode resonator (WGMR). The immunoreagents have been immobilized onto the surface of the WGMR sensor after being activated with an epoxy silane and an orienting layer. The developed immunosensor presents great potential as a robust sensing device for fast and early detection of immunoreactions. We also tested the potential of microbubbles as nonlinear enhancement platform. The dyes used in these studies are tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate and Rhodamine 6G. All measurements were performed in a modified confocal microscope.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Naib, Ibraheem; Singh, Ranjan; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lederer, Falk; Delprat, Sebastien; Rocheleau, David; Chaker, Mohamed; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Morandotti, Roberto
2012-08-01
We propose a mirrored arrangement of asymmetric single split ring resonators (ASRs) that dramatically enhances the quality factor of the inductive-capacitive resonance. In a regular non-mirrored arrangement, the surface current modes are all oriented in phase. Hence, light scattered by individual ASRs interferes constructively. In contrast, the proposed configuration sustains surface currents that are oppositely oriented for neighboring ASRs, in turn leading to the cancellation of the net dipole moment accompanied by destructive interference of the scattered fields. The proposed arrangement holds promise to suppress radiation losses in terahertz, microwave and infrared plasmonic metamaterials.
Cao, Gaoqing; He, Lianyi; Zhuang, Pengfei
2014-09-15
It is known that a constant magnetic field is a strong catalyst of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in 2+1 dimensions, leading to generating dynamical fermion mass even at weakest attraction. In this work we investigate the collective modes associated with the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in a constant magnetic field in the (2+1)-dimensional Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model with continuous U(1) chiral symmetry. We introduce a self-consistent scheme to evaluate the propagators of the collective modes at the leading order in 1/N. The contributions from the vacuum and from the magnetic field are separated such that we can employ the well-established regularization schememore » for the case of vanishing magnetic field. The same scheme can be applied to the study of the next-to-leading order correction in 1/N. We show that the sigma mode is always a lightly bound state with its mass being twice the dynamical fermion mass for arbitrary strength of the magnetic field. Since the dynamics of the collective modes is always 2+1 dimensional, the finite temperature transition should be of the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) type. We determine the KT transition temperature TKT as well as the mass melting temperature T* as a function of the magnetic field. It is found that the pseudogap domain TKT < T < T* is enlarged with increasing strength of the magnetic field. The influence of a chiral imbalance or axial chemical potential μ5 is also studied. We find that even a constant axial chemical potential μ5 can lead to inverse magnetic catalysis of the KT transition temperature in 2+1 dimensions. As a result, the inverse magnetic catalysis behavior is actually the de Haas–van Alphen oscillation induced by the interplay between the magnetic field and the Fermi surface.« less
Cao, Gaoqing; He, Lianyi; Zhuang, Pengfei
2014-09-15
It is known that a constant magnetic field is a strong catalyst of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in 2+1 dimensions, leading to generating dynamical fermion mass even at weakest attraction. In this work we investigate the collective modes associated with the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in a constant magnetic field in the (2+1)-dimensional Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model with continuous U(1) chiral symmetry. We introduce a self-consistent scheme to evaluate the propagators of the collective modes at the leading order in 1/N. The contributions from the vacuum and from the magnetic field are separated such that we can employ the well-established regularization scheme for the case of vanishing magnetic field. The same scheme can be applied to the study of the next-to-leading order correction in 1/N. We show that the sigma mode is always a lightly bound state with its mass being twice the dynamical fermion mass for arbitrary strength of the magnetic field. Since the dynamics of the collective modes is always 2+1 dimensional, the finite temperature transition should be of the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) type. We determine the KT transition temperature T_{KT} as well as the mass melting temperature T* as a function of the magnetic field. It is found that the pseudogap domain T_{KT} < T < T* is enlarged with increasing strength of the magnetic field. The influence of a chiral imbalance or axial chemical potential μ_{5} is also studied. We find that even a constant axial chemical potential μ5 can lead to inverse magnetic catalysis of the KT transition temperature in 2+1 dimensions. As a result, the inverse magnetic catalysis behavior is actually the de Haas–van Alphen oscillation induced by the interplay between the magnetic field and the Fermi surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlank, Carter; James, Royce; Thayer, Nicholas; Sherman, Justin; Nolan, Stephen; Lopez, Michael
2012-10-01
Small helicon plasmas have been employed in various capacities from industry to spacecraft propulsion. At the Coast Guard Academy Plasma Lab (CGAPL), a small Helicon Plasma Experiment (HPX) is being developed to utilize the reputed high density (10^13 cm-3 and higher) at low pressure (.01 T) [1] Helicon Mode Plasmas. HPX will become a high temperature and density diagnostic development test-bed for future laboratory investigations in addition to becoming a tool for future spacecraft propulsion devices. HPX Plasmas are created by imparting directed energy into a Pyrex tube preloaded with Ar gas with fill pressures on the order of 10^4 mTorr utalizing a power supply and matching box can deliver up 250 W of power in a 20 MHz to 100 MHz frequency range. It has been demonstrated [1] that a uniform magnetic field in lower energy level plasmas can facilitate a decrease in inertial effects, which promotes energy conservation within the plasma and provids the necessary external energy in the plasma's magnetic field to reach the Helicon Mode. HPX employes an electromagnet to establish this uniform field. An acceleration coil, currently under construction, will be used to increase the plasma velocity to facilitate partcle and optical probing within the vacuum chamber for experimental analysis. Initial accuracy and calibration measurements of the relative magnetic fields created by both electromagnets will be reported.[0pt][1] K. Toki, et al., Thin Solid Films 506-507 (2005).
Optical properties of microfabricated fully-metal-coated near-field probes in collection mode.
Descrovi, Emiliano; Vaccaro, Luciana; Aeschimann, Laure; Nakagawa, Wataru; Staufer, Urs; Herzig, Hans-Peter
2005-07-01
A study of the optical properties of microfabricated, fully-metal-coated quartz probes collecting longitudinal and transverse optical fields is presented. The measurements are performed by raster scanning the focal plane of an objective, focusing azimuthally and radially polarized beams by use of two metal-coated quartz probes with different metal coatings. A quantitative estimation of the collection efficiencies and spatial resolutions in imaging both longitudinal and transverse fields is made. Longitudinally polarized fields are collected with a resolution approximately 1.5 times higher as compared with transversely polarized fields, and this behavior is almost independent of the roughness of the probe's metal coating. Moreover, the coating roughness is a critical parameter in the relative collection efficiency of the two field orientations. PMID:16053165
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heilman, A. L.; Gordon, M. J.
2016-06-01
A tip-enhanced near-field optical microscope with side-on and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) excitation and collection is described and used to demonstrate sub-diffraction-limited (super-resolution) optical and chemical characterization of surfaces. ATR illumination is combined with an Au optical antenna tip to show that (i) the tip can quantitatively transduce the optical near-field (evanescent waves) above the surface by scattering photons into the far-field, (ii) the ATR geometry enables excitation and characterization of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), whose associated optical fields are shown to enhance Raman scattering from a thin layer of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), and (iii) SPPs can be used to plasmonically excite the tip for super-resolution chemical imaging of patterned CuPc via tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). ATR-illumination TERS is also quantitatively compared with the more conventional side-on illumination scheme. In both cases, spatial resolution was better than 40 nm and tip on/tip off Raman enhancement factors were >6500. Furthermore, ATR illumination was shown to provide similar Raman signal levels at lower "effective" pump powers due to additional optical energy delivered by SPPs to the active region in the tip-surface gap.
Bangert, U.; Pierce, W.; Boothroyd, C.; Pan, C.-T.; Gwilliam, R.
2016-01-01
Plasmons in the visible/UV energy regime have attracted great attention, especially in nano-materials, with regards to applications in opto-electronics and light harvesting; tailored enhancement of such plasmons is of particular interest for prospects in nano-plasmonics. This work demonstrates that it is possible, by adequate doping, to create excitations in the visible/UV regime in nano-carbon materials, i.e., carbon nanotubes and graphene, with choice of suitable ad-atoms and dopants, which are introduced directly into the lattice by low energy ion implantation or added via deposition by evaporation. Investigations as to whether these excitations are of collective nature, i.e., have plasmonic character, are carried out via DFT calculations and experiment-based extraction of the dielectric function. They give evidence of collective excitation behaviour for a number of the introduced impurity species, including K, Ag, B, N, and Pd. It is furthermore demonstrated that such excitations can be concentrated at nano-features, e.g., along nano-holes in graphene through metal atoms adhering to the edges of these holes. PMID:27271352
Bangert, U; Pierce, W; Boothroyd, C; Pan, C-T; Gwilliam, R
2016-01-01
Plasmons in the visible/UV energy regime have attracted great attention, especially in nano-materials, with regards to applications in opto-electronics and light harvesting; tailored enhancement of such plasmons is of particular interest for prospects in nano-plasmonics. This work demonstrates that it is possible, by adequate doping, to create excitations in the visible/UV regime in nano-carbon materials, i.e., carbon nanotubes and graphene, with choice of suitable ad-atoms and dopants, which are introduced directly into the lattice by low energy ion implantation or added via deposition by evaporation. Investigations as to whether these excitations are of collective nature, i.e., have plasmonic character, are carried out via DFT calculations and experiment-based extraction of the dielectric function. They give evidence of collective excitation behaviour for a number of the introduced impurity species, including K, Ag, B, N, and Pd. It is furthermore demonstrated that such excitations can be concentrated at nano-features, e.g., along nano-holes in graphene through metal atoms adhering to the edges of these holes. PMID:27271352
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bangert, U.; Pierce, W.; Boothroyd, C.; Pan, C.-T.; Gwilliam, R.
2016-06-01
Plasmons in the visible/UV energy regime have attracted great attention, especially in nano-materials, with regards to applications in opto-electronics and light harvesting; tailored enhancement of such plasmons is of particular interest for prospects in nano-plasmonics. This work demonstrates that it is possible, by adequate doping, to create excitations in the visible/UV regime in nano-carbon materials, i.e., carbon nanotubes and graphene, with choice of suitable ad-atoms and dopants, which are introduced directly into the lattice by low energy ion implantation or added via deposition by evaporation. Investigations as to whether these excitations are of collective nature, i.e., have plasmonic character, are carried out via DFT calculations and experiment-based extraction of the dielectric function. They give evidence of collective excitation behaviour for a number of the introduced impurity species, including K, Ag, B, N, and Pd. It is furthermore demonstrated that such excitations can be concentrated at nano-features, e.g., along nano-holes in graphene through metal atoms adhering to the edges of these holes.
He, Y. Z.; Bao, C. G.
2011-12-15
The response of spin-2 small condensates to an external magnetic field B is studied. The parameters of the interaction are considered as variable. The emphasis is placed on clarifying the modes of excitation caused by the quadratic Zeeman term. The theoretical method used is beyond the mean-field theory. A set of eigenstates with the U(5) superset of SO(5) superset of SO(3) symmetry is introduced to facilitate the analysis. To obtain a quantitative evaluation on the response, the fidelity susceptibility and the B-dependent average populations of spin components have been calculated. Mostly the particle number N=30 is assumed. The effect with a larger or smaller N is also considered. It was found that the sensitivity of the response depends strongly both on the interaction and on the inherent symmetry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Y. Z.; Bao, C. G.
2011-12-01
The response of spin-2 small condensates to an external magnetic field B is studied. The parameters of the interaction are considered as variable. The emphasis is placed on clarifying the modes of excitation caused by the quadratic Zeeman term. The theoretical method used is beyond the mean-field theory. A set of eigenstates with the U(5)⊃SO(5)⊃SO(3) symmetry is introduced to facilitate the analysis. To obtain a quantitative evaluation on the response, the fidelity susceptibility and the B-dependent average populations of spin components have been calculated. Mostly the particle number N=30 is assumed. The effect with a larger or smaller N is also considered. It was found that the sensitivity of the response depends strongly both on the interaction and on the inherent symmetry.
Zuo, Chengjie; Van der Spiegel, Jan; Piazza, Gianluca
2010-01-01
This paper reports on the first demonstration of a 1.05-GHz microelectromechanical (MEMS) oscillator based on lateral-field-excited (LFE) piezoelectric AlN contourmode resonators. The oscillator shows a phase noise level of -81 dBc/Hz at 1-kHz offset frequency and a phase noise floor of -146 dBc/Hz, which satisfies the global system for mobile communications (GSM) requirements for ultra-high frequency (UHF) local oscillators (LO). The circuit was fabricated in the AMI semiconductor (AMIS) 0.5-microm complementary metaloxide- semiconductor (CMOS) process, with the oscillator core consuming only 3.5 mW DC power. The device overall performance has the best figure-of-merit (FoM) when compared with other gigahertz oscillators that are based on film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR), surface acoustic wave (SAW), and CMOS on-chip inductor and capacitor (CMOS LC) technologies. A simple 2-mask process was used to fabricate the LFE AlN resonators operating between 843 MHz and 1.64 GHz with simultaneously high Q (up to 2,200) and kt 2 (up to 1.2%). This process further relaxes manufacturing tolerances and improves yield. All these advantages make these devices suitable for post-CMOS integrated on-chip direct gigahertz frequency synthesis in reconfigurable multiband wireless communications. PMID:20040430
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Archer, M. O.; Hartinger, M. D.; Walsh, B. M.; Plaschke, F.; Angelopoulos, V.
2015-12-01
Coupled fast mode resonances (cFMRs) in the outer magnetosphere, between the magnetopause and a turning point, are often invoked to explain observed discrete frequency field line resonances. We quantify their frequency variability, applying cFMR theory to a realistic magnetic field model and magnetospheric density profiles observed over almost half a solar cycle. Our calculations show that cFMRs are most likely around dawn, since the plasmaspheric plumes and extended plasmaspheres often found at noon and dusk can preclude their occurrence. The relative spread (median absolute deviation divided by the median) in eigenfrequencies is estimated to be 28%, 72%, and 55% at dawn, noon, and dusk, respectively, with the latter two chiefly due to density. Finally, at dawn we show that the observed bimodal density distribution results in bimodal cFMR frequencies, whereby the secondary peaks are consistent with the so-called "CMS" frequencies that have previously been attributed to cFMRs.
Verma, Kanika; Sajal, Vivek Kumar, Ravindra; Sharma, Navneet K.; Baliyan, Sweta
2015-06-15
The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) of nonresonant beat mode in the presence of static magnetic field is investigated in a plasma. Two counter-propagating lasers of frequencies (ω{sub 1} and ω{sub 2}) and wave vectors (k{sub 1} and k{sub 2}) drive a nonresonant space charge beat mode at the phase matching condition of frequency ω{sub 0}≈ω{sub 1}∼ω{sub 2} and wave number k{sup →}{sub 0}≈k{sup →}{sub 1}+k{sup →}{sub 2}. The driver wave parametrically excites a pair of ion acoustic wave (ω,k{sup →}) and a sideband electromagnetic wave (ω{sub 3},k{sup →}{sub 3}). The beat wave couples with the sideband electromagnetic wave to exert a nonlinear ponderomotive force at the frequency of ion acoustic wave. Density perturbations due to ion acoustic wave and ponderomotive force couple with the oscillatory motion of plasma electron due to velocity of beat wave to give rise to a nonlinear current (by feedback mechanism) responsible for the growth of sideband wave at resonance. The growth rate of SBS was reduced (from ∼10{sup 12}s{sup −1} to 10{sup 10}s{sup −1}) by applying a transverse static magnetic field ∼90 T. The present study can be useful for the excitation of fast plasma waves (for the purpose of electron acceleration) by two counter-propagating laser beams.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fahy, Stephen; Murray, Eamonn
2015-03-01
Using first principles electronic structure methods, we calculate the induced force on the Eg (zone centre transverse optical) phonon mode in bismuth immediately after absorption of a ultrafast pulse of polarized light. To compare the results with recent ultra-fast, time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments, we include the decay of the force due to carrier scattering, as measured in optical Raman scattering experiments, and simulate the optical absorption process, depth-dependent atomic driving forces, and x-ray diffraction in the experimental geometry. We find excellent agreement between the theoretical predictions and the observed oscillations of the x-ray diffraction signal, indicating that first-principles theory of optical absorption is well suited to the calculation of initial atomic driving forces in photo-excited materials following ultrafast excitation. This work is supported by Science Foundation Ireland (Grant No. 12/IA/1601) and EU Commission under the Marie Curie Incoming International Fellowships (Grant No. PIIF-GA-2012-329695).
Hydrophobic collapse induces changes in the collective protein and hydration low frequency modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luong, Trung Quan; Xu, Yao; Bründermann, Erik; Leitner, David M.; Havenith, Martina
2016-05-01
Rapid kinetic terahertz absorption spectroscopy (KITA) was used to directly probe changes in the collective protein-solvent dynamics during protein folding subsequent to a temperature jump. We monitored changes in the low frequency absorption of the solvated protein λ6-85* with a time resolution of less than 50 μs. Absorption at low frequency yields information about the collective protein-solvent interaction. The spectral changes below 2 THz are correlated with the hydrophobic collapse of λ6-85*, while there is no indication of any correlation with secondary structure formation, which is an order of magnitude faster.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teran, F. J.; Potemski, M.; Maude, D. K.; Plantier, D.; Hassan, A. K.; Sachrajda, A.; Wilamowski, Z.; Jaroszynski, J.; Wojtowicz, T.; Karczewski, G.
2003-08-01
We have studied the low energy spin excitations in n-type CdMnTe based dilute magnetic semiconductor quantum wells. For magnetic fields for which the energies for the excitation of free carriers and Mn spins are almost identical, an anomalously large Knight shift is observed. Our findings suggest the existence of a magnetic-field-induced ferromagnetic order in these structures, which is in agreement with recent theoretical predictions [
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dupuis, N.; Yakovenko, V. M.
1999-02-01
We study the collective modes in the magnetic-field induced spin-density-wave (FISDW) phases experimentally observed in organic conductors of the Bechgaard salts family. In phases that exhibit a sign reversal of the quantum Hall effect (Ribault anomaly), the coexistence of two spin-density waves gives rise to additional long-wavelength collective modes besides the Goldstone modes due to spontaneous translation and rotation symmetry breaking. These modes strongly affect the charge and spin response functions. We discuss some experimental consequences for the Bechgaard salts.
Surface Majorana fermions and bulk collective modes in superfluid 3He-B
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, YeJe; Chung, Suk Bum; Maciejko, Joseph
2015-02-01
The theoretical study of topological superfluids and superconductors has so far been carried out largely as a translation of the theory of noninteracting topological insulators into the superfluid language, whereby one replaces electrons by Bogoliubov quasiparticles and single-particle band Hamiltonians by Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonians. Band insulators and superfluids are, however, fundamentally different: While the former exist in the absence of interparticle interactions, the latter are broken symmetry states that owe their very existence to such interactions. In particular, unlike the static energy gap of a band insulator, the gap in a superfluid is due to a dynamical order parameter that is subject to both thermal and quantum fluctuations. In this work, we explore the consequences of bulk quantum fluctuations of the order parameter in the B phase of superfluid 3He on the topologically protected Majorana surface states. Neglecting the high-energy amplitude modes, we find that one of the three spin-orbit Goldstone modes in 3He-B couples to the surface Majorana fermions. This coupling in turn induces an effective short-range two-body interaction between the Majorana fermions, with coupling constant inversely proportional to the strength of the nuclear dipole-dipole interaction in bulk 3He. A mean-field theory suggests that the surface Majorana fermions in 3He-B may be in the vicinity of a metastable gapped time-reversal-symmetry-breaking phase.
Al-Subari, Karema; Al-Baddai, Saad; Tomé, Ana Maria; Volberg, Gregor; Hammwöhner, Rainer; Lang, Elmar W.
2015-01-01
We discuss a data-driven analysis of EEG data recorded during a combined EEG/fMRI study of visual processing during a contour integration task. The analysis is based on an ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and discusses characteristic features of event related modes (ERMs) resulting from the decomposition. We identify clear differences in certain ERMs in response to contour vs noncontour Gabor stimuli mainly for response amplitudes peaking around 100 [ms] (called P100) and 200 [ms] (called N200) after stimulus onset, respectively. We observe early P100 and N200 responses at electrodes located in the occipital area of the brain, while late P100 and N200 responses appear at electrodes located in frontal brain areas. Signals at electrodes in central brain areas show bimodal early/late response signatures in certain ERMs. Head topographies clearly localize statistically significant response differences to both stimulus conditions. Our findings provide an independent proof of recent models which suggest that contour integration depends on distributed network activity within the brain. PMID:25910061
Ultrafast optical excitation of magnetic skyrmions.
Ogawa, N; Seki, S; Tokura, Y
2015-01-01
Magnetic skyrmions in an insulating chiral magnet Cu2OSeO3 were studied by all-optical spin wave spectroscopy. The spins in the conical and skyrmion phases were excited by the impulsive magnetic field from the inverse-Faraday effect, and resultant spin dynamics were detected by using time-resolved magneto-optics. Clear dispersions of the helimagnon were observed, which is accompanied by a distinct transition into the skyrmion phase, by sweeping temperature and magnetic field. In addition to the collective excitations of skyrmions, i.e., rotation and breathing modes, several spin precession modes were identified, which would be specific to optical excitation. The ultrafast, nonthermal, and local excitation of the spin systems by photons would lead to the efficient manipulation of nano-magnetic structures. PMID:25897634
Ultrafast optical excitation of magnetic skyrmions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogawa, N.; Seki, S.; Tokura, Y.
2015-04-01
Magnetic skyrmions in an insulating chiral magnet Cu2OSeO3 were studied by all-optical spin wave spectroscopy. The spins in the conical and skyrmion phases were excited by the impulsive magnetic field from the inverse-Faraday effect, and resultant spin dynamics were detected by using time-resolved magneto-optics. Clear dispersions of the helimagnon were observed, which is accompanied by a distinct transition into the skyrmion phase, by sweeping temperature and magnetic field. In addition to the collective excitations of skyrmions, i.e., rotation and breathing modes, several spin precession modes were identified, which would be specific to optical excitation. The ultrafast, nonthermal, and local excitation of the spin systems by photons would lead to the efficient manipulation of nano-magnetic structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbasi, Mustafa; Sadeghi, Yahya; Sobhanian, Samad; Asgarian, Mohammad Ali
2016-03-01
The electron Bernstein wave (EBW) is typically the only wave in the electron cyclotron (EC) range that can be applied in spherical tokamaks for heating and current drive (H&CD). Spherical tokamaks (STs) operate generally in high- β regimes, in which the usual EC ordinary (O) and extraordinary (X) modes are cut off. As it was recently investigated the existence of EBWs at nonlinear regime thus the next step would be the probable nonlinear phenomena study which are predicted to be occurred within the high levels of injected power. In this regard, parametric instabilities are considered as the major channels for losses at the X-B conversion. Hence, we have to consider their effects at the UHR region which can reduce the X-B conversion efficiency. In the case of EBW heating (EBH) at high power density, the nonlinear effects can arise. Particularly at the UHR position, the group velocity is strongly reduced, which creates a high energy density and subsequently a high amplitude electric field. Therefore, a part of the input wave can decay into daughter waves via parametric instability (PI). Thus, via the present research, the excitations of ion Bernstein waves as the dominant decay channels are investigated and also an estimate for the threshold power in terms of experimental parameters related to the fundamental mode of instability is proposed.
Hybridized Mode of Phonon and Spin-Cluster Excitation in Quasi-One-Dimensional Magnet CoNb 2O 6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunimoto, Takashi; Sato, Masayuki; Nagasaka, Keigo; Kohn, Kay
1999-04-01
Transmission measurements of far-infrared (FIR) polarized radiation have been performed in CoNb2O6 single crystal. We have observed an absorption line at 9.7 cm-1 with a broad band from 9 to 25 cm-1 which should be attributed to the phonon of the lowest frequency below 30 cm-1 from the lattice dynamical analysis. As the temperature is decreased below 20 K and also as the magnetic field is applied up to 6 T, the absorption line with the band was intensively studied in magnetic fields as well as the various temperatures by using polarized FIR radiation field E parallel to the b- and c-axis. From the study, the band is attributed to the spin-cluster excitation (SCE) in the Ising-like chain. On the other hand, the absorption line also exhibits the variation as similar as SCE in magnetic fields. It concludes that the absorption line at 9.7 cm-1 is the hybridized mode of the B 3u mode of the phonon of the lowest frequency and SCE.
Bentivegna, Carolyn S; DeFelice, Chelsea R; Murphy, Wyatt R
2016-06-30
The impact of Hurricane Sandy (October 29, 2012) on PAH exposure was investigated in adult Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) collected along the NJ coast. Collections were made in August, September and/or October of 2011, 2012 and 2013. PAHs were monitored in raw fish oil using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. Results showed that raw fish oils had relatively high levels of high molecular weight, PAH-like compounds (173 to 24,421ng/mL) compared to values reported for bile in other species. EEM profiles resembled that of crude oil and excluded matrix interference by some common biological molecules that also fluoresce. Concentrations and EEM profiles varied by collection; however, collection ship, month, year and fish size did not account for the data. Replicates showed that fish from the same catch had similar PAH exposure. Overall, Hurricane Sandy did not alter body burdens of PAHs in raw fish oil of menhaden. PMID:26849916
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sauls, James; Wu, Hao; Chung, Suk Bum
2015-06-01
Recent theories of Sr2RuO4 based on the interplay of strong interactions, spin-orbit coupling and multi-band anisotropy predict chiral or helical ground states with strong anisotropy of the pairing states, with deep minima in the excitation gap, as well as strong phase anisotropy for the chiral ground state. We develop time-dependent mean field theory to calculate the Bosonic spectrum for the class of 2D chiral superconductors spanning 3He-A to chiral superconductors with strong anisotropy. Chiral superconductors support a pair of massive Bosonic excitations of the time-reversed pairs labeled by their parity under charge conjugation. These modes are degenerate for 2D 3He-A. Crystal field anisotropy lifts the degeneracy. Strong anisotropy also leads to low-lying Fermions, and thus to channels for the decay of the Bosonic modes. Selection rules and phase space considerations lead to large asymmetries in the lifetimes and hybridization of the Bosonic modes with the continuum of un-bound Fermion pairs. We also highlight results for the excitation of the Bosonic modes by microwave radiation that provide clear signatures of the Bosonic modes of an anisotropic chiral ground state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alsaleh, M.; Mback, C. B. L.; Tchomgo Felenou, E.; Tchofo Dinda, P.; Grelu, Ph; Porsezian, K.
2016-07-01
We address the efficiency of theoretical tools used in the development and optimization of mode-locked fiber lasers. Our discussion is based on the practical case of modeling the dynamics of a dispersion-managed fiber laser. One conventional approach uses discrete propagation equations, followed by the analysis of the numerical results through a collective coordinate projection. We compare the latter with our dynamical collective coordinate approach (DCCA), which combines both modeling and analysis in a compact form. We show that for single pulse dynamics, the DCCA allows a much quicker solution mapping in the space of cavity parameters than the conventional approach, along with a good accuracy. We also discuss the weaknesses of the DCCA, in particular when multiple pulsing bifurcations occur.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Werner, V.; Cooper, N.; Régis, J.-M.; Rudigier, M.; Williams, E.; Jolie, J.; Cakirli, R. B.; Casten, R. F.; Ahn, T.; Anagnostatou, V.; Berant, Z.; Bonett-Matiz, M.; Elvers, M.; Heinz, A.; Ilie, G.; Radeck, D.; Savran, D.; Smith, M. K.
2016-03-01
The B (E 2 ) excitation strength of the first excited 2+ state in even-even nuclei should directly correlate with the size of the valence space and maximize at mid-shell. A previously found saturation of B (E 2 ) strengths in well-deformed rotors at mid-shell is tested through high-precision measurements of the lifetimes of the lowest-lying 2+ states of the 168Hf and 174W rare earth isotopes. Measurements were performed using fast LaBr3 scintillation detectors. Combined with the recently remeasured B (E 2 ;21+→01+) values for Hf and W isotopes the new data remove discrepancies observed in the differentials of B (E 2 ) values for these isotopes.
Pennec, Sophie; Monnier, Alain; Stephan, Amandine; Brouard, Nicolas; Bilsen, Johan; Cohen, Joachim
2016-01-01
Background Monitoring medical decisions at the end of life has become an important issue in many societies. Built on previous European experiences, the survey and project Fin de Vie en France (“End of Life in France,” or EOLF) was conducted in 2010 to provide an overview of medical end-of-life decisions in France. Objective To describe the methodology of EOLF and evaluate the effects of design innovations on data quality. Methods EOLF used a mixed-mode data collection strategy (paper and Internet) along with follow-up campaigns that employed various contact modes (paper and telephone), all of which were gathered from various institutions (research team, hospital, and medical authorities at the regional level). A telephone nonresponse survey was also used. Through descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regressions, these innovations were assessed in terms of their effects on the response rate, quality of the sample, and differences between Web-based and paper questionnaires. Results The participation rate was 40.0% (n=5217). The respondent sample was very close to the sampling frame. The Web-based questionnaires represented only 26.8% of the questionnaires, and the Web-based secured procedure led to limitations in data management. The follow-up campaigns had a strong effect on participation, especially for paper questionnaires. With higher participation rates (63.21% and 63.74%), the telephone follow-up and nonresponse surveys showed that only a very low proportion of physicians refused to participate because of the topic or the absence of financial incentive. A multivariate analysis showed that physicians who answered on the Internet reported less medication to hasten death, and that they more often took no medical decisions in the end-of-life process. Conclusions Varying contact modes is a useful strategy. Using a mixed-mode design is interesting, but selection and measurement effects must be studied further in this sensitive field. PMID:26892632
Interaction of Single Electron Tunneling and Collective Modes in Quantum Dot Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stopa, Michael
1996-03-01
We consider arrays of N^d quantum dots in d dimensions coupled by tunnel junctions and we define the limit of N arrow ∞ as ``quantum dot matter'' (QDM). For d=1 QDM we determine the dispersion relation for collective oscillations of the junction charges by ascribing a capacitance to ground and two small internal inductances to each dot. We consider the influence of this electromagnetic environment on single electron tunneling (SET). This differs from the standard treatment (G. -L. Ingold and Yu. V. Nazarov in Single Charge Tunneling), edited by H. Grabert and M. H. Devoret, NATO ASI, Ser. B (Plenum Press, New York, 1992), Chap. 2 where electrons in an array are assumed to be isolated from the environment by the presence of other junctions and tunneling is assumed to be between equilibrium charge states. We compute the junction charge fluctuation <δ Q_k^2> and show that, as in the single junction case, charging effects are suppressed by the environment. Finally, we consider modifications to the ``global rule'' from the finite speed of electromagnetic waves in QDM.
Hayes, A. B.; Cline, D.; Moody, K. J.; Ragnarsson, I.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.; Carpenter, M. P.; Carroll, J. J.; Gohlke, D.; Greene, J. P.; Hecht, A. A.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Karamian, S. A.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Macri, R. A.; Propri, R.; Seweryniak, D.; Wang, X.; Wheeler, R.; Zhu, S.
2010-10-29
A 98% pure {sup 242m}Am (K=5{sup -}, t{sub 1/2} = 141 years) isomeric target was Coulomb excited with a 170.5-MeV {sup 40}Ar beam. The selectivity of Coulomb excitation, coupled with the sensitivity of Gammasphere plus CHICO, was sufficient to identify 46 new states up to spin 18 {h_bar} in at least four rotational bands; 11 of these new states lie in the isomer band, 13 in a previously unknown yrast K{sup {pi}} = 6{sup -} rotational band, and 13 in a band tentatively identified as the predicted yrast K{sup {pi}} = 5{sup +} band. The rotational bands based on the K{sup {pi}} = 5{sup -} isomer and the 6{sup -} bandhead were populated by Coulomb excitation with unexpectedly equal cross sections. The {gamma}-ray yields are reproduced by Coulomb excitation calculations using a two-particle plus rotor model (PRM), implying nearly complete {Delta}K = 1 mixing of the two almost-degenerate rotational bands, but recovering the Alaga rule for the unperturbed states. The degeneracy of the 5{sup -} and 6{sup -} bands allows for precise determination of the mixing interaction strength V, which approaches the strong-mixing limit; this agrees with the 50% attenuation of the Coriolis matrix element assumed in the model calculations. The fractional admixture of the I{sub K}{sup {pi}} = 6{sub 6{sup -}} state in the nominal 6{sub 5{sup -}} isomer band state is measured within the PRM as 45.6{sub -1.1}{sup +0.3}%. The E2 and M1 strengths coupling the 5{sup -} and 6{sup -} bands are enhanced significantly by the mixing, while E1 and E2 couplings to other low-K bands are not measurably enhanced. The yields of the 5{sup +} band are reproduced by an E3 strength of {approx}15 W.u., competitive with the interband E2 strength. Alignments of the identified two-particle Nilsson states in {sup 242}Am are compared with the single-particle alignments in {sup 241}Am.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribeiro, Pedro; García-García, Antonio M.
2012-03-01
A rigorous treatment of the combined effect of thermal and quantum fluctuations in a zero-dimensional superconductor is considered one of the most relevant and still-unsolved problems in the theory of nanoscale superconductors. In this Letter, we notice that the divergences that plagued previous calculations are avoided by identifying and treating nonperturbatively a low-energy collective mode. In this way, we obtain for the first time closed expressions for the partition function and the superconducting order parameter which include both types of fluctuation and are valid at any temperature and to leading order in δ/Δ0, where δ is the mean level spacing and Δ0 is the bulk energy gap. Our results pave the way for a quantitative description of superconductivity in nanostructures at finite temperature and pairing in hot nuclei.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, Miles
2008-03-01
Using an extension of BCS theory to a two-band superconductor, Leggett showed that if the relevant parameters obeyed certain conditions a collective mode would exist corresponding to the counter flow of the two condensates.^1 I have extended earlier work on electronic Raman in superconductors^2 to the multiple band case in order to incorporate Leggett's theory. The following effects have been included: (a) Vertex correction in the particle/hole channel where the Raman vertex acts. (b) Realistic parameters that apply to MgB2 yielding a counter flow mode that decays into the pair-breaking continuum associated with the lower gap π band. (c) Large finite wave-vector effects due to the relatively large Fermi velocity of the π band. (d) Integration over the wave-vector in part (c) necessitated by the exponential decay of the photon fields traveling into and out of the metallic sample. A comparison to the results of Blumberg^3 will be given. ^1A.J. Leggett, Progr. Theor. Phys. 36, 901 (1966). ^2M.V. Klein and S.B. Dierker, Phys. Rev. B29, 4976 (1984). ^3G. Blumberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, (2007); arXiv:0710.2803.
Coupling of Higgs and Leggett modes in non-equilibrium superconductors
Krull, H.; Bittner, N.; Uhrig, G. S.; Manske, D.; Schnyder, A. P.
2016-01-01
In equilibrium systems amplitude and phase collective modes are decoupled, as they are mutually orthogonal excitations. The direct detection of these Higgs and Leggett collective modes by linear-response measurements is not possible, because they do not couple directly to the electromagnetic field. In this work, using numerical exact simulations we show for the case of two-gap superconductors, that optical pump–probe experiments excite both Higgs and Leggett modes out of equilibrium. We find that this non-adiabatic excitation process introduces a strong interaction between the collective modes, which is absent in equilibrium. Moreover, we propose a type of pump–probe experiment, which allows to probe and coherently control the Higgs and Leggett modes, and thus the order parameter directly. These findings go beyond two-band superconductors and apply to general collective modes in quantum materials. PMID:27323887
Coupling of Higgs and Leggett modes in non-equilibrium superconductors.
Krull, H; Bittner, N; Uhrig, G S; Manske, D; Schnyder, A P
2016-01-01
In equilibrium systems amplitude and phase collective modes are decoupled, as they are mutually orthogonal excitations. The direct detection of these Higgs and Leggett collective modes by linear-response measurements is not possible, because they do not couple directly to the electromagnetic field. In this work, using numerical exact simulations we show for the case of two-gap superconductors, that optical pump-probe experiments excite both Higgs and Leggett modes out of equilibrium. We find that this non-adiabatic excitation process introduces a strong interaction between the collective modes, which is absent in equilibrium. Moreover, we propose a type of pump-probe experiment, which allows to probe and coherently control the Higgs and Leggett modes, and thus the order parameter directly. These findings go beyond two-band superconductors and apply to general collective modes in quantum materials. PMID:27323887
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dupuis, N.; Yakovenko, Victor M.
2000-05-01
We study the long-wavelength collective modes in the magnetic-field-induced spin-density-wave (FISDW) phases experimentally observed in organic conductors of the Bechgaard salts family, focusing on phases that exhibit a sign reversal of the quantum Hall effect (Ribault anomaly). We have recently proposed that two SDW's coexist in the Ribault phase, as a result of umklapp processes. When the latter are strong enough, the two SDW's become circularly polarized (helicoidal SDW's). In this paper, we study the collective modes that result from the presence of two SDW's. We find two Goldstone modes, an out-of-phase sliding mode and an in-phase spin-wave mode, and two gapped modes. The sliding Goldstone mode carries only a fraction of the total optical spectral weight, which is determined by the ratio of the amplitude of the two SDW's. In the helicoidal phase, all the spectral weight is pushed up above the SDW gap. We also point out similarities with phase modes in two-band, bilayer, or d+id' superconductors. We expect our conclusions to hold for generic two-SDW systems.
Plasmon excitations in two-dimensional atomic cluster systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yan-Qin; Yu, Ya-Bin; Xue, Hong-Jie; Wang, Ya-Xin; Chen, Jie
2016-09-01
Properties of plasmon excitations in two-dimensional (2D) atomic cluster systems are theoretically studied within an extended Hubbard model. The collective oscillation equations of charge, plasmon eigen-equations and the energy-absorption spectrum formula are presented. The calculated results show that different symmetries of plasmons exist in the cluster systems, and the symmetry of charge distribution in the plasmon resonance originate from the intrinsic symmetry of the corresponding eigen-plasmon modes, but not from the symmetry of applied external fields; however, the plasmon excitation with a certain polarization direction should be excited by the field in this direction, the dipole mode of plasmons can be excited by both uniform and non-uniform fields, but multipole ones cannot be excited by an uniform field. In addition, we show that for a given electron density, plasmon spectra are red-shifted with increasing size of the systems.
Burkill, Sarah; Copas, Andrew; Couper, Mick P.; Clifton, Soazig; Prah, Philip; Datta, Jessica; Conrad, Frederick; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M.; Erens, Bob
2016-01-01
Background Interviewer-administered surveys are an important method of collecting population-level epidemiological data, but suffer from declining response rates and increasing costs. Web surveys offer more rapid data collection and lower costs. There are concerns, however, about data quality from web surveys. Previous research has largely focused on selection biases, and few have explored measurement differences. This paper aims to assess the extent to which mode affects the responses given by the same respondents at two points in time, providing information on potential measurement error if web surveys are used in the future. Methods 527 participants from the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), which uses computer assisted personal interview (CAPI) and self-interview (CASI) modes, subsequently responded to identically-worded questions in a web survey. McNemar tests assessed whether within-person differences in responses were at random or indicated a mode effect, i.e. higher reporting of more sensitive responses in one mode. An analysis of pooled responses by generalized estimating equations addressed the impact of gender and question type on change. Results Only 10% of responses changed between surveys. However mode effects were found for about a third of variables, with higher reporting of sensitive responses more commonly found on the web compared with Natsal-3. Conclusions The web appears a promising mode for surveys of sensitive behaviours, most likely as part of a mixed-mode design. Our findings suggest that mode effects may vary by question type and content, and by the particular mix of modes used. Mixed-mode surveys need careful development to understand mode effects and how to account for them. PMID:26866687
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parish, John Walter, Jr.
2000-09-01
The disposal rate of nitrogen molecule internal-mode energy, kv , by deactivation in the presence of various surfaces was studied at low pressure and at approximately room temperature using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS). Deactivation is the process whereby vibrational energy is lost one quantum or a few quanta at a time rather than all at once as in quenching. Deactivation coefficients, γv, or loss probabilities, of vibrationally-excited N2(X1Σg +,v) on gold, Pyrex, Teflon and alloys of aluminum, stainless steel and titanium, were calculated from the wall deactivation rate coefficients for the hot band quantum numbers v = 1 to 4 or 5. Vibration states were populated with a 1.5 cm diameter water-cooled-in- glass positive column discharge where the residence time was estimated to be about 60 ms in the tube. The flow rate and pressure were adjusted to optimize the populations and the observed decay. Subsequently, the excited gas was presented via a source tube to a tubular reactor. For precisely controlled residence times, the excited nitrogen would communicate with the reactor interior surface. Only the gas that had been exposed to the surface was measured upon exit from the reactor by a CARS system in the 3-D BOXCARS configuration. Extensive measurements on Pyrex gave γ 1 values between 2.4 × 10-4 and 6.7 × 10-4 depending on the treatment history of the surface. The values for γ4 ranged from 2.9 × 10-4 for the AMS 4943D alloy of titanium to approximately unity for the AMS 312 stainless steel alloy. The low value for titanium can be attributed to the oxide layer. The variation of kv with v was linear or nearly linear in all cases with slopes lower in most cases than the rate of increase of the vibration-translation V-T exchange rate with v. Direct measurement of rates, in this way, detects losses due to homogeneous gas collisions as well as heterogeneous collisions with the surface. An attempt to extract the true value of γv from the data was
Park, Kyungsoon; Kwon, Dohyoung; Kwak, Juhyoun
2011-05-01
To detect the target molecules, aptamers are currently focused on and the use of aptamers for biosensing is particularly interesting, as aptamers could substitute antibodies in bioanalytical sensing. So this paper describes the novel electrochemical system for protein in sandwich manner by using the aptamers and the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM). For protein detection, sandwich system is ideal since labeling of the target protein is not necessary. To develop the electrochemical protein sensor system, thrombin was chosen as a target protein since many aptamers for it were already reported and two different aptamers, which recognize different positions of thrombin, were chosen to construct sandwich type sensing system. In order to obtain the electrochemical signal, the glucose oxidase (GOD) used for labeling the detection aptamers since it has large amount of stability in aqueous solution. One aptamer was immobilized onto the gold electrode and the other aptamer for detection was labeled with GOD for generation of the electric signal. Thrombin was detected in sandwich manner with aptamer immobilized onto the gold electrode and the GOD labeled aptamer. The enzymatic signal, generated from glucose addition after the formation of the complex of thrombin, was measured. The generation-collection mode of SECM was used for amperometric H2O2 detection. PMID:21780447
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Louchart, C.; Obertelli, A.; Görgen, A.; Korten, W.; Bazzacco, D.; Birkenbach, B.; Bruyneel, B.; Clément, E.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Corradi, L.; Curien, D.; de Angelis, G.; de France, G.; Delaroche, J.-P.; Dewald, A.; Didierjean, F.; Doncel, M.; Duchêne, G.; Eberth, J.; Erduran, M. N.; Farnea, E.; Finck, C.; Fioretto, E.; Fransen, C.; Gadea, A.; Girod, M.; Gottardo, A.; Grebosz, J.; Habermann, T.; Hackstein, M.; Huyuk, T.; Jolie, J.; Judson, D.; Jungclaus, A.; Karkour, N.; Klupp, S.; Krücken, R.; Kusoglu, A.; Lenzi, S. M.; Libert, J.; Ljungvall, J.; Lunardi, S.; Maron, G.; Menegazzo, R.; Mengoni, D.; Michelagnoli, C.; Million, B.; Molini, P.; Möller, O.; Montagnoli, G.; Montanari, D.; Napoli, D. R.; Orlandi, R.; Pollarolo, G.; Prieto, A.; Pullia, A.; Quintana, B.; Recchia, F.; Reiter, P.; Rosso, D.; Rother, W.; Sahin, E.; Salsac, M.-D.; Scarlassara, F.; Schlarb, M.; Siem, S.; Singh, P. P.; Söderström, P.-A.; Stefanini, A. M.; Stézowski, O.; Sulignano, B.; Szilner, S.; Theisen, Ch.; Ur, C. A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Zielinska, M.
2013-05-01
Background: Neutron-rich nuclei with protons in the fp shell show an onset of collectivity around N=40. Spectroscopic information is required to understand the underlying mechanism and to determine the relevant terms of the nucleon-nucleon interaction that are responsible for the evolution of the shell structure in this mass region.Methods: We report on the lifetime measurement of the first 2+ and 4+ states in 70,72,74Zn and the first 6+ state in 72Zn using the recoil distance Doppler shift method. The experiment was carried out at the INFN Laboratory of Legnaro with the AGATA demonstrator, first phase of the Advanced Gamma Tracking Array of highly segmented, high-purity germanium detectors coupled to the PRISMA magnetic spectrometer. The excited states of the nuclei of interest were populated in the deep inelastic scattering of a 76Ge beam impinging on a 238U target.Results: The maximum of collectivity along the chain of Zn isotopes is observed for 72Zn at N=42. An unexpectedly long lifetime of 20-5.2+1.8 ps was measured for the 4+ state in 74Zn.Conclusions: Our results lead to small values of the B(E2;41+→21+)/B(E2;21+→01+) ratio for 72,74Zn, suggesting a significant noncollective contribution to these excitations. These experimental results are not reproduced by state-of-the-art microscopic models and call for lifetime measurements beyond the first 2+ state in heavy zinc and nickel isotopes.
Super-radiant mode in InAs-monolayer-based Bragg structures.
Pozina, G; Kaliteevski, M A; Nikitina, E V; Denisov, D V; Polyakov, N K; Pirogov, E V; Goray, L I; Gubaydullin, A R; Ivanov, K A; Kaliteevskaya, N A; Egorov, A Yu; Clark, S J
2015-01-01
We report direct experimental evidence of the collective super-radiant mode in Bragg structure containing 60 InAs monolayer-based quantum wells (QWs) periodically arranged in GaAs matrix. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements reveal an appearance of the additional super-radiant mode, originated from coherent collective interaction of QWs. This mode demonstrates a super-linear dependence of the intensity and radiative decay rate on the excitation power. The super-radiant mode is not manifested in the case if only a small number of QWs is excited. PMID:26456523
Super-radiant mode in InAs—monolayer–based Bragg structures
Pozina, G.; Kaliteevski, M. A.; Nikitina, E. V.; Denisov, D. V.; Polyakov, N. K.; Pirogov, E. V.; Goray, L. I.; Gubaydullin, A. R.; Ivanov, K. A.; Kaliteevskaya, N. A.; Egorov, A. Yu.; Clark, S. J.
2015-01-01
We report direct experimental evidence of the collective super-radiant mode in Bragg structure containing 60 InAs monolayer-based quantum wells (QWs) periodically arranged in GaAs matrix. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements reveal an appearance of the additional super-radiant mode, originated from coherent collective interaction of QWs. This mode demonstrates a super-linear dependence of the intensity and radiative decay rate on the excitation power. The super-radiant mode is not manifested in the case if only a small number of QWs is excited. PMID:26456523
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, S. R.; Fukuda, T.; Hamann, A.; Lamago, D.; Pintschovius, L.; Fujita, M.; Yamada, K.; Reznik, D.
2014-01-01
In superconducting copper oxides, some Cu-O bond-stretching phonons around 70 meV show anomalous giant softening and broadening of electronic origin, and electronic dispersions have large renormalization kinks near the same energy. These observations suggest that phonon broadening originates from quasiparticle excitations across the Fermi surface and the electronic dispersion kinks originate from coupling to anomalous phonons. We measured the phonon anomaly in underdoped (x =0.05) and overdoped (x =0.20 and 0.25) La2-xSrxCuO4 by inelastic neutron and x-ray scattering with high resolution. Combining these and previously published data, we found that doping dependence of the magnitude of the giant phonon anomaly is very different from that of the ARPES kink, i.e., the two phenomena are not connected. We show that these results provide indirect evidence that the phonon anomaly originates from novel collective charge excitations as opposed to interactions with electron-hole pairs. Their amplitude follows the superconducting dome so these charge modes may be important for superconductivity.
Kaplan, C P; Hilton, J F; Park-Tanjasiri, S; Pérez-Stable, E J
2001-08-01
Evaluating smoking prevention and cessation programs requires valid data collection. This study examined two survey modes--face-to-face (FTF) interview and self-administered questionnaire (SAQ)--comparing response rates, sample characteristics, data quality, and response effects. From two family planning clinics, 601 female Latina and African American clients ages 12 to 21 were recruited and randomized to either group. Results reveal that neither mode is superior to the other. The SAQ may therefore be preferable for this population, despite its higher rate of incompletes, because it yields results similar to the FTF yet is more cost effective and less disruptive to clinic routines. PMID:11480308
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Kyunghee; Raza, Syed Raza Ali; Lee, Hee Sung; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Pezeshki, Atiye; Min, Sung-Wook; Kim, Jin Sung; Yoon, Woojin; Ju, Sang-Yong; Lee, Kimoon; Im, Seongil
2015-03-01
Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) field-effect transistors (FETs) have been extensively studied, but most of the FETs with gate insulators have displayed negative threshold voltage values, which indicates the presence of interfacial traps both shallow and deep in energy level. Despite such interface trap issues, reports on trap densities in MoS2 are quite limited. Here, we probed top-gate MoS2 FETs with two- (2L), three- (3L), and four-layer (4L) MoS2/dielectric interfaces to quantify deep-level interface trap densities by photo-excited charge collection spectroscopy (PECCS), and reported the result that deep-level trap densities over 1012 cm-2 may exist in the interface and bulk MoS2 near the interface. Transfer curve hysteresis and PECCS measurements show that shallow traps and deep traps are not that different in density order from each other. We conclude that our PECCS analysis distinguishably provides valuable information on deep level interface/bulk trap densities in 2D-based FETs.Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) field-effect transistors (FETs) have been extensively studied, but most of the FETs with gate insulators have displayed negative threshold voltage values, which indicates the presence of interfacial traps both shallow and deep in energy level. Despite such interface trap issues, reports on trap densities in MoS2 are quite limited. Here, we probed top-gate MoS2 FETs with two- (2L), three- (3L), and four-layer (4L) MoS2/dielectric interfaces to quantify deep-level interface trap densities by photo-excited charge collection spectroscopy (PECCS), and reported the result that deep-level trap densities over 1012 cm-2 may exist in the interface and bulk MoS2 near the interface. Transfer curve hysteresis and PECCS measurements show that shallow traps and deep traps are not that different in density order from each other. We conclude that our PECCS analysis distinguishably provides valuable information on deep level interface
Ljunggren, Daniel; Tengner, Maria
2005-12-15
We present a theoretical and experimental investigation of the emission characteristics and the flux of photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion in quasi-phase matched bulk crystals for the use in quantum communication sources. We show that, by careful design, one can attain well defined modes close to the fundamental mode of optical fibers and obtain high coupling efficiencies also for bulk crystals, these being more easily aligned than crystal waveguides. We distinguish between singles coupling, {gamma}{sub s} and {gamma}{sub i}, conditional coincidence, {mu}{sub i|s}, and pair coupling, {gamma}{sub c}, and show how each of these parameters can be maximized by varying the focusing of the pump mode and the fiber-matched modes using standard optical elements. Specifically we analyze a periodically poled KTP-crystal pumped by a 532 nm laser creating photon pairs at 810 nm and 1550 nm. Numerical calculations lead to coupling efficiencies above 93% at optimal focusing, which is found by the geometrical relation L/z{sub R} to be {approx_equal}1 to 2 for the pump mode and {approx_equal}2 to 3 for the fiber-modes, where L is the crystal length and z{sub R} is the Rayleigh-range of the mode-profile. These results are independent on L. By showing that the single-mode bandwidth decreases {proportional_to}1/L, we can therefore design the source to produce and couple narrow bandwidth photon pairs well into the fibers. Smaller bandwidth means both less chromatic dispersion for long propagation distances in fibers, and that telecom Bragg gratings can be utilized to compensate for broadened photon packets--a vital problem for time-multiplexed qubits. Longer crystals also yield an increase in fiber photon flux {proportional_to}{radical}(L), and so, assuming correct focusing, we can only see advantages using long crystals.
Cavalier, J.; Lemoine, N.; Bonhomme, G.; Tsikata, S.; Honore, C.; Gresillon, D.
2012-08-15
The effect of the collective light scattering diagnostic transfer function is considered in the context of the dispersion relation of the unstable E Multiplication-Sign B mode previously reported. This transfer function is found to have a contribution to the measured frequencies and mode amplitudes which is more or less significant depending on the measurement wavenumbers and angles. After deconvolution, the experimental data are found to be possibly compatible with the idea that the mode frequency in the jet frame (after subtraction of the Doppler effect due to the plasma motion along the thruster axis) is independent of the orientation of the wave vector in the plane orthogonal to the local magnetic field.
Spatially compressed dual-wavelength excitation Raman spectrometer.
Cooper, John B; Marshall, Sarah; Jones, Richard; Abdelkader, Mohamed; Wise, Kent L
2014-05-20
The design and operation of a novel dual-laser excitation Raman instrument is described. The use of two lasers of differing wavelengths allows for a Raman spectrum covering all fundamental modes of vibration to be collected while minimizing fluorescence and allowing for spatial compression of the spectrum on an imaging detector. The use of diode lasers with integrated distributed Bragg reflector gratings facilitates the use of an integrated thermoelectric cooler to allow collection of shifted excitation spectra for both of the lasers, further enhancing the rejection of fluorescence. An example is given, which uses seven excitation wavelengths for each laser to reconstruct the Raman spectrum of a solvent in the presence of a highly fluorescent dye by using a sequentially shifted excitation Raman reconstruction algorithm. PMID:24922223
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, David G.; Heidelberg, Laurence; Konno, Kevin
1993-01-01
The rotating microphone measurement technique and data analysis procedures are documented which are used to determine circumferential and radial acoustic mode content in the inlet of the Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) model. Circumferential acoustic mode levels were measured at a series of radial locations using the Doppler frequency shift produced by a rotating inlet microphone probe. Radial mode content was then computed using a least squares curve fit with the measured radial distribution for each circumferential mode. The rotating microphone technique is superior to fixed-probe techniques because it results in minimal interference with the acoustic modes generated by rotor-stator interaction. This effort represents the first experimental implementation of a measuring technique developed by T. G. Sofrin. Testing was performed in the NASA Lewis Low Speed Anechoic Wind Tunnel at a simulated takeoff condition of Mach 0.2. The design is included of the data analysis software and the performance of the rotating rake apparatus. The effect of experiment errors is also discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tammadge, C. E.
1975-01-01
Standard methods of excitation are not always practical when a single mode of known frequency requires investigation. This form of investigation is often required on a modified aircraft. A new method of excitation was developed and proved in flight, which consists of firing small rocket charges attached to the aircraft structure. Damping values at gradually increasing airspeeds are obtained, as in Stick Jerk tests, and flutter speeds predicted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conradson, Steven D.; Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Espinosa-Faller, Francisco J.; An, Yong Q.; Andersson, David A.; Bishop, Alan R.; Boland, Kevin S.; Bradley, Joseph A.; Byler, Darrin D.; Clark, David L.; Conradson, Dylan R.; Conradson, Leilani L.; Costello, Alison L.; Hess, Nancy J.; Lander, Gerard H.; Llobet, Anna; Martucci, Mary B.; Mustre de Leon, Jose; Nordlund, Dennis; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Proffen, Thomas E.; Rodriguez, George; Schwarz, Daniel E.; Seidler, Gerald T.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Trugman, Stuart A.; Tyson, Trevor A.; Valdez, James A.
2013-09-01
sufficiently coupled to the lattice to undergo a gap-opening transition. When the intragap state is probed with a terahertz time domain spectroscopy (TTDS) measurement 33 psec after a 3.14 excitation pulse, it shows increased absorption in the 0.5-1.1 THz range with a decrease in temperature from ˜30 to 10 K instead of the expected decrease, a result consistent with the presence of a condensate. These results are too extreme to originate in the dynamical, nonadiabatic, coupled charge-transfer-phonon/tunneling polaron scenario previously used for doped Mott-Hubbard insulators with intermediate electron-phonon coupling and therefore indicate novel physics. One possibility that could cause all of these behaviors is that a collective, dynamical, charge transfer-coupled Peierls distortion involving the 2 U(V) ↔ U(IV)+U(VI)-oxo excitation occurs coherently over an entire domain to cause the atoms in this domain to condense into a system with Bose-Einstein or Bose-Einstein-Hubbard properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wurstbauer, U.; Levy, A. L.; Pinczuk, A.; West, K. W.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; Manfra, M. J.; Gardner, G. C.; Watson, J. D.
2015-12-01
We report the observation of low-lying collective charge and spin excitations in the second Landau level at ν =2 +1 /3 and also for the very fragile states at ν =2 +2 /5 and 2 +3 /8 in inelastic light scattering experiments. These modes exhibit a clear dependence on filling factor and temperature substantiating the unique access to the characteristic neutral excitation spectra of the incompressible fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) states. A detailed mode analysis reveals low-energy modes at around 70 μ eV and a sharp mode slightly below the Zeeman energy interpreted as gap and spin-wave excitation, respectively. The lowest-energy collective charge excitation spectrum at ν =2 +1 /3 exhibits significant qualitative similarities with its cousin state in the lowest Landau level at ν =1 /3 suggesting similar magnetoroton minima in the neutral excitations. The mode energies differ by a scaling of 0.15 indicating different interaction physics in the N =0 and N =1 Landau levels. The striking polarization dependence in elastic and inelastic light scattering is discussed in the framework of anisotropic electron phases that allow for the stabilization of nematic FQHE states. The observed excitation spectra provide new insights by accessing quantum phases in the bulk of electron systems and facilitate comparison with different theoretical descriptions of those enigmatic FQHE states.