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Sample records for collector ring cr

  1. Collector ring project at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinskii, A.; Berkaev, D.; Blell, U.; Dimopoulou, C.; Gorda, O.; Leibrock, H.; Litvinov, S.; Laier, U.; Koop, I.; Schurig, I.; Starostenko, A.; Shatunov, P.; Weinrich, U.

    2015-11-01

    The collector ring is a dedicated ring for fast cooling of ions coming from separators at the FAIR project. To accommodate optimal technical solutions, a structure of a magnet lattice was recently reviewed and modified. Consequently, more appropriate technical solutions for the main magnets could be adopted. A general layout and design of the present machine is shown. The demanding extraction schemes have been detailed and open design issues were completed.

  2. Influence of residual achromatic aberration on the isochronicity in the FAIR collector ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinov, S.; Dolinskii, A.; Koop, I.; Weick, H.

    2015-11-01

    In order to understand how the heavy elements from iron to uranium were produced in nature, masses and lifetimes of extremely exotic nuclei up to the limits of nuclear existence have to be measured. In particular, for modeling the r-process nucleosynthesis the nuclei close to the neutron drip line are relevant. However, such nuclei typically have very short half-lives and furthermore have tiny production cross-sections. The Super-FRS-CR facility at FAIR [1] offers unique possibilities for such measurements. Exotic nuclei with half-lives of {{{T}}}1/2\\gt 20 μ {{s}} will be produced and selected in flight with the Super-FRS fragment separator [2], injected and stored in the large acceptance collector ring (CR) [3] which will be tuned into the isochronous ion-optical mode and operated as a time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer. We demonstrate here, a comparison between the achromatic and non-achromatic isochronous optics. The importance of the TOF detectors installation in the dispersion free region will be shown.

  3. RIMS analysis of Ca and Cr in genesis solar wind collectors.

    SciTech Connect

    Veryovkin, I. V.; Tripa, C. E.; Zinovev, A. V.; King, B. V.; Pellin, M. J.; Burnett, D. S.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Newcastle; California Inst. of Tech.

    2011-01-01

    RIMS depth profiles have been measured for Cr and Ca in Genesis solar wind collector made from Si and compared to such measurements for ion-implanted Si reference material. The presence of surface contamination has been shown to be a significant factor influencing the total Ca and Cr fluence measured in the Genesis collectors. A procedure to remove the contaminant signal from these depth profiles using the reference material implanted with a minor isotope demonstrated that 36% of the measured Ca fluence in our Genesis sample comes from terrestrial contamination.

  4. Technology and experiments of 42CrMo bearing ring forming based on casting ring blank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongtang; Ju, Li; Qi, Huiping; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Guozhen; Wang, Mingli

    2014-03-01

    Bearing ring is the crucial component of bearing. With regard to such problems as material waste, low efficiency and high energy consumption in current process of producing large bearing ring, a new process named "casting-rolling compound forming technology" is researched by taking the typical 42CrMo slew bearing as object. Through theoretical analysis, the design criteria of the main casting-rolling forming parameters are put forward at first. Then the constitutive relationship model of as-cast 42CrMo steel and its mathematical model of dynamic recrystallization are obtained according to the results of the hot compression experiment. By a coupled thermal-mechanical finite element model for radial-axial rolling of bearing ring, the fraction of dynamic recrystallization is calculated and recrystallized grains size are predicated. Meanwhile, the effects of the initial rolling temperature and feed rate of idle roll on material microstructure evolution are analyzed. Finally, the industrial rolling experiment is designed and performed, based on the simulation results. In addition, mechanical and metallographic tests are conducted on rolled bearing ring to get the mechanical parameters and metallographic structure. The experimental data and results show that the mechanical properties of bearing ring produced by casting-rolling compound forming technology are up to industrial standard, and a qualified bearing ring can be successfully formed by employing this new technology. Through the study, a process of forming large bearing ring directly by using casting ring blank is obtained, which could provide an effective theoretical guidance for manufacturing large ring parts. It also has an edge in saving material, lowering energy and improving efficiency.

  5. Computer controlled performance mapping of thermionic converters: effect of collector, guard-ring potential imbalances on the observed collector current-density, voltage characteristics and limited range performance map of an etched-rhenium, niobium planar converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manista, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of collector, guard-ring potential imbalance on the observed collector-current-density J, collector-to-emitter voltage V characteristic was evaluated in a planar, fixed-space, guard-ringed thermionic converter. The J,V characteristic was swept in a period of 15 msec by a variable load. A computerized data acquisition system recorded test parameters. The results indicate minimal distortion of the J,V curve in the power output quadrant for the nominal guard-ring circuit configuration. Considerable distortion, along with a lowering of the ignited-mode striking voltage, was observed for the configuration with the emitter shorted to the guard ring. A limited-range performance map of an etched-rhenium, niobium, planar converter was obtained by using an improved computer program for the data acquisition system.

  6. Low temperature spin dynamics in Cr{sub 7}Ni-Cu-Cr{sub 7}Ni coupled molecular rings

    SciTech Connect

    Bordonali, L.; Furukawa, Y.; Mariani, M.; Sabareesh, K. P. V.; Garlatti, E.; Borsa, F.

    2014-05-07

    Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation measurements have been performed down to very low temperature (50 mK) to determine the effect of coupling two Cr{sub 7}Ni molecular rings via a Cu{sup 2+} ion. No difference in the spin dynamics was found from nuclear spin lattice relaxation down to 1.5 K. At lower temperature, the {sup 1}H-NMR line broadens dramatically indicating spin freezing. From the plot of the line width vs. magnetization, it is found that the freezing temperature is higher (260 mK) in the coupled ring with respect to the single Cr{sub 7}Ni ring (140 mK)

  7. A density-functional study of heterometallic Cr-based molecular rings.

    PubMed

    Bellini, V; Affronte, M

    2010-11-25

    We present a density-functional theoretical investigation of the electronic and magnetic properties of octametallic Cr-based molecular antiferromagnetic rings. The presence of the divalent magnetic ion M unbalances the charge and the spin of the parent Cr(8) ring, leading to a finite total spin in the molecules. Results are presented for Cr(8), i.e., [Cr(8)F(8)(O(2)CH)(16)] (1), and for Cr(7)M rings belonging to two different derivatives, i.e., [Me(2)NH(2)][Cr(7)MF(8)(O(2)CH)(16)], with M = Ni, Mn, Fe, and Cu, and Me=CH(3) (2, "green" derivative), and [Cr(7) NiF(3)(C(6)H(10)NO(5))(O(2)CH)(15) (H(2)O)] (3, "purple" derivative). Exchange interaction parameters have been extracted from broken-symmetry calculations and compared with the available experiments; in agreement with them, we find that exchange parameters are rather similar in the two derivatives, although somewhat larger in the "purple" derivative. The analysis of the electronic properties shows some differences depending on M, in particular in the size of the highest occupied molecular orbital to lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) gaps. For all the "green" rings we observe that the HOMOs are localized on the divalent ion site, while the HOMOs for the "purple" Cr(7)Ni have a more delocalized nature; LUMOs, instead, are, except for "green" Cr(7)Cu, localized on the Cr atoms opposite to the M site. We discuss how these findings may show up in terms of an asymmetric I-V curve in molecular junctions working in the sequential tunneling regime, or help in discerning the orientation of the molecules with respect to a surface, in scanning tunneling experiments.

  8. Many-body ab initio study of antiferromagnetic {Cr7M } molecular rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiesa, A.; Carretta, S.; Santini, P.; Amoretti, G.; Pavarini, E.

    2016-12-01

    Antiferromagnetic molecular rings are widely studied both for fundamental quantum-mechanical issues and for technological applications, particularly in the field of quantum information processing. Here we present a detailed first-principles study of two families—purple and green—of {Cr7M } antiferromagnetic rings, where M is a divalent transition metal ion (M =Ni2 + , Mn2 +, and Zn2 +). We employ a recently developed flexible and efficient scheme to build ab initio system-specific Hubbard models. From such many-body models we systematically derive the low-energy effective spin Hamiltonian for the rings. Our approach allows us to calculate isotropic as well as anisotropic terms of the spin Hamiltonian, without any a priori assumption on its form. For each compound we calculate magnetic exchange couplings, zero-field splitting tensors, and gyromagnetic tensors, finding good agreement with experimental results.

  9. Concentrating collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    Selected specifications from sixteen concentrating collector manufacturers are tabulated. Eleven are linear parabolic trough collectors, and the others include slats, cylindrical trough, linear Fresnel lens, parabolic cylindrical Fresnel lens, and two point focus parabolic dish collectors. Also included is a brief discussion of the operating temperatures and other design considerations for concentrating collectors. (LEW)

  10. Solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cassidy, V.M.

    1981-11-01

    Practical applications of solar energy in commercial, industrial and institutional buildings are considered. Two main types of solar collectors are described: flat plate collectors and concentrating collectors. Efficiency of air and hydronic collectors among the flat plate types are compared. Also several concentrators are described, including their sun tracking mechanisms. Descriptions of some recent solar installations are presented and a list representing the cross section of solar collector manufacturers is furnished.

  11. Comparison of spin dynamics and magnetic properties in antiferromagnetic closed and open molecular Cr-based rings.

    PubMed

    Adelnia, Fatemeh; Bordonali, Lorenzo; Mariani, Manuel; Bordignon, Sara; Timco, Grigore; Winpenny, Richard; Borsa, Ferdinando; Lascialfari, Alessandro

    2015-12-23

    We present magnetization and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements performed in both closed Cr8 and open Cr8Zn antiferromagnetic molecular rings in the temperature range 1.65  <  T  <  300 K at different external magnetic fields. The magnetization measurements on Cr8Zn are consistent with a small decrease of the exchange constant J(Cr-Cr) and a much smaller gap between the singlet ground state and the first magnetic excited state when compared with the same properties of the closed ring Cr8, in agreement with previous inelastic neutron scattering results. The temperature dependence of the (1)H NMR nuclear spin lattice relaxation rate (NSLR), 1/T1(T), was found to be similar in both open and closed rings with a magnetic field dependent peak centered at a temperature of the order of the corresponding exchange constant J(Cr-Cr). Such main peak in the NSLR could be fitted with a single correlation frequency ω(c1) as in most molecular magnets. At low temperature T  <  4 K, a new feature not observed in previous NMR measurements on antiferromagnetic rings and consisting in a smaller peak of 1/T1(T) which is well resolved only in Cr8Zn, was singled out. This low-T peak indicates the presence of a second correlation frequency ω(c2) of the magnetization, found to be quite different between the two rings and thus possibly reflecting the different low temperature level structure associated with the different spin topology. The presence of ω(c2) is confirmed by the NMR spin-spin relaxation rate enhancement, which generates a two-steps wipe-out effect of the NMR signal intensity.

  12. Low temperature spin dynamics in Cr7Ni-Cu-Cr7Ni coupled molecular rings

    SciTech Connect

    Bordonali, L; Furukawa, Y; Mariani, M; Sabareesh, K P; Garlatti, E; Carretta, S; Lascialfari, A; Timco, G; Winpenny, R E; Borsa, F

    2014-05-07

    Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation measurements have been performed down to very low temperature (50 mK) to determine the effect of coupling two Cr7 Ni molecular rings via a Cu2+ ion. No difference in the spin dynamics was found from nuclear spin lattice relaxation down to 1.5 K. At lower temperature, the 1H-NMR line broadens dramatically indicating spin freezing. From the plot of the line width vs. magnetization, it is found that the freezing temperature is higher (260 mK) in the coupled ring with respect to the single Cr7 Ni ring (140 mK).

  13. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  14. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  15. Solar Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Solar Energy's solar panels are collectors for a solar energy system which provides heating for a drive-in bank in Akron, OH. Collectors were designed and manufactured by Solar Energy Products, a firm established by three former NASA employees. Company President, Frank Rom, an example of a personnel-type technology transfer, was a Research Director at Lewis Research Center, which conducts extensive solar heating and cooling research, including development and testing of high-efficiency flat-plate collectors. Rom acquired solar energy expertise which helped the company develop two types of collectors, one for use in domestic/commercial heating systems and the other for drying grain.

  16. Solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Uroshevich, M.

    1981-09-22

    The disclosure illustrates a solar collector of the focusing type comprising a trough like element with an interior reflective surface that faces a main reflector of the collector. A tubular receiver providing a passage for heat transfer fluid is positioned in the trough like element generally along the focal line of the main reflector. A flat glass plate covers the trough along a perimeter seal so that subatmospheric conditions may be maintained within the trough like element to minimize convection heat losses.

  17. Solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    The invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame. A thin film window is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  18. Solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1982-01-01

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame (14). A thin film window (42) is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber (24) of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers (24a, 24b) that are sealed perimetrically. The layers (24a, 24b) define a fluid-tight planar envelope (24c) of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber (24) is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  19. Removal of Cr(VI) from wastewaters at semi-industrial electrochemical reactors with rotating ring electrodes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez R, Miriam G; Mendoza, Víctor; Puebla, Héctor; Martínez D, Sergio A

    2009-04-30

    In Mexico, most of the electroplating and textile industries are small facilities and release relatively large amounts of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in surface waters. In this work, the results obtained during the operation of a batch reactor with a capacity of 170 L, and three electrochemical flow reactors-in-series system with a total capacity of 510 L (both using iron rotating ring electrodes to remove Cr(VI) from wastewaters) are presented. The reactors were scaled up from a laboratory reactor to a semi-industrial level, based on the similarity (dynamical, geometrical and electrochemical). An empirical Cr(VI) removal model was validated in batch and continuous reactors at different operating conditions. Cr(VI) concentration of the industrial wastewaters was reduced from about 500 mg/L to values lower than 0.5mg/L. A very important parameter that affects the process is the pH, which affects the solubility of the Fe(III). Finally, the electrochemical treated wastewater can be reused.

  20. Non-uniform coupling model of the frustrated chromium-based ring Cr8Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antkowiak, Michał; Kucharski, Łukasz; Kamieniarz, Grzegorz

    2014-07-01

    A numerically exact spin-Hamiltonian approach has been proposed for the frustrated Cr8Ni molecule. The non-uniform exchange couplings parameters, improving the fit of the experimental magnetic susceptibility data, have been obtained, using a genetic algorithm search procedure. The energy intervals between the lowest multiplets, relevant for envisaged transitions observable in the INS spectra, have been determined and the critical fields corresponding to the first-level crossing have been estimated in agreement with experiment.

  1. A Nanocrystalline Ni2(Cr,Mo) Intermetallic with Potentially Useful Combination of Properties for Gas Turbine Seal Ring Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawancy, H. M.; Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.

    2012-07-01

    Seal rings are installed for each turbine stage in gas turbine engines to minimize the loss in gas pressure and maintain engine efficiency. During service, seal rings become susceptible to failure by thermal fatigue as demonstrated by a case study. Therefore, a lower coefficient of thermal expansion is among the most important requirements for these applications. We show that long-range ordering in a Ni-Cr-Mo alloy can be used to synthesize a nanocrystalline intermetallic compound combining high strength, high ductility, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and an adequate oxidation resistance up to at least 700 °C. Twinning rather than slip is found to be the predominant deformation mechanism of the intermetallic compound, which is correlated with the crystallography of the disorder-to-order transformation and microstructure evolution. This could explain the enhanced plasticity of the intermetallic compound. The combination of enhanced plasticity, low-thermal expansion, and nano-sized crystals is expected to improve the resistance to thermal fatigue failure.

  2. Low temperature magnetic properties and spin dynamics in single crystals of Cr8Zn antiferromagnetic molecular rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelnia, Fatemeh; Chiesa, Alessandro; Bordignon, Sara; Carretta, Stefano; Ghirri, Alberto; Candini, Andrea; Cervetti, Christian; Evangelisti, Marco; Affronte, Marco; Sheikin, Ilya; Winpenny, Richard; Timco, Grigore; Borsa, Ferdinando; Lascialfari, Alessandro

    2015-12-01

    A detailed experimental investigation of the effects giving rise to the magnetic energy level structure in the vicinity of the level crossing (LC) at low temperature is reported for the open antiferromagnetic molecular ring Cr8Zn. The study is conducted by means of thermodynamic techniques (torque magnetometry, magnetization and specific heat measurements) and microscopic techniques (nuclear magnetic resonance line width, nuclear spin lattice, and spin-spin relaxation measurements). The experimental results are shown to be in excellent agreement with theoretical calculations based on a minimal spin model Hamiltonian, which includes a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. The first ground state level crossing at μ0Hc1 = 2.15 T is found to be an almost true LC while the second LC at μ0Hc2 = 6.95 T has an anti-crossing gap of Δ12 = 0.19 K. In addition, both NMR and specific heat measurements show the presence of a level anti-crossing between excited states at μ0H = 4.5 T as predicted by the theory. In all cases, the fit of the experimental data is improved by introducing a distribution of the isotropic exchange couplings (J), i.e., using a J strain model. The peaks at the first and second LCs in the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate are dominated by inelastic scattering and a value of Γ ˜ 1010 rad/s is inferred for the life time broadening of the excited state of the open ring, due to spin phonon interaction. A loss of NMR signal (wipe-out effect) is observed for the first time at LC and is explained by the enhancement of the spin-spin relaxation rate due to the inelastic scattering.

  3. Low temperature magnetic properties and spin dynamics in single crystals of Cr{sub 8}Zn antiferromagnetic molecular rings

    SciTech Connect

    Adelnia, Fatemeh; Chiesa, Alessandro; Bordignon, Sara; Carretta, Stefano; Ghirri, Alberto; Candini, Andrea; Cervetti, Christian; Evangelisti, Marco; Affronte, Marco; Sheikin, Ilya; Winpenny, Richard; Timco, Grigore; Borsa, Ferdinando; and others

    2015-12-28

    A detailed experimental investigation of the effects giving rise to the magnetic energy level structure in the vicinity of the level crossing (LC) at low temperature is reported for the open antiferromagnetic molecular ring Cr{sub 8}Zn. The study is conducted by means of thermodynamic techniques (torque magnetometry, magnetization and specific heat measurements) and microscopic techniques (nuclear magnetic resonance line width, nuclear spin lattice, and spin-spin relaxation measurements). The experimental results are shown to be in excellent agreement with theoretical calculations based on a minimal spin model Hamiltonian, which includes a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. The first ground state level crossing at μ{sub 0}H{sub c1} = 2.15 T is found to be an almost true LC while the second LC at μ{sub 0}H{sub c2} = 6.95 T has an anti-crossing gap of Δ{sub 12} = 0.19 K. In addition, both NMR and specific heat measurements show the presence of a level anti-crossing between excited states at μ{sub 0}H = 4.5 T as predicted by the theory. In all cases, the fit of the experimental data is improved by introducing a distribution of the isotropic exchange couplings (J), i.e., using a J strain model. The peaks at the first and second LCs in the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate are dominated by inelastic scattering and a value of Γ ∼ 10{sup 10} rad/s is inferred for the life time broadening of the excited state of the open ring, due to spin phonon interaction. A loss of NMR signal (wipe-out effect) is observed for the first time at LC and is explained by the enhancement of the spin-spin relaxation rate due to the inelastic scattering.

  4. High performance collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, H.; Hozumi, S.; Mitsumata, T.; Yoshino, K.; Aso, S.; Ebisu, K.

    1983-04-01

    Materials and structures used for flat plate solar collectors and evacuated tubular collectors were examined relative to their overall performance to project effectiveness for building heating and cooling and the feasibility of use for generating industrial process heat. Thermal efficiencies were calculated for black paint single glazed, selective surface single glazed, and selective surface double glazed flat plate collectors. The efficiencies of a single tube and central tube accompanied by two side tube collectors were also studied. Techniques for extending the lifetimes of the collectors were defined. The selective surface collectors proved to have a performance superior to other collectors in terms of the average annual energy delivered. Addition of a black chrome-coated fin system to the evacuated collectors produced significant collection efficiency increases.

  5. Faceted solar energy collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segna, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    Two concepts enhance efficiency and flexibility of solar collectors: faceting collector surface and adding coloring agent to working fluid. Collector can be placed on existing structures and oriented to take advantage of position of sun. By adding coloring agent to working fluid, total absorbance can be increased and altered if required.

  6. Studies of a Large Odd‐Numbered Odd‐Electron Metal Ring: Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Muon Spin Relaxation Spectroscopy of Cr8Mn

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Tom; Chiesa, Alessandro; Amoretti, Giuseppe; Baker, Peter J.; Barker, Claire; Carretta, Stefano; Collison, David; Güdel, Hans U.; Guidi, Tatiana; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Möller, Johannes S.; Mutka, Hannu; Ollivier, Jacques; Pratt, Francis L.; Santini, Paolo; Tuna, Floriana; Tregenna‐Piggott, Philip L. W.; Vitorica‐Yrezabal, Iñigo J.; Timco, Grigore A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The spin dynamics of Cr8Mn, a nine‐membered antiferromagnetic (AF) molecular nanomagnet, are investigated. Cr8Mn is a rare example of a large odd‐membered AF ring, and has an odd‐number of 3d‐electrons present. Odd‐membered AF rings are unusual and of interest due to the presence of competing exchange interactions that result in frustrated‐spin ground states. The chemical synthesis and structures of two Cr8Mn variants that differ only in their crystal packing are reported. Evidence of spin frustration is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and muon spin relaxation spectroscopy (μSR). From INS studies we accurately determine an appropriate microscopic spin Hamiltonian and we show that μSR is sensitive to the ground‐spin‐state crossing from S=1/2 to S=3/2 in Cr8Mn. The estimated width of the muon asymmetry resonance is consistent with the presence of an avoided crossing. The investigation of the internal spin structure of the ground state, through the analysis of spin‐pair correlations and scalar‐spin chirality, shows a non‐collinear spin structure that fluctuates between non‐planar states of opposite chiralities. PMID:26748964

  7. Studies of a Large Odd-Numbered Odd-Electron Metal Ring: Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Muon Spin Relaxation Spectroscopy of Cr8 Mn.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael L; Lancaster, Tom; Chiesa, Alessandro; Amoretti, Giuseppe; Baker, Peter J; Barker, Claire; Blundell, Stephen J; Carretta, Stefano; Collison, David; Güdel, Hans U; Guidi, Tatiana; McInnes, Eric J L; Möller, Johannes S; Mutka, Hannu; Ollivier, Jacques; Pratt, Francis L; Santini, Paolo; Tuna, Floriana; Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2016-01-26

    The spin dynamics of Cr8 Mn, a nine-membered antiferromagnetic (AF) molecular nanomagnet, are investigated. Cr8 Mn is a rare example of a large odd-membered AF ring, and has an odd-number of 3d-electrons present. Odd-membered AF rings are unusual and of interest due to the presence of competing exchange interactions that result in frustrated-spin ground states. The chemical synthesis and structures of two Cr8 Mn variants that differ only in their crystal packing are reported. Evidence of spin frustration is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and muon spin relaxation spectroscopy (μSR). From INS studies we accurately determine an appropriate microscopic spin Hamiltonian and we show that μSR is sensitive to the ground-spin-state crossing from S=1/2 to S=3/2 in Cr8 Mn. The estimated width of the muon asymmetry resonance is consistent with the presence of an avoided crossing. The investigation of the internal spin structure of the ground state, through the analysis of spin-pair correlations and scalar-spin chirality, shows a non-collinear spin structure that fluctuates between non-planar states of opposite chiralities.

  8. Multistage spent particle collector and a method for making same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebihara, B. T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A description is given of a spent particle collector which maintains structural integrity when raised to a high temperature although constructed of materials having widely different coefficients of expansion. The collector is comprised of one or more axisymmetric stages, each stage comprising a subassembly. A subassembly includes an inner pyrolytic graphite ring, a transition ring, a ceramic insulator ring and an outer metal ring which forms part of the wall of the collector. Each transition is of a ductile metal having high thermal conductivity and is provided with an annular sputter shield wall extending toward the source of spent particles and, where necessary, a trough in the other surface to enclose the sputter shield of the next adjacent transition ring. A plurality of radial extending slots are provided in a transition ring to form segments which are retained in their position by the sputter shield.

  9. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of As-cast 42CrMo Ring Blank During Hot Rolling and Subsequent Quenching and Tempering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Fangcheng; Li, Yongtang; Qi, Huiping; Wei, Xiaojian

    2017-01-01

    The hot rolling of as-cast 42CrMo ring blank and its subsequent quenching and tempering were conducted based on the casting-rolling compound forming technique. The effects of feed rate and tempering temperature on the microstructure were studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the rolled rings were examined. The results show that when the feed rate of the idle roll increases, the degree of grain refinement becomes slightly smaller and the average grain size is approximately 44 μm through the whole thickness of the rolled ring. The microstructure is inhomogeneous near the center-layer and minimum spread region, which is characterized by a small amount of irregular and coarse grain. The strength and hardness of the hot-rolled rings are high, and the plasticity and toughness are relatively low. The depth and diameter of the dimples in the fracture of the ring fabricated with a low feed rate are larger than those of the ring fabricated with a high feed rate. The carbide particles cannot be observed in the rolled rings after the rings are quenched and tempered at 803 K, but the fine and dispersed particles are precipitated by tempering at 863 K. As a result, the mechanical properties are significantly improved and satisfy the technical demands after quenching and tempering. The fractures of both tensile and impact specimens are characterized by regular and fine dimples at a higher tempering temperature, which indicates that a dimple fracture and an excellent combination of strength, plasticity and toughness are obtained.

  10. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of As-cast 42CrMo Ring Blank During Hot Rolling and Subsequent Quenching and Tempering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Fangcheng; Li, Yongtang; Qi, Huiping; Wei, Xiaojian

    2017-03-01

    The hot rolling of as-cast 42CrMo ring blank and its subsequent quenching and tempering were conducted based on the casting-rolling compound forming technique. The effects of feed rate and tempering temperature on the microstructure were studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the rolled rings were examined. The results show that when the feed rate of the idle roll increases, the degree of grain refinement becomes slightly smaller and the average grain size is approximately 44 μm through the whole thickness of the rolled ring. The microstructure is inhomogeneous near the center-layer and minimum spread region, which is characterized by a small amount of irregular and coarse grain. The strength and hardness of the hot-rolled rings are high, and the plasticity and toughness are relatively low. The depth and diameter of the dimples in the fracture of the ring fabricated with a low feed rate are larger than those of the ring fabricated with a high feed rate. The carbide particles cannot be observed in the rolled rings after the rings are quenched and tempered at 803 K, but the fine and dispersed particles are precipitated by tempering at 863 K. As a result, the mechanical properties are significantly improved and satisfy the technical demands after quenching and tempering. The fractures of both tensile and impact specimens are characterized by regular and fine dimples at a higher tempering temperature, which indicates that a dimple fracture and an excellent combination of strength, plasticity and toughness are obtained.

  11. MSFC hot air collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, K.

    1978-01-01

    A description of the hot air collector is given that includes a history of development, a history of the materials development, and a program summary. The major portion of the solar energy system cost is the collector. Since the collector is the heart of the system and the most costly subsystem, reducing the cost of producing collectors in large quantities is a major goal. This solar collector is designed to heat air and/or water cheaply and efficiently through the use of solar energy.

  12. Pulsed depressed collector

    DOEpatents

    Kemp, Mark A

    2015-11-03

    A high power RF device has an electron beam cavity, a modulator, and a circuit for feed-forward energy recovery from a multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The electron beam cavity include a cathode, an anode, and the multi-stage depressed collector, and the modulator is configured to provide pulses to the cathode. Voltages of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are allowed to float as determined by fixed impedances seen by the electrode stages. The energy recovery circuit includes a storage capacitor that dynamically biases potentials of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector and provides recovered energy from the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The circuit may also include a step-down transformer, where the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are electrically connected to separate taps on the step-down transformer.

  13. All-glass solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisnewski, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    Proposed all tempered glass solar collector uses black collection fluid and mirrored bottom to reduce energy loss and overall costs associated with conventional collectors. Collector is more efficient and practically maintenance-free.

  14. Foamglass solar window collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, P. C.

    Solar heating of a living area by means of a foamglass window collector is reported. The collector was built with readily available materials available at most local hardware stores. The payback period was found to be 3.7 years, slightly longer than anticipated.

  15. Double aromaticity in transition metal centered double-ring boron clusters M@B2n (M = Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn; n = 6, 7, 8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chang; Cheng, Longjiu; Yang, Jinlong

    2014-09-01

    It is well known that double-ring boron clusters have got the special double aromaticity with delocalized π orbitals in two directions (tangential and radial), which are potential ligands centered by a transition metal. In this article, the transition metal centered double-ring boron clusters M@B2n (M = Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn; n = 6, 7, 8) are theoretically investigated by density functional theory calculations. These endohedral compounds have also got double aromaticity in both tangential and radial directions. Interestingly, the tangential delocalized π orbitals of boron ligands following the Huckle's (4n + 2) rule do not interact with the central metal, while the radial π orbitals of boron ligands are bonded with the central mental to form spd-π endohedral bonding. The spd-π endohedral bonding follows the 18e-principle in Ni@B14 and Fe@B16. However, due to the flat shape of the compounds, 14e (Cr@B14) and 16e (Ni@B12) can also be electronically very stable where the energy levels of the spd-π orbitals delocalized in z-direction rise up. This intriguing bonding model makes sense in further study of the boron chemistry.

  16. Solar thermal collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranovitch, E.

    Thermal processes in solar flat plate collectors are described and evaluated analytically, and numerical models are presented for evaluating the performance of various designs. A flat plate collector consists of a black absorber plate which transfers absorbed heat to a fluid, a cover which limits thermal losses, and insulation to prevent backlosses. Calculated efficiencies for the collectors depend on the radiation absorbed, as well as IR losses due to natural convection, conduction, and radiation out of the collector. Formulations for the global emittance and heat transfer, as well as losses and their dependence on the Nusselt number and Grashof number are defined. Consideration is given to radiation transmission through transparent covers and Fresnel reflections at interfaces in the cover material. Finally, the performance coefficients for double-glazed and selective surface flat plate collectors are examined.

  17. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  18. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  19. Fuel cell current collector

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Murray; Bonk, Stanley P.; Maricle, Donald L.; Abrams, Martin

    1991-01-01

    A fuel cell has a current collector plate (22) located between an electrode (20) and a separate plate (25). The collector plate has a plurality of arches (26, 28) deformed from a single flat plate in a checkerboard pattern. The arches are of sufficient height (30) to provide sufficient reactant flow area. Each arch is formed with sufficient stiffness to accept compressive load and sufficient resiliently to distribute the load and maintain electrical contact.

  20. Flatplate Solar Energy Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A small truck body fabricator in Florida became producer of flatplate solar collectors after having an inexpensive literature search performed by the NASA IAC in Research Triangle Park, NC. The center provided him with 314 abstracts of which he requested 15 full length articles. His total cost, $100.00, was sufficient to launch his new venture OEM Products, Inc. Flatplate collector design incorporates new black paint developed by Dow-Corning Corporation but not yet commercially available.

  1. EUV source collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böwering, Norbert R.; Ershov, Alex I.; Marx, William F.; Khodykin, Oleh V.; Hansson, Björn A. M.; Vargas L., Ernesto; Chavez, Juan A.; Fomenkov, Igor V.; Myers, David W.; Brandt, David C.

    2006-03-01

    A collector subsystem has been designed, built, and tested. The subsystem consists of a 320mm diameter ellipsoidal collector coated with a graded multilayer, mounting mechanics, thermal management capability, and a collector protection system. The EUV light emission can be collected with a solid angle of 1.6 sr. Collector substrates have been developed with the goal of offering both optical surface quality to support high multilayer mirror (MLM) reflectivity and material compatibility for long-term operation in the EUV source system. An interface-engineered MLM coating capable of maintaining high normal-incidence peak reflectivity at 13.5 nm during continuous operation at 400 °C has been developed. The thermal management of the system has been engineered and tested to maintain uniform substrate temperature during operation. Lastly, protection techniques have been developed to provide the collector with a long operational lifetime. Performance data for the entire subsystem are presented. The collector was installed in the source chamber of a laser-produced-plasma EUV source during system integration experiments using a tin droplet target. First results of the collected EUV output at the intermediate focus measured with a power meter and a fluorescence-converter-based imaging system are discussed.

  2. The study of stress application and corrosion cracking on Ni-16 Cr-9 Fe (Alloy 600) C-ring samples by polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Jing; Fuller, Marina L Suominen; McIntyre, N Stewart; Carcea, Anatolie G; Newman, Roger C; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi

    2012-03-27

    Microscopic strains associated with stress corrosion cracks have been investigated in stressed C-rings of Ni-16 Cr-9 Fe (Alloy 600) boiler tubing. Polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction was used to measure deviatoric strain tensors and the distribution of dislocations near cracks that had been propagated in electrochemically accelerated corrosion tests. An associated investigation of the C-ring-induced strains prior to corrosion showed significant tensile strain in the stress axis direction by the torsional closure of the alloy tube section in the C-ring test. Significant grain lattice rotation and pronounced plastic strain at some grain boundaries were noted. Stress-corrosion-cracking-generated intergranular cracks were produced in two Alloy 600 specimens after 6 h and 18 h tests. The diffraction patterns and resultant strain tensors were mapped around the cracked area to a 1 μm spatial resolution. The strain tensor transverse to the crack growth direction showed tensile strain at the intergranular region just ahead of the crack tip for both specimens. Both cracks were found to follow grain boundary pathways that had the lowest angle of misorientation. Dislocation distributions within each grain were qualitatively obtained from the shapes of the diffraction spots and the effect of 'hard' and 'soft' grains on the crack pathway was explored for both 6 h and 18 h specimens. The Schmid factor of one of the grains adjacent to the crack at the 6 h and 18 h initiation sites was found to be the lowest, compared to Schmid factors calculated for surface grains away from the initiation site, and also along the crack path into the bulk.

  3. Solvent vapor collector

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1979-01-30

    A solvent vapor collector is mounted on the upstream inlet end of an oven having a gas-circulating means and intended for curing a coating applied to a strip sheet metal at a coating station. The strip sheet metal may be hot and solvent vapors are evaporated at the coating station and from the strip as it passes from the coating station to the oven. Upper and lower plenums within a housing of the collector are supplied with oven gases or air from the gas-circulating means and such gases or air are discharged within the collector obliquely in a downstream direction against the strip passing through that collector to establish downstream gas flows along the top and under surfaces of the strip so as, in turn, to induct solvent vapors into the collector at the coating station. A telescopic multi-piece shroud is usefully provided on the housing for movement between an extended position in which it overlies the coating station to collect solvent vapors released thereat and a retracted position permitting ready cleaning and adjustment of that coating station.

  4. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOEpatents

    Butler, B.

    1980-10-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  5. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOEpatents

    Butler, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  6. Biological sample collector

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Gloria A [French Camp, CA

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  7. Artists and collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien-Ohlmann, Odile

    1995-02-01

    `Where can I buy holograms?' `Where can I exhibit, there is no more gallery to show me?' These are the two complaints I have heard these past two years, first from the collectors and museum curators, second from the artists, Trained as a psycho-sociologist, I have been the curator and research associate of the Museum of Holography in Washington, D.C. for 7 years, at a time when holography was coming out of the laboratory, creating a real 3-D novelty in people's minds. I saw the mass production growing and the applications multiplying. Meanwhile the artists appeared and started to deal with gallery managers. After the renting period of artworks for exhibits, price went up. The general recession affected the art and the dialogue between collectors and artists became harder. Having my husband as an artist, I know pretty well both sides. My paper tries to analyze the situation to facilitate the communication between artists and collectors.

  8. Miniature, ruggedized data collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Scott; Calcutt, Wade; Knobler, Ron; Jones, Barry; Klug, Robert

    2009-05-01

    McQ has developed a miniaturized, programmable, ruggedized data collector intended for use in weapon testing or data collection exercises that impose severe stresses on devices under test. The recorder is designed to survive these stresses which include acceleration and shock levels up to 100,000 G. The collector acquires and stores up to four channels of signal data to nonvolatile memory for later retrieval by a user. It is small (< 7 in3), light weight (< 1 lb), and can operate from various battery chemistries. A built-in menuing system, accessible via a USB interface, allows the user to configure parameters of the recorder operation, such as channel gain, filtering, and signal offsets, and also to retrieve recorded data for analysis. An overview of the collector, its features, performance, and potential uses, is presented.

  9. Black Liquid Solar Collector Demonstrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichman, F. L.; Austen, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the details of constructing, and use of, a solar collector. Uses a black liquid to absorb the energy, the thermosyphon effect to drive the liquid through the collector, and a floodlamp as a surrogate sun. (GA)

  10. Structurally integrated steel solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Moore, S.W.

    1975-06-03

    Herein is disclosed a flate plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support, and building insulation are combined into one unit.

  11. Structurally integrated steel solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Stanley W.

    1977-03-08

    Herein is disclosed a flat plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support and building insulation are combined into one unit.

  12. Solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  13. Sheldon Jackson the Collector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Rosemary

    Missionary, educator, humanitarian, and collector, the Reverend Sheldon Jackson came to Alaska in 1877 to assimilate Native populations into the dominant White culture, but his collecting efforts between 1877 and 1902 represent a significant effort to preserve the legacy of Alaska Natives during a period of tumultuous change. A zealous missionary,…

  14. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  15. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  16. Multiple discharge cylindrical pump collector

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, Charlton; Bremner, Robert J.; Meng, Sen Y.

    1989-01-01

    A space-saving discharge collector 40 for the rotary pump 28 of a pool-type nuclear reactor 10. An annular collector 50 is located radially outboard for an impeller 44. The annular collector 50 as a closed outer periphery 52 for collecting the fluid from the impeller 44 and producing a uniform circumferential flow of the fluid. Turning means comprising a plurality of individual passageways 54 are located in an axial position relative to the annular collector 50 for receiving the fluid from the annular collector 50 and turning it into a substantially axial direction.

  17. Study of Cr → SmA phase transition and hydrogen bonding in four-ring bent-core liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Swapnil; Singh, Harshita; Tandon, Poonam; Chakraborty, Nirmalangshu; Rao, N. V. S.; Ayala, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    A newly designed asymmetrical four-ring bent-core compound (4‧-n-decyloxyphenylazo)-phenyl-4-yl-3-[N-(4‧-n-octadecyloxy-2-hydroxybenzylidene) amino]-2-methyl benzoate exhibiting liquid crystalline behavior was synthesized and characterized. The thermal and textural morphology were studied using differential scanning calorimetry and polarizing optical microscopy, respectively. The study of hydrogen bonding and dynamics of the phase transition has been performed at the molecular level using temperature dependent Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The spectral analysis of OH, CH2/CH3, Cdbnd O, and Cdbnd N stretching vibrational bands revealed clear signatures of Cr → SmA phase transition at 125 °C. Density functional theory has been adopted for the geometry optimization and conformational study of the monomer using the B3LYP/6-31G(d) method. The conformational analysis has been performed to predict the most stable conformer along with the possible conformers using one-dimensional potential energy scan employing the same level of theory. The combination of experimental findings and theoretical analysis helped to understand the mechanism of phase transitions at the molecular level.

  18. Effect of collector molecular structure on the wettability of gold for froth flotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncayo-Riascos, Ivan; Hoyos, Bibian A.

    2017-10-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to evaluate the alteration of the hydrophilic state of gold surfaces caused by the adsorption of collectors with different molecular structures, using the contact angle of water droplets as an evaluation parameter. Four collectors were evaluated: SDS (with twelve hydrogenated carbon atoms), PAX (with five hydrogenated carbon atoms), DTP (with two branched aliphatic chains) and MBT (with an aromatic ring). The contact angle was evaluated for coatings of a monolayer (ML) and for surface densities of 2.89 μmol/m2 for each collector. For a ML, the hydrophobic effect generated by the aromatic ring of the MBT collector is comparable with the effect of the non-polar short chain of the PAX collector. The increase in hydrophobicity for the gold surfaces achieved by collectors with aliphatic chains is because the water-collector interaction energy is significantly higher (repulsive) than the water-gold interactions (attractive). The lowest increase in hydrophobicity was achieved with the MBT collector, since the carbon-water interaction energy of the aromatic ring is stronger than the interaction with the carbon atoms in the aliphatic chains. The calculated contact angles of the water droplets deviated less than 4% with respect to the experimental values.

  19. Solar collector array

    DOEpatents

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  20. Textile solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Guadard, Y.; Guillemaud, H.

    1982-04-27

    Disclosed is a solar collector employing a liquid collecting medium. A textile collection surface of which the thickness possesses different densities is employed to carry the medium. These densities are such that the densities increase from the surface exposed to the sun to the opposite surface, in order to enable the liquid to run in the upper thickness. The textile collecting surface consists of at least one nonwoven textile thickness.

  1. Method for making a high current fiber brush collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scuro, S. J.

    1986-05-01

    An axial-type homopolar motor having high density, high current fiber brush collectors affording efficient, low contact resistance and low operating temperatures is discussed. The collectors include a ring of concentric row of brushes in equally spaced beveled holes soldered in place using a fixture for heating the ring to just below the solder melting point at a soldering iron for the local application of additional heat at each brush. Prior to soldering, an oxide film is formed on the surfaces of the brushes and ring, and the bevels are burnished to form a wetting surface. Flux applied with the solder at each bevel removes to an effective soldering depth the oxide film on the brushes and the holes.

  2. Turning collectors for solar radiation

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about the polar axis so that the collector is directed toward the sun as the sun tracks the sky each day. It includes two heat-expansive elements and a shadow plate. In the morning a first expansive element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the second expansive element is shaded by the plate. In the afternoon the second element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the first is shaded by the plate.

  3. Current collector for AMTEC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An electrode having higher power output is formed of an open mesh current collector such as expanded nickel covering an electrode film applied to a tube of beta-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). A plurality of cross-members such as spaced, parallel loops of molybdenum metal wire surround the BASE tube. The loops are electrically connected by a bus wire. As the AMTEC cell is heated, the grid of expanded nickel expands more than the BASE tube and the surrounding loop of wire and become diffusion welded to the electrode film and to the wire loops.

  4. Preliminary design of an air solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report containing performance specifications and engineering drawings of concentric-tube air solar collector show details of collector and subcomponents that indicate efficiency surpassing predetermined performance baseline for air collectors.

  5. Selecting baghouse dust collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.; Rubak, J.; Jolin, M. |

    1996-10-01

    Control of nuisance or process dusts generated within a plant is a vital concern with today`s growing emphasis on indoor air quality. In the past, many companies simply moved these contaminants away from workers and discharged them into the atmosphere. More stringent pollution control requirements now make this course of action unacceptable. Also, in some cases there is a need to recover high-value dusts, such as chemicals or precious metals. As a result, proper design and selection of a dust collection system are more critical than ever. There are two types of fabric filter dust collection systems commonly used today: baghouses and cartridges. Baghouses were the first collection systems with fabric media (in the form of long tubes, or bags) for removal of contaminants. The versatility of the baghouse--coupled with constant technological refinements--have made it a long-standing favorite among specifiers of pollution control equipment. In fact, baghouses account for more than 80% of all fabric filter dust collection systems in use today. Cartridge dust collectors use rigidly pleated filter elements instead of bags, making it possible to accommodate a large amount of filter surface area in a comparatively small package. Cartridge collectors also offer high efficiency and low pressure drop.

  6. Integrated solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Tchernev, Dimiter I.

    1985-01-01

    A solar collector having a copper panel in a contiguous space relationship with a condenser-evaporator heat exchanger located under the panel, the panel having a honeycomb-like structure on its interior defining individual cells which are filled with zeolite loaded, in its adsorbed condition, with 18 to 20% by weight of water. The interior of the panel and heat exchanger are maintained at subatmospheric pressure of about 0.1 to 1 psia. The panel and heat exchanger are insulated on their lateral sides and bottoms and on the top of the heat exchange. The panel has a black coating on its top which is exposed to and absorbs solar energy. Surrounding the insulation (which supports the panel) is an extruded aluminum framework which supports a pair of spaced-apart glass panels above the solar panel. Water in conduits from a system for heating or cooling or both is connected to flow into an inlet and discharge from outlet of a finned coil received within the heat exchanger. The collector panel provides heat during the day through desorption and condensing of water vapor from the heated solar panel in the heat exchanger and cools at night by the re-adsorption of the water vapor from the heat exchanger which lowers the absolute pressure within the system and cools the heat exchange coils by evaporation.

  7. The PKI collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    The design and manufacturing of a solar thermal collector is discussed. The collector has three primary subsystems: concentrator, receiver/fluid loop, and controls. Identical curved reflective columns are utilized in a faceted Fresnel design to support 864 one foot square flat inexpensive second-surface, silvered glass mirrors. The columns are ganged together and rotated through their centers of gravity to provide elevation tracking. The concentrator is supported by a lightweight spaceframe structure which distributes all wind and gravity loads to the base supports. The base of the structure is a track which rotates on wheels mounted on concrete piers. A parallel tube steel heat exchanger is mounted at the concentrator focal area in a well insulated, galvanized steel housing. Two rows of vertical close-packed, staggered tubes connect a mud header and a steam header. Automatic two axis tracking and operational control is provided with a microprocessor based package. Concentrator-mounted shadowbands are the basis for active tracking. A software program provides azimuthal tracking during cloudy periods.

  8. Depressed collector for electron beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ives, R. Lawrence (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A depressed collector for recovery of spent beam energy from electromagnetic sources emitting sheet or large aspect ration annular electron beams operating aver a broad range of beam voltages and currents. The collector incorporates a trap for capturing and preventing the return of reflected and secondary electrons.

  9. Collector-Output Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glandorf, D. R.; Phillips, Robert F., II

    1986-01-01

    Collector-Output Analysis Program (COAP) programmer's aid for analyzing output produced by UNIVAC collector (MAP processor). COAP developed to aid in design of segmentation structures for programs with large memory requirements and numerous elements but of value in understanding relationships among components of any program. Crossreference indexes and supplemental information produced. COAP written in FORTRAN 77.

  10. A Passive Nuclear Debris Collector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, John J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a nuclear debris collector which removes trace substances from the lower atmosphere during rainfall. Suggests that the collector could be implemented into courses at various educational levels and could result in developing a network for monitoring the geographical extent of nuclear contamination. (Author/SA)

  11. A Passive Nuclear Debris Collector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, John J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a nuclear debris collector which removes trace substances from the lower atmosphere during rainfall. Suggests that the collector could be implemented into courses at various educational levels and could result in developing a network for monitoring the geographical extent of nuclear contamination. (Author/SA)

  12. High-performance solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beekley, D. C.; Mather, G. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Evacuated all-glass concentric tube collector using air or liquid transfer mediums is very efficient at high temperatures. Collector can directly drive existing heating systems that are presently driven by fossil fuel with relative ease of conversion and less expense than installation of complete solar heating systems.

  13. Solar energy collector

    SciTech Connect

    Penney, R.J.

    1980-09-02

    A sun tracking solar energy collector assembly having both a longitudinally extending flat plate absorber and a tube absorber spaced from and extending longitudinally generally parallel to the flat plate absorber. In one form a parabolic reflector focuses direct rays of solar radiation on the tube absorber and directs diffused rays of solar radiation onto the plate absorber. In another form a fresnel lens plate focuses direct rays of solar radiation on the tube absorber and flat reflector surfaces direct diffused solar radiation passing through the lens plate onto the plate absorber. In both forms a fluid is first heated as it circulates through passages in the flat plate absorber and then is further heated to a higher temperature as it passes through the tube absorber.

  14. Radiant energy collector

    DOEpatents

    McIntire, William R.

    1983-01-01

    A cylindrical radiant energy collector is provided which includes a reflector spaced apart from an energy absorber. The reflector is of a particular shape which ideally eliminates gap losses. The reflector includes a plurality of adjacent facets of V shaped segments sloped so as to reflect all energy entering between said absorber and said reflector onto said absorber. The outer arms of each facet are sloped to reflect one type of extremal ray in a line substantially tangent to the lowermost extremity of the energy absorber. The inner arms of the facets are sloped to reflect onto the absorber all rays either falling directly thereon or as a result of reflection from an outer arm.

  15. Selecting baghouse dust collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.; Rubak, J.; Jolin, M. |

    1997-04-01

    A thorough analysis of the dust to be captured and determination of specific application requirements are necessary when designing a baghouse collection system. Independent consultants specializing in pollution control equipment and manufacturers with experience in several types of collectors are possible sources of assistance. These experts typically have testing facilities to analyze the dust characteristics. This final article of a two-part series on baghouse design and selection concentrates on application considerations created by the type of dust handled, selecting the best filtration media, selecting the best filtration media, and determining the air-to-cloth (A/C) ratio. The first article discussed bag sizing and cleaning methods and housing and hopper designs.

  16. Solar optical energy collector

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, K.

    1983-10-18

    A solar optical energy collector is disclosed having a lens system for concentrating sun beams and a sun beams receiving system for introducing said sun beams being concentrated into a optical-conductor cable. In order to obtain the most effective arrangement of the lens system, said lens system comprises a plurality (N) of Fresnel lenses each formed in the shape of a hexagon, i.e. N=3n(+1) Fresnel lenses are disposed around one Fresnel lens so that each side of the one Fresnel lens positioned in the center of the lens system adjoins to one side of each respective surrounding Fresnel lenses in a concentric-circular relationship, wherein (n) stands for a natural number.

  17. Biobriefcase aerosol collector

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Perry M [Tracy, CA; Christian, Allen T [Madison, WI; Bailey, Christopher G [Pleasanton, CA; Willis, Ladona [Manteca, CA; Masquelier, Donald A [Tracy, CA; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L [Livermore, CA

    2009-09-22

    A system for sampling air and collecting particles entrained in the air that potentially include bioagents. The system comprises providing a receiving surface, directing a liquid to the receiving surface and producing a liquid surface. Collecting samples of the air and directing the samples of air so that the samples of air with particles entrained in the air impact the liquid surface. The particles potentially including bioagents become captured in the liquid. The air with particles entrained in the air impacts the liquid surface with sufficient velocity to entrain the particles into the liquid but cause minor turbulence. The liquid surface has a surface tension and the collector samples the air and directs the air to the liquid surface so that the air with particles entrained in the air impacts the liquid surface with sufficient velocity to entrain the particles into the liquid, but cause minor turbulence on the surface resulting in insignificant evaporation of the liquid.

  18. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller; Rich Gebert; William Swanson

    1999-11-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC is currently being tested at the 2.7-MW scale at the Big Stone power station.

  19. LHCb Tag Collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuente Fernández, Paloma; Clemencic, Marco; Cousin, Nicolas; LHCb Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The LHCb physics software consists of hundreds of packages, each of which is developed by one or more physicists. When the developers have some code changes that they would like released, they commit them to the version control system, and enter the revision number into a database. These changes have to be integrated into a new release of each of the physics analysis applications. Tests are then performed by a nightly build system, which rebuilds various configurations of the whole software stack and executes a suite of run-time functionality tests. A Tag Collector system has been developed using solid standard technologies to cover both the use cases of developers and integration managers. A simple Web interface, based on an AJAX-like technology, is available. Integration with SVN and Nightly Build System, is possible via a Python API. Data are stored in a relational database with the help of an ORM (Object-Relational Mapping) library.

  20. Polar lunar power ring: Propulsion energy resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, Graham Scott

    1990-01-01

    A ring shaped grid of photovoltaic solar collectors encircling a lunar pole at 80 to 85 degrees latitude is proposed as the primary research, development, and construction goal for an initial lunar base. The polar Lunar Power Ring (LPR) is designed to provide continuous electrical power in ever increasing amounts as collectors are added to the ring grid. The LPR can provide electricity for any purpose indefinitely, barring a meteor strike. The associated rail infrastructure and inherently expandable power levels place the LPR as an ideal tool to power an innovative propulsion research facility or a trans-Jovian fleet. The proposed initial output range is 90 Mw to 90 Gw.

  1. FRACTIONATING COLUMN PRODUCT COLLECTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Paxson, G.D. Jr.

    1964-03-10

    Means for detecting minute fluid products from a chemical separation column and for advancing a collector tube rack in order to automatically separate and collect successive fractionated products are described. A charge is imposed on the forming drops at the column orifice to create an electric field as the drop falls in the vicinity of a sensing plate. The field is detected by an electrometer tube coupled to the plate causing an output signal to actuate rotation of a collector turntable rack, thereby positioning new collectors under the orifice. The invention provides reliable automatic collection independent of drop size, rate of fall, or chemical composition. (AEC)

  2. Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

  3. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  4. Evaluation of the chromium oxide arc spraying treatment on solar energy collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandezarroyo, Gloria; Gonzalezgarcia-Conde, Antonio; Moralespoyato, Francisco; Arrerajaraiz, Jose Maria; Blancotemprano, Cristina; Camonalvarez, Francisco

    Accelerated aging tests were performed on steel specimens coated with plasma gun Cr2O3 arc sprays. The chromium oxide coating is attractive due to its radiation absorptance characteristic, especially for solar thermal energy absorption applications. The use of plasma blowpipes gives low porosity coatings. Collector efficiency curves were determined and compared to the curves of conventional black paint collectors. The efficiency is close to conventional painting. The excellent behavior at high temperatures makes this treatment applicable to concentrated radiation absorbers.

  5. Inverted flat plate solar collector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.

    1981-08-26

    Construction and testing of an inverted flat plate solar collector are described. Heat transfer and economic analysis were performed to optimize the collector design. The newly designed collector was tested against two other flat plate collectors and the results and comparison of efficiencies are presented. (BCS)

  6. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry

    2014-03-01

    Preface: a personal view of planetary rings; 1. Introduction: the allure of the ringed planets; 2. Studies of planetary rings 1610-2013; 3. Diversity of planetary rings; 4. Individual ring particles and their collisions; 5. Large-scale ring evolution; 6. Moons confine and sculpt rings; 7. Explaining ring phenomena; 8. N-body simulations; 9. Stochastic models; 10. Age and evolution of rings; 11. Saturn's mysterious F ring; 12. Uranus' rings and moons; 13. Neptune's partial rings; 14. Jupiter's ring-moon system after Galileo and New Horizons; 15. Ring photometry; 16. Dusty rings; 17. Concluding remarks; Afterword; Glossary; References; Index.

  7. Wisconsin collector-efficiency study, phase two

    SciTech Connect

    Abright, B.L.

    1982-01-15

    The collector efficiency study developed a solar collector rating methodology specific to Wisconsin conditions. Existing rating programs were researched and a collector methodology was developed. A computer program was written to calculate the collector ratings and 25 collector models were rated. The accuracy of the proposed rating methodology was evaluated for 16 collectors placed in 11 domestic hot water systems. One liquid space heating analysis with storage and one air space heating analysis without storage were completed. A solar assisted heat pump in which the solar collectors function as evaporators was also analyzed.

  8. Solar-collector test report

    SciTech Connect

    Stoney, W. E.

    1981-06-01

    Activities to evaluate the commercial readiness and potential of an all plastic solar hot water collector are summarized. The results of tests at the Florida Solar Energy Center are reported. The collector is described and data are given including the efficiency curve, incident angle modifier, raw test data, and the results of static tests. A meeting is also described which was called to obtain an outside evaluation of the collector and recommendations as to future activities. It was agreed that the design demonstrated that a thin-film plastic absorber could be built to produce performance at least equal to the mid-range of conventional copper or aluminum absorbers and that production costs could probably be at least half that of currently available collectors. (LEW)

  9. Solar collector with altitude tracking

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about an east-west horizontal axis so that the collector is tilted toward the sun as the EWV altitude of the sun varies each day. It includes one or more heat responsive elements and a shading means aligned so that within a range of EWV altitudes of the sun during daylight hours the shading means shades the element or elements while during the rest of the daylight hours the elements or elements are heated by the sun to assume heated, stable states. Mechanical linkage between the collector and the element is responsive to the states of the element or elements to tilt the collector in accordance with variations in the EWV altitude of the sun.

  10. Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    This report presents data provided by US-based manufacturers and importers of solar collectors. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the years 1974 through 1992. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the years 1982 through 1992. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1992. Appendix A describes the survey methodology. Appendix B contains the 1992 survey forms and instructions. Appendices C and D list the companies that responded to the 1992 surveys and granted permission for their names and addresses to appear in the report. Appendix E provides selected tables from this report with data shown in the International System of Units (SI) metric units. Appendix F provides an estimate of installed capacity and energy production from solar collectors for 1992.

  11. The parabolic concentrating collector: A tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscello, V. C.

    1979-01-01

    A tutorial overview of point-focusing parabolic collectors is presented. Optical and thermal characteristics are discussed. Data representing typical achievable collector efficiencies are presented and the importance of balancing collector cost with concentrator quality is argued through the development of a figure of merit. Various types of two-axis tracking collectors are described. The Department of Energy program to develop these devices is briefly discussed, as are present and projected costs for these collectors.

  12. Design package for concentrating solar collector panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of the Northrup concentrating collector is presented. Included are the system performance specifications, the applications manual, and the detailed design drawings of the collector. The collector is a water/glycol/working fluid type, with a dipped galvanized steel housing, transparent acrylic Fresnel lens cover, copper absorber tube, and fiber glass insulation. It weights 98 pounds. A collector assembly includes four collector units within a tracking mount array.

  13. Solar radiation on a catenary collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutchik, M.; Appelbaum, J.

    1992-01-01

    A tent-shaped structure with a flexible photovoltaic blanket acting as a catenary collector is presented. The shadow cast by one side of the collector produces a shadow on the other side of the collector. This self-shading effect is analyzed. The direct beam, the diffuse, and the albedo radiation on the collector are determined. An example is given for the insolation on the collector operating on Viking Lander 1 (VL1).

  14. Elastocapillary mist collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duprat, Camille; Labbé, Romain; Rewakowicz, Ana

    2015-11-01

    Fibrous media are commonly used to collect droplets from an aerosol. In particular, woven textiles are used to harvest fresh water from fog, and coalescing filters made of non-woven entangled fibers are used to extract oil drops from gas streams. We propose a novel mist collector made of a forest of vertical flexible threads. As the droplets accumulate on the fibers, capillary bridges are formed, leading to the collapse of adjacent fibers thus forming liquid columns. This improve the liquid collection by preventing clogging, enabling high capture and precluding re-entrainment of drops in the gas stream due to the immediate coalescence of incoming droplets, and promoting fast drainage. We find that the collection flow rate is constant and can be adjusted by varying the fibers arrangement and flexibility. We show that there is an optimal situation for which this collection rate, i.e. the global efficiency, is maximal due to an elastocapillary coupling that we further characterize with a model experiment. Specifically, we study the drainage between two flexible fibers. Depending on the geometry and the fiber deformations, several flow regimes are observed. We characterize these regimes, and discuss the consequences on the drainage velocity, and thus the collection efficiency.

  15. SOLAR NANTENNA ELECTROMAGNETIC COLLECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven D. Novack; Dale K. Kotter; Dennis Slafer; Patrick Pinhero

    2008-08-01

    This research explores a new efficient approach for producing electricity from the abundant energy of the sun. A nanoantenna electromagnetic collector (NEC) has been designed, prototyped, and tested. Proof of concept has been validated. The device targets mid-infrared wavelengths where conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells do not respond but is abundant in solar energy. The initial concept of designing NEC antennas was based on scaling of radio frequency antenna theory. This approach has proven unsuccessful by many due to not fully understanding and accounting for the optical behavior of materials in the THz region. Also until recent years the nanofabrication methods were not available to fabricate the optical antenna elements. We have addressed and overcome both technology barriers. Several factors were critical in successful implementation of NEC including: 1) frequency-dependent modeling of antenna elements, 2) selection of materials with proper THz properties and 3) novel manufacturing methods that enable economical large-scale manufacturing. The work represents an important step toward the ultimate realization of a low-cost device that will collect as well as convert this radiation into electricity, which will lead to a wide spectrum, high conversion efficiency, and low cost solution to complement conventional PVs.

  16. Solar energy collector

    SciTech Connect

    Kellberg, H.; Wilder, A.

    1980-07-01

    A description is given of a solar energy collector structure comprising: a plurality of partially evacuated tublar members substantially transparent to incident solar radiation, said tubular members having opposed lateral ends being arranged in a first and second group and lying adjacent one another in parallel axial alignment, means for joining each tubular member next to each adjacent tubular member of the group to form a first and second respective tube sheet structure; said tube sheets arranged adjacent each other in tendem to form at least one flow channel therebetween in a self-supporting structure; an absorber member disposed within said flow channel for intercepting and absorbing solar energy; and an insulating film having deposited theron a radiation reflecting substance located behind said absorber member disposed over and conforming closely to a surface of said second tube sheet for forming an insulating space between the insulating film and the second tube sheet to thereby suppress radiation, conduction and convection from said absorber in a direction out of the interior of the flow channel.

  17. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  18. Passive thermosiphon solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    A passive thermosiphon solar collector was designed, built, installed and tested under this grant. The basic premise was to design a simple system that was economical to build and easy to install as a retrofit to many similar homes in the local community. The module is comprised of a 2X4 frame with a sandwiched insert consisting of a flat black painted aluminum absorber panel and a fiberglass reinforced plastic glazing. This insert is completely sealed from the environment with neoprene seals and rubber silicone sealant. The modules are enclosed in an overall framework of 2X8 material bolted to a concrete reinforced footing and attached to the residence at the top. This framework results in an air chamber behind the absorber panel where the air from the basement enters the chamber at the bottom and exits at the top of the chamber into the house. The air chamber is completely insulated with 5/8 inch polyisocyanurate foil covered foam board. Fabrication is detailed in the Design and Construction section and supplemented with the photo series submitted with the Second Quarter report. The test results indicate this modular concept is a viable solution to conserving our national resources and reducing heating expenses. In this specific experiment, the use of solar energy provided a thirty-five percent reduction in natural gas consumption for this home.

  19. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2011-07-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction: the allure of ringed planets; 2. Studies of planetary rings 1610-2004; 3. Diversity of planetary rings; 4. Individual ring particles and their collisions; 5. Large-scale ring evolution; 6. Moons confine and sculpt rings; 7. Explaining ring phenomena; 8. N-Body simulations; 9. Stochastic models; 10. Age and evolution of rings; 11. Saturn's mysterious F ring; 12. Neptune's partial rings; 13. Jupiter's ring-moon system after Galileo; 14. Ring photometry; 15. Dusty rings; 16. Cassini observations; 17. Summary: the big questions; Glossary; References; Index.

  20. [CrF(O2CtBu)2]9: Synthesis and Characterization of a Regular Homometallic Ring with an Odd Number of Metal Centers and Electrons

    PubMed Central

    Woolfson, Robert J.; Timco, Grigore A.; Chiesa, Alessandro; Vitorica‐Yrezabal, Inigo J.; Tuna, Floriana; Guidi, Tatiana; Pavarini, Eva; Santini, Paolo; Carretta, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The first regular homometallic ring containing an odd number of metal centers is reported. The ring was synthesized by means of amine‐templated self‐assembly. Extensive physical characterization studies, including magnetic measurements, powder inelastic neutron scattering (INS), and DFT calculations, show that the molecule has a near perfect match to the expected behavior for a frustrated system with the lowest energy pair of S=1/2 spin states separated by only 0.1 meV (0.8 cm−1). PMID:27294807

  1. Comparison of Carbon Brush Sliding Characteristics with Copper Ring and Steel Ring in Large Alternate Rotating Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takanezawa, Makoto; Mori, Masami; Ueno, Takahiro; Morita, Noboru; Otaka, Toru; Arata, Masanori

    In the case of high speed and large capacity AC machines, such as turbine generators and large synchronous motors for industrial use, steel collector rings are generally applied to the brush/ring operation, where higher reliabilities are required, especially for large machines when compared to small machines. The brush/ring operation failures directly cause the service operation to shut down. Although steel ring application to those machines has been successful for almost sixty years, at present no one knows why “steel” is applied to the collector ring. It is considered that steel ring application technologies have never been disclosed or studied. In this study, the following points are investigated. 1) Consistency analysis for steel ring application 2) Experimental analysis for brush spark and collector ring hazard 3) Experimental analysis for brush contact V-I characteristics The above-mentioned points help in improving the reliabilities of the brush/collector ring operation, where the results of steel ring are completely compared with these of copper ring.

  2. Bi-coolant flat plate solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, W. Y.; Green, L. L.

    The feasibility study of a flat plate solar collector which heats air and water concurrently or separately was carried out. Air flows above the collector absorber plate, while water flows in tubes soldered or brazed beneath the plate. The collector efficiencies computed for the flow of both air and water are compared with those for the flow of a single coolant. The results show that the bi-coolant collector efficiency computed for the entire year in Buffalo, New York is higher than the single-coolant collector efficiency, although the efficiency of the water collector is higher during the warmer months.

  3. The multiple layer solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenna, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical model is developed for obtaining numerical solutions for differential equations describing the performance of separate layers in a multiple layer solar collector. The configurations comprises heat transfer fluid entering at the top of the collector and travelling down through several layers. A black absorber plate prevents reemission of thermal radiation. The overall performance is shown to depend on the number of layers, the heat transfer coefficient across each layer, and the absorption properties of the working fluid. It is found that the multiple layer system has a performance inferior to that of flat plate selective surface collectors. Air gaps insulating adjacent layers do not raise the efficiency enough to overcome the relative deficiency.

  4. Fiber reinforced concrete solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Slemmons, A. J.; Newgard, P. J.

    1985-05-07

    A solar collector is disclosed comprising a glass member having a solar selective coating thereon, and a molded, glass-reinforced concrete member bonded to the glass member and shaped to provide a series of passageways between the glass member and the fiber-reinforced concrete member capable of carrying heat exchanging fluid therethrough. The fiber-reinforced concrete member may be formed by spraying a thin layer of concrete and chopped fibers such as chopped glass fibers onto a mold to provide an inexpensive and lightweight, thin-walled member. The fiber-reinforced concrete member may have a lightweight cellular concrete backing thereon for insulation purposes. The collector is further characterized by the use of materials which have substantially matching thermal coefficients of expansion over the temperature range normally encountered in the use of solar collectors.

  5. Solar collector method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, C.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes a solar collector system. It comprises: an extruded solar collector with a plurality of orifices longitudinally extending therethrough; an input manifold having a central conduit member with male and female ends and a plurality of radially extending nipples corresponding to the plurality of orifices; an output manifold having a central conduit member with male and female ends and a plurality of radially extending nipples corresponding to the plurality of orifices; means for positioning the nipples of the input manifold into one end of the plurality of orifices and for positioning the nipples of the output manifold into the other end of the plurality of orifices such that a fluid flowing into the input manifold flows through the nipples of the input manifold into the plurality of orifices and then through the nipples of the output manifold into the output manifold; a sheet of transparent material affixed in a spaced-apart position above the solar collector by means of a stand-off material; an insulated material positioned above the manifolds; and an arcuate member adhered between the sheet of transparent material and the strip of material and positioned over one of the manifolds to prevent debris from being deposited between the manifold and the solar collector. Also described is a nipple formed in a cylindrical configuration with an exterior surface and a free end. Also described is coupling apparatus between a manifold having a cylindrical nipple and a solar collector having a cylindrical orifice. Also described is a manifold for connection to a solar collector having a plurality of orifices extending longitudinally therethrough.

  6. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Aykan, Kamran; Farrauto, Robert J.; Jefferson, Clinton F.; Lanam, Richard D.

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  7. Pyrolytic graphite collector development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Pyrolytic graphite promises to have significant advantages as a material for multistage depressed collector electrodes. Among these advantages are lighter weight, improved mechanical stiffness under shock and vibration, reduced secondary electron back-streaming for higher efficiency, and reduced outgassing at higher operating temperatures. The essential properties of pyrolytic graphite and the necessary design criteria are discussed. This includes the study of suitable electrode geometries and methods of attachment to other metal and ceramic collector components consistent with typical electrical, thermal, and mechanical requirements.

  8. High efficiency flat plate solar energy collector

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, R. F.

    1985-04-30

    A concentrating flat plate collector for the high efficiency collection of solar energy. Through an arrangement of reflector elements, incoming solar radiation, either directly or after reflection from the reflector elements, impinges upon both surfaces of a collector element.

  9. Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector

    DOEpatents

    Hollands, K. G. Terry; Sibbitt, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.

  10. Performance verification of an air solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. C.; Romaker, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Procedures and results of battery of qualification tests performed by independent certification agency on commercial solar collector are presented in report. Reported results were used as basis in judging collector suitable for field installation in residential and commerical buildings.

  11. Large-scale solar thermal collector concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brantley, L. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Thermal collector could be used ultimately to power steamplant to produce electricity. Collector would consist of two major subsystems: (1) series of segmented tracking mirrors with two axes of rotation and (2) absorber mounted on centrally located tower.

  12. Installation package for concentrating solar collector panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The concentrating solar collector panels comprise a complete package array consisting of collector panels using modified Fresnel prismatic lenses for a 10 to 1 concentrating ratio, supporting framework, fluid manifolding and tracking drive system, and unassembled components for field erection.

  13. Design and beam transport simulations of a multistage collector for the Israeli EA-FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tecimer, M.; Canter, M.; Efimov, S.; Gover, A.; Sokolowski, J.

    2001-12-01

    A four stage asymmetric type depressed collector has been designed for the Israeli mm-wave FEM that is driven by a 1.4 MeV, 1.5 A electron beam. After leaving the interaction section the spent beam has an energy spread of 120 keV and 75 π mm mrad normalized beam emittance. Simulations of the beam transport system from the undulator exit through the decelerator tube into the collector have been carried out using EGUN and GPT codes. The latter has also been employed to study trajectories of the primary and scattered particles within the collector, optimizing the asymmetrical collector geometry and the electrode potentials at the presence of a deflecting magnetic field. The estimated overall system and collector efficiencies reach 50% and 70%, respectively, with a beam recovery of 99.6%. The design is aimed to attain millisecond long pulse operation and subsequently 1 kW average power. Simulation results are implemented in a mechanical design that leads to a simple, cost efficient assembly eliminating ceramic insulator rings between collector stages and the associated brazing in the manufacturing process. Instead, each copper plate is supported by insulating posts and freely displaceable within the vacuum chamber. We report on the simulation results of the beam transport and recovery systems and on the mechanical aspects of the multistage collector design.

  14. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  15. Solar collectors. I - Fundamentals and collectors of the past and present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    The paper is a state-of-the-art review aiming to familiarize those who are new in the solar energy field with past accomplishment in solar energy utilization. Consideration is given to the design features and performance definition of solar collectors. The characteristics of planar collectors, line focusing collectors, and point focusing collectors (including the central receiver concept) are briefly discussed.

  16. Installation package for Sunpak solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A subsystem (air/liquid vacuum collector) was developed for use with solar combined heating and cooling subsystems. The collector is modular in design, is approximately twelve-feet-three-inches wide and is eight-feet-seven-inches high. The module contains 72 collector tube elements and weighs approximately 300 pounds.

  17. CsI-Silicon Particle detector for Heavy ions Orbiting in Storage rings (CsISiPHOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, M. A.; Dillmann, I.; Bosch, F.; Faestermann, T.; Gao, B.; Gernhäuser, R.; Kozhuharov, C.; Litvinov, S. A.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Maier, L.; Nolden, F.; Popp, U.; Sanjari, M. S.; Spillmann, U.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, T.; Weick, H.

    2016-11-01

    A heavy-ion detector was developed for decay studies in the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. This detector serves as a prototype for the in-pocket particle detectors for future experiments with the Collector Ring (CR) at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research). The detector includes a stack of six silicon pad sensors, a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD), and a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector. It was used successfully in a recent experiment for the detection of the β+-decay of highly charged 142Pm60+ ions. Based on the ΔE / E technique for particle identification and an energy resolution of 0.9% for ΔE and 0.5% for E (Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM)), the detector is well-suited to distinguish neighbouring isobars in the region of interest.

  18. Solar collector and arrangements thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.N.

    1985-03-19

    In an all liquid flat plate type solar collector having risers therein, the risers having inlet and outlet portions, the improvement comprises providing a single header for servicing the risers and arranging the risers inlet and outlet portions within the header so as to obtain flow through the risers using the velocity effect or dynamic effect of flow through the header.

  19. Selective coating for solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Schardein, D.J.

    1983-03-15

    A selective solar coating for solar collectors is disclosed. The coating is characterized by its high absorptance and low emittance. The coating comprises an organic compound or substance having a high molecular weight and a high carbon content, such as a petroleum, vegetable or animal oil, fat or wax, which is pyrolyzed to produce a carbon black pigmented varnish.

  20. Line-focus concentrating solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J. A.; Dugan, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the line-focus concentrating solar collector technology and applications is presented. Included are a description of the collectors, some of the key features of the engineering approach, instantaneous and all-day performance and operating data, temperature capabilities and limitations for selected collectors, projected future capabilities for peak and annual performance. Projected system capital costs and annualized life cycle costs for thermal energy produced are discussed. Several existing application projects which employ line concentrating collectors are reviewed, and finally, plans for future DOE-funded line concentrating collector projects are described.

  1. Recommendations for European solar collector test methods (Liquid heating collectors)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrick, A.; Gillett, W. B.

    Standardized testing formats, equipment, conditions, and tests defined as part of the solar flat plate collector testing program performed by the Commission of the European Communities are detailed. The work is a product of efforts at 20 laboratories, and alternative methods have been characterized for tailoring tests to particular locations and climatic conditions. The testing methods are intended for collectors using a liquid as the heat transfer medium. Procedures have been defined for examining steady state and transient performance, heat loss, thermal capacity, pressure drop, and anemometry. Instrumentation types and accuracies have been defined, and a standardized format for presentation of results has been developed. The tests are tailored for determining the durability of the flat plate systems under simulated solar radiation conditions.

  2. Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Wipke, K.

    1992-05-01

    The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69 percent more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44 percent less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration.

  3. Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.A. ); Wipke, K. )

    1992-05-01

    The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69% more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44% less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration. 8 refs.

  4. A generalized correlation of experimental flat-plate collector performance. [solar collectors, performance tests, energy policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.; Miller, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    A generalized collector performance correlation was derived and shown by experimental verification to be of the proper form to account for the majority of the variable conditions encountered both in outdoor and in indoor collector tests. This correlation permits a determination of collector parameters which are essentially nonvarying under conditions which do vary randomly (outdoors) or conditions which vary in a controlled manner (indoors - simulator). It was shown that correlation of the experimental performance of collectors allows the following: (1) comparisons of different collector designs; (2) collector performance prediction under conditions that differ from the conditions of the test program; and (3) monitoring performance degradation effects.

  5. Analysis of boiling flat-plate collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.

    1986-05-01

    A detailed model for use with TRNSYS, capable of modelling a wide range of boiling collector types, was used to analyze boiling flat-plate collector systems. This model can account for a subcooled liquid entering the collector, heat losses in the vapor and the liquid return line, pressure drops due to friction in the collector and piping, and pressure drops due to the hydrostatic head of the fluid. The model has been used to determine the yearly performance of boiling flat-plate solar collector systems. A simplified approach was also developed which can be used with the f-Chart method to predict yearly performance of boiling flat-plate collector systems.

  6. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: Prototype moderately concentrating grooved collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Prototypes of moderately concentrating grooved collectors were tested with a solar simulator for varying inlet temperature, flux level, and incident angle. Collector performance is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  7. Window box collectors for Squirrel Hill

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, B.J.

    1981-05-01

    A prototype thermosyphoning collector was built and installed in the windows of a house in Pittsburgh. Testing of the collectors revealed an efficiency of 35% and a payback period of 10 years. The prototype was redesigned and tested under a DOE grant. The final design of the collector is presented, but only a small amount of data was taken to begin the evaluation of the units. The use of thermal shutters is also included. (BCS)

  8. Solar thermal collectors using planar reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espy, P. N.

    1978-01-01

    Specular reflectors have been used successfully with flat-plate collectors to achieve exceptionally high operating temperatures and high delivered energy per unit collector area. Optimal orientation of collectors and reflectors can result in even higher performance with an improved relationship between energy demand and supply. This paper reports on a study providing first order optimization of collector-reflector arrays in which single- and multiple-faceted reflectors in fixed or singly adjustable configurations provide delivered energy maxima in either summer or winter.

  9. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell current collector

    DOEpatents

    Bischoff, Brian L.; Sutton, Theodore G.; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2010-07-20

    An internal current collector for use inside a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (TSOFC) electrode comprises a tubular coil spring disposed concentrically within a TSOFC electrode and in firm uniform tangential electrical contact with the electrode inner surface. The current collector maximizes the contact area between the current collector and the electrode. The current collector is made of a metal that is electrically conductive and able to survive under the operational conditions of the fuel cell, i.e., the cathode in air, and the anode in fuel such as hydrogen, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O or H.sub.2S.

  10. Fog collectors and collection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhler, I.; Suau, C.

    2010-07-01

    The earth sciences taught that due to the occurrence of water in three phases: gas, liquid and solid, solar energy keeps the hydrological cycle going, shaping the earth surface while regulating the climate and thus allowing smart technologies to interfere in the natural process by rerouting water and employing its yield for natural and human environments’ subsistence. This is the case of traditional fog collectors implemented by several researchers along the Atacama Desert since late ’50s such as vertical tensile mesh or macro-diamonds structures. Nevertheless, these basic prototypes require to be upgraded, mainly through new shapes, fabrics and frameworks’ types by following the principles of lightness, transformability, portability and polyvalence. The vertical canvas of conventional fog collectors contain too much stressed at each joints and as result it became vulnerable. Our study constitutes a research by design of two fog-trap devices along the Atacama Desert. Different climatic factors influence the efficiency of fog harvesting. In order to increase yield of collected fog water, we need to establish suitable placements that contain high rates of fog’s accumulation. As important as the location is also the building reliability of these collectors that will be installed. Their frames and skins have to be adjustable to the wind direction and resistant against strong winds and rust. Its fabric need to be more hydrophobic, elastic and with light colours to ease dripping/drainage and avoid ultra-violet deterioration. In addition, meshes should be well-tensed and frames well-embraced too. In doing so we have conceived two fog collectors: DropNet© (Höhler) and FogHive© (Suau). These designs explore climatic design parameters combined with the agile structural principles of Tensegrity and Geodesic widely developed by Bucky Fuller and Frei Otto. The research methods mainly consisted of literature review; fieldwork; comparative analysis of existing fog

  11. Automated solar collector installation design

    DOEpatents

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-08-26

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives.

  12. Evacuated flat-plate solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Whittemore, P.G.

    1981-09-15

    A structural support system is disclosed for use in an evacuated, flat-plate, solar collector to eliminate the problem of stress fractures in a glass cover plate. Nonlinearly spaced supports are used within the collector to dampen vibrations in the glass cover and to prevent overdeflection before buckling or stress fractures occur.

  13. 49 CFR 229.77 - Current collectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Current collectors. 229.77 Section 229.77 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....77 Current collectors. (a) Pantographs shall be so arranged that they can be operated from the...

  14. Solar collector with improved thermal concentration

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1976-01-01

    Reduced heat loss from the absorbing surface of the energy receiver of a cylindrical radiant energy collector is achieved by providing individual, insulated, cooling tubes for adjacent parallel longitudinal segments of the receiver. Control means allow fluid for removing heat absorbed by the tubes to flow only in those tubes upon which energy is then being directed by the reflective wall of the collector.

  15. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Collector's items. 479.25... OTHER FIREARMS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 479.25 Collector's items. The Director shall determine in accordance with 26 U.S.C. 5845(a), whether a firearm or device, which although...

  16. Development and testing of the Shenandoah collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinoshita, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    The test and development of the 7-meter Shenandoah parabolic dish collector incorporating an FEK-244 film reflective surface and cavity receiver are described. Four prototypes tested in the midtemperature Solar System Test Facility indicate, with changes incorporated from these development tests, that the improvements should lead to predicted performance levels in the production collectors.

  17. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  18. Cleaner for Solar-Collector Covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frickland, P. O.; Cleland, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    Simple self-contained cleaning system proposed for solar collectors or solar-collector protective domes. Perforated transparent plastic cap attached to top of protective dome in heliostat solar-energy collection system distributes cleaning fluid over surface of dome without blocking significant fraction of solar radiation.

  19. Design review of a liquid solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesewmaier, B. L.

    1979-01-01

    Report documents procedures, results, and recommendations for in-depth analysis of problems with liquid-filled version of concentric-tube solar collector. Problems are related to loss of vacuum and/or violent fracture of collector elements, fluid leakage, freezing, flow anomalies, manifold damage, and other component failures.

  20. Pioneer CESA Guidance Project: Data Collectors Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Brenda; Andrews, Theodore

    The purpose of this guide is to assist trained data collectors in the use of the "Performance-Based Counselor Certification Model for the State of Georgia." The guidelines are intended to clarify the process rather than to limit the data collector to a confining set of definitions. In addition, the guide discusses specific school…

  1. 49 CFR 229.77 - Current collectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Current collectors. 229.77 Section 229.77 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....77 Current collectors. (a) Pantographs shall be so arranged that they can be operated from the...

  2. Electrostatic particle collector with improved features for installing and/or removing its collector plates

    DOEpatents

    Siegfried, Matthew J.; Radford, Daniel R.; Huffman, Russell K.

    2017-04-04

    An electrostatic particle collector may generally include a housing having sidewalls extending lengthwise between a first end and a second end. The housing may define a plate slot that extends heightwise within the housing between a top end and a bottom end. The housing may further include a plate access window that provides access to the bottom end of the plate slot. The collector may also include a collector plate configured to be installed within the plate slot that extends heightwise between a top edge and a bottom edge. Additionally, when the collector plate is installed within the plate slot, the bottom edge of the collector plate may be accessible from an exterior of the housing via the plate access window so as to allow the bottom edge of the collector plate to be moved relative to the housing to facilitate removal of the collector plate from the housing.

  3. Performance of solar collector arrays and collector controllers in the National Solar Data Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logee, T. L.; Kendall, P. W.

    1984-07-01

    The accumulated National Solar Data Network (NSDN) data has been analyzed with regard to collector and collector control performance. The collector data is presented in the ASHRAE format as efficiency vs. operating points, (Tinlet - Tambient)/insolation. Collector controls were analyzed by determining the losses caused by control problems common to the NSDN solar systems. This study of collectors and collector controls has several objectives which are: (1) to compare actual and predicted collector performance; (2) to determine which generic types of components performed well and which performed poorly; (3) to determine why predicted performance was not achieved in the field; (4) to determine the types and causes of failures; (5) to determine the reliability weaknesses; and (6) to determine whether there are any component integration problems.

  4. Second law analysis and synthesis of solar collector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, A.; Kearney, D. W.; Kreith, F.

    1981-02-01

    The second law of thermodynamics is used to analyze the potential for energy conservation in solar collector systems. It is shown that the amount of useful energy (exergy) delivered by solar collector systems is affected by heat transfer irreversibilities occurring between the sun and the collector, between the collector and the ambient air, and inside the collector. Using as working examples an isothermal collector, a nonisothermal collector, and the design of the collector-user heat exchanger, the optimum operating conditions for minimum heat transfer irreversibility (maximum exergy delivery) are derived.

  5. Direct expansion solar collector and heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-05-01

    A hybrid heat pump/solar collector combination in which solar collectors replace the outside air heat exchanger found in conventional air-to-air heat pump systems is discussed. The solar panels ordinarily operate at or below ambient temperature, eliminating the need to install the collector panels in a glazed and insulated enclosure. The collectors simply consist of a flat plate with a centrally located tube running longitudinally. Solar energy absorbed by exposed panels directly vaporizes the refrigerant fluid. The resulting vapor is compressed to higher temperature and pressure; then, it is condensed to release the heat absorbed during the vaporization process. Control and monitoring of the demonstration system are addressed, and the tests conducted with the demonstration system are described. The entire heat pump system is modelled, including predicted performance and costs, and economic comparisons are made with conventional flat-plate collector systems.

  6. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  7. A reliable method for rating solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lof, G. O. G.; Jones, D.; Shaw, L. E.

    Features of a solar flat plate collector system rating scheme which can be used by either technical or nontechnically trained persons are described and compared with other rating systems. Performance curves from the ASHRAE 93-77 technique are taken as the basic indicator of collector heat delivery capability, and can be combined with data on the type of climate, heating demand the collector serves, and the solar fraction of the load. The rating method comparisons covered calculations of heat delivery, for space heating applications, for four different collectors supplying four different load fractions in five locations. F-Chart simulations were run for the test, considering commercially available systems. Useful heat from the collectors varied with location, as did relative performance. The ARI rating system was found to be useless as a performance predictor, and recommendations are provided for an adequate rating system.

  8. A reliable method for rating solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loef, G. O. G.; Jones, D.; Shaw, L. E.

    A method is outlined which accurately and meaningfully rates solar collectors in all parts of the country. The basis for the rating is a first order efficiency curve developd from test results obtained in an accredited laboratory by methods prescribed in the ASHRAE 93-77 procedure. Annual solar heat delivery per square foot of collector is then calculated for standard hot water and space heating applications in cities throughout the U.S. by use of the F-Chart procedure. Four collectors are analyzed by the FCHART method for space heating applications in five U.S. cities at five solar load fractions. It is shown that although all the collectors have comparable outputs under some conditions, they perform quite differently in different parts of the country and at different ratios of collector area to heating load.

  9. Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    The rings are changing before our eyes; structure varies on all timescales and unexpected things have been discovered. Many questions have been answered, but some answers remain elusive (see Cuzzi et al 2010 for a review). Here we highlight the major ring science progress over the mission to date, and describe new observations planned for Cassini's final three years. Ring Composition and particle sizes: The rings are nearly all water ice with no other ices - so why are they reddish? The C Ring and Cassini Division are "dirtier" than the more massive B and A Rings, as shown by near-IR and, recently, microwave observations. Particle sizes, from stellar and radio occultations, vary from place to place. Ring structure, micro and macro: numerous spiral density waves and ubiquitous "self-gravity wakes" reveal processes which fostered planet formation in the solar system and elsewhere. However, big puzzles remain regarding the main ring divisions, the C Ring plateau structures, and the B Ring irregular structure. Moonlets, inside and out, seen and unseen: Two gaps contain sizeable moonlets, but more gaps seem to contain none; even smaller embedded "propeller" objects wander, systematically or randomly, through the A ring. Rubble pile ringmoons just outside the rings may escaped from the rings, and the recently discovered "Peggy" may be trying this as we watch. Impact bombardment of the rings: Comet fragments set the rings to rippling on century-timescales, and boulders crash through hourly; meanwhile, the constant hail of infalling Kuiper belt material has a lower mass flux than previously thought. Origin and Age of the Rings: The ring mass and bombardment play key roles. The ring mass is well known everywhere but in the B Ring (where most of it is). New models suggest how tidal breakup of evolving moons may have formed massive ancient rings, of which the current ring is just a shadow. During its last three years, the Cassini tour profile will allow entirely new

  10. Analytical prediction with multidimensional computer programs and experimental verification of the performance, at a variety of operating conditions, of two traveling wave tubes with depressed collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayton, J. A., Jr.; Kosmahl, H. G.; Ramins, P.; Stankiewicz, N.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and analytical results are compared for two high performance, octave bandwidth TWT's that use depressed collectors (MDC's) to improve the efficiency. The computations were carried out with advanced, multidimensional computer programs that are described here in detail. These programs model the electron beam as a series of either disks or rings of charge and follow their multidimensional trajectories from the RF input of the ideal TWT, through the slow wave structure, through the magnetic refocusing system, to their points of impact in the depressed collector. Traveling wave tube performance, collector efficiency, and collector current distribution were computed and the results compared with measurements for a number of TWT-MDC systems. Power conservation and correct accounting of TWT and collector losses were observed. For the TWT's operating at saturation, very good agreement was obtained between the computed and measured collector efficiencies. For a TWT operating 3 and 6 dB below saturation, excellent agreement between computed and measured collector efficiencies was obtained in some cases but only fair agreement in others. However, deviations can largely be explained by small differences in the computed and actual spent beam energy distributions. The analytical tools used here appear to be sufficiently refined to design efficient collectors for this class of TWT. However, for maximum efficiency, some experimental optimization (e.g., collector voltages and aperture sizes) will most likely be required.

  11. Neptune's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This 591-second exposure of the rings of Neptune were taken with the clear filter by the Voyager 2 wide-angle camera. The two main rings are clearly visible and appear complete over the region imaged. Also visible in this image is the inner faint ring and the faint band which extends smoothly from the ring roughly halfway between the two bright rings. Both of these newly discovered rings are broad and much fainter than the two narrow rings. The bright glare is due to over-exposure of the crescent on Neptune. Numerous bright stars are evident in the background. Both bright rings have material throughout their entire orbit, and are therefore continuous. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  12. Ring World

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-01

    Our robotic emissary, flying high above Saturn, captured this view of an alien copper-colored ring world. The overexposed planet has deliberately been removed to show the unlit rings alone, seen from an elevation of 60 degrees

  13. Neptune Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-29

    This 591-second exposure of the rings of Neptune were taken with the clear filter by NASA Voyager 2 wide-angle camera. The two main rings are clearly visible and appear complete over the region imaged.

  14. Ring Backdrop

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-03

    Saturn moon Enceladus brightly reflects sunlight before a backdrop of the planet rings and the rings shadows cast onto the planet. NASA Cassini spacecraft captured this snapshot during its flyby of the moon on Nov. 30, 2010.

  15. Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, Attila; Charles, Ruth

    2014-07-31

    The intent of “Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP” program was to develop key technology elements for collectors in Phase 1 (Budget Period 1), design these elements in Phase 2 (Budget Period 2) and to deploy and test the final collector in Phase 3 (Budget Period 3). 3M and DOE mutually agreed to terminate the program at the end of Budget Period 1, primarily due to timeline issues. However, significant advancements were achieved in developing a next generation reflective material and panel that has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of CSP systems.

  16. A mobile apparatus for solar collector testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotchkiss, G. B.; Simon, F. F.; Burmeister, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a mobile apparatus for solar collector testing (MASCOT) is described. The MASCOT is a self-contained test unit costing about $10,000 whose only external requirement for operation is electrical power and which is capable of testing two water-cooled flat-plate solar collectors simultaneously. The MASCOT is small enough and light enough to be transported to any geographical site for outdoor tests at the location of collector usage. It has been used in both indoor solar simulator tests and outdoor tests.

  17. Hybrid Photovoltaic-Thermal Collectors: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Figueiredo; Cardoso, António; Alcaso, Adérito

    Solar energy can be converted directly into electric and thermal energy through photovoltaic cells and thermal collectors, respectively. However this conversion, in particular the photovoltaic, has a reduced efficiency. A solution proposed to increase this efficiency is with the hybrid solar structure, which consists in the junction of the photovoltaic panel and the thermal collector in a single module. The interest on these solar systems led the International Energy Agency to create a "Task" on this subject. This paper presents a review of the research in this area, presenting the definitions of the related collectors and results of their characteristics, as well as some ideas for future studies.

  18. A thermal comparison among several beverage can solar collectors.

    Treesearch

    Peter Y.S. Chen

    1984-01-01

    Four air-heated solar collectors were built using four different configurations of aluminum beverage cans. The collectors were then tested for four consecutive seasons for their daily efficiencies. One of the collectors was also evaluated for one season for the effect of air velocity on efficiency, temperature rise, and power consumption of the collector.

  19. Collation of quarterly reports on air flat plate collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The solar 2 air flat plate collectors are described. The development and fabrication of a prototype air flat plate collector subsystem containing 320 square feet of collector area are described. Three instrumented panels were completely assembled with glazing and insulation. Manufacture of the last seven prototype collectors was completed in October 1977.

  20. Flat solar energy collector with low heat contact between absorber and edge of collector

    SciTech Connect

    Hussmann, E.

    1981-10-27

    The present invention relates to a flat, gas-tight solar energy collector having a novel absorber means consisting of an absorber plate and an edge connecting means attached thereto for connecting the absorber to the edge structure of the collector. No direct thermal contact exists between the edge of the absorber plate and the edge structure means. Thus, heat losses on the sides of the collector are kept to a minimum.

  1. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.

    Planetary rings are the only nearby astrophysical disks and the only disks that have been investigated by spacecraft (especially the Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn). Although there are significant differences between rings and other disks, chiefly the large planet/ring mass ratio that greatly enhances the flatness of rings (aspect ratios as small as 10- 7), understanding of disks in general can be enhanced by understanding the dynamical processes observed at close range and in real time in planetary rings.We review the known ring systems of the four giant planets, as well as the prospects for ring systems yet to be discovered. We then review planetary rings by type. The A, B, and C rings of Saturn, plus the Cassini Division, comprise our solar system's only dense broad disk and host many phenomena of general application to disks including spiral waves, gap formation, self-gravity wakes, viscous overstability and normal modes, impact clouds, and orbital evolution of embedded moons. Dense narrow rings are found both at Uranus (where they comprise the main rings entirely) and at Saturn (where they are embedded in the broad disk) and are the primary natural laboratory for understanding shepherding and self-stability. Narrow dusty rings, likely generated by embedded source bodies, are surprisingly found to sport azimuthally confined arcs at Neptune, Saturn, and Jupiter. Finally, every known ring system includes a substantial component of diffuse dusty rings.Planetary rings have shown themselves to be useful as detectors of planetary processes around them, including the planetary magnetic field and interplanetary impactors as well as the gravity of nearby perturbing moons. Experimental rings science has made great progress in recent decades, especially numerical simulations of self-gravity wakes and other processes but also laboratory investigations of coefficient of restitution and spectroscopic ground truth. The age of self-sustained ring systems is a matter of

  2. Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, Deven; Farr, Adrian

    2015-12-01

    The parabolic trough is the most established CSP technology and carries a long history of design experimentation dating back to the 1970’s. This has led to relatively standardized collector architectures, a maturing global supply chain, and a fairly uniform cost reduction strategy. Abengoa has deployed more than 1,500MWe of CSP troughs across several countries and has built and tested full-scale prototypes of many R&D concepts. The latest trough R&D efforts involved efforts to internalize non-CSP industry experience including a preliminary DFMA principles review done with Boothroyd Dewhurst, a construction literature review by the Arizona State University School of Construction Management, and two more focused manufacturing engineering subcontracts done by Ricardo Inc. and the nonprofit Edison Welding Institute. The first two studies highlighted strong opportunities in lowering part count, standardizing components and fasteners, developing modular designs to support prefabrication and automation, and devising simple, error-proof manual assembly methods. These principles have delivered major new cost savings in otherwise “mature” products in analogous industries like automotive, truck trailer manufacture, metal building fabrication, and shipbuilding. For this reason, they were core in the design development of the SpaceTube® collector, and arguably key to its early successes. The latter two studies were applied specifically to the first-generation SpaceTube® design and were important in setting the direction of the present SolarMat project. These studies developed a methodology to analyze the costs of manufacture and assembly, and identify new tooling concepts for more efficient manufacture. Among the main opportunities identified in these studies were the automated mirror arm manufacturing concept and the need for a less infrastructure-intensive assembly line, both of which now form central pillars of the SolarMat project strategy. These new designs will be

  3. Collector/Receiver Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities for collector/receiver characterization: determining optical efficiency, measuring heat loss, developing and testing concentrators, concentrating the sun's power, and optically characterizing CSP plants.

  4. Concentrating solar collector subsystem: Preliminary design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary design data are presented for a concentrating solar collector including an attitude controller. Provided are schedules, technical status, all documents required for preliminary design, and other program activities.

  5. Concentrating solar collector-installation package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report contains general description of concentrating solar collector and tracking system kit, along with comprehensive drawings, instructions, and guidelines to assist in field assembly, installation, operation, and maintenance of system.

  6. The optimum flat plate solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, K.-E.

    The solar fluid heater problem is formulated as an unsteady, two-dimensional conduction problem. Simplified to a steady, one-dimensional problem provides a direct formulation far more flexible than the formulation hitherto in use, without any loss of generality. This flexibility is used to determine the geometry of optimum collectors, and to determine the performance of fan-shaped ones. An optimum collector would have a uniform effectiveness along the fluid path and, hence, effect a required fluid temperature rise with the least possible area. A fan-shaped collector of about the same geometrical proportions is shown to be nearly as effective as the corresponding optimum collector. The performance of either shape is determined for certain conditions. It shows that for this case a saving of some 6 to 13 percent could be obtained in comparison with the corresonding usual 'parallel-tube' design.

  7. Performance of a solar-thermal collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higa, W. H.

    1975-01-01

    Possible means of achieving the technology required for field application of solar thermal power systems are discussed. Simplifications in construction techniques as well as in measurement techniques for parabolic trough collectors are described. Actual measurement data is also given.

  8. Application of Fiber Optics and Compound Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fantone, S. D.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of fiber optics and compound flux collectors as optical components in stellar photometers is discussed. Basic principles are outlined for such components and systems issues are addressed.

  9. Tilt assembly for tracking solar collector assembly

    DOEpatents

    Almy, Charles; Peurach, John; Sandler, Reuben

    2012-01-24

    A tilt assembly is used with a solar collector assembly of the type comprising a frame, supporting a solar collector, for movement about a tilt axis by pivoting a drive element between first and second orientations. The tilt assembly comprises a drive element coupler connected to the drive element and a driver, the driver comprising a drive frame, a drive arm and a drive arm driver. The drive arm is mounted to the drive frame for pivotal movement about a drive arm axis. Movement on the drive arm mimics movement of the drive element. Drive element couplers can extend in opposite directions from the outer portion of the drive arm, whereby the assembly can be used between adjacent solar collector assemblies in a row of solar collector assemblies.

  10. Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigl, Torsten; Perske, Marco; Pauer, Hagen; Fiedler, Tobias; Yulin, Sergiy; Trost, Marcus; Schröder, Sven; Duparré, Angela; Kaiser, Norbert; Tünnermann, Andreas; Böwering, Norbert R.; Ershov, Alex I.; Hoffmann, Kay; La Fontaine, Bruno; Cummings, Kevin D.

    2012-03-01

    The usable power and the collector optics lifetime of high-power extreme ultraviolet light sources at 13.5 nm are considered as the major challenges in the transitioning of EUV lithography from the current pre-production phase to high volume manufacturing. We give a detailed performance summary of the large ellipsoidal multilayer collector mirrors used in Cymer's laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet light sources. In this paper we present the optical performance - reflectance and wavelength - of the multilayer-coated ellipsoidal collectors as well as a novel approach for the roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics based on light scattering measurements at 442 nm. We also describe the optical performance and characteristics during operation of the light source and the substantial increase of collector lifetime by the implementation of new coating designs.

  11. Subsystem design package for Solar II collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The requirements for the design and performance of the Solar 2 Collector Subsystem developed for use in solar heating of single family residences and mobile homes are presented. Installation drawings are included.

  12. Inspecting a Canister and Sample Collector

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-01-20

    Investigators from University of Washington, Johnson Space Center, and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space, Denver, Colorado, inspect a canister and sample collector soon after opening a container with Stardust material in a laboratory at the JSC.

  13. A self-tractable solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulhadi, M.; Ghorayeb, F.

    2006-06-01

    An analytical experimental investigation into the thermal performance of a tubeless hemispherical (a spherical cap) solar collector for use in heating and cooling purposes is presented. The receiver plate surface temperature was estimated at the prevailing steady-state conditions from the energy balance equation on the absorber plate. From the experimental analytical investigation, the present collector was found to be much more efficient than a flat-plate collector. Fluid outlet temperatures over 95°C could be provided on mid clear shining sunny days. Remembering the easiness of building a complex of such a collector, it follows that plenty of residential and industrial implementations, mostly in heating and cooling refrigeration absorption cycles, could be undertaken.

  14. The use of alloy 117 as a liquid metal current collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maribo, David; Sondergaard, Neal

    1987-09-01

    Low melting point, bismuth based alloys are potential replacements for NaK78 as liquid metal slip ring material because of their lower reactivity and potentially greater hydrodynamic stability. This paper describes experiments with one such alloy in a model of a 300 kW superconducting homopolar motor using close clearance braid type collectors. Slip ring tip velocities varied from 5 to 20 m/s and currents ranging from 500 to 2000 A. Viscous power losses tend to follow a simple turbulent mode. In all, the data supports the use of low melting point alloys as an alternative to Na78.

  15. Qualification test and analysis report: Solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Test results show that the Owens-Illinois Sunpak TM Model SEC 601 air-cooled collector meets the national standards and codes as defined in the Subsystem Peformance Specification and Verification Plan of NASA/MSFC, dated October 28, 1976. The program calls for the development, fabrication, qualification and delivery of an air-cooled solar collector for solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and/or hot water systems.

  16. Installation package for air flat plate collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Solar 2 dimensions are four feet by eight feet by two and one half inches. The collector weighs 130 pounds and has an effective solar collection area of over 29.5 square feet. This area represents 95 percent of the total surface of the collector. The installation, operation and maintenance manual, safety hazard analysis, special handling instructions, materials list, installation concept drawings, warranty and certification statement are included in the installation package.

  17. Self-cleaning cabinet dust collector

    SciTech Connect

    Brenholt, D.L.; Risch, D.T.

    1984-04-17

    A compact, self-cleaning, cabinet, dust collector is provided. The collector housing is a single-piece, molded unit having recessed areas and a molded air inlet. Entering dust-laden air is directed into two flows in a passageway surrounding a suspended, flexible, pleated filter element. An inner wall of the passageway contains a precleaner upstream from the filter element. A collector ramp, at the bottom of the passageway, directs precleaned matter to a removable hopper. A fan, supported above the open upper end of the filter element draws air through the collector. A fan motor is isolated from the housing interior in one of the recessed areas of the housing. To gain access to the filter element the fan is rotated upwardly and away from the filter element. To prevent the pleats of the element from collapsing, hot-melt spacers are provided on the pleat surfaces. The element is flex-cleaned by a rotatable mechanism located beneath and adjacent the bottom closed end of the element. The mechanism causes a lifting and twisting of the element and includes an isolated motor, a rotatable arm with wiper blades, and ramp lugs on the bottom end of the filter element. The released dust is swept into the hopper by the wiper blades. A removable double-walled cover is secured over the fan. Filtered air is released from the collector through louvered openings in the cover. Transistor logic and various sensors are used to control the operation of the collector.

  18. Optimal nonimaging integrated evacuated solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, John D.; Duff, W. S.; O'Gallagher, Joseph J.; Winston, Roland

    1993-11-01

    A non imaging integrated evacuated solar collector for solar thermal energy collection is discussed which has the lower portion of the tubular glass vacuum enveloped shaped and inside surface mirrored to optimally concentrate sunlight onto an absorber tube in the vacuum. This design uses vacuum to eliminate heat loss from the absorber surface by conduction and convection of air, soda lime glass for the vacuum envelope material to lower cost, optimal non imaging concentration integrated with the glass vacuum envelope to lower cost and improve solar energy collection, and a selective absorber for the absorbing surface which has high absorptance and low emittance to lower heat loss by radiation and improve energy collection efficiency. This leads to a very low heat loss collector with high optical collection efficiency, which can operate at temperatures up to the order of 250 degree(s)C with good efficiency while being lower in cost than current evacuated solar collectors. Cost estimates are presented which indicate a cost for this solar collector system which can be competitive with the cost of fossil fuel heat energy sources when the collector system is produced in sufficient volume. Non imaging concentration, which reduces cost while improving performance, and which allows efficient solar energy collection without tracking the sun, is a key element in this solar collector design.

  19. Wind loading on solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaduri, S.; Murphy, L. M.

    1985-06-01

    The present design methodology for the determination of wind loading on the various solar collectors were reviewed and assessed. The total force coefficients of flat plates of aspect ratios 1.0 and 3.0, respectively, at various angles of attack obtained by using the guidelines of the ANSI A58.1-1982, were compared with those obtained by using the methodology of the ASCE Task Committee, 1961, and the experimental results of the full-scale test of heliostats by Peglow. The turbulent energy spectra, currently employed in the building code, are compared with those of Kaimal et al., Lumley, and Ponofsky for wind velocities of 20.0 m/s and 40.24 m/s at an elevation of 9.15 m. The longitudinal spectra of the building code overestimates the Kaimal spectra in the frequency range of 0.007 Hz to 0.08 Hz and underestimates beyond the frequency of 0.08 Hz. The peak angles of attack, on the heliostat, stowed in horizontal position, due to turbulent vertical and lateral components of wind velocity, were estimated by using Daniel's methodology for three wind velocities and compared with the value suggested by the code. The experimental results of a simple test in the laboratory indicate the feasibility of decreasing the drag forces of the flat plate by reducing the solidity ratio.

  20. Vortex rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Leonard, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    The vortex-ring problem in fluid mechanics is examined generally in terms of formation, the steady state, the duration of the rings, and vortex interactions. The formation is studied by examining the generation of laminar and turbulent vortex rings and their resulting structures with attention given to the three stages of laminar ring development. Inviscid dynamics is addressed to show how core dynamics affects overall ring motion, and laminar vortex structures are described in two dimensions. Viscous and inviscid structures are related in terms of 'leapfrogging', head-on collisions, and collisions with a no-slip wall. Linear instability theory is shown to successfully describe observational data, although late stages in the breakdown are not completely understood. This study of vortex rings has important implications for key aerodynamic issues including sound generation, transport and mixing, and vortex interactions.

  1. Translucent Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-08

    Although solid-looking in many images, Saturn's rings are actually translucent. In this picture, we can glimpse the shadow of the rings on the planet through (and below) the A and C rings themselves, towards the lower right hand corner. For centuries people have studied Saturn's rings, but questions about the structure and composition of the rings lingered. It was only in 1857 when the physicist James Clerk Maxwell demonstrated that the rings must be composed of many small particles and not solid rings around the planet, and not until the 1970s that spectroscopic evidence definitively showed that the rings are composed mostly of water ice. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 17 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Aug. 12, 2014 in near-infrared light centered at 752 nanometers. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.4 million miles (2.3 million kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 24 degrees. Image scale is 85 miles (136 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18295

  2. Single collector attachment efficiency of colloid capture by a cylindrical collector in laminar overland flow

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Little research has been conducted to investigate fate and transport of colloids in surface vegetation in overland flow under unfavorable chemical conditions. In this work, single collector attachment efficiency (a) of colloid capture by a simulated plant stem (i.e. cylindrical collector) in laminar...

  3. Ceramic materials for solar collectors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ankeny, A.E.

    1982-09-29

    The purpose of this project was to identify ceramic materials which exhibit solar absorption properties which are appropriate for flat plate solar collectors. To accomplish this, various glaze formulations and clay combinations were produced and evaluated for their potential as solar absorbers. For purposes of comparison a black coated copper sheet was also tested concurrently with the ceramic materials. Thirty-five different coatings were prepared on fifty-six tiles. Two different clays, a porcelain and a stoneware clay, were used to make the tiles. From the tiles prepared, thirty of the most promising coatings were chosen for evaluation. The test apparatus consisted of a wooden frame which enclosed four mini-collectors. Each mini-collector was a rectangular ceramic heat exchanger on which a test tile could be mounted. The working fluid, water, was circulated into the collector, passed under the test tile where it gained heat, and then was discharged out of the collector. Thermometers were installed in the inlet and discharge areas to indicate the temperature increase of the water. The quantity of heat absorbed was determined by measuring the water flow (pounds per minute) and multiplying it by the temperature increase (/sup 0/F). The control sample, a copper wheet painted flat black, provided a base by which to compare the performance of the test tiles installed in the other three mini-collectors. Testing was conducted on various days during August and September, 1982. The test results indicate that coatings with very satisfactory solar absorbing properties can be made with ceramic materials. The results suggest that an economically viable ceramic solar collector could be constructed if engineered to minimize the effects of relatively low thermal conductivity of clay.

  4. Step tracking program for concentrator solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobanu, D.; Jaliu, C.

    2016-08-01

    The increasing living standards in developed countries lead to increased energy consumption. The fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas effect that accompany the energy production can be reduced by using renewable energy. For instance, the solar thermal systems can be used in temperate climates to provide heating during the transient period or cooling during the warmer months. Most used solar thermal systems contain flat plate solar collectors. In order to provide the necessary energy for the house cooling system, the cooling machine uses a working fluid with a high temperature, which can be supplied by dish concentrator collectors. These collectors are continuously rotated towards sun by biaxial tracking systems, process that increases the consumed power. An algorithm for a step tracking program to be used in the orientation of parabolic dish concentrator collectors is proposed in the paper to reduce the consumed power due to actuation. The algorithm is exemplified on a case study: a dish concentrator collector to be implemented in Brasov, Romania, a location with the turbidity factor TR equal to 3. The size of the system is imposed by the environment, the diameter of the dish reflector being of 3 meters. By applying the proposed algorithm, 60 sub-programs are obtained for the step orientation of the parabolic dish collector over the year. Based on the results of the numerical simulations for the step orientation, the efficiency of the direct solar radiation capture on the receptor is up to 99%, while the energy consumption is reduced by almost 80% compared to the continuous actuation of the concentrator solar collector.

  5. Anatomical Variation of Human Collector Channel Orifices

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Michael D.; Hann, Cheryl R.; Fautsch, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the anatomical variation of normal human collector channel orifices and their relationship with Schlemm's canal. Methods Ten human anterior segments fixed by immersion or perfusion were dissected radially and further divided by fine dissection into corresponding inner and outer wall segments. The tissues were dehydrated, critical-point dried, sputter coated, and examined by scanning electron microscopy. Images were obtained at magnifications from ×200 to ×10,000. Selected radial collector channel regions were processed for plastic embedding. Results Two classes of collector channel orifices were identified. Simple oval orifices (54.7 ± 4.6–μm diameter) were lined with endothelial cells and most often occurred on a planar region of Schlemm's canal outer wall. Complex orifices (62.7 ± 3.4–μm diameter) were often found associated with septal columns and bridges, and typically covered with flap-like structures (10–40 μm) that extended between the inner and outer wall and over the collector channel orifices. Both simple and complex orifices had complete or partial lip-like rims. In orifices with partial rims, a trough-like groove was often visible on the outer wall surface opposite the lip. Transected septa and inner and outer wall adhesion sites were often found in association with complex collector channel orifices. Conclusions Collector channel orifice structure varied from simple ovals to complex tethered flaps and bridges. Collector channel orifices with complex flaps connect the inner and outer walls of Schlemm's canal, and may serve to enhance and regulate aqueous outflow in these regions. PMID:26975026

  6. Widening Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-18

    Saturn rings and its moon Rhea are imaged before a crescent of the planet in this image captured by NASA Cassini spacecraft. The shadows of the rings continue to grow wider after their disappearing act during the planet August 2009 equinox.

  7. Planetary Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    1994-01-01

    Just over two decades ago, Jim Pollack made a critical contribution to our understanding of planetary ring particle properties, and resolved a major apparent paradox between radar reflection and radio emission observations. At the time, particle properties were about all there were to study about planetary rings, and the fundamental questions were, why is Saturn the only planet with rings, how big are the particles, and what are they made of? Since then, we have received an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Meanwhile, we have seen steady progress in our understanding of the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron-to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems into the complex webs of structure that we now know them to display. Insights gained from studies of these giant dynamical analogs have carried over into improved understanding of the formation of the planets themselves from particle disks, a subject very close to Jim's heart. The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems are invariably found in association with families of regular satellites, and there is ark emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system

  8. Ring Slicer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-06

    Saturn's moon Prometheus, seen here looking suspiciously blade-like, is captured near some of its sculpting in the F ring. Prometheus' (53 miles or 86 kilometers across) orbit sometimes takes it into the F ring. When it enters the ring, it leaves a gore where its gravitational influence clears out some of the smaller ring particles. Below Prometheus, the dark lanes interior to the F ring's bright core provide examples of previous ring-moon interactions. This view looks toward the unilluminated side of the rings from about 7 degrees below the ring plane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on March 15, 2015. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 286,000 miles (461,000 kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 115 degrees. Image scale is 1.7 miles (2.8 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18324

  9. Planetary Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    1994-01-01

    Just over two decades ago, Jim Pollack made a critical contribution to our understanding of planetary ring particle properties, and resolved a major apparent paradox between radar reflection and radio emission observations. At the time, particle properties were about all there were to study about planetary rings, and the fundamental questions were, why is Saturn the only planet with rings, how big are the particles, and what are they made of? Since then, we have received an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Meanwhile, we have seen steady progress in our understanding of the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron-to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems into the complex webs of structure that we now know them to display. Insights gained from studies of these giant dynamical analogs have carried over into improved understanding of the formation of the planets themselves from particle disks, a subject very close to Jim's heart. The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems are invariably found in association with families of regular satellites, and there is ark emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system

  10. Solar collector testing in the European community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, W. B.; Moon, J. E.; Aranovitch, E.

    Recent work by the Commission of the European Communities Solar Collector Testing Group at the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy, is reviewed. Five test methods for liquid-heating collectors are described. Data scatter in the results of round-robin outdoor thermal-performance tests (performed at each Group-member laboratory) is analyzed in terms of environmental effects not accounted for in the linear performance model, calibration and precision differences, and real differences due to manufacturing variations. Comparative data on solar-irradiance-pyranometer calibration is presented. Solar-simulator test devices are reported to provide reproducible measurements which accord with outdoor results. Preliminary findings of studies of collector durability, including inspection reports, natural aging observations, development of qualification criteria (high-temperature stagnation, rain/wind penetration, absorber internal pressure, and external thermal shock), and round-robin solar-absorptance and thermal-emittance measurements, are presented. Future work will be directed to the testing of air collectors, installed domestic hot-water systems, and high-perormance evacuated-tube collectors.

  11. Test results: SEGS LS-2 solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Vernon E.; Kolb, Gregory J.; Mahoney, A. Roderick; Mancini, Thomas R.; Matthews, Chauncey W.; Sloan, Michael; Kearney, David

    1994-12-01

    A SEGS LS-2 parabolic trough solar collector was tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with two types of receiver selective coatings, combined with three different receiver configurations: glass envelope with either vacuum or air in the receiver annulus, and glass envelope removed from the receiver. As expected, collector performance was significantly affected by each variation in receiver configuration. Performance decreased when the cermet selective coating was changed to a black chrome coating, and progressively degraded as air was introduced into the vacuum annulus, and again when the glass envelope was removed from the receiver. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. For the bare receiver (no glass envelope) efficiency and thermal losses are shown as a function of wind speed. An incident angle modifier equation was also developed for each receiver case. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature. Results from the experiments were compared with predictions from a one-dimensional analytical model of the solar receiver. Differences between the model and experiment were generally within the band of experimental uncertainty.

  12. Heat Pumps With Direct Expansion Solar Collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Sadasuke

    In this paper, the studies of heat pump systems using solar collectors as the evaporators, which have been done so far by reserchers, are reviwed. Usually, a solar collector without any cover is preferable to one with ac over because of the necessity of absorbing heat from the ambient air when the intensity of the solar energy on the collector is not enough. The performance of the collector depends on its area and the intensity of the convective heat transfer on the surface. Fins are fixed on the backside of the collector-surface or on the tube in which the refrigerant flows in order to increase the convective heat transfer. For the purpose of using a heat pump efficiently throughout year, a compressor with variable capacity is applied. The solar assisted heat pump can be used for air conditioning at night during the summer. Only a few groups of people have studied cooling by using solar assisted heat pump systems. In Japan, a kind of system for hot water supply has been produced commercially in a company and a kind of system for air conditioning has been installed in buildings commercially by another company.

  13. Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector

    DOEpatents

    Petri, R.J.; Meek, J.; Bachta, R.P.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1994-11-08

    A separator plate is described for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced. 9 figs.

  14. Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector

    DOEpatents

    Petri, Randy J.; Meek, John; Bachta, Robert P.; Marianowski, Leonard G.

    1994-01-01

    A separator plate for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced.

  15. Recent progress in terrestrial photovoltaic collector technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Photovoltaic Research and Development Program has the objective to develop the technology necessary to foster widespread grid-competitive electric power generation by the late 1980s. The flat-plate and the concentrator collector activities form the nucleus of the program. The project is concerned with the refining of silicon, silicon sheet production, solar cell processing and fabrication, encapsulation materials development, and collector design and production. The Large-Area Silicon Sheet Task has the objective to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of several methods for producing large area silicon sheet material suitable for fabricating low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells. It is expected that a variety of economic flat-plate and concentrator collectors will become commercially available for grid-connected applications.

  16. Ring King

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-18

    Saturn reigns supreme, encircled by its retinue of rings. Although all four giant planets have ring systems, Saturn's is by far the most massive and impressive. Scientists are trying to understand why by studying how the rings have formed and how they have evolved over time. Also seen in this image is Saturn's famous north polar vortex and hexagon. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 37 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on May 4, 2014 using a spectral filter which preferentially admits wavelengths of near-infrared light centered at 752 nanometers. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 2 million miles (3 million kilometers) from Saturn. Image scale is 110 miles (180 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18278

  17. The effect of cerium surface treated ferritic stainless steel current collectors on the performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)

    SciTech Connect

    Alman, D.E.; Johnson, C.D.; Collins, W.K.; Jablonski, P.D.

    2007-06-01

    Laboratory scale solid oxide fuel cells (“button” cells) were operated with untreated or cerium surface treated Fe–22Cr–0.5Mn composition by weight percent, wt%) ferritic stainless steel current collectors attached to the cathode. After a brief stabilization (or “burn-in”) period, the power density of a cell with the untreated current collector rapidly decreased. By contrast, there was little degradation in power density during testing of cells with the cerium surface treated current collectors. The difference in degradation was attributed to differences in Cr build-up within the cathode. It should be emphasized that the duration of the tests were quite short and longer duration testing is required, however, this initial assessment indicates the treatment may benefit the performance of SOFC with steel interconnects.

  18. Economic analysis based on land costs of collector spacing in a collector field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. O.

    1981-10-01

    Three collector fluid outlet average field temperatures were used: 200, 250, and 300 C. Land cost varied from $0.54/sq m to $215.20/sq m. and collector costs from $53.80/sq. m to $322.80/sq. m FOB factory. Costs of fees, controls, foundations, etc, are considered as separate items which are added to the land and collector costs to obtain the total cost of the systems. These studies were normalized to a 5,000,000 Btu/day requirement. Thus, the life-cycle costs of the various configurations are, in essence, the cost of energy.

  19. Vascular rings.

    PubMed

    Backer, Carl L; Mongé, Michael C; Popescu, Andrada R; Eltayeb, Osama M; Rastatter, Jeffrey C; Rigsby, Cynthia K

    2016-06-01

    The term vascular ring refers to congenital vascular anomalies of the aortic arch system that compress the esophagus and trachea, causing symptoms related to those two structures. The most common vascular rings are double aortic arch and right aortic arch with left ligamentum. Pulmonary artery sling is rare and these patients need to be carefully evaluated for frequently associated tracheal stenosis. Another cause of tracheal compression occurring only in infants is the innominate artery compression syndrome. In the current era, the diagnosis of a vascular ring is best established by CT imaging that can accurately delineate the anatomy of the vascular ring and associated tracheal pathology. For patients with a right aortic arch there recently has been an increased recognition of a structure called a Kommerell diverticulum which may require resection and transfer of the left subclavian artery to the left carotid artery. A very rare vascular ring is the circumflex aorta that is now treated with the aortic uncrossing operation. Patients with vascular rings should all have an echocardiogram because of the incidence of associated congenital heart disease. We also recommend bronchoscopy to assess for additional tracheal pathology and provide an assessment of the degree of tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia. The outcomes of surgical intervention are excellent and most patients have complete resolution of symptoms over a period of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tracking booster and multiple mirror concentrator floating collector

    SciTech Connect

    Cluff, C.

    1981-10-27

    A water-borne tracking solar energy collecting and converting system employing booster and multiple mirror concentrator collectors for concentrating sunlight on either photovoltaic cells and/or flat plate collectors.

  1. A comparison of three different collectors for process heat applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brunold, S.; Frey, R.; Frei, U.

    1994-12-31

    In general vacuum tube collectors are used in solar process heat systems. Another possibility is to use transparent insulated flat plate collectors. A critical point however, is that most of the common transparent insulating materials can not withstand high temperatures because they consist of plastics. Thus, temperature resistive collector covers combining a high transmissivity with a low U-value are required. One possibility is to use capillaries made of glass instead of plastics. Measurement results of collector efficiency and incident angle modifier will be presented as well as calculated energy gains for three different collectors: a vacuum tube collector (Giordano Ind., France), a CPC vacuum tube collector (microtherm Energietechnik, Germany) and a new flat plate collector using glass capillary as transparent insulation (SET, Germany).

  2. Comparison of three different collectors for process heat applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunold, Stefan; Frey, R.; Frei, Ulrich

    1994-09-01

    In general vacuum tube collectors are used in solar process heat systems. Another possibility is to use transparent insulated flat plate collectors. A critical point however, is that most of the common transparent insulating materials can not withstand high temperatures because they consist of plastics. Thus, temperature resistive collector covers combining a high tranmisivity with a low U-value are required. One possibility is to use capillaries made of glass instead of plastics. Measurement results of collector efficiency and incident angle modifier will be presented as well as calculated energy gains for three different collectors: a vacuum tube collector (Giordano Ind., France), a CPC vacuum tube collector (microtherm Energietechnik Germany; a new flat plate collector using glass capillary as transparent insulation (SET, Germany).

  3. Indoor thermal performance evaluation of Daystar solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, K., Sr.

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used and results obtained from a test program to obtain thermal performance data on a Daystar Model 21B, S/N 02210, Unit 2, liquid solar collector under simulated conditions are described. The test article is a flat plate solar collector using liquid as a heat transfer medium. The absorber plate is copper and coated with black paint. Between the tempered low iron glass and absorber plate is a polycarbonate trap used to suppress convective heat loss. The collector incorporates a convector heat dump panel to limit temperature excursions during stagnation. The following tests were conducted: (1) collector thermal efficiency; (2) collector time constant; (3) collector incident angle modifier; (4) collector heat loss coefficient; and (5) collector stagnation.

  4. Two-axis movable concentrating solar energy collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    Proposed solar-tracker collector assembly with boiler in fixed position, allows use of hard line connections, capable of withstanding optimum high temperature fluid flow. System thereby eliminates need for flexible or slip connection previously used with solar collector systems.

  5. Saturn Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-12-12

    Like Earth, Saturn has an invisible ring of energetic ions trapped in its magnetic field. This feature is known as a "ring current." This ring current has been imaged with a special camera on Cassini sensitive to energetic neutral atoms. This is a false color map of the intensity of the energetic neutral atoms emitted from the ring current through a processed called charged exchange. In this process a trapped energetic ion steals and electron from cold gas atoms and becomes neutral and escapes the magnetic field. The Cassini Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument's ion and neutral camera records the intensity of the escaping particles, which provides a map of the ring current. In this image, the colors represent the intensity of the neutral emission, which is a reflection of the trapped ions. This "ring" is much farther from Saturn (roughly five times farther) than Saturn's famous icy rings. Red in the image represents the higher intensity of the particles, while blue is less intense. Saturn's ring current had not been mapped before on a global scale, only "snippets" or areas were mapped previously but not in this detail. This instrument allows scientists to produce movies (see PIA10083) that show how this ring changes over time. These movies reveal a dynamic system, which is usually not as uniform as depicted in this image. The ring current is doughnut shaped but in some instances it appears as if someone took a bite out of it. This image was obtained on March 19, 2007, at a latitude of about 54.5 degrees and radial distance 1.5 million kilometres (920,000 miles). Saturn is at the center, and the dotted circles represent the orbits of the moon's Rhea and Titan. The Z axis points parallel to Saturn's spin axis, the X axis points roughly sunward in the sun-spin axis plane, and the Y axis completes the system, pointing roughly toward dusk. The ion and neutral camera's field of view is marked by the white line and accounts for the cut-off of the image on the left. The

  6. Multi-objective genetic algorithm for the optimization of a flat-plate solar thermal collector.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Alexandre; Gaouyat, Lucie; Nicolay, Delphine; Carletti, Timoteo; Deparis, Olivier

    2014-10-20

    We present a multi-objective genetic algorithm we developed for the optimization of a flat-plate solar thermal collector. This collector consists of a waffle-shaped Al substrate with NiCrOx cermet and SnO(2) anti-reflection conformal coatings. Optimal geometrical parameters are determined in order to (i) maximize the solar absorptance α and (ii) minimize the thermal emittance ε. The multi-objective genetic algorithm eventually provides a whole set of Pareto-optimal solutions for the optimization of α and ε, which turn out to be competitive with record values found in the literature. In particular, a solution that enables α = 97.8% and ε = 4.8% was found.

  7. Solar Air Collectors: How Much Can You Save?

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Newburn, J. D.

    1985-04-01

    A collector efficiency curve is used to determine the output of solar air collectors based on the testing of seven solar collectors sold in Iowa. In this application the solar heater is being used as a space heater for a house. The performance of the solar air heater was analyzed and an 8% savings in energy was achieved over a one year period using two 4 x 8 collectors in a typical house.

  8. Circumferentially-segmented collector usable with a TWT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, II, Richard A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A TWT collector has axially-positioned collector stages in which at least one of the stages includes a plurality of annularly-arranged stage segments. The collector enhances electron beam velocity sorting by facilitating a combination of (a) selecting axial electric field distributions with application of selected voltages to the axially-positioned collector stages and (b) selecting radial electric field distributions with application of selected voltages to the annularly-arranged stage segments.

  9. Solar collector apparatus having increased energy rejection during stagnation

    DOEpatents

    Moore, S.W.

    1981-01-16

    An active solar collector having increased energy rejection during stagnation is disclosed. The collector's glazing is brought into substantial contact with absorber during stagnation to increase re-emittance and thereby to maintan lower temperatures when the collector is not in operation.

  10. Solar collector apparatus having increased energy rejection during stagnation

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Stanley W.

    1983-07-12

    The disclosure relates to an active solar collector having increased energy rejection during stagnation. The collector's glazing is brought into substantial contact with absorber during stagnation to increase re-emittance and thereby to maintain lower temperatures when the collector is not in operation.

  11. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  14. Indoor thermal performance evaluation of the SEPCO air collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on the Solaron solar air collector, model EF-212, under simulated conditions for comparison with data collected in outdoor tests on the same collector are given. The test article was a single glazed collector with a nonsensitive absorber plate, aluminum box frame, and one inch isocyanurate foam insulation.

  15. Development, testing, and certification of life sciences engineering solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caudle, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for the development of an air flat plate collector for use with solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and hot water systems. The contract was for final development, testing, and certification of the collector, and for delivery of a 320 square feet collector panel.

  16. 21 CFR 874.4800 - Bone particle collector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone particle collector. 874.4800 Section 874.4800...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4800 Bone particle collector. (a) Identification. A bone particle collector is a filtering device intended to be inserted into a suction...

  17. 21 CFR 874.4800 - Bone particle collector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone particle collector. 874.4800 Section 874.4800...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4800 Bone particle collector. (a) Identification. A bone particle collector is a filtering device intended to be inserted into a suction...

  18. 21 CFR 874.4800 - Bone particle collector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone particle collector. 874.4800 Section 874.4800...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4800 Bone particle collector. (a) Identification. A bone particle collector is a filtering device intended to be inserted into a suction...

  19. 7 CFR 58.221 - Collectors and conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collectors and conveyors. 58.221 Section 58.221....221 Collectors and conveyors. Collectors shall be made of stainless steel or equally noncorrosive... for cleaning and inspection. Conveyors shall be of stainless steel or equally corrosion...

  20. 7 CFR 58.221 - Collectors and conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collectors and conveyors. 58.221 Section 58.221....221 Collectors and conveyors. Collectors shall be made of stainless steel or equally noncorrosive... for cleaning and inspection. Conveyors shall be of stainless steel or equally corrosion...

  1. Hybrid thermoelectric solar collector design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.; Shaheen, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    A flat-plate solar collector is conceived where energy cascades through thermoelectric power modules generating direct-current electricity. The intent of this work was to choose a collector configuration and to perform a steady-state thermal performance assessment. A set of energy balance equations were written and solved numerically for the purpose of optimizing collector thermal and electrical performance. The collector design involves finned columns of thermoelectric modules imbedded in the absorber plate (hot junction) over a parallel array of vertical tubes. The thermoelectric power output is limited by the small hot-junction/cold-junction temperature difference which can be maintained under steady-state conditions. The electric power per unit tube pass area is found to have a maximum as a function of a geometric parameter, while electric power is maximized with respect to an electric resistance ratio. Although the electric power efficiency is small, results indicate that there is sufficient electric power production to drive a coolant circulator, suggesting the potential for a stand-alone system.

  2. Performance evaluation of an air solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Indoor tests on signal-glazed flat-plate collector are described in report. Marhsall Space Flight Center solar simulator is used to make tests. Test included evaluations on thermal performance under various combinations of flow rate, incident flux, inlet temperature, and wind speed. Results are presented in graph/table form.

  3. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  4. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  5. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  6. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN...

  7. Performance evaluation of a liquid solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report describes thermal performance and structural-load tests on commercial single glazed flat-plate solar collector with gross area of 63.5 sq ft that uses water as heat-transfer medium. Report documents test instrumentation and procedures and presents data as tables and graphs. Results are analyzed by standard data-reduction methods.

  8. Hybrid thermoelectric solar collector design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.; Shaheen, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    A flat-plate solar collector is conceived where energy cascades through thermoelectric power modules generating direct-current electricity. The intent of this work was to choose a collector configuration and to perform a steady-state thermal performance assessment. A set of energy balance equations were written and solved numerically for the purpose of optimizing collector thermal and electrical performance. The collector design involves finned columns of thermoelectric modules imbedded in the absorber plate (hot junction) over a parallel array of vertical tubes. The thermoelectric power output is limited by the small hot-junction/cold-junction temperature difference which can be maintained under steady-state conditions. The electric power per unit tube pass area is found to have a maximum as a function of a geometric parameter, while electric power is maximized with respect to an electric resistance ratio. Although the electric power efficiency is small, results indicate that there is sufficient electric power production to drive a coolant circulator, suggesting the potential for a stand-alone system.

  9. Thermionic converter performance with oxide collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieb, D.; Goodale, D.; Briere, T.; Balestra, C.

    1977-01-01

    Thermionic converters using a variety of metal oxide collector surfaces have been fabricated and tested. Both work function and power output data are presented and evaluated. Oxides of barium, strontium, zinc, tungsten and titanium have been incorporated into a variable spacing converter. Tungsten oxide was found to give the highest converter performance and to furnish oxygen for the emitter at the same time. Oxygenated emitters operate at reduced cesium pressure with an increase in electrode spacing. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) performed on several tungsten oxide collectors showed cesium penetration of the oxide layer, possibly forming a cesium tungstate bronze. Titanium oxide showed high performance but did not furnish oxygen for the emitter; strontium oxide, in the form of a sprayed layer, appeared to dissociate in the presence of cesium. Sprayed coatings of barium and zinc oxides produced collector work functions of about 1.3 eV, but had excessive series resistance. Lanthanum hexaboride, in combination with oxygen introduced through a silver tube, and cesium produced a low work function collector and better than average performance.

  10. Non-tracking solar energy collector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy collector system characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel vacuum-jacketed receivers or absorbers is described. Numerous individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration are supported for independent reorientation. Asymmetric vee-trough concentrators are defined.

  11. Non-tracking solar energy collector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy collector system is described characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel strip-like segments of a flatplate receiver. Individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration supported for independent orientation are asymmetric included with vee-trough concentrators for deflecting incident solar energy toward the receiver.

  12. Thermionic converter performance with oxide collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieb, D.; Goodale, D.; Briere, T.; Balestra, C.

    1977-01-01

    Thermionic converters using a variety of metal oxide collector surfaces have been fabricated and tested. Both work function and power output data are presented and evaluated. Oxides of barium, strontium, zinc, tungsten and titanium have been incorporated into a variable spacing converter. Tungsten oxide was found to give the highest converter performance and to furnish oxygen for the emitter at the same time. Oxygenated emitters operate at reduced cesium pressure with an increase in electrode spacing. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) performed on several tungsten oxide collectors showed cesium penetration of the oxide layer, possibly forming a cesium tungstate bronze. Titanium oxide showed high performance but did not furnish oxygen for the emitter; strontium oxide, in the form of a sprayed layer, appeared to dissociate in the presence of cesium. Sprayed coatings of barium and zinc oxides produced collector work functions of about 1.3 eV, but had excessive series resistance. Lanthanum hexaboride, in combination with oxygen introduced through a silver tube, and cesium produced a low work function collector and better than average performance.

  13. Supplemental Grounding of Extended EMP Collectors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-31

    58 27. Calculated current response of 0.05 m internal collector for three different shielding conditions ................. 60 28. Calculated...grounds ...... 82 43. Impedance of ground rod and three auxiliary grounds ..... 83 -44. Impedance of ground rod and four auxiliary grounds ..... 83 45...55. Single ground rod model........................98 * 56. Two parallel rod model ......................... 98 - 57. Three parallel rod model

  14. A test program for solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Rigorous environmental and performance tests qualify solar collector for use in residential solar-energy systems. Testing over 7 month period examined pressurized effects, wind and snow loading, hail damage, solar and thermal degradation, effects of pollutants, efficiency, and outgassing. Test procedures and results are summarized in tables, graphs, and text.

  15. Standardized solar simulator tests of flat plate solar collectors. 1: Soltex collector with two transparent covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F.

    1975-01-01

    A Soltex flat plate solar collector was tested with a solar simulator for inlet temperatures of 77 to 201 F, flux levels of 240 and 350 Btu/hr-sq ft, a collant flow rate of 10.5 lb/hr sq ft, and incident angles of 0 deg, 41.5 deg, and 65.2 deg. Collector performance is correlated in terms of inlet temperature, flux level, and incident angle.

  16. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, steel collector with one transparent cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are presented of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency was correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  17. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy - A flat-plate copper collector with parallel mylar striping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are reported for a flat plate solar collector whose performance was determined in a solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and one coolant flow rate. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  18. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: An evacuated flatplate copper collector with a serpentine flow distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are given for a flat plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and one coolant flow rate. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  19. Luminescent Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This view shows the unlit face of Saturn's rings, visible via scattered and transmitted light. In these views, dark regions represent gaps and areas of higher particle densities, while brighter regions are filled with less dense concentrations of ring particles.

    The dim right side of the image contains nearly the entire C ring. The brighter region in the middle is the inner B ring, while the darkest part represents the dense outer B Ring. The Cassini Division and the innermost part of the A ring are at the upper-left.

    Saturn's shadow carves a dark triangle out of the lower right corner of this image.

    The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on June 8, 2005, at a distance of approximately 433,000 kilometers (269,000 miles) from Saturn. The image scale is 22 kilometers (14 miles) per pixel.

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

    For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission visit http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov . The Cassini imaging team homepage is at http://ciclops.org .

  20. Cave Rings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-13

    hypothesis, that cave rings are formed in the same manner as coffee rings[3], that is, due to the enhanced deposition at the edges of sessile drops ...Literature The ‘splash ring’ conjecture is described in [5]. It is claimed that 45◦ is the most probable angle for secondary drops to be ejected at, and that...ring’ is the deposit formed when a sessile drop of a solution containing dissolved particles, such as coffee or salt, dries. This was investigated by

  1. Thermal performance of honeywell double covered liquid solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losey, R.

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures and results obtained during an evaluation test program to determine the outdoor performance characteristics of the Honeywell liquid solar collector are presented. The program was based on the thermal evaluation of a Honeywell double covered liquid solar collection. Initial plans included the simultaneous testing of a single covered Honeywell collector. During the initial testing, the single covered collector failed due to leakage; thus, testing continued on the double covered collector only. To better define the operating characteristics of the collector, several additional data points were obtained beyond those requested.

  2. Performance correlations of five solar collectors tested simultaneously outdoors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    Collector thermal efficiency, and efficiency degradation with time were measured for 5 flat-plate solar collectors tested simultaneously in an outdoor solar collector test facility. Results indicate that by using collector performance parameters which account for diffuse insolation, outdoor data recorded on 'cloudy' days can be used as a measure of performance, as long as the ratio of direct to total insolation exceeds approximately 0.6. These outdoor results also show good agreement with thermal efficiency data obtained indoors in a solar simulator. Significant efficiency degradation occurred on only one of the five collectors exposed to outdoor conditions for a period of one to two years.

  3. Performance correlations of five solar collectors tested simultaneously outdoors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    Collector thermal efficiency, and efficiency degradation with time were measured for 5 flat-plate solar collectors tested simultaneously in an outdoor solar collector test facility. Results indicate that by using collector performance parameters which account for diffuse isolation, outdoor data recorded on cloud days can be used as a measure of performance, as long as the ratio of direct to total insolation exceeds approximately 0.6. These outdoor results also show good agreement with thermal efficiency data obtained indoors in a solar simulator. Significant efficiency degradation occurred on only one of the five collectors exposed to outdoor conditions for a period of one to two years.

  4. Outdoor performance results for NBS Round Robin collector no. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The efficiency of a PPG flat-plate solar collector was evaluated utilizing an outdoor solar collector test facility at the NASA-Lewis Research Center, as part of the National Bureau of Standards 'round robin' collector test program. The correlation equation for collector thermal efficiency Eta curve fit of the data was: Eta = 0.666 - 1.003(Btu/hr-sq ft-F) Theta, where the parameter Theta is the difference between the average fluid temperature and the ambient temperature, all divided by the total flux impinging on the collector.

  5. Improvement of flat plate collectors for solar energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeck, H.; Hallermayer, R.; Schoelkopf, W.; Sizman, R.

    1984-03-01

    Selective absorption for thermal conversion of radiative energy was investigated. Improvement and operation of various measuring devices for absorption and emission are presented. Selective coatings were produced by vapor deposition and galvanic treatment. Calculations of the transmittance of turbular collector fields are presented. Operational Characteristics of Collector were examined. A collector test field with simultaneous recording of data from 24 collectors or uncovered absorbers was built and connected to a high performance microprocessor system. The transient behavior of collectors by variation of the irradiation and the collector inlet temperature were investigated. A mechanism for stratification of hot water of fluctuating inlet temperature in a storage tank was studied. The operating conditions of a heat pump installed in the collector test plant are investigated. A large domestic hot water system is equipped with temperature sensors and flowmeters for computer recording.

  6. Liquid-Metal Flows in Current Collectors for Homopolar Machines: Fully Developed Solutions for the Primary Azimuthal Velocity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    inum voltlige drop. State of the art solid brush-slip ring sys- azimuthal velocities in the liquid metal under various oper- tenii.’ such as silver...the solid conductors. The magnetic Liquid-metal current collector design predictions re- field varies spatially over distances which are comparable to...thickness future paper, we will present a perturbation solution for which separate the core region% from solid or f’ree surfaces, gravitational

  7. Electro-optical hybrid slip ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, En

    2005-11-01

    The slip ring is a rotary electrical interface, collector, swivel or rotary joint. It is a physical system that can perform continuous data transfer and data exchange between a stationary and a rotating structure. A slip ring is generally used to transfer data or power from an unrestrained, continuously rotating electro-mechanical system in real-time, thereby simplifying operations and eliminating damage-prone wires dangling from moving joints. Slip rings are widely used for testing, evaluating, developing and improving various technical equipment and facilities with rotating parts. They are widely used in industry, especially in manufacturing industries employing turbo machinery, as in aviation, shipbuilding, aerospace, defense, and in precise facilities having rotating parts such as medical Computerized Tomography (CT) and MRI scanners and so forth. Therefore, any improvement in slip ring technology can impact large markets. Research and development in this field will have broad prospects long into the future. The goal in developing the current slip ring technology is to improve and increase the reliability, stability, anti-interference, and high data fidelity between rotating and stationary structures. Up to now, there have been numerous approaches used for signal and data transfer utilizing a slip ring such as metal contacts, wires, radio transmission, and even liquid media. However, all suffer from drawbacks such as data transfer speed limitations, reliability, stability, electro-magnetic interference and durability. The purpose of the current research is to break through these basic limitations using an optical solution, thereby improving performance in current slip ring applications. This dissertation introduces a novel Electro-Optical Hybrid Slip Ring technology, which makes "through the air" digital-optical communication between stationary and rotating systems a reality with high data transfer speed, better reliability and low interference susceptibility

  8. Positive current collector for Li||Sb-Pb liquid metal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouchi, Takanari; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2017-07-01

    Corrosion in grid-scale energy storage devices adversely affects service lifetime and thus has a significant economic impact on their deployment. In this work, we investigate the corrosion of steel and stainless steels (SSs) as positive current collectors in the Li||Sb-Pb liquid metal battery. The erosion and formation of new phases on low-carbon steel, SS301, and SS430 were evaluated both in static conditions and under cell operating conditions. The cell performance is not adversely affected by the dissolution of iron or chromium but rather nickel. Furthermore, the in situ formation of a Fe-Cr-Sb layer helps mitigate the recession of SS430.

  9. A Self-Biasing Pulsed Depressed Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Mark A.; Jensen, Aaron; Neilson, Jeff; /SLAC

    2014-05-29

    Depressed collectors have been utilized successfully for many years to improve the electrical efficiency of vacuum electron devices. Increasingly, pulsed, high-peak power accelerator applications are placing a premium on electrical efficiency. As RF systems are responsible for a large percentage of the overall energy usage at accelerator laboratories, methods to improve upon the state-of-the-art in pulsed high-power sources are desired. This paper presents a technique for self-biasing the stages in a multistage depressed collector. With this technique, the energy lost during the rise and fall times of the pulse can be recovered, separate power supplies are not needed, and existing modulators can be retrofitted. Calculations show that significant cost savings can be realized with the implementation of this device in high-power systems. In this paper, the technique is described along with experimental demonstration. (auth)

  10. Use of alloy 117 as a liquid-metal current collector. Research and development report, January-March 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Maribo, D.; Sondergaard, N.

    1987-09-01

    Low-melting-point, bismuth-based alloys are potential replacements for NaK78 as liquid-metal slip-ring material because of their lower reactivity and potentially greater hydrodynamic stability. This paper describes experiments with one such alloy in a model of a 300-kW superconducting homopolar motor using close-clearance braid-type collectors. Slip-ring tip velocities varied from 5 to 20 m/s and currents ranging from 500 to 2000 A. Viscous power losses tend to follow a simple turbulent mode. In all, the data support the use of low-melting-point alloys as an alternative to Na78.

  11. High performance flat plate solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.; Reynolds, R.

    1976-01-01

    The potential use of porous construction is presented to achieve efficient heat removal from a power producing solid and is applied to solar air heaters. Analytical solutions are given for the temperature distribution within a gas-cooled porous flat plate having its surface exposed to the sun's energy. The extracted thermal energy is calculated for two different types of plate transparency. Results show the great improvement in performance obtained with porous flat plate collectors as compared with analogous nonporous types.

  12. Improved Collectors for High Power Gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Singh, Amarjit; Read, Michael; Borchard, Phillipp; Neilson, Jeff

    2009-05-20

    High power gyrotrons are used for electron cyclotron heating, current drive and parasitic mode suppression in tokamaks for fusion energy research. These devices are crucial for successful operation of many research programs around the world, including the ITER program currently being constructed in France. Recent gyrotron failures resulted from cyclic fatigue of the copper material used to fabricated the collectors. The techniques used to collect the spent beam power is common in many gyrotrons produced around the world. There is serious concern that these tubes may also be at risk from cyclic fatigue. This program addresses the cause of the collector failure. The Phase I program successfully demonstrated feasibility of a mode of operation that eliminates the cyclic operation that caused the failure. It also demonstrated that new material can provide increased lifetime under cyclic operation that could increase the lifetime by more than on order of magnitude. The Phase II program will complete that research and develop a collector that eliminates the fatigue failures. Such a design would find application around the world.

  13. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  14. Collector main replacement at Indianapolis Coke

    SciTech Connect

    Sickle, R.R. Van

    1997-12-31

    Indianapolis Coke is a merchant coke producer, supplying both foundry and blast furnace coke to the industry. The facility has three coke batteries: two 3 meter batteries, one Wilputte four divided and one Koppers Becker. Both batteries are underjet batteries and are producing 100% foundry coke at a net coking time of 30.6 hours. This paper deals with the No. 1 coke battery, which is a 72 oven, gun fired, 5 meter Still battery. No. 1 battery produces both foundry and blast furnace coke at a net coking rate of 25.4 hours. No. 1 battery was commissioned in 1979. The battery is equipped with a double collector main. Although many renovations have been completed to the battery, oven machinery and heating system, to date no major construction projects have taken place. Deterioration of the collector main was caused in part from elevated levels of chlorides in the flushing liquor, and temperature fluctuations within the collector main. The repair procedures are discussed.

  15. Numerical Investigation of Nanofluid-based Solar Collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, M.; Raisee, M.; Delfani, S.

    2014-08-01

    Solar thermal collectors are applicable in the water heating or space conditioning systems. Due to the low efficiency of the conventional collectors, some suggestions have been presented for improvement in the collector efficiency. Adding nanoparticles to the working fluid in direct absorption solar collector, which has been recently proposed, leads to improvement in the working fluid thermal and optical properties such as thermal conductivity and absorption coefficient. This results certainly in collector efficiency enhancement. In this paper, the radiative transfer and energy equations are numerically solved. Due to laminar and fully developed flow in the collector, the velocity profile is assumed to be parabolic. As can be observed from the results, outlet temperature of collector is lower than that obtained using uniform velocity profile. Furthermore, a suspension of carbon nanohorns in the water is used as the working fluid in the model and its effect on the collector efficiency is investigated. It was found that the presence of carbon nanohorns increases the collector efficiency by about 17% compared to a conventional flat-plate collector. In comparison with the mixture of water and aluminium nanoparticles, a quite similar efficiency is obtained using very lower concentration of carbon nanohorns in the water.

  16. The Effect of Collector Motion on Particle Capture Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, J. D.; Gao, D.

    2016-02-01

    Particle capture is central to many fundamental processes in aquatic systems including suspension feeding and submarine pollination. Our current model of understanding and predicting particle capture efficiencies (η) is through the application of rigid cylindrical collectors over a limited range of collector Reynolds number (Rec), which does capture the full range of environmentally relevant flows or collector behaviors. Recent computational modelling efforts have advanced this model by examining the effect of collector motion on particle capture. Specifically, the models have predicted a difference in particle capture efficiencies between longitudinal motions of collectors caused by unsteady flow and transverse motions of collectors due to vortex shedding. This study examined the effects of collector motion in the transverse and longitudinal direction on capture efficiency using a cylindrical model in the lab and a wind-pollination grass (Phleum pratense) in the field. Results from the both experiments indicated that movement increased particle/pollen capture efficiency and distribution, especially at low Rec. This effect was greatest for transversely moving collectors with large magnitudes of motion, which encountered more particles with higher relative momentum. Results provided helpful insight into controversies in the literature. Importantly, it showed that collector motion can lead to different particle capture efficiencies than those predicted by the standard (rigid) model indicating that collector motion should be considered when examining the aforementioned processes.

  17. Recessed Gold Nanoring-Ring Microarray Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Atighilorestani, Mahdieh; Brolo, Alexandre G

    2017-08-31

    A 6 × 6 recessed Au nanoring-ring electrodes microarray was fabricated over a glass substrate using focused ion beam milling. The electrochemical responses of this device to a reversible redox pair were examined. In redox-cycling mode, the lower ring acts as a generator and the upper ring as a collector. High collection efficiencies (close to 100%) and amplification factors (∼3.5) were achieved with this configuration. The redox-cycling behavior of this device was modeled using COMSOL Multiphysics. The effects of scaling the geometric parameters of the electrodes (ring height and radius), potential sweep rates, and inter-electrode gap distance were evaluated through simulations. The computational models showed that the attainable limiting current depends strongly on the ring radius, while it is almost independent of the ring height variations (for a particular inter-electrode gap). The effects of the scan rate and inter-electrode gap distance on the electrochemical characteristics of the device are also discussed. This study provides insights on the influence of the geometry on the performance of these arrays, which should guide the development of future applications.

  18. Low-temperature Mechanical Properties of Fe-0.06C-18Cr-10Ni-0.4Ti Austenitic Steel Determined Using Ring-Pull Tensile Tests and Microhardness Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Neustroev, V. S.; Boev, E. V.; Garner, Francis A.

    2007-08-01

    Irradiated austenitic stainless steels removed from Russian water-cooled VVERs experience irradiation temperatures and He/dpa conditions that are very similar to steels to be used in ITER. Data are presented on the radiation hardening of the Russian analog of AISI 321 at 0.2 to 15 dpa in the range of 285 to 320оС. The Russian variant of the ring-pull tensile test was used to obtain mechanical prop-erty data. Microhardness tests on the ring specimens provide useful information throughout the deformed regions, but at high hardening levels caution must be exercised before application of a widely accepted hardness-yield stress correla-tion to prediction of tensile properties. Low-nickel austenitic steels are very prone to form deformation martensite, a phase that increases strongly with the larger deformation levels characteristic of microhardness tests, especially when compared to the 0.2% deformation used to define yield stress.

  19. Effect of dividing daylight in symmetric prismatic daylight collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Shih-Chuan; Lu, Ju-Lin; Cheng, Yu-Chin

    2017-04-01

    This paper presented a symmetric prismatic daylight collector to collect daylight for the natural light illumination system. We analyzed the characteristics of the emerging light when the parallel light beam illuminate on the horizontally placed symmetric prismatic daylight collector. The ratio of the relative intensities of collected daylight that emerging from each surface of the daylight collector shown that the ratio is varied with the incident angle during a day. The simulation of the emerging light of the daylight collector shown that the ratio of emerging light is varied with the tilted angle when sunshine illuminated on a symmetric prismatic daylight collector which was not placed horizontally. The integration of normalized intensity is also varied with the tilted angle. The symmetric prismatic daylight collector with the benefits of reducing glare and dividing intensity of incident daylight, it is applicable to using in the natural light illumination system and hybrid system for improving the efficiency of utilizing of solar energy.

  20. Increasing thermal efficiency of solar flat plate collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pona, J.

    A study of methods to increase the efficiency of heat transfer in flat plate solar collectors is presented. In order to increase the heat transfer from the absorber plate to the working fluid inside the tubes, turbulent flow was induced by installing baffles within the tubes. The installation of the baffles resulted in a 7 to 12% increase in collector efficiency. Experiments were run on both 1 sq ft and 2 sq ft collectors each fitted with either slotted baffles or tubular baffles. A computer program was run comparing the baffled collector to the standard collector. The results obtained from the computer show that the baffled collectors have a 2.7% increase in life cycle cost (LCC) savings and a 3.6% increase in net cash flow for use in domestic hot water systems, and even greater increases when used in solar heating systems.

  1. Design, fabrication, testing and delivery of a solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, W. H.; Ballheim, R. W.; Bartley, S. M.; Smith, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    A two phase program encompassing the redesign and fabrication of a solar collector which is low in cost and aesthetically appealing is described. Phase one work reviewed the current collector design and developed a low-cost design based on specific design/performance/cost requirements. Throughout this phase selected collector component materials were evaluated by testing and by considering cost, installation, maintainability and durability. The resultant collector design was composed of an absorber plate, insulation, frame, cover, desiccant and sealant. In Phase two, three collector prototypes were fabricated and evaluated for both nonthermal and thermal characteristics. Tests included static load tests of covers, burst pressure tests of absorber plates, and tests for optical characteristics of selective absorber plate coatings. The three prototype collectors were shipped to Marshall Space Flight Center for use in their solar heating and cooling test facility.

  2. Evaluation of a Line-Concentrating Solar Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    45-page report contains results of performance evaluation of line-concentrating solar collector. Collector employs parabolic trough to direct Sunlight to line along its focal axis, along which lies a black-chrome plated receiver tube covered by a glass tube containing still air. Reflective trough has aluminum-mirror surface covered with metallized acrylic film. Array of four collectors, positioned end to end was used for evaluation. Array was driven by single drive mechanism which was controlled by electronic tracking device.

  3. Liquid photovoltaic/thermal collectors for residential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrie, S. D.; Raghuraman, P.; Cox, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    A second-generation, liquid photovoltaic/thermal collector has been designed and is currently under fabrication. Results of computer simulations indicate that the collector unit, which incorporates novel cell and framing concepts, yields significnatly improved performance results over earlier units tested. Predicted performance values of 55% thermal efficiency and 11% electrical efficiency make the performance and this collector competitive with its single-function solar thermal and photovoltaic counterparts.

  4. Development of low-cost integrated zeolite collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchernev, D. I.

    1981-07-01

    The optimum zeolite loading and the best zeolite for this purpose were determined by careful mathematical analysis, followed by experimental test, to confirm the theoretical results. The integrated collector design was then completed and the collector was constructed. After sealing and vacuum testing the zeolite panels and heat exchanges, the collector was coated with flat black paint and provided with double glazing, aluminum frame and insulation. Preliminary testing indicates close agreement with theoretical predictions of its performance.

  5. Directory of S. R. C. C. certified solar collector ratings. Supplement to Spring 1983 edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This directory is divided into four sections representing the four main generic categories of collector panels currently certified and rated by SRCC. These four categories are: (1) Unglazed flat-plate liquid-type solar collectors: (2) Glazed flat-plate liquid-type solar collectors; (3) Air-type collectors; and (4) Linear tracking concentrator solar collectors.

  6. Ringing wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Konoplya, R.A.; Molina, C.

    2005-06-15

    We investigate the response of traversable wormholes to external perturbations through finding their characteristic frequencies and time-domain profiles. The considered solution describes traversable wormholes between the branes in the two brane Randall-Sundrum model and was previously found within Einstein gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field. The evolution of perturbations of a wormhole is similar to that of a black hole and represents damped oscillations (ringing) at intermediately late times, which are suppressed by power-law tails (proportional to t{sup -2} for monopole perturbations) at asymptotically late times.

  7. MSFC Assessment of Owens-Illinois SUNPAK Collector Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesenmaier, B. L.

    1978-01-01

    An in-depth assessment is presented of problems encountered with the Owens-Illinois SUNPAK collector installed in several ERDA solar system demonstration sites. Analysis and independent tests of the collector in the MSFC Solar Simulator where the system failure conditions were duplicated are included. The basic design of the SUNPAK collector was shown to be sound; however, material limitations dictate that near-term applications constraints be recognized by system designers. MSFC recommendations were presented to ERDA in March 1977. Subsequent retrofit activity by Owens-Illinois appears to have been effective in demonstrating the integrity of the SUNPAK collector.

  8. Low-cost solar collector test and evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, C M

    1983-01-01

    Project was to test and evaluate a highly efficient low cost solar collector and to make this technology available to the average homeowner. The basic collector design was for use in mass production, so approximately forty collector panels were made for testing and to make it simple to be hand built. The collectors performed better than expected and written and visual material was prepared to make construction easier for a first time builder. Publicity was generated to make public aware of benefits with stories by Associated Press and in publications like Popular Science.

  9. Solar system employing ground level heliostats and solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, F.A.; Northrup, L.L.

    1981-07-07

    This specification discloses an improvement in a solar system having one or more collectors for receiving and using radiant energy from the sun and at least one and preferably a plurality of respective reflector means for reflecting the radiant energy onto the collectors. The improvement is characterized by having towerless collectors and towerless reflectors that are disposed at ground level or substantially the same level, to eliminate the major expense of a collector tower, which is inefficient and nonfunctional in a solar system. Also disclosed is a complete system, or combination, for generating power employing solar energy and the improvement delineated above; as well as structural details of preferred arrangements and equipment.

  10. Design and performance of multi-purpose vacuum solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balotaki, H. Kavoosi; Saidi, M. H.

    2017-03-01

    Design and fabrication of solar collectors with high performance of energy efficiency to convert solar energy to utility energy is vitally important. This article reports the results obtained from design, construction and investigation of the performance of a Combined Multi-Purpose Vacuum Solar Collector (CMPVSC). This collector consists of three sections: the vacuum section, the liquid section and the air section. In the present collector, it is capable of transferring heat to two flows (liquid and air) simultaneously and separate with the possibility of multipurpose applications. The CMPVSC is compared with the existing individual collectors and the effects of different parameters on the efficiency of this collector are examined. Experimental data indicate that high temperature and high performance with a 43% reduction in cost can be obtained using CMPVSC compared to two individual collectors. To increase the efficiency of the collector, triangular and rectangular channels in the air section have been used. The vacuum part is implemented to reduce heat losses. The effect of water inlet temperature, air flow rate, shape of air channel and vacuum part on the heat delivery by air and water have been investigated. Furthermore, as a matter of comparison of CMPVSC with the individual collector, there is a chance of obtaining highest temperature and efficiency with minimum cost and space requirements.

  11. High Performance Flat Plate Solar Thermal Collector Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rockenbaugh, Caleb; Dean, Jesse; Lovullo, David; Lisell, Lars; Barker, Greg; Hanckock, Ed; Norton, Paul

    2016-09-01

    This report was prepared for the General Services Administration by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The Honeycomb Solar Thermal Collector (HSTC) is a flat plate solar thermal collector that shows promising high efficiencies over a wide range of climate zones. The technical objectives of this study are to: 1) verify collector performance, 2) compare that performance to other market-available collectors, 3) verify overheat protection, and 4) analyze the economic performance of the HSTC both at the demonstration sites and across a matrix of climate zones and utility markets.

  12. Design and performance of multi-purpose vacuum solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balotaki, H. Kavoosi; Saidi, M. H.

    2017-09-01

    Design and fabrication of solar collectors with high performance of energy efficiency to convert solar energy to utility energy is vitally important. This article reports the results obtained from design, construction and investigation of the performance of a Combined Multi-Purpose Vacuum Solar Collector (CMPVSC). This collector consists of three sections: the vacuum section, the liquid section and the air section. In the present collector, it is capable of transferring heat to two flows (liquid and air) simultaneously and separate with the possibility of multipurpose applications. The CMPVSC is compared with the existing individual collectors and the effects of different parameters on the efficiency of this collector are examined. Experimental data indicate that high temperature and high performance with a 43% reduction in cost can be obtained using CMPVSC compared to two individual collectors. To increase the efficiency of the collector, triangular and rectangular channels in the air section have been used. The vacuum part is implemented to reduce heat losses. The effect of water inlet temperature, air flow rate, shape of air channel and vacuum part on the heat delivery by air and water have been investigated. Furthermore, as a matter of comparison of CMPVSC with the individual collector, there is a chance of obtaining highest temperature and efficiency with minimum cost and space requirements.

  13. Performance test procedures for thermal collectors - Outdoor testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, W. B.

    A review of outdoor solar collector test methods is presented, based largely on the CEC Recommendations for European Solar Collector Test Methods. Test facility design and instrumentation are discussed, with reference to their influence on measured collector efficiencies. Steady state outdoor testing, mixed indoor/outdoor testing and transient testing are reviewed, and it is concluded that although the testing of simple flat plate water heaters is fairly well understood, more work is now required to develop test methods for the new high performance collectors which are coming onto the market.

  14. Mass Spectrometer Containing Multiple Fixed Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskala, Robert; Celo, Alan; Voss, Guenter; Shaffer, Tom

    2008-01-01

    A miniature mass spectrometer that incorporates features not typically found in prior mass spectrometers is undergoing development. This mass spectrometer is designed to simultaneously measure the relative concentrations of five gases (H2, He, N2, O2, and Ar) in air, over the relative-concentration range from 10(exp -6) to 1, during a sampling time as short as 1 second. It is intended to serve as a prototype of a product line of easy-to-use, portable, lightweight, highspeed, relatively inexpensive instruments for measuring concentrations of multiple chemical species in such diverse applications as detecting explosive or toxic chemicals in air, monitoring and controlling industrial processes, measuring concentrations of deliberately introduced isotopes in medical and biological investigations, and general environmental monitoring. The heart of this mass spectrometer is an integral combination of a circular cycloidal mass analyzer, multiple fixed ion collectors, and two mass-selective ion sources. By circular cycloidal mass analyzer is meant an analyzer that includes (1) two concentric circular cylindrical electrodes for applying a radial electric field and (2) a magnet arranged to impose a magnetic flux aligned predominantly along the cylindrical axis, so that ions, once accelerated into the annulus between the electrodes, move along circular cycloidal trajectories. As in other mass analyzers, trajectory of each ion is determined by its mass-to-charge ratio, and so ions of different species can be collected simultaneously by collectors (Faraday cups) at different locations intersected by the corresponding trajectories (see figure). Unlike in other mass analyzers, the installation of additional collectors to detect additional species does not necessitate increasing the overall size of the analyzer assembly.

  15. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elestic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  16. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elastic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  17. Passive integral solar heat collector system

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman Jr., K. T.

    1985-04-30

    The present invention relates to an improved apparatus for collecting, absorbing, transferring, and storing solar heat energy, economically and passively, without pumps or electric power. The apparatus comprises a solar collector with a flat finned heat pipe absorber and an attached integral insulated storage tank with a double wall heat exchanger. The absorber, made of one or more slightly tilted gravity assisted heat pipes with flat absorber fins, absorbs and transfers solar heat by evaporation, vapor transport, and condensation to the slightly elevated heat storage tank. The one or more heat pipes turn on when the sun is shining and turn off automatically when the sun is not shining.

  18. Building-integrated fluorescent solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Neuroth, N.

    1987-02-24

    This patent describes a building wall wherein the building wall includes windows, window parapets and areas below the window parapets. The window parapets include overhanging lips defining slots with the areas beneath the parapets. Fluorescent solar collectors are received in the slots to form an exterior facing over the area beneath the parapets. A photoelectric cell means is arranged with the fluorescent panels and has leads thereon for conducting electric current therefrom, the photoelectric cell means being positioned within the slots so as to be protected thereby.

  19. Line-focus concentrating collector program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Line-Focus Concentrating Collector Program has emphasized the development and dissemination of concentrating solar technology in which the reflected sunlight is focused onto a linear or line receiver. Although a number of different types of line-focus concentrators were developed, the parabolic trough has gained the widest acceptance and utilization within the industrial and applications sectors. The trough is best applied for application scenarios which require temperatures between 140 and 600 F. Another concept, the bowl, is investigated for applications which may require temperatures in the range between 600 and 1200 F. Current technology emphases are upon the reduction of system installation cost and the implementation of production oriented engineering.

  20. Solar energy utilisation and evacuated tubular solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parand, Foroutan

    Four types of evacuated tubular solar collectors have been constructed and their performance evaluated. The characteristics of the collectors are then compared and their design strengths assessed. One of the designs, a flat absorber with a single glass cover using glass to metal seals was found to have the best performance among the four designs which included a dewar vessel type collector, a heat pipe collector and a black liquid collector with an optical efficiency of 87.7 pct. and an overall heat loss coefficient of 12.3 Wm(exp -2)/C. The performance of the dewar vessel type and black liquid collectors was found to be comparable to the glass to metal seal collector. A detailed analysis of the optical and thermal processes in evacuated tubular collectors was made. On the basis of this analysis a computer simulation model using a finite difference technique has been developed to predict the performance of evacuated tubular collectors. The computer simulation results are then compared with the test results. For the majority of the tests the discrepancy between the simulation and the test results was within the error band of the test results (maximum 12 pct.). For the published test results the maximum discrepancy for operating temperature below 100 C was found to be 6 pct. The computer simulation model was compared with other published models and its advantages and disadvantages discussed. In some analytical and semi-analytical simulation models the energy absorbed by the glass cover and the heat loss from joints and supports has to be ignored. The present model has none of these deficiencies and more complex designs can be simulated. The developed computer simulation program might be used as an aid in the design of evacuated tubular collectors. Using the computer simulation, a parametric study of the three commmercially available collectors was made. The results are discussed and the areas of improvement are identified.

  1. Suppression of Aluminum Current Collector Dissolution by Protective Ceramic Coatings for Better High-Voltage Battery Performance.

    PubMed

    Heckmann, Andreas; Krott, Manuel; Streipert, Benjamin; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Winter, Martin; Placke, Tobias

    2017-01-04

    Batteries based on cathode materials that operate at high cathode potentials, such as LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 (LNMO), in lithium-ion batteries or graphitic carbons in dual-ion batteries suffer from anodic dissolution of the aluminum (Al) current collector in organic solvent-based electrolytes based on imide salts, such as lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI). In this work, we developed a protective surface modification for the Al current collector by applying ceramic coatings of chromium nitride (Crx N) and studied the anodic Al dissolution behavior. By magnetron sputter deposition, two different coating types, which differ in their composition according to the CrN and Cr2 N phases, were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their electronic conductivity. Furthermore, the anodic dissolution behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry measurements in two different electrolyte mixtures, that is, LiTFSI in ethyl methyl sulfone and LiTFSI in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate 1:1 (by weight). These measurements showed a remarkably reduced current density or cumulative charge during the charge process, indicating an improved anodic stability of the protected Al current collector. The coating surfaces after electrochemical treatment were characterized by means of SEM and XPS, and the presence or lack of pit formation, as well as electrolyte degradation products could be well correlated to the electrochemical results.

  2. Low-Temperature Mechanical Properties Of Fe-0.06c-18cr-10ni-0.4ti Austenitic Steel Determined Using Ring-Pull Tensile Tests And Microhardness Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Neustroev, V. S.; Boev, E. V.; Garner, Francis A.

    2007-03-01

    Irradiated austenitic stainless steels removed from Russian water-cooled VVERs experience irradia-tion temperatures and He/dpa conditions that are very similar to steels to be used in ITER. Data are presented on the radiation hardening of the Russian analog of AISI 321 at 0.2 to 15 dpa in the range of 285 to 320оС. The Russian variant of the ring-pull tensile test was used to obtain mechanical prop-erty data. Microhardness tests on the ring specimens provide useful information throughout the de-formed regions, but at high hardening levels caution must be exercised before application of a widely accepted hardness-yield stress correlation to prediction of tensile properties. Low-nickel austenitic steels are very prone to form deformation martensite, a phase that increases strongly with the larger deformation levels characteristic of microhardness tests, especially when compared to the 0.2% de-formation used to define yield stress.

  3. Combined current collector and electrode separator

    DOEpatents

    Gerenser, R.J.; Littauer, E.L.

    1983-08-23

    This relates to reactive metal cells wherein there is a cathode and a consumable anode. It is necessary to separate the cathode from the anode so that an electrolyte may constantly flow over the face of the anode opposing the cathode. It has been found that this separator may also beneficially function as a current collector. The combined current collector and separator includes a peripheral supporting frame of which a portion may function as a bus-bar. A plurality of bars or ribs extend in parallel relation across the opening defined by the supporting frame and are electrically connected to the bus-bar portion. It is preferred that each bar or rib have a pointed or line edge which will engage and slightly bite into the associated anode to maintain the bar or rib in electrical contact with the anode. This abstract forms no part of the specification of this application and is not to be construed as limiting the claims of the application. 6 figs.

  4. Combined current collector and electrode separator

    DOEpatents

    Gerenser, Robert J.; Littauer, Ernest L.

    1983-01-01

    This relates to reactive metal cells wherein there is a cathode and a consumable anode. It is necessary to separate the cathode from the anode so that an electrolyte may constantly flow over the face of the anode opposing the cathode. It has been found that this separator may also beneficially function as a current collector. The combined current collector and separator includes a peripheral supporting frame of which a portion may function as a bus-bar. A plurality of bars or ribs extend in parallel relation across the opening defined by the supporting frame and are electrically connected to the bus-bar portion. It is preferred that each bar or rib have a pointed or line edge which will engage and slightly bite into the associated anode to maintain the bar or rib in electrical contact with the anode. This abstract forms no part of the specification of this application and is not to be construed as limiting the claims of the application.

  5. Structural Investigations of Nanocrystalline Cu-Cr-Mo Alloy Prepared by High-Energy Ball Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avanish; Pradhan, Sunil Kumar; Jayasankar, Kalidoss; Debata, Mayadhar; Sharma, Rajendra Kumar; Mandal, Animesh

    2017-02-01

    Cu-Cr-Mo alloy could be a suitable candidate material for collector electrodes in high-power microwave tube devices. An attempt has been made to synthesize ternary Cu-Cr-Mo alloys by mechanical alloying of elemental Cu, Cr, and Mo powders, to extend the solid solubility of Cr and Mo in Cu, using a commercial planetary ball mill. For the first ternary alloy, a mixture of 80 wt.% Cu, 10 wt.% Cr, and 10 wt.% Mo was mechanically milled for 50 h. For the second ternary alloy, a mixture of 50 wt.% Cr and 50 wt.% Mo was mechanically milled for 50 h to obtain nanocrystalline Cr(Mo) alloy, which was later added to Cu powder and milled for 40 h to obtain Cu-20 wt.%Cr(Mo) alloy. Both nanocrystalline Cu-Cr-Mo ternary alloys exhibited crystallite size below 20 nm. It was concluded that, with addition of nanocrystalline Cr(Mo) to Cu, it was possible to extend the solid solubility of Cr and Mo in Cu, which otherwise was not possible by mechanical alloying of elemental powders. The resulting microstructure of the Cu-20 wt.%Cr(Mo) alloy comprised a homogeneous distribution of fine and hard (Cr, Mo) particles in a copper matrix. Furthermore, Cu-20 wt.%Cr(Mo) alloy showed better densification compared with Cu-10 wt.%Cr-10 wt.%Mo alloy.

  6. Development of an innovative, low-cost solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, M. P.

    1987-06-01

    A low cost domestic water heating system, one that could be sold at a retail price of $500, was developed and produced. The primary effort was to reduce solar collector plate costs and, more specifically, the collector absorber plate costs. Plastic adhesive research resulted in the extensive use of silicone adhesives in a high performance solar collector which was also durable, reliable and easy to manufacture at a low cost. High thermal performance resulted from development of a silicone based conductive bond. The new collector has full pressure capability, and can be manufactured in quantity at a materials cost of $55 and a labor cost of $3.35. Detailed design descriptions, drawings, and photographs, of four different low cost solar collectors that were designed and built are included. Also, material listings and a step-by-step procedure for manufacturing the selected collector are included. NMSEI Performance Data for the new collector are compared to the certification data of the model SL-100 collector previously manufactured by American Solar Products.

  7. Third generation flat plate solar collector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The design of a flat plate solar collector that meets an allowable cost constraint is studied. The cost constraint is $5 to 6 per square foot. A medium-temperature collector prototype with a non-thin film absorber was constructed and tested. (BCS)

  8. Improved mathematical models of flat-plate solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Siegler, M.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis examines various mathematical models of flat-plate solar collectors with the intent of analyzing their strengths and weaknesses and investigating various possible improvements. The purpose is to seek the simplest models that can provide sufficient accuracy for efficient control and design of the collector and for reliable estimation of system parameters. The first part of the thesis investigates the effects of the diffusivity of the collector fluid under steady-state operating conditions. It is shown that under zero flow conditions this diffusivity must be included in the model to accurately describe the rapid changes in the temperatures between adjacent components of the system. The second part of the thesis investigates the relationship between two well-known models for the temperature within the flat-plate solar collector. The simpler of the two models determines the temperature of the collector fluid alone and assumes the collector plate is at the same temperature as the fluid. The other model was separate state equations for the fluid and the collector. Finally, through a frequency analysis of these two different models for the flat-plate collector, it is shown how the thermal effects of the two-temperature model can be imitated by the one-temperature model by adding an artificial diffusion term into the one-temperature model.

  9. Physically absorbable reagents-collectors in elementary flotation

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. Kondrat'ev; I.G. Bochkarev

    2007-09-15

    Based on the reviewed researches held at the Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, the effect of physically absorbable reagents-collectors on formation of a flotation complex and its stability in turbulent pulp flows in flotation machines of basic types is considered. The basic requirements for physically absorbable reagents-collectors at different flotation stages are established.

  10. Investigation of TFE collector insulation of thermionic NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, Y.V.; Vasilchenko, A.V.; Lapochkin, N.V.; Tzetzhladze, D.L.

    1996-03-01

    Various configurations of thermionic fuel element (TFE) collector insulation of thermionic nuclear power plant (NPP) have been considered. The results of the experimental studies of collector insulation samples are presented. Their serviceability and high insulating characteristics which meet the requirements of high-voltage thermionic NPP have been shown. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Thermal performance of a hot-air solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Report contains procedures and results of thermal-performance tests on double-glazed air solar collector. Four types of tests were carried out including thermal-efficiency and stagnation tests, collector time-constant tests to assess effects of transients, and incident-angle modifier tests. Data are presented in tables and as graphs and are discussed and analyzed.

  12. Development of prototype air/liquid solar collector subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Testing of the evacuated tubular air collector in conjunction with air/liquid heat exchange and liquid storage elements was completed. Test results emphasize matching of heat exchanger and collector characteristics with specific attention to the dynamic response of each of the elements.

  13. Thermal performances of vertical hybrid PV/T air collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabet, I.; Touafek, K.; Bellel, N.; Khelifa, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, numerical analyses and the experimental validation of the thermal behavior of a vertical photovoltaic thermal air collector are investigated. The thermal model is developed using the energy balance equations of the PV/T air collector. Experimental tests are conducted to validate our mathematical model. The tests are performed in the southern Algerian region (Ghardaïa) under clear sky conditions. The prototype of the PV/T air collector is vertically erected and south oriented. The absorber upper plate temperature, glass cover temperature, air temperature in the inlet and outlet of the collector, ambient temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation are measured. The efficiency of the collector increases with increase in mass flow of air, but the increase in mass flow of air reduces the temperature of the system. The increase in efficiency of the PV/T air collector is due to the increase in the number of fins added. In the experiments, the air temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet of the PV/T air collector reaches 10 ° C on November 21, 2014, the interval time is between 10:00 and 14:00, and the temperature of the upper plate reaches 45 ° C at noon. The mathematical model describing the dynamic behavior of the typical PV/T air collector is evaluated by calculating the root mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. A good agreement between the experiment and the simulation results is obtained.

  14. 52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  15. 167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  16. Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types

    SciTech Connect

    Rabl, A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

  17. Libbey-Owens-Ford solar collector static load test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The test article is a flat plate solar collector that uses liquid as the heat transfer medium. The absorber plate is copper and has a double tempered glass cover. Test requirements and procedures are described and results are presented in a table. Results demonstrate that the collector performed satisfactorily.

  18. Theory of the geyser-pump solar collector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, E.

    1985-01-01

    The geyser-pump solar collector is a self-controlling, self-pumping active collector having no moving or electronic parts, drawing its mechanical pump energy from boiling in the collector's risers. The only use of the geyser-pump principle reported in patents and the open literature is only for circulating the fluid in the collector plate. Computer simulations show that most design and algorithm parameters have only negligible impact on solar fraction, F. The only parameter which affects F is the length of the storage heat exchanger. Episodic cloud cover does not hamper the geyser-pump collector's ability to restart. Daylong simulations show that the energy cost of geyser-pumping is only about 3% of the absorbed insolation. The geyser-pump collector is found to be as efficient as an electrically pumped collector. Initial costs are estimated to be about the same for the geyser-pump and conventional collectors, but lifetime costs of the geyser-pump are substantially lower, perhaps only half, because of low maintenance.

  19. Design and performance verification of advanced multistage depressed collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmahl, H. G.; Ramins, P.

    1975-01-01

    Design and performance of a small size, 4 stage depressed collector are discussed. The collector and a spent beam refocusing section preceding it are intended for efficiency enhancement of octave bandwidth, high CW power traveling wave tubes for use in ECM.

  20. 21 CFR 874.4800 - Bone particle collector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4800 Bone particle collector. (a) Identification. A bone particle collector is a filtering device intended to be inserted into a suction tube.... Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from premarket notification procedures in subpart E...

  1. 21 CFR 874.4800 - Bone particle collector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4800 Bone particle collector. (a) Identification. A bone particle collector is a filtering device intended to be inserted into a suction tube.... Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from premarket notification procedures in subpart E...

  2. Preliminary design package for solar collector and solar pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A solar-operated pump using an existing solar collector, for use on solar heating and cooling and hot water systems is described. Preliminary design criteria of the collector and solar-powered pump is given including: design drawings, verification plans, and hazard analysis.

  3. Design and fabrication considerations of EUVL collectors for HVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianucci, G.; Cassol, G. L.; Kools, J.; Prea, M.; Salmaso, G.; Valsecchi, G.; Zocchi, F. E.; Bolshukhin, D.; Schürmann, M.; Schriever, G.; Mader, A.; Zink, P.

    2009-03-01

    The power roadmap for EUVL high volume manufacturing (HVM) exceeds the 200W EUV in-band power at intermediate focus, thus posing more demanding requirements on HVM sources, debris suppression systems and collectors. Starting from the lessons learned in the design and fabrication of the grazing incidence collectors for the Alpha EUVL scanners, Media Lario Technologies is developing HVM optical solutions that enable designed-in lifetime improvements, such as larger source-collector distances, optimized collection efficiency through larger collected solid angles, and customized EUV reflective layers. The optical design of an HVM collector is described together with the selection of the sacrificial ruthenium reflective layer. The water cooling layout of the collector is evolved from the integrated cooling technology developed at Alpha level into an innovative cooling layout that minimizes the thermal gradients across the mirrors and allows controlling the optical performance at the far-field plane. Finally, the evolution of the collector's manufacturing technologies for HVM is discussed. XTREME technologies and Philips Extreme UV support this work by integrating the collector in the complete source collector module (SoCoMo). At system level, each component of the SoCoMo is part of a development and improvement plan leading to a comprehensive system that will fulfill the 200+ W EUV in-band power at intermediate focus.

  4. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section 876.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section 876.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector...

  6. Kinetics of ring formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2011-06-01

    We study reversible polymerization of rings. In this stochastic process, two monomers bond and, as a consequence, two disjoint rings may merge into a compound ring or a single ring may split into two fragment rings. This aggregation-fragmentation process exhibits a percolation transition with a finite-ring phase in which all rings have microscopic length and a giant-ring phase where macroscopic rings account for a finite fraction of the entire mass. Interestingly, while the total mass of the giant rings is a deterministic quantity, their total number and their sizes are stochastic quantities. The size distribution of the macroscopic rings is universal, although the span of this distribution increases with time. Moreover, the average number of giant rings scales logarithmically with system size. We introduce a card-shuffling algorithm for efficient simulation of the ring formation process and we present numerical verification of the theoretical predictions.

  7. Selective flotation of phosphate minerals with hydroxamate collectors

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D.; Wang, Xuming; Li, Minhua

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for separating phosphate minerals from a mineral mixture, particularly from high-dolomite containing phosphate ores. The method involves conditioning the mineral mixture by contacting in an aqueous in environment with a collector in an amount sufficient for promoting flotation of phosphate minerals. The collector is a hydroxamate compound of the formula; ##STR1## wherein R is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms. M is a cation, typically hydrogen, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. Preferably, the collector also comprises an alcohol of the formula, R'--OH wherein R' is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties so that it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms.

  8. Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, V.E.; Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W.

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

  9. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charvat, Pavel; Ostry, Milan; Mauder, Tomas; Klimes, Lubomir

    2012-04-01

    Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM) was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data).

  10. Design wind and sandstorm loads on trough collectors in fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Bo; Wang, Zhifeng; Wei, Zeyu

    2017-06-01

    Trough collectors are laid out in rows in a field withrow spacing. Wind and sandstorm loads on the collectors will be influenced by surrounding collectors. This paper presents analyzed results from a combined wind tunnel and sandstorm tunnel study on a trough collector field with seven rows and five spans. In wind tunneltests, the measured model with pressure taps was installed in the field to measure wind pressures on the surfaces. Mean and fluctuating pressures on the model were measured by the synchronous multi-pressure sensing system under typical boundary layer wind flow field. In sandstorm tunneltests,a isolated trough collector model was measured by the high-frequency force balance technique under wind-blown sand flow field.

  11. Analysis of a solar collector field water flow network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohde, J. E.; Knoll, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    A number of methods are presented for minimizing the water flow variation in the solar collector field for the Solar Building Test Facility at the Langley Research Center. The solar collector field investigated consisted of collector panels connected in parallel between inlet and exit collector manifolds to form 12 rows. The rows were in turn connected in parallel between the main inlet and exit field manifolds to complete the field. The various solutions considered included various size manifolds, manifold area change, different locations for the inlets and exits to the manifolds, and orifices or flow control valves. Calculations showed that flow variations of less than 5 percent were obtainable both inside a row between solar collector panels and between various rows.

  12. Optical performance of fluorescent collectors integrated with microlens arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damrongsak, Pattareeya; Locharoenrat, Kitsakorn

    2017-09-01

    Fluorescent collectors have been considered for being used as a light concentrator in photovoltaic applications. It is able to replace the expensive area of solar cells in order to minimize the energy cost. In this study, fluorescent collectors integrated with microlens arrays were developed in order to improve the collection efficiency. Fluorescent collectors were prepared by casting an epoxy resin solution containing Rhodamine 6G dye in the polydimethylsiloxane master mold. Polydimethylsiloxane-based microlens arrays with actual diameters of 804.06–1008.02 µm were fabricated using a replica molding technique. The microlens arrays were then integrated with the fluorescent collectors with various dye concentrations from 2.5  ×  10‑4 to 4.5  ×  10‑4 Molar. Experimental results were demonstrated that the implementation of polydimethylsiloxane microlens arrays on the top of fluorescent collectors was improved for both light absorption and fluorescent intensity.

  13. Modeling the absorption behavior of solar thermal collector coatings utilizing graded alpha-C:H/TiC layers.

    PubMed

    Gruber, D P; Engel, G; Sormann, H; Schüler, A; Papousek, W

    2009-03-10

    Wavelength selective coatings are of common use in order to enhance the efficiency of devices heated by radiation such as solar thermal collectors. The use of suitable materials and the optimization of coating layer thicknesses are advisable ways to maximize the absorption. Further improvement is achievable by embedding particles in certain layers in order to modify material properties. We focus on optimizing the absorption behavior of a solar collector setup using copper as substrate, a layer of amorphous hydrogenated carbon with embedded titanium carbide particles (a-C:H/TiC), and an antireflection coating of amorphous silicon dioxide (aSiO(2)). For the setup utilizing homogeneous particle distribution, a relative absorption of 90.98% was found, while inhomogeneous particle embedding yielded 98.29%. These results are particularly interesting since until now, absorption of more than 95% was found only by using embedded Cr but not by using the more biocompatible Ti.

  14. Photovoltaic device with specially arranged luminescent collector and cell

    SciTech Connect

    Yerkes, J. W.

    1981-02-17

    A photovoltaic device for collecting solar radiation and converting it to electrical energy has a luminescent collector shaped in a way that maintains collecting area efficiency while allowing the photovoltaic cell to be entirely shadowed or protected from the direct rays of solar energy. The shape of the luminescent collector is also especially suited to air cooling and to placement of insulation between the collector surface and the cell. The collector has a first extension which receives and absorbs the light energy and at least one side extension which extends away from the sun collecting part of the collector. The side extension or extensions conduct the collected light energy to the protected cell or cells. For example, the luminescent collector may have an inverted u-shape or l-shape. A photovoltaic cell is coupled to the side extension, preferably at the end surface of the side extension. Each cell is placed entirely away from surfaces directly heated by the rays of the sun and is entirely shadowed from radiant heating by a part of the photovoltaic device. The underside of the collector may be shaped to form a channel. The channel may be used for air cooling, thermal insulation, or a combination of air cooling and thermal insulation of the sun-receiving part of the collector. The upper outer surface of the collector may be protected by a protective, radiation transmissive cover. Light emissive areas of the edge and lower surfaces of the collector not covered by photovoltaic cells may also be covered by a reflective material.

  15. Ringing phenomenon of the fiber ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Ying, Diqing; Ma, Huilian; Jin, Zhonghe

    2007-08-01

    A resonator fiber-optic gyro (R-FOG) is a high-accuracy inertial rotation sensor based on the Sagnac effect. A fiber ring resonator is the core sensing element in the R-FOG. When the frequency of the fiber ring resonator input laser is swept linearly with time, ringing of the output resonance curve is observed. The output field of the fiber ring resonator is derived from the superposition of the light transmitted through the directional coupler directly and the multiple light components circulated in the fiber ring resonator when the frequency of the laser is swept. The amplitude and phase of the output field are analyzed, and it is found that the difference in time for different light components in the fiber ring resonator to reach a point of destructive interference causes the ringing phenomenon. Finally the ringing phenomenon is observed in experiments, and the experimental results agree with the theoretical analysis well.

  16. Comparison of Proportional and On/Off Solar Collector Loop Control Strategies Using a Dynamic Collector Model

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, Steven R.; Warren, Mashuri L.; Auslander, David M.

    1980-11-01

    In this paper, common control strategies used to regulate the flow of liquid through flat-plate solar collectors are discussed and evaluated using a dynamic collector model. Performance of all strategies is compared using different set points, flow rates, insolation levels and patterns, and ambient temperature conditions. The unique characteristic of the dynamic collector model is that it includes the effect of collector capacitance. Short term temperature response and the energy-storage capability of collector capacitance are shown to play significant roles in comparing on/off and proportional controllers. Inclusion of these effects has produced considerably more realistic simulations than any generated by steady-state models. Finally, simulations indicate relative advantages and disadvantages of both types of controllers, conditions under which each performs better, and the importance of pump cycling and controller set points on total energy collection.

  17. The Ring Sculptor

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-08

    Prometheus zooms across the Cassini spacecraft field of view, attended by faint streamers and deep gores in the F ring. This movie sequence of five images shows the F ring shepherd moon shaping the ring inner edge

  18. Beyond Bright Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-30

    The tiny moon Pandora appears beyond the bright disk of Saturn rings in this image taken by NASA Cassini spacecraft. Pandora orbits outside the F ring and, in this image, is farther from Cassini than the rings are.

  19. To Spark a Revolution - New Developments in Multiple Collector ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, A. N.

    2002-12-01

    Multiple-collector ICPMS represents the biggest development in precise isotope ratio mass spectrometry of the past decade and has had a huge effect on cosmochemistry and geochemistry. Dan Weill played a critical role in this, demonstrating his ability to take risks to support innovation and acquire the world's first such instrument. The most important benefit has been that major areas of the periodic table have become accessible to high precision isotopic measurements on the relatively small sample sizes required when studying many natural systems. In cosmochemistry the biggest advances so far have been in W, Mo, Te and Zr measurements, permitting the exploration of new radioactive decay systems and nucleosynthetic isotopic effects. Hf-W cosmochemistry in particular has provided very powerful new constraints on the rates of formation of the terrestrial planets and asteroids. However, the expansion of the field of stable isotopes into high precision Mg, Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Tl and even U isotope measurements also offers a great deal of potential for fruitful discoveries. At this stage the magnitude and mechanisms of these fractionations are still being characterized and understood. The measurements themselves can be prone to artifacts. However, there is no question that large fractionations in Fe isotopic composition accompany certain oxidation - reduction reactions and some biological processes even though the exact mechanisms are often unclear. As the techniques have improved it has become possible to resolve incredibly small (100 ppm) fractionations in isotopic composition associated with high temperature processes and these are providing new insights into planetary and igneous processes. MC-ICPMS also has permitted more precise measurements of U series nuclides allowing us to trace sea-level changes further back in time. The use of in situ laser ablation measurements still has scarcely been explored. The world's first large geometry MC-ICPMS instrument

  20. Alignment method for solar collector arrays

    DOEpatents

    Driver, Jr., Richard B

    2012-10-23

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for establishing camera fixture location for aligning mirrors on a solar collector array (SCA) comprising multiple mirror modules. The method aligns the mirrors on a module by comparing the location of the receiver image in photographs with the predicted theoretical receiver image location. To accurately align an entire SCA, a common reference is used for all of the individual module images within the SCA. The improved method can use relative pixel location information in digital photographs along with alignment fixture inclinometer data to calculate relative locations of the fixture between modules. The absolute locations are determined by minimizing alignment asymmetry for the SCA. The method inherently aligns all of the mirrors in an SCA to the receiver, even with receiver position and module-to-module alignment errors.

  1. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.D.; Vansant, J.H.

    1984-10-02

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  2. Genesis Solar Wind Array Collector Cataloging Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkett, P.J.; Rodriguez, M.C.; Calaway, M.C.; Allton, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Genesis solar wind array collectors were fractured upon landing hard in Utah in 2004. The fragments were retrieved from the damaged canister, imaged, repackaged and shipped to the Johnson Space Center curatorial facility [1]. As of January 2009, the collection consists of 3460 samples. Of these, 442 are comprised into "multiple" sample groupings, either affixed to adhesive paper (177) or collected in jars (17), culture trays (87), or sets of polystyrene vials (161). A focused characterization task was initiated in May 2008 to document the largest samples in the collection. The task consisted of two goals: to document sapphire based fragments greater than 2 cm in one dimension, and to document silicon based fragments greater than 1 cm in one direction.

  3. Genesis: Removing Contamination from Sample Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, H. V.; McNamara, K. M.; Westphal, Andrew; Butterworth, A. L.; Burnett, D. S.; Jurewicz, A.; Woolum, D.; Allton, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    The Genesis mission returned to Earth on September 8, 2004, experiencing a non-nominal reentry. The parachutes which were supposed to slow and stabilize the capsule throughout the return failed to deploy, causing the capsule to impact the desert floor at a speed of nearly 200 MPH. Both the science canister and the major components of the SRC were returned before nightfall on September 8 to the prestaged cleanroom at UTTR , avoiding prolonged exposure or pending weather changes which might further contaminate the samples. The majority of the contaminants introduced as a result of the anomalous landing were in the form of particulates, including UTTR dust and soil, carbon-carbon heat shield material, and shattered collector dust (primarily silicon and germanium). Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  4. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    DOEpatents

    McConnell, Robert D.; Vansant, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  5. Use of Membrane Collectors in Electrostatic Precipitators.

    PubMed

    Bayless, David J; Pasic, Hajrudin; Alam, M Khairul; Shi, Liming; Haynes, Brian; Cochran, Joe; Khan, Wajahat

    2001-10-01

    Membrane collection surfaces, developed and patented by researchers at Ohio University, were used to replace steel plates in a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Such replacement facilitates tension-based rapping, which shears the adhered particle layer from the collector surface more effectively than hammer-based rapping. Tests were performed to measure the collection efficiency of the membranes and to quantify the potential improvements of this novel cleaning technique with respect to re-entrainment. Results indicate that even semiconductor materials (e.g., carbon fibers) collect ash nearly as efficiently as steel plates, potentially indicating that collection surface resistivity is primarily dictated by the accumulated ash layer and not by the underlying plate conductivity. In addition, virtually all sheared particles separated from the collecting membranes fell within the boundary layer of the membrane, indicating extremely low potential for re-entrainment.

  6. Use of membrane collectors in electrostatic precipitators.

    PubMed

    Bayless, D J; Pasic, H; Alam, M K; Shi, L; Haynes, B; Cochran, J; Khan, W

    2001-10-01

    Membrane collection surfaces, developed and patented by researchers at Ohio University, were used to replace steel plates in a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Such replacement facilitates tension-based rapping, which shears the adhered particle layer from the collector surface more effectively than hammer-based rapping. Tests were performed to measure the collection efficiency of the membranes and to quantify the potential improvements of this novel cleaning technique with respect to re-entrainment. Results indicate that even semiconductor materials (e.g., carbon fibers) collect ash nearly as efficiently as steel plates, potentially indicating that collection surface resistivity is primarily dictated by the accumulated ash layer and not by the underlying plate conductivity. In addition, virtually all sheared particles separated from the collecting membranes fell within the boundary layer of the membrane, indicating extremely low potential for re-entrainment.

  7. Asymmetric dipolar ring

    DOEpatents

    Prosandeev, Sergey A.; Ponomareva, Inna V.; Kornev, Igor A.; Bellaiche, Laurent M.

    2010-11-16

    A device having a dipolar ring surrounding an interior region that is disposed asymmetrically on the ring. The dipolar ring generates a toroidal moment switchable between at least two stable states by a homogeneous field applied to the dipolar ring in the plane of the ring. The ring may be made of ferroelectric or magnetic material. In the former case, the homogeneous field is an electric field and in the latter case, the homogeneous field is a magnetic field.

  8. Predicting collector well yields with MODFLOW.

    PubMed

    Kelson, Vic

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater flow models are commonly used to design new wells and wellfields. As the spatial scale of the problem is large and much local-scale detail is not needed, modelers often utilize two-dimensional (2D) or quasi three-dimensional models based on the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumption. Dupuit models offer a robust set of tools for simulating regional groundwater flow including interactions with surface waters, the potential for well interference, and varying aquifer properties and recharge rates. However, given an assumed operating water level or drawdown at a well screen, Dupuit models systematically overpredict well yields. For design purposes, this discrepancy is unacceptable, and a method for predicting accurate well yields is needed. While published methods exist for vertical wells, little guidance is available for predicting yields in horizontal screens or collector wells. In plan view, a horizontal screen has a linear geometry, and will likely extend over several neighboring cells that may not align with rows or columns in a numerical model. Furthermore, the model must account for the effects of converging three-dimensional (3D) flow to the well screens and hydraulic interference among the well screens; these all depend on the design of a specific well. This paper presents a new method for simulating the yield of angled or horizontal well screens in numerical groundwater flow models, specifically using the USGS code MODFLOW. The new method is compared to a detailed, 3D analytic element model of a collector well in a field of uniform flow. © 2012, Layne Christensen Co. Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  9. A high performance porous flat-plate solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.; Clarke, V.; Reynolds, R.

    1979-01-01

    A solar collector employing a porous matrix as a solar absorber and heat exchanger is presented and its application in solar air heaters is discussed. The collector is composed of a metallic matrix with a porous surface which acts as a large set of cavity radiators; cold air flows through the matrix plate and exchanges heat with the thermally stratified layers of the matrix. A steady-state thermal analysis of the collector is used to determine collector temperature distributions for the cases of an opaque surface matrix with total absorption of solar energy at the surface, and a diathermanous matrix with successive solar energy absorption at each depth. The theoretical performance of the porous flat plate collector is shown to exceed greatly that of a solid flat plate collector using air as the working medium for any given set of operational conditions. An experimental collector constructed using commercially available, low cost steel wool as the matrix has been found to have thermal efficiencies from 73 to 86%.

  10. Pathways toward a low cost evacuated collector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, J. R.; Schertz, W. W.; Allen, J. W.; Ogallagher, J. J.; Winston, R.

    The goal of widespread use of solar thermal collectors will only be achieved when they are proven to be economically superior to competing energy sources. Evacuated tubular collectors appear to have the potential to achieve this goal. An advanced evacuated collector using nonimaging concentration under development at the University of Chicago and Argonne can achieve a 50% seasonal efficiency at heat delivery temperatures in excess of 170C. The same collector has an optical efficiency so that low temperature performance is also excellent. In this advanced collector design all of the critical components are enclosed in the vacuum, and the collector has an inherently long lifetime. The current cost of evacuated systems is too high, mainly because the volume of production has been too low to realize economies of mass production. It appears that certain design features of evacuated collectors can be changed (e.g., use of heat pipe absorbers) so as to introduce new system design and market strategy options that can reduce the balance of system cost.

  11. Saturn's Spectacular Ring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Saturn's beautiful rings have fascinated astronomers since they were first observed by Galileo in 1610. The main rings consist of solid particles mostly in the 1 cm - 10 m range, composed primarily of water ice. The ring disk is exceptionally thin - the typical local thickness of the bright rings is tens of meters, whereas the diameter of the main rings is 250,000 km! The main rings exhibit substantial radial variations "ringlets", many of which are actively maintained via gravitational perturbations from Saturn's moons. Exterior to the main rings lie tenuous dust rings, which have little mass but occupy a very large volume of space. This seminar will emphasize the physics of ring-moon interactions, recent advances in our understanding of various aspects of the rings obtained from observations taken during 1995 when the rings appeared edge-on to the Earth and then to the Sun, and observations in subsequent years from HST.

  12. Ray tracing study for non-imaging daylight collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wittkopf, Stephen; Oliver Grobe, Lars; Geisler-Moroder, David; Compagnon, Raphael; Kaempf, Jerome; Linhart, Friedrich; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents a novel method to study how well non-imaging daylight collectors pipe diffuse daylight into long horizontal funnels for illuminating deep buildings. Forward ray tracing is used to derive luminous intensity distributions curves (LIDC) of such collectors centered in an arc-shaped light source representing daylight. New photometric characteristics such as 2D flux, angular spread and horizontal offset are introduced as a function of such LIDC. They are applied for quantifying and thus comparing different collector contours. (author)

  13. Development of flat - plate solar plate collector - evaporator. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Abramzon, B.; Yaron, I.

    1981-11-01

    In the present study the thermal performance of a flat plate solar collector is analyzed theoretically for the case in which the working fluid may undergo a phase change within the tubes of the collector. In addition to the common domestic applications, such a collector - evaporator may be used as a generator of vapors for the production of mechanical or electrical energy, e.g. solar water pumps, solar power stations, etc., as well as for solar - powered absorption refrigeration machines, distillation installations, etc.

  14. On optimizing solar collectors orientation under daily nonrandom cloudiness conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, M.; Pielke, R.A.; Ookouchi, Y.

    1988-11-01

    Seasonal daily nonrandom cloudiness is typical in many geographical locations. Optimization of flat-plate solar collectors orientation in such situations requires azimuth and tilt modifications from those when daily cloudiness is random. The present study evaluates the significance of optimizing solar radiation gains, while considerating an illustrative case of nonrandom afternoon-morning cloudiness. Results suggest that for fixed flat-plate collectors the related gain in solar energy is practically insignificant. For nonfixed collectors the solar energy gains can be improved on a monthly basis by up to --6 percent.

  15. Sigmoidal current collector for lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Le, Anh V.; Shi, Yang; Noelle, Daniel J.; Wu, Dengguo; Fan, Jiang; Lu, Weiyi; Qiao, Yu

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated sigmoidal current collector in lithium-ion battery (LIB). Traditionally, the active material in an LIB electrode is coated on a flat current collector. By rendering the current collector sigmoidal-shaped, cracking and debonding of active material layer could be promoted, which would considerably increase the internal impedance, as the LIB is mechanically abused, beneficial to thermal-runaway mitigation. The energy absorption capacity is also improved, enabling multifunctional LIB cell design. This technique has important relevance to large-sized LIB systems, for which cell robustness and fire safety are prioritized.

  16. Electron beam collector for a microwave power tube

    DOEpatents

    Dandl, Raphael A.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a cylindrical, electron beam collector that efficiently couples the microwave energy out of a high power microwave source while stopping the attendant electron beam. The interior end walls of the collector are a pair of facing parabolic mirrors and the microwave energy from an input horn is radiated between the two mirrors and reassembled at the entrance to the output waveguide where the transmitted mode is reconstructed. The mode transmission through the collector of the present invention has an efficiency of at least 94%.

  17. Mitigating project risk by use of high performance collector technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richert, Timo; Riffelmann, Klaus-Jürgen; Nava, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Collectors with a high optical quality are generally valued for their additional performance, i.e. the expected additional output due to the performance gain compared to a lower quality reference collector. However, high-performance collectors additionally have a lower sensitivity to additional optical errors and, thus not only perform better nominally, but are also more likely to reach their nominal performance even when project uncertainties (e.g. increased sun-shape) or quality issues (e.g. increased component optical error) degrade their performance. This has physical reasons, whose cause and effect will be described and quantified within this paper.

  18. Analytical model and performance data for a cylindrical parabolic collector

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, F.M.; Stewart, W.E. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Concentrating solar collectors provide higher fluid temperatures than flat-plate, an important advantage in many applications. The parabolic cylinder is one of the most popular types of concentrating collectors because of its relatively simple construction and tracking configuration. A mathematical model was developed for one such collector in order to predict thermal efficiency as a function of solar insolation. An experiment was then devised in an attempt to verify this model. Discrepancies between predicted and observed values are discussed, and suggestions are made for improving the model and the experimental procedure.

  19. Conductivity fuel cell collector plate and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Braun, James C.

    2002-01-01

    An improved method of manufacturing a PEM fuel cell collector plate is disclosed. During molding a highly conductive polymer composite is formed having a relatively high polymer concentration along its external surfaces. After molding the polymer rich layer is removed from the land areas by machining, grinding or similar process. This layer removal results in increased overall conductivity of the molded collector plate. The polymer rich surface remains in the collector plate channels, providing increased mechanical strength and other benefits to the channels. The improved method also permits greater mold cavity thickness providing a number of advantages during the molding process.

  20. End Debt Collector Abuse Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Franken, Al [D-MN

    2010-09-29

    09/29/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (text of measure as introduced: CR S7802) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Solar Wind Elemental Abundances from GENESIS Collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.; Jurewicz, A. J. G.; McKeegan, K. D.; Guan, Y.

    2007-03-01

    GENESIS bulk solar wind analyses were made by SIMS on Si, Sandia diamond-like-C, and epitaxial Si on sapphire (SoS). Preliminary Fe, Mg, Ca, Cr and Na fluences are calculated. The eventual goal is to test for fractionation (or lack thereof) of solar-wind

  2. Applications of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy to the Isotopically Enriched Tungsten Metal Ring Campaign at DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, D. C.; Eley, C.; Maan, A.; Duran, J.; Auxier, J., II; Unterberg, E. A.; Rudakov, D. L.; Stangeby, P.; Chrobak, C.; Wampler, W. R.

    2016-10-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was used to measure isotopic ratios of deposited W on collector probes inserted during the metal ring campaign. Two toroidal rings of 5 cm wide W-coated TZM inserts were installed in the lower divertor. The inner ring was coated in natural-W and the outer ring was coated with 93% isotopically enriched W-182. A triplet set of replaceable graphite collector probes were mounted at the outboard mid-plane. Over 100 collector probes were exposed. ICP-MS analysis of the collector probes has yielded isotopic ratios of the deposited W, which have been used with the Stable Isotope Mixing Model (SIMM) to estimate the amount of W from each of the divertor rings that contributed to the total W deposition on the probe. Comparisons in strike-point positioning, H-mode/L-mode, and Forward/Reverse Bt are reviewed. Work supported by US DOE under DE-AC05-00OR22725, DE-FG02-07ER54917, DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC04-94AL85000, UT Institute for Nuclear Security.

  3. Owens-Illinois subsystem design package for the SEC-601 air-cooled solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The subsystem design of the SEC-601 solar collector was evaluated. The collector is of modular design and is approximately 12 feet three inches wide and eight feet seven inches tall. It contains 72 collector tube elements and weighs approximately 300 pounds. Included in this report are the subsystem performance specifications and the assembly and installation drawings of the solar collectors and manifold.

  4. Performance of wood in a do-it-yourself solar collector

    Treesearch

    G. E. Sherwood; W. A. Gatz

    1979-01-01

    Six variations of a do-it-yourself solar collector design were constructed and exposed under stagnation conditions for 1 year; collectors were basically closed boxes without air circulation. Temperature in each collector was recorded throughout the test period and the effect of these temperatures on the wood framing and plywood in the collectors was estimated...

  5. Uranus Tenth Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    On Jan. 23, 1986, NASA Voyager 2 discovered a tenth ring orbiting Uranus. The tenth ring is about midway between the bright, outermost epsilon ring and the next ring down, called delta. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00035

  6. Stirling engine piston ring

    DOEpatents

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1983-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  7. Birth Control Ring

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Ring KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Ring Print A A A What's in this ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ring ...

  8. New Dust Belts of Uranus: One Ring, Two Ring, Red Ring, Blue Ring

    SciTech Connect

    de Pater, I; Hammel, H B; Gibbard, S G; Showalter, M R

    2006-02-02

    We compare near-infrared observations of the recently discovered outer rings of Uranus with HST results. We find that the inner ring, R/2003 U 2, is red, whereas the outer ring, R/2003 U 1, is very blue. Blue is an unusual color for rings; Saturn's enigmatic E ring is the only other known example. By analogy to the E ring, R/2003 U 1 is probably produced via impacts into the embedded moon Mab, which apparently orbits at a location where non-gravitational perturbations favor the survival and spreading of sub-micron sized dust. R/2003 U 2 more closely resembles Saturn's G ring.

  9. Status of the NASA-Lewis flat-plate collector tests with a solar simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.

    1974-01-01

    Simulator test results of 15 collector types are reported. Collectors are given performance ratings according to their use for pool heating, hot water, absorption A/C or heating and solar Rankine machines. Collectors found to be good performers in the above categories, except for pool heating, were a black nickel coated, 2 glass collector, and a black paint 2 glass collector containing a mylar honeycomb. For pool heating, a black paint, one glass collector was found to be the best performer. Collector performance parameters of 5 collector types were determined to aid in explaining the factors that govern performance. The two factors that had the greatest effect on collector performance were the collector heat loss and the coating absorptivity.

  10. Status of the NASA-Lewis flat-plate collector tests with a solar simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.

    1974-01-01

    Simulator test results of 15 collector types are presented. Collectors are given performance ratings according to their use for pool heating, hot water, absorption A/C or heating, and solar Rankine machines. Collectors found to be good performers in the above categories, except for pool heating, were a black nickel coated, 2 glass collector, and a black paint 2 glass collector containing a mylar honeycomb. For pool heating, a black paint, one glass collector was found to be the best performer. Collector performance parameters of 5 collector types were determined to aid in explaining the factors that govern performance. The two factors that had the greatest effect on collector performance were the collector heat loss and the coating absorptivity.

  11. Owens-Illinois liquid solar collector materials assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    From the beginning, it was noted that the baseline drawings for the liquid solar collector exhibited a distinct weakness concerning materials specification where elastomers, plastics, and foam insulation materials were utilized. A relatively small effort by a competent design organization would alleviate this deficiency. Based on results obtained from boilout and stagnation tests on the solar simulator, it was concluded that proof testing of the collector tubes prior to use helps to predict their performance for limited service life. Fracture mechanics data are desirable for predicting extended service life and establishing a minimum proof pressure level requirement. The temperature capability of this collector system was increased as the design matured and the coating efficiency improved. This higher temperature demands the use of higher temperature materials at critical locations in the collector.

  12. Evaluation of solar collectors for heat pump applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skartvedt, G.; Pedreyra, D.; McMordie, R.; Kidd, J.; Anderson, J.; Jones, R.

    1980-08-01

    The potential utility of very low cost (possibly unglazed and uninsulated) solar collectors to serve as both heat collection and rejection devices for a liquid source heat pump was evaluated. The approach consisted of exercising a detailed analytical simulation of the complete heat pump/solar collector/storage system against heating and cooling loads derived for typical single family residences in eight US cities. The performance of each system was measured against that of a conventional air to air heat pump operating against the same loads. In addition to evaluation of solar collector options, water tanks and buried pipe grids to provide thermal storage was considered. A determination of night sky temperature and convective heat transfer coefficients for surfaces with dimensions typical of solar collectors was included. The experiments were conducted in situ by placing the test apparatus on the roofs of houses in the Denver, Colorado, area.

  13. Flat plate solar collector with a cantilevered mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.; Larson, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    The use of flat booster mirrors with flat plate collectors provides moderate solar flux concentration and enhanced performance especially when the mirrors are seasonally adjusted. Curved mirrors provide higher flux concentration and a practical system has been developed where the booster mirror is bent elastically. The system employs a single cantilever mirror which is located below a conventional flat plate collector. The mirror is clamped at the base of the collector panel and its free end is deflected upward; a smaller deflection is used in the fall and winter than in the spring and summer. The prototype system consists of a 0.9 by 2.5 m collector panel mounted on its side (horizontal fluid flow) and a 2.7 by 2.5 m elastic mirror. The mirror is made with aluminum sheet with an adherent aluminized acrylic film. The system has been designed for mounting on horizontal surfaces at latitudes of 10 to 50/sup 0/.

  14. Investigation of a hybrid PVT air collector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, S.; Touafek, K.; Mordjaoui, M.; Khelifa, A.; Tabet, I.

    2017-02-01

    The photovoltaic thermal hybrid (PVT) collectors, which simultaneously produce electricity and heat, are an alternative to photovoltaic modules and thermal collectors installed separately. Indeed, the heat extracted from the solar cell is used to heat water or air, thereby cooling the cell, and thus increasing its energy efficiency. This paper deals with a hybrid PVT air collector in which a new design has been proposed and tested. Its principle is based on the return of the preheating air to a second heating. The air thus passes twice under the solar cells before being evacuated to the outside of the collector (for space heating). The system is modular and expandable to cover large spaces to be heated. The experimental results of this novel design are presented and discussed under both normal and forced circulation. This technique of air return shows favorable results in terms of the quality of the heated air and electric power generation.

  15. Development and testing of a hot-air solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caudle, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Summarized report on development and testing of hot-air flat-plate solar collector includes structural details, coating selection, and spacing between coating and glass plate. Report gives complete performance specifications and extensive certifications test report.

  16. Thermal Performance of an Annealed Pyrolytic Graphite Solar Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Hornacek, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    A solar collector having the combined properties of high solar absorptance, low infrared emittance, and high thermal conductivity is needed for applications where solar energy is to be absorbed and transported for use in minisatellites. Such a solar collector may be used with a low temperature differential heat engine to provide power or with a thermal bus for thermal switching applications. One concept being considered for the solar collector is an Al2O3 cermet coating applied to a thermal conductivity enhanced polished aluminum substrate. The cermet coating provides high solar absorptance and the polished aluminum provides low infrared emittance. Annealed pyrolytic graphite embedded in the aluminum substrate provides enhanced thermal conductivity. The as-measured thermal performance of an annealed pyrolytic graphite thermal conductivity enhanced polished aluminum solar collector, coated with a cermet coating, will be presented.

  17. Outdoor thermal efficiency evaluation of the Ying solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The test procedure used and the test results obtained during an evaluation test program to obtain thermal efficiency performance data are presented. The flat plate collector used water/prestone antifreeze solution as the working fluid.

  18. Weathering of a liquid-filled solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report describes procedures and results of tests for effects of weathering on flat-plate liquid solar collector. Thermal performance was measured before and after natural weathering for 15-1/2 months by using Marshall Space Flight solar simulator.

  19. Preliminary Examination of the Interstellar Collector of Stardust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C. C.; Bastien, R.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J. C.; Brownlee, D. E.; Butterworth, A. L.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Gruen, E.; Hoppe, P.; Kearsley, A. T.; Leroux, H.; Nittler, L. R.; Sandford, S. A.

    2008-03-01

    We describe the Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE), which will use non-destructive, non-invasive techniques to identify and characterize candidate interstellar impacts in the Stardust aerogel and foil collectors.

  20. Preliminary design package for Sunair SEC-601 solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of the Owens-Illinois model Sunair SEC-601 tubular air solar collector is presented. Information in this package includes the subsystem design and development approaches, hazard analysis, and detailed drawings available as the preliminary design review.

  1. Optical, Energetic and Exergetic Analyses of Parabolic Trough Collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murat, Öztürk; Nalan Çiçek, Bezir; Nuri, Özek

    2007-07-01

    Parabolic trough collectors generate thermal energy from solar energy. Especially, they are very convenient for applications in high temperature solar power systems. To determine the design parameters, parabolic trough collectors must be analysed with optical analysis. In addition, thermodynamics (energy and exergy) analysis in the development of an energy efficient system must be achieved. Solar radiation passes through Earth's atmosphere until it reaches on Earth's surface and is focused from the parabolic trough collector to the tube receiver with a transparent insulated envelope. All of them constitute a complex mechanism. We investigate the geometry of parabolic trough reflector and characteristics of solar radiation to the reflecting surface through Earth's atmosphere, and calculate the collecting total energy in the receiver. The parabolic trough collector, of which design parameters are given, is analysed in regard to the energy and exergy analysis considering the meteorological specification in May, June, July and August in Isparta/Turkey, and the results are presented.

  2. Integrated function nonimaging concentrating collector tubes for solar thermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston, R.; Ogallagher, J. J.

    1982-09-01

    A substantial improvement in optical efficiency over contemporary external reflector evacuated tube collectors has been achieved by integrating the reflector surface into the outer glass envelope. Described are the design fabrication and test results for a prototype collector based on this concept. A comprehensive test program to measure performance and operational characteristics of a 2 sq m panel (45 tubes) has been completed. Efficiencies above 50% relative to beam at 200 C have been repeatedly demonstrated. Both the instantaneous and long term average performance of this totally stationary solar collector are comparable to those for tracking line focus parabolic troughs. The yield, reliability and stability of performance achieved have been excellent. Subcomponent assemblies and fabrication procedures have been used which are expected to be compatible with high volume production. The collector has a wide variety of applications in the 100 to 300 C range including industrial progress heat, air conditioning and Rankine engine operation.

  3. Critics, Collectors, and Cheerleaders: Resources for Teaching about Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James

    1980-01-01

    Reviews a variety of resources for media courses teaching about advertising. Divides the material into three categories: assaults on unannounced values (critics), thoughtful thematic compilations (collectors), and semiapproving rhapsodies on the medium's formal brilliance (cheerleaders). (TJ)

  4. Critics, Collectors, and Cheerleaders: Resources for Teaching about Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James

    1980-01-01

    Reviews a variety of resources for media courses teaching about advertising. Divides the material into three categories: assaults on unannounced values (critics), thoughtful thematic compilations (collectors), and semiapproving rhapsodies on the medium's formal brilliance (cheerleaders). (TJ)

  5. Glycol/water evacuated-tube solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Report describes performance of 8 tube and 10 tube commercially produced solar collectors. Tests include thermal efficiency, time constant for temperature drop after solar flux is cut, change in efficiency with Sun angle, and temperature rise if circulation is stopped.

  6. Positive-electrode current collector for liquid-metal cells

    DOEpatents

    Shimotake, H.; Bartholme, L.G.

    1982-09-27

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  7. Positive electrode current collector for liquid metal cells

    DOEpatents

    Shimotake, Hiroshi; Bartholme, Louis G.

    1984-01-01

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  8. Parabolic trough collectors for industrial and commercial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, R.C.

    1997-06-01

    Industrial Solar Technology Corporation (IST) manufactures and installs parabolic trough solar energy systems for large-scale commercial and industrial applications. Parabolic trough collectors have advanced significantly over the last fifteen years and are the most developed and widely deployed type of solar concentrator. Collector efficiency has increased, installed costs have decreased, and system reliability has improved. These positive trends have moved parabolic trough technology to commercial viability in niche markets where energy costs are high and sunlight is abundant.

  9. Analysis and performance of flat-plate solar collector arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.A.; Wu, L.G. )

    1990-01-01

    A new discrete numerical model is proposed to calculate the flow and temperature distribution in solar collector arrays. The flow nonuniformity, the longitudinal heat conduction, and the buoyancy effect are all taken into account in the analysis. The numerical results of pressure and temperature distribution are found in agreement with the experimental results. It is found that the flow nonuniformity has detrimental effect on the thermal performance of collector array.

  10. Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Chao, B.T.; Rabl, A.

    1975-06-27

    A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

  11. Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1977-02-15

    A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

  12. Thermal efficiency of single-pass solar air collector

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Zamry; Ibarahim, Zahari; Yatim, Baharudin; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz

    2013-11-27

    Efficiency of a finned single-pass solar air collector was studied. This paper presents the experimental study to investigate the effect of solar radiation and mass flow rate on efficiency. The fins attached at the back of absorbing plate to improve the thermal efficiency of the system. The results show that the efficiency is increased proportional to solar radiation and mass flow rate. Efficiency of the collector archived steady state when reach to certain value or can be said the maximum performance.

  13. Shape Control of Solar Collectors Using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobitz, D. W.; Grossman, J. W.; Allen, J. J.; Rice, T. M.; Liang, C.; Davidson, F. M.

    1996-01-01

    Solar collectors that are focused on a central receiver are designed with a mechanism for defocusing the collector or disabling it by turning it out of the path of the sun's rays. This is required to avoid damaging the receiver during periods of inoperability. In either of these two cases a fail-safe operation is very desirable where during power outages the collector passively goes to its defocused or deactivated state. This paper is principally concerned with focusing and defocusing the collector in a fail-safe manner using shape memory alloy actuators. Shape memory alloys are well suited to this application in that once calibrated the actuators can be operated in an on/off mode using a minimal amount of electric power. Also, in contrast to other smart materials that were investigated for this application, shape memory alloys are capable of providing enough stroke at the appropriate force levels to focus the collector. Design and analysis details presented, along with comparisons to test data taken from an actual prototype, demonstrate that the collector can be repeatedly focused and defocused within accuracies required by typical solar energy systems. In this paper the design, analysis and testing of a solar collector which is deformed into its desired shape by shape memory alloy actuators is presented. Computations indicate collector shapes much closer to spherical and with smaller focal lengths can be achieved by moving the actuators inward to a radius of approximately 6 inches. This would require actuators with considerably more stroke and some alternate SMA actuators are currently under consideration. Whatever SMA actuator is finally chosen for this application, repeatability and fatigue tests will be required to investigate the long term performance of the actuator.

  14. Stereomicroscope Inspection of Polished Aluminum Collector 50684.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, M. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Allton, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    The Genesis polished aluminum "kidney" collector was damaged during the hard landing of the capsule on September 8, 2004 in the Utah desert. The kidney was introduced into the Genesis (ISO class 4) cleanroom laboratory on November 4, 2004 and stored under nitrogen cover gas. The collector is currently fastened to a highly polished stainless steel plate for secure handling. Curatorial work at JSC has made successful subdivision and subsequent allocation of samples from the kidney.

  15. Shape Control of Solar Collectors Using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobitz, D. W.; Grossman, J. W.; Allen, J. J.; Rice, T. M.; Liang, C.; Davidson, F. M.

    1996-01-01

    Solar collectors that are focused on a central receiver are designed with a mechanism for defocusing the collector or disabling it by turning it out of the path of the sun's rays. This is required to avoid damaging the receiver during periods of inoperability. In either of these two cases a fail-safe operation is very desirable where during power outages the collector passively goes to its defocused or deactivated state. This paper is principally concerned with focusing and defocusing the collector in a fail-safe manner using shape memory alloy actuators. Shape memory alloys are well suited to this application in that once calibrated the actuators can be operated in an on/off mode using a minimal amount of electric power. Also, in contrast to other smart materials that were investigated for this application, shape memory alloys are capable of providing enough stroke at the appropriate force levels to focus the collector. Design and analysis details presented, along with comparisons to test data taken from an actual prototype, demonstrate that the collector can be repeatedly focused and defocused within accuracies required by typical solar energy systems. In this paper the design, analysis and testing of a solar collector which is deformed into its desired shape by shape memory alloy actuators is presented. Computations indicate collector shapes much closer to spherical and with smaller focal lengths can be achieved by moving the actuators inward to a radius of approximately 6 inches. This would require actuators with considerably more stroke and some alternate SMA actuators are currently under consideration. Whatever SMA actuator is finally chosen for this application, repeatability and fatigue tests will be required to investigate the long term performance of the actuator.

  16. The transient thermal response of a tubular solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1976-01-01

    A special analytical solution is provided for the timewise response of the circulating fluid temperatures when a sudden step change of the input solar radiation is imposed and remains constant thereafter. An example which demonstrates the transient temperatures at the exit section of a single collector with two different flow patterns is presented. This study is used to supplement some numerical solutions to provide a fairly complete coverage for this type of solar collector.

  17. Size Distribution of Genesis Solar Wind Array Collector Fragments Recovered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.

    2005-01-01

    Genesis launched in 2001 with 271 whole and 30 half hexagonally-shaped collectors mounted on 5 arrays, comprised of 9 materials described in [1]. The array collectors were damaged during re-entry impact in Utah in 2004 [2], breaking into many smaller pieces and dust. A compilation of the number and approximate size of the fragments recovered was compiled from notes made during the field packaging performed in the Class 10,000 cleanroom at Utah Test and Training Range [3].

  18. Performance testing of the Acurex solar-collector Model 3001-03

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, V.E.; Workhoven, R.M.

    1982-03-01

    Results are summarized of tests conducted at the Collector Module Test Facility on an Acurex Model 3001-03 Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Collector. Test temperaure range was 100/sup 0/C to 300/sup 0/C. Tests were conducted with the collector axis oriented east-west and again with the collector axis oriented north-south. Three collectors were tested: one using polished aluminum mirrors, one using glass mirrors, and another using an aluminized acrylic film mirror.

  19. Baseline performance of solar collectors for NASA Langley solar building test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, R. H.; Johnson, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    The solar collector field contains seven collector designs. Before operation in the field, the experimental performances (thermal efficiencies) of the seven collector designs were measured in an indoor solar simulator. The resulting data provided a baseline for later comparison with actual field test data. The simulator test results are presented for the collectors as received, and after several weeks of outdoor exposure with no coolant (dry operation). Six of the seven collector designs tested showed substantial reductions in thermal efficiency after dry operation.

  20. State-of-the-art review of low-cost collector technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolbert, W. A.

    1981-06-01

    A brief but concise review is provided of low-cost solar collector technologies and their potential for application within the military. Low-cost, light-weight concepts for flat-plate collectors, parabolic trough collectors, heliostats and parabolic dish collectors are covered. In addition, several criteria are evaluated with respect to low-cost collector technologies. These include reliability, maintainability, survivability, motility/erectibility, environmental impact and economics. Research and development requirements and ongoing activities are also summarized.

  1. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOEpatents

    Masquelier, Donald A.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Willeke, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  2. NBS solar collector durability/reliability test program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waksman, D.; Thomas, W. C.; Streed, E. R.

    1984-09-01

    Efforts in the development of reliability/durability tests for solar collectors and their materials have been hampered by the lack of real time conditions. Research undertaken at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) to help generate the data required to develop methods for predicting the long term durability and reliability of flat plate solar collectors and their materials is discussed. Eight different types of flat plate solar collectors were exposed outdoors at four sites located in different climatic regions. Small scale cover and absorbed materials coupon specimens consisting of samples taken from a collector of each of the eight types used and a number of additional materials were exposed concurrently with the full size collectors. Periodic measurements were made of collector and materials performance as a function of outdoor exposure time. Indoor laboratory aging tests were conducted concurrently on specimens of the same materials to provide a basis for comparison with the outdoor exposure tests. The results obtained in this test program are presented.

  3. Researcher and Mechanic with Solar Collector in Solar Simulator Cell

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1976-08-21

    Researcher Susan Johnson and a mechanic examine a flat-plate solar collector in the Solar Simulator Cell in the High Temperature Composites Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. The Solar Simulator Cell allowed the researchers to control the radiation levels, air temperature, airflow, and fluid flow. The flat-plate collector, seen in a horizontal position here, was directed at the solar simulator, seen above Johnson, during the tests. Lewis researchers were studying the efficiency of various flat- plate solar collector designs in the 1970s for temperature control systems in buildings. The collectors consisted of a cover material, absorber plate, and parallel flow configuration. The collector’s absorber material and coating, covers, honeycomb material, mirrors, vacuum, and tube attachment could all be modified. Johnson’s study analyzed 35 collectors. Johnson, a lifelong pilot, joined NASA Lewis in 1974. The flat-plate solar collectors, seen here, were her first research project. Johnson also investigated advanced heat engines for general aviation and evaluated variable geometry combustors and liners. Johnson earned the Cleveland Technical Society’s Technical Achievement Award in 1984.

  4. Wire mesh current collectors for passive direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Naveen K.; Thombre, Shashikant B.; Motghare, Ramani V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of the stainless steel wire mesh as current collector in the passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFCs-W). A novel single cell fixture is designed and fabricated. The cell performance is evaluated and compared with five different wire mesh current collectors. The supporting plates are optimized for every mesh. The performance of DMFCs-W is compared with the conventional passive DMFC which uses perforated metal plate as current collector (DMFC-P). The polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are performed to investigate the different aspects of the cell performance. The results reveal that the DMFCs-W yield better performance than the DMFC-P. Also, more uniform fuel distribution at catalyst layer and higher cell temperature is achieved with wire mesh current collectors. It is found that the wire mesh geometry has significant effect on the cell performance and the mesh made of relatively thick wires gives better cell performance. This study identifies the stainless steel wire mesh as promising material to be used as current collector and potential substitute to the perforated plate current collectors in the passive DMFC.

  5. Thermographic techniques applied to solar collector systems analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Eden, A.

    1980-02-01

    The use of thermography to analyze large solar collector array systems under dynamic operating conditions is discussed. The research at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) in this area has focused on thermographic techniques and equipment to determine temperature distributions, flow patterns, and air blockages in solar collectors. The results of this extensive study, covering many sites and types of collectors, illustrate the capabilities of infrared (IR) analysis as a qualitative analysis tool and operation and maintenance procedure when applied to large arrays. Thermographic analysis of most collector systems qualitatively showed relative temperature distributions that indicated balanced flow patterns. In three significant cases, blocked or broken collector arrays, which previously had gone undetected, were discovered. Using this analysis, validation studies of large computer codes could examine collector arrays for flow patterns or blockages that could cause disagreement between actual and predicted performance. Initial operation and balancing of large systems could be accomplished without complicated sensor systems not needed for normal operations. Maintenance personnel could quickly check their systems without climbing onto the roof and without complicated sensor systems.

  6. Ray-tracing software comparison for linear focusing solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osório, Tiago; Horta, Pedro; Larcher, Marco; Pujol-Nadal, Ramón; Hertel, Julian; van Rooyen, De Wet; Heimsath, Anna; Schneider, Simon; Benitez, Daniel; Frein, Antoine; Denarie, Alice

    2016-05-01

    Ray-Tracing software tools have been widely used in the optical design of solar concentrating collectors. In spite of the ability of these tools to assess the geometrical and material aspects impacting the optical performance of concentrators, their use in combination with experimental measurements in the framework of collector testing procedures as not been implemented, to the date, in none of the current solar collector testing standards. In the latest revision of ISO9806 an effort was made to include linear focusing concentrating collectors but some practical and theoretical difficulties emerged. A Ray-Tracing analysis could provide important contributions to overcome these issues, complementing the experimental results obtained through thermal testing and allowing the achievement of more thorough testing outputs with lower experimental requirements. In order to evaluate different available software tools a comparison study was conducted. Taking as representative technologies for line-focus concentrators the Parabolic Trough Collector and the Linear Fresnel Reflector Collector, two exemplary cases with predefined conditions - geometry, sun model and material properties - were simulated with different software tools. This work was carried out within IEA/SHC Task 49 "Solar Heat Integration in Industrial Processes".

  7. Dual curvature acoustically damped concentrating collector. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.A.; Rausch, R.A.

    1980-05-01

    A development program was conducted to investigate the design and performance parameters of a novel, dual curvature, concentrating solar collector. The reflector of the solar collector is achieved with a stretched-film reflective surface that approximates a hyperbolic paraboloid and is capable of line-focusing at concentration ratios ranging from 10 to 20X. A prototype collector was designed based on analytical and experimental component trade-off activities as well as economic analyses of solar thermal heating and cooling systems incorporating this type of collector. A prototype collector incorporating six 0.66 x 1.22 m (2 x 4 ft) was fabricated and subjected to a limited thermal efficiency test program. A peak efficiency of 36% at 121/sup 0/C (250/sup 0/F) was achieved based upon the gross aperture area. Commercialization activities were conducted, including estimated production costs of $134.44/m/sup 2/ ($12.49/ft/sup 2/) for the collector assembly (including a local suntracker and controls) and $24.33/m/sup 2/ ($2.26/ft/sup 2/) for the reflector subassembly.

  8. Conceptual design of an orbital debris collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonoghue, Peter (Editor); Brenton, Brian; Chambers, Ernest; Schwind, Thomas; Swanhart, Christopher; Williams, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The current Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) environment has become overly crowded with space debris. An evaluation of types of debris is presented in order to determine which debris poses the greatest threat to operation in space, and would therefore provide a feasible target for removal. A target meeting these functional requirements was found in the Cosmos C-1B Rocket Body. These launchers are spent space transporters which constitute a very grave risk of collision and fragmentation in LEO. The motion and physical characteristics of these rocket bodies have determined the most feasible method of removal. The proposed Orbital Debris Collector (ODC) device is designed to attach to the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), which provides all propulsion, tracking, and power systems. The OMV/ODC combination, the Rocket Body Retrieval Vehicle (RBRV), will match orbits with the rocket body, use a spin table to match the rotational motion of the debris, capture it, despin it, and remove it from orbit by allowing it to fall into the Earth's atmosphere. A disposal analysis is presented to show how the debris will be deorbited into the Earth's atmosphere. The conceptual means of operation of a sample mission is described.

  9. [Naturalists, collectors and theoreticians of museology].

    PubMed

    Arabas, Iwona

    2009-01-01

    The origins of the contemporary collectorship dates from times when the sameness of art and science was commonly accepted. In those days relics of the ancient past and natural individuals of newly discovered lands were presented at the same time. Cosmological character of the collections manifested the tenacity of recognition and representation of the surrounding reality. A great impact on completion of collections of curiosities in Europe had Netherlands, and in the basin of Baltic Sea a remarkable significance was gained by Hanseatic Gdańsk. Collections of Jakub Breyn, Jakub Klein and Gotfryd Reyger became famous then. In the same way were imported individuals for Anna Jabłonowska that composed one of the most interesting European collections. In course of time merging such a great multiplicity of collections was beyond collectors' power and museum pieces from collections of curiosities were parcelled out. It was a real beginning of specialistic museums. A role of museum for science results from its function of methodical organizing collections that can be used by research workers. However, although the aims of scientific and museum centres are different, they come together on the occasion of museum recognition works when museums' workers borrow essential knowledge and methods from resources of science, and scientists search for useful research materials in museum resources.

  10. Standarized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A steel flat-plate collector with two transparent covers and a proprietary coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator are given. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperature and flux level.

  11. Homometallic and Heterometallic Antiferromagnetic Rings: Magnetic Properties Studied by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Casadei, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis is to investigate the local magnetic properties of homometallic Cr8 antiferromagnetic (AFM) ring and the changes occurring by replacing one Cr3+ ion with diamagnetic Cd2+ (Cr7Cd) and with Ni2+ (Cr7Ni). In the heterometallic ring a redistribution of the local magnetic moment is expected in the low temperature ground state. We have investigated those changes by both 53Cr-NMR and 19F-NMR. We have determined the order of magnitude of the transferred hyperfine coupling constant 19F - M+ where M+ = Cr3+, Ni2+ in the different rings. This latter result gives useful information about the overlapping of the electronic wavefunctions involved in the coordinative bond.

  12. Effect of openings collectors and solar irradiance on the thermal efficiency of flat plate-finned collector for indirect-type passive solar dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batubara, Fatimah; Dina, Sari Farah; Klaudia Kathryn Y., M.; Turmuzi, M.; Siregar, Fitri; Panjaitan, Nora

    2017-06-01

    Research on the effect of openings solar collector and solar irradiance to thermal efficiency has been done. Solar collector by flat plate-finned type consists of 3 ply insulator namely wood, Styrofoam and Rockwool with thickness respectively are 10 mm, 25 mm and 50 mm. Absorber plate made of aluminum sheet with thickness of 0.30 mm, painted by black-doff. Installation of 19 units fins (length x height x thickness: 1000x20x10 mm) on the collector will increase surface area of absorber so it can receive much more solar energy. The solar collector cover is made of glass (thickness of 5 mm). During the research, the solar irradiance and temperature of collector are measured and recorded every five minutes. Temperature measurement performed on the surface of the absorber plate, inside of collector, surface cover and the outer side insulator (plywood). This data is used to calculate the heat loss due to conduction, convection and radiation on the collector. Openings of collectors vary as follows: 100%, 75%, 15% and 0% (total enclosed). The data collecting was conducted from 09.00 am to 17.00 pm and triplicates. The collector thermal efficiency calculated based on the ratio of the amount of heat received to the solar irradiance absorbed. The results show that each of openings solar collector has different solar irradiance (because it was done on a different day) which is in units of W/m2: 390 (100% open), 376 (75% open), 429 (15% open), and 359 (totally enclosed). The highest thermal efficiency is in openings variation of 15% opened. These results indicate that the efficiency of the collector is influenced by the solar irradiance received by the collector and the temperature on the collector plate. The highest thermal efficiency is in variation of openings 15%. These indicate that the efficiency of the collector was influenced by solar irradiance received by the collector and openings of the collector plate.

  13. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy-a flat-plate collector with a single-tube serpentine flow distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S.

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficienty is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  14. Jupiter's Main Ring/Ring Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (28.5 miles) per picture element (pixel) along Jupiter's rings. Because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow, peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced when sunlight is scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

    Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts - - a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, outside the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the figure's far left side. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow. Some radial structure is barely visible across the ring's ansa (top image). A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings. This vertically extended 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces pushing the smallest grains out of the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic. To accentuate faint features in the bottom image of the ring halo, different brightnesses are shown through color. Brightest features are white or yellow and the

  15. Jupiter's Main Ring/Ring Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (28.5 miles) per picture element (pixel) along Jupiter's rings. Because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow, peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced when sunlight is scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

    Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts - - a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, outside the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the figure's far left side. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow. Some radial structure is barely visible across the ring's ansa (top image). A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings. This vertically extended 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces pushing the smallest grains out of the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic. To accentuate faint features in the bottom image of the ring halo, different brightnesses are shown through color. Brightest features are white or yellow and the

  16. Microstructure and Sliding Wear Performance of Cr7C3-(Ni,Cr)3(Al,Cr) Coating Deposited from Cr7C3 In Situ Formed Atomized Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hong-Bin; Shen, Jie; Gao, Feng; Yu, Yueguang; Li, Changhai

    2017-01-01

    This work is aimed at developing a new type of Cr7C3-(Ni,Cr)3(Al,Cr) coating for parts used in heavy-duty diesel engines. The feedstock, in which the stripe-shaped Cr7C3 was in situ formed, was firstly prepared by vacuum melting and gas atomization and then subjected by high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying to form the coatings. The carbon content, microstructure and phase constitution of the powders, as well as the sprayed coatings, were analyzed by chemical analysis, SEM and XRD. The hardness and sliding wear performance of the sprayed coatings were also tested and compared to a commercial Cr3C2-NiCr coating used on piston rings. The results showed that the content of carbon in feedstock was almost the same as designed, and that the volume content of in situ formed Cr7C3 was increased with carbon and chromium added. The major phases of the powders and sprayed coatings are Cr7C3 and Cr-alloyed Ni3Al. Only a small amount of carbon lost during the spraying process. As Cr7C3 content increased in the coatings, the microhardness at room temperature was firstly increased to about 1000Hv0.3. The microhardness of the coatings stayed almost constant, while the testing temperature was raised up to 700 °C for 0.5 h, which illustrates the potential application of the investigated coatings under high temperature conditions. The coatings containing 70 and 77 vol.% Cr7C3 showed the most promising wear resistance, lower friction coefficient and better tribological compatibility to gray cast iron counterpart than other tested Cr7C3-(Ni,Cr)3(Al,Cr) coatings and the reference Cr3C2-NiCr coating.

  17. A new definition of a correlation equation for single collector efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Francesca; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-05-01

    these results a new definition of η is proposed, considering all the flux that potentially reach the collector. A new equation, valid in a broader range of parameters (eg. low Pe number, big particle size, etc.), has been formulated starting from the numerical results. References .1. Boccardo, G., D.L. Marchisio, and R. Sethi, Microscale simulation of particle deposition in porous media. J Colloid Interface Sci, 2014. 417: p. 227-37. 2. Ma, H., M. Hradisky, and W.P. Johnson, Extending Applicability of Correlation Equations to Predict Colloidal Retention in Porous Media at Low Fluid Velocity. Environ. Sci. Technology, 2013. 47: p. 2272-2278. 3. Song, L.F. and M. Elimelech, Deposition of Brownian Particles in Porous-Media - Modified Boundary-Conditions for the Sphere-in-Cell Model. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 1992. 153(1): p. 294-297. 4. Yao, K.M., M.T. Habibian, and C.R. O'Melia, Water and Waste Water Filtration: Concepts and Applications. 1971.

  18. Sampling efficiency of the Moore egg collector

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Mueller, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative studies focusing on the collection of semibuoyant fish eggs, which are associated with a pelagic broadcast-spawning reproductive strategy, are often conducted to evaluate reproductive success. Many of the fishes in this reproductive guild have suffered significant reductions in range and abundance. However, the efficiency of the sampling gear used to evaluate reproduction is often unknown and renders interpretation of the data from these studies difficult. Our objective was to assess the efficiency of a modified Moore egg collector (MEC) using field and laboratory trials. Gear efficiency was assessed by releasing a known quantity of gellan beads with a specific gravity similar to that of eggs from representatives of this reproductive guild (e.g., the Arkansas River Shiner Notropis girardi) into an outdoor flume and recording recaptures. We also used field trials to determine how discharge and release location influenced gear efficiency given current methodological approaches. The flume trials indicated that gear efficiency ranged between 0.0% and 9.5% (n = 57) in a simple 1.83-m-wide channel and was positively related to discharge. Efficiency in the field trials was lower, ranging between 0.0% and 3.6%, and was negatively related to bead release distance from the MEC and discharge. The flume trials indicated that the gellan beads were not distributed uniformly across the channel, although aggregation was reduced at higher discharges. This clustering of passively drifting particles should be considered when selecting placement sites for an MEC; further, the use of multiple devices may be warranted in channels with multiple areas of concentrated flow.

  19. Solar energy collector/storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

    1983-05-24

    A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

  20. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  1. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Human Dermal Lymphatic Collectors

    PubMed Central

    Buttler, Kerstin; Ströbel, Philipp; Becker, Jürgen; Aung, Thiha; Felmerer, Gunther; Wilting, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Millions of patients suffer from lymphedema worldwide. Supporting the contractility of lymphatic collectors is an attractive target for pharmacological therapy of lymphedema. However, lymphatics have mostly been studied in animals, while the cellular and molecular characteristics of human lymphatic collectors are largely unknown. We studied epifascial lymphatic collectors of the thigh, which were isolated for autologous transplantations. Our immunohistological studies identify additional markers for LECs (vimentin, CCBE1). We show and confirm differences between initial and collecting lymphatics concerning the markers ESAM1, D2-40 and LYVE-1. Our transmission electron microscopic studies reveal two types of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the media of the collectors with dark and light cytoplasm. We observed vasa vasorum in the media of the largest collectors, as well as interstitial Cajal-like cells, which are highly ramified cells with long processes, caveolae, and lacking a basal lamina. They are in close contact with SMCs, which possess multiple caveolae at the contact sites. Immunohistologically we identified such cells with antibodies against vimentin and PDGFRα, but not CD34 and cKIT. With Next Generation Sequencing we searched for highly expressed genes in the media of lymphatic collectors, and found therapeutic targets, suitable for acceleration of lymphatic contractility, such as neuropeptide Y receptors 1, and 5; tachykinin receptors 1, and 2; purinergic receptors P2RX1, and 6, P2RY12, 13, and 14; 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors HTR2B, and 3C; and adrenoceptors α2A,B,C. Our studies represent the first comprehensive characterization of human epifascial lymphatic collectors, as a prerequisite for diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27764183

  2. Collector optic cleaning by in-situ hydrogen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elg, Daniel T.; Panici, Gianluca A.; Srivastava, Shailendra N.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2015-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography sources produce EUV photons by means of a hot, dense, highly-ionized Sn plasma. This plasma expels high-energy Sn ions and neutrals, which deposit on the collector optic used to focus the EUV light. This Sn deposition lowers the reflectivity of the collector optic, necessitating downtime for collector cleaning and replacement. A method is being developed to clean the collector with an in-situ hydrogen plasma, which provides hydrogen radicals that etch the Sn by forming gaseous SnH4. This method has the potential to significantly reduce collector-related source downtime. EUV reflectivity restoration and Sn cleaning have been demonstrated on multilayer mirror samples attached to a Sn-coated 300mm-diameter steel dummy collector driven at 300W RF power with 500sccm H2 and a pressure of 260mTorr. Use of the in-situ cleaning method is also being studied at industriallyapplicable high pressure (1.3 Torr). Plasma creation across the dummy collector surface has been demonstrated at 1.3 Torr with 1000sccm H2 flow, and etch rates have been measured. Additionally, etching has been demonstrated at higher flow rates up to 3200sccm. A catalytic probe has been used to measure radical density at various pressures and flows. The results lend further credence to the hypothesis that Sn removal is limited not by radical creation but by the removal of SnH4 from the plasma. Additionally, further progress has been made in an attempt to model the physical processes behind Sn removal.

  3. Evaluation of flat-plate collector efficiency under controlled conditions in a solar simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. M.; Simon, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    The measured thermal efficiencies of 35 collectors tested with a solar simulator, along with the correlation equations used to generalize the data, are presented in this report. The single correlation used is shown to apply to all the different types of collectors tested, including one with black paint and one cover, one with a selective surface coating and two covers, and an evacuated-tube collector. The test and correlation technique is also modified by using a shield so that collectors larger than the simulator test area can also be tested. This technique was verified experimentally for a shielded collector for which the collector shielded area was 31% of the solar simulator radiation area. A table lists all the collectors tested, the collector areas, and the experimental constants used to correlate the data for each collector.

  4. Evaluation of flat-plate collector efficiency under controlled conditions in a solar simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. M.; Simon, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    The measured thermal efficiencies of 35 collectors tested with a solar simulator, along with the correlation equations used to generalize the data, are presented. The single correlation used is shown to apply to all the different types of collectors tested, including one with black paint and one cover, one with a selective surface coating and two covers, and an evacuated-tube collector. The test and correlation technique is also modified by using a shield so that collectors larger than the simulator test area can also be tested. This technique was verified experimentally for a shielded collector for which the collector shielded area was 31% of the solar simulator radiation area. A table lists all the collectors tested, the collector areas, and the experimental constants used to correlate the data for each collector.

  5. New dust belts of Uranus: one ring, two ring, red ring, blue ring.

    PubMed

    de Pater, Imke; Hammel, Heidi B; Gibbard, Seran G; Showalter, Mark R

    2006-04-07

    We compared near-infrared observations of the recently discovered outer rings of Uranus with Hubble Space Telescope results. We find that the inner ring, R/2003 U 2, is red, whereas the outer ring, R/2003 U 1, is very blue. Blue is an unusual color for rings; Saturn's enigmatic E ring is the only other known example. By analogy to the E ring, R/2003 U 1 is probably produced by impacts into the embedded moon Mab, which apparently orbits at a location where nongravitational perturbations favor the survival and spreading of submicron-sized dust. R/2003 U 2 more closely resembles Saturn's G ring, which is red, a typical color for dusty rings.

  6. Rings Through Atmosphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-26

    NASA Cassini spacecraft looks toward the limb of Saturn and, on the right of this image, views part of the rings through the planet atmosphere. Saturn atmosphere can distort the view of the rings from some angles.

  7. Wavy, Wiggly Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-23

    The constant change in Saturn wavy, wiggly F ring is on display in this image obtained by NASA Cassini spacecraft. The image shows a view looking directly down onto the ring with the planet removed from the center.

  8. Saturn Rings in Infrared

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-10-11

    This mosaic of Saturn rings was acquired by NASA Cassini visual and infrared mapping spectrometer instrument on Sept. 15, 2006, while the spacecraft was in the shadow of the planet looking back towards the rings

  9. The Inner Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-02-01

    The Cassini spacecraft looks toward the innermost region of Saturn rings, capturing from right to left the C and B rings. The dark, inner edge of the Cassini Division is just visible in the lower left corner

  10. Performance evaluation of single-glazed and double glazed collectors/regenerators for an open cycle absorption solar cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, R.; Wang, P.L.

    1998-07-01

    Feasibility for an open-cycle absorption solar cooling system operated in Kaohsiung, Taiwan is studied via a computer simulation program using previous obtained experimental correlations for the collector/regenerator (C/R) performance and the TMY data of Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Three C/R models are considered in this study. They are the natural and the forced convection single-glazed Cs/Rs and the forced convection double-glazed C/R. The effects of the C/R area, the C/R solution flow rate, the solution storage, the chilled water temperature and the daily cooling demand on the system performance in terms of seasonal solar fraction are studied and discussed. The results show that the solar C/R is the key component of the cooling system and the open-cycle absorption system is a sound solar cooling system. It is shown that the double glazed forced convection C/R gives a better system performance. The simulation study is to evaluate the seasonal solar fraction, which is defined as F=(solar cooling load)/(total cooling load) Firstly, all three C/R models are simulated under the base case conditions. The seasonal averaged solar fraction for three models are found to be 0.7, 0.75 and 0.79, respectively, while the corresponding seasonal averaged C/R efficiencies are 15.7%, 18.4% and 20.6%. The double-glazed forced convection system performs better than the other two systems. This is consistent with the results of previous experimental studies for the C/R. A nearly linear relationship between the C/R efficiency and the solar fraction is shown. The solar fraction increases slightly with the solution storage volume for the natural convection case, but it is much more sensitive to the solution storage for the forced convection system. The solar fraction is relatively insensitive to the C/R area after a critical value is reached. A similar dependence is also found in other solar absorption air conditioning system alternatives.

  11. Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite Ring-disk Electrode: Fabrication, Characterization and Application to Electrochemical Detection in Capillary High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaomi

    2009-01-01

    Carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials, which are manufactured using the pultrusion process, are commercially available in various shapes and sizes at very low cost. Here we demonstrate the application of such a material as an electrochemical detector in a flow system. Cyclic voltammetry shows that the material's electrochemical behavior resembles that of glassy carbon. Using tube and rod composites, we successfully fabricated a ring-disk electrode with a 20 μm gap between the ring and the disk. The narrow gap is favorable for mass transfer in the generator-collector experiment. This composite ring-disk electrode is assembled in a thin-layer radial-flow cell and used as an electrochemical detector. The disk electrode, placed directly opposite to the flow inlet, is operated as a generator electrode with the ring electrode being a collector. The high collection efficiency on the ring electrode (0.8 for a chemically reversible species) enhances the detection selectivity. PMID:20160941

  12. Saturn's F-Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This narrow-angle camera image of Saturn's F Ring was taken through the Clear filter while at a distance of 6.9 million km from Saturn on 8 November 1980. The brightness variations of this tightly-constrained ring shown here indicate that the ring is less uniform in makeup than the larger rings. JPL managed the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science

  13. Saturn's F-Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This narrow-angle camera image of Saturn's F Ring was taken through the Clear filter while at a distance of 6.9 million km from Saturn on 8 November 1980. The brightness variations of this tightly-constrained ring shown here indicate that the ring is less uniform in makeup than the larger rings. JPL managed the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science

  14. Solar internal lighting using optical collectors and fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francini, F.; Fontani, D.; Jafrancesco, D.; Mercatelli, L.; Sansoni, P.

    2006-08-01

    A system exploiting solar energy, by means of optical collectors and fibres, has been applied for indoor illumination. The project has been called "The Sunflowers" for the property of solar collectors to track solar position during the day. Every "sunflower" contains several solar collectors, each of which is coupled to an optical fibre. The "Sunflower" is provided of mechanical systems and electric accessories for solar tracking. The light focused by the solar collector can be used in two possible ways: for internal illumination with direct solar light; otherwise it can be accumulated for lighting when the sun is not present. The first function is obtained coupling the optical collector to an optical fibre, which transports the solar light in selected points within the showcases. The second one consists in focusing solar light on a photovoltaic cell of the last generation type with high efficiency. In this configuration the photovoltaic cell converts the focused light into electric energy to be used for illumination in case of sun absence. A demonstrative installation has been realised applying this solar illumination system to museum lighting: a prototype has been tested in a prestigious museum in Florence.

  15. Simulation of thermal performance of solar collector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanney, A. H.; Thomas, W. C.

    1981-08-01

    A method is described for simulating the thermal performance of solar collectors by using an in-line heat source to simulate absorbed solar energy and a nonirradiated array to simulate heat losses, during tests of solar water heating systems. The mathematical relationships needed to operate an electric heat source in series with a nonirradiated array are developed, and consideration is given to the location of the heat source and arrays with collectors connected in parallel and series combinations. An analysis is presented of the effects on thermal performance of the mixed indoor-outdoor collector test procedures. Analytical and experimental results are presented which show that the net power output from a nonirradiated collector array in series with an electric heat source is in good agreement with that from an irradiated array. Location of the heat source downstream from the nonirradiated array results in closer agreement with the irradiated array thermal output as compared to locating the heat source upstream from the nonirradiated collector array. Results of tests of a domestic solar hot water system are consistent with the theoretical results.

  16. Optimization of the functional domain of flat plate collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritoux, G.; Irigaray, J.-L.

    1981-12-01

    The variations of the extracted heat flux as function of the temperature of the heat transfer fluid in black and selective surface solar collectors are examined. The heat flux is calculated based on the difference of the initial to the stage of thermal equilibrium of the fluid. A nonlinear system of equations is developed and solved by a fast, iterative method to obtain the equilibrium temperatures. It is found that more flux can be extracted from the solar heat by a collector with only one glass cover than with more than one cover. The captured flux is proportional to the coefficient of transmission of the glass coverings, to the coefficient of absorption of the collector, and to the incident flux. Black painted surfaces were more absorbent than selective surfaces, and highest collection efficiencies were displayed by low temperature collectors. Charts of effective uses of the respective types of collectors for heating swimming pools, hot water, home heat, and for refrigeration and air-conditioning are provided.

  17. Effect of the collector tube profile on Pitot pump performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komaki, K.; Kanemoto, T.; Sagara, K.; Umekage, T.

    2013-12-01

    The pitot pump is composed of the rotating casing with the impeller channel and the pitot tube type collector as the discharge line. The radial impeller feeds water to the rotating casing. The water rotating together with the casing is caught by the stationary pitot tube type collector, and then discharges to the outside. This type pump, as the extra high head pump, is provided mainly for boiler feed systems, and has been designed by trial and error. To optimize the pump profiles, it is desirable to investigate not only performances but also internal flow conditions. This paper discusses experimentally and numerically the relation between the pump performances and the flow conditions in the rotating casing. The moderately larger dimensions of the collector make the pump head and the discharge high with the higher hydraulic efficiency. The flow in the casing is almost the forced vortex type whose velocity is in proportion to the radius but the core velocity is affected with the drag force of the stationary collector. Based upon the above results, the profile of the pitot tube type collector was optimized with the numerical simulation.

  18. Modules over hereditary rings

    SciTech Connect

    Tuganbaev, A A

    1998-04-30

    Let A be a hereditary Noetherian prime ring that is not right primitive. A complete description of {pi}-injective A-modules is obtained. Conditions under which the classical ring of quotients of A is a {pi}-projective A-module are determined. A criterion for a right hereditary right Noetherian prime ring to be serial is obtained.

  19. Rings Around Uranus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maran, Stephen P.

    1977-01-01

    Events leading up to the discovery of the rings of Uranus are described. The methods used and the logic behind the methods are explained. Data collected to prove the existence of the rings are outlined and theories concerning the presence of planetary rings are presented. (AJ)

  20. Rings Around Uranus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maran, Stephen P.

    1977-01-01

    Events leading up to the discovery of the rings of Uranus are described. The methods used and the logic behind the methods are explained. Data collected to prove the existence of the rings are outlined and theories concerning the presence of planetary rings are presented. (AJ)

  1. Eyeing the E Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-24

    NASA Cassini spacecraft takes a look at Saturn diffuse E ring which is formed from icy material spewing out of the south pole of the moon Enceladus. The E ring is seen nearly edge-on from slightly above the northern side of Saturn ring plane.

  2. The Jumping Ring Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are…

  3. The Jumping Ring Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are…

  4. Dusty D Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-24

    Saturn D ring is easy to overlook since it trapped between the brighter C ring and the planet itself. In this view from NASA Cassini spacecraft, all that can be seen of the D ring is the faint and narrow arc as it stretches from top right of the ima

  5. On certain Hecke rings

    PubMed Central

    Evens, Sam; Bressler, Paul

    1987-01-01

    We examine rings that embed into the smash product of the group algebra of the Weyl group with the field of meromorphic functions on the Cartan subalgebra and are generated by elements that satisfy braid relations. We prove that every such ring is isomorphic to either the Hecke algebra, the nil Hecke ring, or the group algebra of the Weyl group. PMID:16593804

  6. Soft normed rings.

    PubMed

    Uluçay, Vakkas; Şahin, Mehmet; Olgun, Necati

    2016-01-01

    Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft normed rings by soft set theory. The notions of soft normed rings, soft normed ideals, soft complete normed rings are introduced and also several related properties and examples are given.

  7. Comparison of performance of flat plate and parabolic trough solar collectors in several US cities

    SciTech Connect

    Stromberg, R.P.; Bush, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    One very common use of the flat plate collector is residential water heating. Concentrating thermal collectors have been developed for much higher temperature uses, based on the knowledge that the upper limit on output from the flat plate collector is roughly at the boiling point of water. Total annual outputs are extensively compared. There is a significant variation in relative performance of flat plate and concentrating collectors in different climates. There is a noticeable variation in relative output from winter to summer. In some parts of the United States the weather conditions of winter favor the use of concentrating collectors over flat plate collectors for residential water heating.

  8. Evaluation of initial collector field performance at the Langley Solar Building Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Jensen, R. N.; Knoll, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal performance of the solar collector field for the NASA Langley Solar Building Test Facility is given for October 1976 through January 1977. A 1,180 square meter solar collector field with seven collector designs helped to provide hot water for the building heating system and absorption air conditioner. The collectors were arranged in 12 rows with nominally 51 collectors per row. Heat transfer rates for each row were calculated and recorded along with sensor, insolation, and weather data every five minutes using a minicomputer. The agreement between the experimental and predicted collector efficiencies was generally within five percentage points.

  9. Evaluation of initial collector field performance at the Langley Solar Building Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Knoll, R. H.; Jensen, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal performance of the solar collector field for the NASA Langley Solar Building Test Facility is given for October 1976 through January 1977. An 1180 square meter solar collector field with seven collector designs helped to provide hot water for the building heating system and absorption air conditioner. The collectors were arranged in 12 rows with nominally 51 collectors per row. Heat transfer rates for each row are calculated and recorded along with sensor, insolation, and weather data every 5 minutes using a mini-computer. The agreement between the experimental and predicted collector efficiencies was generally within five percentage points.

  10. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  11. Four Interstellar Dust Candidates from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    In January 2006, the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, Comet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return of contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approx. 0.1 sq m in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 sq m/day. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a consortium-based project to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques. The goals and restrictions of the ISPE are described . A summary of analytical techniques is described.

  12. Application of activated charcoal radon collectors in high humidity environments.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Tokonami, Shinji; Morishita, Yasuaki; Kosako, Toshiso

    2005-01-01

    Most commercially based activated charcoal radon collectors were designed for use in indoor environments. However, at present, they are often used for research in radon surveys in unique environments, such as in the bathrooms, underground areas, mines, caves and tunnels. In these environments, the relative humidity would be around 100%, and a change in the sensitivity of cpm(Bq m(-3))(-1)(radon) would occur. For this study, the reduction in the sensitivity of activated charcoal radon collector due to environmental humidity was investigated, and the data correction was discussed. Here, ST-100 (Pico-Rad) was selected as an example of a familiar activated charcoal radon collector. According to our performance test, the humidity of 90% (20 degrees C) resulted in a 15% reduction of the sensitivity for 24 h collection. The ST-100 user should discuss the necessity of data correction by comparing the change of sensitivity with other levels of estimation errors.

  13. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  14. Quality and efficiency of solar collectors in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wennerholm, H.

    Transparent or translucent insulation materials (TIM's) represent a new class of materials with a high potential for increasing the efficiency of solar thermal conversion systems. A large number of materials have been subjected to theoretical and experimental investigation. If materials that suppress heat losses are transparent to solar radiation, vacuum, certain gases, convection barriers, etc., then they can be regarded as TIM's. Exploratory field and laboratory studies of degraded FEP-film convection barriers in flat plate thermal solar collectors are described. The study related to collectors that had been operating in Sweden for periods of one year to ten years. Both physical, functional (thermal) and chemical aspects of degradation were considered. The report identifies the mistakes made so that they need not be repeated by the solar collector manufacturers in the future.

  15. Thermal performance evaluation of the Calmac (liquid) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usher, H.

    1978-01-01

    The procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on the S. N. 1, (liquid) solar collector are presented. The flat plate collector uses water as the working fluid. The absorber plate is aluminum with plastic tubes coated with urethane black. The glazing consists of .040 in fiberglass reinforced polyester. The collector weight is 78.5 pounds with overall external dimensions of approximately 50.3in. x 98.3in. x 3.8in. The following information is given: thermal performance data under simulated conditions, structural behavior under static loading, and the effects of long term exposure to natural weathering. These tests were conducted using the MSFC Solar Simulator.

  16. Analysis of Molecular Contamination on Genesis Collectors Through Spectroscopic Ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, K. M.; Stansbery, Eileen K.

    2005-01-01

    Before the spacecraft returned to Earth in September, the Genesis mission had a preliminary assessment plan in place for the purpose of providing information on the condition and availability of collector materials to the science community as a basis for allocation requests. One important component of that plan was the evaluation of collector surfaces for molecular contamination. Sources of molecular contamination might be the on-orbit outgassing of spacecraft and science canister components, the condensation of thruster by-products during spacecraft maneuvers, or the condensation of volatile species associated with reentry. Although the non-nominal return of the Genesis spacecraft introduced particulate contamination to the collectors, such as dust and heatshield carbon-carbon, it is unlikely to have caused any molecular deposition. The contingency team's quick action in returning the damaged payload the UTTR cleanroom by 6 PM the evening of recovery help to ensure that exposure to weather conditions and the environment were kept to a minimum.

  17. Measurement of flat-plate collector heat loss coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, N. M.

    1981-04-01

    An indoor method for direct measurement of the overall heat loss coefficient is developed so that solar energy can be more efficiently trapped by optimized flat-plate solar collectors. A schematic diagram of the indoor test set-up is given, with liquid temperature controlled by an electrical contact thermometer, and relay circulated by a pump to maintain a constant flow rate. The overall heat loss coefficient is measured in a bond duct type collector with single and double glazings, and is found to vary from 3.5 to 4.7 per sq Wm-K with zero wind speed. The coefficient is also reported for controlled wind speeds, and heat losses are found to increase by 13.5 and 7.5% for single and double glazed collectors respectively. The coefficient is presented as a function of plate temperature, and results are compared with calculated values, demonstrating good agreement.

  18. Transient response of a concentric evacuated tubular solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khalil, Kamel M.; Jakubowski, Gerald S.; Springman, Richard A.

    The transient and the steady state performances of an evacuated coaxial tubular solar collector were investigated. A purely implicit central finite differencing numerical technique was used to determine the time-varying temperature distributions in the collector components as well as the fluid exit temperature. Experimental indoor transient tests were conducted in which step inputs of insolation were used. Close agreeement between the experimental and the theoretical results was obtained. The computer model was found to be useful to carry out a complete parametric study. The latter showed that the fluid flow rate had the largest effect on the performance of the collector tube. Lower flow rates resulted in lower efficiencies and longer response times.

  19. Saturn's largest ring.

    PubMed

    Verbiscer, Anne J; Skrutskie, Michael F; Hamilton, Douglas P

    2009-10-22

    Most planetary rings in the Solar System lie within a few radii of their host body, because at these distances gravitational accelerations inhibit satellite formation. The best known exceptions are Jupiter's gossamer rings and Saturn's E ring, broad sheets of dust that extend outward until they fade from view at five to ten planetary radii. Source satellites continuously supply the dust, which is subsequently lost in collisions or by radial transport. Here we report that Saturn has an enormous ring associated with its outer moon Phoebe, extending from at least 128R(S) to 207R(S) (Saturn's radius R(S) is 60,330 km). The ring's vertical thickness of 40R(S) matches the range of vertical motion of Phoebe along its orbit. Dynamical considerations argue that these ring particles span the Saturnian system from the main rings to the edges of interplanetary space. The ring's normal optical depth of approximately 2 x 10(-8) is comparable to that of Jupiter's faintest gossamer ring, although its particle number density is several hundred times smaller. Repeated impacts on Phoebe, from both interplanetary and circumplanetary particle populations, probably keep the ring populated with material. Ring particles smaller than centimetres in size slowly migrate inward and many of them ultimately strike the dark leading face of Iapetus.

  20. Wind effects in solar fields with various collector designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetzold, Joachim; Cochard, Steve; Fletcher, David F.; Vassallo, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Parabolic trough power plants are often located in areas that are subjected to high wind speeds, as an open terrain without any obstructions is beneficial for the plant performance. The wind impacts both the structural requirements and the performance of the plant. The aerodynamic loads from the wind impose strong requirements on the support structure of the reflectors, and they also impact the tracking accuracy. On a thermal level the airflow around the glass envelope of the receiver tube cools its outer surface through forced convection, thereby contributing to the heat loss. Based on previous studies at the level of an individual row of collectors, this study analyses the wind effects in a full-scale solar field of different continuous and staggered trough designs. The airflow around several rows of parabolic trough collectors (PTC) is simulated at full scale in steady state simulations in an atmospheric boundary layer flow using the commercial computational fluid dynamics software ANSYSO® CFX 15.0. The effect of the wake of a collector row on the following collectors is analysed, and the aerodynamic loads are compared between the different geometries. The outermost collectors of a solar field experience the highest wind forces, as the rows in the interior of the solar field are protected from high wind speeds. While the aerodynamic forces in the interior of the solar field are almost independent of the collector shape, the deeper troughs (with large rim angles) tested in this study show a lower heat loss due to forced convection on the outer surface of the receiver tube than the shallower ones (with small rim angles) in most of the solar field.

  1. On the solar dust ring(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, T.

    Based on a mechanism to form the solar dust ring, it is proved that the observed peak in infrared F-corona cannot be explained by silicate type grains alone. Preliminary analysis on the recent infrared data of the F-corona by Maihara et al. (1984) has suggested that the ring particles have different physical properties compared with the dust grains, which produce the background F-corona.

  2. Two hundred passage three-way valve: Fraction collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keffer, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a fraction collector used to direct flow of separated biological materials from 197 capillary tubes to either a collection tray or to a waste tank. This mechanism uses a 28-volt dc gear motor driving twin cams to force 197 needles through a self-sealing silicone rubber septum, where they inject the material in 197 separate pockets in a collection tray. The position of the collector tray is sensed by two optical limit switches. The time sequences are controlled automatically by an electronics control monitoring module.

  3. IEA/SPS 500 kW distributed collector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, T. W.; Hartman, C. D.

    1980-01-01

    Engineering studies for an International Energy Agency project for the design and construction of a 500 kW solar thermal electric power generation system of the distributed collector system (DCS) type are reviewed. The DCS system design consists of a mixed field of parabolic trough type solar collectors which are used to heat a thermal heat transfer oil. Heated oil is delivered to a thermocline storage tank from which heat is extracted and delivered to a boiler by a second heat transfer loop using the same heat transfer oil. Steam is generated in the boiler, expanded through a steam turbine, and recirculated through a condenser system cooled by a wet cooling tower.

  4. Thermal performance evaluation of the Semco (liquid) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Procedures used and results obtained during the evaluation test program on a flat plate collector which uses water as the working fluid are discussed. The absorber plate is copper tube soldered to copper fin coated with flat black paint. The glazing consists of two plates of Lo-Iron glass; the insulation is polyurethane foam. The collector weight is 242.5 pounds with overall external dimensions of approximately 48.8 in. x 120.8 in. x 4.1 in. The test program was conducted to obtain thermal performance data before and after 34 days of weather exposure test.

  5. Current collector geometry and mixing in liquid metal electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashour, Rakan; Kelley, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    Liquid metal batteries are emerging as an efficient and cost effective technology for large-scale energy storage on electrical grids. In these batteries, critical performance related factors such as the limiting current density and life cycle are strongly influenced by fluid mixing and transport of electrochemical species to and from the electrode-electrolyte interface. In this work, ultrasound velocimetry is used to investigate the role of negative current collector location on the induced velocity, flow pattern, and mixing time in liquid metal electrodes. Ultrasound velocity measurements are obtained at a range of operating current densities. Furthermore, a comparison between velocity profiles produced by current collectors with different sizes is also presented.

  6. Performance test procedures for thermal collectors - Solar simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, W. B.

    The design and use of solar simulators is reviewed in the light of the experience reported by participants in the collaborative collector testing programmes of Commission of the European Communities and the International Energy Agency. Experience with the Compact Source Iodide lamp at Cardiff is used to illustrate the need for correcting both outdoor and solar simulator test results to reference conditions of solar and thermal irradiance. It is suggested that further work is required on the development of procedures for predicting typical outdoor performance from solar simulator measurements where collectors contain new materials or complex geometries.

  7. Fast isobaric separation at the collector of ISOL-facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, G. J.; Novgorodov, A. F.; Kovalev, A.; Prazak, F.; Khalkin, V. A.; Yushkevich, Yu. V.

    1981-07-01

    The release of radioactive isotopes of Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, several rare earth elements, Ra, Ac and Th after implantation at 45 keV into collector foils using the isotope separator of the JASNAPP-facility have been investigated. The heating of the collector foils inside a vacuum chamber up to defined temperatures caused a separation of the implanted elements. The separation-coefficients α for a 180 s heating period in an off-line mode are the following (Ta-backing was used in all cases except for αZr/Y in which case Zr-backing was used):

  8. IEA/SPS 500 kW distributed collector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, T. W.; Hartman, C. D.

    1980-05-01

    Engineering studies for an International Energy Agency project for the design and construction of a 500 kW solar thermal electric power generation system of the distributed collector system (DCS) type are reviewed. The DCS system design consists of a mixed field of parabolic trough type solar collectors which are used to heat a thermal heat transfer oil. Heated oil is delivered to a thermocline storage tank from which heat is extracted and delivered to a boiler by a second heat transfer loop using the same heat transfer oil. Steam is generated in the boiler, expanded through a steam turbine, and recirculated through a condenser system cooled by a wet cooling tower.

  9. Control of large collector arrays: The SSPS experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, R.; Martin, J. G.

    Experience gained in the control of the distributed collector fields at the IEA Small Solar Power Systems project may be of value in the design of control systems for future large arrays. The project experience with analog and digital systems is discussed, as are details on the improvements that were made and the lessons learned. A priority item in this year's efforts on site is the evaluation of the potential for fully automatic operation, with a suitable control algorithm, of a reliable collector array. Preliminary results from dynamic models of the fields in terms of lumped and distributed parameters are given. Adaptive controls are discussed.

  10. The Collector Head Of Viking Lander 1's Surface Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The collector head of Viking l's surface sampler is full of Martian soil destined for the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, the instrument which analyzes the surface material for the presence of organic molecules. The material was scooped out of the surface on August 3, but the sampler arm stopped operating while transporting it to the instrument. The Martian soil will be deposited into the instrument's processor today. The surface sampler is operating properly, but the cause of last week's problem is not yet known. This picture, taken Monday (August 9), was made for operational purposes, focusing on the collector head. Hence, the out-of-focus view of the Martian surface.

  11. Fuel cell collector plate and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Braun, James C.; Zabriskie, Jr., John E.; Neutzler, Jay K.; Fuchs, Michel; Gustafson, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    An improved molding composition is provided for compression molding or injection molding a current collector plate for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. The molding composition is comprised of a polymer resin combined with a low surface area, highly-conductive carbon and/or graphite powder filler. The low viscosity of the thermoplastic resin combined with the reduced filler particle surface area provide a moldable composition which can be fabricated into a current collector plate having improved current collecting capacity vis-a-vis comparable fluoropolymer molding compositions.

  12. Design and development of high efficiency 140W space TWT with graphite collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, V.; Purohit, G.; Sharma, R. K.; Sharma, S. M.; Bera, A.; Bhaskar, P. V.; Singh, R. R.; Prasad, K.; Kiran, V.

    2008-05-01

    4-stage graphite collector assembly has been designed and developed for a 140W Ku-band space TWT to achieve the collector efficiency more than 80%. The UHV compatible, high density, copper impregnated POCO graphite (DFP-1C) was used to fabricate the four collector electrodes of the 4-stage depressed collector. Copper impregnated graphite material is used for the collector electrodes because of its low secondary electron emission coefficient, high thermal and electrical conductivities, easy machining and brazing, low thermal expansion coefficient and low weight. The graphite material was characterized for the UHV compatibility. The collector electrodes were precisely fabricated by careful machining, and technology was developed for brazing of graphite electrodes with high voltage alumina insulators. Complete TWT with four-stage graphite collector was developed and 140W output power at gain more than 55 dB was achieved. The TWT was pumped from both the gun and the collector ends.

  13. Thin polymer film collectors as a contribution to the solar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1984-06-01

    Achievements made in research on thin polymer film solar flat-plate collectors using monocoque construction techniques are briefly discussed. The significance of these achievements for cost reduction of flat-plate collectors without compromising performance is briefly discussed.

  14. Performance evaluation of the solar kinetics T-700 line concentrating solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A performance evaluation of the solar kinetics T-700 line concentrating solar collector is reported. Collector descriptions, summary, test conditions, test equipment, test requirements and procedures, and an analysis of the various tests performed are described.

  15. 27 CFR 478.93 - Authorized operations by a licensed collector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... precluded by law from receiving or disposing of armor piercing ammunition. However, a licensed collector may... § 478.99(c)). Any licensed collector who disposes of armor piercing ammunition must record the...

  16. 27 CFR 478.93 - Authorized operations by a licensed collector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... precluded by law from receiving or disposing of armor piercing ammunition. However, a licensed collector may... § 478.99(c)). Any licensed collector who disposes of armor piercing ammunition must record the...

  17. 27 CFR 478.93 - Authorized operations by a licensed collector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... precluded by law from receiving or disposing of armor piercing ammunition. However, a licensed collector may... § 478.99(c)). Any licensed collector who disposes of armor piercing ammunition must record the...

  18. 27 CFR 478.93 - Authorized operations by a licensed collector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... precluded by law from receiving or disposing of armor piercing ammunition. However, a licensed collector may... § 478.99(c)). Any licensed collector who disposes of armor piercing ammunition must record the...

  19. 27 CFR 478.93 - Authorized operations by a licensed collector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... precluded by law from receiving or disposing of armor piercing ammunition. However, a licensed collector may... § 478.99(c)). Any licensed collector who disposes of armor piercing ammunition must record the...

  20. Dust and Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Muddassir

    ABSTRACT Space is not empty it has comic radiations (CMBR), dust etc. Cosmic dust is that type of dust which is composed of particles in space which vary from few molecules to 0.1micro metres in size. This type of dust is made up of heavier atoms born in the heart of stars and supernova. Mainly it contains dust grains and when these dust grains starts compacting then it turns to dense clouds, planetary ring dust and circumstellar dust. Dust grains are mainly silicate particles. Dust plays a major role in our solar system, for example in zodiacal light, Saturn's B ring spokes, planetary rings at Jovian planets and comets. Observations and measurements of cosmic dust in different regions of universe provide an important insight into the Universe's recycling processes. Astronomers consider dust in its most recycled state. Cosmic dust have radiative properties by which they can be detected. Cosmic dusts are classified as intergalactic dusts, interstellar dusts and planetary rings. A planetary ring is a ring of cosmic dust and other small particles orbiting around a planet in flat disc shape. All of the Jovian planets in our solar system have rings. But the most notable one is the Saturn's ring which is the brightest one. In March 2008 a report suggested that the Saturn's moon Rhea may have its own tenuous ring system. The ring swirling around Saturn consists of chunks of ice and dust. Most rings were thought to be unstable and to dissipate over course of tens or hundreds of millions of years but it now appears that Saturn's rings might be older than that. The dust particles in the ring collide with each other and are subjected to forces other than gravity of its own planet. Such collisions and extra forces tend to spread out the rings. Pluto is not known to have any ring system but some Astronomers believe that New Horizons probe might find a ring system when it visits in 2015.It is also predicted that Phobos, a moon of Mars will break up and form into a planetary ring

  1. Surge in the Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-29

    An ethereal, glowing spot appears on Saturn's B ring in this view from NASA's Cassini spacecraft. There is nothing particular about that place in the rings that produces the glowing effect -- instead, it is an example of an "opposition surge" making that area on the rings appear extra bright. An opposition surge occurs when the Sun is directly behind the observer looking toward the rings. The particular geometry of this observation makes the point in the rings appear much, much brighter than would otherwise be expected. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 28 degrees above the ring plane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini wide-angle camera on June 26, 2016. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 940,000 miles (1.5 million kilometers) from the rings and at a Sun-ring-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 0 degrees. Image scale on the rings at center is 56 miles (90 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20496

  2. Traceable Ring Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisaki, Eiichiro; Suzuki, Koutarou

    The ring signature allows a signer to leak secrets anonymously, without the risk of identity escrow. At the same time, the ring signature provides great flexibility: No group manager, no special setup, and the dynamics of group choice. The ring signature is, however, vulnerable to malicious or irresponsible signers in some applications, because of its anonymity. In this paper, we propose a traceable ring signature scheme. A traceable ring scheme is a ring signature except that it can restrict “excessive” anonymity. The traceable ring signature has a tag that consists of a list of ring members and an issue that refers to, for instance, a social affair or an election. A ring member can make any signed but anonymous opinion regarding the issue, but only once (per tag). If the member submits another signed opinion, possibly pretending to be another person who supports the first opinion, the identity of the member is immediately revealed. If the member submits the same opinion, for instance, voting “yes” regarding the same issue twice, everyone can see that these two are linked. The traceable ring signature can suit to many applications, such as an anonymous voting on a BBS. We formalize the security definitions for this primitive and show an efficient and simple construction in the random oracle model.

  3. Liquid Metal-Wetted Niobium Fiber Brushes and Braid Close Clearance Collectors in Magnetic Fields Comparison

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    300-kW homopolar generator. Collector rip velocities varied from zero to 67 m/sec, currents from zero to 4,000 A, and magnetic fields from zero to 1.2...collectors is highly desirable because it makes the implementation of homopolar machinery attractive for a variety of applica- tions.’ Liquid metals can...current collector is its operation in an electrical machine. The collectors described here will be operated in a 300-kW superconducting homopolar

  4. Flat plate solar collector design and performance. Citations from the Engineering Index data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-09-01

    Citations on the design, thermal performance, and optimization of air and liquid type flat plate collectors are covered. Topic areas include heat loss and heat transfer, effect of orientation, corrosion protection, optical coatings, enhancement of performance through the use of planar reflectors, and the effect of honeycomb layers on collector performance. A few studies pertain to grooved, corrugated, or V-trough collectors. Methods of measuring the performance of flat plate collectors and computer optimization studies are included.

  5. Joint German-Argentine project: Comparative testing of solar flat plate collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiner, W.

    1986-01-01

    Six different water or air collectors were tested using ASHRAE Standards and BSE Guidelines. Results vary, owing to differences in wind speed and global radiation, especially for single-glazed collectors. In heating collectors, leakages between ambient air and heat-transferring air occur. The resulting errors of calculated efficiency may be greater than the relative change of mass flow from collector inlet to outlet by the leak. Modifications of standardized test procedures are suggested.

  6. An analytical comparison of the efficiency of solar thermal collector arrays with and without external manifolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An analytical comparison of the efficiency of solar thermal collector arrays with and without external manifolds is reported. A FORTRAN computer program was written for the computation of the thermal performance of solar thermal collector arrays with and without external manifolds. Arrays constructed from two example solar thermal collectors are computated. Typical external manifold sizes and thermal insulations are presented graphically and are compared with the thermal performance of the collector alone.

  7. Design and fabrication of air- and liquid-cooled photovoltaic/thermal collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowlan, M. J.

    1981-09-01

    A liquid type photovoltaic/thermal collector and a photovoltaic cell panel for an air type photovoltaic/thermal collector were constructed. The evelopment of residential photovoltaic/thermal collectors was pursued as an alternative to side by side photovoltaic module and thermal collector systems for applications with high heating loads and limited roof area. The units were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of high performance photovoltaic/thermal units.

  8. Current Capabilities of the Finite-Element MICHELLE Gun & Collector Simulation Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    and collection. Its primary development focus has been for DC electron guns and depressed collectors; however, it has other applications such as RF...problems will be illustrated. Keywords: MICHELLE; electron gun; depressed collector; electrostatic simulation. Introduction The MICHELLE [1], [2...industry, national laboratories, and academia and has been used to design and analyze a wide variety of devices, including multistage depressed collectors

  9. An analysis of a flat-plate solar collector with internal boiling

    SciTech Connect

    Abramzon, B.; Borde, I.; Yaron, I.

    1983-11-01

    The extended mathematical model of a flat-plate solar collector-evaporator permits prediction of the effects of boiling of the working fluid in the collector tubes on the efficiency of the collector. The efficiency increases sharply and approaches the ideal on transition from single phase flow to the subcooled and saturated boiling regimes, regardless of the nature of the working fluid.

  10. 30 CFR 18.21 - Machines equipped with powered dust collectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machines equipped with powered dust collectors... Construction and Design Requirements § 18.21 Machines equipped with powered dust collectors. Powered dust collectors on machines submitted for approval shall meet the applicable requirements of Part 33 of this...

  11. Design data brochure for the Owens-Illinois Sunpak (TM) air-cooled solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information necessary to evaluate the design and installation of the Owens-Illinois Sunpak TM Air-Cooled Solar Collector is presented. Information includes collector features, fluid flow, thermal performance, installation and system tips. The collector utilizes a highly selective wavelength coating in combination with vacuum insulation, which virtually eliminates conduction and convention losses.

  12. 30 CFR 33.35 - Methods of drilling; dust-collector unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methods of drilling; dust-collector unit. 33.35..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.35 Methods of drilling; dust-collector unit. (a) General. All drilling...

  13. 30 CFR 33.35 - Methods of drilling; dust-collector unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methods of drilling; dust-collector unit. 33.35..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.35 Methods of drilling; dust-collector unit. (a) General. All drilling...

  14. 30 CFR 33.35 - Methods of drilling; dust-collector unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methods of drilling; dust-collector unit. 33.35..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.35 Methods of drilling; dust-collector unit. (a) General. All drilling...

  15. 30 CFR 33.35 - Methods of drilling; dust-collector unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methods of drilling; dust-collector unit. 33.35..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.35 Methods of drilling; dust-collector unit. (a) General. All drilling...

  16. State-of-the-Art Review of Low-Cost Collector Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Mobility Low-Cost Parabolic Trough Survivability Light-Weight Thin-Film Reliability Heliostats Polymers Military 20. ABSTRACT (Contine an revers. deo It... heliostats and parabolic dish collectors. In addition several criteria were evaluated with respect to low-cost collector technologies These included...has produced collectors which incorporate sophisticated materials, = Heliostat heavy components, expensive seals and compli- o- (Point Focus) cated

  17. Design and installation package for the Sunmat Flat Plate solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The information used in evaluating the design of a liquid flat plate solar collector is reported. Included in this package are subsystem performance specification, installation, operation and maintenance manuals, collector sizing guides, and detailed drawings of the single-glazed collector.

  18. 30 CFR 33.35 - Methods of drilling; dust-collector unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methods of drilling; dust-collector unit. 33.35..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.35 Methods of drilling; dust-collector unit. (a) General. All...

  19. Deflection of Hazardous Near-Earth Objects by High Concentrated Sunlight and Adequate Design of Optical Collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasylyev, V. P.

    2013-02-01

    Some detailed astronomical and applied aspects deflection of hazardous near-Earth objects (NEO) by direct high concentrated sunlight, causing intensive local ablation of their surfaces, are considered. The major requirements to solar concentrating optics within a single collector (a large mirror) approach, along with the asteroid properties being most substantial in achieving the predetermined effect for the period less than a year (mid-thrust action), are discussed. Such a hastened strategy may become topical in the case of late detection of potential danger, and also, if required, in providing the possibility for some additional action. It is also more acceptable in the public perception and keeping the peace for mankind rather than a long-run expectation of the incorrigible deflection resulting shortly ahead of the predicted hazard. The conventional concave reflectors have been graved to be practically inapplicable within the high concentrating geometry. This is primarily because of the dramatic spread of their focal spots at needful inclinations of optical axis from the direction toward the Sun, as well as of problematic use of the secondary optics. An alternative design of a mirrored ring-array collector is presented (as a tested and approved point-focus version of innovative reflective lenses for sunlight concentration within this approach), and comparative analysis was made. The assessment argues in favor of such a type of high-aperture optics having more capabilities than conventional devices. Mainly, this is because of the underside position (as respects the entrance aperture) of its focal area that allows avoidance of target shadowing the reflecting surfaces and minimizes their coating by the ejected debris. By using the modern asteroids database, some key estimations have been obtained. The surface irradiance around 4-5 MW/m2 (average across the focal spot concentration level ~5 × 103) for the ring-array collector size ~0.5 of asteroid diameter might

  20. Slowing of Vortex Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell; Bolster, Diogo; Hershberger, Robert

    2008-11-01

    We have investigated the slowing of vortex rings in water which are created with very thin cores. We find that these rings propagate with no measurable change in diameter or core size. The drag appears to be the result of viscous forces on the core. A simple model for this drag describes experimental data in terms of a drag coefficient, which depends only on Reynolds number. Barenghi's group at Newcastle found that the translational velocity of a ring in an inviscid fluid perturbed by Kelvin waves decreases with increasing amplitude of Kelvin waves. This suggests that the velocity of vortex rings in a viscous fluid may well depend on the amplitude of Kelvin waves at the time of formation. Rings with substantial amplitude of Kelvin waves will be expected to move more slowly than rings with little or no Kelvin wave amplitude. We present experimental data confirming this suggestion.

  1. Ring Details on Display

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-07

    This view from NASA's Cassini spacecraft showcases some of the amazingly detailed structure of Saturn's rings. The rings are made up of many smaller ringlets that blur together when seen from a distance. But when imaged up close, the rings' structures display quite a bit of variation. Ring scientists are debating the nature of these features -- whether they have always appeared this way or if their appearance has evolved over time. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 4 degrees above the ring plane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Sept. 24, 2016. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 283,000 miles (456,000 kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 32 degrees. Image scale is 17 miles (27 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20506

  2. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector and Stardust@home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Anderson, D.; Bastien, R.; Butterworth, A.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Kelley, N.; Lettieri, R.; Mendez, B.; Prasad, R.; Tsitrin, S.; von Korff, J.; Warren, J.; Wertheimer, D.; Zhang, A.; Zolensky, M.

    2006-12-01

    The Stardust sample return mission is effectively two missions in one. Stardust brought back to earth for analytical study the first solid samples from a known solar system body beyond the moon, comet Wild2. The first results of the analyses of these samples are reported elsewhere in this session. In a separate aerogel collector, Stardust also captured and has returned the first samples of contemporary interstellar dust. Landgraf et al. [1] has estimated that ~ 50 interstellar dust particles in the micron size range have been captured in the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector. Their state after capture is unknown. Before analysis of these particles can begin, they must be located in the collector. Here we describe the current status of Stardust@home, the massively distributed public search for these tiny interstellar dust particles. So far more than 13,000 volunteers have collectively performed more than 10,000,000 searches in stacks of digital images of ~10% of the collector. We report new estimates of the flux of interplanetary dust at ~2 AU based on the results of this search, and will compare with extant models[2]. References: [1] Landgraf et al., (1999) Planet. Spac. Sci. 47, 1029. [2] Staubach et al. (2001) in Interplanetary Dust, E. Grün, ed., Astron. &Astro. Library, Springer, 2001.

  3. Solar-collector manufacturing activity, July through December, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1982-03-01

    Solar thermal collector and solar cell manufacturing activity is both summarized and tabulated. Data are compared for three survey periods (July through December, 1981; January through June, 1981; and July through December, 1980). Annual totals are also provided for the years 1979 through 1981. Data include total producer shipments, end use, market sector, imports and exports. (LEW)

  4. Evaluation of solar collectors for heat pump applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Skartvedt, Gary; Pedreyra, Donald; McMordle, Dr., Robert; Kidd, James; Anderson, Jerome; Jones, Richard

    1980-08-01

    The study was initiated to evaluate the potential utility of very low cost (possibly unglazed and uninsulated) solar collectors to serve as both heat collection and rejection devices for a liquid source heat pump. The approach consisted of exercising a detailed analytical simulation of the complete heat pump/solar collector/storage system against heating and cooling loads derived for typical single-family residences in eight US cities. The performance of each system was measured against that of a conventional air-to-air heat pump operating against the same loads. In addition to evaluation of solar collector options, the study included consideration of water tanks and buried pipe grids to provide thermal storage. As a supplement to the analytical tasks, the study included an experimental determination of night sky temperature and convective heat transfer coefficients for surfaces with dimensions typical of solar collectors. The experiments were conducted in situ by placing the test apparatus on the roofs of houses in the Denver, Colorado, area. (MHR)

  5. Effect of circumsolar radiation on performance of focusing collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bendt, P.; Rabl, A.

    1980-04-01

    Circumsolar radiation is one of several factors, along with optical errors (contour, tracking, etc.), that determine the size and shape of the solar image at the receiver of a concentrating collector. The sensitivity of a collector to circumsolar radiation depends on insolation conditions and on collector parameters; it increases with geometrical concentration ratio and decreases with operating threshold. The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) circumsolar data are used to develop fast computational procedures for calculating the effect of circumsolar radiation on both the instantaneous and the long-term average performance of focusing collectors. For predictions of long-term average performance, a standard synthetic circumsolar scan has been developed that describes the brightness distribution of the solar disk (limb darkening) and of the circumsolar region. The radiation intercepted by a receiver is calculated separately for the solar portion and for the circumsolar portion of this standard sun shape, and these two contributions are then weighted according to the long-term average circumsolar ratio for the location and period under study.

  6. Inverse Marx modulators for self-biasing klystron depressed collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Mark A.

    2014-07-31

    A novel pulsed depressed collector biasing scheme is proposed. This topology feeds forward energy recovered during one RF pulse for use on the following RF pulse. The presented ''inverse'' Marx charges biasing capacitors in series, and discharges them in parallel. Simulations are shown along with experimental demonstration on a 62kW klystron.

  7. Extra focal convective suppressing solar collector. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This progress report describes work done on the Extra Focal Convective Suppressing Solar Collector. The topics of the report include sensor refinement for the tracking electronics, tracking controller refinement, system optics evaluation, absorber system material evaluation and performance, tracking hardware evaluation and refinement, and full scale prototype construction and testing.

  8. Carbon nanotube-based supercapacitors using low cost collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirhoseiny, Maryam; Zandi, Majid; Mosayyebi, Abolghasem; Khademian, Mehrzad

    2016-01-01

    In this work, electrochemical double layer supercapacitors were fabricated using multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite microfilm as electrode. To improve the electrochemical properties, MWCNTs were functionalized with -COOH by acid treatments. CNT/PVA films have been deposited on different current collectors by spin coating to drastically enhance the electrode performance. Electrode fabrication involved various stages preparing of the CNT composite, and coating of the CNT/PVA paste on different substrates which also served as current collector. Al, Ni and graphite were used and compared as current collectors. The surface morphology of the fabricated electrodes was investigated with scanning electrode microscopy (SEM). Overall cell performance was evaluated with a multi-channel potentiostat/galvanostat analyzer. Each supercapacitor cell was subjected to charge-discharge cycling study at different current rates from 0.2Ag-1 to 1Ag-1. The results showed that graphite-based electrodes offer advantages of significantly higher conductivity and superior capacitive behavior compared to thin film electrodes formed on Ni and Al current collectors. The specific capacitance of graphite based electrode is found to be 29Fg-1.

  9. 49. VIEW FROM WEST OF DUST COLLECTOR BLOWER LOCATED AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. VIEW FROM WEST OF DUST COLLECTOR BLOWER LOCATED AT CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FEED LEVEL. THE ROASTER IS BEYOND AND THE MACHINE SHOP IS ON THE TRAM TERRACE, UPPER RIGHT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  10. EUV near normal incidence collector development at SAGEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier Ythier, R.; Bozec, X.; Geyl, R.; Rinchet, A.; Hecquet, Christophe; Ravet-Krill, Marie-Françoise; Delmotte, Franck; Sassolas, Benoît; Flaminio, Raffaele; Mackowski, Jean-Marie; Michel, Christophe; Montorio, Jean-Luc; Morgado, Nazario; Pinard, Laurent; Roméo, Elodie

    2008-03-01

    Through its participation to European programs, SAGEM has worked on the design and manufacturing of normal incidence collectors for EUV sources. By opposition to grazing incidence, normal incidence collectors are expected to collect more light with a simpler and cheaper design. Designs are presented for the two current types of existing sources: Discharge Produced Plasma (DPP) and Laser Produced Plasma (LPP). Collection efficiency is calculated in both cases. It is shown that these collectors can achieve about 10 % efficiency for DPP sources and 40 % for LPP sources. SAGEM works on the collectors manufacturability are also presented, including polishing, coating and cooling. The feasibility of polishing has been demonstrated with a roughness better than 2 angstroms obtained on several materials (glass, silicon, Silicon Carbide, metals...). SAGEM is currently working with the Institut d'Optique and the Laboratoire des Materiaux Avancés on the design and the process of EUV coatings for large mirrors. Lastly, SAGEM has studied the design and feasibility of an efficient thermal control, based on a liquid cooling through slim channels machined close to the optical surface.

  11. Testing of a solar collector with concentrating mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Commerical flat-plate solar collector with concentrating mirrors has been tested for thermal performance, structured behavior under static load, and effects of long-term natural weathering. Report documents results of testing and concludes that absorptivity was degraded by weathering.

  12. Equivalencing the Collector System of a Large Wind Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Ellis, A.; Mechenbier, J.; Hocheimer, J.; Young, R.; Miller, N.; Delmerico, R.; Zavadil, R.; Smith, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    As the size and number of wind power plants (also called wind farms) increases, power system planners will need to study their impact on the power system in more detail. As the level of wind power penetration into the grid increases, the transmission system integration requirements will become more critical [1-2]. A very large wind power plant may contain hundreds of megawatt-size wind turbines. These turbines are interconnected by an intricate collector system. While the impact of individual turbines on the larger power system network is minimal, collectively, wind turbines can have a significant impact on the power systems during a severe disturbance such as a nearby fault. Since it is not practical to represent all individual wind turbines to conduct simulations, a simplified equivalent representation is required. This paper focuses on our effort to develop an equivalent representation of a wind power plant collector system for power system planning studies. The layout of the wind power plant, the size and type of conductors used, and the method of delivery (overhead or buried cables) all influence the performance of the collector system inside the wind power plant. Our effort to develop an equivalent representation of the collector system for wind power plants is an attempt to simplify power system modeling for future developments or planned expansions of wind power plants. Although we use a specific large wind power plant as a case study, the concept is applicable for any type of wind power plant.

  13. Low cost vee-trough evacuated tube collector module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost solar collector capable of operating at 150-200 C is described. An evacuated tube receiver is combined with asymmetric vee-trough concentrators. Peak efficiencies of about 40% at 120 C and 30% at 180 C are expected. Predicted future collector cost is $70/sq m which yields an energy cost of $4.20/GJ at 120 C. During the development of the vee trough/evacuated tube collector both mathematical models to predict thermal and optical performance were developed and tests run to verify theory. The asymmetric vee trough concentrator increases the solar flux intensity for an average value of 2 for year-round performance. Optimized collector module has reflector angles of 55 deg/85 deg. The aperture plane is tilted to the latitude. The reflector is made of electropolished aluminum. The supporting frame is formed by bending sheet metal. Evacuated tube receivers are Pyrex, 15 cm diam and 2.4 m long. The module has 12 tubes on right and left sides altogether. Attainable operation at temperatures on the order of 150-200 C are suitable for absorption refrigeration and power generation via Rankine engines.

  14. Development of nonmetallic solar collector and solar-powered pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Design and building of two unique components for solar heating (1. flatplate solar collector using no metal components, and 2. solar powered pump for heating and cooling systems are outlined in report. Report also discusses hardware, deliverable end items, problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and performance certification.

  15. A precipitation collector and automated pH-monitoring system

    Treesearch

    Gerald M. Aubertin; Benjamin C. Thorner; John Campbell

    1976-01-01

    A sensitive precipitation collector and automated pH-monitoring system are described. This system provides for continuous monitoring and recording of the pH of precipitation. Discrete or composite rainwater samples are manually obtainable for chemical analyses. The system can easily be adapted to accommodate a flow-through specific conductance probe and monitoring...

  16. Genesis Solar Wind Collector Cleaning Assessment: 60366 Sample Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goreva, Y. S.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Allton, J. H.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to recognize, localize, characterize and remove particle and thin film surface contamination, a small subset of Genesis mission collector fragments are being subjected to extensive study via various techniques [1-5]. Here we present preliminary results for sample 60336, a Czochralski silicon (Si-CZ) based wafer from the bulk array (B/C).

  17. Analysis of gas heat conduction in evacuated tube solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Beikircher, T.; Spirkl, W.

    1996-08-01

    The authors investigated the gas heat conduction in two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors for a wide range of Knudsen numbers. For tube-in-tube collectors, they generalized a solution of the gas kinetic Boltzmann equation, which has been obtained by the four-momentum method, to polyatomic gases. The resulting equation coincides with Sherman`s interpolation formula. For a plate-in-tube collector, they measured the stationary heat loss for gas pressures varying between 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup 4} Pa. The accuracy of an earlier experiment was improved. For analysis they applied the temperature jump method: a heat conduction equation with boundary conditions of the third kind involving the temperature gradient and the pressure was numerically solved. The results with the temperature jump method agree with the experimental values nearly within the error bands. They also applied Sherman`s interpolation formula and found, as expected, that the heat conduction as function of the pressure is too steep. For both types of collectors, the influence of geometric parameters was theoretically studied.

  18. Analysis of gas heat conduction in evacuated tube solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Beikircher, T.; Spirkl, W.

    1996-12-31

    The authors investigated the gas heat conduction in two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors for a wide range of Knudsen numbers. For tube-in-tube collectors, they generalized a solution of the gas kinetic Boltzmann equation, which has been obtained by the 4-momentum method, to polyatomic gases. The resulting equation coincides with Sherman`s interpolation formula. For a plate-in-tube collector, they measured the stationary heat loss for gas pressures varying between 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup 4} Pa. The accuracy of an earlier experiment was improved. For analysis the authors applied the temperature jump method: a heat conduction equation with boundary conditions of the third kind involving the temperature gradient and the pressure was numerically solved. The results with the temperature jump method agree with the experimental values nearly within the error bands. They also applied Sherman`s interpolation formula and found, as expected, that the heat conduction as function of the pressure is too steep. For both types of collectors, the influence of geometric parameters was theoretically studied.

  19. Optimization of insulation of a linear Fresnel collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardekani, Mohammad Moghimi; Craig, Ken J.; Meyer, Josua P.

    2017-06-01

    This study presents a simulation based optimization study of insulation around the cavity receiver of a Linear Fresnel Collector. This optimization study focuses on minimizing heat losses from a cavity receiver (maximizing plant thermal efficiency), while minimizing insulation cross-sectional area (minimizing material cost and cavity dead load), which leads to a cheaper and thermally more efficient LFC cavity receiver.

  20. Modified Evacuated-Tube Collector Tested in Solar Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    According to report, particular commercial evacuated-tube solar collector performs slightly more efficiently with larger manifold. Tests were performed with Marshall Space Flight Center solar simulator. Report describes test conditions and procedures, provides analysis of results, and presents tables and graphs of data, both measured and calculated.