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Sample records for colles cerrada con

  1. Abraham Colles: Colles' fracture.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2012-08-01

    Every reader of this journal will be all too familiar with Colles' fracture; either seeing patients with it in A & E, helping with its reduction and splinting or being part of the anaesthetics team involved in its management. On an icy winter's day there might be half a dozen patients with this injury in your accident unit, mostly elderly ladies. Yet it was not until 1814 that Abraham Colles accurately described this injury and its treatment in his paper 'On the fracture of the carpal extremity of the radius', published in the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal of that year.

  2. Colles' fracture.

    PubMed

    Altizer, Linda L

    2008-01-01

    Many people "slip and fall", especially in the icy areas of the winter season. To prevent an injury to the head, most people put their hand out to hit the ground first, so the wrist usually gets injured. The most frequent injury from this type of "intervention" is a fracture to the distal radius and/or ulna, which is frequently called a "Colles' fracture."

  3. Ariadnes Colles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    8 April 2004 The Ariadnes Colles is a cluster of light-toned knobs, mesas, and hills in Terra Cimmeria near 35oS, 188oW. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example of these landforms. They might be the eroded remnants of material deposited in an extremely ancient impact basin. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  4. [Osteoporosis and Colles' fracture].

    PubMed

    Hindsø, K; Lauritzen, J B

    2001-10-01

    We describe the connection between osteoporosis and Colles' fractures of the distal radius from an epidemiological and aetiological point of view. In addition, the value of these fractures as markers of osteoporosis and future risk of fracture is assessed. Several studies have clearly shown an epidemiological association between osteoporosis and fractures of the distal radius, with the association strongest for women up to 65 years of age and for osteoporosis located in the forearm. The association weakens for other locations and for older women. Osteoporosis may have some aetiologic significance for the development of Colles' fractures, but several extraskeletal factors are of equal or further importance. The occurrence of a Colles' fracture in the first 10-15 years after the postmenopause indicates an increased relative risk of sustaining another fracture in the future. However the relative risk approaches one after a few years and, because of the comparatively low absolute risk in this age-group, Colles' fracture as a risk factor contributes little to an assessment of the lifetime fracture risk. In a few longitudinal studies, Colles' fractures could not predict the long-term risk of osteoporosis. The presence of a Colles' fracture should lead to considerations concerning the skeletal and extraskeletal causes of the fracture for the purpose of initiating preventive and therapeutic measures.

  5. Ariadnes Colles Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 18 June 2002) Among the many varied landscapes on Mars the term chaos is applied to those places that have a jumbled, blocky appearance. Most of the better known chaotic terrain occurs in the northern hemisphere but there are other occurrences in the southern hemisphere, three of which are centered on 180 degrees west longitude. Ariadnes Colles, Atlantis, and Gorgonum Chaos all share similar features: relatively bright, irregularly shaped knobs and mesas that rise above a dark, sand-covered, hummocky floor. Close inspection of this THEMIS image shows that the darker material tends to lap up to the base of the knobs and stops where the slopes are steep. On some of the lowest knobs, the dark material appears to overtop them. The knobs themselves are highly eroded, many having a pitted appearance. Images from the camera on Mars Global Surveyor clearly show that the dark material is sand, based on its mantling appearance and the presence of dunes. It looks as though the material that composes the knobs was probably a continuous layer that was subsequently heavily eroded. While it is likely that the dark sand is responsible for some of the erosion it is also possible that the this landscape was eroded by some other process and the sand was emplaced at a later time.

  6. Abraham Colles and his contributions to anatomy.

    PubMed

    Shayota, Brian J; Oelhafen, Kim; Shoja, Mohammadali; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2014-07-01

    Abraham Colles is known among the medical community for his detailed description of Colles' fracture, one of the most common occurring skeletal injuries. It is remarkable that something as seemingly simple as the diagnosis of Colles' fracture had not been established until nearly 200 years ago. While that may have been his most well known accomplishment, Colles made several other contributions to medicine across multiple fields of practice. In the field of anatomy, he is also credited for his discovery and description of Colles' fascia and Colles' ligament. Less commonly known, however, are his clinical observations and offered treatment regimens for syphilis, as well as his achievement in performing the first surgery for axillary artery aneurysm. The current paper will review the life and contributions of this early surgeon and anatomist.

  7. [Bone disease with Pain. Colles' fracture].

    PubMed

    Yajima, Hiroshi

    2008-11-01

    The distal radius is one of the most commonly fractured long bone. Colles' fracture results from a fall on the dorsiflexed and pronated hand. The dinner-fork deformity is the typical deformity of the Colles' fracture. For patients with no or a little displacement, conservative treatment is applied. The non-bridge type external fixator is applied for patients without an intra articular fracture. For patients with a comminuted fracture, the locking plate (volar approach) is recommended. During the healing period, shoulder, elbow and finger exercise should be insisted.

  8. TREATMENT OF DIFFICULT AND INVOLVED COLLES' FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Francis J.; Meier, August W.

    1951-01-01

    Of 105 cases of Colles' fracture, 86 were treated by closed reduction and plaster immobilization alone; 19 cases in which the fractures were more severe were treated by fixed skeletal traction using an external skeletal traction splint. Despite the greater severity of the lesions, the end results, both anatomic and functional, were generally better in those cases in which skeletal traction was used than in those treated by closed reduction. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13. PMID:14801716

  9. Collagen catabolism through Coll2-1 and Coll2-1NO2 and myeloperoxidase activity in marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Henrotin, Yves; Labasse, Alain; Franck, Thierry; Bosseloir, Alain; Bury, Thierry; Deberg, Michelle

    2013-12-01

    To determine the influence of marathon on the serum levels of two markers of cartilage degradation, Coll2-1 and its nitrated form, Coll2-1NO2, and of a marker of neutrophils activation, the myeloperoxidase (MPO). Coll2-1, Coll2-1NO2, total and active MPO were measured in 98 marathon runners without joint pain and with an average age of 47 years. Sera were taken at rest right before the departure and within 30 min after the marathon. The subjects were submitted to a questionnaire concerning their physical activity and their life style. The levels of Coll2-1, Coll2-1NO2 and active MPO were not affected by age, body mass index, sex or performance. The levels of total MPO were higher in female than in male (p < 0.05), but were not affected by the other parameters. After the marathon, Coll2-1 and Coll2-1NO2 concentrations were slightly but systematically decreased. The total and active MPO concentrations were increased by 2 to 3-fold in comparison to the pre-marathon values (p < 0.001 for total and active MPO). The active MPO/total MPO ratio was significantly enhanced after the marathon (p < 0.001). The variation of total MPO during the marathon was negatively correlated with the training time per week (r = -0.34; p = 0.009). The serum levels of Coll2-1 and Coll2-1NO2 were slightly decreased by marathon, indicating that intensive running could reduce cartilage catabolism. Furthermore, Coll2-1NO2 was not correlated with the total and active MPO indicating that Coll2-1 nitration did not result of a systemic oxidative phenomenon but reflects local changes.

  10. Which Colles' fractures should be manipulated?

    PubMed

    Dixon, Sean; Allen, Patricia; Bannister, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    Ninety-two patients with displaced Colles' fractures were followed prospectively after manipulation under regional anaesthesia. Radiographs were taken before and after manipulation and after 3 months when a functional assessment was also made. A correlation was sought between outcome and radiological measurements. Final radial shortening of 3mm or more was associated with a significantly worse functional outcome after 3 months (P < 0.001). Where the initial radial shortening was 3 mm or more, the probability of malunion was 65% whereas with less than 3mm, the probability of malunion was 28% (P < 0.001). With 5 mm or more of radial shortening at presentation, the probability of malunion was 73% (P < 0.01). The decision to manipulate remains a matter of judgement but a high failure rate renders simple manipulation and plaster cast fixation a poor treatment option in fractures with 5mm or more of radial shortening at presentation.

  11. Phyllosilicates Related to Exposed Knobs in Sirenum Fossae, Ariadnes Colles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annex, A. M.; Howard, A. D.

    2011-03-01

    Summary of findings in Ariadnes Colles regarding light-toned deposits underneath "Electris" deposit using CRISM full-resolution targets; and resulting implications regarding paleolake hypothesis for formation of Ma’adim Valles.

  12. Past Water Activity in Ariadnes Colles on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Primio, M.; Gilmore, M.; Marinangeli, L.; Golder, K.

    2014-07-01

    Ariadnes Colles, one of these chaotic terrains, is located in the southern highlands of Mars. We analyzed the topography, stratigraphy, morphology and mineralogy using MOLA, HRSC, CTX, MOC and HiRISE imagery together with hyperspectral data CRISM.

  13. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Taken in 1890's OAKLAND LONG WHARF FROM GOAT ISLAND Oakland Mole in Background - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  14. Possible salt tectonics in Ariadnes Colles ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, L.; Gasselt, S. V.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Location Ariadnes Colles and the chaotic terrains Atlantis Chaos, Gorgonum Chaos and a further, unnamed chaotic terrain centred at 37°S, 164.4°W form individual provinces of hummocky terrain located at the deepest parts of Eridania Basin, the putative source region of Ma'adim Vallis [1,2,3,4]. The location was recently proposed as a MSL landing site [5]. Previous studies The individual knobs within Ariadnes Colles range between flat-topped mesas of up to 10 km in width and 200 m of relief down to small cone-shaped hills of only a few hundred meters in width [2] (Fig.1). Although classified as chaotic terrain, this area differs significantly from the chaotic terrains found elsewhere on Mars. The hills consist of a light-toned, indurated material [3, 5] covered by dark rock [1]. Howard and Moore [3] noted that the smaller knobs exhibit a more rounded top, are lower in elevation and are found close to the borders of the knob field, whereas the more mesa-like hills are concentrated towards its centre. They also noted that the light-toned hill tops are dissected by linear features they interpreted as joints. The mineralogy of this region is very diverse. Preliminary results based on CRISM data are consistent with the presence of phyllosilicates, sulphates and/or hydrated silica and pyroxene [5]. New obserations Our investigations using HRSC imagery confirm this overall pattern. The smaller hills consist exclusively of light-toned material and are covered only partly by a thin veneer of dust (Fig. 2). Their bases are angular or irregularly shaped and their tops are rounded to peaked, but never exhibit a mesa-like flat top. In contrast, the much larger mesas are always built up by basaltic material, which is superimposed on the bright knobs. Figure 3 shows a HiRISE image of one of the lighttoned knobs. It can be clearly seen that the light-toned material rises from beneath the inter-knob lava which covered it prior to erosion. It has been eroded and forms a scarp near

  15. The effects of Scaphoid and Colles casts on hand function.

    PubMed

    Karantana, A; Downs-Wheeler, M J; Webb, K; Pearce, C A; Johnson, A; Bannister, G C

    2006-08-01

    Although necessary for bone healing, immobilisation temporarily prevents hand function and may necessitate corrective physiotherapy later. Scaphoid and Colles casts are both commonly used to immobilize scaphoid fractures. Non-union rates are comparable with both casts. The Scaphoid cast incorporates the thumb, whereas the Colles cast leaves the thumb free. We compared the effect of the two casts on hand function in 20 healthy right-hand-dominant volunteers using the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test. Data were obtained through a mixed between and within subject design. Both casts prolonged the time taken to complete the hand function test compared to controls. Testing in the Scaphoid cast took significantly longer than in the Colles cast.

  16. Colles-Stokes contributions to the concept of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ventura, H O; Mehra, M R

    1998-06-15

    "Colles fracture," "Colles law," "Stokes-Adams syndrome," "Cheyne-Stokes respiration," and "Corrigan pulse" are some of the contributions of the Irish school that are utilized for teaching purposes in medical schools and training programs, as well as in daily practice of medicine. We wish to add an important description by Drs. Colles and Stokes that personifies the considerable personal contributions of these 2 physicians in our understanding of the pathophysiologic expression of the syndrome of heart failure. The clinical-pathologic correlation of the disease that affected Dr. Colles is well described by Dr. Stokes in his treatise Diseases of the Heart and the Aorta. He recognized the cyclical nature of frequent decompensations in heart failure, the relation of clinical worsening in conjunction with reduced urine output, as well as the importance of reestablishing urinary flow to achieve a decrease in dyspnea. Dr. Colles also demonstrated a profound clinical insight when he noticed, first, that his affliction was "eventually a fatal disease and that remedies that work may lose effect over time," illustrating an observation that has stood the test of time and, secondly, when he told Dr. Smith "... I would direct particular attention to the heart and the lungs ... and the swelling in the right hypochondrium ... I suspect that there is some connexion between this swelling of the hypochondrium and the diseased state of the heart." We believe that the Colles-Stokes contributions, both in the clinical as well as the clinical-pathologic arenas, are one of the landmark descriptions that helped to evolve the concept of the syndrome of heart failure.

  17. Rupture of all digital flexors following Colles' fracture.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Srinivasan; Basu, Indraneil; Kaba, Rahim; Pabari, Amit

    2012-10-01

    Flexor tendon rupture following a Colles' fracture is a rare complication with only a handful of cases reported since the initial report in 1932. We present a case in which all digital flexor tendons ruptured within 6 months of a Colles' fracture. Previous reported cases have demonstrated rupture of either the radial or ulnar digital flexors but this case is the first in which all the digital flexors have been involved. This case report highlights the clinical implications of this rare occurrence and stresses the importance of accurate reduction and thorough clinical examination following bony injuries to the wrist.

  18. Midazolam sedation for the reduction of Colles' fractures.

    PubMed

    Grant, A; Hoddinott, C; Evans, R

    1993-08-01

    The treatment of Colles' fractures in the elderly comprises a heavy workload for both accident and orthopaedic departments. The initial management has important clinical and financial implications for patient and hospital. The demand is variable and the ability to respond must also be flexible. The choice of anaesthetic technique is therefore most important. In our experience, intravenous sedation with midazolam (a water soluble benzodiazepine) has proven to be safe and effective in providing good conditions for anatomical reduction of Colles' fractures on an outpatient basis.

  19. Stabilization and treatment of Colles' fractures in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Blakeney, William G

    2010-11-18

    Colles' fractures (fractures of the distal radius) are extremely common in the elderly. These fractures tend to result in displacement in elderly people because they have osteoporotic bone. Fracture displacement in the elderly, however, does not necessarily result in functional impairment. This review looks at the current literature on distal radius fractures in the elderly and the treatment options for stabilization of these fractures. These include conservative management with cast immobilization or surgical options: internal fixation, external fixation, percutaneous pinning, and bone substitutes.

  20. Re-engineering Colles: form, function and fragility fractures.

    PubMed

    Lee, T C

    2006-02-01

    Of the twenty nine anatomy professors in the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, primus inter pares is Abraham Colles. In his 1811 book A Treatise on Surgical Anatomy he revolutionised the subject by teaching it topographically, seeking "to describe the relative position of the parts and to point out the subservience of anatomical knowledge to surgical practice". Today we have extended this to 'clinical practice' and, in the Anatomy Room, students are guided through each region by clinically trained staff, from surface anatomy via three-dimensional dissection to radiological images. This is augmented by online histology and radiology courses and DVDs in which dissection footage, edited by a content analysis engine, is used to preview and review practical classes. In the same book, Colles also wrote that 'the fixed and immutable laws of mathematics are little applicable to the science of medicine'. Computer-aided learning argues against this. So does research which links fatigue microdamage to bone remodelling and the development of algorithms to predict, and thus prevent, osteoporotic fractures. Mechanical principles are being used to develop scaffolds for tissue engineering and to optimise the mechanical environment of seeded mesenchymal stem cells. While Colles' teaching approach holds true, in biomechanics, tissue engineering and computing, mathematical laws are now being successfully applied to medical science.

  1. Faking a Dissertation: Ellsworth Collings, William H. Kilpatrick, and the "Project Curriculum."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Reports that Ellsworth Collings faked data and misrepresented his research in a 1923 study that became a hallmark of progressive education. "An Experiment with a Project Curriculum," supposedly documented a group of high school students' independent efforts at studying an outbreak of typhoid. Collings seriously misrepresented his input.…

  2. Colles' fracture - is it a signal of osteoporosis?

    PubMed

    Hossain, M; Hoq, M F; Fatima, N; Laskar, M H; Emran, M A; Asaduzzaman, K M; Alam, M

    2011-10-01

    Asymptomatic post-menopausal osteoporosis is common but some-times associated with pain and deformity. Symptomatic osteoporosis is usually associated with fracture. A 59 years old post-menopausal woman presented with a history of acute low-back-pain. She had menopause for 12 years. She gave history of colles' fracture at about two years back. Her mother died as consequences of femoral neck fracture. MRI of vertebral spine showed demineralization with partial collapse of D6,7,12 and L1 vertebra. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry of vertebra showed BMD T-score of -4.5. Patient was managed with IV infusion of zoledronic acid, oral intake of vitamin D and calcium supplements and with regular non-weight-bearing exercises. Her condition improved gradually. During post-menopausal period, every women must be aware of osteoporosis and any fracture in that time must be evaluated to rule out osteoporosis.

  3. Do Kirschner wires maintain reduction of displaced Colles' fractures?

    PubMed

    Barton, Tristan; Chambers, Charles; Lane, Emma; Bannister, Gordon

    2005-12-01

    Fifty-three patients underwent closed reduction and longitudinal k-wiring of displaced Colles' fractures and were reviewed after a mean of 26 months. Radiographs taken at the time of injury, after reduction and k-wiring, and at fracture union were compared for radial shortening and dorsal angulation. Manipulation significantly improved fracture position (P<0.001). Dorsal angulation was successfully corrected by manipulation in 98%, and this position was maintained to fracture union in all cases. Seventy-three percentage of fractures manipulated for radial shortening >2 mm were adequately reduced, but 41% of these fractures subsequently lost position to malunite. In this group of patients, the mean radial shortening between reduction and fracture union was 1.6 mm. This did not correlate with Frykman Class or radial shortening at injury. Closed reduction and k-wire stabilisation is an attractive technique because it is relatively non-invasive compared with plating or external fixation. However, a degree of radial shortening between reduction and fracture union must be anticipated. Fractures reduced inadequately to allow for this loss of radial length, are more likely to malunite. This may compromise functional outcome.

  4. Tartarus Colles: A sampling of the Martian highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murchie, Scott; Treiman, Allan

    1994-01-01

    Several of the most fundamental issues about the geology of Mars can be addressed using information on composition and structure of the plateau plains ('highlands') that cover approximately half the planet. The units that compose the highlands are interpreted as a mixture of volcanic, fluvial, lacustrine, and impact ejecta deposits. A more precise inventory of differing of igneous and sedimentary lithologies in highland rock units would not only lead to a better understanding of how the plateau plains formed, but would also clarify the nature of the surface environment during the first 800 m.y. of martian history. Structural features including bedforms, joints, and small faults that are unresolved from orbit record a history of the emplacement and deformation of the highlands. In addition, weathering products present in this very ancient terrain represent a mineralogic record of past climate and of the pathways by which bedrock is altered chemically. Their similarity or dissimilarity to bright soils observed spectroscopically and in situ at the Viking Lander sites will be evidence for the relative roles of regional sources and global eolian transport in producing the widespread cover of 'dust.' Unfortunately, these issues are difficult to address in the plateau plains proper, because bedrock is covered by mobile sand and weathering products, which dominate both surface composition and remotely measurable spectral properties. However, the 'Tartarus Colles' site, located at 11.41 deg N, 197.69 deg W at an elevation of -1 km, provides an excellent opportunity to address the highland geology within the mission constraints of Mars Pathfinder. The site is mapped as unit HNu, and consists of knobby remnants of deeply eroded highlands. It contains rolling hills, but lacks steep escarpments and massifs common in most highland remnants, and is free of large channels that would have removed colluvium from eroded upper portions of the stratigraphic column. These

  5. Tartarus Colles: A sampling of the Martian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murchie, Scott; Treiman, Allan

    Several of the most fundamental issues about the geology of Mars can be addressed using information on composition and structure of the plateau plains ('highlands') that cover approximately half the planet. The units that compose the highlands are interpreted as a mixture of volcanic, fluvial, lacustrine, and impact ejecta deposits. A more precise inventory of differing of igneous and sedimentary lithologies in highland rock units would not only lead to a better understanding of how the plateau plains formed, but would also clarify the nature of the surface environment during the first 800 m.y. of martian history. Structural features including bedforms, joints, and small faults that are unresolved from orbit record a history of the emplacement and deformation of the highlands. In addition, weathering products present in this very ancient terrain represent a mineralogic record of past climate and of the pathways by which bedrock is altered chemically. Their similarity or dissimilarity to bright soils observed spectroscopically and in situ at the Viking Lander sites will be evidence for the relative roles of regional sources and global eolian transport in producing the widespread cover of 'dust.' Unfortunately, these issues are difficult to address in the plateau plains proper, because bedrock is covered by mobile sand and weathering products, which dominate both surface composition and remotely measurable spectral properties. However, the 'Tartarus Colles' site, located at 11.41 deg N, 197.69 deg W at an elevation of -1 km, provides an excellent opportunity to address the highland geology within the mission constraints of Mars Pathfinder. The site is mapped as unit HNu, and consists of knobby remnants of deeply eroded highlands. It contains rolling hills, but lacks steep escarpments and massifs common in most highland remnants, and is free of large channels that would have removed colluvium from eroded upper portions of the stratigraphic column. These

  6. Geometric properties of distal radius and pathogenesis of Colles fracture: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, S P; Xie, X; Bärenholdt, O

    2001-01-01

    It is well known among clinicians that Colles fracture patients may have normal projected axial bone mineral density and that bone mass is not synonymous with bone strength. The aim of this work was to investigate whether cross-sectional properties of the distal radius in female patients with recent Colles fracture differ from those of a younger group of normal women without fracture. It was hypothesized that patients with Colles fracture had petite distal radii and that cortical thinning and reduced cortical and trabecular volumetric density are dominant features of this fracture type. We used a multilayer high-precision peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) device with a long-term precision error of 0.1% for a dedicated phantom during the measurement period (152 d). Clinical measurements were made at an ultradistal site rich in trabecular bone and a less ultradistal site rich in cortical bone. The results show that the following pQCT variables were significantly reduced in the nonfractured radius of the Colles fracture cases: mean ultradistal trabecular volumetric density, mean ultradistal and distal cortical volumetric density, mean ultradistal and distal cortical thickness (p < 0.001 for all differences). The outer cortical diameter, cross-sectional bone area, and cortical bending moment of inertia were not statistically different in the two groups. Thus, it would appear that Colles fracture cases did not have petite distal radii. The results suggest that the deforming force of Colles fracture has a transaxial direction (fall on outstretched arm), resulting in a crush fracture, and that it is not a bending force. We suggest that Colles fracture occurs as a result of the combined effect of a fall on the out-stretched arm, low trabecular and cortical volumetric bone density, and reduced cortical thickness.

  7. New Coll-HA/BT composite materials for hard tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zanfir, Andrei Vlad; Voicu, Georgeta; Busuioc, Cristina; Jinga, Sorin Ion; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Iordache, Florin

    2016-05-01

    The integration of ceramic powders in composite materials for bone scaffolds can improve the osseointegration process. This work was aimed to the synthesis and characterization of new collagen-hydroxyapatite/barium titanate (Coll-HA/BT) composite materials starting from barium titanate (BT) nanopowder, hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder and collagen (Coll) gel. BT nanopowder was produced by combining two wet-chemical approaches, sol-gel and hydrothermal methods. The resulting materials were characterized in terms of phase composition and microstructure by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the composite materials were assessed by in vitro tests. The synthesized BT particles exhibit an average size of around 35 nm and a spherical morphology, with a pseudo-cubic or tetragonal symmetry. The diffraction spectra of Coll-HA and Coll-HA/BT composite materials indicate a pronounced interaction between Col and the mineral phases, meaning a good mineralization of Col fibres. As well, the in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all biological samples, especially for Coll-HA/BT composite materials, fact that can be attributed to the ferromagnetic properties of BT.

  8. Intramedullary bone cementing for the treatment of Colles fracture in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kazuo; Osamura, Naoki; Hagiwara, Norio; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Tomita, Katsuro

    2004-01-01

    Eighteen patients with Colles fractures, mean age 70 years (range 55-91), were treated by intramedullary bone cementing. The best indication for this technique was an unstable extra-articular Colles fracture with osteoporosis. Bone cement was packed into the canal that was made by curettage of intramedullary cancellous bone from the dorsal fracture site. Intramedullary cementing caused little bleeding from the medullary canal and no irritation of the extensor tendons. Because of rigid fixation, patients could use the affected hand for light activities without any external orthosis the day after surgery. Cortical healing was seen in all cases within three months and there was no cement loosening or other complications during the mean 28 month (range 6-43) follow up period. Intramedullary bone cementing is one of the optimal treatments for Colles fractures in elderly patients.

  9. Evaluation of the influence of strain rate on Colles' fracture load.

    PubMed

    Ural, Ani; Zioupos, Peter; Buchanan, Drew; Vashishth, Deepak

    2012-06-26

    Colles' fracture, a transverse fracture of the distal radius bone, is one of the most frequently observed osteoporotic fractures resulting from low energy or traumatic events, associated with low and high strain rates, respectively. Although experimental studies on Colles' fracture were carried out at various loading rates ranging from static to impact loadings, there is no systematic study in the literature that isolates the influence of strain rate on Colles' fracture load. In order to provide a better understanding of fracture risk, the current study combines experimental material property measurements under varying strain rates with computational modeling and presents new information on the effect of strain rate on Colles' fracture. The simulation results showed that Colles' fracture load decreased with increasing strain rate with a steeper change in lower strain rates. Specifically, strain rate values (0.29s(-1)) associated with controlled falling without fracture corresponded to a 3.7% reduction in the fracture load. On the other hand, the reduction in the fracture load was 34% for strain rate of 3.7s(-1) reported in fracture inducing impact cadaver experiments. Further increase in the strain rate up to 18s(-1) led to an additional 22% reduction. The most drastic reduction in fracture load occurs at strain rates corresponding to the transition from controlled to impact falling. These results are particularly important for the improvement of fracture risk assessment in the elderly because they identify a critical range of loading rates (10-50mm/s) that can dramatically increase the risk of Colles' fracture.

  10. The handshake technique: proposal of a closed manual reduction technique for Colles' wrist fracture.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Andrea Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Colles' fracture is a distal radius injury, with dorsal tilt of the distal radial fracture fragment. Its typical treatment involves reduction and plaster cast immobilization to restore its anatomical position. Sometimes, reduction maneuver may be difficult with poor outcomes, requiring repeated reduction maneuvers or eventual surgical treatment. The author proposes a simple, easy, and reliable manual reduction technique.

  11. Anterior fracture displacement in Colles' fractures after Kapandji wiring in women over 59 years.

    PubMed

    Hollevoet, Nadine; Verdonk, René

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the radiological results of Colles' fractures treated with Kapandji wiring and to determine the frequency of postoperative anterior fracture displacement. The X-rays of 89 fractures in women over 59 years of age were evaluated. Five weeks after injury, palmar shift of the distal fracture fragments and/or palmar tilt of more than 20 degrees were observed in 26 patients. In ten wrists dorsal tilt was not sufficiently corrected and measured more than 10 degrees . Increase in ulnar variance was more than 2 mm in 37 wrists and more than 5 mm in six wrists; this was more pronounced when the palmar tilt was not corrected properly or when anterior fracture displacement was present. We conclude that Kapandji wiring may not be able to prevent anterior fracture displacement in almost one-third of Colles' fractures in osteoporotic elderly patients.

  12. Geologic analysis of knob fields and sedimentary deposits in Ariadnes Colles, Terra Sirenum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, A.; Hauber, E.; Le Deit, L.; Adeli, S.; Fernández-Remolar, D. C.; de Pablo, M. A.

    2012-09-01

    Ariadnes Colles is a basin located in the southern highlands (173° E; 35° S) which displays varied geological features such as knob fields, water-related materials, and other landforms suggesting that Ariadnes may have hosted a lake during the Noachian Epoch. Here we present the preliminary results of a geomorphological, stratigraphical and mineralogical analysis of the region, which will provide better constraints on its geological history.

  13. Replicating a Colles fracture in an excised radius: revisiting testing protocols.

    PubMed

    Wagner, David W; Lindsey, Derek P; Beaupre, Gary S

    2012-04-05

    A distal radius fracture in middle-age and older adults is often considered a sentinel indicator of osteoporosis. Mechanical testing of cadaveric specimens is often used to quantify bone strength and develop insight for relating in-vivo measures to fracture force. Mechanical testing protocols using an intact forearm have been successful at replicating a Colles fracture, however, excised isolated radius protocols based on the intact forearm testing protocol have not been as successful. One protocol originally designed to replicate the physiological condition of a fall on an outstretched hand was reproduced in our laboratory, yet surprisingly the produced distal radius fracture patterns were not consistent among specimens nor was dorsal angulation of the distal fragment that is characteristic of a Colles fracture observed. The purpose of this study was to perform a mechanics-based analysis of the excised radius loading protocol in order to quantify the imposed and internal forces on the radius. An idealized beam model of the excised radius revealed that in the area of the distal radius where Colles fractures occur, 99.99% of the maximum strain on the bone outer surface was the result of pure compressive loading. This loading condition is in direct contrast to the accepted mechanics of a Colles fracture, which is characterized as a metaphyseal bending fracture with the volar cortex failing due to tensile stresses and the dorsal cortex exhibiting compression and comminution. The results suggest that additional research, particularly related to overcoming the difficulties of reliably supporting and applying a force to the distal end of the radius, is necessary for clinical fracture patterns to be reliably reproduced with an excised radius mechanical testing protocol.

  14. Changes in length of the radioulnar ligament and distal oblique bundle after Colles' fracture.

    PubMed

    Omori, Shinsuke; Moritomo, Hisao; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Miyake, Junichi; Kataoka, Toshiyuki; Kawanishi, Yohei; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in length of the radioulnar ligament and distal oblique bundle (DOB) within the distal interosseous membrane after Colles' fracture and correlate the magnitude of the changes in length with clinical features. This study investigated 10 patients with malunion of a Colles' fracture. In three-dimensional computed tomography, the paths of the four limbs of the radioulnar ligament (superficial and deep, dorsal, and palmar limbs) and DOB were modelled and each path length was computed. Differences in length between the affected and contralateral unaffected side were calculated and correlated with the radiographic parameters of deformity on plain X-ray, subluxation of the DRUJ on CT, and limited range of forearm rotation in the clinical examination. In the malunited radius, the superficial and deep dorsal limbs of the radioulnar ligament were significantly elongated and DOB was significantly shortened compared with the contralateral side. These length changes correlated with radiographic radial shortening, subluxation of the DRUJ, and inversely correlated with limited range of forearm pronation. This study suggests that the dorsal radioulnar ligament would be overstretched and disrupted in Colles' fracture with severely increased radial shortening, producing laxity of the distal radioulnar joint that could negate limitation of pronation.

  15. Use of risedronate for consolidation and callus formation in Colles fractures in postmenopausal women: SOLID study

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Lindomar Guimarães; Eis, Sérgio Ragi; Neto, Henrique Mota; de Moraes, Frederico Barra; Pires, Luiz Antônio Silveira Simões; Vasconcelos, José Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    Objective This open, randomized and blinded parallel-group multicenter study evaluated the efficacy of Actonel® (35 mg) plus calcium/vitamin D versus calcium/vitamin D alone for preserving bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with Colles fractures. Methods Patients with a Colles fracture for seven days were randomized to receive either Actonel® (35 mg) once a week plus calcium/vitamin D (ACD group) or calcium/vitamin D alone (CD group). The patients were evaluated after 90 and 180 days of treatment. Results 59 ACD patients and 56 CD patients completed all the evaluations. At the end of the study, the BMD of the radius at the fracture location showed a negative change in the CD group (32.8%). The loss of BMD in the ACD group (20.8%) was slightly less than that in the CD group. There was a difference in the proportions of patients with BMD losses at the end of the study period in the two treatment groups, in favor of the ACD group, although this was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in radiological identification of callus formation between the treatment groups. In the majority of the patients, the callus could be radiologically identified after 90 days. Conclusion Postmenopausal women with Colles fractures who received risedronate sodium plus calcium/vitamin D did not show any significant difference in BMD loss in forearm fractures, in comparison with those who received calcium/vitamin D alone. Risedronate presented a tendency toward a protective effect regarding BMD loss due to immobilization. The time taken for fracture consolidation to be achieved was unaffected. PMID:26229930

  16. Development of Colle-Salvetti type electron-nucleus correlation functional for MC-DFT

    SciTech Connect

    Udagawa, Taro; Tsuneda, Takao; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2015-12-31

    A Colle-Salvetti type electron-nucleus correlation functional for multicomponent density-functional theory is proposed. We demonstrate that our correlation functional quantitatively reproduces the quantum nuclear effects of protons; the mean absolute deviation value is 2.8 millihartrees for the optimized structure of hydrogen-containing molecules. We also show other practical calculations with our new electron-deuteron and electron-triton correlation functionals. Since this functional is derived without any unphysical assumption, the strategy taken in this development will be a promising recipe to make new functionals for the potentials of other particles’ interactions.

  17. Bedrock geologic and structural map through the western Candor Colles region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Okubo, Chris H.

    2014-01-01

    The structure and geology of the layered deposits in the Candor Colles region corresponding to units Avfs, Avme, and Hvl of Witbeck and others (1991) are reevaluated in this 1:18,000-scale map. The objectives herein are to gather high-resolution structural measurements to (1) refine the previous unit boundaries in this area established by Witbeck and others (1991), (2) revise the local stratigraphy where necessary, (3) characterize bed forms to help constrain depositional processes, and (4) determine the styles and extent of deformation to better inform reconstructions of the local post-depositional geologic history.

  18. Development of Colle-Salvetti type electron-nucleus correlation functional for MC_DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udagawa, Taro; Tsuneda, Takao; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2015-12-01

    A Colle-Salvetti type electron-nucleus correlation functional for multicomponent density-functional theory is proposed. We demonstrate that our correlation functional quantitatively reproduces the quantum nuclear effects of protons; the mean absolute deviation value is 2.8 millihartrees for the optimized structure of hydrogen-containing molecules. We also show other practical calculations with our new electron-deuteron and electron-triton correlation functionals. Since this functional is derived without any unphysical assumption, the strategy taken in this development will be a promising recipe to make new functionals for the potentials of other particles' interactions.

  19. Validation of an anatomy specific finite element model of Colles' fracture.

    PubMed

    Varga, P; Baumbach, S; Pahr, D; Zysset, P K

    2009-08-07

    Osteoporotic fractures are harmful injuries and their number is on the rise. Distal radius fractures are precursors of other osteoporotic fractures. The wrist's bony geometry and trabecular architecture can be assessed in vivo using the recently introduced HR-pQCT. The goal of this study was the validation of a newly developed HR-pQCT based anatomy specific FE technique including separation of cortical and trabecular bone regions using an experimental model for producing Colles' fractures. Mechanical compression tests of 21 embalmed human radii were conducted. Continuum level FE models were built using HR-pQCT images of the bones and nonlinear analyses were performed using boundary conditions highly similar to the mechanical tests. Density and fabric based material properties were taken from previous tests on biopsies and no adjustments were made. Numerical results provided good prediction of the experimental stiffness (R(2)=0.793) and even better for strength (R(2)=0.874). High damage zones of the FE models coincided with the actual failure patterns of the specimens. These encouraging results allow to conclude that the developed method represents an attractive and efficient tool for simulation of Colles' fracture.

  20. Anthropogenic emissions and combustion products recorded in a Colle Gnifetti ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrieli, J.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Zennaro, P.; Lim, S.; Laj, P.; Barbante, C.

    2012-12-01

    Ice cores provide direct and highly resolved records of atmospheric parameters that record both climate signals and forcing factors. European Alpine glaciers are located near densely populated and industrialized areas and provide excellent archives of past air pollution. Ice cores to bedrock on Colle Gnifetti, Monte Rosa (45°55'51''N, 07°52'34''E; 4450 m a.s.l.) permit centennial to millennial reconstruction of past regional climate, while snow pit and shallow core studies from the same site allow multiple parameter reconstructions of anthropogenic emissions. Air pollution includes fossil fuel and biomass burning products that influence regional smog and contain trace elements hazardous to human health. Here, we examine a high-resolution suite of anthropogenic and natural emissions (black carbon, levoglucosan, trace elements, heavy metals) and climate proxies (major ions and stable isotopes) in a 12 m Colle Gnifetti ice core to determine seasonal changes in anthropogenic emissions and their interaction with climate parameters. This is the first study to compare black carbon (a fossil fuel and biomass combustion tracer) with levoglucosan (a fire activity biomarker) in a European ice core. The combination of these two proxies can determine changing combustion product sources through time. Our results demonstrate that anthropogenic emissions influence the summer aerosol flux while crustal sources dominate the winter aerosol flux. These ice core chemical data are consistent with observational data and boundary layer dynamics that transport pollutants concentrated in the Po Valley and similar industrial lowland regions to glacier surfaces during the summer.

  1. Colles' fracture: dorsal splint or complete cast during the first 10 days?

    PubMed

    Wik, Tina Strømdal; Aurstad, Ase T; Finsen, Vilhjalmur

    2009-04-01

    In a prospective randomised trial of conservatively treated Colles' fractures, we compared radiological outcomes and complication rates for two immobilisation methods, either complete cast (34 cases) or dorsal splint (38 cases), during the first 10 days after reduction. Radiographs were evaluated for dorsal tilt, radial tilt and radial shortening; results were almost identical in the two groups. There was a mean difference of 3.4 degrees in dorsal angulation in favour of dorsal splinting 10 days after reduction and a mean difference of 1.6mm in radial length in favour of complete casting at 5 weeks. There was no difference between the two treatments groups in reported pain or cast problems. Thus individual preference may be followed in choice of immobilisation method.

  2. The relationship between displacement and clinical outcome after distal radius (Colles') fracture.

    PubMed

    Finsen, V; Rod, O; Rød, K; Rajabi, B; Alm-Paulsen, P S; Russwurm, H

    2013-02-01

    We reviewed 260 patients who had been treated non-operatively for a dorsally displaced distal radius fracture a mean 6.3 (range 2.5-12.7) years earlier, in an attempt to find the limits of displacement compatible with a good clinical outcome. We excluded patients with previous or later injuries to the same limb. Bivariate analysis revealed a highly statistically significant relationship between radiographic displacement at review and clinical outcome scores. Correlation coefficients varied between 0.14 and 0.30. However, multiple linear regression analysis using most factors commonly thought to be of importance in determining the clinical outcome as independent variables explained only 23% of the variability of the clinical outcome. Dorsal angulation, ulnar variance, and radial inclination together accounted for only 11% of the variability. We conclude that the final alignment of the distal radius as shown radiologically has only a minor influence on the clinical outcome of Colles' type distal radius fractures.

  3. Early decrease of serum biomarkers of type II collagen degradation (Coll2-1) and joint inflammation (Coll2-1 NO₂ ) by hyaluronic acid intra-articular injections in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a research study part of the Biovisco study.

    PubMed

    Henrotin, Y; Chevalier, X; Deberg, M; Balblanc, J C; Richette, P; Mulleman, D; Maillet, B; Rannou, F; Piroth, C; Mathieu, P; Conrozier, T

    2013-06-01

    To measure the evolution of the serum levels of specific Osteoarthritis (OA) biomarker, Coll2-1 and Coll2-1 NO₂ in knee osteoarthritic patients after viscosupplementation (VS). Fifty-one patients with unilateral symptomatic knee were recruited for this prospective open label study. They received three intra-articular injections of 2 ml of hyaluronic acid (Hylan GF-20) and were followed for 3 months. Walking pain was evaluated and serum samples were taken at each visit. Coll2-1 and Coll2-1 NO₂ were measured in the serum using specific immunoassays. Variations over time of each parameter and predictive factor of response were studied. Forty-five patients were analyzed. The serum concentrations of Coll2-1 and Coll2-1 NO₂ were significantly higher in KL III/IV patients compared to KL I/II patients at baseline and decreased systematically over time after VS. Its effect was ever more pronounced in patients with KL III/IV. The serum concentration of Coll2-1 was significantly lower at baseline in responders than in non-responders. This study suggests a rapid slowdown of type II collagen degradation and joint inflammation after VS with Hylan G-20 and gives additional information for the validation of accurate biomarkers for OA. The serum level of Coll2-1 appeared to be a predictive factor for response to treatment.

  4. The Tartarus-Colles Cone Group and Its Implications for Explosive Lava-Water Interactions in the Grjota Valles Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, C. W.; Fagents, S. A.

    2009-03-01

    Terrestrial volcanic rootless cones (VRCs) are the products of explosive-lava water interactions. We describe the Tartarus-Colles cone group on Mars and provide morphological and geospatial evidence to support the interpretation that these landforms are VRCs.

  5. Complication of a closed Colles-fracture: necrotising fasciitis with lethal outcome. A case report.

    PubMed

    Weidle, Patrick A; Brankamp, Jochen; Dedy, Nicolas; Haenisch, Christoph; Windolf, Joachim; Jonas, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of a 77-year-old female patient who died 4 days after a closed colles-fracture of the right wrist because of secondary emerged necrotising fasciitis. At the time of visiting our emergency department, the patient reports about untypical pain and progressive swelling of the entire right arm 3 days following a fall onto the outstretched hand where she sustained a closed distal radius fracture. Within 6 h, the patient developed hypotension and fever leading to cardiac and respiratory failure. The emergent-induced diagnostic presented a severe septic situation in the laboratory examination of the blood samples, an apparent before unknown diabetes mellitus and an unknown bronchial carcinoma with part of post-stenosis pneumonia of the right lung. After initial CPR and stabilisation, the patient underwent an urgent and aggressive surgical debridement with fasciotomies of the muscle compartments of the entire right upper extremity. The microbiological investigation of the intraoperative taken specimens presented plentiful group-A-beta-haemolytic streptococcus. Despite a broad spectrum intravenous antibiotic therapy, intensive care support and a second look operation 12 h later with exarticulation of the right arm in the shoulder joint, the patient died of septic shock and multiorgan failure 34 h after admission.

  6. Colles' fracture treated with non-bridging external fixation: a 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J K; Høgh, A; Gantov, J; Vaesel, M T; Hansen, T Baek

    2009-08-01

    The results in 75 of 105 patients with Older type II/III (AO type A2.2, A3.1, A3.2) Colles' fractures, treated with non-bridging external fixation are presented. The mean age was 67.8 years, and all patients were followed prospectively for 12 months with radiological and functional assessment. No statistically significant loss of radial length, angulation or inclination was seen between the postoperative reduction and the 1-year follow-up examination. The clinical results after 1 year were 66 (88%) excellent/good, nine (12%) fair and 0 (0%) poor according to the modified Gartland and Werley score. Mean visual analogue scale pain score after 1 year was 0.8. In three patients (4%), re-displacement of the fracture occurred and was treated with plating. Non-bridging external fixation offers a reliable method of maintaining radiological reduction of Older type II/III fractures of the distal radius and gives a good functional outcome after 1 year.

  7. Prediction of Colles' fracture load in human radius using cohesive finite element modeling.

    PubMed

    Ural, Ani

    2009-01-05

    Osteoporotic and age-related fractures are a significant public health problem. One of the most common osteoporotic fracture sites in the aging population is distal radius. There is evidence in the literature that distal radius fractures (Colles' fracture) are an indicative of increased risk of future spine and hip fractures. In this study, a nonlinear fracture mechanics-based finite element method is applied to human radius to assess its fracture load as a function of cortical bone geometry and material properties. Seven three-dimensional finite element models of radius were created and the fracture loads were determined by using cohesive finite element modeling which explicitly represents the crack and the fracture process zone behavior. The fracture loads found in the simulations (731-6793 N) were in the range of experimental values reported in the literature. The fracture loads predicted by the simulations decreased by 4-5% per decade based only on material level changes and by 6-20% per decade when geometrical changes were also included. Cortical polar moment of inertia at 15% distal radius showed the highest correlation to fracture load (r(2)=0.97). These findings demonstrate the strength of fracture mechanics-based finite element modeling and show that combining geometrical and material properties provides a better assessment of fracture risk in human radius.

  8. A follow-up study of the community near the McColl waste disposal site.

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, J A; Goldman, L R; Satin, K P; Smith, D F; Vance, W A; Neutra, R R

    1991-01-01

    To assess the effect of interim clean-up measures on the current health of a community, we conducted a follow-up survey of 193 residents living near the McColl waste disposal site and a comparison area located approximately 5 miles from the site. Results from this survey were compared with results from a similar survey conducted 7 years earlier. Odors were detected at least once per week by 32.7% of "high-exposed" respondents in 1988 compared with 68.5% in 1981, but prevalence odds ratios (PORs) comparing symptom reporting between "high-exposed" and comparison-area respondents were greater than that of the 1981 survey for 89% of symptoms. PORs comparing symptom reporting between these two areas were greater than 2.0 for 64% of symptoms assessed in the current survey. Symptoms reported in excess did not represent a single organ system or suggest a mechanism of response. PORs comparing respondents who were very worried about the environment and those reporting no worry were greater than 2.0 for 86% of symptoms. These finding, along with environmental data from the area, suggest that living near the waste disposal site and being very worried about the environment, rather than a toxicologic effect of chemical from the site, explain excess symptom reporting found in this follow-up study. PMID:1954927

  9. The Effects of Dorsal Cortical Comminution on Radiographic Results following Percutaneous Pinning for Extra-Articular Colles' Fracture.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Po-Yao; Yang, Tien-Yu; Shen, Shih-Hsun; Tsai, Yao-Hung; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that dorsal cortical comminution (DCC) can predict redisplacement after nonoperative treatment of Colles' fractures; however, the effects of a DCC defect on radiographic outcomes following percutaneous pinning for dorsally displaced extraarticular Colles' fractures are unclear. We, therefore, performed a retrospective study on 85 patients who sustained such fractures treated with percutaneous pinning within 2006-2009. The main outcome measures included four radiographic parameters, including radial height, radial inclination, radial tilt, and ulnar variance. The radiological results showed that all fractures after percutaneous pinning followed the same time series changes and patterns of fracture collapse regardless of the presence of a DCC defect. The use of the pinning construct is to provide support for static loading but not for dynamic loading. Although the final radiographic outcomes were classified as acceptable in fractures with and without DCC, we recommend that a different approach in the management of displaced Colles' fractures might be necessary in consideration of increasing patient expectations of health care.

  10. The Gordon Gordon-Taylor Memorial Lecture: surgical giants and giants among surgeons--the case of Abraham Colles.

    PubMed

    Little, Miles

    2006-12-01

    Sir Gordon Gordon-Taylor was a surgical giant and a giant among surgeons. There's a distinction between the two. Surgical giants are technical geniuses who pave the way for others and set the standards against which others can measure their performance. Giants among surgeons contribute other things to the science and practice of surgery and sometimes to fields outside surgery. By these measures, Abraham Colles was not a surgical giant. He thought, wrote and taught about his interests. He enhanced the reputation of Irish surgery. In retrospect, his science and his ethics seem flawed by modern standards, but by the measures of his own time he was a model investigator and a man of outstanding moral probity. He is remembered for the eponymous Colles's fracture and for Colles's fascia and ligament. He held the Chair of Anatomy and Surgery in Dublin for 32 years and drew the admiration and affection of his contemporaries, colleagues and students. He was a giant among surgeons, and his name deserves commemoration.

  11. The Effects of Dorsal Cortical Comminution on Radiographic Results following Percutaneous Pinning for Extra-Articular Colles' Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Po-Yao; Yang, Tien-Yu; Shen, Shih-Hsun; Tsai, Yao-Hung; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that dorsal cortical comminution (DCC) can predict redisplacement after nonoperative treatment of Colles' fractures; however, the effects of a DCC defect on radiographic outcomes following percutaneous pinning for dorsally displaced extraarticular Colles' fractures are unclear. We, therefore, performed a retrospective study on 85 patients who sustained such fractures treated with percutaneous pinning within 2006–2009. The main outcome measures included four radiographic parameters, including radial height, radial inclination, radial tilt, and ulnar variance. The radiological results showed that all fractures after percutaneous pinning followed the same time series changes and patterns of fracture collapse regardless of the presence of a DCC defect. The use of the pinning construct is to provide support for static loading but not for dynamic loading. Although the final radiographic outcomes were classified as acceptable in fractures with and without DCC, we recommend that a different approach in the management of displaced Colles' fractures might be necessary in consideration of increasing patient expectations of health care. PMID:26295048

  12. Lava-ground ice interactions in Elysium Planitia, Mars: Geomorphological and geospatial analysis of the Tartarus Colles cone groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Christopher W.; Fagents, Sarah A.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2011-03-01

    The western Tartarus Colles cone groups are located on Mars between northeastern Elysium Planitia and southern Arcadia Planitia (25°N-27°N and 170°E-171°E). This region contains >40,000 cratered cones covering a total area >2000 km2. These landforms have been interpreted as volcanic rootless constructs (VRCs) that were produced by explosive lava-water interactions ˜75-250 Ma ago. To better constrain their paleoenvironmental significance, we develop photogeological maps, morphological descriptions, lava thickness estimates, and statistical nearest neighbor (NN) analyses. The VRC-hosting Tartarus Colles lava flow exhibits bimodal thicknesses of 25-30 m and 55-60 m, whereas lava thickness associated with rootless eruption sites are unimodal, with a mean of 58 ± 8 m at 1 standard deviation (σ). Rootless eruption sites occur in 36 continuous domains with >10 rootless eruption sites per square kilometer and population sizes (N) >30. Renormalized Poisson NN analyses show that rootless eruption sites in 26 of 31 domains with N < 3000 are randomly distributed within 2σ confidence limits, whereas four of five domains with N > 3000 exhibit statistically significant clustering beyond 2σ. Regional clustering of rootless eruption sites in ˜60 m thick lava is interpreted to be the result of a minimum lava thickness threshold required to volatilize ground ice and generate rootless eruptions before the lava core solidifies. Ground ice continued to melt after VRC formation and formed pitted terrains through thermokarstification. Widespread VRCs and pitted terrains in the Tartarus Colles region imply the presence of a major fossil hydrothermal system that was generated by lava-ground ice interactions during the late to middle Amazonian.

  13. cm-scale variations of crystal orientation fabric in cold Alpine ice core from Colle Gnifetti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerch, Johanna; Weikusat, Ilka; Eisen, Olaf; Wagenbach, Dietmar; Erhardt, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of the microstructural parameters of ice has been an important part of ice core analyses so far mainly in polar cores in order to obtain information about physical processes (e.g. deformation, recrystallisation) on the micro- and macro-scale within an ice body. More recently the influence of impurities and climatic conditions during snow accumulation on these processes has come into focus. A deeper understanding of how palaeoclimate proxies interact with physical properties of the ice matrix bears relevance for palaeoclimatic interpretations, improved geophysical measurement techniques and the furthering of ice dynamical modeling. Variations in microstructural parameters e.g. crystal orientation fabric or grain size can be observed on a scale of hundreds and tens of metres but also on a centimetre scale. The underlying processes are not necessarily the same on all scales. Especially for the short-scale variations many questions remain unanswered. We present results from a study that aims to investigate following hypotheses: 1. Variations in grain size and fabric, i.e. strong changes of the orientation of ice crystals with respect to the vertical, occur on a centimetre scale and can be observed in all depths of an ice core. 2. Palaeoclimate proxies like dust and impurities have an impact on the microstructural processes and thus are inducing the observed short-scale variations in grain size and fabric. 3. The interaction of proxies with the ice matrix leads to depth intervals that show correlating behaviour as well as ranges with anticorrelation between microstructural parameters and palaeoclimatic proxies. The respective processes need to be identified. Fabric Analyser measurements were conducted on more than 80 samples (total of 8 m) from different depth ranges of a cold Alpine ice core (72 m length) drilled in 2013 at Colle Gnifetti, Switzerland/Italy. Results were obtained by automatic image processing, providing estimates for grain size distributions

  14. Paleomagnetic dating of dedolomitization in Cambrian-Ordovician Arbuckle Group limestones and Pennsylvanian Collings Ranch Conglomerate, southern Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nick, K.E.; Elmore, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and petrographic techniques have been used to date dedolomitization in stratigraphic and tectonic dolomites exposed in the Arbuckle Mountains, southern Oklahoma. The authors examined red dedolomites and their dolomite precursors from the Cambrian-Ordovician Arbuckle Group and dolomite clasts in the Pennsylvanian Collings Ranch Conglomerate. Authigenic hematite is associated with the dedolomite and precipitated as a result of the dedolomitization process. Dedolomite is associated with paleokarst and fractures, burrows, Liesegang bands, and red rims on conglomerate clasts. Magnetic directions from these dedolomitized rocks range from Dec = 145/sup 0/ to 154/sup 0/ and Inc = 2/sup 0/ to 9/sup 0/, with ks greater than 50 and /alpha/95s less than 5. The directions are constrained by fold tests to be post-structural (Late Pennsylvanian to Early Permian) and in the Collings Ranch to post-depositional. These directions correspond to a reversed Pennsylvanian pole position and the magnetizations are interpreted as chemical remanent magnetizations (CRM) acquired when hematite precipitated during dedolomitization.

  15. Phyllosilcates in the Knob Fields around Ariadnes Colles on Mars: Stratigraphy, Mineralogy and Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, L.; Bishop, J. L.; Neukum, G.

    2012-04-01

    The region between Terra Cimmeria and Terra Sirenum contains several fields of enigmatic knobs, in-cluding Ariadnes Colles, Atlantis Chaos and Gorgo-num Chaos. They have been mapped as Hesperian or Amazonian units [1,2] and are located within the shoreline of the Eridania Lake, which might have formed Ma'adim Vallis [3]. The knob fields contain Mg/Fe-rich and locally Al-rich phyllosilicates [5,6, this study]. Following the stratigraphic placement by [1,2], the knobs are younger than the Noachian, in a possible disagreement to [4]. The region also features chloride deposits [7] and valley networks younger than the Hesperian ridged plains (Hr unit [1,2]), named Mid-Latitude Valleys (MLV) by [8], and has been proposed as an MSL landing site by [9]. The knob fields have been mapped by [10] as "surface type 4" of a possible airfall deposit informally named "Electris deposit", which covers the Hesperian ridged plains and cratered uplands. A recent study by [6], suggested that the knob fields are not part of, but postdate the "Electris deposit", yet possibly contain reworked "Electris" material. Our geological mapping shows that the knob fields are indeed one morphological expression consistent with the "Electris deposit" model [10]. However, the "Electris" deposit does not stratigraphically overlay the Hesperian ridged plains (Hr unit) and is eroded back to the level of the ridged plains, as proposed by [6,10]. Instead, the "Electris" deposit, including the knob fields, is covered or embayed by the ridged plains, and thus is older. This results in a late Noachian age for the "Electris deposit", in agreement with [11]. This also reconciles the apparent contradiction of the stratigraphy suggested by [1,2,6,10] to [4], as the clays would then indeed have formed in the "phyllosian" period, as "sedimentary clays" of [12]. Wide valley networks cut into the "Electris" deposit and may have filled the Eridania lake. The knob fields and clays within are observed at varying total

  16. Stratigraphical evidence of late Amazonian periglaciation and glaciation in the Astapus Colles region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, Richard J.; Osinski, Gordon R.

    2009-07-01

    Recent modeling of the meteorological conditions during and following times of high obliquity suggests that an icy mantle could have been emplaced in western Utopia Planitia by atmospheric deposition during the late Amazonian period [Costard, F.M., Forget, F., Madeleine, J.B., Soare, R.J., Kargel, J.S., 2008. Lunar Planet. Sci. 39. Abstract 1274; Madeleine, B., Forget, F., Head, J.W., Levrard, B., Montmessin, F., 2007. Lunar Planet. Sci. 38. Abstract 1778]. Astapus Colles (ABa) is a late Amazonian geological unit - located in this hypothesized area of accumulation - that comprises an icy mantle tens of meters thick [Tanaka, K.L., Skinner, J.A., Hare, T.M., 2005. US Geol. Surv. Sci. Invest., Map 2888]. For the most part, this unit drapes the early Amazonian Vastitas Borealis interior unit (ABvi); to a lesser degree it overlies the early Amazonian Vastitas Borealis marginal unit (ABvm) and the early to late Hesperian UP plains unit HBu2 [Tanaka, K.L., Skinner, J.A., Hare, T.M., 2005. US Geol. Surv. Sci. Invest., Map 2888]. Landscapes possibly modified by late-Amazonian periglacial processes [Costard, F.M., Kargel, J.S., 1995. Icarus 114, 93-112; McBride, S.A., Allen, C.C., Bell, M.S., 2005. Lunar Planet. Sci. 36. Abstract 1090; Morgenstern, A., Hauber, E., Reiss, D., van Gasselt, S., Grosse, G., Schirrmeister, L., 2007. J. Geophys. Res. 112, doi:10.1029/2006JE002869. E06010; Seibert, N.M., Kargel, J.S., 2001. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 899-902; Soare, R.J., Kargel, J.S., Osinski, G.R., Costard, F., 2007. Icarus 191, 95-112; Soare, R.J., Osinski, G.R., Roehm, C.L., 2008. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 272, 382-393] and glacial processes [Milliken, R.E., Mustard, J.F., Goldsby, D.L., 2003. J. Geophys. Res. 108 (E6), doi:10.1029/2002JE002005. 5057; Mustard, J.F., Cooper, C.D., Rifkin, M.K., 2001. Nature 412, 411-414; Tanaka, K.L., Skinner, J.A., Hare, T.M., 2005. US Geol. Surv. Sci. Invest., Map 2888] have been reported within the region. Researchers have assumed that the

  17. Explosive Lava-Water Interactions in Elysium Planitia, Mars: Constraints on the Formation of the Tartarus Colles Cone Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, C. W.; Fagents, S. A.; Wilson, L.

    2009-12-01

    Volcanic rootless cones (VRCs) are typically generated by explosive molten fuel-coolant interactions (MFCIs) involving lava and groundwater. VRCs are significant in planetary environments because they imply the presence of active lava flows and an underlying volatile phase (e.g., groundwater or ice) at the time of cone formation. Rootless MFCIs require volatilization of groundwater before the core lava temperature descends below its solidus. Therefore, integrated geological mapping of VRC groups, age-dating of their host lava flow surfaces, and thermodynamic modeling of lava-permafrost interactions can provide constraints on where and when near-surface ground ice has been present in volcanic regions. This information is valuable for developing models of global climate change on Mars and for determining the relationships between climate and planetary volatile accretion, outgassing history, distribution of water and evolution of the hydrological cycle, abundance and stability of liquid water, surface weathering environments, and the development of environments that could support life. Photogeological mapping reveals that the Tartarus Colles Region, located in eastern Elysium Planitia (25-27°N, 170-171°E), Mars, includes >167 VRC groups ranging in area from <1 to 1258 km2 with a total area of 2014 km2. Crater size-frequency relationships suggest that the Tartarus Colles lava flow formed ~75-250 Ma ago. Within the Tartarus Colles Region, VRCs preferentially form where lava is >30 m thick. Based on the results of our thermodynamic modeling, we infer that VRCs did not form where the lava was <30 m thick because the upper 16-21 m of the substrate was partially desiccated. The common occurrence of VRCs in association with 30-60 m thick lava suggests that at the time of the cone-forming eruptions there was an ice table at <37 m depth. We therefore conclude that during the Late to Middle Amazonian a global cryosphere was present at mid-latitudes at a depth <37 m, but that

  18. Ground-motion amplification at the Colle di Roio ridge, central Italy: a combined effect of stratigraphy and topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailemikael, S.; Lenti, L.; Martino, S.; Paciello, A.; Rossi, D.; Mugnozza, G. Scarascia

    2016-07-01

    Following the Mw 6.3 L'Aquila Earthquake of 2009 April 6, the Colle di Roio village, central Italy, suffered severe building damages. The village is located on top of an elongated carbonate ridge characterized by a complex subsurface structure, a condition prone to seismic amplification due to topographic and stratigraphic effects. We address the role of the subsurface structure and topography in the ground-motion amplification observed at the ridge top. To characterize the subsurface structure of the ridge we performed geological investigations and ambient vibration measurements in single-station as well as 2-D-array configuration. Geological investigations pointed out that the ridge top is characterized by the presence of fractured rock material as a consequence of its anticlinal fold structure. Horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) processing of ambient vibration records showed a broad peak in the HVSR functions in the frequency range 4-6 Hz and 2-D-array data demonstrated that locally the subsurface structure at the ridge top cannot be considered homogeneous. In summer 2009, we further installed one accelerometric station on the ridge top to experimentally evaluate the site amplification. By means of HVSR analysis of a sample of 18 weak-motion records (H/V), we found that ground-motion amplification occurs in a narrow frequency range centred around 4 Hz with mean ratio amplitude of 6. We also analysed the dependence of seismic amplification on the azimuth by calculating H/V ratios for horizontal components rotated into a range of azimuths. This analysis showed that the higher level of horizontal amplification occurs in the direction perpendicular to the ridge trending direction. With the aim of evaluating the contribution of the topography and the local subsurface structure on the observed seismic amplification, we performed 2-D finite-difference modelling of wave propagation through the ridge, adopting both homogeneous and heterogeneous models. We were

  19. Postmenopausal women with colles' fracture have lower values of bone mineral density than controls as measured by quantitative ultrasound and densitometry.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Manuel; Saavedra, P; del Pino-Montes, J; Alegre, J; Pérez-Cano, R; Guerra, G Martínez Díaz; Díaz-Curiel, M; Valero, C; Muñoz-Torres, M; Torrijos, A; Mosquera, J; Gómez-Alonso, C

    2005-01-01

    Measurement of ultrasonographic parameters provides information concerning not only bone density but also bone architecture. We investigated the usefulness of ultrasonographic parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) to evaluate the probability of Colles' fracture. Two-hundred eighty-nine postmenopausal women (62.3 +/- 8.7 yr) with (n = 76) and without (n = 213) Colles' fracture were studied. BMD of lumbar spine and proximal femur was evaluated in all women by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), and stiffness in the calcaneus were measured by a Sahara ultrasonometer (Hologic). Patients suffering from Colles' fracture had lower values of BMD adjusted by height at the lumbar spine, L2-L4 (0.797 g/cm2 vs 0.860 g/cm2), femoral neck (0.685 g/cm2 vs 0.712 g/cm2 ), SOS (1518 m/sg vs 1525 m/sg), and stiffness (74.6 vs 77.7) (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, BUA values were similar in both groups. After stepwise logistic regression analysis, the area found under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves was 0.60 for L2L4 and 0.63 for a formula combining L2L4 and height. Our data suggest that patients suffering from Colles' fracture have lower values of BMD by DXA, SOS, and stiffness. However, the ability of these techniques to discriminate is low because the values for the area under ROC curve are 0.60 for L2-L4 and 0.63 for a formula derived of the combination of L2-L4 and height.

  20. HR-pQCT based FE analysis of the most distal radius section provides an improved prediction of Colles' fracture load in vitro.

    PubMed

    Varga, Peter; Pahr, Dieter H; Baumbach, Sebastian; Zysset, Philippe K

    2010-11-01

    The remarkable performances of high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) make the distal radius a favorable site for early diagnosis of osteoporosis and improved Colles' fracture risk assessment. The goal of this study was to investigate if the HR-pQCT-based micro finite element (μFE) method applied on specific sections of the distal radius provides improved predictions of Colles' fracture load in vitro compared to bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), or histomorphometric indices. HR-pQCT based BMC, BMD, histomorphometric parameters, and μFE models of 9-mm-thick bone sections were used to predict fracture load of 21 distal radii assessed in an experimental model of Colles' fracture reported in a previous study. The analysis was performed on two bone sections: a standard one recommended by the HR-pQCT manufacturer and a second one defined just proximal to the distal subchondral plate. For most of the investigated parameters, significant differences were found between the values of the two sections. Correlations with experimental fracture load and strength were higher in the most distal section, and the difference was statistically significant for μFE strength. Furthermore, the most distal section was computed to have significantly lower ultimate force and strength by 13% and 35%, respectively, than the standard section. BMC provided a better estimation of Colles' fracture load (R(2)=0.942) than aBMD or any other histomorphometric indices. The best prediction was achieved with μFE analyses of the most distal slice (R(2)=0.962), which provided quantitatively correct ultimate forces.

  1. The formation of abdomino-perineal sacs by the fasciae of Scarpa and Colles, and their clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Martin, B F

    1984-06-01

    It has been shown that the membranous layer of the subcutaneous tissue, known as Scarpa's fascia, is confined to an oval area on each side of the abdominal wall. By its attachment to the deep fascia it encloses an obliquely directed oval sac which extends into the perineum by three pocket-like diverticulae. The fascial extension which forms the pockets is known as the fascia of Colles. Medially, the sac blends with the fundiform ligament, so that the sacs do not communicate with each other or with the interfascial space deep to the penile dartos. Laterally, the inferior margin creates the crease-line of the groin by its attachment to the fascia lata. Between these attachments the pockets arise from the sac. The lateral pocket continues into the superficial perineal pouch. The medial pocket, together with the intermediate, occupies the scrotum or labium majus. The intermediate pocket is associated with the spermatic cord or the round ligament of the uterus and blends with their coverings posteriorly. In the male it terminates just above the testis. The significance of the fascial arrangements in relation to urinary extravasation is discussed, and also the relationship of the intermediate pocket to an indirect inguinal hernia.

  2. Reliability and validity of measurement and associations between disability and behavioural factors in patients with Colles' fracture.

    PubMed

    Lövgren, Anneli; Hellström, Karin

    2012-04-01

    The aims of the study were to 1) investigate the test-retest reliability, the internal consistency in instruments that measure behavioural factors and disability as well as to investigate convergent validity between the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Outcome Questionnaire (DASH) and the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE), in patients with Colles' fracture; and 2) assess the relationship between the behavioural measures and the region-specific measures addressing the patient perceptions of impairment, functional loss, and disability. Two samples (sample 1 = 16; sample 2 = 16) of patients with the fracture immobilised in plaster cast were included. The participants answered the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Outcome Questionnaire (DASH), Tampa Scale of Kinesophobia (TSK), Catastrophizing Subscale (CAT) of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), and Self-Efficacy Scale (SES) twice. Test-retest reliability was satisfactory for all instruments. The internal consistency examined with Cronbach's alpha was between 0.68 and 0.97. Because acceptable to good test-retest reliability and internal consistency were demonstrated for the PRWE, DASH, TSK, CAT of the CSQ, and SES, they can be used to detect and monitor fear of movement/(re)injury, catastrophic cognitions, and self-efficacy in patients with radius fracture in the acute and subacute phase. Generally low to moderate correlations were found between behavioural and region-specific measures, indicating that there are two distinct concepts that are not interchangeable.

  3. The formation of abdomino-perineal sacs by the fasciae of Scarpa and Colles, and their clinical significance.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, B F

    1984-01-01

    It has been shown that the membranous layer of the subcutaneous tissue, known as Scarpa's fascia, is confined to an oval area on each side of the abdominal wall. By its attachment to the deep fascia it encloses an obliquely directed oval sac which extends into the perineum by three pocket-like diverticulae. The fascial extension which forms the pockets is known as the fascia of Colles. Medially, the sac blends with the fundiform ligament, so that the sacs do not communicate with each other or with the interfascial space deep to the penile dartos. Laterally, the inferior margin creates the crease-line of the groin by its attachment to the fascia lata. Between these attachments the pockets arise from the sac. The lateral pocket continues into the superficial perineal pouch. The medial pocket, together with the intermediate, occupies the scrotum or labium majus. The intermediate pocket is associated with the spermatic cord or the round ligament of the uterus and blends with their coverings posteriorly. In the male it terminates just above the testis. The significance of the fascial arrangements in relation to urinary extravasation is discussed, and also the relationship of the intermediate pocket to an indirect inguinal hernia. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:6235202

  4. The Deese and Collings ranch conglomerates of the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma: Evidence of strike-slip movement during the deformation stage of the southern Oklahoma Aulacogen

    SciTech Connect

    Cemen, I.; Pybas, K.; Stafford, C.; Al-Shaieb, Z. . School of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    It has been widely recognized that the Pennsylvanian conglomerates of the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma, record the deformation stage of the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen. Two of these units are the Desmoinesian Deese Conglomerate, exposed in the Mill Creek Syncline area between the Reagan and Mill Creek fault zones, and the Middle Virgilian Collings Ranch Conglomerate, exposed along the Washita Valley fault zone in the Turner Falls area. The authors investigated clast size, geometry, and content, primary sedimentary structures, petrography, petrology, and diagenesis of the two conglomerate units, as well as the geometric relationship of their basins with nearby faults. Their evidence suggests that the two conglomerates were deposited as alluvial fans in basins formed by strike-slip movements. The Collings Ranch Conglomerate was deposited in a basin formed as the result of left-stepping along the nearby Washita Valley strike-slip fault zone. The Deese Conglomerate was deposited in a basin formed due to the combined effect of strike-slip and dip-slip movements along the Reagan and Mill Creek fault zones. In the Collings Ranch basin, the deposition was accomplished primarily by channel-fill and sieve deposits in the proximal region of the fan. The Deese Conglomerate was deposited as an alluvial fan or fans which included several channel deposits while, in the deeper parts of the basin, fine-grained materials and limestones were deposited. These observations and their possible interpretations suggest that the Washita Valley, Mill Creek, and Reagan fault zones have experienced substantial strike-slip movement during the deformation stage of the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen.

  5. A new variable angled locking volar plate system for Colles' fracture: outcome study and time-course improvement of objective clinical variables.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Masataka; Ando, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Our purposes were to report the radiographic outcomes and complications of patients with Colles' fracture treated with the Nakashima locking volar plate system (variable angled distal screw locking mechanism) prospectively and to report the results of objective clinical variables such as grip strength and range of motion of the wrist prospectively at up to one year. This study consisted of eight men and 32 women for analysis of radiographic parameters (volar tilt, radial inclination and radial length) and complications. Radiographic parameters were measured pre-operatively, immediately post-operatively and at final follow-up visit. The average age at operation was 60.3 years old. Among them, we selected 25 cases (6 men and 19 women) whom we followed up at six weeks, three months, six months and one year post-operatively. The average age at operation in this group was 62 years old. We measured objective clinical variables (grip strength, forearm rotation, wrist extension/flexion) at each visit. Except for volar tilt, radiographic parameters revealed no significant changes between immediately post-operative radiographs and radiographs at final follow-up visit. Complications included loss of reduction in two cases. Objective clinical variables other than pronation measurement showed significant increase at each visit up to one year post-operatively. Satisfactory clinical and radiographic results were obtained by using this system. The variable angled distal fragment plating system appears to be a reliable construct for rigid fixation of Colles' fractures; however, technical errors can occur, as with other fixation systems. We demonstrated that the follow-up of Colles' fracture treated by our volar locking plate less than one year post-operative may be insufficient.

  6. Finite element modeling of the influence of hand position and bone properties on the Colles' fracture load during a fall.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Drew; Ural, Ani

    2010-08-01

    Distal forearm fracture is one of the most frequently observed osteoporotic fractures, which may occur as a result of low energy falls such as falls from a standing height and may be linked to the osteoporotic nature of the bone, especially in the elderly. In order to prevent the occurrence of radius fractures and their adverse outcomes, understanding the effect of both extrinsic and intrinsic contributors to fracture risk is essential. In this study, a nonlinear fracture mechanics-based finite element model is applied to human radius to assess the influence of extrinsic factors (load orientation and load distribution between scaphoid and lunate) and intrinsic bone properties (age-related changes in fracture properties and bone geometry) on the Colles' fracture load. Seven three-dimensional finite element models of radius were created, and the fracture loads were determined by using cohesive finite element modeling, which explicitly represented the crack and the fracture process zone behavior. The simulation results showed that the load direction with respect to the longitudinal and dorsal axes of the radius influenced the fracture load. The fracture load increased with larger angles between the resultant load and the dorsal axis, and with smaller angles between the resultant load and longitudinal axis. The fracture load also varied as a function of the load ratio between the lunate and scaphoid, however, not as drastically as with the load orientation. The fracture load decreased as the load ratio (lunate/scaphoid) increased. Multiple regression analysis showed that the bone geometry and the load orientation are the most important variables that contribute to the prediction of the fracture load. The findings in this study establish a robust computational fracture risk assessment method that combines the effects of intrinsic properties of bone with extrinsic factors associated with a fall, and may be elemental in the identification of high fracture risk individuals

  7. Higher-order neighbor analysis of the Tartarus Colles cone groups, Mars: The application of geographical indices to the understanding of cone pattern evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Mark A.

    2008-09-01

    Cone fields of ambivalent origin exist in the Elysium, Amazonis, Cerberus, Isidis, Acidalia and Cydonia regions of Mars. Considerable interest exists in regard to their location and origin as their occurrence in many instances, is most likely associated with near surface ground ice; the presence of which has consequences for past and present climate, astrobiological activity, and future exploration. This research has outlined an understanding of both spatial and geomorphic processes of cone development for a region within the Tartarus Colles, Mars, as well as the manner in which spatial statistical indices can be affected by modification to the areal unit of study. This study found that cone groups for the region of the Tartarus Colles, are completely spatially random (CSR) across all distances extending to their sixth-order neighbor. However, significant statistical indices of aggregation were found for groups where post-emplacement erosional modification may have occurred by solifluction-like mechanisms or magmatic incursion into or over frozen ground. Such circumstances imply that R-indices reflect both the underlying spatial and geologic processes of cone formation, and also, an overprint of erosional modification of the cone-field within a glacial or periglacial setting, in this instance. The comparison of spatial indices can therefore offer a viewpoint from which geomorphic change can be recognized and quantitatively evaluated for cone fields.

  8. [Natural or interactive kinds? The transient mental disorders in Ian Hacking's lectures at the Collège de France (2000-2006)].

    PubMed

    Delille, Emmanuel; Kirsch, Marc

    2016-12-01

    The concepts developed by Ian Hacking during his lectures at the Collège de France (2000-2006) have provided an important contribution to the debates within the field of philosophy of psychiatry. Professor at the Chair of Philosophy and History of Scientific Concepts after Michel Foucault, Hacking is the author of a reflection on the classification of mental disorders, which arises from the problem of the natural kinds. In order to explain the case studies developed in Hacking's Paris lectures, we first go back to the definition of a series of concepts, then we discuss the status of his scientific metaphors. Finally we analyze the relationship between the notions, respectively, of "transient mental illness" and "culture-bound syndrome". We emphasize that the latter derives from the Canadian transcultural psychiatry.

  9. Cost effectiveness analysis of BMD referral for DXA using ultrasound as a selective pre-screen in a group of women with low trauma Colles' fractures.

    PubMed

    Sim, M F; Stone, M; Johansen, A; Evans, W

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of bone density (BMD) are central to the World Health Organisation (WHO) approach to the definition of osteoporosis. Dual energy X- ray absorptiometry (DXA) remains the gold standard technique for measuring the bone mineral density (BMD) but Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) is an attractive alternative method of bone assessment because it is easy to use and relatively inexpensive. It has been suggested that QUS could be used as a selective population pre-screen, to maximise the cost effectiveness of referral for DXA assessment of BMD. We set out to examine how such an approach might perform in the assessment of women with low trauma Colles' fracture. In 46 women aged 50-80 (mean 67) years we used DXA to measure BMD at lumbar spine and hip, and heel bone ultrasound to measure Broad Band Attenuation (BUA) and Velocity of Sound (VOS). We calculated local costs of pounds sterling 45 for DXA and pounds sterling 15 for QUS. We identified a BUA threshold of 60 dB/MHz as most cost effective as pre-screen, and calculated a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 84% in identifying those subjects who were subsequently identified as having osteoporosis by DXA. DXA assessment of all patients had a cost of pounds sterling 77 per osteoporotic subject identified. We examined the cost-effectiveness of using QUS as a pre-screen, only referring subjects for more expensive DXA assessment if BUA was less than 60 dB/MHz. However this approach had no advantage, still costing pounds sterling 78 per osteoporotic subject identified. QUS assessment does not appear cost-effective as a pre-screen for DXA, even in this high risk group of women with low trauma Colles' fracture. A QUS pre-screen would only be cost-effective if the scan could be performed at a substantially lower cost.

  10. Pollen record from Colle Curti and Cesi: Early and Middle Pleistocene mammal sites in the Umbro-Marchean Apennine Mountains (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, Adele

    2000-12-01

    The palynological record from the Colle Curti and Cesi continental deposits has been examined in order to identify the main palaeofloristic and vegetational changes between 0.99 and 0.6-0.7 Ma. These data show a progressive increase in aridity, as well as a progressive decrease in temperature, which are associated with the transition in dominance from the 41 to 100 ka cyclicity in the Milankovitch orbital record during the Middle Pleistocene. The disappearance of Tsuga, recorded during the lower part of the Brunhes Chron, also has been related to a shift in global aridity. During the successive open vegetational phases (glacials), Chenopodiaceae and Artemisia progressively increase, whereas Cyperaceae decrease. Forest phases (interglacials) are successively dominated by Tsuga, Abies with Picea and, finally, Pinus; but all lack significant expansion of broad-leaved deciduous taxa. Palynological and sedimentological data, in addition to taphonomic interpretations, demonstrate the occurrence of several hiatuses in the lower parts of the interglacials. These hiatuses are considered to represent the palaeoenvironmental response to climatic changes affecting local sedimentological and geomorphological conditions.

  11. Fast estimation of Colles' fracture load of the distal section of the radius by homogenized finite element analysis based on HR-pQCT.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Hadi S; Dünki, Andreas; Fabech, Jonas; Stauber, Martin; Vilayphiou, Nicolas; Pahr, Dieter; Pretterklieber, Michael; Wandel, Jasmin; Rietbergen, Bert van; Zysset, Philippe K

    2017-04-01

    Fractures of the distal section of the radius (Colles' fractures) occur earlier in life than other osteoporotic fractures. Therefore, they can be interpreted as a warning signal for later, more deleterious fractures of vertebral bodies or the femoral neck. In the past decade, the advent of HR-pQCT allowed a detailed architectural analysis of the distal radius and an automated but time-consuming estimation of its strength with linear micro-finite element (μFE) analysis. Recently, a second generation of HR-pQCT scanner (XtremeCT II, SCANCO Medical, Switzerland) with a resolution beyond 61 μm became available for even more refined biomechanical investigations in vivo. This raises the question how biomechanical outcome variables compare between the original (LR) and the new (HR) scanner resolution. Accordingly, the aim of this work was to validate experimentally a patient-specific homogenized finite element (hFE) analysis of the distal section of the human radius for the fast prediction of Colles' fracture load based on the last generation HR-pQCT. Fourteen pairs of fresh frozen forearms (mean age = 77.5±9) were scanned intact using the high (61 μm) and the low (82 μm) resolution protocols that correspond to the new and original HR-pQCT systems. From each forearm, the 20mm most distal section of the radius were dissected out, scanned with μCT at 16.4 μm and tested experimentally under compression up to failure for assessment of stiffness and ultimate load. Linear and nonlinear hFE models together with linear micro finite element (μFE) models were then generated based on the μCT and HR-pQCT reconstructions to predict the aforementioned mechanical properties of 24 sections. Precision errors of the short term reproducibility of the FE analyses were measured based on the repeated scans of 12 sections. The calculated failure loads correlated strongly with those measured in the experiments: accounting for donor as a random factor, the nonlinear hFE provided a

  12. Explosive lava-water interactions in Elysium Planitia, Mars: Geologic and thermodynamic constraints on the formation of the Tartarus Colles cone groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Christopher W.; Fagents, Sarah A.; Wilson, Lionel

    2010-09-01

    Volcanic rootless constructs (VRCs) are the products of explosive lava-water interactions. VRCs are significant because they imply the presence of active lava and an underlying aqueous phase (e.g., groundwater or ice) at the time of their formation. Combined mapping of VRC locations, age-dating of their host lava surfaces, and thermodynamic modeling of lava-substrate interactions can therefore constrain where and when water has been present in volcanic regions. This information is valuable for identifying fossil hydrothermal systems and determining relationships between climate, near-surface water abundance, and the potential development of habitable niches on Mars. We examined the western Tartarus Colles region (25-27°N, 170-171°E) in northeastern Elysium Planitia, Mars, and identified 167 VRC groups with a total area of ˜2000 km2. These VRCs preferentially occur where lava is ˜60 m thick. Crater size-frequency relationships suggest the VRCs formed during the late to middle Amazonian. Modeling results suggest that at the time of VRC formation, near-surface substrate was partially desiccated, but that the depth to the midlatitude ice table was $\\lesssim$42 m. This ground ice stability zone is consistent with climate models that predict intermediate obliquity (˜35°) between 75 and 250 Ma, with obliquity excursions descending to ˜25-32°. For lava thicknesses ranging from 30 to 60 m and ground ice fractions ranging from 0.1 to 0.3, an ice volume of ˜4-23 km3 could have been melted and/or vaporized by the time the lava solidified, and the associated hydrothermal systems could have retained temperatures >273 K for up to ˜1300 years.

  13. Colles wrist fracture – aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21228899 . Prawer A. Radius and ulna fractures. In: Eiff MP, Hatch RL, eds. Fracture Management for Primary Care . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ...

  14. D-Zero Colling Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.; Wintercorn, S.; /Fermilab

    1987-08-10

    This report provides the necessary sizing for the LN{sub 2} cooling coils in the D-Zero cryostats. Natural convection from finned tubes will be the means of cooling the cryostats and their contents until such time as liquid can be made by condensing. Each cryostat will contain three separate cooling runs. Two runs will be cooldown and the other steady state. These runs will be placed in each cryostat as shown in figure 3, 4a and 4b. By assuming a 100 K tube wall temperature, tube diameter (3/4-inch) and wall thickness (0.065-inch) and the total length of tube (2 x 2940-inch + 1463-inch), the heat transfer can be calculated. Table 1 was calculated from relations in 'Handbook of Heat transfer Fundamentals' for free convection, pages 6-34 through 6-40.

  15. ConSCRIPT

    PubMed Central

    Mottarella, Scott E.; Rosa, Mario; Bangura, Abdul; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Craig, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Structural Biology Extensible Visualization Scripting Language (SBEVSL) project is to allow users who are experts in one scripting language to use that language in a second molecular visualization environment without requiring the user to learn a new scripting language. ConSCRIPT, the first SBEVSL release, is a plug-in for PyMOL that accepts RasMol scripting commands either as premade scripts or as line-by-line entries from PyMOL's own command line. The plug-in is available for download at http://sourceforge.net/projects/sbevsl/files in the ConSCRIPT folder. PMID:21567873

  16. The Con Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the format of the Con Test, an Australian television game show which followed the same general rules and game play as the UK show PokerFace. At the end of each round a contestant needs to decide whether or not he or she should fold. A contestant needs to know how likely it is that he or she is in last place.…

  17. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  18. Colling Wipe Samples for VX Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, C; Hoppes, W G

    2010-02-11

    This standard operating procedure (SOP) provides uniform procedures for the collection of wipe samples of VX residues from surfaces. Personnel may use this procedure to collect and handle wipe samples in the field. Various surfaces, including building materials (wood, metal, tile, vinyl, etc.) and equipment, may be sampled based on this procedure. The purpose of such sampling is to determine whether or not the relevant surfaces are contaminated, to determine the extent of their contamination, to evaluate the effectiveness of decontamination procedures, and to determine the amount of contaminant that might present as a contact hazard.

  19. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con A Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Greco, Stephanie H; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R; Nagaraj, Savitha V; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E; Katz, Steven C; Miller, George

    2016-10-01

    Con A hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi but does not have a well-defined role in preclinical models of non-pathogen-mediated inflammation. Because Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle(-/-), and Dectin-1(-/-) mice. The role of C/EBPβ and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con A hepatitis, whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other C-type lectin receptors did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ-related signaling intermediates C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF-1α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation.

  20. Galaxias australes con núcleo doble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.

    Se estudia una muestra de galaxias australes con núcleo doble a partir de una búsqueda extensiva en la literatura. Se analizan las características morfológicas, fotométricas y espectroscópicas de la muestra. Para algunas galaxias se han realizado observaciones con el espectrógrafo multifunción (EMF) de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre a partir de las cuales se determinaron parámetros cinemáticos.

  1. InterCon Travel Health: Case B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truman, Gregory E.; Pachamanova, Dessislava A.; Goldstein, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    InterCon provides services to health insurers of foreign tourists who travel to the United States and Canada. Management wants to implement a new information system that will deal with several operational problems, but it is having difficulty securing the capital resources to fund the system's development. After an initial failure, the chief…

  2. Ependimoma myxopapilar sacro gigante con osteolisis

    PubMed Central

    Ajler, Pablo; Landriel, Federico; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Campero, Álvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: la presentación de un caso de una paciente con un ependimoma sacro con extensa infiltración y destrucción ósea local. Descripción del caso: una mujer de 53 años acudió a la consulta por dolor lumbosacro y alteraciones sensitivas perineales y esfinterianas. La imágenes por Resonancia Magnética (IRM) y la Tomografía Axial Computada (TAC) mostraron una lesión expansiva gigante a nivel S2-S4 con extensa osteólisis e invasión de tejidos adyacentes. Se realizó una exéresis tumoral completa con mejoría del estatus funcional. La anatomía patológica informó ependimoma mixopapilar. Discusión: la extensión de la resección quirúrgica es el mejor predictor de buen pronóstico. El tratamiento radiante se reserva como opción adyuvante para las resecciones incompletas y recidiva tumoral. La quimioterapia sólo debería utilizarse en casos en que la cirugía y la radioterapia estén contraindicadas. Conclusión: Los ependimomas mixopapilares sacros con destrucción ósea y presentación intra y extradural son muy infrecuentes y deben ser tenidos en cuenta entre los diagnósticos diferenciales preoperatorios. Su resección total, siempre que sea posible, es la mejor alternativa terapéutica. PMID:25165615

  3. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Huseyin; Liu, Jun; Tat, Pollyanna; Heffernan, Corey; Jones, Karen L; Verma, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Even though the technique of mammalian SCNT is just over a decade old it has already resulted in numerous significant advances. Despite the recent advances in the reprogramming field, SCNT remains the bench-mark for the generation of both genetically unmodified autologous pluripotent stem cells for transplantation and for the production of cloned animals. In this review we will discuss the pros and cons of SCNT, drawing comparisons with other reprogramming methods.

  4. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  5. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  6. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  7. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  8. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  9. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  10. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  11. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  12. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  13. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  14. Finemet versus ferrite -- Pros and cons

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng and Z.B. Qian

    1999-05-19

    There is a new magnetic alloy called Finemet which has very constant {mu}'{sub p}Qf up to {approximately} 2 kG and is very stable at high magnet flux density and temperature. It may be a good can-didate for high-gradient rf cavities. However, it has a rather low quality factor and is therefore very lossy. We compare the pros and cons of Finemet versus the common ferrite, when used in low-energy accelerating cavities, insertion for space-charge compensation, and barrier cavities.

  15. Energy Star program benefits Con Edison

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Impressed with savings in energy costs achieved after upgrading the lighting and air conditioning systems at its Manhattan headquarters, Home Box Office (HBO) wanted to do more, James Flock, vice president for computer and office systems, contacted Con Edison Co. of New York in March 1991 to determine what the company could do to save money by reducing energy consumed by personal computers. Arthur Kressner, Con Edison Research and Development manager contacted industry organizations and manufacturers for advice, but was told only to shut off computers at night and on weekends. Kressner arranged a series of meetings with IBM and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to discuss the issue, then approached the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which was designing a program to promote the introduction and use of energy-efficient office equipment. In 1992, the EPA announced the Energy Star program for PCs, enabling manufacturers to display the Energy Star logo on machines meeting program criteria, including the ability to enter a sleep mode in which neither the computer nor monitor consume more than 30 W or electricity. Industry experts estimate national energy consumption by office equipment could double by the year 2000, but Energy Star equipment is expected to improve efficiency and help maintain electric loads.

  16. Final 6D Muon Ionization Colling using Strong Focusing Quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, T. L.; Acosta, J. G.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Oliveros, S. J.; Summers, D. J.; Neuffer, D. V.

    2016-11-15

    Abstract Low emittance muon beam lines and muon colliders are potentially a rich source of BSM physics for future exper- imenters. A muon beam normalized emittance of ax,y,z = (280, 280, 1570)µm has been achieved in simulation with short solenoids and a betatron function of 3 cm. Here we use ICOOL and MAD-X to explore using a 400 MeV/c muon beam and strong focusing quadrupoles to achieve a normalized transverse emittance of 100 µm and complete 6D cooling. The low beta regions, as low as 5 mm, produced by the quadrupoles are occupied by dense, low Z absorbers, such as lithium hydride or beryllium, that cool the beam transversely. Equilibrium transverse emittance is linearly proportional to the transverse betatron function. Reverse emittance exchange with septa and/or wedges is then used to decrease transverse emittance from 100 to 25 µm at the expense of longitudinal emittance for a high energy lepton collider. Cooling challenges include chromaticity correction, ssband overlap, quadrupole acceptance, and staying in phase with RF.

  17. Cervical disc arthroplasty: Pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P. Justin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cervical disc arthroplasty has emerged as a promising potential alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in appropriately selected patients. Despite a history of excellent outcomes after ACDF, the question as to whether a fusion leads to adjacent segment degeneration remains unanswered. Numerous US investigational device exemption trials comparing cervical arthroplasty to fusion have been conducted to answer this question. Methods: This study reviews the current research regarding cervical athroplasty, and emphasizes both the pros and cons of arthroplasty as compared with ACDF. Results: Early clinical outcomes show that cervical arthroplasty is as effective as the standard ACDF. However, this new technology is also associated with an expanding list of novel complications. Conclusion: Although there is no definitive evidence that cervical disc replacement reduces the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, it does show other advantages; for example, faster return to work, and reduced need for postoperative bracing. PMID:22905327

  18. Pros and cons of the proteomics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashish; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    The number of proteins produced by the 30,000-40,000 genes of the human genome is estimated to be three or four orders of magnitude higher. Proteomics is a rapidly developing science. In principle, two main areas in the field of proteomics have been developed, each of them having its pros and cons. These fields are profiling and functional proteomics. The aim of the proteomic profiling is to describe and index the whole set of proteins of a biological sample, which could be an organism, an organ, or a cell, or parts there of like individual's tissue or organelles. In our understanding, both types of proteomics (profiling and functional) are valuable tools complementing other biological methodologies.

  19. Pros and cons of phage therapy

    PubMed Central

    Loc-Carrillo, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Many publications list advantages and disadvantages associated with phage therapy, which is the use of bacterial viruses to combat populations of nuisance or pathogenic bacteria. The goal of this commentary is to discuss many of those issues in a single location. In terms of “Pros,” for example, phages can be bactericidal, can increase in number over the course of treatment, tend to only minimally disrupt normal flora, are equally effective against antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, often are easily discovered, seem to be capable of disrupting bacterial biofilms, and can have low inherent toxicities. In addition to these assets, we consider aspects of phage therapy that can contribute to its safety, economics, or convenience, but in ways that are perhaps less essential to the phage potential to combat bacteria. For example, autonomous phage transfer between animals during veterinary application could provide convenience or economic advantages by decreasing the need for repeated phage application, but is not necessarily crucial to therapeutic success. We also consider possible disadvantages to phage use as antibacterial agents. These “Cons,” however, tend to be relatively minor. PMID:22334867

  20. Pro/con a precessional geodynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanyo, J.

    2003-04-01

    The modest amount of research that exists on the ability, or lack of ability, of mantle precession to power a geodynamo developed mostly during the last half of the 1900s. Papers by Roberts and Stewartson (1965) and by Busse (1968) studied precession generally without a pro/con conclusion. Malkus in the late 1960s attempted to advance a positive role for precession through experiments and analysis. His experiments have survived criticism, but his analyses were discounted, especially by Rochester, Jacobs, Smylie, and Chong (1975) and by Loper (1975). Rochester, et al. critiqued existing analyses of precession, including those of Malkus, but did not reach a strong position either pro or con a precessional geodynamo. Loper argued emphatically that precession was not capable of powering the geodynamo. Explicit analyses that either critique or support Loper’s arguments have yet to appear in the literature. During the 1970s, Vanyo and associates studied energy dissipation during precession of satellite liquid fuels and its effect on satellite attitude stability. Engineers and scientists in every country that has launched satellites completed similar research. Some is published in the aerospace literature, more is available in company and government reports. Beginning in 1981, Vanyo and associates applied this knowledge to the very similar problem of energy dissipation and flow patterns in precessing mechanical models scaled geometrically and dynamically to the Earth’s liquid core. Energy experiments indicate massive amounts of mechanical energy are dissipated at the CMB, and flow experiments show complex motions within the boundary layer and axial flows with helicity throughout the interior. Analysis of Earth core precession also advanced, especially in several papers by Kerswell and by Tilgner in the late 1990s. Detail numerical models have yet to appear. Although progress in understanding the role of precession in Earth core motions has advanced, there remains a

  1. Trazando la materia oscura con cúmulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se describe la estrategia adoptada para mapear la distribución de materia oscura y bariónica en galaxias elípticas cuyos cúmulos globulares están siendo observados con los telescopios VLT y Gemini. Se ejemplifican los resultados con los datos obtenidos en el cúmulo de Fornax.

  2. Games Con Men Play: The Semiosis of Deceptive Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankiss, Agnes

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes some of the most frequent deceptive interactions as rendered through case histories of male con artists and their victims taken from police records. Discusses the recurrent elements in both the con-games strategies and victims' way of interpreting those strategies. (JMF)

  3. Breath Analysis Science at PittCon 2012, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breath analysis science was featured in three organized sessions at this year’s Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or ‘PittCon 2012’ (http://www.pittcon.org/). As described in previous meeting reports, PittCon is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chem...

  4. RoboCon: A general purpose telerobotic control center

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Noakes, M.W.; Schempf, H.; Blair, L.M.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes human factors issues involved in the design of RoboCon, a multi-purpose control center for use in US Department of Energy remote handling applications. RoboCon is intended to be a flexible, modular control center capable of supporting a wide variety of robotic devices.

  5. [Cement augmentation of pedicle screws : Pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Schnake, K J; Blattert, T R; Liljenqvist, U

    2016-09-01

    Cement augmentation of pedicle screws biomechanically increases screw purchase in the bone. However, clinical complications may occur. The pros and cons of the technique are discussed from different clinical perspectives.

  6. Digitalización de placas Carte du Ciel con MAMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos Fierro, I. H.; Calderón, J. H.

    Fifteen Carte du Ciel plates and four Astrographic Catalog plates from Córdoba Zone were scanned with MAMA (Machine Automatique á Mesurer pour l'Astronomie) on July 1999. Those plates were taken between 1912 and 1924, therefore they are a good source of first epoch positions for the determination of proper motions. The fields correspond to some of the open clusters in CdC Córdoba zone -NGC 2527, NGC 2587, VdBergh 83, Coll 132 and Blanco 1- and two low-extinction windows in the galactic bulge. MAMA fulfils the requirements of accuracy and repetitivity at 1 micron level as needed for obtaining the highest profit from the astrometric information given by this photographic material. The catalogues of `objects' detected on every plate were automatically built by software SExtractor. Those catalogues must be filtered in order to reject spurious objects and retain only stellar images that will be used in the astrometric reduction.

  7. Planificación Neuroquirúrgica con Software Osirix

    PubMed Central

    Jaimovich, Sebastián Gastón; Guevara, Martin; Pampin, Sergio; Jaimovich, Roberto; Gardella, Javier Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La individualidad anatómica es clave para reducir el trauma quirúrgico y obtener un mejor resultado. Actualmente, el avance en las neuroimágenes ha permitido objetivar esa individualidad anatómica, permitiendo planificar la intervención quirúrgica. Con este objetivo, presentamos nuestra experiencia con el software Osirix. Descripción de la técnica: Se presentan 3 casos ejemplificadores de 40 realizados. Caso 1: Paciente con meningioma de la convexidad parasagital izquierda en área premotora; Caso 2: Paciente con macroadenoma hipofisario, operada previamente por vía transeptoesfenoidal en otra institución con una resección parcial; Caso 3: Paciente con lesiones en pedúnculo cerebeloso medio bilateral. Se realizó la planificación prequirúrgica con el software OsiriX, fusionando y reconstruyendo en 3D las imágenes de TC e IRM, para analizar relaciones anatómicas, medir distancias, coordenadas y trayectorias, entre otras funciones. Discusión: El software OsiriX de acceso libre y gratuito permite al cirujano, mediante la fusión y reconstrucción en 3D de imágenes, analizar la anatomía individual del paciente y planificar de forma rápida, simple, segura y económica cirugías de alta complejidad. En el Caso 1 se pudo analizar las relaciones del tumor con las estructuras adyacentes para minimizar el abordaje. En el Caso 2 permitió comprender la anatomía post-operatoria previa del paciente, para determinar la trayectoria del abordaje transnasal endoscópico y la necesidad de ampliar su exposición, logrando la resección tumoral completa. En el Caso 3 permitió obtener las coordenadas estereotáxicas y trayectoria de una lesión sin representación tomográfica. Conclusión: En casos de no contar con costosos sistemas de neuronavegación o estereotáxia el software OsiriX es una alternativa a la hora de planificar la cirugía, con el objetivo de disminuir el trauma y la morbilidad operatoria. PMID:25165617

  8. [I costi farmacologici della terapia di conversione con farmaci biologici nel carcinoma del colon-retto con metastasi epatiche].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Bonetti, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Riassunto. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare i costi dei farmaci (con particolare riferimento alle terapie con farmaci biologici) utilizzati nella terapia di conversione in una popolazione non selezionata di pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato, al fine di ottenere una resezione epatica R0. In questa rassegna sono stati selezionati i report completi e gli aggiornamenti di tutti gli studi clinici randomizzati (di fase II e fase III) che confrontassero almeno 2 regimi di terapia con farmaci biologici in prima linea in pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato di malattia. I costi dei farmaci sono stati ricavati dalla nostra Farmacia Ospedaliera e sono espressi in euro (€). Il nostro studio inizia con la valutazione di 683 abstract. 48 tria sono stati considerati adeguati per una successiva analisi. Una valutazione più approfondita ha portato all'esclusione di 37 trial, lasciando alla valutazione finale 11 studi clinici randomizzati (3 trial di fase II, per un totale di 522 pazienti, e 8 studi di fase III, per un totale di 7191 pazienti). I costi dei farmaci utilizzati nella terapia di conversione aumentano con la sostituzione del 5-fluorouracile con la capecitabina e, in misura maggiore, con l'introduzione degli agenti biologici. In questo lavoro sono presentati due punti chiave. Primo, i costi degli agenti farmacologici utilizzati nei regimi di prima linea a base di agenti biologici più comunemente utilizzati nel trattamento del carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato sono molto variabili. Secondo, i dati di efficacia dei regimi pubblicati, in termini di tassi di resezione, dipendono dalla selezione dei pazienti, dalle caratteristiche del tumore e dal tipo di schema di terapia.

  9. Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire rope wrapped around the base of the tower, which may have been used in an attempt to pull the submarine offshore. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. Utilice en forma segura los productos con cebo para roedores

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Si se usan de manera inadecuada, los productos con veneno para ratas y ratones podrían hacerle daño a usted, a sus hijos o a sus mascotas. Siempre que use pesticidas lea la etiqueta del producto y siga todas las indicaciones.

  11. Canceling Some d-CON Mouse and Rat Control Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has reached agreement with the manufacturer, to cancel 12 d-CON products that do not meet our testing protocols that better protect children, pets and non-target wildlife from accidental exposure to the pesticide. These products will be phased out.

  12. Three dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and rudders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleyzes, C.

    1988-01-01

    Solutions for the definition of grids adapted to the calculation of three-dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and on submarine rudders and fins are described. The particular geometry of such bodies (oblique shaped hull, curved fins) required special adaptations. The grids were verified on examples from a test basin.

  13. Providers debate pros and cons of pneumonia vaccination at discharge.

    PubMed

    2001-02-01

    When to vaccinate against pneumonia? Does it makes sense when patients are in the hospital? Or should patients wait for the first post-op visit with the PCP? Office-based and hospital-based physicians weigh the pros and cons of each.

  14. International Field Reversible Thermal Connector (RevCon) Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    of Figures Figure Page Figure 1: Comparison Temperature History of T3 from each Thermal Connector........................ 6...OHP Thermal Connector Delivered by MissStateU .................................................. 54 Figure 49: Comparison Temperature History of T1...88 Figure A2: Schematic of Temperature Monitoring and Vibration Detection Setup for RevCon IV

  15. Teaching after Retirement: The Pros and the Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Having enjoyed teaching during my active career, I continued to teach summer school following retirement. Self-observed sensory and cognitive impairments, although not mentioned by students in their evaluations, induced me to consider the pros and cons of continuing to teach. My hope is that this list of benefits and problems will be of assistance…

  16. Inclusion: The Pros and Cons--A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savich, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review, analyze, and critique the pros and cons, the advantages and disadvantages, of inclusion. The methodology consisted in analyzing and comparing research findings on the benefits and costs of inclusion. Federal legislation and regulations on inclusion were examined, analyzed, and discussed. The results showed…

  17. LunGradCon: The Lunar Graduate Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, A.; Poppe, A.; Neish, C.; Fagan, A.; Fuqua, H.; Kramer, G. Y.; Horanyi, M.

    2011-12-01

    Members of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) initiated the Lunar Graduate Conference (LunGradCon), modeled after the highly successful Astrobiology Graduate Conference (AbGradCon). The purpose of this conference is to enhance the professional development of graduate students and early postdoctoral researchers by providing an opportunity to present and discuss scientific research in an environment of their peers. For the first two years, LunGradCon has been held as a one-day conference in conjunction with the NASA Lunar Science Institue's (NLSI) Lunar Science Forum at the NASA Ames Research Center. Activities include an invited overview talk on each of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's three main research areas (OF the Moon, ON the Moon, and FROM the Moon), submitted oral presentations from graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, and networking opportunities with established member of the lunar science community and the NLSI. In each of the first two years of LunGradCon, there have been 20-25 attendees, with about 15 of those presenting submitted talks. Each speaker received feedback forms from the other participants in order to improve on their presentation techniques. Participants also provided feedback on the conference as a whole in order to evaluate the content and provide suggestions for improvement in following years. Overall, the feedback has been extremely positive. This talk will summarize the achievements of past LunGradCons and plans for expansion of the conference to ensure a long-term positive impact on the early careers of future lunar, planetary and space science researchers.

  18. A complex photoreceptor system mediates the regulation by light of the conidiation genes con-10 and con-6 in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, María; Ruger-Herreros, Carmen; Luque, Eva M; Corrochano, Luis M

    2010-04-01

    Genes con-10 and con-6 in Neurospora crassa are activated during conidiation or after illumination of vegetative mycelia. Light activation requires the white-collar complex (WCC), a transcription factor complex composed of the photoreceptor WC-1 and its partner WC-2. We have characterized the photoactivation of con-10 and con-6, and we have identified 300bp required for photoactivation in the con-10 promoter. A complex stimulus-response relationship for con-10 and con-6 photoactivation suggested the activity of a complex photoreceptor system. The WCC is the key element for con-10 activation by light, but we suggest that other photoreceptors, the cryptochrome CRY-1, the rhodopsin NOP-1, and the phytochrome PHY-2, modify the activity of the WCC for con-10 photoactivation, presumably through a repressor. In addition we show that the regulatory protein VE-1 is required for full photocarotenogenesis. We propose that these proteins may modulate the WCC in a gene-specific way.

  19. Apoyo a Estudios Geodinamicos con GPS en Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, V. R.

    2013-05-01

    El Instituto Geografico Nacional de Guatemala implemento 17 estaciones GNSS en el año 2009, como un proyecto de credito mixto de donacion de equipamiento del Gobierno de Suiza, el cual, este equipamiento de estaciones CORS GNSS es un sistema de recepción y transmisión de datos crudos GPS RInex que utiliza la tecnologia Spider Web de Leica, asi mismo este sistema esta sirviendo para el espablecimiento de un marco geodesico nacional de coordenadas geodesicas oficiales, el cual se calculan u obtienen las velocidades en tiempos temporales programados de las 17 Estaciones CORS. La infraestructura del marco geodesico de Guatemala esta sirviendo de base para las aplicaciones de estudios geodinamicos como el monitoreo de del desplazamiento de las placas tectonicas por medio de un estudio que se inicio en el año de 1999, llamado medicion con GPS el sistema de Fallas de los rios Polochic Motagua de Guatemala, tambien para un estudio que se implemento para deformación de corteza terrestre local en un Volcan Activo de Guatemala llamado Pacaya. Para el estudio de medicion con GPS en el sistema de falla de los Rios del polochic Motagua se implementaron 16 puntos para medir con GPS de dos frecuencias en el año de 1999, el cual, tres puntos son estaciones geodesicas CORS IGS llamados GUAT, ELEN y HUEH, despues en el año de 2003 se hizo otra medicion en un total de 20 puntos, que permitió calcular las velocidades de desplazamieinto de los puntos en mención, usando como referencia el modelo NUVEL 1A de DeMets de la placa de Norteamerica. Este estudio fue en cooperación internacional por la universidad de Nice de Francia y el IGNde Francia. Para el estudio del monitoreo con GPS del volcan activo de Guatemala, se implementaron cuatro puntos al rededor del volcan, el cual, se realizan cuatro mediciones al año, que permiten determinar axialmente la distancias entre los puntos, y rebisar estadisticamente cual es el comportamiento de las distancias en funcion del tiempo, si

  20. Caffe con Troll: Shallow Ideas to Speed Up Deep Learning.

    PubMed

    Hadjis, Stefan; Abuzaid, Firas; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We present Caffe con Troll (CcT), a fully compatible end-to-end version of the popular framework Caffe with rebuilt internals. We built CcT to examine the performance characteristics of training and deploying general-purpose convolutional neural networks across different hardware architectures. We find that, by employing standard batching optimizations for CPU training, we achieve a 4.5× throughput improvement over Caffe on popular networks like CaffeNet. Moreover, with these improvements, the end-to-end training time for CNNs is directly proportional to the FLOPS delivered by the CPU, which enables us to efficiently train hybrid CPU-GPU systems for CNNs.

  1. Molecular diagnostics: Molecular Med Tri-Con 2013.

    PubMed

    Klein, Roger D

    2013-07-01

    The 20th annual Molecular Med Tri-Con conference, sponsored by Cambridge Health Institute (MA, USA), consisted of over 250 presentations within five parallel 'channels': 'Diagnostics, Therapeutics, Clinical, Informatics and Cancer', along with five preliminary symposia, 15 short courses, a plenary keynote session entitled 'Personalized Oncology - Fulfilling the Promise for Today's Patients' and a keynote panel entitled, 'Emerging Technologies and Industry Perspectives'. Over 3000 individuals from academia, clinical laboratories and industry were in attendance. This article will focus on the Keynote Session of 'Molecular Diagnostics' track within the Diagnostics Channel.

  2. Cannabinoids and cancer: pros and cons of an antitumour strategy

    PubMed Central

    Bifulco, Maurizio; Laezza, Chiara; Pisanti, Simona; Gazzerro, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades, research has dramatically increased the knowledge of cannabinoids biology and pharmacology. In mammals, compounds with properties similar to active components of Cannabis sativa, the so called ‘endocannabinoids', have been shown to modulate key cell-signalling pathways involved in cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis. To date, cannabinoids have been licensed for clinical use as palliative treatment of chemotherapy, but increased evidences showed direct antiproliferative actions of cannabinoid agonists on several tumour cells in vitro and in animal models. In this article, we will review the principal molecular pathways modulated by cannabinoids on cancer and summarize pros and cons evidence on the possible future use of endocannabinoid-based drugs in cancer therapy. PMID:16501583

  3. Endoscopic scoring systems for inflammatory bowel disease: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Bisschops, Raf; Neumann, Helmut

    2014-07-01

    Endoscopy plays a pivotal role for diagnosis and assessment of disease activity and extent in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. International guidelines recommend the use of endoscopic scoring systems for evaluation of the prognosis and efficacy of medical treatments. Ideal scoring systems are easy to use, reproducible, reliable, responsive to changes, and validated in different clinical settings in order to guide therapeutic strategies. However, currently available endoscopic scoring systems often appear as complex for routine endoscopy and suffer from insufficient interobserver agreement and lack of formal validation which often limit their use in clinical trials. Here, we describe the role of endoscopic scoring systems in inflammatory bowel diseases focusing on pros and cons in the era of advanced endoscopic imaging and mucosal healing.

  4. Caffe con Troll: Shallow Ideas to Speed Up Deep Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hadjis, Stefan; Abuzaid, Firas; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We present Caffe con Troll (CcT), a fully compatible end-to-end version of the popular framework Caffe with rebuilt internals. We built CcT to examine the performance characteristics of training and deploying general-purpose convolutional neural networks across different hardware architectures. We find that, by employing standard batching optimizations for CPU training, we achieve a 4.5× throughput improvement over Caffe on popular networks like CaffeNet. Moreover, with these improvements, the end-to-end training time for CNNs is directly proportional to the FLOPS delivered by the CPU, which enables us to efficiently train hybrid CPU-GPU systems for CNNs. PMID:27314106

  5. Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols - GOAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assémat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Tannor, David; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank

    Quantum optimal control becomes a necessary step in a number of studies in the quantum realm. Recent experimental advances showed that superconducting qubits can be controlled with an impressive accuracy. However, most of the standard optimal control algorithms are not designed to manage such high accuracy. To tackle this issue, a novel quantum optimal control algorithm have been introduced: the Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols (GOAT). It avoids the piecewise constant approximation of the control pulse used by standard algorithms. This allows an efficient implementation of very high accuracy optimization. It also includes a novel method to compute the gradient that provides many advantages, e.g. the absence of backpropagation or the natural route to optimize the robustness of the control pulses. This talk will present the GOAT algorithm and a few applications to transmons systems.

  6. Balancing Ethical Pros and Cons of Stem Cell Derived Gametes.

    PubMed

    Segers, Seppe; Mertes, Heidi; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo; Pennings, Guido

    2017-01-13

    In this review we aim to provide an overview of the most important ethical pros and cons of stem cell derived gametes (SCD-gametes), as a contribution to the debate about reproductive tissue engineering. Derivation of gametes from stem cells holds promising applications both for research and for clinical use in assisted reproduction. We explore the ethical issues connected to gametes derived from embryonic stem cells (both patient specific and non-patient specific) as well as those related to gametes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. The technology of SCD-gametes raises moral concerns of how reproductive autonomy relates to issues of embryo destruction, safety, access, and applications beyond clinical infertility.

  7. Cannabinoids and cancer: pros and cons of an antitumour strategy.

    PubMed

    Bifulco, Maurizio; Laezza, Chiara; Pisanti, Simona; Gazzerro, Patrizia

    2006-05-01

    In the last two decades, research has dramatically increased the knowledge of cannabinoids biology and pharmacology. In mammals, compounds with properties similar to active components of Cannabis sativa, the so called 'endocannabinoids', have been shown to modulate key cell-signalling pathways involved in cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis. To date, cannabinoids have been licensed for clinical use as palliative treatment of chemotherapy, but increased evidences showed direct antiproliferative actions of cannabinoid agonists on several tumour cells in vitro and in animal models. In this article, we will review the principal molecular pathways modulated by cannabinoids on cancer and summarize pros and cons evidence on the possible future use of endocannabinoid-based drugs in cancer therapy.

  8. [Modern tribology in total hip arthroplasty: pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Gómez-García, F

    2014-01-01

    The wear products and adverse reactions that occur on bearing surfaces represent one of the greatest challenges in prosthetic replacements, as the latter experience increasing demands due to the large number of young and older adult patients that have a long life expectancy and remarkable activity. The purpose of this review is to analyze the pros and cons of the new advances in the bearing components of the articular surfaces of current total hip arthroplasties. We also discuss the strategies used historically, their problems, results and the surgeon's role in prescribing the tribologic couple that best fits each patient's needs. We conclude with practical recommendations for the prescription and management of the latest articular couples for total hip arthroplasty.

  9. Pros and Cons of the Acceleration Scheme (NF-IDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacz, Alex; Bogacz, Slawomir

    2008-07-01

    The overall goal of the acceleration systems: large acceptance acceleration to 25 GeV and beam shaping can be accomplished by various fixed field accelerators at different stages. They involve three superconducting linacs: a single pass linear Pre-accelerator followed by a pair of multi-pass Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA) and finally a nonâ scaling FFAG ring. The present baseline acceleration scenario has been optimized to take maximum advantage of appropriate acceleration scheme at a given stage. Pros and cons of various stages are discussed here in detail. The solenoid based Pre-accelerator offers very large acceptance and facilitates correction of energy gain across the bunch and significant longitudinal compression trough induced synchrotron motion. However, far off-crest acceleration reduces the effective acceleration gradient and adds complexity through the requirement of individual RF phase control for each cavity. Close proximity of strong solenoids and superc

  10. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J.; Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.; Hong, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in the tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.

  11. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J. ); Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.; Hong, S.S. )

    1996-01-01

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in the tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.

  12. Modulation of ConA-induced inflammatory ascites by histamine - short communication.

    PubMed

    Baintner, Károly

    2015-03-01

    The early phase of the ConA-induced inflammatory ascites was studied, with special reference to histamine. Concanavalin A (ConA), a cell-surface binding lectin was injected i.p. (25 mg/kg bw) to mice. After 1 h the animals were killed, the ascitic fluid collected and measured. Other agents were injected s.c., 10 min before the ConA-challenge. Exogenous histamine markedly inhibited the ConA-induced ascites. Release of endogenous vasoactive agents from the mast cells by Compound 48/80 had a similar, but slight effect. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizing agent, and chloropyramine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist was ineffective. Although histamine increases endothelial permeability, it did not enhance the formation of ascitic fluid, on the contrary, it inhibited the ConA-induced ascites, presumably due to its known hypotonic effect. It is concluded that ConA-induced ascites is not mediated by mast cell histamine.

  13. Laparoscopy for inflammatory bowel disease: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, T C; Wexner, S D

    1998-04-01

    The role of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of colorectal malignancies is still under investigation, although it can offer significant benefits to many patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to assess the pros and cons of the laparoscopic management of IBD. Data were obtained from a review of the literature published since 1992, when the first report of laparoscopic surgery for IBD appeared in print. From 1992 to 1997 several series of laparoscopic colorectal surgery for the management of IBD have been reported. A close evaluation of these studies revealed that laparoscopy in patients with terminal ileal Crohn's disease or anal Crohn's disease in need of fecal diversion offers significant advantages compared to laparotomy, including decreased pain, length of hospitalization, and disability. An additional bonus is improved cosmesis and a reduction in symptomatic postoperative adhesions. These many benefits can be achieved without any increase in morbidity or expense. Conversely, the use of this technology for restorative proctocolectomy in patients with mucosal ulcerative colitis is associated with a longer operative time and an increased incidence of both intra- and postoperative complications compared to laparotomy. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery can thus be advantageous for treatment of terminal ileal Crohn's disease but cannot be routinely justified for the treatment of mucosal ulcerative colitis.

  14. Pros and cons of circumcision: an evidence-based overview.

    PubMed

    Friedman, B; Khoury, J; Petersiel, N; Yahalomi, T; Paul, M; Neuberger, A

    2016-09-01

    Based on three large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in Africa, it can clearly be stated that circumcision lowers the risk of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and some sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among males in settings of high HIV and STI endemicity. Similar effects on STI risk may exist for females, although this may result from an indirect effect of decreasing risk of infection among male partners. It is unknown whether circumcision prevents HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men (MSM), although there might be a protective effect for men who engage mainly in insertive anal intercourse. When the effects of adult circumcision on sexual function and satisfaction of men are examined, high-quality evidence strongly supports lack of harm. Whether circumcision alters sexual satisfaction of female partners is not known as fewer and smaller studies reported conflicting results. Circumcision rarely causes serious complications if practiced by trained practitioners, in a sterile setting, and with a proper follow-up. These conclusions are limited by the lack of high-quality data from areas outside of Africa. RCTs have not been conducted to assess the effects of circumcising infants or MSM. Circumcision has well-proven benefits for people residing in areas with high prevalence of STIs, including HIV, and is not unethical for those who choose to be circumcised or have their children circumcised on religious, social, or cultural grounds. For many others, a definite pro or con recommendation, based on a risk-benefit ratio, cannot be made.

  15. Pros, Cons, and Alternatives to Weight Based Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyner, Claude R.; Lauriem, Jonathan R.; Levack, Daniel H.; Zapata, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Many cost estimating tools use weight as a major parameter in projecting the cost. This is often combined with modifying factors such as complexity, technical maturity of design, environment of operation, etc. to increase the fidelity of the estimate. For a set of conceptual designs, all meeting the same requirements, increased weight can be a major driver in increased cost. However, once a design is fixed, increased weight generally decreases cost, while decreased weight generally increases cost - and the relationship is not linear. Alternative approaches to estimating cost without using weight (except perhaps for materials costs) have been attempted to try to produce a tool usable throughout the design process - from concept studies through development. This paper will address the pros and cons of using weight based models for cost estimating, using liquid rocket engines as the example. It will then examine approaches that minimize the impct of weight based cost estimating. The Rocket Engine- Cost Model (RECM) is an attribute based model developed internally by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for NASA. RECM will be presented primarily to show a successful method to use design and programmatic parameters instead of weight to estimate both design and development costs and production costs. An operations model developed by KSC, the Launch and Landing Effects Ground Operations model (LLEGO), will also be discussed.

  16. Meeting Report: Breath Biomarkers Networking Sessions at PittCon 2010, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or "PittCon" (www.pittcon.org/), is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chemistry and instrumentation typically attracting about 25,000 attendees and 1,000 commercial exhibitors. PittCon began in 1950 as a small sp...

  17. Synergistic hemolysins of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS).

    PubMed

    Różalska, Małgorzata; Derczyńska, Anna; Maszewska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    A total of 104 coagulase negative staphylococci, belonging to S. capitis, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus and S. warneri, originating from the collection of the Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology (ZMF), Medical University of Lodz, Poland, were tested for their synergistic hemolytic activity. 83% of strains produced δ-hemolysin, however, the percentage of positive strains of S. haemolyticus, S. warneri, S. capitis and S. hominis was different - 98%, 78%, 75% and 68%, respectively. Highly pure hemolysins were obtained from culture supernatants by protein precipitation with ammonium sulphate (0-70% of saturation) and extraction by using a mixture of organic solvents. The purity and molecular mass of hemolysins was determined by TRIS/Tricine PAGE. All CoNS hemolysins were small peptides with a molar mass of about 3.5 kDa; they possessed cytotoxic activity against the line of human foreskin fibroblasts ATCC Hs27 and lysed red cells from different mammalian species, however, the highest activity was observed when guinea pig, dog and human red blood cells were used. The cytotoxic effect on fibroblasts occurred within 30 minutes. The S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus strain was used as a control. The antimicrobial activity was examined using hemolysins of S. capitis, S. hominis, S. cohnii ssp. cohnii and S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus. Hemolysins of the two S. cohnii subspecies did not demonstrate antimicrobial activity. Cytolysins of S. capitis and S. hominis had a very narrow spectrum of action; out of 37 examined strains, the growth of only Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Pasteurella multocida was inhibited.

  18. Surgical animal models of neuropathic pain: Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Challa, Siva Reddy

    2015-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges for discovering more efficacious drugs for the control of neuropathic pain has been the diversity of chronic pain states in humans. It is now acceptable that different mechanisms contribute to normal physiologic pain, pain arising from tissue damage and pain arising from injury to the nervous system. To study pain transmission, spot novel pain targets and characterize the potential analgesic profile of new chemical entities, numerous experimental animal pain models have been developed that attempt to simulate the many human pain conditions. Among the neuropathic pain models, surgical models have paramount importance in the induction of pain states. Many surgical animal models exist, like the chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve, partial sciatic nerve ligation (pSNL), spinal nerve ligation (SNL), spared nerve injury (SNI), brachial plexus avulsion (BPA), sciatic nerve transaction (SNT) and sciatic nerve trisection. Most of these models induce responses similar to those found in causalgia, a syndrome of sustained burning pain often seen in the distal extremity after partial peripheral nerve injury in humans. Researchers most commonly use these surgical models in both rats and mice during drug discovery to screen new chemical entities for efficacy in the area of neuropathic pain. However, there is scant literature that provides a comparative discussion of all these surgical models. Each surgical model has its own benefits and limitations. It is very difficult for a researcher to choose a suitable surgical animal model to suit their experimental set-up. Therefore, particular attention has been given in this review to comparatively provide the pros and cons of each model of surgically induced neuropathic pain.

  19. Self-Exfoliated Guanidinium-Based Ionic Covalent Organic Nanosheets (iCONs).

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shouvik; Kandambeth, Sharath; Biswal, Bishnu P; Khayum M, Abdul; Choudhury, Chandan K; Mehta, Mihir; Kaur, Gagandeep; Banerjee, Subhrashis; Prabhune, Asmita; Verma, Sandeep; Roy, Sudip; Kharul, Ulhas K; Banerjee, Rahul

    2016-03-02

    Covalent organic nanosheets (CONs) have emerged as functional two-dimensional materials for versatile applications. Although π-π stacking between layers, hydrolytic instability, possible restacking prevents their exfoliation on to few thin layered CONs from crystalline porous polymers. We anticipated rational designing of a structure by intrinsic ionic linker could be the solution to produce self-exfoliated CONs without external stimuli. In an attempt to address this issue, we have synthesized three self-exfoliated guanidinium halide based ionic covalent organic nanosheets (iCONs) with antimicrobial property. Self-exfoliation phenomenon has been supported by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation as well. Intrinsic ionic guanidinium unit plays the pivotal role for both self-exfoliation and antibacterial property against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Using such iCONs, we have devised a mixed matrix membrane which could be useful for antimicrobial coatings with plausible medical benefits.

  20. Antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS): emergence of teicoplanin-non-susceptible CoNS strains with inducible resistance to vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao Xue; Wang, En Hua; Liu, Yong; Luo, En Jie

    2011-11-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) have become increasingly recognized as important agents of nosocomial infection. One of the characteristics of CoNS is their resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents commonly used for the treatment of staphylococcal infections. CoNS strains (n = 745) isolated from a university teaching hospital in China between 2004 and 2009 were tested for antibiotic resistance. The antibiotics were placed into three categories based on resistance levels of the CoNS strains to these antibiotics: high resistance (resistance rate >70 %), including penicillin G, oxacillin and erythromycin; medium resistance (resistance rate between 30 and 70 %), including tetracycline, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol; and low resistance (resistance rate <30 %), including rifampicin, ceftizoxime and gentamicin. We also found that the prevalence of strains non-susceptible to teicoplanin increased from 4.5 to 6.7 % between 2008 and 2009. A one-step vancomycin agar selection experiment and subsequent population analysis revealed potentially vancomycin-resistant subpopulations that have been selected from the teicoplanin-non-susceptible strains. Vigilant surveillance of nosocomial isolates of CoNS is needed to determine their resistance to glycopeptides.

  1. The clinical outcome after extra-articular colles fractures with simultaneous moderate scapholunate dissociation.

    PubMed

    Finsen, Vilhjalmur; Rajabi, Benjamin; Rod, Oyvind; Roed, Kristian; Alm-Paulsen, Paal Sandoe; Russwurm, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Background An increased scapholunate gap is sometimes seen in patients with a distal radial fracture. The question remains as to whether this represents a scapholunate ligament injury that requires treatment. Questions/purposes We wished to examine the natural history of an increased scapholunate gap in patients following an extra-articular distal radial fracture. Patients and Methods We reviewed 260 patients who had sustained a distal radial fracture at a mean of 6.2 (2.7-11.9) years previously and identified 12 extra-articular fractures with an increased gap between the lunate and scaphoid. The mean scapholunate gap was 2.6 (2.1-3.4) mm, and the mean scapholunate angle 62° (39°-90°). Controls were found among the remaining patients with extra-articular fractures. Selection criteria were same sex, age at fracture within 5 years, time between injury and review within 2 years, ulnar variance within 2 mm, and dorsal angulation within 5° of index patient. When more than one control fulfilled the criteria for an index patient, their values were averaged. In total there were 54 controls for the 12 index patients. Results The mean difference between index patients and controls in wrist range of motion was 4%, in grip strength 5%, in visual analog scale (VAS) for pain 1 (on a scale from 1 to 100), in Quick-DASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand) score 5, and in PRWE score 1. The study was calculated to have the power to detect a difference in Quick-DASH scores and in Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) scores of 14. Conclusions We conclude that at a mean follow up of 6.2 years following an extra-articular distal radial fracture, no surgical treatment is usually needed with a scapholunate gap of between 2.1-3.4 mm. Level of Evidence III, Case control study.

  2. Percutaneous K-wire fixation versus palmar plating with locking screws for Colles' fractures.

    PubMed

    Hollevoet, Nadine; Vanhoutie, Tom; Vanhove, Wim; Verdonk, René

    2011-04-01

    Different methods exist to treat distal radius fractures. A prospective randomized study was conducted to establish whether palmar plate fixation with locking screws gave better results than percutaneous K-wire fixation in patients over 50 years of age. Only fractures with dorsal displacement after a simple fall were included in the study. Twenty wrists were treated with K-wires and 20 with a plate. Radiological parameters were measured on preoperative radiographs and at five weeks postoperatively. Clinical results and DASH scores were determined at three months postoperatively and at more than one year. No significant difference in radial inclination, palmar tilt, clinical outcome and DASH score was found between plating and K-wires, but the mean difference in ulnar variance between pre- and postoperative radiographs was significantly better with plates. It can be concluded that plates were superior to K-wires in restoring ulnar variance, but functional outcome was similar with both techniques.

  3. Estimate of the genomic mutation rate deleterious to overall fitness in E. coll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibota, Travis T.; Lynch, Michael

    1996-06-01

    MUTATIONS are a double-edged sword: they are the ultimate source of genetic variation upon which evolution depends, yet most mutations affecting fitness (viability and reproductive success) appear to be harmful1. Deleterious mutations of small effect can escape natural selection, and should accumulate in small populations2-4. Reduced fitness from deleterious-mutation accumulation may be important in the evolution of sex5-7, mate choice8,9, and diploid life-cycles10, and in the extinction of small populations11,12. Few empirical data exist, however. Minimum estimates of the genomic deleterious-mutation rate for viability in Drosophila melanogaster are surprisingly high1,13,14, leading to the conjecture that the rate for total fitness could exceed 1.0 mutation per individual per generation5,6. Here we use Escherichia coli to provide an estimate of the genomic deleterious-mutation rate for total fitness in a microbe. We estimate that the per-microbe rate of deleterious mutations is in excess of 0.0002.

  4. Analyses of muscular dystrophy and Con A deficiency traits in testcross progeny of chickens.

    PubMed

    Kline, K; Sanders, B G

    1984-01-01

    Hereditary muscular dystrophic chickens of the Storrs strain possess two genetic disorders, muscular dystrophy (MD) and a deficient concanavalin A (Con A), a T-cell mitogen, mediated splenic lymphocyte blastogenic response. A possible amelioration of the MD phenotype in MD chickens expressing normal Con A was postulated on the basis of progeny segregating for these two traits in F2 genetic analyses. To test this possibility, testcross progeny were examined for segregation of MD and Con A deficiency traits, and for the degree of muscle destruction and Con A deficiency. The data show both traits to be inherited independently as autosomal recessive traits, and do not support any phenotypic modifications occurring in chickens expressing MD with normal Con A. In the testcross progeny, the Con A deficiency disorder is equally deficient in normal and MD progeny, and the degree of muscle destruction as measured by serum creatine phosphokinase levels is equally great in MD chickens with or without the Con A deficiency trait. The reduced numbers of MD chickens in the testcross progeny can be accounted for by chance and probably reflect losses during in ovo development.

  5. Targeted Drug Delivery in Covalent Organic Nanosheets (CONs) via Sequential Postsynthetic Modification.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shouvik; Sasmal, Himadri Sekhar; Kundu, Tanay; Kandambeth, Sharath; Illath, Kavya; Díaz Díaz, David; Banerjee, Rahul

    2017-03-29

    Covalent organic nanosheets (CONs) have emerged as a new class of functional two-dimensional (2D) porous organic polymeric materials with a high accessible surface, diverse functionality, and chemical stability. They could become versatile candidates for targeted drug delivery. Despite their many advantages, there are limitations to their use for target specific drug delivery. We anticipated that these drawbacks could be overturned by judicious postsynthetic modification steps to use CONs for targeted drug delivery. The postsynthetic modification would not only produce the desired functionality, it would also help to exfoliate to CONs as well. In order to meet this requirement, we have developed a facile, salt-mediated synthesis of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA). The COFs were subjected to sequential postsynthetic modifications to yield functionalized targeted CONs for targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil to breast cancer cells. This postsynthetic modification resulted in simultaneous chemical delamination and functionalization to targeted CONs. Targeted CONs showed sustained release of the drug to the cancer cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, which led to cancer cell death via apoptosis. Considering the easy and facile COF synthesis, functionality based postsynthetic modifications, and chemical delamination to CONs for potential advantageous targeted drug delivery, this process can have a significant impact in biomedical applications.

  6. Abundancias químicas de estrellas de Mercurio-Manganeso obtenidas con espectros EBASIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintado, O. I.; Adelman, S. J.

    Se determinan las abundancias químicas de estrellas de HgMn usando espectros obtenidos con EBASIM en CASLEO en un rango de longitud de onda comprendido entre los 400 y 890 nm. Los valores iniciales de temperatura efectiva y gravedad superficial se calculan con la fotometría uvbyβ. Las abundancias se calculan usando WIDTH9 y SYNTHE. Los resultados se comparan análisis realizados por los autores usando espectros obtenidos con el espectrógrado REOSC del CASLEO, el espectrógrafo echelle del Telescopio Anglo-Australiano y el espectrógrafo Coudé del Dominion Astrophysical Observatory.

  7. The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM)

    Cancer.gov

    The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM) was formed to promote international, multidisciplinary collaborations to advance our understanding of the etiology and outcomes of kidney cancer.

  8. Characterization of the effector cells in Con A-induced cytotoxicity against HEp 2 tumour targets.

    PubMed

    Pócsik, E; González-Cabello, R; Benedek, K; Perl, A; Láng, I; Gergely, P

    1983-01-01

    Con A-induced cytotoxic activity of human lymphocyte subpopulations obtained by cell fractionation procedures was studied in a test system using human epipharynx carcinoma cells (HEp 2) as targets. Only T lymphocytes were cytotoxic, non-T cells exerted no cytotoxic activity, but enhanced the adherence of the tumour cells. Tnon-G lymphocytes (Fc-receptor negative T cells) were more active than TG cells (Fc-receptor-positive T cells) in mediating the Con A-induced cytotoxic reaction.

  9. SLUDGE PARTICLE SEPAPATION EFFICIENCIES DURING SETTLER TANK RETRIEVAL INTO SCS-CON-230

    SciTech Connect

    DEARING JI; EPSTEIN M; PLYS MG

    2009-07-16

    The purpose of this document is to release, into the Hanford Document Control System, FA1/0991, Sludge Particle Separation Efficiencies for the Rectangular SCS-CON-230 Container, by M. Epstein and M. G. Plys, Fauske & Associates, LLC, June 2009. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) will retrieve sludge from the 105-K West Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Settler Tanks and transfer it to container SCS-CON-230 using the Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS). The sludge will enter the container through two distributors. The container will have a filtration system that is designed to minimize the overflow of sludge fines from the container to the basin. FAI/09-91 was performed to quantify the effect of the STRS on sludge distribution inside of and overflow out of SCS-CON-230. Selected results of the analysis and a system description are discussed. The principal result of the analysis is that the STRS filtration system reduces the overflow of sludge from SCS-CON-230 to the basin by roughly a factor of 10. Some turbidity can be expected in the center bay where the container is located. The exact amount of overflow and subsequent turbidity is dependent on the density of the sludge (which will vary with location in the Settler Tanks) and the thermal gradient between the SCS-CON-230 and the basin. Attachment A presents the full analytical results. These results are applicable specifically to SCS-CON-230 and the STRS filtration system's expected operating duty cycles.

  10. Pros and cons: prospective predictors of marijuana use on a college campus.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jennifer C; Carey, Kate B

    2013-03-01

    Marijuana use on college campuses is prevalent and associated with high rates of abuse and dependence. The Marijuana Decisional Balance (MDB) scales measure perceived pros and cons toward marijuana use. Evidence supports reliability and concurrent validity of these scales, but the predictive validity has not yet been assessed. The current study evaluated the prospective predictive validity of pros and cons scales for marijuana use, as well as explored predictive validity for marijuana problem indicators. Secondary analyses included test-retest reliability and internal consistency, to provide additional evidence of psychometric properties. A total of 149 college students (57% recent marijuana users, 77% lifetime users) participated in a baseline survey, then completed a second survey one month later. All provided data on marijuana pros and cons, as well as use status in the past month. Users at each time point reported on use frequency, problems, and disorder symptoms. In the month between assessments, 55% of the students used marijuana. Both pros and cons subscales prospectively predicted use status in the subsequent month, but not use frequency. Pros prospectively predicted marijuana problems and dependence symptoms at follow-up, and remained a significant predictor of later dependence symptoms even after controlling for baseline dependence symptoms. In contrast, pros only marginally predicted abuse. Cons did not predict problems, abuse, or dependence symptoms. Pros and cons showed strong test-retest reliability (rs = 0.80-0.85) and internal consistency (alphas = 0.92-0.95). In a college sample, pros and cons of marijuana use demonstrated stability over one month, and prospectively predicted use. Pros may also have utility in predicting problems and dependence potential on college campuses.

  11. ConA-based glucose sensing using the long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium fluorophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Brian; Simpson, Jonathan; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Sørensen, Thomas Just; Laursen, Bo W.; Graham, Duncan; Birch, David; Coté, Gerard

    2014-02-01

    Fluorescent glucose sensing technologies have been identified as possible alternatives to current continuous glucose monitoring approaches. We have recently introduced a new, smart fluorescent ligand to overcome the traditional problems of ConA-based glucose sensors. For this assay to be translated into a continuous glucose monitoring device where both components are free in solution, the molecular weight of the smart fluorescent ligand must be increased. We have identified ovalbumin as a naturally-occurring glycoprotein that could serve as the core-component of a 2nd generation smart fluorescent ligand. It has a single asparagine residue that is capable of displaying an N-linked glycan and a similar isoelectric point to ConA. Thus, binding between ConA and ovalbumin can potentially be monovalent and sugar specific. This work is the preliminary implementation of fluorescently-labeled ovalbumin in the ConA-based assay. We conjugate the red-emitting, long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA+) dye to ovalbumin, as ADOTA have many advantageous properties to track the equilibrium binding of the assay. The ADOTA-labeled ovalbumin is paired with Alexa Fluor 647-labeled ConA to create a Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assay that is glucose dependent. The assay responds across the physiologically relevant glucose range (0-500 mg/dL) with increasing intensity from the ADOTA-ovalbumin, showing that the strategy may allow for the translation of the smart fluorescent ligand concept into a continuous glucose monitoring device.

  12. ConTour: Data-Driven Exploration of Multi-Relational Datasets for Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Partl, Christian; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Strobelt, Hendrik; Wassermann, Anne-Mai; Pfister, Hanspeter; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-12-01

    Large scale data analysis is nowadays a crucial part of drug discovery. Biologists and chemists need to quickly explore and evaluate potentially effective yet safe compounds based on many datasets that are in relationship with each other. However, there is a lack of tools that support them in these processes. To remedy this, we developed ConTour, an interactive visual analytics technique that enables the exploration of these complex, multi-relational datasets. At its core ConTour lists all items of each dataset in a column. Relationships between the columns are revealed through interaction: selecting one or multiple items in one column highlights and re-sorts the items in other columns. Filters based on relationships enable drilling down into the large data space. To identify interesting items in the first place, ConTour employs advanced sorting strategies, including strategies based on connectivity strength and uniqueness, as well as sorting based on item attributes. ConTour also introduces interactive nesting of columns, a powerful method to show the related items of a child column for each item in the parent column. Within the columns, ConTour shows rich attribute data about the items as well as information about the connection strengths to other datasets. Finally, ConTour provides a number of detail views, which can show items from multiple datasets and their associated data at the same time. We demonstrate the utility of our system in case studies conducted with a team of chemical biologists, who investigate the effects of chemical compounds on cells and need to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  13. Soluciones analiticas AL problema de jets con velocidad de eyeccion variable EN EL tiempo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canto, J.; Raga, A. C.; D'Alessio, P.

    1998-11-01

    Se presenta un nuevo metodo que permite resolver de manera exacta y analitica las ecuaciones que describen un jet hipersonico con velocidad de eyeccion variable en el tiempo. El metodo se basa en consideraciones sencillas de conservacion de momento para las superficies de trabajo que se forman en el interior del jet. Como ejemplo, se presentan soluciones para jets con variacion sinusoidal en la velocidad de eyeccion, y tambien para el caso de un incremento lineal en el tiempo. Estas soluciones analiticas tienen una clara aplicacion en la interpretacion de las observaciones de jets asociados a objetos Herbig-Haro.

  14. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  15. Non Invasive Biomedical Analysis - Breath Networking Session at PittCon 2011, Atlanta, Georgia

    EPA Science Inventory

    This was the second year that our breath colleagues organized a networking session at the Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition or ''PittCon'' (http://www.pincon.org/).This time it was called "Non-invasive Biomedical Analysis" to broaden the scope a bit, but the primary focus rema...

  16. "Con todo mi corazón": Mentoring Latinas in Educational Leadership Doctoral Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Mariela A.

    2016-01-01

    Personal narrative essays were used to analyze the experiences of four Latina doctoral students who completed their first year in an educational leadership doctoral program in a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) in the southwestern U.S. Four themes emerged from their "testimonios" 1) "Con todo el corazón"; 2) "Somos como…

  17. End-User Use of Data Base Query Language: Pros and Cons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholes, Walter

    1988-01-01

    Man-machine interface, the concept of a computer "query," a review of database technology, and a description of the use of query languages at Brigham Young University are discussed. The pros and cons of end-user use of database query languages are explored. (Author/MLW)

  18. Impact of the ConRed program on different cyberbulling roles.

    PubMed

    Del Rey, Rosario; Casas, José A; Ortega, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    This article presents results from an evaluation of the ConRed cyberbullying intervention program. The program's impacts were separately determined for the different roles within cyberbullying that students can take, i.e., cyber-victims, cyber-bullies, cyber-bully/victims, and bystanders. The ConRed program is a theory-driven program designed to prevent cyberbullying and improve cyberbullying coping skills. It involves students, teachers, and families. During a 3-month period, external experts conducted eight training sessions with students, two with teachers and one with families. ConRed was evaluated through a quasi-experimental design, in which students from three secondary schools were separated into experimental and control groups. The sample comprised 875 students, aged between 11 and 19 years. More students (n = 586) were allocated to the experimental groups at the specific insistence of the management of all schools; the remainder (n = 289) formed the control. Repeated measures MANOVA showed that cyber victims, cyber aggressors and cyberbully/victims reduced their involvement in cyberbullying. Moreover, cyber-victims and bystanders adjusted their perceptions about their control of personal information on the Internet, and cyber aggressors and bystanders reduced their Internet dependence. The ConRed program had stronger effects on male participants, especially in heightening their affective empathy.

  19. Are You Ready to Go Digital?: The Pros and Cons of Electronic Portfolio Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing need for educators to have professional portfolios, which are considered to be authentic tools for evaluating the knowledge, skill, beliefs and attitudes of prospective educators. Electronic portfolios are gaining in popularity and their relative pros and cons are examined.

  20. Mandated Mental Health Insurance: A Complex Case of Pros and Cons. Human Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrea

    1986-01-01

    The pros and cons of state laws mandating mental health insurance are discussed in this report. The history of a 1985 Supreme Court case which held that states could mandate mental health benefits introduces the report. In an overview of the issue, the long-standing argument between the insurance industry and the mental health establishment is…

  1. ConMap: Investigating New Computer-Based Approaches to Assessing Conceptual Knowledge Structure in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Ian D.

    There is a growing consensus among educational researchers that traditional problem-based assessments are not effective tools for diagnosing a student's knowledge state and for guiding pedagogical intervention, and that new tools grounded in the results of cognitive science research are needed. The ConMap ("Conceptual Mapping") project, described…

  2. The Con Edison Emergency Child Care Plan for Management Employees: Summary Plan Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consolidated Edison Co., Brooklyn, NY.

    This summary plan description offers guidelines for participation in a pilot program that provides short-term emergency care for children of Con Edison managers who are under 13 years old. The plan offers professional, in-home child care that can be used when usual arrangements have collapsed. The summary plan description addresses the following…

  3. A National Look at Postmodernism's Pros and Cons in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsell, Rhodena

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to take a look at the pros and cons of postmodernism. It is imperative for administrators to closely examine educational theories and practices prior to instituting changes. The ability to read and digest challenging material keeps one informed and prepared to lead effectively. This paper will list the pros and cons…

  4. Optimizing Electrospray Interfaces Using Slowly Diverging Conical Duct (ConDuct) Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Padovan, Júlio C.; Cohen, Herbert; Chait, Brian T.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that the efficiency of ion transmission from atmosphere to vacuum through stainless steel electrodes that contain slowly divergent conical duct (ConDuct) channels can be close to 100%. Here, we explore the properties of 2.5-cm-long electrodes with angles of divergence of 0°, 1°, 2°, 3°, 5°, 8°, 13°, and 21°, respectively. The ion transmission efficiency was observed to jump from 10-20% for the 0° (straight) channels to 90-95% for channels with an angle of divergence as small as 1°. Furthermore, the 2-3° ConDuct electrodes produced extraordinarily low divergence ion beams that propagated in a laser-like fashion over long distances in vacuum. To take advantage of these newly discovered properties, we constructed a novel atmosphere-to-vacuum ion interface utilizing a 2° ConDuct as an inlet electrode and compared its ion transmission efficiency with that of the interface used in the commercial (Thermo Fisher Scientific, San Jose, CA, USA) Velos Orbitrap and Q Exactive mass spectrometers. We observed that the ConDuct interface transmitted up to 17 times more ions than the commercial reference interface and also yielded improved signal-to-noise mass spectra of peptides. We infer from these results that the performance of many current atmosphere-to-vacuum interfaces utilizing metal capillaries can be substantially improved by replacing them with 1° or 2° metal ConDuct electrodes, which should preserve the convenience of supplying ion desolvation energy by heating the electrode while greatly increasing the efficiency of ion transmission into the mass spectrometer.

  5. Optimizing Electrospray Interfaces Using Slowly Diverging Conical Duct (ConDuct) Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Padovan, Júlio C.; Cohen, Herbert; Chait, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the efficiency of ion transmission from atmosphere to vacuum through stainless steel electrodes that contain slowly divergent conical duct (ConDuct) channels can be close to 100%. Here, we explore the properties of 2.5 cm long electrodes with angles of divergence of 0°, 1°, 2°, 3°, 5°, 8°, 13°, and 21°, respectively. The ion transmission efficiency was observed to jump from 10–20% for the 0° (straight) channels to 90–95% for channels with an angle of divergence as small as 1°. Furthermore, the 2–3° ConDuct electrodes produced extraordinarily low divergence ion beams that propagated in a laser-like fashion over long distances in vacuum. To take advantage of these newly discovered properties, we constructed a novel atmosphere-to-vacuum ion interface utilizing a 2° ConDuct as an inlet electrode and compared its ion transmission efficiency with that of the interface used in the commercial (Thermo) Velos Orbitrap and Q Exactive mass spectrometers. We observed that the ConDuct interface transmitted up to 17 times more ions than the commercial reference interface and also yielded improved signal-to-noise mass spectra of peptides. We infer from these results that the performance of many current atmosphere-tovacuum interfaces utilizing metal capillaries can be substantially improved by replacing them with 1° or 2° metal ConDuct electrodes, which should preserve the convenience of supplying ion desolvation energy by heating the electrode while greatly increasing the efficiency of ion transmission into the mass spectrometer. PMID:25667060

  6. ConMap - a new spatial data mining framework for terrain based digital soil mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, T.; Schmidt, K.; Scholten, T.

    2009-04-01

    In this talk, we present a new digital terrain analysis framework for digital soil mapping based on spatial data mining, referred to as the contextual elevation mapping (ConMap). Aiming at integrating different scales, which can be important at landscape scale level due to interrelations of topo- and climofunctions, it comprises local surface function approximations in terms of standard local terrain attributes as well as the incorporation of geomorphic arrangements within larger neighborhoods. In contrast to common digital terrain analysis of deriving multiple terrain attributes, ConMap is based on elevation differences from the center pixel to each pixel in a local neighborhood. These differences are then used as predictors in machine learning approaches such as Random Forests. Thus, it is not necessary to choose a specific set of terrain attributes. Additionally, possibly unknown surface functions can be taken into account, as well as larger geomorphic settings. We applied and validated the framework by predicting topsoil silt content for an area of 1150 km2 in Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse, Germany, based on 342 samples, a 20 m resolution DEM, and neighborhood sizes up to 12 km. Cross-validation R2 values increase from 0.15 for standard digital terrain analysis to 0.61 using ConMap. This effect is due to a spatial trend in the data. As ConMap is able to map this trend and as it is based on the pedological concept of integrating scales it can be seen as a new entry to spatial prediction approaches such as Kriging or Geographically Weighted Regression. We conclude that ConMap shows a great potential for future digital soil mapping studies.

  7. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Thomas; Callantine, Todd; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The operational goal of the ATD-1 ConOps is to enable aircraft, using their onboard FMS capabilities, to fly Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from cruise to the runway threshold at a high-density airport, at a high throughput rate, using primarily speed control to maintain in-trail separation and the arrival schedule. The three technologies in the ATD-1 ConOps achieve this by calculating a precise arrival schedule, using controller decision support tools to provide terminal controllers with speeds for aircraft to fly to meet times at a particular meter points, and onboard software providing flight crews with speeds for the aircraft to fly to achieve a particular spacing behind preceding aircraft.

  8. BeadCons: detection of nucleic acid sequences by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Horejsh, Douglas; Martini, Federico; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2005-11-01

    Molecular beacons are single-stranded nucleic acid structures with a terminal fluorophore and a distal, terminal quencher. These molecules are typically used in real-time PCR assays, but have also been conjugated with solid matrices. This unit describes protocols related to molecular beacon-conjugated beads (BeadCons), whose specific hybridization with complementary target sequences can be resolved by cytometry. Assay sensitivity is achieved through the concentration of fluorescence signal on discrete particles. By using molecular beacons with different fluorophores and microspheres of different sizes, it is possible to construct a fluid array system with each bead corresponding to a specific target nucleic acid. Methods are presented for the design, construction, and use of BeadCons for the specific, multiplexed detection of unlabeled nucleic acids in solution. The use of bead-based detection methods will likely lead to the design of new multiplex molecular diagnostic tools.

  9. NASA KSC/AFRL Reusable Booster System (RBS) Concept of Operations (ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeno, Dnany; Mosteller, Ted; McCleskey, Carey; Jhnson, Robert; Hopkins, Jason; Miller, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study and findings of the study on the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for Reusable Booster System (RBS) centering on rapid turnaround and launch of a two-stage partially reusable payload delivery system (i.e., 8 hours between launches). The study was to develop rapid ground processing (aircraft like concepts) and identify areas for follow-on study, technology needs, and proof-of-concept demonstrations.

  10. The pros and cons of endovascular and open surgical treatments for patients with acute limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Branco, B C; Montero-Baker, M F; Mills, J L

    2015-06-01

    The present review addresses the pros and cons of the current, wide variety of therapeutic options available for the treatment of acute limb ischemia (ALI). Despite five prospective randomized controlled trials comparing catheter directed thrombolysis and open surgical revascularization, no single treatment strategy can yet be considered optimal for patients with ALI. This report includes 20 years of published data to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of thrombolytic agents and adjunctive endovascular techniques when compared to open surgical revascularization.

  11. Precisión de las velocidades radiales obtenidas con el REOSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Complementando una línea de trabajo iniciada con anterioridad discutimos la estabilidad del espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO en DC para la medición de velocidades radiales en base al análisis de observaciones realizadas en enero y abril de 1997. En esas oportunidades obtuvimos 26 espectros de estrellas patrones y 27 espectros de 3 estrellas usadas como estrellas de referencia en nuestro programa de cúmulos abiertos. Además tomamos 26 espectros de crepúsculo con el telescopio en posiciones cubriendo el rango H=-4,+4 y δ =-90,+30. Mediante correlaciones cruzadas derivamos la velocidad de 19 órdenes en cada uno de estos espectros. En base a un análisis estadístico de los datos obtenidos discutimos la contribución de los distintos factores que afectan a la dispersión de lectura observada. En particular, la flexión del instrumento no introduciría errores significativos cuando se observa con masas de aire menores que 2.0. La dispersión de los valores de velocidad medidos para espectros de alta relación S/N de una misma estrella resultó del orden de 0.5 km/s. La comparación con los valores de velocidad publicados por distintos autores para las estrellas patrones no permite distinguir ninguna diferencia sistemática apreciable de las velocidades de CASLEO, siendo la media cuadrática de los residuos del orden de 1.0 km/s.

  12. Simulaciones numéricas hidrodinámicas con formación estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, M. G.; Merchan, M.; García Lambas, D.

    Se realizan simulaciones numéricas cosmológicas utilizando el código HYDRA modificado para incluir formación estelar. A partir de éstas, se estiman diferentes parámetros observacionales como la relación Tully- Fisher, función de luminosidad y la tasa de formación estelar en función del redshift. Estos resultados son comparados con datos observacionales de diferentes autores.

  13. Extreme lateral lumbar interbody fusion: Do the cons outweigh the pros?

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Major factors prompted the development of minimally invasive (MIS) extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF; NuVasive Inc., San Diego, CA, USE) for the thoracic/lumbar spine. These include providing interbody stabilization and indirect neural decompression while avoiding major visceral/vessel injury as seen with anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), and to avert trauma to paraspinal muscles/facet joints found with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), and posterior-lateral fusion techniques (PLF). Although anticipated pros of MIS XLIF included reduced blood loss, operative time, and length of stay (LOS), they also included, higher fusion, and lower infection rates. Unanticipated cons, however, included increased morbidity/mortality rates. Methods: We assessed the pros and cons (e.g., risks, complications, comparable value/superiority/inferiority, morbidity/mortality) of MIS XLIF vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF. Results: Pros of XLIF included various biomechanical and technical surgical advantages, along with multiple cons vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF. For example, XLIF correlated with a considerably higher frequency of major neurological deficits vs. other constructs; plexus injuries 13.28%, sensory deficits 0–75% (permanent in 62.5%), motor deficits 0.7–33.6%, and anterior thigh pain 12.5–25%. XLIF also disproportionately contributed to other major morbidity/mortality; sympathectomy, major vascular injuries (some life-ending others life-threatening), bowel perforations, and seromas. Furthermore, multiple studies documented no superiority, and the potential inferiority of XLIF vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF. Conclusion: Reviewing the pros of XLIF (e.g. radiographic, technical, biomechanical) vs. the cons (inferiority, increased morbidity/mortality) vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF, we question whether XLIF should remain part of the lumbar spinal surgical armamentarium. PMID:27843688

  14. Mound-ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} feasibility study. Phase 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    A portion of the abandoned Miami-Erie Canal paralleling the Greater Miami River receives the runoff and storm-water discharge from Mound Laboratory. In 1969, a low-level plutonium leak contaminated sediment as far away as 1.5 mi from the Mound site along the old canal system. An estimated one million cubic feet of sediment requires remediation. The technology being evaluated for the remediation of the low-level plutonium-238 contamination of the sediment involves two processes: washing the sediments with ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} solution to dissolve the contaminant, followed by extraction of the solution and processing with the MAG*SEP{sup SM} process to concentrate the contaminant and allow reuse of the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} solution. The processes are being optimized for pilot-scale and field demonstration. Phase 2 of the project primarily involved identification at the laboratory scale of the optimal ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} formulation, identification of the ion-exchanger and MAG*SEP{sup SM} particles, verification of the plutonium mobility in the treated soil, and evaluation of other process parameters according to a series of tasks.

  15. ConA and UEA-I lectin histochemistry of parotid gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sobral, Ana Paula V; Rego, Moacyr J B M; Cavalacanti, Carmelita L B; Carvalho, Luiz B; Beltrão, Eduardo I C

    2010-03-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) corresponds to 5-12% of all salivary gland tumours, and is classified as low, intermediate or high grade. Traditionally, immunohistochemistry was considered as the complementary tool for diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasia. Lectin histochemistry has also been increasingly used in recent years. In this work, lectins were used as histochemical markers for normal and transformed parotid glands. Biopsy specimens of 15 cases diagnosed as MEC (low, intermediate and high grade) of the parotid gland were trypsin- and methanol-H(2)O(2)-treated and incubated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated lectins, Concanavalin A (Con A-HRP) and Ulex europeus I (UEA-I-HRP). Con A stained the neoplasic cells of MEC (all grades). In high and intermediate cases, ductal cells were weakly stained by Con A. UEA-I weakly stained normal cells of the excretory duct and neoplasic cells in high grade. Neoplasic cells in intermediate grade were moderately stained and in low grade, the cell membrane was intensely stained with UEA-I. Stroma presented a direct relation between malignancy and staining intensity for UEA-I. The results indicated that lectin histochemistry distinguished the cell biology among histological grades of MEC.

  16. ConSurf 2016: an improved methodology to estimate and visualize evolutionary conservation in macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Abadi, Shiran; Martz, Eric; Chay, Ofer; Mayrose, Itay; Pupko, Tal; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2016-07-08

    The degree of evolutionary conservation of an amino acid in a protein or a nucleic acid in DNA/RNA reflects a balance between its natural tendency to mutate and the overall need to retain the structural integrity and function of the macromolecule. The ConSurf web server (http://consurf.tau.ac.il), established over 15 years ago, analyses the evolutionary pattern of the amino/nucleic acids of the macromolecule to reveal regions that are important for structure and/or function. Starting from a query sequence or structure, the server automatically collects homologues, infers their multiple sequence alignment and reconstructs a phylogenetic tree that reflects their evolutionary relations. These data are then used, within a probabilistic framework, to estimate the evolutionary rates of each sequence position. Here we introduce several new features into ConSurf, including automatic selection of the best evolutionary model used to infer the rates, the ability to homology-model query proteins, prediction of the secondary structure of query RNA molecules from sequence, the ability to view the biological assembly of a query (in addition to the single chain), mapping of the conservation grades onto 2D RNA models and an advanced view of the phylogenetic tree that enables interactively rerunning ConSurf with the taxa of a sub-tree.

  17. What are the pros and cons of electronically monitoring inhaler use in asthma? A multistakeholder perspective

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Sam; Lang, Alexandra; Sharples, Sarah; Shaw, Dominick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Electronic monitoring devices (EMDs) are the optimal method for collecting objective data on inhaler use in asthma. Recent research has investigated the attitudes of patients with asthma towards these devices. However, no research to date has formally considered the opinions of stakeholders and decision-makers in asthma care. These individuals have important clinical requirements that need to be taken into account if EMDs are to be successfully provisioned, making collecting their opinions on the key barriers facing these devices a valuable process. Methods Three rounds of surveys in a Delphi format were used to assess the most important pros and cons of EMDs for asthma care in a sample of 31 stakeholders which included healthcare professionals and members of clinical commissioning groups. Results The respondents identified 29 pros and 32 cons. Pros that were rated as most important included new visual evidence to aid clinical discussions with a patient and an increase in patient involvement and motivation. The cons that were rated as most important included a need for more clinical evidence of the effectiveness of EMDs, as well as better clarity over who has responsibilities in managing, interpreting and discussing data with a patient. Conclusions The research provides a guide for EMD developers by highlighting where these devices may provide the most benefit as well as prioritising the key issues that need addressing if they are to be used effectively in everyday asthma care. PMID:27933181

  18. Nuevas observaciones de 3C10 con el VLA*: estudio de la expansión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynoso, E. M.; Moffett, D. A.:; Dubner, G. M.; Giacani, E. B.; Reynolds, S. P.; Goss, W. M.; Dickel, J.

    Se presentan nuevos resultados sobre la expansión del remanente de la supernova de Tycho a lo largo de un intervalo de 10.9 años, comparando nuevas observaciones tomadas con el VLA a 1375 y 1635 MHz durante 1994 y 1995, con observaciones previas realizadas entre 1983 y 1984 (Dickel y col. ~1991 AJ 101, 2151), usando las mismas configuraciones, anchos de banda, calibradores y tiempos de integración. El coeficiente de expansión se calcula para sectores radiales de 4o de ancho cada uno, ajustando la correlación cruzada de las derivadas de los perfiles promedio para cada época. A partir de la expansión medida, se estima el índice (parámetro de expansión) de la ley potencial R∝ tm como m≡ d ln R/d ln t . Este valor se compara con coeficientes teóricos para diferentes fases evolutivas de remanentes de supernova.

  19. Salud mental en desastres naturales: estrategias interventivas con adultos mayores en sectores rurales de Chile.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Parraguez, Paulina; Espinoza, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    En el presente artículo se da a conocer una estrategia de intervención llevada a cabo con adultos mayores en la comuna de Paredones, sexta región de Chile, con posterioridad al terremoto y tsunami del 27 de febrero 2010 en Chile, en el contexto de una investigación sobre fortalezas y vulnerabilidades desplegadas por este grupo etario, con posterioridad a un desastre natural. Se presenta una descripción del desarrollo metodológico de la intervención y de los sustentos teóricos y conceptuales en los que se basa. Como resultado de este proceso, se propone una estrategia que trabaje a través de la identificación de las propias experiencias y fortalezas de los sujetos. De tal forma se minimizan los efectos negativos de los determinantes sociales de la salud (como la edad y el lugar de residencia) en contexto de crisis; permitiendo a los adultos mayores fortalecer sus recursos individuales y colectivos, en pro de su bienestar psicosocial.

  20. Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.; Todd, S.P.; Simon, P. Peel, F.J. )

    1996-01-01

    Recent exploration of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam Con Son Basin these motions have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam Con Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.

  1. Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.; Todd, S.P.; Simon, P. Peel, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    Recent exploration of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam Con Son Basin these motions have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam Con Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.

  2. The Transcription Factor Con7-1 Is a Master Regulator of Morphogenesis and Virulence in Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen; Pareja-Jaime, Yolanda; González-Reyes, José Antonio; Roncero, M Isabel G

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the essential role of morphogenetic regulation in Fusarium oxysporum pathogenesis, including processes such as cell-wall biogenesis, cell division, and differentiation of infection-like structures. We identified three F. oxysporum genes encoding predicted transcription factors showing significant identities to Magnaporthe oryzae Con7p, Con7-1, plus two identical copies of Con7-2. Targeted deletion of con7-1 produced nonpathogenic mutants with altered morphogenesis, including defects in cell wall structure, polar growth, hyphal branching, and conidiation. By contrast, simultaneous inactivation of both con7-2 copies caused no detectable defects in the resulting mutants. Comparative microarray-based gene expression analysis indicated that Con7-1 modulates the expression of a large number of genes involved in different biological functions, including host-pathogen interactions, morphogenesis and development, signal perception and transduction, transcriptional regulation, and primary and secondary metabolism. Taken together, our results point to Con7-1 as general regulator of morphogenesis and virulence in F. oxysporum.

  3. Wildland Fire Induced Heating of Dome 375 Perma-Con®

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, Eugene Michael

    2016-08-09

    AET-1 was tasked by ADEM with determining the temperature rise in the drum contents of drums stored in the Dome 375 Perma-Con® at TA-54 given a wildland fire. The wildland fire causes radiative and convective heating on the Perma-Con® exterior. The wildland fire time histories for the radiative and convective heating environment were provided to AET-1 by EES-16. If the calculated temperature rise results in a drum content temperature over 40 °C, then ADEM desires a design solution to ensure the peak temperature remains below 40 °C. An axi-symmetric FE simulation was completed to determine the peak temperature of the contents of a drum stored in the Dome 375 Perma-Con® during a wildland fire event. Three wildland fire time histories for the radiative and convective heat transfer were provided by EES-16 and were inputs for the FE simulation. The maximum drum content temperature reached was found to be 110 °C while using inputs from the SiteG_2ms_4ign_wind_from_west.xlsx time history input and not including the SWB in the model. Including the SWB in the results in a peak drum content temperature of 61 °C for the SiteG_2ms_4ign_wind_from_west.xlsx inputs. EES-16 decided that by using fuel mitigation efforts, such as mowing the grass and shrubs near the Perma-Con® they could reduce the shrub/grass fuel loading near the Perma-Con® from 1.46 kg/m2 to 0.146 kg/m2 and by using a less conservative fuel loading for the debris field inside the Dome 375 perimeter, reducing it from 0.58 kg/m2 to 0.058 kg/m2 in their model. They also greatly increased the resolution of their radiation model and increased the accuracy of their model’s required convergence value. Using this refined input the maximum drum content temperature was found to be 28 °C with no SWB present in the model. Additionally, this refined input model was modified to include worst case emissivity values for the concrete, drum and Perma-Con® interior, along with adding a

  4. Con_A-carbone nanotube conjugate with short wave near-infrared laser ablation for tumor therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huan-Yao; Peng, Ching-An; Tang, Ming-Jer; Reindhart, Kit; Szu, Harold H.

    2009-04-01

    Using the characteristics of T cell mitogen called lectin protein from the jack-beam Canavalia ensiformis Concanavalin A (Con_A) with dual activities, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation, we have shown it has a therapeutic effect on hepatoma. Injection of Con_A can eradicate the established malign tumor, because Con_A can induce tumor cell autophagic, cell-programmed death, as well as activate the effector T cells. Combined, in this paper, with the absorption exceeding the Carbon NanoTube (CNT) band-gap (ɛbg=~1/CNT diameter) with an active short wave near-infrared (SWIR) (1.2~1.5 micron wavelengths), which happened to be translucent to the irradiation upon animal skin, similar to that used in hospital fingertip-clamped Pulse Oxymetry. Once the Con_ACNT is guided to hepatoma cells, it is bonded and internalized into the mitochondria (MC) compartment, the cellular energy factory. Con_A has the higher specificity for tumor cells useful for targeting because of the abnormal glycosylation on tumor cells. When CNT hitch hike with Con_A, they can t together like a laser-denotable chemical missile surgically targeting at the tumor cells precisely by Con_A-guidance. We switch on SWIR laser, when the Con_A-CNT conjugated complex has been bonded and internalized to MC of malign cells and already commenced cellular programmed death. Thus, it might appear to casual readers that we have initiated an overkill, chemical drugged autophage followed with physical laser ablation, but what if we can eradicate hepatoma totally if no blue print is left behind inadvertently in case of a partial failure. We conclude that using Con_A-CNT conjugated complex targeting specifically at malign tumor cells is a novel targeted-laser-radiation therapy for tumors in mice.

  5. Lectin-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in an invertebrate model: Con A does not act as a bridge.

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, C A; Bayne, C J

    1986-01-01

    The plant lectin concanavalin A (Con A) has been used in an invertebrate model of lectin-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (LDCC). Macrophage-like cells from the susceptible host snail Biomphalaria glabrata become cytotoxic effectors when they encounter sporocysts of the parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni that have been treated with Con A. The sugar alpha-methyl mannoside and rabbit anti-Con A antibodies fail to block this LDCC. Con A is effective only when the target, not the effector cell, has been exposed to it. These results constitute evidence against the molecular bridging hypothesis and support the notion that surface modulation of the target may be the stimulus that provokes cytotoxicity. Results from this invertebrate model are discussed in the context of murine T lymphocyte LDCC. PMID:3949370

  6. Segundo Catálogo Estelar del Hemisferio Sur con Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, W. T.; Podestá, R. C.; Alonso, E.; Actis, E. V.; Pacheco, A. M.; Bustos, G.; Lizhi, L.; Zezhi, W.; Fanmiao, Z.; Hongqi, W.; Perdomo, R.

    Recordamos que entre el Observatorio Astronómico ``Félix Aguilar'', el Observatorio Astronómico de Beijing y el Observatorio Astronómico de La Plata, se ha convenido en desarrollar un Proyecto de Investigación conjunto, para la observación sistemática de estrellas en el Hemisferio Sur, con el objeto de la elaboración de un Catálogo Estelar Global utilizando un Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII del Observatorio de Beijing, que ha sido usado con éxito en la República de China. En este trabajo se presenta el Segundo Catálogo Estelar del Hemisferio Sur, derivado de las observaciones realizadas con el PAII instalado en el OAFA, durante el períiodo Febrero de 1992 a Marzo de 1997. En este lapso se han observado mas de 400000 pasajes estelares, obteniéndose las correcciones Δ α y Δ δ de 5241 estrellas del FK4, FK5, FK5 Ext., SRS, CAMC y GC. Las precisiones medias son del orden de ± 3,2 ms en ascensión recta y ±0."057 en declinación. Rango de magnitudes : 2,0 a 11,5 Rango de declinaciones : -3o a -60o Epoca Media : 1994.9 Se analizan los residuos en función de la magnitud y tipo espectral, correcciones de grupo y frecuencia de distribución Δ α y Δ δ.

  7. A phase 2 trial of long-acting TransCon growth hormone in adult GH deficiency.

    PubMed

    Höybye, Charlotte; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Ferone, Diego; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Gilfoyle, David; Christoffersen, Eva Dam; Mortensen, Eva; Leff, Jonathan A; Beckert, Michael

    2017-04-01

    TransCon growth hormone is a sustained-release human growth hormone prodrug under development in which unmodified growth hormone is transiently linked to a carrier molecule. It is intended as an alternative to daily growth hormone in the treatment of growth hormone deficiency. This was a multi-center, randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial designed to compare the safety (including tolerability and immunogenicity), pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of three doses of weekly TransCon GH to daily growth hormone (Omnitrope). Thirty-seven adult males and females diagnosed with adult growth hormone deficiency and stable on growth hormone replacement therapy for at least 3 months were, following a wash-out period, randomized (regardless of their pre-study dose) to one of three TransCon GH doses (0.02, 0.04 and 0.08 mg GH/kg/week) or Omnitrope 0.04 mg GH/kg/week (divided into 7 equal daily doses) for 4 weeks. Main outcomes evaluated were adverse events, immunogenicity and growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels. TransCon GH was well tolerated; fatigue and headache were the most frequent drug-related adverse events and reported in all groups. No lipoatrophy or nodule formation was reported. No anti-growth hormone-binding antibodies were detected. TransCon GH demonstrated a linear, dose-dependent increase in growth hormone exposure without accumulation. Growth hormone maximum serum concentration and insulin-like growth factor 1 exposure were similar after TransCon GH or Omnitrope administered at comparable doses. The results suggest that long-acting TransCon GH has a profile similar to daily growth hormone but with a more convenient dosing regimen. These findings support further TransCon GH development.

  8. The pros and cons about the digital recording of Intangible Cultural Heritage and some strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.

    2015-08-01

    Intangible Cultural Heritage (referred to as ICH), whose fundamental nature different from the tangible cultural heritage is "Intangible", and the related physical presence of the heritage is not the core content. Digital means have irreplaceable advantages in recording intangible and dynamic ICH resources, while it also needs flexible and rigorous recording means as a support, thus striving to maximize resources recording and protection. This article will focus on the pros and cons about the digital recording of ICH, and preliminarily discuss some strategies used in the process of recording.

  9. La interacción de estrellas WN con el medio circundante

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.; Cappa, C.; Rizzo, J. R.; Cichovolski, S.

    Se presentan resultados preliminares de un estudio de la distribución del hidrógeno neutro en los alrededores de estrellas WR de la serie del nitrógeno. Los datos observacionales de la línea de 21 cm provienen de un relevamineto de baja resolución angular (36'), así como de observaciones de resolución angular intermedia (9') tomadas con el radiotelescopio de Effelsberg. Este análisis ha permitido detectar cavidades y envolturas de H I en expansión vinculadas a las estrellas que componen la muestra.

  10. On application of optimal control to SEIR normalized models: Pros and cons.

    PubMed

    de Pinho, Maria do Rosario; Nogueira, Filipa Nunes

    2017-02-01

    In this work we normalize a SEIR model that incorporates exponential natural birth and death, as well as disease-caused death. We use optimal control to control by vaccination the spread of a generic infectious disease described by a normalized model with L1 cost. We discuss the pros and cons of SEIR normalized models when compared with classical models when optimal control with L1 costs are considered. Our discussion highlights the role of the cost. Additionally, we partially validate our numerical solutions for our optimal control problem with normalized models using the Maximum Principle.

  11. Soy-Based Therapeutic Baby Formulas: Testable Hypotheses Regarding the Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Westmark, Cara J

    2016-01-01

    Soy-based infant formulas have been consumed in the United States since 1909, and currently constitute a significant portion of the infant formula market. There are efforts underway to generate genetically modified soybeans that produce therapeutic agents of interest with the intent to deliver those agents in a soy-based infant formula platform. The threefold purpose of this review article is to first discuss the pros and cons of soy-based infant formulas, then present testable hypotheses to discern the suitability of a soy platform for drug delivery in babies, and finally start a discussion to inform public policy on this important area of infant nutrition.

  12. Nano anti-cancer drugs: pros and cons and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran

    2011-02-01

    For last one decade, scientists are working for developing nano anti-cancer drugs with claim of ideal ones due to their targeted chemotherapic nature. These drugs have many beneficial properties such as targeted drug delivery and gene therapy modalities with minimum side effects. This article describes pros and cons and future perspectives of nano anti-cancer drugs. Efforts have been made to address importance, special features, toxicities (general, blood identities, immune system and environmental) and future perspectives of nano anti-cancer drugs. It was concluded that nano anti-cancer drugs may be magic bullet drugs for cancer treatment leading to bright future of the whole world.

  13. Highlights from day three of the EuroSciCon 2015 Sports Science Summit

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Amit; McGregor, Alison

    2015-01-01

    This EuroSciCon Sports Science Summit represented a significant gathering of leading professionals in the field of sports science. The conference was held on 13–15 January 2015 at the O2 arena, London, UK. The chairman on the third day was Mr Greg Robertson, a specialist trainee Orthopedic surgeon from Edinburgh. The conference attracted over 80 attendants from all over the world, with 32 presentations from invited speakers and peer-reviewed submissions. This meeting report provides a summary of the best abstracts from the conference. PMID:28031889

  14. Confrontando teorías físicas con la Cosmología

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucetich, H.

    Hay numerosas teorías físicas que no pueden contrastarse con el experimento en laboratorio y eso las hace poco interesantes como descripción de la naturaleza. Sin embargo, algunas de estas teorías tienen consecuencias cosmológicas observables y se abre la posibilidad de contrastación a través de la observación. Se discuten las observaciones capaces de poner a prueba tales teorías y se examinan ejemplos de teorías limitadas por la observación.

  15. Soy-Based Therapeutic Baby Formulas: Testable Hypotheses Regarding the Pros and Cons

    PubMed Central

    Westmark, Cara J.

    2017-01-01

    Soy-based infant formulas have been consumed in the United States since 1909, and currently constitute a significant portion of the infant formula market. There are efforts underway to generate genetically modified soybeans that produce therapeutic agents of interest with the intent to deliver those agents in a soy-based infant formula platform. The threefold purpose of this review article is to first discuss the pros and cons of soy-based infant formulas, then present testable hypotheses to discern the suitability of a soy platform for drug delivery in babies, and finally start a discussion to inform public policy on this important area of infant nutrition. PMID:28149839

  16. The pros and cons of risk communication: A project manager`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, S.D.

    1995-12-31

    Communicating risk is in itself a risky, yet essential, part of any successful hazardous waste project`s community relations strategy. Essential, because no project requiring public involvement can achieve success without effective communication of technical data and associated risks. Risky, because the stakes are high, the public and media are often contentious, and their science and engineering are difficult to relate to non-technical audiences. Given that communicating project risks cannot be avoided, or are avoided at one`s own peril, project managers lacking mastery of communication skills can build winning strategies by heeding the following ``pros`` and ``cons`` of risk communication.

  17. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

  18. RETOS EN LA INTERVENCIÓN CON ADOLESCENTES PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS QUE MANIFIESTAN COMPORTAMIENTO SUICIDA*

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Yovanska Duarté; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Hernández, Samariz Laboy

    2015-01-01

    Presentamos un estudio de caso de una adolescente puertorriqueña con comportamiento suicida. Esta comenzó una Terapia Socio Cognitivo-Conductual para el Comportamiento Suicida (TSCC-CS) de tipo ambulatorio luego de una hospitalización por intento suicida. La TSCC-CS incorpora una perspectiva ecológica y de desarrollo a la terapia cognitivo-conductual. Inicialmente mostró baja autoestima y severos síntomas depresivos y de ansiedad. Al finalizar el tratamiento, manifestó un cambio significativo en su sintomatología clínica y evidenció una mejoría en sus destrezas de manejo. No presentó ideas suicidas durante meses previos, ni durante el seguimiento. El análisis de este caso permitió realizar cambios en el protocolo de tratamiento, particularmente en las sesiones de familia y de comunicación con el fin de aumentar la viabilidad del tratamiento. PMID:26702337

  19. Targeting of proConA to the plant vacuole depends on its nine amino-acid C-terminal propeptide.

    PubMed

    Saint-Jore-Dupas, Claude; Claude, Saint-Jore-Dupas; Gilbert, Marie-Agnès; Marie-Agnès, Gilbert; Ramis, Catalina; Catalina, Ramis; Paris, Nadine; Nadine, Paris; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie-Christine; Marie-Christine, Kiefer-Meyer; Neuhaus, Jean-Marc; Jean-Marc, Neuhaus; Faye, Loïc; Loïc, Faye; Gomord, Véronique; Véronique, Gomord

    2005-10-01

    Concanavalin A (ConA) is a well characterized and extensively used lectin accumulated in the protein bodies of jack bean cotyledons. ConA is synthesized as an inactive precursor proConA. The maturation of inactive proConA into biologically active ConA is a complex process including the removal of an internal glycopeptide and a C-terminal propeptide (CTPP), followed by a head-to-tail ligation of the two largest polypeptides. The cDNA encoding proConA was cloned and expressed in tobacco BY-2 cells. ProConA was slowly transported to the vacuole where its maturation into ConA was similar to that in jack bean cotyledons, apart from an incomplete final ligation. To investigate the role of the nine amino acid CTPP, a truncated form lacking the propeptide (proConADelta9) was expressed in BY-2 cells. In contrast to proConA, proConADelta9 was rapidly chased out of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and secreted into the culture medium. The CTPP was then fused to the C-terminal end of a secreted form of green fluorescent protein (secGFP). When expressed in tobacco BY-2 cells and leaf protoplasts, the chimaeric protein was located in the vacuole whereas secGFP was located in the culture medium and in the vacuole. Altogether, our results show we have isolated a new C-terminal vacuolar sorting determinant.

  20. Employee Communication at the NASA Langley Research Center. M.S. Thesis - Coll. of William and Mary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendura, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    The means of employee communication at the NASA Langley Research Center are reported, and their effectiveness evaluated. The history, purpose, and structure of the organization as well as the employee educational background and salary status are discussed. Some of the approaches used by Langley Research Center management in communicating with their men are addressed and compared with recommendations of experts in employee communication. The results of personal interviews involving both employee and management assessment of management-employee communication are presented and evaluated. Employees need a great deal more recommunication from management providing rationale behind the cancellation of existing projects or the disapproval of proposed research projects. Also NASA management needs to establish a policy and guidelines for the rapid and simultaneous dissemination of all non-restricted information to employees during organizational activities having potential adverse effects on large numbers of personnel. Finally some improvements should be made in employee orientation procedures.

  1. Eponymous doctors associated with Edinburgh, part 3--Abraham Colles, Sir William Ferguson, John S Haldane, Argyll Robertson, Thomas Young.

    PubMed

    Doyle, D

    2007-03-01

    In the first papers in this series, it was shown that eponyms were often bestowed on physicians and surgeons who were already famous, had made many discoveries never honoured with eponyms, and were often the leading doctors of their day. Only occasionally was the eponym suggested by a friend or colleague; more usually it was a doctor abroad who wanted to show respect to a great man but the choice of the particular syndrome or discovery was a random one. Eponyms may have had their uses. They were usually much shorter than a detailed description of a medical syndrome or anatomical feature and may sometimes have been used as euphemisms in much the same way as, until recently, bedside teachers protected the patients by speaking of 'mitotic lesions' or 'neoplasms', 'Hansen's Disease' or 'acid-fast bacilli'. The conferring and use of eponyms appears to be lessening but, as shown in this final paper, they are still used and possibly useful, and can tell us things of interest about the recipient and the proposer.

  2. The Sauve-Kapandji procedure and the Darrach procedure for distal radio-ulnar joint dysfunction after Colles' fracture.

    PubMed

    George, M S; Kiefhaber, T R; Stern, P J

    2004-12-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the results of the Darrach procedure and the Sauve-Kapandji procedure for the treatment of distal radio-ulnar joint derangement following malunion of dorsally displaced, unstable, intraarticular fractures of the distal radius in patients under 50 years of age. Twelve of 18 possible patients in the Sauve-Kapandji group completed the disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand survey at a mean of 4 years postoperatively and nine of the 18 returned for a follow-up examination at a mean of 2 years. Twenty-one of 30 possible patients in the Darrach group completed the disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand survey at a mean of 6 years postoperatively and 13 of these 30 returned for follow-up examination at a mean of 4 years. The Darrach procedure and the Sauve-Kapandji procedure yielded comparable and unpredictable results with respect to both subjective and objective parameters.

  3. Overcoming the aggregation problem: A new type of fluorescent ligand for ConA-based glucose sensing

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Brian M.; Li, Mingchien; Locke, Andrea K.; Birch, David J.S.; Vigh, Gyula; Coté, Gerard L.

    2016-01-01

    Competitive binding assays based on the lectin Concanavalin A (ConA) have displayed significant potential to serve in continuous glucose monitoring applications. However, to date, this type of fluorescent, affinity-based assay has yet to show the stable, glucose predictive capabilities that are required for such an application. This instability has been associated with the extensive crosslinking between traditionally-used fluorescent ligands (presenting multiple low-affinity moieties) and ConA (presenting multiple binding sites) in free solution. The work herein introduces the design and synthesis of a new type of fluorescent ligand that can avoid this aggregation and allow the assay to be sensitive across the physiologically relevant glucose concentration range. This fluorescent ligand (APTS–MT) presents a single high-affinity trimannose moiety that is recognized by ConA’s full binding site and a fluorophore that can effectively track the ligand’s equilibrium binding via fluorescent anisotropy. This is confirmed by comparing its measured fluorescent lifetime to experimentally-determined rotational correlation lifetimes of the free and bound populations. Using an assay comprised of 200 nM APTS–MT and 1 μM ConA, the fluorescence anisotropy capably tracks the concentration of monosaccharides that are known to bind to ConA’s primary binding site, and the assay displays a MARD of 6.5% across physiologically relevant glucose concentrations. Ultimately, this rationally-designed fluorescent ligand can facilitate the realization of the full potential of ConA-based glucose sensing assays and provide the basis for a new set of competing ligands to be paired with ConA. PMID:25058939

  4. Overcoming the aggregation problem: a new type of fluorescent ligand for ConA-based glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Brian M; Li, Mingchien; Locke, Andrea K; Birch, David J S; Vigh, Gyula; Coté, Gerard L

    2015-01-15

    Competitive binding assays based on the lectin Concanavalin A (ConA) have displayed significant potential to serve in continuous glucose monitoring applications. However, to date, this type of fluorescent, affinity-based assay has yet to show the stable, glucose predictive capabilities that are required for such an application. This instability has been associated with the extensive crosslinking between traditionally-used fluorescent ligands (presenting multiple low-affinity moieties) and ConA (presenting multiple binding sites) in free solution. The work herein introduces the design and synthesis of a new type of fluorescent ligand that can avoid this aggregation and allow the assay to be sensitive across the physiologically relevant glucose concentration range. This fluorescent ligand (APTS-MT) presents a single high-affinity trimannose moiety that is recognized by ConA's full binding site and a fluorophore that can effectively track the ligand's equilibrium binding via fluorescent anisotropy. This is confirmed by comparing its measured fluorescent lifetime to experimentally-determined rotational correlation lifetimes of the free and bound populations. Using an assay comprised of 200 nM APTS-MT and 1 µM ConA, the fluorescence anisotropy capably tracks the concentration of monosaccharides that are known to bind to ConA's primary binding site, and the assay displays a MARD of 6.5% across physiologically relevant glucose concentrations. Ultimately, this rationally-designed fluorescent ligand can facilitate the realization of the full potential of ConA-based glucose sensing assays and provide the basis for a new set of competing ligands to be paired with ConA.

  5. Contribution of the Kallikrein/Kinin System to the Mediation of ConA-Induced Inflammatory Ascites.

    PubMed

    Baintner, Károly

    2016-03-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of concanavalin A (ConA, 25 mg/kg b.w.), a cell-binding plant lectin was used for inducing inflammatory ascites, and potential inhibitors were tested in 1 h and 2.5 h experiments, i.e. still before the major influx of leucocytes. At the end of the experiment the peritoneal fluid was collected and measured. The ConA-induced ascites was significantly (p<0.01) and dose-dependently inhibited by icatibant (HOE-140), a synthetic polypeptide antagonist of bradykinin receptors. Aprotinin, a kallikrein inhibitor protein also had significant (p<0.01), but less marked inhibitory effect. L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthesis, and atropine methylnitrate, an anticholinergic compound, were ineffective. It is concluded, that the kallikrein/kinin system contributes to the mediation of the ConA-induced ascites by increasing subperitoneal vascular permeability, independent of the eventual vasodilation produced by NO. It is known, that membrane glycoproteins are aggregated by the tetravalent ConA and the resulting distortion of membrane structure may explain the activation of the labile prekallikrein. Complete inhibition of the ConA-induced ascites could not be achieved by aprotinin or icatibant, which indicates the involvement of additional mediators.

  6. Comparison of phenotypic methods in predicting methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) from animals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifan; Wang, Xiaogang; LeJeune, Jeffrey T; Zervos, Marcus; Bhargava, Kanika

    2011-02-01

    Phenotypic detection of methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) of animal origin has been challenging due to the heterogeneous expression of mecA. To compare different phenotypic methods in predicting the mecA presence in CoNS, a total of 87 CoNS isolates from agricultural animals were analyzed in this study by agar dilution, disk diffusion, and broth microdilution. mecA was present in 81 CoNS isolates. Broth microdilution demonstrated the highest sensitivity of 100% in predicting the mecA presence, followed by 72.8% by agar dilution and 70.4% by disk diffusion. The results indicate that broth microdilution may be more suitable for predicting the presence of mecA in CoNS from animals than the other two methods, although staphylococcal species may also be a factor affecting the sensitivities of the methods as the top three staphylococcal species in this study were Staphylococcus lentus, Staphylococcus sciuri, and Staphylococcus xylosus (a total of 75 of 87).

  7. Multipotent (adult) and pluripotent stem cells for heart regeneration: what are the pros and cons?

    PubMed

    Liao, Song-Yan; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2013-12-24

    Heart failure after myocardial infarction is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Existing medical and interventional therapies can only reduce the loss of cardiomyocytes during myocardial infarction but are unable to replenish the permanent loss of cardiomyocytes after the insult, which contributes to progressive pathological left ventricular remodeling and progressive heart failure. As a result, cell-based therapies using multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells) have been explored as potential therapeutic approaches to restore cardiac function in heart failure. Nevertheless, the optimal cell type with the best therapeutic efficacy and safety for heart regeneration is still unknown. In this review, the potential pros and cons of different types of multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells that have been investigated in preclinical and clinical studies are reviewed, and the future perspective of stem cell-based therapy for heart regeneration is discussed.

  8. From in vitro Experiments to in vivo and Clinical Studies; Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Manayi, Azadeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical investigators use different methods including experimental animals, tissue, and cell cultures as well as computational simulations and clinical studies finding the ways to treat human diseases and disorders. All the mentioned procedures have their own advantages and disadvantages. For instance although animal models provide some drawbacks like difference in biokinetics parameters or extrapolation of results to human, they are more reliable than in vitro tests. The disadvantage of the in vitro procedures is that they are mostly performed on cancerous cell lines that have a substantially abnormal function. Furthermore, although in vitro models are fruitfully used in biological fields, finding an end point, the initial aim of chemical attack, and extrapolation of the effects to the human are some real weaknesses. Absence of biokinetics in in vitro methods may lead to a misinterpretation of the data. The present review has criticized the pros and cons of both methods, especially in the fields of pharmacology, toxicology, and medical sciences.

  9. What to consider when regulating electronic cigarettes: Pros, cons and unintended consequences.

    PubMed

    Caponnetto, Pasquale; Saitta, Daniela; Sweanor, David; Polosa, Riccardo

    2015-06-01

    Many public health experts, medical research societies, large health organizations and policy makers have expressed concerns about the increased popularity of electronic cigarettes and have pushed for more restrictive measures ranging from complete bans to tight regulations of these products either as medicines or as tobacco products. But these concerns have never been adequately qualified nor quantified. Without judicious assessment and thorough evaluation, regulations may have unintended consequences that can do more damage than good in public health terms. In this article, we will appraise the existing prominent regulatory frameworks for e-cigarettes, namely, general consumer product, medicinal product and tobacco product regulation, to highlight their pros and cons. Moreover, we provide concrete examples of the unintended consequences which may arise from inappropriate regulatory action.

  10. Pros and cons of healthcare information technology implementation: the pros win.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Roxana

    2006-01-01

    Countless studies and investigations have been performed siding either for or against the implementation of technology in the healthcare setting. This article presents both sides of this debate, with an obvious conclusion that the pros of this debate win. The practice of information technology in the medical domain lags behind its knowledge and discovery by at least 7 years. The key to closing this gap is to show, through various studies, how information technology systems provide decision support to users at the point in time when decisions are needed. What the reader will obtain from this article is that the pros for information technology implementation in healthcare settings weigh much more and have a greater effect than the cons.

  11. The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: pros and cons for pediatric and adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tami L

    2008-01-01

    The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a research breakthrough for pediatric/adolescent health to prevent cervical cancer and related morbidity. The annual heath care cost for the treatment of cervical cancer and genital warts is estimated to be more than three billion dollars a year. The new HPV vaccine has incredible potential to improve reproductive health promotion, reduce health care costs, and close health care disparity gaps. However, issues both for and against the new HPV vaccine, including mandating vaccination, high cost of the vaccine, the short duration of protection offered, and the perceived promotion of sexual activity, cause confusion. Pediatric nurses, including those in advanced practice, benefit by understanding the pros and cons of these issues in advocating for their patients.

  12. [Funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali nel disturbo dello spettro dell'autismo e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività: risultati preliminari].

    PubMed

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Ferri, Raffaele; Catania, Valentina; Genitori D'Arrigo, Valentina; Di Giorgio, Rosa; Zingale, Marinella; Trubia, Grazia; Torrisi, Anna; Elia, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. I deficit delle funzioni esecutive (FE) sono frequentemente osservati nei disturbi dello spettro dell'autismo (ASD) e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività (ADHD). Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare e confrontare le funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali di bambini con ASD e ADHD, sia fra di loro che con un gruppo di controllo. Metodi. Il campione è costituito da un totale di 58 soggetti, di cui 17 con ASD senza disabilità intellettiva, 18 con ADHD-manifestazione combinata e 23 con sviluppo tipico, abbinati per genere, età cronologica e livello intellettivo. Le valutazioni hanno riguardato alcune aree del funzionamento esecutivo, nello specifico pianificazione, flessibilità mentale, generatività e inibizione della risposta, che rappresentano sia le funzioni esecutive metacognitive sia quelle emozionali/motivazionali. Risultati. I risultati hanno rilevato un'ampia sovrapposizione delle disfunzioni esecutive nei due gruppi clinici con ASD e ADHD, e non sono stati indicativi della presenza di due profili realmente distinti del funzionamento esecutivo. Tuttavia, nell'ADHD è stato trovato un deficit più severo nell'inibizione della risposta prepotente (funzione emozionale/motivazionale). Conclusioni. I risultati del nostro studio sono parzialmente in accordo con quelli della letteratura. Ulteriori ricerche con gruppi più numerosi potranno chiarire più approfonditamente quali punti di forza e debolezza, nell'ampio spettro delle funzioni esecutive, differenzino fra loro le prestazioni di persone con ASD e ADHD.

  13. DESAFÍOS ÉTICOS DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN CON ANIMALES, MANIPULACIÓN GENÉTICA

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    En la investigación con animales existen cuestionamientos éticos tanto en el uso como modelos de enfermedades humanas y requisito previo para ensayos en humanos como en la introducción de modificaciones genéticas. Algunos de estos cuestionamientos son: no representar exactamente la condición humana como modelos, realizar pruebas de toxicidad con grave daño para los animales, alterar su naturaleza mediante modificaciones genéticas, riesgos de la introducción de organismos genéticamente modificados. El uso de animales en investigación para beneficio humano, impone al ser humano la responsabilidad moral de respetarlo, no haciéndoles sufrir innecesariamente, al estar trabajando con seres vivientes y sentientes. PMID:23338641

  14. Formación estelar en NGC 6357: viendo a través del polvo con Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, G.; Morrell, N.; Barbá, R.

    Presentamos aquí los primeros resultados de fotometría JHKs obtenidos con Flamingos I en el telescopio Gemini Sur. El mosaico comprendido por tres posiciones adyacentes tomadas a lo largo de varios semestres nos permite caracterizar la población estelar en la zona que presenta una interacción más importante entre las estrellas masivas y la nube molecular que les dió origen. Los diagramas color-magnitud nos permiten identificar numerosas fuentes con exceso infrarrojo, la mayoría de ellas imposible de detectarse en el rango óptico debido a la fuerte absorción del polvo presente en la región. Es altamente probable que la mayoría de estas fuentes con exceso sean protoestrellas, aunque es necesario realizar espectroscopía infrarroja de las mismas para confirmar su naturaleza.

  15. La salud en personas con discapacidad intelectual en España: estudio europeo POMONA-II

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencía Ruiz; Nadal, Margarida; Novell-Alsina, Ramón; Martorell, Almudena; González-Gordón, Rodrigo G.; Mérida-Gutiérrez, M. Reyes; Ángel, Silvia; Milagrosa-Tejonero, Luisa; Rodríguez, Alicia; García-Gutiérrez, Juan C.; Pérez-Vicente, Amado; García-Ibáñez, José; Aguilera-Inés, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Introducción Estudios internacionales demuestran que existe un patrón diferenciado de salud y una disparidad en la atención sanitaria entre personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI) y población general. Objetivo Obtener datos sobre el estado de salud de las personas con DI y compararlos con datos de población general. Pacientes y métodos Se utilizó el conjunto de indicadores de salud P15 en una muestra de 111 sujetos con DI. Los datos de salud encontrados se compararon según el tipo de residencia de los sujetos y se utilizó la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 para comparar estos datos con los de la población general. Resultados La muestra con DI presentó 25 veces más casos de epilepsia y el doble de obesidad. Un 20% presentó dolor bucal, y existió una alta presencia de problemas sensoriales, de movilidad y psicosis. Sin embargo, encontramos una baja presencia de patologías como la diabetes, la hipertensión, la osteoartritis y la osteoporosis. También presentaron una menor participación en programas de prevención y promoción de la salud, un mayor número de ingresos hospitalarios y un uso menor de los servicios de urgencia. Conclusiones El patrón de salud de las personas con DI difiere del de la población general, y éstas realizan un uso distinto de los servicios sanitarios. Es importante el desarrollo de programas de promoción de salud y de formación profesional específicamente diseñados para la atención de personas con DI, así como la implementación de encuestas de salud que incluyan datos sobre esta población. PMID:21948011

  16. Economic and Ethical Consequences of Natural Hazards in Alpine Valleys (EE-Con)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, Florian; Brantl, Dirk; Meyer, Lukas; Steininger, Karl; Sass, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The Alps and their population are particularly vulnerable to geomorphological and hydrological hazards and this problem might be amplified by ongoing climate change. Natural disasters cause severe monetary damage which often leads to the difficult question whether it socially pays to protect settlements at high costs or whether alternatively settlement areas should better be abandoned. By investigations in the Johnsbachtal and the Kleinsölktal (Styria), the interdisciplinary project "Economic and Ethical Consequences of Natural Hazards in Alpine Valleys" (EE-Con), funded by the Austrian Academy of Sciences, seeks to answer the following questions: (1) Are natural hazards and associated damages in fact increasing, and is this due to meteorological triggers, to anthropogenic factors or to internal process dynamics? (2) What is the perception and knowledge of local people, how is risk and risk prevention communicated? (3) What is the respective cost ratio between protection infrastructure, soft measures of adaptation and other options (e.g. reduction of settlement area)? (4) What legitimate claims to compensation do people have, how far does societal responsibility go and where does individual responsibility start if parts of the settlement area had to be abandoned? These questions will be tackled in an interdisciplinary cooperation between geography, economics and normative theory (philosophy). EE-Con will follow broadly the path of risk analysis and risk assessment, focusing on the temporal dimension (past - present - future) with the aim to unravel the history of natural hazards in the areas and to analyse the economic values involved. In the following, natural hazard scenarios for the future (2050 and 2100) will be developed considering the economic consequences. Besides this, the project deals with local knowledge, risk perception and risk communication, which will be investigated via group interviews and stakeholder workshops and be integrated into a human

  17. Future of clip-on weapon sights: pros and cons from an applications perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, C. Reed; Greenslade, Ken; Francisco, Glen

    2015-05-01

    US Domestic, International, allied Foreign National Warfighters and Para-Military First Responders (Police, SWAT, Special Operations, Law Enforcement, Government, Security and more) are put in harm's way all the time. To successfully complete their missions and return home safely are the primary goals of these professionals. Tactical product improvements that affect mission effectiveness and solider survivability are pivotal to understanding the past, present and future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights. Clip-On Weapon Sight (WS) technology was deemed an interim solution by the US Government for use until integrated and fused (day/night multi-sensor) Weapon Sights (WSs) were developed/fielded. Clip-On has now become the solution of choice by Users, Warriors, Soldiers and the US Government. SWaP-C (size, weight and power -cost) has been improved through progressive advances in Clip-On Image Intensified (I2), passive thermal, LL-CMOS and fused technology. Clip-On Weapon Sights are now no longer mounting position sensitive. Now they maintain aim point boresight, so they can be used for longer ranges with increased capabilities while utilizing the existing zeroed weapon and daysight optic. Active illuminated low-light level (both analog I2 and digital LL-CMOS) imaging is rightfully a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime and low-light level identification confidence. Passive thermal imaging is also a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime, nighttime and all-weather (including dirty battlefield) target detection confidence. Image processing detection algorithms with intelligent analytics provide documented promise to improve confidence by reducing Users, Warriors and Soldiers' work-loads and improving overall system engagement solution outcomes. In order to understand the future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights, addressing pros and cons, this paper starts with an overview of historical weapon sight applications, technologies and stakeholder decisions

  18. Self-efficacy, pros, and cons as variables associated with adjacent stages of change for regular exercise in Japanese college students.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Fallon, Elizabeth A; Sakano, Yuji

    2016-01-18

    This study examined self-efficacy (confidence to exercise), pros (exercise's advantages), and cons (exercise's disadvantages) as variables associated across the transtheoretical model's six stages of change in 403 Japanese college students. A series of logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results showed that higher pros and lower cons were associated with being in contemplation compared to precontemplation. Lower cons were associated with being in preparation compared to contemplation. Higher self-efficacy was associated with being in action compared to preparation as well as being in maintenance compared to action. Lower cons were associated with being in termination compared to maintenance.

  19. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Scardina, John; Shay, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the goals, benefits, technologies, and procedures of the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for the Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1), and provides an update to the previous versions of the document [ref 1 and ref 2].

  20. iPathCons and iPathDB: an improved insect pathway construction tool and the database

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zan; Yin, Chuanlin; Liu, Ying; Jie, Wencai; Lei, Wenjie; Li, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Insects are one of the most successful animal groups on earth. Some insects, such as the silkworm and honeybee, are beneficial to humans, whereas others are notorious pests of crops. At present, the genomes of 38 insects have been sequenced and made publically available. In addition, the transcriptomes of dozens of insects have been sequenced. As gene data rapidly accumulate, constructing the pathway of molecular interactions becomes increasingly important for entomological research. Here, we developed an improved tool, iPathCons, for knowledge-based construction of pathways from the transcriptomes or the official gene sets of genomes. Considering the high evolution diversity in insects, iPathCons uses a voting system for Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthology assignment. Both stand-alone software and a web server of iPathCons are provided. Using iPathCons, we constructed the pathways of molecular interactions of 52 insects, including 37 genome-sequenced and 15 transcriptome-sequenced ones. These pathways are available in the iPathDB, which provides searches, web server, data downloads, etc. This database will be highly useful for the insect research community. Database URL: http://ento.njau.edu.cn/ipath/ PMID:25388589

  1. Treatment of plutonium contaminated soil/sediment from the Mound site using the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} process

    SciTech Connect

    Negri, M.C.; Swift, N.A.; North, J.P.

    1996-10-01

    The removal and/or treatment of contaminated soil is a major problem facing the US DOE. The EG&G Mound Applied Technologies site in Miamisburg, Ohio, has an estimated 1.5 million cubic feet of soils from past disposal and waste burial practices awaiting remediation from plutonium contamination. This amount includes sediment from the Miami-Erie Canal that was contaminated in 1969 following a pipe- rupture accident. Conventional soil washing techniques that use particle separation would generate too large a waste volume to be economically feasible. Therefore, innovative technologies are needed for the cleanup. The ACT*DE*CON process was developed by SELENTEC for washing soils to selectively dissolve and remove heavy metals and radionuclides. ACT*DE*CON chemically dissolves and removes heavy metals and radionuclides from soils and sediments into an aqueous medium. The ACT*DE*CON process uses oxidative carbonate/chelant chemistry to dissolve the contaminant from the sediment and hold the contaminant in solution. The objective of recent work was to document the proves conditions necessary to achieve the Mound-site and regulatory-cleanup goals using the ACT*DE*CON technology.

  2. Pro/Con debate: Is occupational asthma induced by isocyanates an immunoglobulin E-mediated disease?

    PubMed

    Wisnewski, A V; Jones, M

    2010-08-01

    Isocyanates, low-molecular weight chemicals essential to polyurethane production, are one of the most common causes of occupational asthma, yet the mechanisms by which exposure leads to disease remain unclear. While isocyanate asthma closely mirrors other Type I Immune Hypersensitivity (Allergic) disorders, one important characteristic of hypersensitivity ('allergen'-specific IgE) is reportedly absent in a large portion of affected individuals. This variation from common environmental asthma (which typically is induced by high-molecular weight allergens) is important for two reasons. (1) Allergen-specific IgE is an important mediator of many of the symptoms of bronchial hyper-reactivity in 'allergic asthma'. Lack of allergen-specific IgE in isocyanate hypersensitive individuals suggests differences in pathogenic mechanisms, with potentially unique targets for prevention and therapy. (2) Allergen-specific IgE forms the basis of the most commonly used diagnostic tests for hypersensitivity (skin prick and RAST). Without allergen-specific IgE, isocyanates may go unrecognized as the cause of asthma. In hypersensitive individuals, chronic exposure can lead to bronchial hyperreactivity that persists years after exposure ceases. Thus, the question of whether or not isocyanate asthma is an IgE-mediated disease, has important implications for disease screening/surveillance, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. The present Pro/Con Debate, addresses contemporary, controversial issues regarding IgE in isocyanate asthma.

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of N doped Fe_mCon superlattices: First principles calculations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Miyoung; Freeman, A. J.

    2001-03-01

    Magnetic alloys and multilayers have been widely investigated because of their potential for magnetic device applications. In this, materials exhibiting high magnetization as well as good soft magnetic properties are desirable. We investigated the magnetic and structural properties of Fe_mCon superlattices with various compositions via first principles local density full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method^(1) calculations. For the 25% Co composition which showed the maximum magnetic moments, we inserted N atoms to make (Fe_3Co)_4N_2, in order to examine the possible magnetic enhancement by N, which has drawn much attention since the first report (in 1972) of a giant magnetic moment for the quasi-stable α-Fe_16N_2. The structural optimization was fully accomplished by total energy and atomic force calculations. Despite the lattice expansion due to the N insertion, the magnetic moment of (Fe_3Co)_4N2 was found to be reduced from the value of the Fe_3Co superlattice by the strong hybridization of N with Fe and Co. (1) E. Wimmer, H. Krakauer, M. Weinert and A. J. Freeman, Phys. Rev. B 24, 864 (1981).

  4. A new millimeter-wave observation of the weakly bound CO-N2 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surin, L. A.; Potapov, A.; Müller, H. S. P.; Schlemmer, S.

    2015-01-01

    New millimeter-wave transitions of the CO-N2 van der Waals complex have been observed using the intracavity OROTRON jet spectrometer in the frequency range of 103-159 GHz. For the less abundant form, CO-paraN2, a total of 37 rotational transitions were assigned to three K = 0-0, 0-1, 2-1 subbands connecting the (jCO, jN2) = (1, 1) and (jCO, jN2) = (0, 1) internal rotor states. The upper K = 0 and K = 2 "stacks" of rotational levels were probed for the first time here by millimeter-wave spectroscopy following a recent infrared study by Rezaei et al. (2013). The observation of new subbands fixes with higher precision not only these upper K = 0 and K = 2 but also lower K = 1(f) levels, not linked with other stacks in earlier rotational studies. For the more abundant form, CO-orthoN2, five new P-branch rotational transitions of the K = 0-0 "CO bending" subband are reported, thus extending previous measurements. Nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure due to the presence of two equivalent 14N nuclei was partly resolved and analyzed to give additional information about the angular orientation of the N2 molecule in the complex.

  5. Assessing ComSciCon 2013: A science communication workshop for STEM graduate students (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, S.; Ranjan, S.; Sanders, N.; Morey, S.

    2013-12-01

    We report on the efficacy of Communicating Science 2013, a science communication workshop for graduate students. Effective science communication is imperative for the sharing of scientific ideas, continued funding and support from policy makers, and education of the public. Science graduate students are a prime group to target for communication training, as they will be our future scientists, educators, and EPO professionals. To this end, Communicating Science 2013 (ComSciCon), a workshop organized by and for STEM graduate students, was held in June of this year. This workshop taught graduate students from around the nation to effectively communicate science to both their peers and the public. To learn about grad students' attitudes toward science communication and establish the workshop's efficacy, we surveyed the participants both before and after the workshop. This assessment probed topics such as communication preparation the participants have already received, how science communication is perceived in their home department, and what participants gained from the workshop. We report the results here.

  6. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Pros and Cons of Histologic Systems of Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-13

    The diagnostic phenotype of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)--in particular, the most significant form in terms of prognosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)--continues to rely on liver tissue evaluation, in spite of remarkable advances in non-invasive algorithms developed from serum-based tests and imaging-based or sonographically-based tests for fibrosis or liver stiffness. The most common tissue evaluation remains percutaneous liver biopsy; considerations given to the needle size and the location of the biopsy have the potential to yield the most representative tissue for evaluation. The pathologist's efforts are directed to not only global diagnosis, but also assessment of severity of injury. Just as in other forms of chronic liver disease, these assessments can be divided into necroinflammatory activity, and fibrosis with parenchymal remodeling, in order to separately analyze potentially reversible (grade) and non-reversible (stage) lesions. These concepts formed the bases for current methods of evaluating the lesions that collectively comprise the phenotypic spectra of NAFLD. Four extant methods have specific applications; there are pros and cons to each, and this forms the basis of the review.

  7. Pros and cons in endocrine practice: pre-surgical treatment with somatostatin analogues in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Losa, Marco; Bollerslev, Jens

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this commentary is to balance the pros and cons for pre-surgical SSA treatment in a modern perspective ending up with a pragmatic recommendation for treatment based on the current evidence and expertise of the authors. Even though prospective and randomized studies in this particular area are hampered by obvious limitations, the interpretation of the four published trials has in general been in favor of pre-treatment with SSA, showing a better outcome following surgery. However, major drawbacks of these studies, such as non-optimal diagnostic criteria for cure, potential selection bias, and timing of the postoperative evaluation in SSA pre-treated patients, limit their overall interpretation. Three matched-controlled studies showed remarkably similar results with no apparent beneficial effect of SSA pre-treatment on surgical outcome. Both prospective, randomized studies and retrospective studies did not find any significant difference in the rate of endocrine and non-endocrine complications related to surgery, despite the beneficial clinical effects of SSA treatment in most acromegalic patients. The newly diagnosed patient with acromegaly should be carefully evaluated in the trans-disciplinary neuroendocrine team and treatment individualized accordingly. The issue of SSA pre-treatment to improve surgical outcome is yet to be settled and further methodologically sound studies are probably necessary to clarify this point.

  8. Synthesis of colloidal metal nanocrystals in droplet reactors: the pros and cons of interfacial adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yi; Tong, Limin; Xia, Younan

    2014-07-09

    Droplet reactors have received considerable attention in recent years as an alternative route to the synthesis and potentially high-volume production of colloidal metal nanocrystals. Interfacial adsorption will immediately become an important issue to address when one seeks to translate a nanocrystal synthesis from batch reactors to droplet reactors due to the involvement of higher surface-to-volume ratios for the droplets and the fact that nanocrystals tend to be concentrated at the water-oil interface. Here we report a systematic study to compare the pros and cons of interfacial adsorption of metal nanocrystals during their synthesis in droplet reactors. On the one hand, interfacial adsorption can be used to generate nanocrystals with asymmetric shapes or structures, including one-sixth-truncated Ag octahedra and Au-Ag nanocups. On the other hand, interfacial adsorption has to be mitigated to obtain nanocrystals with uniform sizes and controlled shapes. We confirmed that Triton X-100, a nonionic surfactant, could effectively alleviate interfacial adsorption while imposing no impact on the capping agent typically needed for a shape-controlled synthesis. With the introduction of a proper surfactant, droplet reactors offer an attractive platform for the continuous production of colloidal metal nanocrystals.

  9. Ground and lowest-lying electronic states of CoN. A multiconfigurational study.

    PubMed

    Gobbo, João Paulo; Borin, Antonio Carlos

    2006-12-28

    The lowest-lying X1Sigma+, a3Phi, b3II, c5Delta, A1Phi, and B1II electronic states of CoN have been investigated at the ab initio MRCI and MS-CASPT2 levels, with extended atomic basis sets and inclusion of scalar relativistic effects. Among the singlet states, the A1Phi and B1II states have been described for the first time. Potential energy curves, excitation energies, spectroscopic constants, and bonding character for all states are reported. Comparison with other early transition-metal nitrides (ScN, TiN, VN, and CrN), isoelectronic (NiC) and isovalent (RhN and IrN) species has been made, besides analyzing the B1II <=> X1+ electronic transition in terms of Franck-Condon factors, Einstein coefficients, and radiative lifetimes. At both levels of theory, the following energetic order has been obtained: X1Sigma+, a3Phi, b3II, c5Delta, A1Phi, and B1II, with good agreement with experimental results. In contrast, previous DFT and MRCI calculations predicted the ground state to be the 5Delta state.

  10. Pros and cons of condom use among gay and bisexual men as explored via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Gullette, Donna L; Turner, Joan G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey utilizing Internet technology related to gay and bisexual men's condom use behavior as an expression of safer sexual practices. A total of 241 self-identified gay and bisexual men responded to the questionnaire in a 3-month period of time. Confidentiality was assured by utilizing an electronic system whereby the respondents e-mail address was eliminated. The study was conceptually guided by the use of the Transtheoretical Model of Behavioral Change (TMC) and the pros and cons of condom of use were explored. Fifty-six percent of the participants reported that one advantage (pro) of using condoms with casual partners was that it would make them safer from disease. About half of the respondents (n = 119, 49%) reported a history of one or more sexually transmitted diseases. There were 14 variables found to be significantly associated with using a condom with primary and casual partners among gay and bisexual men. Essentially, findings from this study corresponded to results obtained by more traditional data collection methods. Therefore, the authors conclude that electronic data collection may well be an alternative means for collecting sensitive data such as those collected in this study.

  11. Pros and cons of the liposome platform in cancer drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Gabizon, Alberto A; Shmeeda, Hilary; Zalipsky, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Coating of liposomes with polyethylene-glycol (PEG) by incorporation in the liposome bilayer of PEG-derivatized lipids results in inhibition of liposome uptake by the reticulo-endothelial system and significant prolongation of liposome residence time in the blood stream. Parallel developments in drug loading technology have improved the efficiency and stability of drug entrapment in liposomes, particularly with regard to cationic amphiphiles such as anthracyclines. An example of this new generation of liposomes is a formulation of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin known as Doxil or Caelyx, whose clinical pharmacokinetic profile is characterized by slow plasma clearance and small volume of distribution. A hallmark of these long-circulating liposomal drug carriers is their enhanced accumulation in tumors. The mechanism underlying this passive targeting effect is the phenomenon known as enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) which has been described in a broad variety of experimental tumor types. Further to the passive targeting effect, the liposome drug delivery platform offers the possibility of grafting tumor-specific ligands on the liposome membrane for active targeting to tumor cells, and potentially intracellular drug delivery. The pros and cons of the liposome platform in cancer targeting are discussed vis-à-vis nontargeted drugs, using as an example a liposome drug delivery system targeted to the folate receptor.

  12. Thromboprophylaxis in carriers of antiphospholipid antibodies (APL) without previous thrombosis: "Pros" and "Cons".

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Chighizola, Cecilia; Finazzi, Guido; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Valesini, Guido

    2012-06-01

    The presence of anti-phospholipid (aPL) is necessary but not sufficient to induce a thrombotic event. The "second hit" hypothesis suggested that an additional trigger may be needed to develop a vascular event in aPL carriers. In this article, pro and con of primary thromboprophylaxis in aPL carriers is deeply discussed, concluding that univocal data are not available, due to conflicting results of available clinical trials. However, in clinical practice the primary thromboprophylaxis is not indicated in all unselected asymptomatic aPL carriers, and the best strategy begin with the assessment of the peculiar risk profile of the subject. Thus, it is mandatory to eliminate modifiable prothrombotic risk factors (i.e. smoking, oral contraceptive), to treat the irreversible risk factors (i.e. hypertension, diabetes) and to introduce an aggressive prophylaxis with subcutaneous LMWH in high-risk situations (i.e. surgical procedures with prolonged immobilization). A different evaluation should be addressed to aPL carriers with a concomitant autoimmune disease that are considered as an additional pro-thrombotic risk factor. Similarly, concomitant positivity for more than one anti-phospholipid test confer a stronger risk of developing the thrombotic manifestations. Specific trials with larger cohorts of patients are needed to better clarify this issue.

  13. Pros and cons of BCG vaccination in countries with low incidence of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tala, E O; Tala-Heikkilä, M M

    1994-07-01

    Preventive bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, together with case finding and effective chemotherapy, has formed an integral part of the tuberculosis (TB) control program in most countries. In some low-incidence countries the balance of prevention has been more on the side of chemoprophylaxis than of BCG vaccination. The time clearly has come when the strategy of mass BCG vaccination no longer is indicated medically, nor is it cost-effective. The pros and cons of the programs need to be critically evaluated against the present epidemiological background, taking into account the facts that TB, the killer disease, is recovering strength, human immunodeficiency virus infection is on the increase, and multidrug-resistant TB has changed the outcome of this previously fully curable disease. Although no longer appropriate for mass programs, BCG vaccination still should be considered for the protection of selected risk groups in low-incidence countries. The overall efficacy may be of the order 50% to 80%, but the variation is great. Therefore, further research urgently is needed on the effectiveness of BCG as an intervention in local TB programs.

  14. Pros and cons of liver transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus infected recipients.

    PubMed

    Baccarani, Umberto; Righi, Elda; Adani, Gian Luigi; Lorenzin, Dario; Pasqualucci, Alberto; Bassetti, Matteo; Risaliti, Andrea

    2014-05-14

    Before the introduction of combined highly active antiretroviral therapy, a positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serological status represented an absolute contraindication for solid organ transplant (SOT). The advent of highly effective combined antiretroviral therapy in 1996 largely contributed to the increased demand for SOT in HIV-positive individuals due to increased patients' life expectancy associated with the increasing prevalence of end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Nowadays, liver failure represents a frequent cause of mortality in the HIV-infected population mainly due to coinfection with hepatitis viruses sharing the same way of transmission. Thus, liver transplantation (LT) represents a reasonable approach in HIV patients with stable infection and ESLD. Available data presently supports with good evidence the practice of LT in the HIV-positive population. Thus, the issue is no longer "whether it is correct to transplant HIV-infected patients", but "who are the patients who can be safely transplanted" and "when is the best time to perform LT". Indeed, the benefits of LT in HIV-infected patients, especially in terms of mid- and long-term patient and graft survivals, are strictly related to the patients' selection and to the correct timing for transplantation, especially when hepatitis C virus coinfection is present. Aim of this article is to review the pros and cons of LT in the cohort of HIV infected recipients.

  15. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  16. 40 CFR 180.1213 - Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1213 Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M... tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Coniothyrium minitans strain...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1213 - Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1213 Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M... tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Coniothyrium minitans strain...

  18. (Con)text-specific effects of visual dysfunction on reading in posterior cortical atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Keir X.X.; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Cash, Dave; Henley, Susie M.D.; Warren, Jason D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2014-01-01

    Reading deficits are a common early feature of the degenerative syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) but are poorly understood even at the single word level. The current study evaluated the reading accuracy and speed of 26 PCA patients, 17 typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients and 14 healthy controls on a corpus of 192 single words in which the following perceptual properties were manipulated systematically: inter-letter spacing, font size, length, font type, case and confusability. PCA reading was significantly less accurate and slower than tAD patients and controls, with performance significantly adversely affected by increased letter spacing, size, length and font (cursive < non-cursive), and characterised by visual errors (69% of all error responses). By contrast, tAD and control accuracy rates were at or near ceiling, letter spacing was the only perceptual factor to influence reading speed in the same direction as controls, and, in contrast to PCA patients, control reading was faster for larger font sizes. The inverse size effect in PCA (less accurate reading of large than small font size print) was associated with lower grey matter volume in the right superior parietal lobule. Reading accuracy was associated with impairments of early visual (especially crowding), visuoperceptual and visuospatial processes. However, these deficits were not causally related to a universal impairment of reading as some patients showed preserved reading for small, unspaced words despite grave visual deficits. Rather, the impact of specific types of visual dysfunction on reading was found to be (con)text specific, being particularly evident for large, spaced, lengthy words. These findings improve the characterisation of dyslexia in PCA, shed light on the causative and associative factors, and provide clear direction for the development of reading aids and strategies to maximise and sustain reading ability in the early stages of disease. PMID:24841985

  19. 40Ar/39Ar laserprobe study of the Day Nui Con Voi Metamorphic Complex, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Lo, C.; Yeh, M.; Chung, S.; Lee, T.

    2009-12-01

    The garnet bearing gneiss within the Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) Metamorphic Complex along the Red River Shear Zone (RRSZ) in North Vietnam, recorded a long tectonothermal history since the Indosinian orogeny. In-situ 40Ar/39Ar laserprobe study of biotite inclusions within garnet porphyroblasts and matrix biotites, combining with microstructural and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies, deciphered the timing and duration of thermal events. Biotites from two matrix fabrics from different deformation events show approximately similar 40Ar/39Ar age ranges in 19-24Ma, depending grain size. These matrix biotite ages are best interpreted to record a rapid cooling event associating with the left-lateral shearing event of the RRSZ. Whereas, all biotite inclusions exhibit age zoning patterns with 40Ar/39Ar ages gradually increase from 17 Ma to more than 28 Ma according to their diffusion pathways. These age variations may have resultant from a combination effect of argon retention by garnet shielding, which provides a best recorder to the metamorphic event, and argon diffusion loss along the deformed cracks during the shearing event of the RRSZ. Diffusion modeling of these age zoning indicated that the total duration of argon diffusion loss may have lasted for nearly 9 Myr and argon diffusion may have occurred sometime around 24.5Ma. These results are generally in good agreement with previous interpretation, but provide better resolution of 40Ar/39Ar age data for deciphering the history of thermal event in the DNCV Metamorphic Complex and the left-lateral shearing event of the RRSZ in Vietnam, as well.

  20. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.

    2013-09-10

    This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  1. Perfiles de luminosidad en galaxias con núcleo tipo Seyfert 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N.; Rodriguez-Ardilla, A. A.; Pastoriza, M. G.

    Presentamos imágenes CCD en los filtros BVI y Hα de una muestra de 10 galaxias Seyfert 1 y Narrow Line Seyfert 1. Recientes observaciones muestran que hay una diferencia significante en el índice espectral óptico entre NLS1s y Sy1 normales, siendo para las primeras del orden de 2. Otra característica importante es que la mayor parte de las NLS1s muestran tasas de FeII/Hβ mayores que las observadas en otras Sy1s. Desde el punto de vista fotométrico, estas galaxias no tienenningún tipo de estudio previo. Presentamos magnitudes totales, perfiles de luminosidad y mapas de color junto con un detallado análisis de la formación estelar en estos objetos. Encontramos que la descomposición en bulbo + disco representa adecuadamente los perfiles de luminosidad de las galaxias de la muestra. Sin embargo, en todos los casos es necesario que el disco tenga un agujero en su centro. El radio de este agujero va desde los 3 a los 9 kpc. Si bien no tenemos aún una explicación para este hecho, los agujeros parecen estar asociados a anillos circumnucleares de alto oscurecimiento E(B-V) ~1. Los perfiles presentan también un fuerte gradiente de color, siendo notablemente más azules hacia la región nuclear. Los objetos de la muestra cubren todo el rango de tipos morfológicos, no obstante, no encontramos regiones de formación estelar en las regiones exteriores de las galaxias. La formación estelar está confinada a la región nuclear y se data en alrededor de 5 x 107 años.

  2. (Con)text-specific effects of visual dysfunction on reading in posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Yong, Keir X X; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Cash, Dave; Henley, Susie M D; Warren, Jason D; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2014-08-01

    Reading deficits are a common early feature of the degenerative syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) but are poorly understood even at the single word level. The current study evaluated the reading accuracy and speed of 26 PCA patients, 17 typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients and 14 healthy controls on a corpus of 192 single words in which the following perceptual properties were manipulated systematically: inter-letter spacing, font size, length, font type, case and confusability. PCA reading was significantly less accurate and slower than tAD patients and controls, with performance significantly adversely affected by increased letter spacing, size, length and font (cursive < non-cursive), and characterised by visual errors (69% of all error responses). By contrast, tAD and control accuracy rates were at or near ceiling, letter spacing was the only perceptual factor to influence reading speed in the same direction as controls, and, in contrast to PCA patients, control reading was faster for larger font sizes. The inverse size effect in PCA (less accurate reading of large than small font size print) was associated with lower grey matter volume in the right superior parietal lobule. Reading accuracy was associated with impairments of early visual (especially crowding), visuoperceptual and visuospatial processes. However, these deficits were not causally related to a universal impairment of reading as some patients showed preserved reading for small, unspaced words despite grave visual deficits. Rather, the impact of specific types of visual dysfunction on reading was found to be (con)text specific, being particularly evident for large, spaced, lengthy words. These findings improve the characterisation of dyslexia in PCA, shed light on the causative and associative factors, and provide clear direction for the development of reading aids and strategies to maximise and sustain reading ability in the early stages of disease.

  3. "Pros and cons" of total hip arthroplasty with metaphyseal Proxima endoprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Wraźen, Waldemar; Golec, Edward B; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Golec, Piotr; Jaworowski, Michał de Lubicz; Dudkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The authors present their own experience concerning total hip arthroplasty with the metaphyseal prosthesis Proxima. Proxima, a metaphyseal prosthesis, provides an innovative supplement to total hip arthroplasty. In this study, the authors present their own experience using Proxima in patients with hip osteoarthritis. This study was performed between 2008 to 2013 and comprised of 62 patients, of which 38 were male (61.3%) and 24 female (38.7%). All patients were operated on due to hip osteoarthritis using total hip arthroplasty with the metaphyseal prosthesis Proxima. The age of patients included into the study ranged from 23 years to 62 years with the mean age of 46 years. The authors paid close attention to the "pros and cons" of surgical techniques and assessed clinical and radiological results in both the short and long-term observation periods. The clinical evaluation was based on the Harris Hip Score and radiological assessment of fixation of the acetabular cup of the endoprosthesis was based on Pradhan's criteria. The endoprosthesis Proxima stem was positioned using the manufacturer's recommended method, evaluating the direction, scope and duration of the displacement in the marrow cavity of the proximal stump of the femur. According to the authors' analysis, the surgery gives good functional and radiological results both in the short- and long-term observation periods. The effectiveness depends on precise qualification for surgery, proper surgical techniques and specific anatomical conditions of the proximal femur stump. The most common reasons for primary and secondary dislocations of the metaphyseal endoprosthesis Proxima stem occur during the first three months post surgery. This is due to incorrect surgical techniques, which disregard the importance of specific anatomical conditions of the proximal femoral stump, which affects Proxima implantation, and cause deviations towards a varus or valgus orientation.

  4. Outreach Opportunities for Early Career Scientists at the Phoenix ComiCon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodyskyj, L.; Walker, S. I.; Forrester, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Phoenix ComiCon (PCC) is a rapidly growing annual four-day pop culture event, featuring guests, costuming, exhibits, and discussion panels for popular sci-fi, fantasy, horror, and anime franchises. In 2013, PCC began experimenting with science discussion panels. The popularity of the science programming resulted in an expansion of the track for 2014, which Horodyskyj was responsible for coordinating. Thirty hours of programming were scheduled, including 25 discussion panels, NASA's FameLab, and a Mars room. Panelists included industry specialists, established scientists, STEM outreach enthusiasts, and early career scientists. The majority of the panelists were early career scientists recruited from planetary sciences and biology departments at ASU and UA. Panel topics included cosmology, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, space exploration, astrobiology, and the cross-linkages of each with pop culture. Formats consisted of Q&A, presentations, and interactive game shows. Although most panels were aimed at the general audience, some panels were more specialized. PCC 2014 attracted 77,818 attendees. The science programming received rave reviews from the audience, the PCC management, and the panelists themselves. Many panel rooms were filled to capacity and required crowd control to limit attendance. We observed the formation of science "groupies" who sought out the science panels exclusively and requested more information on other science public events in the Phoenix area. We distributed surveys to several select sessions to evaluate audience reasons for attending the science panels and their opinion of the scientists they observed. We will present the results of these surveys. As the PCC continues to grow at an exponential rate, the science programming will continue to expand. We will discuss ideas for continued expansion of the PCC science programming both to serve the public and as a unique public outreach opportunity for early career scientists.

  5. Estereotipos Sexuales y su Relación con Conductas Sexuales Riesgosas1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E.

    2012-01-01

    Resumen Los estereotipos sexuales son creencias generalmente aceptadas y poco cuestionadas que podrían contribuir a cómo los hombres y las mujeres debemos expresar nuestra sexualidad. Los objetivos de este estudio eran identificar cuántos hombres y mujeres heterosexuales en Puerto Rico endosaban ciertos estereotipos acerca de la sexualidad masculina y femenina y explorar la relación entre el endoso de estos estereotipos sexuales y las actitudes hacia el condón masculino y su uso en relaciones sexuales vaginales Llevamos a cabo un estudio descriptivo-correlacional mediante el cual le administramos dos escalas, una sobre sexualidad masculina y otra sobre sexualidad femenina a un grupo de 429 personas heterosexuales. Encontramos que los hombres endosaron estereotipos sexuales masculinos y femeninos más que las mujeres y que estos tienden a tener una visión más conservadora respecto a la sexualidad femenina que la que tienen sobre su propia sexualidad. Las mujeres, por otra parte, tienden a ver su propia sexualidad y la sexualidad masculina en términos menos estereotipados y más equitativos. También encontramos que a mayor endoso de creencias tradicionales sobre la sexualidad masculina y femenina, peor la actitud hacia el uso del condón masculino. Sin embargo, el endosar estereotipos sexuales masculinos y/o femeninos no se relacionó con el uso del condón. Estos hallazgos contradicen la literatura que sugiere que estos estereotipos sexuales y de género resultan en conductas sexuales de alto riesgo, lo cual tiene implicaciones importantes para el desarrollo e implementación de programas de prevención. PMID:24575164

  6. Strain Rate into South American Plate by SIRGAS-CON Geodetic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marotta, G. S.; Franca, G. S.; Monico, J. G.; Fuck, R. A.

    2013-05-01

    In this study were investigated the surface strain rates computed from the direction variations and velocity values estimated from the coordinates of the continuous monitoring geodetic network called SIRGAS-CON. That investigation was done using points located in the South American plate. The determination of the strain rate was based on the Finite Element method using points defined by Delaunay triangulation (sub-networks). Each one of sub-networks was considered as an homogeneous solid body. Using these methods was possible to separate the strain from the plate movement. The results showed that there are differences of strain rate along the South American plate. From the results were suggest that near to the west board of the plate, the strain is more significant, as expected, because this region is near to one area where Nazca Plate subduct South American Plate. It was detected that the contraction region founded in this area coincides whit the region where occurs most of earthquakes of greater magnitude. Far from the board, there are some areas with anomalies of significant strain of extension and contraction that can be originated by differences of stress aligned with different geological composites. By the results, It may be concluded that large surface movements occur in regions with more heterogeneous geological structures and multiple event of rupture, that large earthquakes arising from large tectonic activity into South American Plate are concentrated in areas with contraction strain rates predominantly oriented towards northeast-southwest, that significant amounts of elastic strain can be accumulated over geological structures away from fault plate boundary and that the behavior of contractions and extensions are similar to that found by different researches involving geophysical studies. Dilation and principal components of strain rate

  7. Iliac crest autograft versus alternative constructs for anterior cervical spine surgery: Pros, cons, and costs

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Grafting choices available for performing anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion (ACDF) procedures have become a major concern for spinal surgeons, and their institutions. The “gold standard”, iliac crest autograft, may still be the best and least expensive grafting option; it deserves to be reassessed along with the pros, cons, and costs for alternative grafts/spacers. Methods: Although single or multilevel ACDF have utilized iliac crest autograft for decades, the implant industry now offers multiple alternative grafting and spacer devices; (allografts, cages, polyether-etherketone (PEEK) amongst others). While most studies have focused on fusion rates and clinical outcomes following ACDF, few have analyzed the “value-added” of these various constructs (e.g. safety/efficacy, risks/complications, costs). Results: The majority of studies document 95%-100% fusion rates when iliac crest autograft is utilized to perform single level ACDF (X-ray or CT confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months). Although many allograft studies similarly quote 90%-100% fusion rates (X-ray alone confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months), a recent “post hoc analysis of data from a prospective multicenter trial” (Riew KD et. al., CSRS Abstract Dec. 2011; unpublished) revealed a much higher delayed fusion rate using allografts at one year 55.7%, 2 years 87%, and four years 92%. Conclusion: Iliac crest autograft utilized for single or multilevel ACDF is associated with the highest fusion, lowest complication rates, and significantly lower costs compared with allograft, cages, PEEK, or other grafts. As spinal surgeons and institutions become more cost conscious, we will have to account for the “value added” of these increasingly expensive graft constructs. PMID:22905321

  8. Pros and cons of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zeimet, Alain G; Reimer, Daniel; Radl, Alice C; Reinthaller, Alexander; Schauer, Christian; Petru, Edgar; Concin, Nicole; Braun, Stephan; Marth, Christian

    2009-07-01

    Development of the pros and cons of intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer based on the most prominent data published on the evolution of IP chemotherapy and on experience with this therapeutic strategy in clinical routine. The literature published on IP chemotherapy in ovarian cancer between 1970 and 2008 was identified systematically by computer-based searches in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library. Furthermore, a preliminary analysis of data recorded during an observational nationwide multicenter study of the Austrian AGO on IP-IV chemotherapy using the GOG-172 treatment regimen was performed. The literature review unequivocally revealed a significantly greater toxicity for IP than for intravenous (IV) cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, according to a Cochrane meta-analysis, IP-IV administration of chemotherapy is associated with a 21.6% decrease in the risk for death. In agreement with earlier reports, the most frequently mentioned side-effects in the Austria-wide observational study were long-lasting neurotoxicity, abdominal pain, fatigue, gastrointestinal and metabolic toxicities, and catheter-related complications. Most of these toxicities were identified as mirroring the toxicity profile of high-dose IV cisplatin (>or=100 mg/m(2)). In some patients, the classic IP-IV regimen with cisplatin/paclitaxel was changed to an alternative schedule comprising carboplatin AUC 5 (d1) and weekly paclitaxel 60 mg/m(2) (d1, 8, 15) completely administered via the IP route. This treatment was better tolerated and quality of life was significantly less compromised. However, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were the limiting side-effects of this IP regimen. In cases where optimal cytoreduction with residual disease

  9. Single step purification of concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production from jack bean using glucosylated magnetic nano matrix.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Cho, Eun Jin; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Jack bean (JB, Canavalia ensiformis) is the source of bio-based products, such as proteins and bio-sugars that contribute to modern molecular biology and biomedical research. In this study, the use of jack bean was evaluated as a source for concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production. A novel method for purifying Con A from JBs was successfully developed using a glucosylated magnetic nano matrix (GMNM) as a physical support, which facilitated easy separation and purification of Con A. In addition, the enzymatic conversion rate of 2% (w/v) Con A extracted residue to bio-sugar was 98.4%. Therefore, this new approach for the production of Con A and bio-sugar is potentially useful for obtaining bio-based products from jack bean.

  10. The ConNECT Framework: a model for advancing behavioral medicine science and practice to foster health equity.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Sly, Jamilia; Ashing, Kimlin; Fleisher, Linda; Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Ford, Sabrina; Yi, Jean C; Lu, Qian; Meade, Cathy D; Menon, Usha; Gwede, Clement K

    2017-02-01

    Health disparities persist despite ongoing efforts. Given the United States' rapidly changing demography and socio-cultural diversity, a paradigm shift in behavioral medicine is needed to advance research and interventions focused on health equity. This paper introduces the ConNECT Framework as a model to link the sciences of behavioral medicine and health equity with the goal of achieving equitable health and outcomes in the twenty-first century. We first evaluate the state of health equity efforts in behavioral medicine science and identify key opportunities to advance the field. We then discuss and present actionable recommendations related to ConNECT's five broad and synergistic principles: (1) Integrating Context; (2) Fostering a Norm of Inclusion; (3) Ensuring Equitable Diffusion of Innovations; (4) Harnessing Communication Technology; and (5) Prioritizing Specialized Training. The framework holds significant promise for furthering health equity and ushering in a new and refreshing era of behavioral medicine science and practice.

  11. UniCon3D: de novo protein structure prediction using united-residue conformational search via stepwise, probabilistic sampling

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Debswapna; Cao, Renzhi; Cheng, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Recent experimental studies have suggested that proteins fold via stepwise assembly of structural units named ‘foldons’ through the process of sequential stabilization. Alongside, latest developments on computational side based on probabilistic modeling have shown promising direction to perform de novo protein conformational sampling from continuous space. However, existing computational approaches for de novo protein structure prediction often randomly sample protein conformational space as opposed to experimentally suggested stepwise sampling. Results: Here, we develop a novel generative, probabilistic model that simultaneously captures local structural preferences of backbone and side chain conformational space of polypeptide chains in a united-residue representation and performs experimentally motivated conditional conformational sampling via stepwise synthesis and assembly of foldon units that minimizes a composite physics and knowledge-based energy function for de novo protein structure prediction. The proposed method, UniCon3D, has been found to (i) sample lower energy conformations with higher accuracy than traditional random sampling in a small benchmark of 6 proteins; (ii) perform comparably with the top five automated methods on 30 difficult target domains from the 11th Critical Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) experiment and on 15 difficult target domains from the 10th CASP experiment; and (iii) outperform two state-of-the-art approaches and a baseline counterpart of UniCon3D that performs traditional random sampling for protein modeling aided by predicted residue-residue contacts on 45 targets from the 10th edition of CASP. Availability and Implementation: Source code, executable versions, manuals and example data of UniCon3D for Linux and OSX are freely available to non-commercial users at http://sysbio.rnet.missouri.edu/UniCon3D/. Contact: chengji@missouri.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are

  12. Induction of Antibodies Directed Against Branched Core O-Mannosyl Glycopeptides-Selectivity Complimentary to the ConA Lectin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin; Grant, Oliver C; Pett, Christian; Stahl, Sabine; Woods, Robert J; Westerlind, Ulrika

    2017-03-08

    Mammalian protein O-mannosylation, initiated by attachment of α-mannopyranose to Ser or Thr residues, comprise a group of post-translational modifications (PTMs) involved in muscle and brain development. Recent advances in glycoproteomics methodology and the "SimpleCell" strategy have enabled rapid identification of glycoproteins and specific glycosylation sites. Despite the enormous progress made, the biological impact of the mammalian O-mannosyl glycoproteome remains largely unknown to date. Tools are still needed to investigate the structure, role, and abundance of O-mannosyl glycans. Although O-mannosyl branching has been shown to be of relevance in integrin-dependent cell migration, and also plays a role in demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, a broader understanding of the biological roles of branched O-mannosyl glycans is lacking in part due to the paucity of detection tools. In this work, a glycopeptide vaccine construct was synthesized and used to generate antibodies against branched O-mannosyl glycans. Glycopeptide microarray screening revealed high selectivity of the induced antibodies for branched glycan core structures presented on different peptide backbones, with no cross-reactivity observed with related linear glycans. For comparison, microarray screening of the mannose-binding lectin concanavalin A (ConA), which is commonly used in glycoproteomics workflows to enrich tryptic O-mannosyl peptides, showed that the ConA lectin did not recognize branched O-mannosyl glycans. The binding preference of ConA for short linear O-mannosyl glycans was rationalized in terms of molecular structure using crystallographic data augmented by molecular modeling. The contrast between the ConA binding specificity and that of the new antibodies indicates a novel role for the antibodies in studies of protein O-mannosylation.

  13. Violación del Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías con Dilatón de Cuerdas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, S. J.; Sisterna, P. D.; Vucetich, H.

    Se estudian las violaciones al Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías con Dilatón de Cuerdas. En estos modelos, algunas de las constantes fundamentales dependen del espacio y del tiempo. Se muestra que los experimentos de caída libre no tienen aún precisión como para poner límites a los parámetros de la teoría.

  14. Con_A-CNT (Carbon Nanotube) Conjugate with Short Wave Near-Infrared (SWIR) Laser Ablation for Tumor Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-11

    originate from hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow during childhood development for “adaptive immune system” in Thymus organ with a variety of “T...cells,” short for Thymus cells,: so-called helper, cytotoxic, memory, regulator, natural killer (NK), alpha-beta-gamma-delta receptor called T cells...cells [17-19]. We have reported Concanavalin A (Con A), a plant lectin isolated from Canavalia ensiformis (Jack bean) seeds, can agglutinate cells with

  15. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  16. Nqrs Data for C10H12CoN2NaO8 (Subst. No. 1263)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C10H12CoN2NaO8 (Subst. No. 1263)

  17. Exploring the use of Generalized Indirect Covariance to reconstruct pure shift NMR spectra: Current Pros and Cons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredi, André; Nolis, Pau; Cobas, Carlos; Martin, Gary E.; Parella, Teodor

    2016-05-01

    The current Pros and Cons of a processing protocol to generate pure chemical shift NMR spectra using Generalized Indirect Covariance are presented and discussed. The transformation of any standard 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear spectrum to its pure shift counterpart by using a reference DIAG spectrum is described. Reconstructed pure shift NMR spectra of NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HSQMBC experiments are reported for the target molecule strychnine.

  18. Exploring the use of Generalized Indirect Covariance to reconstruct pure shift NMR spectra: Current Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Fredi, André; Nolis, Pau; Cobas, Carlos; Martin, Gary E; Parella, Teodor

    2016-05-01

    The current Pros and Cons of a processing protocol to generate pure chemical shift NMR spectra using Generalized Indirect Covariance are presented and discussed. The transformation of any standard 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear spectrum to its pure shift counterpart by using a reference DIAG spectrum is described. Reconstructed pure shift NMR spectra of NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HSQMBC experiments are reported for the target molecule strychnine.

  19. [Malattia di Marchiafava-Bignami con coinvolgimento della corteccia frontale e insorgenza tardiva di sintomi psichiatrici resistenti: un caso clinico].

    PubMed

    Gramaglia, Carla; Feggi, Alessandro; Vecchi, Camilla; Di Marco, Sarah; Venesia, Alessandra; Delicato, Claudia; Chieppa, Nunzia; De Marchi, Fabiola; Cantello, Roberto; Zeppegno, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Descrivere il management di un paziente con malattia di Marchiafava-Bignami (MBD) associata a lesioni frontali corticali, senza sintomi specifici al primo accesso in Pronto Soccorso, e insorgenza tardiva di sintomi psichiatrici atipici. Metodi. Descriviamo il caso di un paziente di 44 anni con storia di abuso cronico di alcol, a cui è stata diagnosticata la MBD. Risultati. La risonanza magnetica ha evidenziato lesioni nello splenio e corpo del corpo calloso e lesioni bilaterali della corteccia frontale. Il paziente ha sviluppato sintomi psichiatrici atipici a insorgenza tardiva, che sono risultati essere resistenti alle terapie farmacologiche impostate. Discussione. Il caso che descriviamo sembra supportare le attuali, ma ancora scarse evidenze che descrivono il coinvolgimento corticale nella MBD, suggerendone l'associazione con una prognosi peggiore. I sintomi psichiatrici possono risultare difficili da trattare a causa della resistenza alle terapie. Conclusione. Il coinvolgimento di psichiatri, radiologi e neurologi secondo un approccio di consultazione-liaison si è dimostrato di fondamentale importanza per la diagnosi e l'impostazione della terapia adeguata al paziente.

  20. ConBind: motif-aware cross-species alignment for the identification of functional transcription factor binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Lelieveld, Stefan H.; Schütte, Judith; Dijkstra, Maurits J.J.; Bawono, Punto; Kinston, Sarah J.; Göttgens, Berthold; Heringa, Jaap; Bonzanni, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated by transcription factors (TFs) binding to promoter as well as distal enhancers. TFs recognize short, but specific binding sites (TFBSs) that are located within the promoter and enhancer regions. Functionally relevant TFBSs are often highly conserved during evolution leaving a strong phylogenetic signal. While multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a potent tool to detect the phylogenetic signal, the current MSA implementations are optimized to align the maximum number of identical nucleotides. This approach might result in the omission of conserved motifs that contain interchangeable nucleotides such as the ETS motif (IUPAC code: GGAW). Here, we introduce ConBind, a novel method to enhance alignment of short motifs, even if their mutual sequence similarity is only partial. ConBind improves the identification of conserved TFBSs by improving the alignment accuracy of TFBS families within orthologous DNA sequences. Functional validation of the Gfi1b + 13 enhancer reveals that ConBind identifies additional functionally important ETS binding sites that were missed by all other tested alignment tools. In addition to the analysis of known regulatory regions, our web tool is useful for the analysis of TFBSs on so far unknown DNA regions identified through ChIP-sequencing. PMID:26721389

  1. Pros and cons of prostate cancer screening: associations with screening knowledge and attitudes among urban African American men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Stacy N; Diefenbach, Michael A; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Chen, Tianle; Hall, Simon J; Thompson, Hayley S

    2010-03-01

    Discussion of the pros and cons of prostate cancer screening tests, rather than routine screening, is recommended to support informed screening decisions, particularly among African American men. This study explored physician explanation of pros and cons of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal exam (DRE) and its association with knowledge and screening attitudes. Two hundred-one African American men were asked if a physician had ever provided a comprehensive explanation of pros and cons of the PSA test and DRE. All men completed a 10-item prostate cancer knowledge scale and a subset completed a 26-item attitudes measure. Only 13% of the sample reported receiving a comprehensive explanation. Also, prostate cancer knowledge in the sample was low (mean = 43% correct). Multivariate analyses revealed that total prostate cancer knowledge was associated with men receiving a comprehensive explanation (p = .05), as well as past prostate cancer screening (p = .02) and younger age (p = .009). Although comprehensive explanation of prostate cancer screening was related to total prostate cancer knowledge, it was unrelated to a subset of items that may be central to fully informed screening decisions. Furthermore, comprehensive explanation of prostate cancer screening (p = .02), along with DRE recommendation (p = .009) and older age (p = .02), were related to fewer negative screening attitudes. Findings suggest that continued focus on patient education and physician communication is warranted.

  2. Cálculos ab initio con correlación electrónica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchán Bonete, M.

    Estamos entrando en una era donde la ortogonalidad entre las investigaciones de carácter experimental y de naturaleza teórica se irá difuminando progresivamente y la problemática a resolver quedará en escena como el único actor principal de la obra. Como premisa para una cooperación teórico-experimental de igual a igual, la metodología químico-cuántica utilizada debe ser capaz de ofrecer resultados de carácter predictivo. Sin duda, esta madurez en la metodología químico-cuántica ya la hemos alcanzado hace algunos años, tal y como muestra entre otras muchas, la labor que nuestro grupo ha realizado en el transcurso de la última década, dentro del campo de la Espectroscopía Teórica. Los estudios realizados comprenden una amplia gama de sistemas, variando tanto en tamaño como en complejidad, abordando problemáticas espectroscópicas consideradas tradicionalmente como especialmente controvertidas. Nuestra contribución científica más relevante reside en el carácter cuantitativo de las asignaciones espectroscópicas que hemos propuesto en base a resultados ab initio. Recordemos que en los años noventa los resultados ab initio solían presentar para las energías de excitación de sistemas de tamaño molecular moderado, como el benceno, errores de más de 1 eV. En comparación con el éxito relativo de los métodos semiempíricos, la frustración de la metodología ab initio quedaba todavía más patente. Los estudios que hemos presentado representan una comprensión profunda de los espectros electrónicos en sistemas orgánicos claves, mostrando el camino a seguir para obtener asignaciones espectroscópicas precisas (entre 0.1-0.2 eV). La naturaleza del método CASPT2 junto al diseño de estrategias computacionales nos ha permitido alcanzar el carácter cuantitativo con el que se caracterizan nuestras contribuciones[1,2]. Por todo ello, algunos de los trabajos publicados se consideran clásicos dentro del campo, pues en cierto modo definen el

  3. Stellate Cell Activation and Imbalanced Expression of TGF-β1/TGF-β3 in Acute Autoimmune Liver Lesions Induced by ConA in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Lei; Zhang, Jinping; Qian, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To study the pathogenic feature of liver injury, activation of hepatic stellate cells, and dynamic expression of TGF-β1/TGF-β3 to reveal their role in liver injury induced by ConA. Methods. Mice were randomly divided into control group and ConA treatment group. ConA (20 mg/kg) was injected through vena caudalis in ConA treatment group; the controls received the same volume of saline injection. After injection for 2 h, 8 h, 24 h, and 48 h, animals were terminated. Blood, liver, and spleen were harvested. Liver function and histopathology were studied. α-SMA, vimentin, TGF-β1, and TGF-β3 were detected. Results. After ConA injection, liver damage started to increase. Expression of α-SMA, vimentin, TGF-β1, and TGF-β3 was significantly enhanced; all above indicators reached peak at 8 h; but from 24 h after ConA injection, TGF-β3 expression began to decline, while the TGF-β1/TGF-β3 ratio at 48 h was significantly lower than control. Conclusion. (1) Autoimmune liver injury induced by ConA showed time-based features, in which the most serious liver lesions happened at 8 h after ConA injection. (2) Early activation of HSC and imbalance expression of TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 existed in ConA-induced acute autoimmune liver injury, which may be associated with liver dysfunction and the mechanisms of progression to fibrosis. PMID:28246592

  4. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    fabricacion del molde, tienen una gran influencia sobre su comportamiento en servicio a lo largo de la vida util del molde. En la primera parte del presente estudio, a partir de ensayos punzon sobre disco, se ha determinado la relacion entre la resistencia al desgaste y la dureza de aceros para moldes obtenidos a partir de bloques de gran espesor, estudiando los principales mecanismos de desgaste que tienen lugar. A continuacion, con el fin de determinar el dano superficial que sufren los aceros para moldes en condiciones reales de inyeccion, se han estudiado distintos tipos de aceros utilizados comercialmente en moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos, seleccionando las condiciones de operacion para determinar la variacion de la rugosidad superficial del acero en funcion del material inyectado, del numero de operaciones sucesivas de inyeccion y de la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion, mediante tecnicas de perfilometria optica y microscopia electronica de barrido. Ademas del dano superficial sufrido por el acero con el numero de piezas inyectadas, tambien se ha determinado la evolucion de la rugosidad superficial de los materiales inyectados, polibutilentereftalato (PBT) puro y materiales compuestos derivados de PBT por adicion de un 20 o un 50% en peso de fibra de vidrio. En el caso de las piezas inyectadas, se ha caracterizado su microestructura en funcion del flujo de inyeccion y de la densidad de fibra, se han determinado sus propiedades termicas y dinamico-mecanicas, asi como la variacion de la rugosidad superficial de las piezas inyectadas con el numero de operaciones de inyeccion y con la geometria de las distintas secciones de las piezas. Finalmente, se ha evaluado la resistencia a la abrasion de PBT reforzado con un 50% de fibra, en funcion del numero de piezas inyectadas y de la direccion de rayado con respecto a la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion.

  5. Nanoparticulas basadas en complejos de Fe(II) con transicion de espin: sintesis, caracterizacion y aplicaciones en electronica molecular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monrabal Capilla, Maria

    Esta tesis doctoral esta organizada en 5 capitulos y esta destinada al estudio de sistemas de Fe (II) que presentan el fenomeno de la transicion de espin a escala nanometrica. El capitulo 1 contiene una introduccion general sobre materiales moleculares multifuncionales, destacando aquellos ejemplos mas importantes. Por otro lado, se explicara el fenomeno de la transicion de espin, tratando aspectos conceptuales, los antecedentes mas importantes y la situacion actual. En el capitulo 2 se describen los diferentes procesos existentes para la obtencion de diferentes tipos de nanoparticulas. Ademas, se presenta la sintesis y caracterizacion de nanoparticulas del polimero de coordinacion unidimensional [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4, obtenidas mediante el metodo de micelas inversas. Estas nanoparticulas, con una estrecha distribucion de tamanos centrada alrededor de los 11 nm, presentan una transicion de espin muy abrupta, con un ancho ciclo de histeresis termica de unos 40K. En el capitulo 3 se describe el proceso de modificacion del tamano de las nanoparticulas descritas en el capitulo anterior, llevado a cabo variando la proporcion de surfactante/H2O en el medio. Ademas, con el objetivo de modificar las propiedades magneticas de las nanoparticulas obtenidas en el capitulo 2, se lleva a cabo la sintesis de nanoparticulas de polimeros de la misma familia del [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4. En concreto se sintetizaron 3 nuevos tipos de nanoparticulas basadas en el polimero [Fe(Htrz)1-x(NH2trz)x](ClO4)2, siendo x = 0.05, 0.15 y 0.3, en cada caso. Estas nanoparticulas siguen presentando una estrecha distribucion de tamanos y una transicion de espin muy abrupta y con un ancho ciclo de histeresis. Ademas, se observa que este ciclo se desplaza a temperaturas mas proximas a la temperatura ambiente a medida que se aumenta el porcentaje de 4-amino-1, 2, 4- triazol en la muestra. Pero al mismo tiempo se produce una disminucion de la anchura de este ciclo. Por ultimo, en este capitulo se presenta la

  6. Análisis del espectro infrarrojo del polvo interestelar asociado con cúmulos globulares y de su evolución temporal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizza, L. J.; Forte, J. C.; Carpintero, D.

    El trabajo que se presenta investiga la dinámica de las partículas de polvo interestelar eyectadas por estrellas gigantes rojas en un cúmulo globular utilizando simulaciones numéricas de su interacción con el campo gravitatorio y con la radiación electromagnética de las estrellas. Se pretende con ello determinar la distribución espacial de ese material como una función del tiempo en un sistema similar a NGC 104 (47 Tuc). A partir de la distribución espacial resultante se obtuvo el espectro infrarrojo integrado el cual sugiere que el máximo contraste con la radiación estelar ocurre en longitudes de onda cercanas a 300 μm y que decrece rápidamente hacia longitudes de onda menores, en las que suelen realizarse las observaciones.

  7. Assessment of Response to Lithium Maintenance Treatment in Bipolar Disorder: A Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) Report

    PubMed Central

    Manchia, Mirko; Adli, Mazda; Akula, Nirmala; Ardau, Raffaella; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Backlund, Lena; Banzato, Claudio EM.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Bellivier, Frank; Bengesser, Susanne; Biernacka, Joanna M.; Brichant-Petitjean, Clara; Bui, Elise; Calkin, Cynthia V.; Cheng, Andrew Tai Ann; Chillotti, Caterina; Cichon, Sven; Clark, Scott; Czerski, Piotr M.; Dantas, Clarissa; Zompo, Maria Del; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Etain, Bruno; Falkai, Peter; Frisén, Louise; Frye, Mark A.; Fullerton, Jan; Gard, Sébastien; Garnham, Julie; Goes, Fernando S.; Grof, Paul; Gruber, Oliver; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Joanna; Heilbronner, Urs; Hoban, Rebecca; Hou, Liping; Jamain, Stéphane; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Kassem, Layla; Kato, Tadafumi; Kelsoe, John R.; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Kliwicki, Sebastian; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Kusumi, Ichiro; Laje, Gonzalo; Lavebratt, Catharina; Leboyer, Marion; Leckband, Susan G.; López Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Maj, Mario; Malafosse, Alain; Martinsson, Lina; Masui, Takuya; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mondimore, Frank; Monteleone, Palmiero; Nallet, Audrey; Neuner, Maria; Novák, Tomás; O’Donovan, Claire; Ösby, Urban; Ozaki, Norio; Perlis, Roy H.; Pfennig, Andrea; Potash, James B.; Reich-Erkelenz, Daniela; Reif, Andreas; Reininghaus, Eva; Richardson, Sara; Rouleau, Guy A.; Rybakowski, Janusz K.; Schalling, Martin; Schofield, Peter R.; Schubert, Oliver K.; Schweizer, Barbara; Seemüller, Florian; Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria; Severino, Giovanni; Seymour, Lisa R.; Slaney, Claire; Smoller, Jordan W.; Squassina, Alessio; Stamm, Thomas; Steele, Jo; Stopkova, Pavla; Tighe, Sarah K.; Tortorella, Alfonso; Turecki, Gustavo; Wray, Naomi R.; Wright, Adam; Zandi, Peter P.; Zilles, David; Bauer, Michael; Rietschel, Marcella; McMahon, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The assessment of response to lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder (BD) is complicated by variable length of treatment, unpredictable clinical course, and often inconsistent compliance. Prospective and retrospective methods of assessment of lithium response have been proposed in the literature. In this study we report the key phenotypic measures of the “Retrospective Criteria of Long-Term Treatment Response in Research Subjects with Bipolar Disorder” scale currently used in the Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) study. Materials and Methods Twenty-nine ConLiGen sites took part in a two-stage case-vignette rating procedure to examine inter-rater agreement [Kappa (κ)] and reliability [intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)] of lithium response. Annotated first-round vignettes and rating guidelines were circulated to expert research clinicians for training purposes between the two stages. Further, we analyzed the distributional properties of the treatment response scores available for 1,308 patients using mixture modeling. Results Substantial and moderate agreement was shown across sites in the first and second sets of vignettes (κ = 0.66 and κ = 0.54, respectively), without significant improvement from training. However, definition of response using the A score as a quantitative trait and selecting cases with B criteria of 4 or less showed an improvement between the two stages (ICC1 = 0.71 and ICC2 = 0.75, respectively). Mixture modeling of score distribution indicated three subpopulations (full responders, partial responders, non responders). Conclusions We identified two definitions of lithium response, one dichotomous and the other continuous, with moderate to substantial inter-rater agreement and reliability. Accurate phenotypic measurement of lithium response is crucial for the ongoing ConLiGen pharmacogenomic study. PMID:23840348

  8. Sophocarpine Protects Mice from ConA-Induced Hepatitis via Inhibition of the IFN-Gamma/STAT1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Xiu-Xiu; Wang, Rui-Lin; Zhang, Cong-En; Liu, Shi-Jing; Shen, Hong-Hui; Guo, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Ya-Ming; Niu, Ming; Wang, Jia-Bo; Bai, Zhao-Fang; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2017-01-01

    Sophocarpine is the major pharmacologically active compound of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Radix Sophorae Subprostratae which has been used in treating hepatitis for years in China. It has been demonstrated that Sophocarpine exerts an activity in immune modulation and significantly decreases the production of inflammatory cytokines. However, the protective effects of Sophocarpine in T cell-dependent immune hepatitis remained unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects and pharmacological mechanisms of Sophocarpine on Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis, an experimental model of T cell-mediated liver injury. BALB/C mice were pretreated with Sophocarpine or Bicyclol for five consecutive days. Thirty minutes after the final administration, the mice were injected with 15 mg⋅kg-1 of ConA intravenously. The results indicated that pretreatment with Sophocarpine significantly ameliorated liver inflammation and injury as evidenced by both biochemical and histopathological observations. Moreover, in Sophocarpine-pretreated mice, liver messenger RNA expression levels of chemokines and adhesion molecules, such as macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, CXC chemokine ligand 10, and Intercellular adhesion molecule-1, were markedly reduced. Further studies revealed that Sophocarpine significantly downregulated the expression of T-bet via inhibition of signal transducers and activators of transcription1 (STAT1) activation and overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signaling1, inhibiting the activation of Th1 cells and the expression of Interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Altogether, these results suggest new opportunities to use Sophocarpine in the treatment of T cell-mediated liver disease. In summary, Sophocarpine could attenuate ConA-induced liver injury, and the protective effect of Sophocarpine was associated with its inhibition effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and the IFN-γ/STAT1 signaling pathway. PMID:28377718

  9. The InterCon network: a program for education partnerships at the University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center.

    PubMed

    Castro, G A; Bouldin, P A; Farver, D W; Maugans, L A; Sanders, L C; Booker, J

    1999-04-01

    The University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center (UT-Houston) has created programs and activities to address the state's pressing needs in minority education. Through InterCon, a network of universities and K-12 schools, UT-Houston works with its partners to identify competitive candidates in the current pool of minority graduates with bachelor's degrees and to help them--along with their non-minority counterparts--progress in their education. Another objective is to expand the pool of minorities underrepresented in medicine who complete high school and go to college. In 1994 UT-Houston and Prairie View A&M University created a collaborative venture to provide new educational opportunities at UT-Houston for Prairie View's predominantly African American students. A three-track summer internship program--a result of that collaboration--has since been expanded to partnerships with other minority and majority universities throughout Texas. In 1998, for example, 108 undergraduate students from these universities (and 40 other universities nationwide) participated in research, professional, and administrative summer internships at UT-Houston. The InterCon network also has partnerships with K-12 schools. UT-Houston works with inner-city, suburban, and rural school districts to develop education models that can be transferred throughout the state. The partnerships deal with helping to teach basic academic skills and computer literacy, improve science-related instruction, meet demands for health promotion materials and information for school-initiated health and wellness programs, and develop distance-learning paradigms. UT-Houston views InterCon as a program helping Texas institutions to engage and adapt to the socioeconomic factors, demographic changes, and technology explosion that currently challenge public education.

  10. Influence of parameter values and variances and algorithm architecture in ConsExpo model on modeled exposures.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Susan F; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of parameter values and variances and model architecture on modeled exposures, and identified important data gaps that influence lack-of-knowledge-related uncertainty, using Consexpo 4.1 as an illustrative case study. Understanding the influential determinants in exposure estimates enables more informed and appropriate use of this model and the resulting exposure estimates. In exploring the influence of parameter placement in an algorithm and of the values and variances chosen to characterize the parameters within ConsExpo, "sensitive" and "important" parameters were identified: product amount, weight fraction, exposure duration, exposure time, and ventilation rate were deemed "important," or "always sensitive." With this awareness, exposure assessors can strategically focus on acquiring the most robust estimates for these parameters. ConsExpo relies predominantly on three algorithms to assess the default scenarios: inhalation vapors evaporation equation using the Langmuir mass transfer, the dermal instant application with diffusion through the skin, and the oral ingestion by direct uptake algorithm. These algorithms, which do not necessarily render health conservative estimates, account for 87, 89 and 59% of the inhalation, dermal and oral default scenario assessments,respectively, according them greater influence relative to the less frequently used algorithms. Default data provided in ConsExpo may be useful to initiate assessments, but are insufficient for determining exposure acceptability or setting policy, as parameters defined by highly uncertain values produce biased estimates that may not be health conservative. Furthermore, this lack-of-knowledge uncertainty makes the magnitude of this bias uncertain. Significant data gaps persist for product amount, exposure time, and exposure duration. These "important" parameters exert influence in requiring broad values and variances to account for their uncertainty. Prioritizing

  11. Antidepressant-like effect of Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr) lectin in mice: evidence for the involvement of the glutamatergic system.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Débora K; Costa, Ana Paula; Budni, Josiane; Moretti, Morgana; Barbosa, Sabrina Giovana Rocha; Nascimento, Kyria S; Teixeira, Edson H; Cavada, Benildo S; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Leal, Rodrigo B

    2014-07-01

    Lectins recognize and reversibly bind to carbohydrates attached to proteins and lipids modulating a variety of signaling pathways. We previously showed that ConBr, a lectin from Canavalia brasiliensis seeds, produced an antidepressant-like effect in mice by modulating the monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems. Moreover, ConBr blocked hippocampal neurotoxicity induced by quinolinic acid in vivo and by glutamate in vitro, suggesting a neuroprotective activity of ConBr via glutamatergic system modulation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the involvement of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the antidepressant-like action displayed by ConBr in the forced swimming test (FST). With the aim of verifying the involvement of NMDA receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of ConBr (10 μg/site, i.c.v.), an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) pretreatment with either NMDA (0.1 pmol/site) or D-serine (30 μg/site) was carried out. The results show that both treatments blocked the effect of ConBr. Furthermore, the coadministration of subeffective doses of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.001 mg/kg, i.p.) or ketamine (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.; NMDA receptor antagonist) and ConBr (0.1 μg/site, i.c.v.) caused a synergistic reduction in immobility time. In order to verify the dependence of the L-arginine-NO-cGMP pathway, on the effect of ConBr in the FST, a pretreatment with the NO precursor, L-arginine (750 mg/kg, i.p.), or the PDE5 inhibitor, sildenafil (5 mg/kg, i.p.), was performed. Both drugs abolished the antidepressant-like action of ConBr. Finally, the administration of subeffective doses of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 30 pmol/site, i.c.v.) and ConBr (0.1 μg/site, i.c.v.) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the FST. Taken together, the results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of ConBr in the FST involves NMDA

  12. Hacia el consumo informado de tabaco en México: efecto de las advertencias con pictogramas en población fumadora

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Inti

    2015-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Evaluar el efecto de las advertencias sanitarias (AS) con pictogramas en las cajetillas de tabaco en adultos fumadores. Material y métodos Cohorte de fumadores con representatividad poblacional de siete ciudades mexi canas, antes (2010) y después (2011) de la implementación de AS con pictogramas (ASP). Para determinar el cambio en las variables sobre el impacto cognitivo y conductual de las advertencias, se estimaron modelos bivariados y ajustados de ecuaciones de estimación generalizada. En el Segundo levantamiento (2011), se estimaron modelos para determiner los factores que se asocian con el reporte de recordar cada advertencia que había entrado al mercado, además de los factores asociados con el autorreporte del impacto de cada advertencia vigente. Resultados Se observaron incrementos importantes de 2010 a 2011 en los conocimientos sobre los riesgos de fumar, los componentes tóxicos del tabaco y el número telefónico para recibir consejos sobre dejar de fumar. La recordación e impacto de las primeras advertencias con pictogramas parecen ser amplios y equitativos a través de la población fumadora. En comparación con 2010, un mayor nivel de ex fumadores entrevistados en 2011 reportaron que las advertencias habían influido mucho en dejar de fumar (RM=2.44, 95% IC 1.27–4.72). Conclusiones Las AS con pictogramas han logrado un impacto importante en el conocimiento y conducta, información relevante para la población y en tomadores de decisiones. PMID:22689162

  13. Pros and Cons of Using Arrays of Small Antennas Versus Large Single Dish Antennas for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagri, Durgadas S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly describes pros and cons of using arrays of small antennas instead of large single dish antennas for spacecraft telemetry, command, and tracking (TT and C) - communications and navigation (C and N) - and science support that the Deep Space Network (DSN) normally provides. It considers functionality and performance aspects, mainly for TT and C, though it also considers science. It only briefly comments on the cost aspects that seem to favor arrays of small antennas over large single antennas, at least for receiving (downlinks).

  14. Cámara CCD Directa con el Telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO: algunos diagnósticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellone, S. A.

    Se efectuaron algunas pruebas con la cámara CCD (+ Reductor Focal) instalada en el foco Cassegrain del Telescopio de 2.15 m del Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO). Las conclusiones más significativas son: Los tiempos de exposición efectivos difieren de los nominales en una fracción apreciable de segundo. En exposiciones de menos de 3 segundos, la iluminación no es pareja en todo el detector. En consecuencia, se recomiendan los pasos a seguir por los astrónomos tanto durante la observación como en la reducción de sus datos.

  15. A signal-on electrochemiluminescence biosensor for detecting Con A using phenoxy dextran-graphite-like carbon nitride as signal probe.

    PubMed

    Ou, Xin; Tan, Xingrong; Liu, Xiaofang; Lu, Qiyi; Chen, Shihong; Wei, Shaping

    2015-08-15

    A novel signal-on electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for detecting concanavalin A (Con A) was fabricated with phenoxy dextran-graphite-like carbon nitride (DexP-g-C3N4) as signal probe. In this construction strategy, the nanocomposites of three-dimensional graphene and gold nanoparticles (3D-GR-AuNPs) were used as matrix for high loading of glucose oxidase (GOx), which served as recognition element for bounding Con A. Con A further interacted with DexP-g-C3N4 through a specific carbohydrate-Con A interaction to achieve a sandwiched scheme. With the increase of Con A incubated onto the electrode, the ECL signal resulted from DexP-g-C3N4 would enhance, thus achieving a signal-on ECL biosensor for Con A detection. Due to the integration of the virtues of 3D-GR-AuNPs and the excellent ECL performance of DexP-g-C3N4, the prepared biosensor exhibits a wide linear response range from 0.05 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL and a low detection limit of 17 pg/mL (S/N=3).

  16. A Recovery-Oriented Care Approach: Weighing the Pros and Cons of a Newly Built Mental Health Facility.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Catherine Clark; Bieling, Peter; McKinnon, Margaret C; McNeely, Heather E; Langstaff, Karen

    2016-02-01

    The current study adopted a recovery-oriented care approach by emphasizing patients' perspectives and experiences regarding changes to a newly built mental health facility. The inpatient entrance, or "portal," intended to balance the aims of recovery-oriented care with minimizing risk. A mixed-methods study of the portal's pros and cons was conducted, according to four themes: (a) autonomy versus inconvenience; (b) safety and security versus stigma; (c) unit door versus portal operating costs; and (d) privacy versus community integration. Focus groups engaging with patients (N = 39) indicated that the design effectively supported recovery-oriented care. Patients did not find the portal to be stigmatizing or triggering and valued the safety and privacy it created, and visitors also generally had a positive experience. Survey responses (N = 101) from portal users were also positive about the new design. The study findings suggest that the pros outweighed the cons of the new design. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(2), 39-48.].

  17. Actitudes Éticas de los estudiantes y egresados en carrera de medicina con metodologías activas

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Stepke, Fernando Lolas; Silveira, Carla Cristina Costa; Komatsu, Ricardo Shoiti; Trindade, Eliane Mendonça Vilar; Guiotti, Murilo Galvão

    2010-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene por objeto desarrollar un diagnostico de la inserción integrada de la ética en la carrera de medicina brasileña con una metodología de aprendizaje basada en problemas y describir las percepciones de actitudes éticas de los estudiantes y egresados. El diseño metodológico es un estudio de caso, descriptivo y documental, con abordaje cualitativo y cuantitativo. La muestra de esta investigación ha sido constituida por 120 estudiantes y 40 egresados de dos promociones del Curso de Medicina de la ESCS. Este proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación - SES/DF. Los estudiantes y egresados de la ESCS demostraron un buen manejo en el abordaje de los conflictos éticos y respeto a los pacientes. Sin embargo, el análisis de sensibilidad ética mostró una fragilidad en las percepciones y aptitudes inapropiadas de los estudiantes de la carrera de medicina, identificada básicamente en los años iniciales, que necesitan más discusiones sistematizadas sobre los aspectos éticos y bioéticos integrados a las actividades prácticas para estimular y fortalecer la reflexión ética de los estudiantes. PMID:20981242

  18. Development of a novel DNA SynCon tetravalent dengue vaccine that elicits immune responses against four serotypes.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Mathura P; Kuo, Yuan-Chia; Selling, Bernard H; Li, Qianjun; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Kim, J Joseph; Weiner, David B

    2009-10-30

    The increased transmission and geographic spread of dengue fever (DF) and its most severe presentations, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS), make it one of the most important mosquito-borne viral disease of humans. Four distinct serotypes of dengue viruses are transmitted to humans through the bites of the mosquitoes. Currently there is no vaccine or antiviral drug against DV infections. Cross-protection between dengue virus serotypes is limited and antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) contributes significantly to the severity of the disease. The major challenge is to induce a broad durable immune response against all four serotypes of dengue virus simultaneously while avoiding the possible exacerbation of risk of developing the severe forms of disease through incomplete or modified responses. In order to address this worldwide concern, we present a synthetic consensus (SynCon) human codon optimized DNA vaccine that elicits immunity against all four dengue serotypes. We cloned consensus DIII domain of E protein from all serotypes and expressed them as a single open reading frame in a mammalian expression vector, called pDV-U-DIII (dengue-vaccine universal). In mice, this dengue-universal construct elicits significant level of anti-DIII antibody that neutralizes all four dengue subtypes and prevents cell death induced by dengue infection. This is the first SynCon DNA vaccine that provides tetravalent immunity against all four serotypes of dengue virus.

  19. Modelo de accesibilidad de conceptos matematicos aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales en la UPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidro Villamizar, Gloria Maria

    Este estudio utiliza metodologia de investigacion cualitativa, con el proposito de describir, analizar y evaluar los procesos de diseno y desarrollo de un modelo de accesibilidad que consiste en estrategias de ensenanza de las matematicas para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales matriculados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva en la UPR. Se utilizaron las siguientes estrategias para recopilar la informacion, 1) reflexiones de la investigadora en el proceso de diseno y desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas, que se registraron en un diario reflexivo. 2) entrevista semiestructurada luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas con los participantes. 3) observaciones y notas de la investigadora del trabajo de los participantes. Para obtener la informacion de los participantes se obtuvo los permisos institucionales necesarios; se seleccionaron los participantes y se validaron los instrumentos; se realizo el desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas con los participantes; y finalmente, se analizo la informacion obtenida. El diseno de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas se hizo siguiendo las recomendaciones curriculares de los temas de matematicas aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva realizado por la investigadora durante su semestre de internado. El testimonio de las voces de los participantes se obtuvo del proceso de desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas de temas seleccionados de conceptos matematicos requeridos en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva y de la entrevista semiestructurada con los participantes, luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje. Para el desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje, se utilizaron materiales tactiles adaptados, materiales tactiles disenados y materiales disponibles comercialmente. Los textos de las lecciones se imprimieron en tinta y en Braille. Se exhorta a disenar y desarrollar estrategias de ensenanza accesibles, considerando como recursos para evaluar su efectividad a

  20. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  1. Presentación del estudio “Links” de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ávila, María M; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos (“teteras”), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

  2. Presentación del estudio "Links" de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M; Balán, Iván C; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-03-01

    Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos ("teteras"), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA.

  3. Hepatic NK cell-mediated hypersensitivity to ConA-induced liver injury in mouse liver expressing hepatitis C virus polyprotein.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiuxia; Yan, Shaoduo; Wang, Licui; Duan, Xiangguo; Wang, Lei; Wang, Yue; Wu, Tao; Wang, Xiaohui; An, Jie; Zhang, Yulong; Zhou, Qianqian; Zhan, Linsheng

    2016-08-04

    The role of hepatic NK cells in the pathogenesis of HCV-associated hepatic failure is incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of HCV on ConA-induced immunological hepatic injury and the influence of HCV on hepatic NK cell activation in the liver after ConA administration. An immunocompetent HCV mouse model that encodes the entire viral polyprotein in a liver-specific manner based on hydrodynamic injection and φC31o integrase was used to study the role of hepatic NK cells. Interestingly, the frequency of hepatic NK cells was reduced in HCV mice, whereas the levels of other intrahepatic lymphocytes remained unaltered. Next, we investigated whether the reduction in NK cells within HCV mouse livers might elicit an effect on immune-mediated liver injury. HCV mice were subjected to acute liver injury models upon ConA administration. We observed that HCV mice developed more severe ConA-induced immune-mediated hepatitis, which was dependent on the accumulated intrahepatic NK cells. Our results indicated that after the administration of ConA, NK cells not only mediated liver injury through the production of immunoregulatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α and perforin) with direct antiviral activity, but they also killed target cells directly through the TRAIL/DR5 and NKG2D/NKG2D ligand signaling pathway in HCV mice. Our findings suggest a critical role for NK cells in oversensitive liver injury during chronic HCV infection.

  4. A New Method for Re-Analyzing Evaluation Bias: Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Reveals an Asymmetry in the Evaluation of Pro and Con Arguments.

    PubMed

    Jirschitzka, Jens; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    In four studies we tested a new methodological approach to the investigation of evaluation bias. The usage of piecewise growth curve modeling allowed for investigation into the impact of people's attitudes on their persuasiveness ratings of pro- and con-arguments, measured over the whole range of the arguments' polarity from an extreme con to an extreme pro position. Moreover, this method provided the opportunity to test specific hypotheses about the course of the evaluation bias within certain polarity ranges. We conducted two field studies with users of an existing online information portal (Studies 1a and 2a) as participants, and two Internet laboratory studies with mostly student participants (Studies 1b and 2b). In each of these studies we presented pro- and con-arguments, either for the topic of MOOCs (massive open online courses, Studies 1a and 1b) or for the topic of M-learning (mobile learning, Studies 2a and 2b). Our results indicate that using piecewise growth curve models is more appropriate than simpler approaches. An important finding of our studies was an asymmetry of the evaluation bias toward pro- or con-arguments: the evaluation bias appeared over the whole polarity range of pro-arguments and increased with more and more extreme polarity. This clear-cut result pattern appeared only on the pro-argument side. For the con-arguments, in contrast, the evaluation bias did not feature such a systematic picture.

  5. Quercetin Protects Mice from ConA-Induced Hepatitis by Inhibiting HMGB1-TLR Expression and Down-Regulating the Nuclear Factor Kappa B Pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Liu, Hong-chun; Yao, Qun-yan; Xu, Bei-li; Zhang, Shun-cai; Tu, Chuan-tao

    2016-02-01

    The dietary flavonoid quercetin has hepatoprotective effects. We analyzed the effects of quercetin on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis in mice and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action. Mice were administered quercetin (50 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) or vehicle 30 min before intravenous administration of ConA. Quercetin pretreatment significantly reduced the ConA-induced elevations in plasma aminotransferase concentrations and liver necrosis, as well as reducing serum concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin-4. Quercetin pretreatment also reduced expression of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in liver tissues. Quercetin pretreatment significantly inhibited degradation of inhibitory kappa B alpha and modulated ConA-induced nuclear translocation in the liver of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65. These results demonstrate that quercetin protects against ConA-mediated hepatitis in mice by attenuating the HMGB1-TLRs-NF-κB signaling pathway.

  6. A New Method for Re-Analyzing Evaluation Bias: Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Reveals an Asymmetry in the Evaluation of Pro and Con Arguments

    PubMed Central

    Jirschitzka, Jens; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    In four studies we tested a new methodological approach to the investigation of evaluation bias. The usage of piecewise growth curve modeling allowed for investigation into the impact of people’s attitudes on their persuasiveness ratings of pro- and con-arguments, measured over the whole range of the arguments’ polarity from an extreme con to an extreme pro position. Moreover, this method provided the opportunity to test specific hypotheses about the course of the evaluation bias within certain polarity ranges. We conducted two field studies with users of an existing online information portal (Studies 1a and 2a) as participants, and two Internet laboratory studies with mostly student participants (Studies 1b and 2b). In each of these studies we presented pro- and con-arguments, either for the topic of MOOCs (massive open online courses, Studies 1a and 1b) or for the topic of M-learning (mobile learning, Studies 2a and 2b). Our results indicate that using piecewise growth curve models is more appropriate than simpler approaches. An important finding of our studies was an asymmetry of the evaluation bias toward pro- or con-arguments: the evaluation bias appeared over the whole polarity range of pro-arguments and increased with more and more extreme polarity. This clear-cut result pattern appeared only on the pro-argument side. For the con-arguments, in contrast, the evaluation bias did not feature such a systematic picture. PMID:26840219

  7. Probabilidad de colisión de cometas periódicos con partículas interplanetarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil Hutton, R.

    Se presentan resultados sobre la probabilidad de colisión de cometas de corto período con la población de partículas interplanetarias presentes en la región del cinturón de asteroides. Se encuentra que este proceso colisional afecta la evolución física de los cometas de manera no despreciable y puede ser el responsable de variaciones de brillo de tipo ``outburst". Se presentan resultados para algunos cometas en particular y se obtiene un límite inferior para el tamaño de los núcleos en función de la distribución de radios del cinturón de asteroides.

  8. In vitro evolution of chemically-modified nucleic acid aptamers: Pros and cons, and comprehensive selection strategies.

    PubMed

    Lipi, Farhana; Chen, Suxiang; Chakravarthy, Madhuri; Rakesh, Shilpa; Veedu, Rakesh N

    2016-12-01

    Nucleic acid aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotide sequences that bind to a specific target molecule with high affinity and specificity through their ability to adopt 3-dimensional structure in solution. Aptamers have huge potential as targeted therapeutics, diagnostics, delivery agents and as biosensors. However, aptamers composed of natural nucleotide monomers are quickly degraded in vivo and show poor pharmacodynamic properties. To overcome this, chemically-modified nucleic acid aptamers are developed by incorporating modified nucleotides after or during the selection process by Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX). This review will discuss the development of chemically-modified aptamers and provide the pros and cons, and new insights on in vitro aptamer selection strategies by using chemically-modified nucleic acid libraries.

  9. In vitro evolution of chemically-modified nucleic acid aptamers: Pros and cons, and comprehensive selection strategies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Suxiang; Chakravarthy, Madhuri; Rakesh, Shilpa; Veedu, Rakesh N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nucleic acid aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotide sequences that bind to a specific target molecule with high affinity and specificity through their ability to adopt 3-dimensional structure in solution. Aptamers have huge potential as targeted therapeutics, diagnostics, delivery agents and as biosensors. However, aptamers composed of natural nucleotide monomers are quickly degraded in vivo and show poor pharmacodynamic properties. To overcome this, chemically-modified nucleic acid aptamers are developed by incorporating modified nucleotides after or during the selection process by Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX). This review will discuss the development of chemically-modified aptamers and provide the pros and cons, and new insights on in vitro aptamer selection strategies by using chemically-modified nucleic acid libraries. PMID:27715478

  10. ON EFFECT OF HAZARD MAP ON CONS CIOUSNESS OF FLOOD DISASTER PREVENSION OF RESIDENTS WHO EXPERIENCED FLOOD RECENTLY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, Koji; Koga, Syota; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki

    In this paper, the effect of the flood hazard map distributed to the residents who experienced flood disasters recently and an effective method for improving consciousness of flood di saster prevention are discussed. The questionnaire surveys were conducted on the residents living in the middle basin of the Nishiki River, Iwakuni city, Yamaguchi Prefecture, before and after the distribution of the hazard map. It is found from this investigation that "knowledge", "att achment", and "crisis", are the main factors in the psychological process related to the flood prevention behavior. The effect of the distribution of the hazard map is judged from the probability of the flood prevention behavior. In addition, it is also found that "knowledge", "flood experiment of T0514", "crisis", "eff ectiveness", "load", and "easy reading of the hazard map", are keys to improve the cons ciousness of flood di saster prevention.

  11. Nitrogen oxides and carbon chain oxides formed after ion irradiation of CO:N2 ice mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia, D.; Ioppolo, S.; Vindigni, T.; Baratta, G. A.; Palumbo, M. E.

    2012-07-01

    Context. High CO depletion as well as depletion of N-bearing species is observed in dense pre-stellar cores. It is generally accepted that depleted species freeze out onto dust grains to form icy mantles and that these ices suffer energetic processing due to cosmic ion irradiation and ion-induced UV photons. Aims: The aim of this work is to study the chemical and structural effects induced by ion irradiation on different CO:N2 mixtures at low temperature (16 K) to simulate the effects of cosmic ion irradiation of icy mantles. Methods: Different CO:N2 mixtures and pure CO and pure N2 were irradiated with 200 keV H+ at 16 K. Infrared transmittance spectra of the samples were obtained in situ before and after irradiation. The samples were warmed up and spectra were taken at different temperatures. The residues left over on the substrate at room temperature were analysed ex situ by micro Raman spectroscopy. Results: Several new absorption features are present in the infrared spectra after irradiation, indicating that new species are formed. The most abundant are nitrogen oxides (such as NO, NO2 and N2O), carbon chain oxides (such as C2O, C3O and C3O2), carbon chains (such as C3 and C6), O3 and N3. A refractory residue is also formed after ion irradiation and is clearly detected by Raman spectroscopy. Conclusions: We suggest that carbon chains and nitrogen oxides observed in the gas phase towards star-forming regions are formed in the solid phase after cosmic ion irradiation of icy grain mantles and are released into the gas phase after desorption of grain mantles. We expect that the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), thanks to its high sensitivity and resolution, will increase the number of nitrogen oxides and carbon chain oxides detected towards star-forming regions.

  12. Binding of NIR-conPK and NIR-6T to Astrocytomas and Microglial Cells: Evidence for a Protein Related to TSPO

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Michelle; Woodruff, Grace; Cudaback, Eiron; Kreitzer, Faith R.; Xu, Cong; Lin, Yi Hsing; Möller, Thomas; Bai, Mingfeng; Manning, H. Charles; Bornhop, Darryl; Stella, Nephi

    2009-01-01

    PK 11195 and DAA1106 bind with high-affinity to the translocator protein (TSPO, formerly known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor). TSPO expression in glial cells increases in response to cytokines and pathological stimuli. Accordingly, [11C]-PK 11195 and [11C]-DAA1106 are recognized molecular imaging (MI) agents capable of monitoring changes in TSPO expression occurring in vivo and in response to various neuropathologies. Here we tested the pharmacological characteristics and TSPO-monitoring potential of two novel MI agents: NIR-conPK and NIR-6T. NIR-conPK is an analogue of PK 11195 conjugated to the near-infrared (NIR) emitting fluorophore: IRDye 800CW. NIR-6T is a DAA1106 analogue also conjugated to IRDye 800CW. We found that NIR-6T competed for [3H]-PK 11195 binding in astrocytoma cell homogenates with nanomolar affinity, but did not exhibit specific binding in intact astrocytoma cells in culture, indicating that NIR-6T is unlikely to constitute a useful MI agent for monitoring TSPO expression in intact cells. Conversely, we found that NIR-conPK did not compete for [3H]-PK 11195 binding in astrocytoma cell homogenate, but exhibited specific binding in intact astrocytoma cells in culture with nanomolar affinity, suggesting that NIR-conPK binds to a protein distinct, but related to, TSPO. Accordingly, treating intact astrocytoma cells and microglia in culture with cytokines led to significant changes in the amount of NIR-conPK specific binding without corresponding change in TSPO expression. Remarkably, the cytokine-induced changes in the protein targeted by NIR-conPK in intact microglia were selective, since IFN-γ (but not TNFα and TGFβ) increased the amount of NIR-conPK specific binding in these cells. Together these results suggest that NIR-conPK binds to a protein that is related to TSPO, and expressed by astrocytomas and microglia. Our results also suggest that the expression of this protein is increased by specific cytokines, and thus allows for

  13. Estudio de la influencia de la refrigeracion con aire de forma natural e inducida en el comportamiento de instalaciones fotovoltaicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazon Hernandez, Rocio

    panels are analysed to compare and select the best configuration. The presented research provides a deep knowledge of how they work as well as information and results for an improvement in future designs of building integrated photovoltaic systems. Este estudio se centra en analizar la influencia negativa de la temperatura en la produccion electrica de paneles fotovoltaicos al estar emplazados sobre cubierta de acero, como sucede en naves industriales y sobre un invernadero. Se estudian diferentes configuraciones que permitan refrigerar los paneles, reduciendo su temperatura y mejorar su rendimiento. Para abordar este problema, se han construido dos instalaciones experimentales, fieles a plantas solares en funcionamiento. Una instalacion engloba dos paneles fotovoltaicos sobre estructura fija al suelo. Uno de los paneles esta integrado sobre una superficie paralela y metalica. Entre ambas superficies existe un espacio que posibilita circular aire, permitiendo refrigerar el panel por conveccion natural, o conveccion forzada impulsando el aire con un ventilador. El otro panel, libre por su cara posterior y se ha considerado de referencia. Se ha estudiado el comportamiento del panel integrado sobre cubierta para diferentes secciones de aire y velocidades inducidas, comparandolo con el panel de referencia. Se ha desarrollado un modelo experimental que nos permite determinar la temperatura del panel en funcion de las variables que influyen en su refrigeracion. Adicionalmente, se han analizado los datos de una planta solar en funcionamiento, con paneles de igual caracteristicas, obteniendo correlaciones entre la temperatura del panel y las variables electricas y comparandolos con las obtenidas en la instalacion experimental. La segunda instalacion experimental reproduce parte de una instalacion solar sobre un invernadero, formada por cuatro paneles fotovoltaicos colocados sobre el plastico del invernadero, existiendo un canal divergente entre ambas superficies. Se estudia la

  14. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  15. Pile et Face: Avec du papier, des images, de la colle...et des ciseaux (Heads and Tails: With Paper, Pictures, Glue...and Scissors).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vever, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    A kit using the concept of puzzles as a focus for developing self-correcting instructional materials for French language teaching is described. The kit, designed for teachers and including 47 ideas organized by theme, contains matrices and cards for a variety of exercises at various levels and suggestions for their use. (MSE)

  16. Sauvé-Kapandji operation for disorders of the distal radioulnar joint after Colles' fracture. Good results in 12 patients followed for 1.5-4 years.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, S S; Lindblad, B E; Larsen, E R; Sommer, J

    1997-02-01

    Controversies continue concerning the treatment of the posttraumatic caput ulna syndrome. We have treated 12 patients, mean age 42 (23-77) years, with arthrodesis ad modum Sauvé-Kapandji of the distal articulation between the radius and ulna, combined with resection of the ulnar neck. Before the operation, all patients had persistent ulnar wrist pain and restricted pronation-supination movement. At follow-up, after a mean of 2 (1.5-4) years, 8 patients had an excellent outcome, 3 a good, and 1 patient had a fair outcome. 10 patients had no wrist pain. The average grip-score improved from 53% preoperatively to 76% at the follow-up.

  17. Oxacilin-resistant Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) bacteremia in a general hospital at São Paulo city, Brasil.

    PubMed

    d'Azevedo, P A; Secchi, C; Antunes, A L S; Sales, T; Silva, F M; Tranchesi, R; Pignatari, A C C

    2008-10-01

    In the last decades, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), especially Staphylococcus epidermidis have become an important cause of bloodstream infections. In addition, rates of methicillin-resistance among CoNS have increased substantially, leading to the use of glicopeptides for therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate eleven consecutives clinically relevant cases of oxacillin-resistant CoNS bacteremia in a general hospital localized in São Paulo city, Brazil. Five different species were identified by different phenotypic methods, including S. epidermidis (5), S. haemolyticus (3), S. hominis (1), S. warneri (1) and S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1). A variety of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles was observed by macrorestriction DNA analysis in S. epidermidis isolates, but two of three S. haemolyticus isolates presented the same profile. These data indicated the heterogeneity of the CoNS isolates, suggesting that horizontal dissemination of these microorganisms in the investigated hospital was not frequent. One S. epidermidis and one S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and susceptible to vancomycin. The selective pressure due to the use of teicoplanin in this hospital is relevant.

  18. Accurate macromolecular crystallographic refinement: incorporation of the linear scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics program DivCon into the PHENIX refinement package.

    PubMed

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y; Plumley, Joshua A; Martin, Roger I; Merz, Kenneth M; Westerhoff, Lance M

    2014-05-01

    Macromolecular crystallographic refinement relies on sometimes dubious stereochemical restraints and rudimentary energy functionals to ensure the correct geometry of the model of the macromolecule and any covalently bound ligand(s). The ligand stereochemical restraint file (CIF) requires a priori understanding of the ligand geometry within the active site, and creation of the CIF is often an error-prone process owing to the great variety of potential ligand chemistry and structure. Stereochemical restraints have been replaced with more robust functionals through the integration of the linear-scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics (SE-QM) program DivCon with the PHENIX X-ray refinement engine. The PHENIX/DivCon package has been thoroughly validated on a population of 50 protein-ligand Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures with a range of resolutions and chemistry. The PDB structures used for the validation were originally refined utilizing various refinement packages and were published within the past five years. PHENIX/DivCon does not utilize CIF(s), link restraints and other parameters for refinement and hence it does not make as many a priori assumptions about the model. Across the entire population, the method results in reasonable ligand geometries and low ligand strains, even when the original refinement exhibited difficulties, indicating that PHENIX/DivCon is applicable to both single-structure and high-throughput crystallography.

  19. Studies on prevalence of biofilm associated genes and primary observation on sasX gene in clinical isolates of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS).

    PubMed

    Soumya, Kandammuriyil Radhakrishnan; Mathew, Shiji; Sugathan, Sheela; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, Edayileveettil Krishnankutty

    2016-04-01

    Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) are nosocomial pathogens that cause indwelling medical device associated infections due to its biofilm forming potential and multiple antibiotic resistance. The current study focused on species identification, antibiotic resistance profile and molecular basis of biofilm formation and attachment of CoNS isolated from clinical samples. Along with this, molecular screening for mecA and newly identified surface colonization protein encoded by sasX gene was also conducted. S. epidermidis (n = 19, 47%) was identified as the most prevalent CoNS species and very interestingly two biofilm forming, mecA positive S. epidermidis isolates were found to carry all the biofilm associated genes screened in this study, which indicates its potential to form the strong biofilm. Another novel observation of the study is the detection of sasX gene in one biofilm positive S. epidermidis isolate. The study also identified one doxycycline resistant mecA positive, multidrug resistant S. haemolyticus isolate. In conclusion, the study signifies the existence of multiple biofilm related genes, multidrug resistance and the presence of sasX gene among clinical isolates of CoNS.

  20. Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS): A potential NLO material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinakaran, Paul M.; Kalainathan, S.

    2013-07-01

    4-Chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS) a new organic nonlinear optical material has been synthesized. Employing slow evaporation method, good optical quality single crystals (dimensions up to 6 × 2 × 3 mm3) have been grown using ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) as a solvent. The grown crystals have been subjected to various characterizations such as single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton NMR, solid UV absorption, SHG studies. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the crystal system belongs to monoclinic with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum has been recorded and found that the cut off wavelength is 380 nm. Functional groups and the structure of the title compound have been confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopic analyses respectively. Molecular mass of the CONS confirmed by the high resolution mass spectral analysis .The thermal behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by TG/DTA analysis and it shows the melting point is at 188.66 °C. Dislocations and growth pattern present in the grown crystal revealed by the etching study. The mechanical strength of the CONS crystal has been studied by Vicker's hardness measurement. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal has been determined by Kurtz and Perry powder test which revealed that the CONS crystal (327 mV) has 15 times greater efficiency than that of KDP (21.7 mV).

  1. Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS): a potential NLO material.

    PubMed

    Dinakaran, Paul M; Kalainathan, S

    2013-07-01

    4-Chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS) a new organic nonlinear optical material has been synthesized. Employing slow evaporation method, good optical quality single crystals (dimensions up to 6×2×3 mm(3)) have been grown using ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) as a solvent. The grown crystals have been subjected to various characterizations such as single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton NMR, solid UV absorption, SHG studies. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the crystal system belongs to monoclinic with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum has been recorded and found that the cut off wavelength is 380 nm. Functional groups and the structure of the title compound have been confirmed by FTIR and (1)H NMR spectroscopic analyses respectively. Molecular mass of the CONS confirmed by the high resolution mass spectral analysis .The thermal behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by TG/DTA analysis and it shows the melting point is at 188.66 °C. Dislocations and growth pattern present in the grown crystal revealed by the etching study. The mechanical strength of the CONS crystal has been studied by Vicker's hardness measurement. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal has been determined by Kurtz and Perry powder test which revealed that the CONS crystal (327 mV) has 15 times greater efficiency than that of KDP (21.7 mV).

  2. Accurate macromolecular crystallographic refinement: incorporation of the linear scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics program DivCon into the PHENIX refinement package

    PubMed Central

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Plumley, Joshua A.; Martin, Roger I.; Merz, Kenneth M.; Westerhoff, Lance M.

    2014-01-01

    Macromolecular crystallographic refinement relies on sometimes dubious stereochemical restraints and rudimentary energy functionals to ensure the correct geometry of the model of the macromolecule and any covalently bound ligand(s). The ligand stereochemical restraint file (CIF) requires a priori understanding of the ligand geometry within the active site, and creation of the CIF is often an error-prone process owing to the great variety of potential ligand chemistry and structure. Stereochemical restraints have been replaced with more robust functionals through the integration of the linear-scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics (SE-QM) program DivCon with the PHENIX X-ray refinement engine. The PHENIX/DivCon package has been thoroughly validated on a population of 50 protein–ligand Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures with a range of resolutions and chemistry. The PDB structures used for the validation were originally refined utilizing various refinement packages and were published within the past five years. PHENIX/DivCon does not utilize CIF(s), link restraints and other parameters for refinement and hence it does not make as many a priori assumptions about the model. Across the entire population, the method results in reasonable ligand geometries and low ligand strains, even when the original refinement exhibited difficulties, indicating that PHENIX/DivCon is applicable to both single-structure and high-throughput crystallography. PMID:24816093

  3. Fragilidad y su asociación con mortalidad, hospitalizaciones y dependencia funcional en mexicanos de 60 años o más

    PubMed Central

    de León González, Enrique Díaz; Pérez, Héctor Eloy Tamez; Hermosillo, Hugo Gutiérrez; Rodríguez, Javier Armando Cedillo; Torres, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Fundamento y objetivo Determinar la asociación entre fragilidad y mortalidad, dependencia funcional, caídas y hospitalizaciones en el Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México (ENASEM). Sujetos y métodos Estudio prospectivo poblacional en México en el que se seleccionaron sujetos de 60 años o más, que fueron evaluados en las variables de fragilidad durante la primera vuelta del estudio en el año 2001 y que incluyó: dificultad para levantarse de una silla después de haber estado sentado(a) durante largo tiempo, pérdida de peso de 5 kilogramos o más en los últimos dos años y falta de energía. Los sujetos fueron catalogados como robustos, prefrágiles y frágiles cuando tenían cero, una o dos de las características anteriores, respectivamente. La mortalidad, hospitalizaciones, caídas y dependencia funcional fueron evaluadas en la segunda vuelta del estudio en el año 2003. Se calculó el riesgo relativo para cada una de las complicaciones, así como análisis multivariado con regresión de Cox para el caso de mortalidad y regresión logística para el resto. Resultados Los estados de prefragilidad y fragilidad se asociaron independientemente con mortalidad, con índices de riesgo ajustados de 1,61 (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC 95%] 1,01-2,55) y 1,94 (IC 95% 1,20-3,13), respectivamente. Sólo el estado de fragilidad se asoció independientemente con hospitalización y dependencia funcional, con una razón de momios ajustada de 1,53 (IC 95% 1,13-2,07) y 3,07 (IC 95% 1,76-5,34), respectivamente. No hubo asociación entre los estados de prefragilidad y fragilidad con caídas. Conclusión El estado de fragilidad se asocia independientemente con mortalidad, hospitalizaciones y disfuncionalidad en actividades básicas de la vida diaria en los siguientes dos años en población mexicana. PMID:21612803

  4. Aspergilosis cervical con diseminación al sistema nervioso central. Presentación de un caso y revisión de bibliografía

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Guillermo Enrique; Roura, Natalia; del Castillo, Marcelo; Mora, Andrea; Alcorta, Santiago Condomi; Mormandi, Rubén; Cervio, Andrés; Salvat, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la Aspergilosis Invasiva (AI) del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC) es infrecuente y ocurre generalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Puede presentarse con cuadros de meningitis, aneurismas micóticos, infartos o abscesos. Es una infección con pronóstico reservado y puede afectar el SNC de forma primaria o secundaria a partir de un foco que se disemina por vía hematógena. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con AI con invasión primaria a nivel óseo y diseminación posterior al cerebro. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 25 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfática aguda en tratamiento quimioterápico que presentó neumonitis por metotrexate por lo que inicia tratamiento con corticoides. Posteriormente agregó cervicalgia y con el diagnóstico de osteomielitis cervical se realiza punción bajo tomografía computada (TC) sin aislarse gérmenes. Se colocó Halo Vest e inició tratamiento antibiótico empírico. Posteriormente presentó afasia de expresión secundaria a lesión frontal izquierda. Se realizó evacuación de absceso cerebral aislando A. fumigatus. El tratamiento antibiótico específico posterior permitió una buena respuesta clínica y radiológica. Conclusión: La presencia de lesiones en el SNC de pacientes inmunocomprometidos debe incluir a las micosis como diagnóstico diferencial. La evacuación quirúrgica permite llegar rápidamente al diagnóstico mejorando la respuesta posterior al tratamiento antibiótico. Para evaluar la respuesta terapéutica y posibles recaídas se debe realizar un seguimiento periódico clínico radiológico. Palabras clave: Aspergilosis cerebral; Aspergilosis cervical; Aspergilosis invasiva; Voriconazol. PMID:26600985

  5. Should a Preschool Child with Acute Episodic Wheeze be Treated with Oral Corticosteroids? A Pro/Con Debate.

    PubMed

    Beigelman, Avraham; Durrani, Sandy; Guilbert, Theresa W

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, preschool-aged children with an acute wheezing episode have been treated with oral corticosteroids (OCSs) based on the efficacy of OCSs in older children and adolescents. However, this practice has been recently challenged based on the results of recent studies. The argument supporting the use of OCSs underscores the observation that many children with recurrent preschool wheezing develop atopic disease in early life which predicts both an increased risk to develop asthma in later life and response to OCS therapy. Further, review of the literature demonstrates heterogeneity of study designs, OCS dosage, interventions, study medication adherence, and settings and overall lack of predefined preschool wheezing phenotypes. The heterogeneity of these studies does not allow a definitive recommendation discouraging OCS use. Advocates against the use of OCSs in this population argue that most of studies investigating the efficacy of OCSs in acute episodic wheeze in preschool-aged children have not demonstrated beneficial effects. Moreover, repeated OCS bursts may be associated with adverse effects. Finally, both sides can agree that there is a significant need to conduct efficacy trials evaluating OCS treatment in preschool-aged children with recurrent wheezing targeted at phenotypes that would be expected to respond to OCSs. This article presents a summary of recent literature regarding the use of OCSs for acute episodic wheezing in preschool-aged children and a "pro" and "con" debate for such use.

  6. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry N.; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Tom; Callantine, Todd J.; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This document is an update to the operations and procedures envisioned for NASA s Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1). The ATD-1 Concept of Operations (ConOps) integrates three NASA technologies to achieve high throughput, fuel-efficient arrival operations into busy terminal airspace. They are Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM) for precise time-based schedules to the runway and points within the terminal area, Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) decision support tools for terminal controllers to better manage aircraft delay using speed control, and Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics and flight crew procedures to conduct airborne spacing operations. The ATD-1 concept provides de-conflicted and efficient operations of multiple arrival streams of aircraft, passing through multiple merge points, from top-of-descent (TOD) to the Final Approach Fix. These arrival streams are Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from en route altitude to the runway, using primarily speed control to maintain separation and schedule. The ATD-1 project is currently addressing the challenges of integrating the three technologies, and their implantation into an operational environment. The ATD-1 goals include increasing the throughput of high-density airports, reducing controller workload, increasing efficiency of arrival operations and the frequency of trajectory-based operations, and promoting aircraft ADS-B equipage.

  7. Con-forming bodies: the interplay of machines and bodies and the implications of agency in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lisa A

    2016-06-01

    Attending to the material discursive constructions of the patient body within cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in radiotherapy treatments, in this paper I describe how bodies and machines co-create images. Using an analytical framework inspired by Science and Technology Studies and Feminist Technoscience, I describe the interplay between machines and bodies and the implications of materialities and agency. I argue that patients' bodies play a part in producing scans within acceptable limits of machines as set out through organisational arrangements. In doing so I argue that bodies are fabricated into the order of work prescribed and embedded within and around the CBCT system, becoming, not only the subject of resulting images, but part of that image. The scan is not therefore a representation of a passive subject (a body) but co-produced by the work of practitioners and patients who actively control (and contort) and discipline their body according to protocols and instructions and the CBCT system. In this way I suggest they are 'con-forming' the CBCT image. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://youtu.be/qysCcBGuNSM.

  8. Evaluation of GO_CONS_GCF_2_TIM and GOCO01S Geopotential Models in Venezuela and Caribbean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orihuela, N. D.; Garcia, A. D.; Tabare, T.; Scientific Team Of Venezuelan; Caribbean Crustal Study From Satellital Data

    2010-12-01

    This paper shows two maps of the magnitude of the surface gravity vector (MSGV) of Venezuela and Caribbean region at 1:500.000 scale in the geographic window between the 0-20 north latitude and 74-58 western longitude (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2), that were generated from GOCE gravity gradients data provided by the European Space Agency (ESA). The maps that are showed come from the combined global gravity field model GOCO01s [GOCO Consortium., 2010] and from the satellite-only global gravity field model GO_CONS_GCF_2_TIM [Pail et al., 2010], both of 224 degree. The DEMs used for the evaluation of the MSGV are: Etopo2v2 [NGDC., 2006] and Etopo1 [Amante and Eakins, 2009] respectively. The data processing was done using: Shm2func [ICGEM., 2007]; Goce User Toolbox [ESA., 2009]; Gravsoft package [Tscherning et al., 1992] and Oasis Montaj (Geosoft). This research shows a review of observed gravity in the main geological provinces of the Venezuela and Caribbean region geography, revealing gravitational features important of the geological structures that are in Venezuelan and Caribbean subsurface.

  9. Laboratory simulation of Kuiper belt object volatile ices under ionizing radiation: CO-N2 ices as a case study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y S; Zhang, F; Kaiser, R I

    2011-09-21

    The exposure of icy Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) by ionizing radiation was simulated in this case of exposing carbon monoxide-nitrogen (CO-N(2)) ices by energetic electrons. The radiation-induced chemical processing was monitored on-line and in situ via FTIR spectroscopy and quadrupole mass spectrometry. Besides the array of carbon oxides being reproduced as in neat irradiated carbon monoxide (CO) ices studied previously, the radiation exposure at 10 K resulted in the formation of nitrogen-bearing species of isocyanato radical (OCN), linear (l-NCN), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), plus diazirinone (N(2)CO). The infrared assignments of these species were further confirmed by isotopic shifts. The temporal evolution of individual species was found to fit in first-order reaction schemes, prepping up the underlying non-equilibrium chemistry on the formation of OCN, l-NCN, and NO radicals in particular. Also unique to the binary KBO model ices and viable for the future remote detection is diazirinone (N(2)CO) at 1860 cm(-1) (2ν(5)) formed at lower radiation exposure.

  10. Document-level classification of CT pulmonary angiography reports based on an extension of the ConText algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Brian E; Lee, Sean; Kang, Hyunseok Peter; Chapman, Wendy W

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we describe an application called peFinder for document-level classification of CT pulmonary angiography reports. peFinder is based on a generalized version of the ConText algorithm, a simple text processing algorithm for identifying features in clinical report documents. peFinder was used to answer questions about the disease state (pulmonary emboli present or absent), the certainty state of the diagnosis (uncertainty present or absent), the temporal state of an identified pulmonary embolus (acute or chronic), and the technical quality state of the exam (diagnostic or not diagnostic). Gold standard answers for each question were determined from the consensus classifications of three human annotators. peFinder results were compared to naive Bayes' classifiers using unigrams and bigrams. The sensitivities (and positive predictive values) for peFinder were 0.98(0.83), 0.86(0.96), 0.94(0.93), and 0.60(0.90) for disease state, quality state, certainty state, and temporal state respectively, compared to 0.68(0.77), 0.67(0.87), 0.62(0.82), and 0.04(0.25) for the naive Bayes' classifier using unigrams, and 0.75(0.79), 0.52(0.69), 0.59(0.84), and 0.04(0.25) for the naive Bayes' classifier using bigrams.

  11. Circulating microRNA Biomarkers as Liquid Biopsy for Cancer Patients: Pros and Cons of Current Assays.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shigeshi; Lam, Stella; Nagahara, Makoto; Hoon, Dave S B

    2015-10-23

    An increasing number of studies have focused on circulating microRNAs (cmiRNA) in cancer patients' blood for their potential as minimally-invasive biomarkers. Studies have reported the utility of assessing specific miRNAs in blood as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers; however, the methodologies are not validated or standardized across laboratories. Unfortunately, there is often minimum limited overlap in techniques between results reported even in similar type studies on the same cancer. This hampers interpretation and reliability of cmiRNA as potential cancer biomarkers. Blood collection and processing, cmiRNA extractions, quality and quantity control of assays, defined patient population assessment, reproducibility, and reference standards all affect the cmiRNA assay results. To date, there is no reported definitive method to assess cmiRNAs. Therefore, appropriate and reliable methodologies are highly necessary in order for cmiRNAs to be used in regulated clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this review, we summarize the developments made over the past decade towards cmiRNA detection and discuss the pros and cons of the assays.

  12. Status and Progress of a Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable to BE Installed in the con EDISON Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, J.; Folts, D.; Yuan, J.; Henderson, N.; Lindsay, D.; Knoll, D.; Rey, C.; Duckworth, R.; Gouge, M.; Wolff, Z.; Kurtz, S.

    2010-04-01

    In the last decade, significant advances in the performance of second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire have made it suitable for commercially viable applications such as electric power cables and fault current limiters. Currently, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security is co-funding the design, development and demonstration of an inherently fault current limiting HTS cable under the Hydra project with American Superconductor and Consolidated Edison. The cable will be approximately 300 m long and is being designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The underground cable will be installed and energized in New York City. The project is led by American Superconductor teamed with Con Edison, Ultera (Southwire and nkt cables joint venture), and Air Liquide. This paper describes the general goals, design criteria, status and progress of the project. Fault current limiting has already been demonstrated in 3 m prototype cables, and test results on a 25 m three-phase cable will be presented. An overview of the concept of a fault current limiting cable and the system advantages of this unique type of cable will be described.

  13. Monitoring chemical reactions by low-field benchtop NMR at 45 MHz: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Silva Elipe, Maria Victoria; Milburn, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring chemical reactions is the key to controlling chemical processes where NMR can provide support. High-field NMR gives detailed structural information on chemical compounds and reactions; however, it is expensive and complex to operate. Conversely, low-field NMR instruments are simple and relatively inexpensive alternatives. While low-field NMR does not provide the detailed information as the high-field instruments as a result of their smaller chemical shift dispersion and the complex secondary coupling, it remains of practical value as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool and is complimentary to other established methods, such as ReactIR and Raman spectroscopy. We have tested a picoSpin-45 (currently under ThermoFisher Scientific) benchtop NMR instrument to monitor three types of reactions by 1D (1) H NMR: a Fischer esterification, a Suzuki cross-coupling, and the formation of an oxime. The Fischer esterification is a relatively simple reaction run at high concentration and served as proof of concept. The Suzuki coupling is an example of a more complex, commonly used reaction involving overlapping signals. Finally, the oxime formation involved a reaction in two phases that cannot be monitored by other PAT tools. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of monitoring these reactions at a low-field of 45 MHz by 1D (1) H NMR. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The Use of Laser Microdissection in Forensic Sexual Assault Casework: Pros and Cons Compared to Standard Methods.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sergio; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Porto, Maria J; Cainé, Laura

    2017-01-30

    Sexual assault samples are among the most frequently analyzed in a forensic laboratory. These account for almost half of all samples processed routinely, and a large portion of these cases remain unsolved. These samples often pose problems to traditional analytic methods of identification because they consist most frequently of cell mixtures from at least two contributors: the victim (usually female) and the perpetrator (usually male). In this study, we propose the use of current preliminary testing for sperm detection in order to determine the chances of success when faced with samples which can be good candidates to undergo analysis with the laser microdissection technology. Also, we used laser microdissection technology to capture fluorescently stained cells of interest differentiated by gender. Collected materials were then used for DNA genotyping with commercially available amplification kits such as Minifiler, Identifiler Plus, NGM, and Y-Filer. Both the methodology and the quality of the results were evaluated to assess the pros and cons of laser microdissection compared with standard methods. Overall, the combination of fluorescent staining combined with the Minifiler amplification kit provided the best results for autosomal markers, whereas the Y-Filer kit returned the expected results regardless of the used method.

  15. Special funding schemes for innovative medical devices in French hospitals: the pros and cons of two different approaches.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Nicolas; van den Brink, Hélène

    2014-07-01

    Financing innovative medical devices is an important challenge for national health policy makers, and a crucial issue for hospitals. However, when innovative medical devices are launched on the European market there is generally little clinical evidence regarding both efficacy and safety, both because of the flaws in the European system for regulating such devices, and because they are at an early stage of development. To manage the uncertainty surrounding the reimbursement of innovation, several European countries have set up temporary funding schemes to generate evidence about the effectiveness of devices. This article explores two different French approaches to funding innovative in-hospital devices and collecting supplementary data: the coverage with evidence development (CED) scheme introduced under Article L. 165-1-1 of the French Social Security Code; and national programs for hospital-based research. We discuss pros and cons of both approaches in the light of CED policies in Germany and the UK. The CED policies for devices share common limitations. Thus, transparency of CED processes should be enhanced and decisions need to be made in a timely way. Finally, we think that closer collaboration between manufacturers, health authorities and hospitals is essential to make CED policies more operational.

  16. Virgin Caenorhabditis remanei females are attracted to a coital pheromone released by con-specific copulating males

    PubMed Central

    Markert, Mathew; García, Luis René

    2013-01-01

    The gonochoristic soil nematode Caenorhabditis remanei strictly requires copulation for species propagation. Males of this species are sexually promiscuous with females of other species; therefore, we asked in this study whether virgin C. remanei females display evidence of mate choice. We digitally recorded and measured the locomotor behaviors of one or more virgin females in the presence of a single male on a 5 mm diameter mating lawn. We observed that initially only the male modifies his locomotor trajectory to another animal on the mating lawn; the virgin females showed no locomotor bias toward the mate-searching male. However, once a male started to copulate, females in the vicinity altered their movement trajectories toward the copulating couple. Newly inseminated females are refractive to the coital signal, but partially regain their attraction to copulating males after 24 h. We found only copulating males with an intact gonad can attract females, and that the coital signal can be broadcasted at least 1.5 mm through the air. Unlike males, which are also attracted to hetero-specific females, virgin C. remanei females will only crawl toward a copulating con-specific male. We suggest that Caenorhabditis females use the coital signal as a pheromone to identify a vigorous male of their own species. PMID:24058874

  17. Balancing the pros and cons of GMOs: socio-scientific argumentation in pre-service teacher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinici, Ayhan

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the role of the discursive process in the act of scientific knowledge building. Specifically, it links scientific knowledge building to risk perception of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). To this end, this study designed and implemented a three-stage argumentation programme giving pre-service teachers (PSTs) the opportunity to consider, discuss and construct shared decisions about GMOs. The study involved 101 third-year PSTs from two different classes, randomly divided into control and experimental groups. The study utilised both quantitative and qualitative methods. During the quantitative phase, researchers administered a pre- and post-intervention scale to measure both groups' risk perception of GMOs. During the qualitative phase, data were collected from the experimental group alone through individual and group reports and an open-ended questionnaire. T-test results showed a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups' risk perception of GMOs. Qualitative analysis also revealed differences, for example, in PSTs' weighing of the pros and cons of scientific research demonstrating positive results of GMOs. In addition, PSTs' acceptance of GMOs increased. Consequently, this study suggests that developing familiarity with scientific enterprise may play an effective role in adopting a scientific perspective as well as a more balanced risk perception of GMOs.

  18. Circulating microRNA Biomarkers as Liquid Biopsy for Cancer Patients: Pros and Cons of Current Assays

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Shigeshi; Lam, Stella; Nagahara, Makoto; Hoon, Dave S. B.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have focused on circulating microRNAs (cmiRNA) in cancer patients’ blood for their potential as minimally-invasive biomarkers. Studies have reported the utility of assessing specific miRNAs in blood as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers; however, the methodologies are not validated or standardized across laboratories. Unfortunately, there is often minimum limited overlap in techniques between results reported even in similar type studies on the same cancer. This hampers interpretation and reliability of cmiRNA as potential cancer biomarkers. Blood collection and processing, cmiRNA extractions, quality and quantity control of assays, defined patient population assessment, reproducibility, and reference standards all affect the cmiRNA assay results. To date, there is no reported definitive method to assess cmiRNAs. Therefore, appropriate and reliable methodologies are highly necessary in order for cmiRNAs to be used in regulated clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this review, we summarize the developments made over the past decade towards cmiRNA detection and discuss the pros and cons of the assays. PMID:26512704

  19. Conózcanos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Principal de la EPA: información sobre el Administrador o la Administradora, los altos directivos; ubicaciones y direcciones de las oficinas; presupuesto, la planificación y los resultados de rendimiento

  20. The Classics, Con Brio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James

    1978-01-01

    Sponsored by a consortium of 30 American universities, Rome's Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies offers a year of study to American undergraduate classics majors. Instructors are also American and normally stay only a year; teaching assistants are always ex-students of the center. Extensive field trips are an important part of the…

  1. Neo-Conned University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Andee

    2014-01-01

    Censorship, says Australian political theorist John Keane (1991), can "echo within us, take up residence within ourselves, spying on us, a private amanuensis who reminds us never to go too far... It makes us zip our lips, tremble and think twice" (p. 39). It can also make us sick. The author states that this is her argument here: that,…

  2. Fotodensitometro realizzato con microscopio.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Giovanni, G.

    1989-02-01

    This work describes the chracteristics and use of a microphotometer suitable for the measure of photographic density of photos of stars. The optics is a normal microscope which projects the small photographic image of a star on the plate of a photodiode. This high sensitivity instrument is easy to build up.

  3. [Weighing pros and cons].

    PubMed

    de Wit, W

    1992-03-15

    An adequate, high-quality animal health service is indispensable to animal production in the Netherlands. Modern intensive animal husbandry, with its high density of animals, needs a considerable input of knowledge, vaccines and drugs. The consumer expects healthy and especially safe products. These two goals are in seeming contradiction. Moreover, veterinary help, the necessary use of drugs, the supervision and control of AID (Agricultural Inspection Services) and RVV (Inspection Service for Meat and Meat Products) add to the already substantial costs of modern animal husbandry. From the point of view of integral quality control, the question is what changes are necessary to achieve a more effective health service. Goals for the future include: reducing the structural dependence on drugs and additives; substantially reducing the number of active substances used; increasing consumer confidence in animal products.

  4. Concepciones Alternativas de "Fotosintesis" en estudiantes Universitarios del curso basico de Biologia y posibles correcciones con el Modelo Educativo MODEF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jesus Roman, Sandra

    Concepciones Alternativas de Fotosíntesis en estudiantes Universitariosdel curso básico de Biología y posibles correcciones con el Modelo Educativo MODEF El modelo educativo para la enseñanza de Fotosíntesis (MODEF) se implantó para trabajar el problema de las concepciones alternativas (CA) en un curso de Biología General. Se evaluaron los resultados en cuanto al logro del aprendizaje significativo. La pregunta central de la investigación fue: ¿Cómo aporta el modelo educativo en la didáctica y comprensión del tema de fotosíntesis? Se efectuó una investigación acción con una fase cuantitativa y una cualitativa. Para la fase cuantitativa se elaboró una prueba para determinar las concepciones alternativas, se validó y se sometió a los estudiantes que participaron en el estudio antes y después de ofrecer la unidad de metabolismo celular. Los participantes eran estudiantes de primer año de la Universidad de Puerto Rico en Bayamón (UPRB). Se llevó a cabo un análisis de consistencia interna de la prueba mediante el método Alfa de Cronbach. Se analizaron las contestaciones a cada pregunta mediante la prueba de Ji cuadrado de contingencia, se efectuó la prueba de t y el coeficiente r de Pearson. La fase cualitativa incluyó la observación participativa de la investigadora- profesora, las reflexiones de los estudiantes y la información de las entrevistas semi-estructuradas que se realizaron a tres estudiantes del curso. El análisis se llevó a cabo mediante el Modelo de Wolcott. Se trabajaron diez CA de las cuales siete fueron corregidas mediante el Modelo MODEF. Las actividades más importantes para el proceso de aprendizaje incluyeron el trabajo de investigación o búsqueda de información para hacer una presentación digital, la elaboración de tablas, los mapas de conceptos, el uso de visuales o videos y las analogías para explicar conceptos o procesos. En conclusión: se recomienda el uso del Modelo MODEF para la discusión del tema de

  5. Pros and Cons of Using the Informed Basis Set to Account for Hemodynamic Response Variability with Developmental Data.

    PubMed

    Cignetti, Fabien; Salvia, Emilie; Anton, Jean-Luc; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Assaiante, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conventional analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using the general linear model (GLM) employs a neural model convolved with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF) peaking 5 s after stimulation. Incorporation of a further basis function, namely the canonical HRF temporal derivative, accounts for delays in the hemodynamic response to neural activity. A population that may benefit from this flexible approach is children whose hemodynamic response is not yet mature. Here, we examined the effects of using the set based on the canonical HRF plus its temporal derivative on both first- and second-level GLM analyses, through simulations and using developmental data (an fMRI dataset on proprioceptive mapping in children and adults). Simulations of delayed fMRI first-level data emphasized the benefit of carrying forward to the second-level a derivative boost that combines derivative and nonderivative beta estimates. In the experimental data, second-level analysis using a paired t-test showed increased mean amplitude estimate (i.e., increased group contrast mean) in several brain regions related to proprioceptive processing when using the derivative boost compared to using only the nonderivative term. This was true especially in children. However, carrying forward to the second-level the individual derivative boosts had adverse consequences on random-effects analysis that implemented one-sample t-test, yielding increased between-subject variance, thus affecting group-level statistic. Boosted data also presented a lower level of smoothness that had implication for the detection of group average activation. Imposing soft constraints on the derivative boost by limiting the time-to-peak range of the modeled response within a specified range (i.e., 4-6 s) mitigated these issues. These findings support the notion that there are pros and cons to using the informed basis set with developmental data.

  6. Pros and Cons of Using the Informed Basis Set to Account for Hemodynamic Response Variability with Developmental Data

    PubMed Central

    Cignetti, Fabien; Salvia, Emilie; Anton, Jean-Luc; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Assaiante, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conventional analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using the general linear model (GLM) employs a neural model convolved with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF) peaking 5 s after stimulation. Incorporation of a further basis function, namely the canonical HRF temporal derivative, accounts for delays in the hemodynamic response to neural activity. A population that may benefit from this flexible approach is children whose hemodynamic response is not yet mature. Here, we examined the effects of using the set based on the canonical HRF plus its temporal derivative on both first- and second-level GLM analyses, through simulations and using developmental data (an fMRI dataset on proprioceptive mapping in children and adults). Simulations of delayed fMRI first-level data emphasized the benefit of carrying forward to the second-level a derivative boost that combines derivative and nonderivative beta estimates. In the experimental data, second-level analysis using a paired t-test showed increased mean amplitude estimate (i.e., increased group contrast mean) in several brain regions related to proprioceptive processing when using the derivative boost compared to using only the nonderivative term. This was true especially in children. However, carrying forward to the second-level the individual derivative boosts had adverse consequences on random-effects analysis that implemented one-sample t-test, yielding increased between-subject variance, thus affecting group-level statistic. Boosted data also presented a lower level of smoothness that had implication for the detection of group average activation. Imposing soft constraints on the derivative boost by limiting the time-to-peak range of the modeled response within a specified range (i.e., 4–6 s) mitigated these issues. These findings support the notion that there are pros and cons to using the informed basis set with developmental data. PMID:27471441

  7. Obtención de velocidades radiales de precisión con el espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Con el fin de ser empleados como espectros de referencia, han sido obtenidos recientemente 80 espectrogramas de estrellas candidatas a patrones de velocidad radial de todos los tipos espectrales desde B0 a M5, con una dispersión aproximada de 7 Å/mm. Se estudia la influencia de distintos factores (flexión, refracción atmosférica, etc.) en la determinación de velocidades radiales. Se analizan diferentes técnicas de reducción y medición de velocidades, su aplicación a estrellas de diferentes tipos espectrales y velocidades de rotación y se discute la precisión obtenible en cada caso.

  8. Pretreatment with Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protected against ConA-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Inhibiting Both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Fan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute liver injury in mice. Pretreatment with fucoidan protected liver function indicated by ALT, AST and histopathological changes by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In addition, intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by Bax, Bid, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 were inhibited by fucoidan and the action was associated with the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 signal pathways. Our results demonstrated that fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus alleviated ConA-induced acute liver injury via the inhibition of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 pathways which were activated by TNF-α and IFN-γ. These findings could provide a potential powerful therapy for T cell-related hepatitis.

  9. Feasibility of aseptic processing of a low-acid multiphase food product (salsa con queso) using a continuous flow microwave system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Coronel, P; Simunovic, J; Sandeep, K P

    2007-04-01

    Aseptic processing of a low-acid multiphase food product using a continuous flow microwave heating system can combine the advantages of an aseptic process along with those of microwave heating. Dielectric properties of 2 different brands of 1 such product (salsa con queso) were measured under continuous flow conditions at a temperature range of 20 to 130 degrees C. At 915 MHz, the dielectric constant ranged from 58.7 at 20 degrees C to 41.3 at 130 degrees C with dielectric loss factor ranging from 41.0 at 20 degrees C to 145.5 at 130 degrees C. The loss tangent at 915 MHz ranged from 0.61 at 20 degrees C to 3.52 at 130 degrees C. The temperature profiles at the outlet during processing of salsa con queso in a 5-kW microwave unit showed a narrow temperature distribution between the center and the wall of the tube. The study showed the feasibility of aseptic processing of salsa con queso using a continuous flow microwave system.

  10. Distribución espacial de cúmulos y asociaciones estelares con diferentes edades en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bica, E.; Clariá, J. J.; Dottori, H.; Santos, J. F. C.; Piatti, A. E.

    Sobre la base de observaciones realizadas en Cerro Tololo y el Casleo, se presenta un catálogo con fotometría UBV integrada de 504 cúmulos y 120 asociaciones estelares en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes. Se determinan edades en términos de los tipos SWB y se identifican 38 cúmulos tipo VII, muchos de los cuales pueden ser cúmulos globulares clásicos. El tamaño de las distribuciones espaciales crece uniformemente con la edad (tipo SWB), en tanto que existe una diferencia en el cociente axial entre los grupos más jóvenes y más viejos que 30 millones de años, lo que implica una orientación aproximadamente de frente para los primeros y una posición inclinada ~ 45o para el segundo grupo. Las asimetrías en las distribuciones espaciales, juntamente con la falta de coincidencia de los centroides de los diferentes grupos de edad, sugiere que el disco de la Nube Mayor de Magallanes fue severamente perturbado en el pasado.

  11. Guided ion beam studies of the reactions of Con+ (n=1-18) with N2: Cobalt cluster mononitride and dinitride bond energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fuyi; Li, Ming; Tan, Lin; Armentrout, P. B.

    2008-05-01

    The reactions of Con+ (n=1-18) with N2 are measured as a function of kinetic energy over a range of 0-15eV in a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. A variety of Com+, ComN+, and ComN2+ (m⩽n) product ions are observed, all in endothermic processes, with collision-induced dissociation dominating the products for all clusters. Bond dissociation energies for both cobalt cluster nitrides and dinitrides are derived from threshold analysis of the energy dependence of the endothermic reactions using several different approaches. These values show only a mild dependence on cluster size over the range studied, although the Co13+-N bond energy is relatively weak. The bond energies of Con+-N for larger clusters suggest that a reasonable value for the desorption energy of atomic nitrogen from bulk phase cobalt is 6.3±0.2eV, which is somewhat lower than the only available value in the literature, an estimate based on the enthalpy of formation of bulk cobalt nitride. The trends in the cobalt nitride thermochemistry are also compared to previously determined metal-metal bond energies, D0(Con+-Co), and to D0(Fen+-N). Implications for catalytic ammonia production using cobalt versus iron are discussed.

  12. Conséquences des nouvelles formes de commande sur les matériaux de l'isolation statorique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellomo, J. P.; Lebey, Th.; Peltier, Fr.; Oraison, J. M.

    1997-05-01

    Use of inverter drive for rotating machines speed control leads to the application of new stress on stator insulation materials. The integrity of these materials under such stresses has therefore to be studied. Thanks to specially equipped motor, the different voltage shapes have been identified. Very short rise time fronts, large overvoltages and high oscillation frequencies are obtained. These voltages are then reproduced on laboratory samples (Polyethylene Terephtalate). The main result is the existence of trapped surface charges related both to the rise front value and to the existence of polar mechanisms in the material bulk. The consequences of this surface charge existence on the reliability of a real system are then discussed. L'utilisation de nouvelles formes de commande pour les machines à courant alternatif se traduit par l'apparition d'un nouveau type de contraintes sur les matériaux de l'isolation statorique. L'étude de leur comportement sous l'action de ce type de contraintes revêt un intérêt tout particulier pour la validation et la stabilité de ces systèmes dans le temps. Nous présentons, tout d'abord, ces différentes formes de tension identifiées à l'aide d'un moteur spécialement instrumenté. L'existence de fronts de tension très élevés, de surtensions importantes (jusqu'à 500V) et d'oscillations hautes fréquences (2MHz), est mise en évidence. La reproduction de ces contraintes en laboratoire sur des échantillons de polyesters (PolyÉthylène Térephthalate) permet alors de déterminer l'influence des formes de tension carrées sur les propriétés intrinsèques du matériau. Elle se traduit par l'existence d'une charge piégée en surface du diélectrique. Cette charge superficielle est associée, d'une part à l'existence de phénomènes de relaxation dans les matériaux étudiés et d'autre part à la valeur des fronts de tension appliqués. Pour finir, les conséquences possibles de l'existence de ces charges superficielles

  13. A methodological approach to comparing pros and cons of delocalizing villages: socio-economic and technical issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagno, Eleonora; Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Petrucci, Olga; Forciniti, Pinuccia R.

    2014-05-01

    Cavallerizzo have been analysed within the frame of a PhD thesis by one of the authors. The present study focuses on the Cavallerizzo case study to discuss a methodological approach useful to comparing pros and cons of delocalizing villages, aiming at properly considering socio-economic effects in addition to technical issues.

  14. Emerging and Legacy Contaminants in The Foodweb in The Lower Columbia River: USGS ConHab Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, E. B.; Alvarez, D.; Counihan, T.; Elias, E.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hardiman, J.; Jenkins, J.; Mesa, M.; Morace, J.; Patino, R.; Torres, L.; Waite, I.; Zaugg, S.

    2012-12-01

    An interdisciplinary study, USGS Columbia River Contaminants and Habitat Characterization (ConHab) project, investigates transport pathways, chemical fate, and effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic media and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were co-deployed at each of 10 sites in 2008 to provide a measure of the dissolved concentrations of select PBDEs, chlorinated pesticides, and other EDCs. PBDE-47 was the most prevalent of the PBDEs detected. Numerous organochlorine pesticides, both banned and current-use, including hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradates, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and the endosulfan degradation products, were measured at each site. EDCs commonly detected included a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fragrances (galaxolide), pesticides (chlorpyrifos and atrazine), plasticizers (phthalates), and flame retardants (phosphates). The downstream sites tended to have the highest concentrations of contaminants in the lower Columbia River. In 2009 and 2010 passive samplers were deployed and resident largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and surface bed sediments were collected at three of the original sites representing a gradient of exposure based on 2008 results. Brain, fillet, liver, stomach, and gonad tissues were analyzed. Chemical concentrations were highest in livers, followed by brain, stomach, gonad, and, lastly, fillet. Concentrations of halogenated compounds in tissue samples ranged from <1 to 400 ng g-1 wet tissue. PBDEs, organochlorine pesticides, DDT and its degradates, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected at all sites in nearly all organs tested. PBDE congeners most frequently detected and at the highest concentrations were PBDE-47 > PBDE-100 > PBDE-154

  15. The pros and cons of ecological risk assessment based on data from different levels of biological organization.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Jason R; Salice, Christopher J; Nisbet, Roger M

    2016-10-01

    Ecological risk assessment (ERA) is the process used to evaluate the safety of manufactured chemicals to the environment. Here we review the pros and cons of ERA across levels of biological organization, including suborganismal (e.g., biomarkers), individual, population, community, ecosystem and landscapes levels. Our review revealed that level of biological organization is often related negatively with ease at assessing cause-effect relationships, ease of high-throughput screening of large numbers of chemicals (it is especially easier for suborganismal endpoints), and uncertainty of the ERA because low levels of biological organization tend to have a large distance between their measurement (what is quantified) and assessment endpoints (what is to be protected). In contrast, level of biological organization is often related positively with sensitivity to important negative and positive feedbacks and context dependencies within biological systems, and ease at capturing recovery from adverse contaminant effects. Some endpoints did not show obvious trends across levels of biological organization, such as the use of vertebrate animals in chemical testing and ease at screening large numbers of species, and other factors lacked sufficient data across levels of biological organization, such as repeatability, variability, cost per study and cost per species of effects assessment, the latter of which might be a more defensible way to compare costs of ERAs than cost per study. To compensate for weaknesses of ERA at any particular level of biological organization, we also review mathematical modeling approaches commonly used to extrapolate effects across levels of organization. Finally, we provide recommendations for next generation ERA, submitting that if there is an ideal level of biological organization to conduct ERA, it will only emerge if ERA is approached simultaneously from the bottom of biological organization up as well as from the top down, all while employing

  16. Relación Entre el Tamaño Condilar y la Asimetría Facial Transversal en Individuos con Hiperplasia Condilar

    PubMed Central

    Olate, Sergio; Cantín, Mario; Alister, Juan Pablo; Uribe, Francisca; Navarro, Pablo; Olate, Gabriela; de Moraes, Márcio

    2016-01-01

    La asimetría facial es una patología de compromiso funcional y estético que puede estar generado por hiperplasia condilar; el objetivo de esta investigación es determinar la influencia del tamaño condilar en la asimetría facial. Doce sujetos fueron estudiados mediante el análisis de tomografía computadorizada cone beam; todos los pacientes presentaron cintigrama óseo que determino la presencia de hiperplasia condilar activa; el análisis se realizo en un software del sistema de captura modelo Pax Zenith, marca Vatech (Korea 2011), utilizando 90 kV y 120 mA; se obtuvo mediciones de la distancia antero-posterior, superior-inferior y medio-lateral de la cabeza del cóndilo, relacionándose con la posición del cóndilo con la línea mediana facial y la posición de puntos faciales entre incisivos centrales superior e inferior así como con el mentón. Los resultados mostraron un promedio de desvío de mentón de 6,5 mm considerando un cóndilo hiperplásico con un tamaño de 2,7 mm mas que los cóndilos normales. El desvío de incisivo central inferior determinó que por cada 1 mm de desvío dentario existe 2,2 mm de desvío de mentón. El cóndilo hiperplásico fue de mayor tamaño y se posiciono casi 2 mm mas hacia lateral que los cóndilos no hiperplásicos. Es posible concluir que el cóndilo hiperplásico presenta clara influencia en la asimetría facial transversa y es posible estimar una relación de tamaño condilar con grado de asimetría facial. PMID:28066127

  17. Flight Deck Surface Trajectory-based Operations (STBO): Results of Piloted Simulations and Implications for Concepts of Operation (ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foyle, David C.; Hooey, Becky L.; Bakowski, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    The results offour piloted medium-fidelity simulations investigating flight deck surface trajectory-based operations (STBO) will be reviewed. In these flight deck STBO simulations, commercial transport pilots were given taxi clearances with time and/or speed components and required to taxi to the departing runway or an intermediate traffic intersection. Under a variety of concept of operations (ConOps) and flight deck information conditions, pilots' ability to taxi in compliance with the required time of arrival (RTA) at the designated airport location was measured. ConOps and flight deck information conditions explored included: Availability of taxi clearance speed and elapsed time information; Intermediate RTAs at intermediate time constraint points (e.g., intersection traffic flow points); STBO taxi clearances via ATC voice speed commands or datal ink; and, Availability of flight deck display algorithms to reduce STBO RTA error. Flight Deck Implications. Pilot RTA conformance for STBO clearances, in the form of ATC taxi clearances with associated speed requirements, was found to be relatively poor, unless the pilot is required to follow a precise speed and acceleration/deceleration profile. However, following such a precise speed profile results in inordinate head-down tracking of current ground speed, leading to potentially unsafe operations. Mitigating these results, and providing good taxi RTA performance without the associated safety issues, is a flight deck avionics or electronic flight bag (EFB) solution. Such a solution enables pilots to meet the taxi route RTA without moment-by-moment tracking of ground speed. An avionics or EFB "error-nulling" algorithm allows the pilot to view the STBO information when the pilot determines it is necessary and when workload alloys, thus enabling the pilot to spread his/her attention appropriately and strategically on aircraft separation airport navigation, and the many other flight deck tasks concurrently required

  18. Estudio fotométrico y espectroscópico de dos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes del disco con apariencia globular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.

    Se presentan y discuten resultados obtenidos en el CASLEO y en el Observatorio de Las Campanas de dos cúmulos abiertos compactos con apariencia globular: Westerlund1 (BH197), ubicado en dirección hacia el centro galáctico, y Westerlund2. A partir de espectroscopía CCD integrada de ambos e imágenes CCD en las bandas VI obtenidas para el primero de ellos, se derivan sus parámetros fundamentales y se examinan sus apariencias estructurales. Se encuentra que Westerlund1 es un cúmulo joven (7 ± 3 millones de años), ubicado sobre el plano galáctico a 1.0 ± 0.4 kpc del sol, en una región caracterizada por una absorción excepcionalmente elevada (Av~=13.0 mag), en tanto que Westerlund2 es también un cúmulo joven (4-6 millones de años) ubicado sobre el plano, en una región afectada por una absorción menor (Av~=5.7 mag). Desde el punto de vista estructural, Westerlund 1 se presenta como uno de los pocos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes de la Galaxia con apariencia tipicamente globular, en contraste con los cúmulos azules de las Nubes de Magallanes en los cuales la apariencia globular constituye un fenómeno común. Westerlund2, aunque menos rico en estrellas, puede también ser incluído dentro de esta interesante clase de objetos.

  19. ConBr, A Lectin Purified from the Seeds of Canavalia brasiliensis, Protects Against Ischemia in Organotypic Culture of Rat Hippocampus: Potential Implication of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels.

    PubMed

    Rieger, D K; Navarro, E; Buendia, I; Parada, E; González-Lafuente, L; Leon, R; Costa, A P; Heinrich, I A; Nascimento, K S; Cavada, B S; Lopez, M G; Egea, J; Leal, R B

    2017-02-01

    Lectins are proteins that bind cellular glycans and can modulate various neuronal functions. We have evaluated the neuroprotective effect of ConBr, a lectin purified from the seeds of Canavalia brasiliensis in a model of rat organotypic hippocampal cultures (OHCs) exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). OGD for 15 min followed by 24 h re-oxygenation significantly increased cell death, caused mitochondrial depolarization and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CA1 region of OHCs. ConBr (0.1 μg/mL) added during the re-oxygenation period counteracted cell death, mitochondrial depolarization and overproduction of ROS induced by OGD. Moreover, ConBr restored the levels of Akt and ERK1 phosphorylation that were reduced by OGD. Modulation of intracellular Ca(2+) by ConBr was evaluated in isolated hippocampal neurons loaded with the fluorescent calcium dye Fluo-4/AM. ConBr (0.1 and 1 µg/mL) reduced by 25-30 % the Ca(2+) increment induced by 70 mM K(+). A sub effective concentration of ConBr (0.01 µg/mL) together with a sub effective concentration of the L-type calcium channel antagonist nifedipine (0.3 µM) conferred a synergic neuroprotective effect in OHCs subjected to OGD. In conclusion, ConBr provides OHCs neuroprotection against OGD. The mechanism was not fully addressed but it may involve modulation of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels by ConBr.

  20. Engaging Community With Promotores de Salud to Support Infant Nutrition and Breastfeeding Among Latinas Residing in Los Angeles County: Salud con Hyland's.

    PubMed

    Rios-Ellis, Britt; Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena T; Espinoza, Lilia; Galvez, Gino; Garcia-Vega, Melawhy

    2015-01-01

    The Salud con Hyland's Project: Comienzo Saludable, Familia Sana [Health With Hyland's Project: Healthy Start, Healthy Family],was developed to provide education and support to Latina mothers regarding healthy infant feeding practices and maternal health. The promotora-delivered intervention was comprised of two charlas (educational sessions) and a supplemental, culturally and linguistically relevant infant feeding and care rolling calendar. Results indicate that the intervention increased intention to breastfeed exclusively, as well as to delay infant initiation of solids by 5 to 6 months. Qualitative feedback identified barriers to maternal and child health education as well as highlighted several benefits of the intervention.

  1. [Modello di Management (Mo.Ma) del paziente affetto da schizofrenia: controllo della crisi, mantenimento, prevenzione delle ricadute e recovery con gli antipsicotici LAI].

    PubMed

    Brugnoli, Roberto; Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Marcellusi, Andrea; Mennini, Francesco S; De Filippis, Sergio; Carrus, Dario; Ballerini, Andrea; Francomano, Antonio; Ducci, Giuseppe; Del Casale, Antonio; Girardi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. La schizofrenia colpisce circa l'1% della popolazione e rappresenta un grave disturbo mentale con un notevole impatto anche sul funzionamento sociale, lavorativo e sulle attività della vita quotidiana. Le persone con schizofrenia hanno un tasso di mortalità superiore di 2-2,5 rispetto a quello della popolazione generale. La non aderenza ai farmaci antipsicotici è uno dei più importanti fattori di rischio per le ricadute e le ospedalizzazioni, sia nei pazienti con disturbo cronico sia al primo episodio, e conseguentemente contribuisce all'aumento dei costi sanitari. Gli antipsicotici atipici LAI possono migliorare l'aderenza al trattamento contribuendo a diminuire i tassi di ricaduta nei pazienti affetti da schizofrenia fin dall'esordio. Gli obiettivi primari nella gestione dei pazienti schizofrenici sono diretti, non solo alla riduzione dei sintomi nel breve termine, ma anche al mantenimento fisico e della funzionalità mentale, migliorando la qualità della vita e promuovendo il recupero del paziente. Scopo. Proporre un modello integrato, basato sulle evidenze, che fornisca un algoritmo efficace per il recupero del paziente schizofrenico e indagare l'efficacia e la sicurezza degli antipsicotici LAI nel trattamento, nel mantenimento, nella prevenzione delle ricadute e nella recovery dei pazienti affetti da schizofrenia. Metodi. Dopo un'accurata analisi di letteratura abbiamo identificato, raccolto e analizzato gli elementi qualificanti per un'ottimale gestione del paziente schizofrenico, definendo un modello di gestione e selezione delle alternative terapeutiche. Conclusioni. Il modello di gestione della schizofrenia proposto potrebbe consentire un migliore recupero funzionale del paziente grazie alla scelta di iniziare il percorso terapeutico, fin dalle prime fasi del disturbo soprattutto se in giovane età e al primo episodio, con un farmaco atipico LAI. All'interno dei farmaci antipsicotici atipici la formulazione LAI rappresenta una scelta

  2. FACTORES SOCIO-ESTRUCTURALES Y EL ESTIGMA HACIA EL VIH/SIDA: EXPERIENCIAS DE PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS CON VIH/SIDA AL ACCEDER SERVICIOS DE SALUD

    PubMed Central

    RIVERA-DIAZ, MARINILDA; VARAS-DIAZ, NELSON; REYES-ESTRADA, MARCOS; SURO, BEATRIZ; CORIANO, DORALIS

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN El estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA continúa afectando la prestación de servicios de salud y el bienestar físico y mental de las personas con VIH/SIDA (PVS). Recientemente la literatura científica ha señalado la importancia de comprender las manifestaciones de estigma más allá de las interacciones individuales. Por tal razón, investigaciones recientes en y fuera de Puerto Rico enfatizan la importancia de entender cómo factores socio-estructurales (FSE) influyen en los procesos de estigmatización social. Con el propósito de examinar los FSE que influyen en las manifestaciones de estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA, realizamos y analizamos nueve grupos focales compuestos por hombres y mujeres en tratamiento para el VIH/SIDA que habían tenido experiencias estigmatizantes. Los participantes identificaron FSE relacionados a las manifestaciones de estigma, tales como el uso de viviendas especializadas, descentralización de los servicios de salud y el desarrollo de protocolos administrativos excluyentes en los servicios de salud. Los resultados demuestran la importancia de considerar los FSE en el desarrollo e implementación de intervenciones dirigidas a la población. PMID:24639599

  3. Potential pros and cons of external healthcare performance evaluation systems: real-life perspectives on Iranian hospital evaluation and accreditation program

    PubMed Central

    Jaafaripooyan, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Performance evaluation is essential to quality improvement in healthcare. The current study has identified the potential pros and cons of external healthcare evaluation programs, utilizing them subsequently to look into the merits of a similar case in a developing country. Methods: A mixed method study employing both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis techniques was adopted to achieve the study end. Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) and professionals were approached for two-stage process of data collection. Results: Potential advantages included greater attractiveness of high accreditation rank healthcare organizations to their customers/purchasers and boosted morale of their personnel. Downsides, as such, comprised the programs’ over-reliance on value judgment of surveyors, routinization and incurring undue cost on the organizations. In addition, the improved, standardized care processes as well as the judgmental nature of program survey were associated, as pros and cons, to the program investigated by the professionals. Conclusion: Besides rendering a tentative assessment of Iranian hospital evaluation program, the study provides those running external performance evaluations with a lens to scrutinize the virtues of their own evaluation systems through identifying the potential advantages and drawbacks of such programs. Moreover, the approach followed could be utilized for performance assessment of similar evaluation programs. PMID:25279381

  4. Pretreatment with Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protected against ConA-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Inhibiting Both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjing; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Fan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute liver injury in mice. Pretreatment with fucoidan protected liver function indicated by ALT, AST and histopathological changes by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In addition, intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by Bax, Bid, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 were inhibited by fucoidan and the action was associated with the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 signal pathways. Our results demonstrated that fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus alleviated ConA-induced acute liver injury via the inhibition of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 pathways which were activated by TNF-α and IFN-γ. These findings could provide a potential powerful therapy for T cell-related hepatitis. PMID:27035150

  5. On the role of localized surface plasmon resonance in UV-Vis light irradiated Au/TiO₂ photocatalysis systems: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhongjin; Wang, Xiaohong; Liu, Jun; Tian, Zunyi; Dai, Loucheng; He, Beibei; Han, Chao; Wu, Yigui; Zeng, Zhigang; Hu, Zhiyu

    2015-03-07

    The role of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in UV-Vis light irradiated Au/TiO2 photocatalysis systems has been investigated, and it is demonstrated experimentally for the first time that both pros and cons of LSPR exist simultaneously for this photocatalytic reaction. We have proved that when operating under mixed UV and green light irradiation, the LSPR injected hot electrons (from the Au nanoparticles to TiO2 under green light irradiation) may surmount the Schottky barrier (SB) formed between the Au nanoparticles and TiO2, and flow back into the TiO2. As a result, these electrons may compensate for and even surpass those transferred from TiO2 to the Au nanoparticles, thus accelerating the recombination of UV excited electron-hole pairs in TiO2. This is the negative effect of LSPR. On the other hand, more hot electrons existing on the surface of the Au nanoparticles due to LSPR would favor the photocatalytic reaction, which accompanied by the negative effect dominates the overall photocatalytic performance. The presented results reveal the multi-faceted essence of LSPR in Au/TiO2 structures, and is instructive for the application of metal-semiconductor composites in photocatalysis. Moreover, it is confirmed that the extent to which the above pros and cons of LSPR dominate the overall photocatalytic reaction depends on the intensity ratio of visible to UV light.

  6. The International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen): An Initiative by the NIMH and IGSLI to Study the Genetic Basis of Response to Lithium Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Thomas G.; Alda, Martin; Adli, Mazda; Akula, Nirmala; Ardau, Raffaella; Bui, Elise T.; Chillotti, Caterina; Cichon, Sven; Czerski, Piotr; Del Zompo, Maria; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Grof, Paul; Gruber, Oliver; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Joanna; Hoban, Rebecca; Iwata, Nakao; Kassem, Layla; Kato, Tadafumi; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Kliwicki, Sebastian; Kelsoe, John R.; Kusumi, Ichiro; Laje, Gonzalo; Leckband, Susan G.; Manchia, Mirko; MacQueen, Glenda; Masui, Takuya; Ozaki, Norio; Perlis, Roy H.; Pfennig, Andrea; Piccardi, Paola; Richardson, Sara; Rouleau, Guy; Reif, Andreas; Rybakowski, Janusz K.; Sasse, Johanna; Schumacher, Johannes; Severino, Giovanni; Smoller, Jordan W.; Squassina, Alessio; Turecki, Gustavo; Young, L. Trevor; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Bauer, Michael; McMahon, Francis J.

    2010-01-01

    For more than half a decade, lithium has been successfully used to treat bipolar disorder. Worldwide, it is considered the first-line mood stabilizer. Apart from its proven antimanic and prophylactic effects, considerable evidence also suggests an antisuicidal effect in affective disorders. Lithium is also effectively used to augment antidepressant drugs in the treatment of refractory major depressive episodes and prevent relapses in recurrent unipolar depression. In contrast to many psychiatric drugs, lithium has outlasted various pharmacotherapeutic ‘fashions’, and remains an indispensable element in contemporary psychopharmacology. Nevertheless, data from pharmacogenetic studies of lithium are comparatively sparse, and these studies are generally characterized by small sample sizes and varying definitions of response. Here, we present an international effort to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of lithium response in bipolar disorder. Following an initiative by the International Group for the Study of Lithium-Treated Patients (www.IGSLI.org) and the Unit on the Genetic Basis of Mood and Anxiety Disorders at the National Institute of Mental Health, lithium researchers from around the world have formed the Consortium on Lithium Genetics (www.ConLiGen.org) to establish the largest sample to date for genome-wide studies of lithium response in bipolar disorder, currently comprising more than 1,200 patients characterized for response to lithium treatment. A stringent phenotype definition of response is one of the hallmarks of this collaboration. ConLiGen invites all lithium researchers to join its efforts. PMID:20453537

  7. Medición de placas astrométricas obtenidas con el telescopio Astrográfico de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R. P.; Orellana, R.

    El Observatorio de La Plata cuenta con un gran número de placas de asteroides y cometas obtenidas con el telescopio astrográfico, que cubren gran parte del cielo del hemisferio sur. En 1996 se recopilaron y clasificaron 2187 placas (Beca para estudiantes de la AAA 1996) de las cuales 2031 corresponden a asteroides. Los datos de cada placa se volcaron en una base de datos creada para facilitar su manejo y preservar la información. A partir de este trabajo se revisaron los MPC electrónicos y se identificaron aquellas placas de asteroides pertenecientes a nuestra base de datos cuyos resultados no fueron publicados en los mismos. De un total de 400 placas que no aparecían publicadas sobresalía un paquete constituído por 40 placas obtenidas en 1977. Estas últimas fueron reducidas utilizando las posiciones y movimientos propios de las estrellas de referencia obtenidas del catálogo SAO 2000 dadas para el sistema FK5. Las posiciones calculadas fueron enviadas y publicadas en los Minor Planet Circulars (MPC).

  8. Con A-binding protein Zn-α2-glycoprotein on human sperm membrane is related to acrosome reaction and sperm fertility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Qu, F; Cao, X; Chen, G; Guo, Q; Ying, X; Guo, W; Lu, L; Ding, Z

    2012-04-01

    Fertilization, the recognition and fusion between spermatozoa and oocyte, involves various molecules on the spermatozoa and oocyte membranes. Concanavalin A (ConA)-binding proteins may be one of the molecules involved in mammal spermatozoa fertilization; however, their structure and function remain largely unknown. Here, we initially identified a ConA-binding protein, Zn-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), involved in regulating the acrosome reaction (AR) of human spermatozoa. ZAG is localized on the pre-equatorial region covering the acrosome, neck and tail (some parts of middle piece and principal piece respectively) regions of the acrosome intact human spermatozoa, and disappears in the acrosomal region of the acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. Polyclonal antibodies against human recombinant ZAG significantly reduced the AR and sperm capability binding to human zona pellucida or penetration into zona-free hamster oocytes. Furthermore, assessment of the signaling pathways regulated by ZAG revealed that ZAG affects sperm AR through both the cAMP/PKA and PKC pathways. These results indicate that ZAG, which is present on the human sperm membrane, plays a critical role in the AR and subsequently, may be involved in sperm fertility.

  9. Food for thought: a pilot study of the pros and cons of changing eating patterns within cognitive-behavioural therapy for the eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Waller, Glenn; Evans, Jane; Pugh, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Evidence-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders has an early focus on behavioural changes around food intake. However, patients' anxiety around such change might account for why they often seem unmotivated in treatment. In order to determine the impact of changing intake, this pilot study of patients with bulimic disorders (N = 19) or anorexia nervosa (N = 9) used a mixed quantitative and qualitative design to retrospectively examine their perspectives of the short- and long-term pros and cons of such change. As expected, change was seen negatively in the short-term (with particularly high numbers reporting anxiety), but there were few reports of long-term negative outcomes. In contrast, there were both short- and long-term benefits of changing eating. The patients described what was helpful in making changes and what they had learned as a result. In both cases, their descriptions mapped closely onto the content and process of evidence-based CBT for the eating disorders. Although there is a need for more extensive research, these findings suggest that patients (and therapists) might benefit from being aware of the contrast between the short- and the long-term pros and cons of changing eating within CBT for the eating disorders.

  10. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  11. Errores sistemáticos del Catálogo Fundamental FK5, deducidos de las observaciones con Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII, en el Hemisferio Sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, W. T.; Podestá, R. C.; Alonso, E.; Actis, E. V.; Pacheco, A. M.; Bustos, G.; Lizhi, L.; Zezhi, W.; Fanmiao, Z.; Hongqi, W.; Perdomo, R.; González, A.; Gómez, G.

    Se dan los resultados obtenidos de los Errores Sistemáticos del Catálogo Fundamental FK5, Δ α δ, Δ α α, Δ δ α y Δ δ δ, derivados de las observaciones estelares con el Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII del Observatorio de Beijing instalado en el Observatorio Astronómico ``Félix Aguilar'' de San Juan, de acuerdo al Proyecto de Colaboración entre los observatorios de San Juan, Beijing y La Plata. Se han usado los residuos seleccionados de 11000 estrellas aproximadamente, derivados de más de 400000 pasajes estelares en 1550 días, desde Febrero de 1992 a Marzo de 1997. La precisión media de los residuos es de 0,"043.

  12. Dinámica y frecuencias características de una protuberancia solar observada con los instrumentos SUMER y CDS/SOHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovira, M.; Costa, A.; Bocchialini, K.

    La estructura de la protuberancia estudiada puede dividirse en cuatro regiones. A partir del análisis de las imágenes del CDS y los espectros del SUMER utilizando técnicas de multiresolución con Wavelets se obtuvieron las frecuencias y velocidades relativas de cada una de las regiones. Se observan frecuencias características del orden de los 5 min y otras de largo período. Se obtuvo una fuerte anticorrelación entre las intensidades y las velocidades Doppler. La presencia de las oscilaciones de 5 min en todas las regiones sugieren el acoplamiento entre la estructura cromosférica y la protuberancia.

  13. Experience in managing a large-scale rescreening of Papanicolaou smears and the pros and cons of measuring proficiency with visual and written examinations.

    PubMed

    Rube, I F

    1989-01-01

    Experiences in a large-scale interlaboratory rescreening of Papanicolaou smears are detailed, and the pros and cons of measuring proficiency in cytology are discussed. Despite the additional work of the rescreening project and some psychological and technical problems, it proved to be a useful measure of the laboratory's performance as a whole. One problem to be avoided in future similar studies is the creation of too many diagnostic categories. Individual testing and certification have been shown to be accurate predictors of proficiency. For cytology, such tests require a strong visual component to test interpretation and judgment skills, such as by the use of glass slides or photomicrographs. The potential of interactive videodisc technology for facilitating cytopathologic teaching and assessment is discussed.

  14. Broadening, shifting, and line asymmetries in the 2<--0 band of CO and CO-N2: Experimental results and theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Bouanich, J. P.; Benner, D. Chris; May, A. D.; Drummond, J. R.

    2000-07-01

    We have measured the room temperature, widths, pressure shifts, and line asymmetry coefficients for many transitions of the first overtone band of CO and CO perturbed by N2. The broadening coefficients were obtained with an accuracy of about 1%. The pure CO profiles have been fitted by a Voigt profile while the CO-N2 spectral profiles have been fitted with a Lorentz and an empirical line shape model (HCv) that blends together a hard collision model and a speed-dependent Lorentz profile. In addition to the Voigt, Lorentz, and HCv models, we have added a dispersion profile to account for weak line mixing. The line broadening and shift coefficients are compared to semiclassical calculations employing a variety of intermolecular interactions. The line asymmetry results are compared to line mixing calculations based on the energy corrected sudden (ECS) model. The results indicate that effects other than line mixing also contribute to the measured line asymmetry.

  15. Pros and Cons of Physical/Empirical SAR Altimetry Retracking in Seasonally Ice-Covered Waters in Preparation for Sentinel-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Maulik; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Stenseng, Lars

    2015-12-01

    An investigation is performed into the retrieval of sea surface heights in the Arctic Ocean to evaluate the determination of seasonal sea level in the Arctic Ocean from satellite altimetry. Physical retrackers assume a uniform probability density function for the wave height within the footprint which is frequently compromised in the Arctic Ocean due to the presence of seasonal sea ice and the period of initial freezing of the ocean. Preliminary investigations highlight the pros of the empirical retrackers for seasonal sea ice covered regions as it does not assume anything about physical properties and the pros of a physical retracker for either permanent near fully ice covered or open ocean. Comparison with tide gauge data is performed in this study to highlight the pros and cons of physical and empirical retracking in the Arctic Ocean.

  16. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    The present article is the analysis of a conversation between the author and Lara, a four-yearold- girl, enrolled in nursery school, while she makes a drawing of the Earth. It took place outside school environment and without any other person around to avoid interference during the interview. According to Ferreira & Silva (2004), a researcher can only comprehend a child's drawing, or form, by listening to him/her while he/she is creating it. Lara presented the traditional flat drawing, picturing the sky parallel to the ground, as reported by Nardi & Carvalho (1996). However, when asked to draw the World - term used by Butterworth et al. (2002), in order to avoid unnecessary confusion - she represented it by a circle, with herself on the surface. Her drawings led to the conclusion that such girl does not know yet the World in which she lives is the Earth, and probably because of that, within her age and consequent maturity, she accurately differentiates the concepts of land and Earth. El presente artículo analiza una entrevista libre, mientras una niña de 4 años y 4 meses, matriculada en el pregrado, dibuja la Tierra. Esta entrevista se realizó fuera del ambiente escolar y sin otra persona alrededor que pudiera interferir. De acuerdo con Ferreira Silva (2004), para quien investiga es posible conocer realmente lo que un niño o una niña pone en el papel a través de grafismos y/o dibujos si se lo escucha durante el proceso de creación de la escritura con imágenes. La niña, en este caso, representa la Tierra con el tradicional dibujo plano y el "cielo" paralelo al suelo, conforme analizaron Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Pero, cuando se Le solicita dibujar el "Mundo" - palabra empleada en un trabajo de Butterworth et al. (2002), con intención de no provocar "confusiones" innecesarias a sus sujetos de investigación- lo representa de forma circular, poniéndose sobre su superficie. Sus dibujos llevan a concluir que esta niña aún no tiene conocimiento que el mundo

  17. Linking innovative measurement technologies (ConMon and Dataflow© systems) for high-resolution temporal and spatial dissolved oxygen criteria assessment.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, C A; Perry, E; Bayard, A; Wainger, L; Boynton, W R

    2015-10-01

    One consequence of nutrient-induced eutrophication in shallow estuarine waters is the occurrence of hypoxia and anoxia that has serious impacts on biota, habitats, and biogeochemical cycles of important elements. Because of the important role of dissolved oxygen (DO) on these ecosystem features, a variety of DO criteria have been established as indicators of system condition. However, DO dynamics are complex and vary on time scales ranging from diel to decadal and spatial scales from meters to multiple kilometers. Because of these complexities, determining DO criteria attainment or failure remains difficult. We propose a method for linking two common measurement technologies for shallow water DO criteria assessment using a Chesapeake Bay tributary as a test case. Dataflow© is a spatially intensive (30-60-m collection intervals) system used to map surface water conditions at the whole estuary scale, and ConMon is a high-frequency (15-min collection intervals) fixed station approach. The former technology is effective with spatial descriptions but poor regarding temporal resolution, while the latter provides excellent temporal but very limited spatial resolution. Our methodology for combining the strengths of these measurement technologies involved a sequence of steps. First, a statistical model of surface water DO dynamics, based on temporally intense ConMon data, was developed. The results of this model were used to calculate daily DO minimum concentrations. Second, this model was then inserted into Dataflow©-generated spatial maps of DO conditions and used to adjust measured DO concentrations to daily minimum concentrations. This information was used to assess DO criteria compliance at the full tributary scale. Model results indicated that it is vital to consider the short-term time scale DO criteria across both space and time concurrently. Large fluctuations in DO occurred within a 24-h time period, and DO dynamics varied across the length and width of the

  18. Detailed magnetic studies on Co(N3)2(4-acetylpyridine)2: a weak-ferromagnet with a very big canting angle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Yi; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Gao, Song

    2008-07-07

    The magnetic properties of Co(N 3) 2(4acpy) 2 have been thoroughly reexamined on both powder and well-oriented single crystal samples. This azido-bridged cobalt compound of (4, 4) layer shows a weak-ferromagnetic state below T C = 11.2 K. The magnetic axes were determined to be along the crystallographic a*, b, and c axes for the monoclinic space group P2 1/c. The easy axis lies along the b-axis, the canting is along the a*-axis, and the hard axis is along the c-axis. Strong anisotropy due to the oriented moments in the ordered state and/or the single-ion anisotropy of Co (2+) exists in the whole temperature range from 2 to 300 K. Below T C, very big spontaneous magnetization was observed and was attributed to the very big canting angle (15 degrees at 2 K). A possible spin configuration was then proposed to explain the experimental results. The origin of the big spin canting was discussed, and a weak-ferromagnetic approach toward molecular magnets with big spontaneous magnetization was proposed accordingly.

  19. A novel mammalian myosin I from rat with an SH3 domain localizes to Con A-inducible, F-actin-rich structures at cell-cell contacts

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    In an effort to determine diversity and function of mammalian myosin I molecules, we report here the cloning and characterization of myr 3 (third unconventional myosin from rat), a novel mammalian myosin I from rat tissues that is related to myosin I molecules from protozoa. Like the protozoan myosin I molecules, myr 3 consists of a myosin head domain, a single light chain binding motif, and a tail region that includes a COOH-terminal SH3 domain. However, myr 3 lacks the regulatory phosphorylation site present in the head domain of protozoan myosin I molecules. Evidence was obtained that the COOH terminus of the tail domain is involved in regulating F-actin binding activity of the NH2-terminal head domain. The light chain of myr 3 was identified as the Ca(2+)-binding protein calmodulin. Northern blot and immunoblot analyses revealed that myr 3 is expressed in many tissues and cell lines. Immunofluorescence studies with anti-myr 3 antibodies in NRK cells demonstrated that myr 3 is localized in the cytoplasm and in elongated structures at regions of cell-cell contact. These elongated structures contained F-actin and alpha-actinin but were devoid of vinculin. Incubation of NRK cells with Con A stimulated the formation of myr 3-containing structures along cell-cell contacts. These results suggest for myr 3 a function mediated by cell-cell contact. PMID:7730414

  20. Surface and volume non-invasive methods for the structural monitoring of the bass-relief 'Madonna con Bambino' (Gorizia, Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Alberghina, Maria Francesca; Macchia, Andrea; Capizzi, Patrizia; Schiavone, Salvatore; Ruffolo, Silvestro Antonio; Comite, Valeria; Barberio, Marianna; La Russa, Mauro Francesco

    2016-11-23

    Structural analysis of marble statues, carried out by non-invasive and in situ methods, is crucial to define the state of conservation of the artworks and to identify the deterioration phenomena that can affect them. In this work, we combined in situ non-destructive techniques, ultrasonic tomography (US), ultraviolet-induced visible fluorescence (UV-IF) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to study the bass-relief 'Madonna con Bambino' (Gorizia, Italy). The US revealed the presence of some metallic pivots, associated with areas of high sound velocity; moreover, a more degraded area has been identified in the lower part of the bass-relief. The acquired UV-IF image confirmed the presence of surface degradation, allowing a preliminary evaluation of the extension of a fracture, from surface to bulk. In addition, the different materials (both original and/or integrations) that compose the studied surface have been identified. The XRF has contributed to define the nature of the inorganic materials applied during undocumented previous restoration works on the surface as filler for lacunae.

  1. Obtención de perfiles teóricos de elementos metálicos con velocidades macroscópicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirigliano, D.; Costa, A.; Rovira, M.

    El propósito de este trabajo es poder establecer -a partir de la modelización de perfiles de distintas especies- patrones de comparación observacional que permitan caracterizar los fenómenos físicos que están presentes en las estructuras que se observan. Para ello se resuelven las ecuaciones de equilibrio de ionización para un determinado átomo y una atmósfera de parámetros determinados. A partir de ello se definen las poblaciones para los distintos grados de ionización. Considerando distintas configuraciones e intensidades de flujos de masa se deducen la función fuente, el espesor óptico y se calculan los perfiles de las distintas líneas. Se obtuvieron perfiles teóricos de líneas del CII, CIV y del OIV para flujos entrante, saliente y pasante. La forma del perfil, las intensidades relativas entre los distintos flujos y el corrimiento Doppler da cuenta de una caracterización teórica a partir de la cual se comparará con observaciones.

  2. Distribución espacial de órbitas con diferentes grados de caoticidad en modelos autoconsistentes de satélites galácticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzio, J. C.; Mosquera, M.

    En trabajos anteriores (Carpintero et al., Cel. Mech. Dynam. Astron. 85, 247, 2003), mostramos que las órbitas caóticas son muy importantes en los satélites galácticos. Sin embargo, los únicos modelos autoconsistentes de los que se disponía para ellos eran los de Heggie-Ramamani, cuya función de distribución depende sólo de la energía por lo que no mostraban diferencias entre las distribuciones de sus órbitas regulares y caóticas. Ahora, mediante una aproximación cuadrupolar, hemos logrado construir modelos autoconsistentes de satélites galácticos con distribuciones de velocidades anisotrópicas (lo que indica que sus funciones de distribución no dependen sólo de la energía) y hemos logrado revelar las diferencias entre las estructuras espaciales de las órbitas de distinta caoticidad.

  3. Pros, cons, and current indications of open craniotomy versus gamma knife in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations and the role of endovascular embolization.

    PubMed

    Surdell, Daniel L; Bhattacharjee, Sumon; Loftus, Christopher M

    2002-06-01

    The successful treatment of an intracranial arteriovenous malformation poses both technical and conceptual problems to the neurosurgeon. Treatment decisions are made in light of current understanding of the natural history of these lesions. It is important to understand the pros, cons and current indication of open craniotomy vs. gamma knife in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations and the role of endovascular embolization. Surgical removal of an arteriovenous malformation is indicated when the operative risk is less than the morbidity and mortality associated with its natural history. The treatment goal of complete angiographic obliteration of arteriovenous malformations is achieved most effectively by microneurosurgery in low-grade lesions. Large lesions frequently require a combination of embolization and microsurgery. Although recent advances in technology and medical management have allowed previously inoperable arteriovenous malformations to be surgically excised, there is still a small group of arteriovenous malformations that cannot be excised safely due to their size and location. Stereotactic radiosurgery is clearly an important adjunct in the multimodality treatment approach for large arteriovenous malformations. Endovascular embolization can potentially increase safety and efficacy in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations when applied to selective cases with well-defined treatment goals.

  4. Separation and quantitation of hepatoma-associated gamma-glutamyltransferase by affinity chromatography with Affi-Gel blue and Con A-Sepharose.

    PubMed

    Izumi, M; Taketa, K

    1983-01-01

    Isozymes of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other liver diseases were separated into two groups by double-affinity column chromatography with Affi-Gel blue and Con A-Sepharose, one recovered in the unbound fraction and the other in the bound fraction. Upon electrophoresis with polyacrylamide gradient gel slabs, the unbound fraction gave a GGTI1 band and a faint II1 band and the bound fraction gave a GGT I band and faint bands of GGT I", II' and X, when the original serum contained hepatoma-associated GGT (I1, I" and II') and high-molecular-weight lipid-protein complex, GGT(X). GGT I was present in all cases as a common isozyme. Other lipoprotein-associated GGT isozymes, III-IX, were removed by passing through Affi-Gel blue. GGT activities of unbound fraction in patients with HCC were generally higher than those in patients with non-HCC liver diseases, although the difference was not significant. When the percent of GGT activity of unbound (unbound + bound) was taken, 54% of patients with HCC had a ratio greater than 22%, whereas none of the healthy subjects or patients with other liver diseases gave values greater than this. The present technique may prove to be a useful clinical test for the diagnosis of HCC.

  5. Some Comments on the US Catholic Bishops’ Letter on War and Peace.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    totally con- demning the counterforce use of nuclear weapons, the letter rejects their use in heavily populated areas. Even if the use of these...AD-RI57 436 SOME COMMENTS ON THE US CATHOLIC BISHOPS’ LETTER ON WAR i/i- AND PEACE(U) ARMY WiAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA UNCLASSIFIED F/G 5/4 NL L...control based on both a reading of the pastoral letter and an examination of current US policy / -\\ In the nuclear arena. The summary conclusion reached

  6. FloCon 2006 Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    SNORT: KICKASS_PORN DRAGON: PORN HARDCORE SOURCEDEST SOURCE SOURCE SOURCE DEST DEST DEST DEST Stepping stone 51.251.22.183 Username password Sept...While packet counts do only show a minor increase in distance before and af- ter the Blaster outbreak, the other three metrics indicate a more drastic...consists of approximately 40 user assigned hosts, although the actual number of hosts is subject to minor fluctuations over time. Approximately an

  7. FloCon 2011 Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    0. 08 0. 10 Nonzero Mobility Score P ro ba bi lit y 1e−09 1e−07 1e−05 0.001 0.1 10 1000 1e+05 Graph |I | |H| %a` RN RE G 667033 172283 1.00 3.87 4.56...COT 10127Q010 12:36 COT 100 80 -:::. 60 ~ -40 .c (’Ill .c 0 20 ... Q. 0 m. t echnologies High quality anomalies can be found without...l , , Tvoes ’ :0 ~ ~ , : : : , , , Date co cor m. t echnologies Customer Example 3: Malware Outbreak • R•pon R•suln m ~· AIIdr

  8. Crossing the Rubric-Con

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This essay engages the prospect and peril of employing rubrics in America. It discusses how institutional independence affects the enterprise, and addresses whether rubrics will be received as salvation or subservience by educational agents. It asks how rubrics can benefit stakeholders while examining their unintended consequences. It concludes by…

  9. FloCon 2004 Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    dataset gives us a large enough record of traffic to test hypotheses in network security. Ø Given this, we select and evaluate various security...they detect a spoof Further Work Ø Exploiting our DoS attack traffic records further • We know how the network ...DoS and Internet worms, syslog/SSH • DNS performance and anomalies • Visualization • P2P traffic detection and modelling 2 University California

  10. FloCon 2005 Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    c, e5 = b which we will write as e1:5 = aabcb for convenience. Possible state sequences that match this sequence of ob- served events could be AABCB...applicability. The application programmer sim- ply connects the input event streams and then focuses on writing process models. Models can be...Pharming • Writing to media • paper • drives • etc Increased outbound data Normal activity Scanning Infection Data Access Low Likelihood of Malicious

  11. [Utility of recruitment maneuvers (con)].

    PubMed

    Ochagavia, A; Blanch, L; Lopez-Aguilar, J

    2009-04-01

    A reduction in both total lung volume and in lung parenchyma useful for gas exchange has been observed in ARDS patients. Applying an appropriate ventilatory pattern that includes PEEP can open up collapsed areas of the lung to aeration, thus ensuring a more homogeneous distribution of air in the lung. However, the heterogeneous patterns observed in patients with ARDS vary widely in their response to ventilation with PEEP. Recruitment maneuvers (RM) have been proposed as an adjuvant treatment to mechanical ventilation to re-expand collapsed lung tissue in ARDS. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether RM are useful when patients are ventilated with high PEEP or when they have fibrosis, stiff chest wall, or hypovolemia, among other conditions. Likewise, decisions about RM must take into account not only their short- and long-term efficacy and reversibility, but also possible adverse effects derived from the high pressures reached during RM, including barotrauma, hemodynamic alterations, reduced systolic volume and aortic flow, and difficulties in venous return, as well as the possibility of bacterial translocation to the bloodstream or other organs. This article review the effects of RM as adjuvant treatment to mechanical ventilation in ARDS patients and discuss its efficacy and potential benefits as well as the different interactions that RM can have with the diverse conditions that can be associated to ARDS.

  12. Videoimaging: the pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sarver, D M

    1993-01-01

    I have tried to make some thoughtful points based on a fair amount of experience in the use of videoimaging, both in research and clinical application. The technical development of computerized videoimaging has progressed greatly in the past several years, in response to the profession's interest in it. While many orthodontists have become interested in this technology because of its potential in communication and marketing, I feel its greatest potential lies in the area of diagnosis and treatment planning. The use of integrated and facial images has allowed me to visualize the face (primarily in profile, although the frontal view can be useful when evaluated and manipulated properly) and recognize particular aspects and patterns of treatment options I had not recognized before (Figures 4-6). Obviously, a great deal of research must be done in the future before we can completely integrate this technology into our treatment of patients. These studies are just beginning. I feel confident that computerized videoimaging will help expand our vision as we strive to deliver the best care possible; nevertheless, we must evaluate this technology rationally and define its strengths and weaknesses just as clearly as we have for our cephalometric tools.

  13. Cabergoline treatment in acromegaly: cons.

    PubMed

    Kasuki, Leandro; Vieira Neto, Leonardo; Gadelha, Mônica R

    2014-06-01

    Many options are available for the treatment of acromegaly, including surgery, radiotherapy, and medical treatment. Cabergoline (CAB), a dopamine agonist with high affinity for dopamine receptor type 2, has been used both in monotherapy and in conjunction with somatostatin analogs (SSAs). Although it is administered orally and has a relatively lower-cost in comparison with SSAs, few studies have demonstrated its usefulness, there is a lack of randomized-controlled trials and other drugs (SSAs and pegvisomant) with more data in the literature are available; these issues are the main drawbacks of adopting CAB for the treatment of acromegaly.

  14. FloCon 2008 Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    anomalous traffic of the node ÷ total anomalous traffic – Make parent nodes by merging child node information. prefix/length coverage/collateral...A T A U P L O A D F L O W S E N S O R 5. DATA DOWNLOAD FLOW SENSOR 1. RECON SNORT: KICKASS_PORN DRAGON: PORN HARDCORE SOURCEDEST SOURCE SOURCE...traffic • Make parent nodes by merging child node information. prefix/length coverage/collateral 0.0.0.0/0 100/100 depth=0 non divided 0.0.0.0/1 50/30

  15. Entrenamiento con el traje espacial

    NASA Video Gallery

    Después de 10 paseos espaciales, el astronauta de la NASA Michael López- Alegría sabe bastante de trajes espaciales. En este video, López Alegría comparte su experiencia acerca del uso y el entrena...

  16. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from ready-to-eat food of animal origin--phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpińska, Magda; Łaniewska-Trokenheim, Łucja

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from 146 ready-to-eat food of animal origin (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes). 58 strains were isolated, they were classified as Staphylococcus xylosus (n = 29), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 16); Staphylococcus lentus (n = 7); Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n = 4); Staphylococcus hyicus (n = 1) and Staphylococcus simulans (n = 1) by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Isolates were tested for resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, cefoxitin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, tigecycline, rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, linezolid, trimetoprim, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin by the disk diffusion method. PCR was used for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes encoding: methicillin resistance--mecA; macrolide resistance--erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), mrs(A/B); efflux proteins tet(K) and tet(L) and ribosomal protection proteins tet(M). For all the tet(M)-positive isolates the presence of conjugative transposons of the Tn916-Tn1545 family was determined. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (41.3%) followed by clindamycin (36.2%), tigecycline (24.1%), rifampicin (17.2%) and erythromycin (13.8%). 32.2% staphylococcal isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). All methicillin resistant staphylococci harboured mecA gene. Isolates, phenotypic resistant to tetracycline, harboured at least one tetracycline resistance determinant on which tet(M) was most frequent. All of the isolates positive for tet(M) genes were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545 -like integrase family gene. In the erythromycin-resistant isolates, the macrolide resistance genes erm(C) or msr(A/B) were present. Although coagulase-negative staphylococci are not classical food poisoning bacteria, its presence in food could be of public health significance due to the possible spread of

  17. Application of the New Propulsion Theory to the Design of Propellers. Comparison with the Lifting Line Theory (Aplicacion de la Nueva Teoria de la Impulsion al Diseno de Propulsores. Comparacion con la Teoria de las Lineas Sustentadoras),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-07

    Results and Improvement Thereon," Ingenieria Naval, May 1978. 11. Perez Gomez, G., "Fundamentos teoricos de los modernos procedimientos de proyecto de...TRANSLATED BY: 9198 SOJRCE: INGENIERIA NAVAL, JULY 1983, PP. 267-278; SPANISH DTICSELECTE DEC 9 I983 ~D MWS TRANSLATION No 72D DATE 7 NOVEMBER 1903 [-M...Impulsion al Diseno de Propulsores. Comparacion con la Teoria de las Lineas Sustentadoras.; Ingenieria Naval, July 1983; pp. 267-278] *Department of Ship

  18. HPLC-ESI-MS and MS/MS structural characterization of multifucosylated N-glycoforms of the basic proline-rich protein IB-8a CON1+ in human saliva.

    PubMed

    Cabras, Tiziana; Boi, Roberto; Pisano, Elisabetta; Iavarone, Federica; Fanali, Chiara; Nemolato, Sonia; Faa, Gavino; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

    2012-05-01

    This study describes the characterization of the glycan moieties and the peptide backbone of six glycoforms of IB-8a CON1(+), a basic proline-rich protein present in human saliva. MS analyses on the intact glycoproteins before and after N-deglycosylation with PNGase F and high-resolution MS/MS sequencing by LTQ Orbitrap XL of peptides and glycopeptides from tryptic digests allowed the structural characterization of the glycan moieties and the polypeptide backbone, as well as to establish the glycosylation site at the asparagine residue at 98th position. Five of the glycoforms carry a biantennary N-linked glycan fucosylated in the innermost N-acetylglucosamine of the core and showing from zero to four additional fucoses in the antennal region. The sixth glycoform carries a monoantennary monofucosylated oligosaccharide. The glycoform cluster was detected on 28 of 71 adult saliva specimens. Level of fucosylation showed interindividual variability with the major relative abundance for the trifucosylated glycoform. Nonglycosylated IB-8a CON1(+) and the variant IB-8a CON1(-), lacking of the glycosylation site, have been also detected in human saliva.

  19. Structural evolution of the Day Nui Con Voi metamorphic complex: Implications on the development of the Red River Shear Zone, Northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Meng-Wan; Lee, Tung-Yi; Lo, Ching-Hua; Chung, Sun-Lin; Lan, Ching-Ying; Anh, Tran Tuan

    2008-12-01

    The Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) metamorphic complex in North Vietnam is the southernmost high-grade metamorphic zone along the NW-SE trending Red River Shear Zone (RRSZ) in Indochina. The RRSZ was considered as a classical large-scale continental strike-slip fault that had played a significant role in the continental extrusion of Southeast Asia since the collision of India and Eurasia. Earlier ideas determined the RRSZ as a steep shear zone that penetrated the entire lithosphere. Both metamorphism and structures within rocks along the DNCV metamorphic complex have been previously thought to be formed syn-tectonically by left-lateral shearing of the RRSZ during the Oligocene-Miocene continental escape tectonics. However, our meso- and microstructural re-examination of this region shows that these metamorphic rocks were formed during earlier tectonic episodes unrelated to strike-slip shearing. High angle to near orthogonal overprinting fabrics indicated that this region recorded three episodes of ductile deformation followed by brittle faulting events with different intensity spanning from the Triassic to the Tertiary. D 1 is preserved as NW-SE striking upright folds under garnet grade regional metamorphism during the Triassic Indosinian orogeny as South China block amalgamated with the Indochina block. The large-scale horizontal D 2 folds with a dominant top to N-NW bottom to S-SW sense of shear, and sub-horizontal fold axial planes suggest that the DNCV metamorphic complex remained at midcrustal depths since the Indosinian orogeny. The youngest ductile deformation event, D 3, refolded D 2 recumbent folds into a dome, and uplifted the DNCV as lower-temperature fabrics, S 3, indicated. Steep mylonite zones with left-lateral kinematic indicators and brittle faulting were developed on both limbs of the dome along the steep Song Hong and Song Chay faults during left-lateral movement of the RRSZ. Our new spatial, temporal and kinematic correlations of metamorphic fabrics

  20. Total and subtypes of dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) study.

    PubMed

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Becerra-Tomás, Nerea; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Schröder, Helmut; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Martín-Calvo, Nerea; Portoles, Olga; Fitó, Montserrat; Hu, Frank B; Forga, Lluís; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2017-03-01

    Background: The associations between dietary fat and cardiovascular disease have been evaluated in several studies, but less is known about their influence on the risk of diabetes.Objective: We examined the associations between total fat, subtypes of dietary fat, and food sources rich in saturated fatty acids and the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D).Design: A prospective cohort analysis of 3349 individuals who were free of diabetes at baseline but were at high cardiovascular risk from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study was conducted. Detailed dietary information was assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate T2D HRs and 95% CIs according to baseline and yearly updated fat intake.Results: We documented 266 incident cases during 4.3 y of follow-up. Baseline saturated and animal fat intake was not associated with the risk of T2D. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of updated intake of saturated and animal fat had a higher risk of diabetes than the lowest quartile (HR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.73; and P-trend = 0.01 compared with HR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.29, 3.09; and P-trend < 0.01, respectively). In both the Mediterranean diet and control groups, participants in the highest quartile of updated animal fat intake had an ∼2-fold higher risk of T2D than their counterparts in the lowest quartile. The consumption of 1 serving of butter and cheese was associated with a higher risk of diabetes, whereas whole-fat yogurt intake was associated with a lower risk.Conclusions: In a Mediterranean trial focused on dietary fat interventions, baseline intake of saturated and animal fat was not associated with T2D incidence, but the yearly updated intake of saturated and animal fat was associated with a higher risk of T2D. Cheese and butter intake was associated with a higher risk of T2D, whereas whole-fat yogurt intake

  1. Study on the Strategies for the Soil and Water Resource Con-servation of Slopeland in Taiwan in Response to the Extreme Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Global climate change results in extreme weather, especially ex-treme precipitation in Taiwan. Though the total amount of precipi-tation remains unchanged, the frequency of rainfall return period increases which affects slopeland and causes sediment disaster. In Taiwan, slopeland occupies about 73% of national territory. Under harsh environmental stress, soil and water conservation of slope-land becomes more important. In response to the trends of global-ization impacts of climate change, long term strategic planning be-comes more necessary. This study reviewed international practices and decision making process about soil and water conservation of slopeland; and conducted the compilation and analysis of water and soil conservation related research projects in Taiwan within the past five years. It is necessary for Taiwan to design timely adaptive strategies about conducting the all-inclusive conservation of na-tional territory, management and business operation of watershed based on the existing regulation with the effects of extreme weather induced by climate change and the changes of social-economic en-vironments. In order to realize the policy vision of "Under the premise of multiple uses, operating the sustainable business and management of the water and soil resources in the watershed through territorial planning in response to the climate and so-cial-economic environment change". This study concluded the future tasks for soil and water con-servation: 1.Design and timely amend strategies for soil and wand water conservation in response to extreme weather. 2. Strengthen the planning and operating of the land management and integrated conservation of the water and soil resources of key watershed. 3. Manage and operate the prevention of debris flow disaster and large-scale landslide. 4. Formulate polices, related regulations and assessment indicators of soil and water conservation. 5. Maintain the biodiversity of the slopeland and reduce the ecological footprint

  2. Increases in Plasma Tryptophan Are Inversely Associated with Incident Cardiovascular Disease in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) Study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Edward; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Zheng, Yan; Toledo, Estefania; Clish, Clary B; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Liang, Liming; Wang, Dong D; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montse; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; Cofán, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Romaguera, Dora; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Sorlí, Jose V; Hu, Frank B; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2017-03-01

    Background: During development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), interferon-γ-mediated inflammation accelerates degradation of tryptophan into downstream metabolites. A Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) consisting of a high intake of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), nuts, fruits, vegetables, and cereals has been demonstrated to lower the risk of CVD. The longitudinal relation between tryptophan and its downstream metabolites and CVD in the context of a MedDiet is unstudied.Objective: We sought to investigate the relation between metabolites in the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway and CVD in the context of a MedDiet pattern.Methods: We used a case-cohort design nested in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea randomized controlled trial. There were 231 CVD cases (stroke, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death) among 985 participants over a median of 4.7 y of follow-up [mean ± SD age: 67.6 ± 6.1 y; 53.7% women; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 29.7 ± 3.7]. We assessed plasma tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, and quinolinic acid concentrations at baseline and after 1 y of intervention with a MedDiet. We combined these metabolites in a kynurenine risk score (KRS) by weighting each metabolite by the adjusted coefficient of its associations with CVD. Cox models were used in the primary analysis.Results: Increases in tryptophan after 1 y were associated with a lower risk of composite CVD (HR per SD: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.98). The baseline kynurenic acid concentration was associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease death but not stroke. A higher KRS was more strongly associated with CVD in the control group than in the 2 intervention groups (P-interaction = 0.003). Adjustment for changes in plasma tryptophan attenuated the inverse association between MedDiet+EVOO and CVD.Conclusions: An increase in the plasma tryptophan concentration was significantly associated with a decreased risk of CVD. A

  3. Biomimetic collagen/elastin meshes for ventral hernia repair in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Minardi, Silvia; Taraballi, Francesca; Wang, Xin; Cabrera, Fernando J; Van Eps, Jeffrey L; Robbins, Andrew B; Sandri, Monica; Moreno, Michael R; Weiner, Bradley K; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2017-03-01

    Ventral hernia repair remains a major clinical need. Herein, we formulated a type I collagen/elastin crosslinked blend (CollE) for the fabrication of biomimetic meshes for ventral hernia repair. To evaluate the effect of architecture on the performance of the implants, CollE was formulated both as flat sheets (CollE Sheets) and porous scaffolds (CollE Scaffolds). The morphology, hydrophylicity and in vitro degradation were assessed by SEM, water contact angle and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The stiffness of the meshes was determined using a constant stretch rate uniaxial tensile test, and compared to that of native tissue. CollE Sheets and Scaffolds were tested in vitro with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (h-BM-MSC), and finally implanted in a rat ventral hernia model. Neovascularization and tissue regeneration within the implants was evaluated at 6weeks, by histology, immunofluorescence, and q-PCR. It was found that CollE Sheets and Scaffolds were not only biomechanically sturdy enough to provide immediate repair of the hernia defect, but also promoted tissue restoration in only 6weeks. In fact, the presence of elastin enhanced the neovascularization in both sheets and scaffolds. Overall, CollE Scaffolds displayed mechanical properties more closely resembling those of native tissue, and induced higher gene expression of the entire marker genes tested, associated with de novo matrix deposition, angiogenesis, adipogenesis and skeletal muscles, compared to CollE Sheets. Altogether, this data suggests that the improved mechanical properties and bioactivity of CollE Sheets and Scaffolds make them valuable candidates for applications of ventral hernia repair.

  4. Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Ignition, Combustion and Expansion Processes of Hypergolic Liquid Fuel Combinations at Gas Temperatures up to 3000 K. Thesis - Rhein-Westfalia Technical Coll., 1967

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, Harry

    1987-01-01

    The ignition, combustion, and expansion characteristics of hypergolic liquid propellant mixtures in small rocket engines are studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown by using the Bray approximation procedure that the reaction H + OH + M = H2O + M (where M is the molecular mass of the gas mixture) has a strong effect on the combustion efficiency. Increases in recombination energies ranging from 30 to 65% were obtained when the rate of this reaction was increased by a factor of 10 in gas mixtures containing 90% oxygen. The effect of aluminum additions and various injection techniques on the combustion process is investigated.

  5. CollAborative care and active surveillance for Screen-Positive EldeRs with subthreshold depression (CASPER): a multicentred randomised controlled trial of clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Helen; Adamson, Joy; Atherton, Katie; Bailey, Della; Birtwistle, Jacqueline; Bosanquet, Katharine; Clare, Emily; Delgadillo, Jaime; Ekers, David; Foster, Deborah; Gabe, Rhian; Gascoyne, Samantha; Haley, Lesley; Hargate, Rebecca; Hewitt, Catherine; Holmes, John; Keding, Ada; Lilley-Kelly, Amanda; Maya, Jahnese; McMillan, Dean; Meer, Shaista; Meredith, Jodi; Mitchell, Natasha; Nutbrown, Sarah; Overend, Karen; Pasterfield, Madeline; Richards, David; Spilsbury, Karen; Torgerson, David; Traviss-Turner, Gemma; Trépel, Dominic; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Ziegler, Friederike; Gilbody, Simon

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Efforts to reduce the burden of illness and personal suffering associated with depression in older adults have focused on those with more severe depressive syndromes. Less attention has been paid to those with mild disorders/subthreshold depression, but these patients also suffer significant impairments in their quality of life and level of functioning. There is currently no clear evidence-based guidance regarding treatment for this patient group. OBJECTIVES To establish the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a low-intensity intervention of collaborative care for primary care older adults who screened positive for subthreshold depression. DESIGN A pragmatic, multicentred, two-arm, parallel, individually randomised controlled trial with a qualitative study embedded within the pilot. Randomisation occurred after informed consent and baseline measures were collected. SETTING Thirty-two general practitioner (GP) practices in the north of England. PARTICIPANTS A total of 705 participants aged ≥ 75 years during the pilot phase and ≥ 65 years during the main trial with subthreshold depression. INTERVENTIONS Participants in the intervention group received a low-intensity intervention of collaborative care, which included behavioural activation delivered by a case manager for an average of six sessions over 7-8 weeks, alongside usual GP care. Control-arm participants received only usual GP care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome measure was a self-reported measure of depression severity, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items PHQ-9 score at 4 months post randomisation. Secondary outcome measures included the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, Short Form questionnaire-12 items, Patient Health Questionnaire-15 items, Generalised Anxiety Disorder seven-item scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale two-item version, a medication questionnaire and objective data. Participants were followed up for 12 months. RESULTS In total, 705 participants were randomised (collaborative care n = 344, usual care n = 361), with 586 participants (83%; collaborative care 76%, usual care 90%) followed up at 4 months and 519 participants (74%; collaborative care 68%, usual care 79%) followed up at 12 months. Attrition was markedly greater in the collaborative care arm. Model estimates at the primary end point of 4 months revealed a statistically significant effect in favour of collaborative care compared with usual care [mean difference 1.31 score points, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67 to 1.95 score points; p < 0.001]. The difference equates to a standard effect size of 0.30, for which the trial was powered. Treatment differences measured by the PHQ-9 were maintained at 12 months' follow-up (mean difference 1.33 score points, 95% CI 0.55 to 2.10 score points; p = 0.001). Base-case cost-effectiveness analysis found that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was £9633 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). On average, participants allocated to collaborative care displayed significantly higher QALYs than those allocated to the control group (annual difference in adjusted QALYs of 0.044, 95% bias-corrected CI 0.015 to 0.072; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS Collaborative care has been shown to be clinically effective and cost-effective for older adults with subthreshold depression and to reduce the proportion of people who go on to develop case-level depression at 12 months. This intervention could feasibly be delivered in the NHS at an acceptable cost-benefit ratio. Important future work would include investigating the longer-term effect of collaborative care on the CASPER population, which could be conducted by introducing an extension to follow-up, and investigating the impact of collaborative care on managing multimorbidities in people with subthreshold depression. TRIAL REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN02202951. FUNDING This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health T

  6. Overview and expert assessment of off-label use of misoprostol in obstetrics and gynaecology: review and report by the Collège national des gynécologues obstétriciens français.

    PubMed

    Marret, H; Simon, E; Beucher, G; Dreyfus, M; Gaudineau, A; Vayssière, C; Lesavre, M; Pluchon, M; Winer, N; Fernandez, H; Aubert, J; Bejan-Angoulvant, T; Jonville-Bera, A P; Clouqueur, E; Houfflin-Debarge, V; Garrigue, A; Pierre, F

    2015-04-01

    The literature suggests that misoprostol can be offered to patients for off-label use as it has reasonable efficacy, risk/benefit ratio, tolerance and patient satisfaction, according to the criteria for evidence-based medicine. Both the vaginal and sublingual routes are more effective than the oral route for first-trimester cervical dilatation. Vaginal misoprostol 800μg, repeated if necessary after 24 or 48h, is a possible alternative for management after early pregnancy failure. However, misoprostol has not been demonstrated to be useful for the evacuation of an incomplete miscarriage, except for cervical dilatation before vacuum aspiration. Oral mifepristone 200mg, followed 24-48h later by vaginal, sublingual or buccal misoprostol 800μg (followed 3-4h later, if necessary, by misoprostol 400μg) is a less efficacious but less aggressive alternative to vacuum aspiration for elective or medically-indicated first-trimester terminations; this alternative becomes increasingly less effective as gestational age increases. In the second trimester, vaginal misoprostol 800-2400μg in 24h, 24-48h after at least 200mg of mifepristone, is an alternative to surgery, sulprostone and gemeprost. Data for the third trimester are sparse. For women with an unripe cervix and an unscarred uterus, vaginal misoprostol 25μg every 3-6h is an alternative to prostaglandin E2 for cervical ripening at term for a live fetus. When oxytocin is unavailable, misoprostol can be used after delivery for prevention (sublingual misoprostol 600μg) and treatment (sublingual misoprostol 800μg) of postpartum haemorrhage. The use of misoprostol to promote cervical dilatation before diagnostic hysteroscopy or surgical procedures is beneficial for premenopausal women but not for postmenopausal women. Nonetheless, in view of the side effects of misoprostol, its use as a first-line treatment is not indicated, and it should be reserved for difficult cases. Misoprostol is not useful for placing or removing the types of intra-uterine devices used in Europe, regardless of parity.

  7. Comparación de resultados del método de clasificación de órbitas por análisis de frecuencias con el método de exponentes de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.

    Hemos realizado extensas comparaciones del método de análisis de frecuencias con el de exponentes de Lyapunov. El primero resulta claramente superior por las siguientes razones: 1) permite distinguir distintos tipos de órbitas y no sólo si son regulares o caóticas 2) es mucho más veloz requiriendo mucho menos tiempo de cómputo. La concordancia de resultados es, en general, buena y se discuten algunas discrepancias.

  8. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

    2011-03-01

    El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin.

  9. Sequential bonding of CO molecules to a titanium dimer: A photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopic and theoretical study of Ti2(CO)n- (n = 1-9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jinghan; Xie, Hua; Dai, Dongxu; Tang, Zichao; Jiang, Ling

    2016-11-01

    Binuclear titanium carbonyl cluster anions, Ti2(CO)n- (n = 4-6), are produced via a laser vaporization supersonic cluster source and characterized by mass-selected photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy. Quantum chemical calculations are carried out for Ti2(CO)n- (n = 1-9) to explore the trend of sequential bonding of CO molecules to a titanium dimer. It has been found that the CO molecules bind to Ti2 in a side-on fashion and form a stable Ti2[η2(μ2-C, O)]3 structure at n = 3, the motif of which retains up to n = 5. Starting at n = 6, a new building block of two CO groups side-on-bonded to Ti2 is favored, the structure of which persists up to n = 9. In the larger clusters (n = 6-9), the side-on-bonded CO molecule can be stabilized via the removal of two electrons from an anionic titanium carbonyl, which is different from the effect of charge on CO binding in rhodium carbonyls where bridge-bonded CO molecules are selectively destabilized by the removal of an electron from a neutral rhodium carbonyl. The present study provides a stepwise picture for molecular-level understanding of CO bonding on transition-metal clusters, which is directly relevant to the elementary processes of CO at metal catalysts.

  10. Sequential bonding of CO molecules to a titanium dimer: A photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopic and theoretical study of Ti2(CO)n(-) (n = 1-9).

    PubMed

    Zou, Jinghan; Xie, Hua; Dai, Dongxu; Tang, Zichao; Jiang, Ling

    2016-11-14

    Binuclear titanium carbonyl cluster anions, Ti2(CO)n(-) (n = 4-6), are produced via a laser vaporization supersonic cluster source and characterized by mass-selected photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy. Quantum chemical calculations are carried out for Ti2(CO)n(-) (n = 1-9) to explore the trend of sequential bonding of CO molecules to a titanium dimer. It has been found that the CO molecules bind to Ti2 in a side-on fashion and form a stable Ti2[η(2)(μ2-C, O)]3 structure at n = 3, the motif of which retains up to n = 5. Starting at n = 6, a new building block of two CO groups side-on-bonded to Ti2 is favored, the structure of which persists up to n = 9. In the larger clusters (n = 6-9), the side-on-bonded CO molecule can be stabilized via the removal of two electrons from an anionic titanium carbonyl, which is different from the effect of charge on CO binding in rhodium carbonyls where bridge-bonded CO molecules are selectively destabilized by the removal of an electron from a neutral rhodium carbonyl. The present study provides a stepwise picture for molecular-level understanding of CO bonding on transition-metal clusters, which is directly relevant to the elementary processes of CO at metal catalysts.

  11. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O.; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  12. El rol de Ia colaboracion y el Modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) mediante el lente de la Teoria de Actividad (CHAT): un estudio de caso con estudiantes de 9no grado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Isabel C.

    Los modelos de eensenanza y aprendizaje constructivistas conceptualizan el aprendizaje como un proceso activo. El modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) se distingue por una serie de componentes, entre los cuales se destaca el aspecto colaborativo y cooperativo como un reto al momento de su implantacion. Son pocas las investigaciones que se concentran en este aspecto del modelo. En este estudio, se analizaron las diversas interacciones que surgen durante la implantacion de una unidad curricular sobre el tema de Geologia de Puerto Rico, la cual se diseno con el modelo ABPr cuyo enfoque es orientacion a proyectos. Particularmente, se examinaron las interacciones sociales que surgen entre los pares y entre pares y docente durante el proceso de planificacion y desarrollo de los productos finales, al igual que las interacciones entre los estudiantes y el material didactico en estas etapas del modelo. La investigacion es de tipo cualitativo e incorpora como diseno el estudio de caso. Las diversas interacciones constituyen la unidad de analisis. En el estudio participaron 19 estudiantes de 9no grado, a quienes se organizaron en 5 grupos colaborativos por temas de interes (Pangea, Placas tectonicas, Volcanes, Tsunamis y Terremotos). Las tecnicas que se utilizaron para recopilar los datos fueron: observaciones participativas, grupos focales y analisis de documentos (cuadernos reflexivos y respuestas de los estudiantes a la pregunta central del proyecto). Para el analisis de los datos se aplico la teoria de actividad (CHAT) que concentra la unidad de analisis en la actividad humana en un contexto particular. Los resultados del estudio senalan que las interacciones entre pares, entre pares y docente, asi como entre estudiantes y material didactico son fundamentales en el proceso de aprendizaje. Una mayor interaccion entre pares durante las etapas de planificar y desarrollar los productos finales de la unidad, promueve una mejor comprension de los conceptos de la

  13. Revision curricular a partir de un analisis comparativo de las discrepancias en los curriculos de una escuela de optometria en Puerto Rico con las competencias requeridas para las agencias de revalida y acreditacion 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Pacheco, Andres

    El proposito de esta investigacion, un estudio cualitativo de caso, fue comparar y contrastar el curriculo vigente de la Escuela de Optometria de la UIAPR con las competencias y estandares requeridos por las agencias de acreditacion y de revalida. Con este proposito, decidimos realizar una revision y un analisis de documentos: el prontuario de cada uno de los cursos de los curriculos implantados en el 1993 y en el 2001; las competencias y estandares establecidos por las agencias de revalida y de acreditacion; y las estadisticas en las que se analiza el porcentaje de estudiantes que aprueban cada una de las partes de los examenes de revalida entre el 1998 al 2003. Se realizaron entrevistas dirigidas para dar apoyo y complementar la revision y el analisis de estos documentos. Los participantes de las entrevistas fueron tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2004 (ultima clase del curriculo del 1993); tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2005 (primera clase graduanda del curriculo vigente) y tres profesores y/o directores de los Departamentos de Ciencias Basicas, Ciencias Clinicas y Cuidado al Paciente. Esta investigacion se enmarco en el modelo de evaluacion curricular de discrepancia de Malcolm Provus y en el modelo de desarrollo basado en competencias. Uno de los hallazgos mas importantes del estudio es que los cambios que se implantaron al curriculo del 2001 no han logrado que los estudiantes mejoren su ejecucion en los examenes de revalida. Por otro lado, se encontro que el curriculo vigente atiende completamente los estandares de la practica de Optometria, pero no las competencias. Esta informacion fue validada mediante el uso de una tabla de cotejo para el analisis de los cursos y de la informacion obtenida de las entrevistas. El estudio determina y concluye que existen discrepancias entre los prontuarios de los cursos del curriculo y las competencias requeridas por la agencia de revalida. Segundo, que el Departamento de Ciencias Basicas es el

  14. Has allogeneic stem cell cryopreservation been given the 'cold shoulder'? An analysis of the pros and cons of using frozen versus fresh stem cell products in allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Frey, N V; Lazarus, H M; Goldstein, S C

    2006-09-01

    Donor stem cells for allogeneic transplant traditionally are collected and transfused 'fresh' into the recipient on the day of transplant; alternatively such cells can be collected in advance and cryopreserved until needed. Most centers favor the former approach based on theoretical concerns that cryopreservation and thawing may worsen clinical outcomes. Limited published data from single institution retrospective studies show no significant impairment of engraftment or reduced day 100 survival for cryopreserved bone marrow recipients. There are no reported outcomes for recipients of cryopreserved peripheral blood allografts. Use of cryopreserved stem cells is associated with a higher incidence of adverse events (transfusion reactions, bacterial graft contamination and collection of grafts which are not utilized). Conversely, use of cryopreserved grafts introduces a greater flexibility into a stressed healthcare system and results in a more streamlined experience for the donor. Some data suggest that transplantation with a cryopreserved product may lower the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease. We compare the pros and cons of using 'fresh' versus cryopreserved stem cell products for allogeneic transplantation and suggest that the current standard of using 'fresh' products may not be warranted. We also suggest future areas of exploration to better elucidate this issue.

  15. Multi-analytical approach applied to the provenance study of marbles used as covering slabs in the archaeological submerged site of Baia (Naples, Italy): The case of the "Villa con ingresso a protiro"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricca, Michela; Belfiore, Cristina Maria; Ruffolo, Silvestro Antonio; Barca, Donatella; De Buergo, Monica Alvarez; Crisci, Gino Mirocle; La Russa, Mauro Francesco

    2015-12-01

    This paper is focused on archaeometric investigations of white marbles taken from the submerged archaeological site of Baia (Naples). The marine area includes the ruins of this ancient Roman city, whose structures range from luxurious maritime villas and imperial buildings with private thermae and tabernae, to more simple and modest houses. Analyses were carried out on fifty marble fragments of covering slabs, belonging to several pavements of the monumental villa, called the Villa con ingresso a protiro, in order to ascertain their provenance. The most distinctive properties of marbles are their variety of textural property especially regarding grain size (MGS), associated with the Mn content and the variation of stable isotopes. These features, supported by the contribution of other variables and studies, establish the basis for the correct identification of the marbles. For this purpose, minero-petrographic and geochemical techniques were used. Results were compared with literature data of white marbles commonly used in antiquity, especially in the Mediterranean basin and showed that a variety of precious marbles from Carrara, Docimium (Afyon), Thasos-D, Aphrodisias, Proconnesos (Marmara), Paros and Pentelicon were used in the ancient roman city of Baia, confirming the importance of the submerged archaeological site and also allowing researchers to broaden the existing database.

  16. Implantation des sites de soins communautaires en République Démocratique du Congo: consécration d'un double standard dans l'accès aux soins

    PubMed Central

    Dunia, Gisèle Mawazo Binti

    2013-01-01

    Depuis 2005, la République Démocratique du Congo a amorcé l'implantation des sites de soins communautaires. Cette stratégie a pour objectif de rapprocher les services de santé des populations éloignées. Bien que cela parte d'une bonne intention, elle résulte, à notre sens, en une consécration d'un système de santé à deux vitesses. En effet, les populations vivant en ville ont accès à des soins prestés par des agents de santé formés alors que celles vivant en milieu rural reculé ont pour prestataires de soins des relais communautaires. Cette situation marginalise encore plus des populations dont la situation géographique est déjà préoccupante. Pourtant, la population est prête à parcourir des kilomètres en échange d'un service qu'elle estime de qualité. PMID:23785563

  17. Vacuum assist: angel or demon CON.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Timothy W

    2013-06-01

    Vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) to enhance venous return during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was described as early as 1958 but was not widely used until the late 1990s. VAVD was initially used to facilitate the use of smaller cannulas with ministernotomy but was increasingly used to allow reduction in CPB circuit size while maintaining CPB flow rates. This innovation was made without planned consideration to CPB circuit design, most critically that of the venous reservoir. Clinical reports of prime reduction facilitated by VAVD in both adult and pediatric CPB were associated with reduced nadir hematocrit and rates of transfusion that encouraged the proliferation of VAVD in CPB. Concomitantly, investigators have reported both in vitro and in vivo significantly increased arterial emboli associated with the use of VAVD, mostly related to accelerated venous air entrainment. In vitro studies continue to confirm this association and likely underestimate the resulting embolic load as a result of flawed study design. While the evidence for VAVD is equivocal, our understanding of the clinical impact of gaseous microemboli in CPB is similarly limited, most likely confined to blood-brain barrier disruption. It is only after two decades that CPB component design is receiving serious attention in terms of air handling. The ethics of innovation in the field of CPB warrant careful consideration. The application of VAVD is not without consequence.

  18. Deep discharge reconditioning: Pros and cons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Deep-discharge reconditioning (DDR) can be of great benefit to battery performance, especially in geosynchronous orbit, if performed properly and regularly, and can be essential to operation of batteries at the high depths of discharge (DOD) required to minimize weight. The procedure should be tailored to fit the nature of the degradation occuring during regular cycling. DDR is not without its drawbacks, however, and these differ depending on the normal DOD to be sustained and/or whether the discharge is done at the battery or the cell level. Battery-level discharge carries the minimum weight penalty but raises questions of the effects of low-rate cell reversal that as yet have no firm answers. Cell level discharge avoids cell reversal but carries significant penalties of weight and complexity. Thus no universal procedure or method of implementation of deep-discharge reconditioning is now available and thus the various approaches must be evaluated for each application.

  19. The pros and cons of code validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobbitt, Percy J.

    1988-01-01

    Computational and wind tunnel error sources are examined and quantified using specific calculations of experimental data, and a substantial comparison of theoretical and experimental results, or a code validation, is discussed. Wind tunnel error sources considered include wall interference, sting effects, Reynolds number effects, flow quality and transition, and instrumentation such as strain gage balances, electronically scanned pressure systems, hot film gages, hot wire anemometers, and laser velocimeters. Computational error sources include math model equation sets, the solution algorithm, artificial viscosity/dissipation, boundary conditions, the uniqueness of solutions, grid resolution, turbulence modeling, and Reynolds number effects. It is concluded that, although improvements in theory are being made more quickly than in experiments, wind tunnel research has the advantage of the more realistic transition process of a right turbulence model in a free-transition test.

  20. Con: Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate binders are prescribed to chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients based on associations of serum phosphate concentrations with mortality and calcification, experimental evidence for direct calcifying effects of phosphate on vascular smooth muscle tissue and the central importance of phosphate retention in CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Current knowledge regarding phosphate metabolism in CKD provides important insight into disease mechanisms and supports future clinical trials of phosphate binders in CKD patients to determine the impact of these medications on clinically relevant outcomes. The risks and benefits of phosphate binders cannot be inferred from association studies of serum phosphate concentrations, which are inconsistent and subject to confounding, animal-experimental data, which are based on conditions that differ from human disease, or physiological arguments, which are limited to known regulatory factors. Many interventions that targeted biochemical pathways suggested by association studies and suspected biological importance have yielded null or harmful results. Clinical trials of phosphate binders are of high clinical and scientific importance to nephrology. Demonstration of reduced rates of clinical disease in such trials could lead to important health benefits for CKD patients, whereas negative results would refocus efforts to understand and treat CKD-MBD. Clinical trials that employ highly practical or ‘pragmatic’ designs represent an optimal approach for determining the safety and effectiveness of phosphate binders in real-world settings. Absent clinical trial data, observational studies of phosphate binders in large CKD populations could provide important information regarding the benefits, risks and/or unintended side effects of these medications. PMID:26681747

  1. Pros and cons of immunological methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International regulatory agencies Codex Alimentarius, European Commission Regulation and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration have set 20 mg/kg (ppm) as the maximum limit of gluten allowed in foods labeled as “gluten-free”. Immunological approaches appear to be, so far, the most suitable method...

  2. Vacuum Assist: Angel or Demon CON

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) to enhance venous return during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was described as early as 1958 but was not widely used until the late 1990s. VAVD was initially used to facilitate the use of smaller cannulas with ministernotomy but was increasingly used to allow reduction in CPB circuit size while maintaining CPB flow rates. This innovation was made without planned consideration to CPB circuit design, most critically that of the venous reservoir. Clinical reports of prime reduction facilitated by VAVD in both adult and pediatric CPB were associated with reduced nadir hematocrit and rates of transfusion that encouraged the proliferation of VAVD in CPB. Concomitantly, investigators have reported both in vitro and in vivo significantly increased arterial emboli associated with the use of VAVD, mostly related to accelerated venous air entrainment. In vitro studies continue to confirm this association and likely underestimate the resulting embolic load as a result of flawed study design. While the evidence for VAVD is equivocal, our understanding of the clinical impact of gaseous microemboli in CPB is similarly limited, most likely confined to blood–brain barrier disruption. It is only after two decades that CPB component design is receiving serious attention in terms of air handling. The ethics of innovation in the field of CPB warrant careful consideration. The application of VAVD is not without consequence. PMID:23930383

  3. The Pros and Cons of Petroleum Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Charles J.

    1980-01-01

    A mineral agreements expert discusses the options open to tribes, from the most standard lease form to arrangements as yet untried by Indian Nations. Discussion covers 18 basic provisions for inclusion in agreements, tax considerations, and basic forms of petroleum agreements (leases, joint ventures, production sharing, and service contracts).…

  4. Cost–effectiveness thresholds: pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Jeremy A; De Joncheere, Kees; Edejer, Tessa; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Hill, Suzanne R

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cost–effectiveness analysis is used to compare the costs and outcomes of alternative policy options. Each resulting cost–effectiveness ratio represents the magnitude of additional health gained per additional unit of resources spent. Cost–effectiveness thresholds allow cost–effectiveness ratios that represent good or very good value for money to be identified. In 2001, the World Health Organization’s Commission on Macroeconomics in Health suggested cost–effectiveness thresholds based on multiples of a country’s per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). In some contexts, in choosing which health interventions to fund and which not to fund, these thresholds have been used as decision rules. However, experience with the use of such GDP-based thresholds in decision-making processes at country level shows them to lack country specificity and this – in addition to uncertainty in the modelled cost–effectiveness ratios – can lead to the wrong decision on how to spend health-care resources. Cost–effectiveness information should be used alongside other considerations – e.g. budget impact and feasibility considerations – in a transparent decision-making process, rather than in isolation based on a single threshold value. Although cost–effectiveness ratios are undoubtedly informative in assessing value for money, countries should be encouraged to develop a context-specific process for decision-making that is supported by legislation, has stakeholder buy-in, for example the involvement of civil society organizations and patient groups, and is transparent, consistent and fair. PMID:27994285

  5. Preventive therapies: weighing the pros and cons.

    PubMed Central

    Laupacis, A

    1996-01-01

    The author comments on three issues raised by Dr. Kenneth G. Marshall in his series on the benefits and harms of preventive therapies, which begins in this issue on page 1493. First, because the method by which the results of clinical trials are presented markedly affects the perception of those results some measure of absolute benefit and harm must be used when the results of clinical trials are presented. Second, there is increasing interest in decision aids as a means of helping patients to understand evidence and make therapeutic choices. It is important that these aids undergo rigorous testing before they are adopted for common use. Third, evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are a welcome resource for busy clinicians. However, physicians and patients should bear in mind that interpretations of the available evidence can vary, leading to different conclusions about the appropriateness of preventive therapies. PMID:8625001

  6. Distance Education: Pros, Cons, and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hongmei

    This paper reviews recent publications on distance education and explores its promise and potential from the student's perspective, the faculty's perspective and the administrator's perspective. Findings indicate that only the self-motivated and self-disciplined students are most likely to succeed in distance education. Although the majority of…

  7. [Pros and cons of cancer screenings].

    PubMed

    Malila, Nea

    2014-01-01

    Cancer screenings aim to detect latent or oligosymptomatic cancers in the early stage when treatment of the disease can be curative and cancer death may in many cases be prevented. Improved quality of life is a characteristic feature of good screening. Screenings may also lessen human suffering, for instance. For the society, early-stage cancer treatment saves money. Drawbacks of screenings are both false positive and false negative screening results leading to unnecessary further investigations. A latent cancer may also remain undetected due to a false test result.

  8. Experimentar con un cohete de plasma

    NASA Video Gallery

    El Dr. Franklin Chang-Díaz, el primer astronauta hispano de la NASA, es actualmente el presidente y CEO de Ad Astra Rocket Company, la empresa que desarrolla el nuevo cohete de plasma VASIMR. Apren...

  9. Women in Combat Pros and Cons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    secondary to domestic duties. Combat is directly oppossed to a women’s nuturing role and is wrong because of both values and perceived deficient...opportunities should be equal, including the right and duty to defend your country. Discrimination for employment should be based upon objective and...bonding excludes sexual relationships of either a heterosexual or homosexual nature . Some believe that. this bonding would degenerate into sexual

  10. Open Admissions: The Pros and Cons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barzun, Jacques; And Others

    The Council for Basic Education sponsored an all-day symposium on open admissions in 1971. This booklet contains the full text of the addresses given on that occasion, as well as the major part of the discussion among the panelists and answers to questions from the audience. The aim of the symposium was not only to provide information about…

  11. The Big Con: China's Historical Sabotage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrence Cheng

    2009-01-01

    On June 4, 1989, the Chinese military, under orders from the highest levels of government, violently crushed peaceful civilian demonstrations in Beijing, most symbolically in and around Tiananmen Square. In the end, the Chinese government claimed that the death toll was approximately 200, but the Chinese Red Cross reported 2,000 to 3,000 deaths.…

  12. Technical pro & cons of the laparoscopic lymphadenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Riccardo; Giannone Codiglione, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopy has been introduced in treatment of gastric cancer to reduce surgical trauma and to improve post-operative functional recovery. Most of international guidelines allow the use of this minimally invasive approach in general surgical practice only in clinical stage I. One of the most important concerns in fact is the feasibility of D2 lymphadenectomy through laparoscopy. Reduced numbers of harvested lymph nodes have been reported, particularly in stations with a more difficult access. Nevertheless subsequent papers reported adequate numbers of total number of nodes retrieved, even with D2 dissection and even in complex stations but results from randomized controlled trials still lack. Laparoscopic approach has been proven safe and effective also in extremely complex maneuvers as spleen-preserving retropancreatic lymphadenectomy. The minimally invasive approach in D2 lymphadenectomy seems to be associated to comparable incidence of specific complications as compared to open surgery. The use of laparoscopy has extended the operating time but has reduced the blood loss. Because of high complexity of this kind surgery, laparoscopic gastric surgery for cancer should be done only in referral centers. PMID:28138658

  13. Roofing with Urethane: Pro and Con.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Michael; Scott, Gerald P.E.

    1981-01-01

    Gerald Scott's favorable evaluation of the foamed polyurethane roofing system is based on experiences with 55 buildings at Texas A & M. Michael Kinzer, an architect at Colorado State University, disagrees and claims that the system is difficult to install and maintain, and the cost prohibitive. (MLF)

  14. Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L

    2006-03-01

    Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors.

  15. The pros and cons of phytoestrogens

    PubMed Central

    Patisaul, Heather B.; Jefferson, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant derived compounds found in a wide variety of foods, most notably soy. A litany of health benefits including a lowered risk of osteoporosis, heart disease, breast cancer, and menopausal symptoms, are frequently attributed to phytoestrogens but many are also considered endocrine disruptors, indicating that they have the potential to cause adverse health effects as well. Consequently, the question of whether or not phytoestrogens are beneficial or harmful to human health remains unresolved. The answer is likely complex and may depend on age, health status, and even the presence or absence of specific gut microflora. Clarity on this issue is needed because global consumption is rapidly increasing. Phytoestrogens are present in numerous dietary supplements and widely marketed as a natural alternative to estrogen replacement therapy. Soy infant formula now constitutes up to a third of the US market, and soy protein is now added to many processed foods. As weak estrogen agonists/antagonists with molecular and cellular properties similar to synthetic endocrine disruptors such as Bisphenol A (BPA), the phytoestrogens provide a useful model to comprehensively investigate the biological impact of endocrine disruptors in general. This review weighs the evidence for and against the purported health benefits and adverse effects of phytoestrogens. PMID:20347861

  16. Pros and cons of hydraulic drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using hydraulic drilling are discussed. The low maintenance, energy efficiency, drilling speeds, and operating costs are the main advantages of the hydraulic drills. The economics and maintenance of air drills are also compared.

  17. Cost-effectiveness thresholds: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Melanie Y; Lauer, Jeremy A; De Joncheere, Kees; Edejer, Tessa; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Hill, Suzanne R

    2016-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is used to compare the costs and outcomes of alternative policy options. Each resulting cost-effectiveness ratio represents the magnitude of additional health gained per additional unit of resources spent. Cost-effectiveness thresholds allow cost-effectiveness ratios that represent good or very good value for money to be identified. In 2001, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics in Health suggested cost-effectiveness thresholds based on multiples of a country's per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). In some contexts, in choosing which health interventions to fund and which not to fund, these thresholds have been used as decision rules. However, experience with the use of such GDP-based thresholds in decision-making processes at country level shows them to lack country specificity and this - in addition to uncertainty in the modelled cost-effectiveness ratios - can lead to the wrong decision on how to spend health-care resources. Cost-effectiveness information should be used alongside other considerations - e.g. budget impact and feasibility considerations - in a transparent decision-making process, rather than in isolation based on a single threshold value. Although cost-effectiveness ratios are undoubtedly informative in assessing value for money, countries should be encouraged to develop a context-specific process for decision-making that is supported by legislation, has stakeholder buy-in, for example the involvement of civil society organizations and patient groups, and is transparent, consistent and fair.

  18. Communicating genetic risk: pros, cons, and counsel.

    PubMed

    Penson, R T; Seiden, M V; Shannon, K M; Lubratovich, M L; Roche, M; Chabner, B A; Lynch, T J

    2000-01-01

    Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a non-profit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery, which provides hope to the patient, support to caregivers, and encourages the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. This case is of a woman with a personal, and a strong family history of breast cancer, who considered genetic testing for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The details of the case have been altered to protect the patient's anonymity. The patient was very anxious and there was disagreement between her healthcare providers about the potential benefits of genetic testing. The discussion of the case focused on several controversial issues, particularly the ownership of genetic information, and who is responsible for disseminating information to the family members at risk. The difficulties in communicating risk, providing emotional support and coping with the continuing uncertainties about screening and intervention are reviewed with an overview of the molecular biology, inheritance, and epidemiology of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes.

  19. Home Birth: Know the Pros and Cons

    MedlinePlus

    ... America. British Medical Journal. 2005;330:1. Boucher D, et al. Staying home to give birth: Why women in the United States choose home birth. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2009;54:119. Davis-Floyd R. Home birth emergencies in the U.S. and Mexico: ...

  20. Con: Licensure unnecessary in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Garon, Jack E

    2006-01-31

    Those who argue in favor of licensure for clinical laboratory scientists have their priorities in order, but fail to recognize the realities that would ensue were national licensure to be instituted. Higher health-care costs, elimination of rural facilities, and licensure board fraud are all unintended, yet dangerous, consequences that could occur. In his argument against national licensure, laboratory director Jack Garon summarizes some of the most salient research done regarding licensure and presents his case why it is unnecessary in the clinical laboratory.

  1. Weighing the Pros and Cons of TAP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieczura, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Headlines offer a plethora of opinions and arguments both for and against proposed and newly implemented teacher evaluation systems all over the United States. Hardly anyone balks at the idea of evaluating teachers, but many question whether these new evaluation systems really improve teaching and learning. The author's experience with the new…

  2. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Atypical Pros and Cons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurologic diseases that affect several mammalian species including human beings. Four animal TSE agents have been reported: scrapie of sheep and goats; chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk, and moose; transmissible mink encephalopath...

  3. Vencemos Con Libros Y La Lengua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Daniel Flores, Comp.

    The city of Richmond, California has many residents who read and speak only Spanish, and many other Chicanos and Latin Americans who are interested in their heritage. The Service Center Branch of the public library has a collection of books, magazines, and records in Spanish and in English on the problems, history and culture of these people. This…

  4. Technical pro & cons of the laparoscopic lymphadenectomy.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Riccardo; Parise, Paolo; Giannone Codiglione, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopy has been introduced in treatment of gastric cancer to reduce surgical trauma and to improve post-operative functional recovery. Most of international guidelines allow the use of this minimally invasive approach in general surgical practice only in clinical stage I. One of the most important concerns in fact is the feasibility of D2 lymphadenectomy through laparoscopy. Reduced numbers of harvested lymph nodes have been reported, particularly in stations with a more difficult access. Nevertheless subsequent papers reported adequate numbers of total number of nodes retrieved, even with D2 dissection and even in complex stations but results from randomized controlled trials still lack. Laparoscopic approach has been proven safe and effective also in extremely complex maneuvers as spleen-preserving retropancreatic lymphadenectomy. The minimally invasive approach in D2 lymphadenectomy seems to be associated to comparable incidence of specific complications as compared to open surgery. The use of laparoscopy has extended the operating time but has reduced the blood loss. Because of high complexity of this kind surgery, laparoscopic gastric surgery for cancer should be done only in referral centers.

  5. Standardisation of Study Protocols - Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    D'Haens, Geert

    2016-09-01

    Designing clinical trials in inflammatory bowel diseases is challenging. Composite scores that have been used for drug approval until recently such as the Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) and the Mayo score for ulcerative colitis have been criticized by regulatory bodies for its lack of validation, poor correlation with objective mucosal disease and absence of 'patient reported outcomes'.Most drug development programs use the 'classic 'separation' between an induction and a maintenance phase. Challenging issues are the 'ideal timing' of the primary endpoint for induction and maintenance studies, strategies to reduce placebo response rates and rules for corticosteroids withdrawal. Discussion about which patients to re-randomize after induction into the maintenance phase of the study is critical.Presently, new instruments for disease assessment in IBD are being developed and validated. Central (independent) review of endoscopic recordings at screening and at the end of the intervention will probably become standard. Finally, the most optimal trial design for every individual intervention is likely to depend on the mechanism of action of the medication under study.

  6. Pro v Con Reviews: Is Food Addictive?

    PubMed Central

    Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G.-J.; Tomasi, D.; Baler, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Drug addiction and obesity appear to share several properties. Both can be defined as disorders in which the saliency of a specific type of reward (food or drug) becomes exaggerated relative to, and at the expense of others rewards. Both drugs and food have powerful reinforcing effects, which are in part mediated by abrupt dopamine increases in the brain reward centres. The abrupt dopamine increases, in vulnerable individuals, can override the brain’s homeostatic control mechanisms. These parallels have generated interest in understanding the shared vulnerabilities between addiction and obesity. Predictably, they also engendered a heated debate. Specifically, brain imaging studies are beginning to uncover common features between these two conditions and delineate some of the overlapping brain circuits whose dysfunctions may underlie the observed deficits. The combined results suggest that both obese and drug-addicted individuals suffer from impairments in dopaminergic pathways that regulate neuronal systems associated not only with reward sensitivity and incentive motivation, but also with conditioning, self-control, stress reactivity and interoceptive awareness. In parallel, studies are also delineating differences between them that centre on the key role that peripheral signals involved with homeostatic control exert on food intake. Here, we focus on the shared neurobiological substrates of obesity and addiction. PMID:23016694

  7. Eduquemos con Musica (Let's Educate with Music).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiva, Raquel Ojeda

    This elementary and preschool music textbook is designed to reflect Latin America and Caribbean Island cultures and to be useful in both school classrooms and in teacher training courses. Short, easy to learn songs, illustrated pages, and 10 musical games are combined to teach musical forms, rhythm, auditory discrimination, language usage, motor…

  8. Pros and cons of marketing technology.

    PubMed

    MacStravic, R S

    1988-10-01

    For years, high technologies have provided hospitals with marketing advantages. Hospitals used them to recruit and keep physicians and to lure patients and purchasers. Having the latest technology in a given field provided hospitals with status and prestige and enabled smaller facilities to compete with major medical centers. From a marketing point of view, technologies can produce four distinct effects that benefit the hospital: halo, monopoly, opportunity, and momentum effects. The best technology, from a competitive marketing viewpoint, meets the following criteria: The hospital can operate it at acceptable and, hopefully, competitive quality levels. The hospital can offer it at acceptable and, hopefully, competitive cost. It is sufficiently accessible to patients who need it. It gives the hospital a distinct competence in its market that can be preserved for a long time. But technology can become a risky business if: The hospital cannot attract the volume of patients needed to maintain quality. The low-volume hospital prices itself out of the competitive market. The new technology has undisclosed or undiscovered side effects. The technology is recruited by a competitor. Hospitals place more value on it than do their customers.

  9. Nanoparticles: health effects--pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Gwinn, Maureen R; Vallyathan, Val

    2006-12-01

    With the advent of nanotechnology, the prospects for using engineered nanomaterials with diameters of < 100 nm in industrial applications, medical imaging, disease diagnoses, drug delivery, cancer treatment, gene therapy, and other areas have progressed rapidly. The potential for nanoparticles (NPs) in these areas is infinite, with novel new applications constantly being explored. The possible toxic health effects of these NPs associated with human exposure are unknown. Many fine particles generally considered "nuisance dusts" are likely to acquire unique surface properties when engineered to nanosize and may exhibit toxic biological effects. Consequently, the nuisance dust may be transported to distant sites and could induce adverse health effects. In addition the beneficial uses of NPs in drug delivery, cancer treatment, and gene therapy may cause unintentional human exposure. Because of our lack of knowledge about the health effects associated with NP exposure, we have an ethical duty to take precautionary measures regarding their use. In this review we highlight the possible toxic human health effects that can result from exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) generated by anthropogenic activities and their cardiopulmonary outcomes. The comparability of engineered NPs to UFPs suggests that the human health effects are likely to be similar. Therefore, it is prudent to elucidate their toxicologic effect to minimize occupational and environmental exposure. Highlighting the human health outcomes caused by UFPs is not intended to give a lesser importance to either the unprecedented technologic and industrial rewards of the nanotechnology or their beneficial human uses.

  10. Licensing: pros and cons for biotech.

    PubMed

    Villiger, Ralph; Bogdan, Boris

    2009-03-01

    This article guides the reader through strategic considerations when facing the option to license a drug development project. It is crucial to understand these licensing events in their full complexity in order to achieve maximum value for the company and the shareholders, while minimizing risk. First, the nature of various license agreements and the needs of licensor and licensee are discussed. Second, the main strategic issues for the licensor are explained and a guideline, how to come to a decision whether to license and to what terms, is given. Third, the authors explain how to overcome different assumptions when negotiating a license contract.

  11. Bacteriophages in dairy products: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Mc Grath, Stephen; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2007-04-01

    Since the time bacteriophages were first identified as a major cause of fermentation failure in the dairy industry, researchers have been struggling to develop strategies to exclude them from the dairy environment. Over 70 years of research has led to huge improvements in the consistency and quality of fermented dairy products, while also facilitating an appreciation of the beneficial properties of bacteriophages with respect to dairy product development. With specific reference to Lactococcus lactis and cheese production, this review outlines some recently reported novel methods aimed at limiting the bacteriophage infection as well as highlighting some beneficial aspects of bacteriophage activity.

  12. McLuhan: Pro and Con.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Raymond, Ed.

    Twenty-one critical essays on the ideas and works of Marshall McLuhan are offered in this review. In the course of the essays, McLuhan is characterized alternately as a genius, an extrapolator, and an oracle; a defender of the choice of choicelessness; a generalizer who rearranges, misinterprets, and misreads the facts to support his theses; an…

  13. [Pros and cons of legalizing marijuana].

    PubMed

    Mönckeberg B, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    There are already several countries that have accepted marijuana as a soft drug, separating it from more dangerous ones. Yarious therapeutic properties have even been attributed to its use. Others, however, think that its use should be prohibited due to the mental interference and behavioral changes produced either by its occasional use as well as the permanent mental damage linked to chronic marijuana use. In order to clarify this divergence of opinions, the scientific literature is reviewed. It is concluded that there is a serious risk, especially for teenagers, associated to chronic marijuana use due to the presence of more frequent psychotic and schizophrenic episodes, which can be permanent, while consumption during pregnancy results in brain damage to the fetus, similar to fetal alcohol syndrome. Scientific research also indicated that smoking marijuana produces an even more severe bronchial damage than tobacco, with risk of lung cancer. In conclusion, the notion that marijuana is a risk-free soft drug is a serious mistake, based on the available conclusive scientific research that shows the opposite.

  14. Con: Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    Phosphate binders are prescribed to chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients based on associations of serum phosphate concentrations with mortality and calcification, experimental evidence for direct calcifying effects of phosphate on vascular smooth muscle tissue and the central importance of phosphate retention in CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Current knowledge regarding phosphate metabolism in CKD provides important insight into disease mechanisms and supports future clinical trials of phosphate binders in CKD patients to determine the impact of these medications on clinically relevant outcomes. The risks and benefits of phosphate binders cannot be inferred from association studies of serum phosphate concentrations, which are inconsistent and subject to confounding, animal-experimental data, which are based on conditions that differ from human disease, or physiological arguments, which are limited to known regulatory factors. Many interventions that targeted biochemical pathways suggested by association studies and suspected biological importance have yielded null or harmful results. Clinical trials of phosphate binders are of high clinical and scientific importance to nephrology. Demonstration of reduced rates of clinical disease in such trials could lead to important health benefits for CKD patients, whereas negative results would refocus efforts to understand and treat CKD-MBD. Clinical trials that employ highly practical or 'pragmatic' designs represent an optimal approach for determining the safety and effectiveness of phosphate binders in real-world settings. Absent clinical trial data, observational studies of phosphate binders in large CKD populations could provide important information regarding the benefits, risks and/or unintended side effects of these medications.

  15. The Pros and Cons of Army Automation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-13

    for the Army was changing the identification card to a smart card . Early in 1999, the Secretary of Defense signed a memo about smart card adoption...and implementation. Today that smart card technology is called the Common Access Card (CAC) and it replaced the DA Form 2, identification card. The...www.historyofwar.org 6. Common Access Card – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved October 24, 2007 from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_Access_Card 7. DOD Smart

  16. ConTACT Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Pascrell, Bill, Jr. [D-NJ-8

    2009-03-05

    11/15/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. The Foreign Language Teacher as "Con Artist."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jean S.

    A teacher's experiences in acquiring realia (mostly food-related) for her junior high school French classes are described. The collection of realistic props proved to be both a small adventure in itself and the source of a rewarding change in classroom instruction. The use of a simulated store, in which students bought and sold the imitation food,…

  18. Mandatory Arbitration: Weighing the Pros and Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settenbrino, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    When big businesses enter into mandatory arbitration agreements with consumers, the large companies typically tout the fairness while the individual is left feeling cheated. Now that mandatory arbitration clauses are finding their way into more and more contracts signed by school systems, school boards and district administrators are realizing…

  19. Pros and cons of solid state metering

    SciTech Connect

    Via, R.B.

    1995-10-01

    This paper addresses the problems and benefits of microprocessor based metering systems for electric power. The topics of the paper include historical aspects of power metering, mechanical meters, operating environments of power meters, reliability, cost, industry and customer acceptance, service life, and ease of adaptability to new rate structures.

  20. Dietary inflammatory index and anthropometric measures of obesity in a population sample at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) trial.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Canela, M; Zazpe, I; Shivappa, N; Hébert, J R; Sánchez-Tainta, A; Corella, D; Salas-Salvadó, J; Fitó, M; Lamuela-Raventós, R M; Rekondo, J; Fernández-Crehuet, J; Fiol, M; Santos-Lozano, J M; Serra-Majem, L; Pinto, X; Martínez, J A; Ros, E; Estruch, R; Martínez-González, M A

    2015-03-28

    The dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a new tool to assess the inflammatory potential of the diet. In the present study, we aimed to determine the association between the DII and BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio (WHtR). We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7236 participants recruited into the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea trial. Information from a validated 137-item FFQ was used to calculate energy, food and nutrient intakes. A fourteen-item dietary screener was used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet). Sex-specific multivariable linear regression models were fitted to estimate differences (and 95 % CI) in BMI, waist circumference and WHtR across the quintiles of the DII. All nutrient intakes, healthy foods and adherence to the MeDiet were higher in the quintile with the lowest DII score (more anti-inflammatory values) except for intakes of animal protein, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat. Although an inverse association between the DII and total energy was apparent, the DII was associated with higher average BMI, waist circumference and WHtR after adjusting for known risk factors. The adjusted difference in the WHtR for women and men between the highest and lowest quintiles of the DII was 1·60 % (95 % CI 0·87, 2·33) and 1·04 % (95 % CI 0·35, 1·74), respectively. Pro-inflammatory scores remained associated with obesity after controlling for the effect that adherence to a MeDiet had on inflammation. In conclusion, the present study shows a direct association between the DII and indices of obesity, and supports the hypothesis that diet may have a role in the development of obesity through inflammatory modulation mechanisms.

  1. Association between dietary fibre intake and fruit, vegetable or whole-grain consumption and the risk of CVD: results from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial.

    PubMed

    Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Toledo, Estefania; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Zazpe, Itziar; Farràs, Marta; Basterra-Gortari, Francisco Javier; Diez-Espino, Javier; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Ros, Emilio; Marti, Amelia; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Arós, Fernando; Moñino, Manuel; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Babio, Nancy; Gonzalez, Jose I; Fitó, Montserrat; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2016-08-01

    Prospective studies assessing the association between fibre intake or fibre-rich food consumption and the risk of CVD have often been limited by baseline assessment of diet. Thus far, no study has used yearly repeated measurements of dietary changes during follow-up. Moreover, previous studies included healthy and selected participants who did not represent subjects at high cardiovascular risk. We used yearly repeated measurements of diet to investigate the association between fibre intake and CVD in a Mediterranean cohort of elderly adults at high cardiovascular risk. We followed-up 7216 men (55-80 years) and women (60-80 years) initially free of CVD for up to 7 years in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study (registered as ISRCTN35739639). A 137-item validated FFQ was repeated yearly to assess diet. The primary end point, confirmed by a blinded ad hoc Event Adjudication Committee, was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. Time-dependent Cox's regression models were used to estimate the risk of CVD according to baseline dietary exposures and to their yearly updated changes. We found a significant inverse association for fibre (P for trend=0·020) and fruits (P for trend=0·024) in age-sex adjusted models, but the statistical significance was lost in fully adjusted models. However, we found a significant inverse association with CVD incidence for the sum of fruit and vegetable consumption. Participants who consumed in total nine or more servings/d of fruits plus vegetables had a hazard ratio 0·60 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·96) of CVD in comparison with those consuming <5 servings/d.

  2. Dietary inflammatory index and anthropometric measures of obesity in a population sample at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Canela, M.; Zazpe, I.; Shivappa, N.; Hébert, J. R.; Sánchez-Tainta, A.; Corella, D.; Salas-Salvadó, J.; Fitó, M.; Lamuela-Raventós, R. M.; Rekondo, J.; Fernández-Crehuet, J.; Fiol, M.; Santos-Lozano, J. M.; Serra-Majem, L.; Pinto, X.; Martínez, J. A.; Ros, E.; Estruch, R.; Martínez-González, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a new tool to assess the inflammatory potential of the diet. In the present study, we aimed to determine the association between the DII and BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio (WHtR). We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7236 participants recruited into the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea trial. Information from a validated 137-item FFQ was used to calculate energy, food and nutrient intakes. A fourteen-item dietary screener was used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet). Sex-specific multivariable linear regression models were fitted to estimate differences (and 95% CI) in BMI, waist circumference and WHtR across the quintiles of the DII. All nutrient intakes, healthy foods and adherence to the MeDiet were higher in the quintile with the lowest DII score (more anti-inflammatory values) except for intakes of animal protein, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat. Although an inverse association between the DII and total energy was apparent, the DII was associated with higher average BMI, waist circumference and WHtR after adjusting for known risk factors. The adjusted difference in the WHtR for women and men between the highest and lowest quintiles of the DII was 1.60% (95% CI 0.87, 2.33) and 1.04% (95% CI 0.35, 1.74), respectively. Pro-inflammatory scores remained associated with obesity after controlling for the effect that adherence to a MeDiet had on inflammation. In conclusion, the present study shows a direct association between the DII and indices of obesity, and supports the hypothesis that diet may have a role in the development of obesity through inflammatory modulation mechanisms. PMID:25720588

  3. Investigaccion-accion en la sala de clases sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios y su relacion reciproca con el aprendizaje de las ciencias biologicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova-Santiago, Lizzette Astrid

    La investigacion---accion que se llevo a cabo en la sala de clases tenia como punto de partida las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios para luego examinar sus implicaciones en el proceso de aprendizaje de las Ciencias Biologicas. ¿Que se supone que hagan las creencias en relacion con el aprendizaje? ¿En que consiste incorporar este aspecto a la practica educativa universitaria? Utilizando el modelo de Kemmis y McTaggart (1987) la investigacion-accion se planteo como un proceso dinamico en cuatro momentos en espiral constituidos por la planificacion, la accion, la observacion y la reflexion. Cada una de las fases tuvo una intencion retrospectiva y prospectiva formando una espiral de autorreflexion del conocimiento y la accion. Se llevaron a cabo audio grabaciones en clases y analisis de documentos. Ademas, la profesora-investigadora hizo un portafolio para reflexionar sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tienen los estudiantes y las creencias del aprendizaje que tiene la profesora y sobre como la comprension de estos elementos ayudo a mejorar su practica educativa a traves del tiempo. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan a que las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tiene el grupo de estudiantes son diversas. Ellos si creen que la ciencia tiene una cultura la cual describieron como: complicada y desconocida que evoluciona constantemente, que es un conjunto de metodos, que es altamente tecnologica, que resuelve problemas de salud, ayuda a interpretar la realidad del mundo que los rodea y su origen y que existen unas intersecciones entre la ciencia y el poder. Sobre las creencias del proceso de aprendizaje de la profesora-investigadora, estas senalan que el modelaje de actores, la vision de la academia que tiene ella asi como la participacion y negociacion entre todos los involucrados en el proceso educativo, son factores que inciden en el proceso de aprendizaje.

  4. Assistance circulatoire extracorporelle percutanée dans les défaillances hémodynamiques aiguës graves : Expérience monocentrique chez 100 patients consécutifs

    PubMed Central

    Vanzetto, Gerald; Akret, Chrystelle; Bach, Vincent; Barone, Gilles; Durand, Michel; Chavanon, Olivier; Hacini, Rachid; Bouvaist, Hélène; Machecourt, Jacques; Blin, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXTE : L’ECLS (extracorporeal life support) est une assistance circulatoire de plus en plus fréquemment employée chez l’adulte dans le cadre des arrêts cardiorespiratoires (ACR) et des défaillances hémodynamiques ne répondant pas aux traitements classiques. OBJECTIFS : Le but était d’évaluer la faisabilité et les résultats de 100 procédures consécutives d’ECLS artérioveineuses percutanées au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble (France) entre janvier 2002 et septembre 2007. MÉTHODES : Registre monocentrique descriptif avec suivi prospectif à 1 an. RÉSULTATS : L’ECLS a été posée avec succès chez 93 % des patients. Son indication était un choc cardiogénique dans 50 % des cas, un ACR dans 38 % des cas et un échec de sevrage de circulation extracorporelle (CEC) en fin d’intervention de chirurgie cardiothoracique dans 12 % des cas. Des complications directement liées à l’ECLS ont été notées chez 56 % des patients, les plus fréquentes étant une hémorragie au niveau des points de ponctions avec transfusion de culots globulaires (26 %) et une ischémie des membres inférieurs (19 %). Le sevrage de l’assistance a pu être effectué chez 33 patients (44 % des chocs cardiogéniques, 13 % des ACR, 50 % des échecs de sevrage de CEC) et 20 patients sont sortis de l’hôpital (26 % des chocs cardiogéniques, 10,5 % des ACR et 25 % des échecs de sevrage de CEC). Tous sont vivants à distance sans séquelles graves (suivi moyen : 16,8 mois). CONCLUSION : L’emploi de l’ECLS chez les patients en ACR et surtout en choc cardiogénique est faisable, avec un taux de survie satisfaisant vu la gravité initiale extrême de leur état. PMID:19536387

  5. Pneumatic positioning and mesh fixation in laparoscopic ventral/incisional hernia repair. New surgical technique and a new device.

    PubMed

    Darecchio, Antonio; Bocchi, Paolo; Kukleta, Jan F

    2015-01-01

    Oggetto di questa pubblicazione è la descrizione di una nuova tecnica chirurgica per la riparazione videolaparoscopica di laparoceli ed ernie della parete addominale anteriore. Tale tecnica è strettamente dipendente dall’utilizzo di un nuovo strumento pneumatico per il posizionamento della protesi. Attualmente esistono in commercio svariati tipi di protesi intraperitoneali con valide caratteristiche strutturali. Tuttavia lo scoglio concettuale rimane sui metodi e sui mezzi di fissaggio delle protesi. I mezzi meccanici di qualsiasi conformazione per il fatto stesso di essere dei mezzi meccanici (spirali metalliche ancorette e viti) espongono al pericolo di danno iatrogeno le strutture vascolari nervose che possono incontrare nel loro percorso. La nuova tecnica proposta mira alla perfetta distensione delle protesi per utilizzo intraperitoneale ed ai loro ottimale fissaggio con adesivo chirurgico in condizioni di sicurezza per le strutture circostanti. Tale tecnica è stata eseguita su cadavere di suino* con protesi intraperitoneali di poliestere-gel-collageno e cyanoacrylate come adesivo chirurgico ma non è esclusa la fattibilità con altri tipi di colle, di protesi, protesi auto-adesive già esistenti in commercio o che potrebbero essere appositamente prodotte.

  6. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Toni; Ficapal-Cusí, Pilar; Aguilar-Martínez, Alicia

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: a pesar de la relevancia nutricional del desayuno para el desarrollo y su asociación a un mejor aprendizaje y rendimiento escolar, numerosos estudios ponen en evidencia que en muchos casos se omite o se hace mal.Objetivo: determinar la calidad del desayuno de estudiantes de entre 10 y 16 años con intención de determinar en qué momento sería conveniente realizar programas educativos sobre la importancia de esta comida y cómo mejorar su calidad.Método: estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal a partir de un cuestionario con preguntas cerradas acerca de los hábitos de alimentación en el desayuno en estudiantes de educación primaria y secundaria.Resultados y conclusión: solo el 18,5% de los estudiantes realiza un desayuno de buena calidad y su mala calidad va aumentando progresivamente con los cursos y se asocia al hecho de desayunar solo. En ambos niveles educativos los alimentos más consumidos en casa pertenecen al grupo de los lácteos y los cereales, mientras que en el centro escolar, el bocadillo resulta el desayuno más habitual; no obstante se observan diferencias entre primaria y secundaria en cuanto al consumo de fruta y bebidas azucaradas, entre otros.Conclusión: sería interesante valorar la instauración de programas de desayuno escolar incluyendo en ellos no solo a estudiantes de primaria, sino también, y especialmente, a adolescentes pues son estos quienes omiten esta comida en mayor proporción. Las intervenciones deberían orientarse a corregir las desviaciones más habituales observadas en cada uno de los niveles educativos.

  7. [Opinion of undergraduate health sciences students towards ethical issues related to HIV-positive persons in schools, workplaces and health centers].

    PubMed

    Apellaniz, Alfonso; Manzanaro, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Objetivos: Conocer la opinión de estudiantes de carreras sanitarias de la Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU) acerca de conflictos éticos relacionados con las personas VIH+ en centros docentes, de trabajo y sanitarios. Métodos: La población de interés eran estudiantes de Medicina, Odontología y Enfermería de la UPV/EHU en todos los cursos de dichas titulaciones. A los alumnos presentes en el aula en fecha escogida aleatoriamente en el curso académico 2002-2003, se les ofreció rellenar una encuesta en la que se recogía su opinión sobre situaciones conflictivas relacionadas con la presencia de personas seropositivas (VIH+) en lugares de trabajo y centros públicos. Las opciones de respuesta eran cerradas, sobre una escala de cinco grados de acuerdo desde “Totalmente en desacuerdo” hasta “Totalmente de acuerdo”, incluyendo también las opciones “No deseo opinar” y “No tengo opinión formada sobre el tema”. Resultados: Se obtuvieron un total de 529 cuestionarios cumplimentados. Un 69% de los encuestados se manifiesta en total desacuerdo con no admitir niños VIH+ en colegios, y un 77% con el despido de trabajadores seropositivos. Un 90% acepta que la dirección de un colegio conozca si un alumno es VIH+. Un 78% está de acuerdo en tener compañeros de clase VIH+. Los encuestados no aceptan limitaciones laborales a los trabajadores sanitarios VIH+. Un 60% está totalmente en desacuerdo con que los sanitarios puedan rechazar el tratamiento de un paciente VIH+. Un 69% está de acuerdo con la obligatoriedad de la prueba VIH a los trabajadores sanitarios, y un 55% con que éstos puedan conocer la situación VIH de los pacientes. Conclusiones: En general, nuestra muestra se manifiesta en contra de limitaciones sociales o laborales a personas.

  8. Validation of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer Prognosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    Hernandez, Antonio Hurtado-Coll, Kyle Kuchinsky, Janet Liew, Rosario Mendez-Meza, Elizabeth Smith, Imelda Tenggarra, Xiaotun Zhang, Peter R. Carroll ...Jamaspishvili T, Wei W, Feng Z, Good J, Hawley S, Fazli L, McKenney J, Simko J, Hurtado-Coll A, Carroll P, Gleave M, Lance R, Lin D, Nelson P, Thompson I...Boyer, Ladan Fazli, Jeff Simko, Antonio Hurtado-Coll, Dean A. Troyer, Peter R. Carroll , Martin Gleave, Raymond Lance, Daniel W. Lin, Peter S. Nelson

  9. Debate: Does genetic information in humans help us treat patients? PRO--genetic information in humans helps us treat patients. CON--genetic information does not help at all.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Escueta, Antonio V; Bourgeois, Blaise F D

    2008-12-01

    is genotyping a prerequisite in the diagnosis of Dravet's syndrome and the progressive myoclonus epilepsies, but it also helps us choose the correct antiepileptic drugs to treat seizures in Dravet's syndrome and Unverricht-Lundborg PME. Genotyping also portends a brighter future, helping us to reassess the true course, severity, and progressive nature of Dravet's syndrome and Unverricht-Lundborg PME and helping us craft a future curative treatment for Dravet's syndrome and Lafora disease. Without the genotyping diagnosis of epilepsy causing mutations we are stuck with imprecise diagnosis and symptomatic treatment of seizures. CON: Genotyping of epilepsy may help to better understand the genetics of epilepsy, to establish an etiology in a patient with epilepsy, to provide genetic counseling, and to confirm a clinical diagnosis. However, critical analysis reveals that genotyping does not contribute to an improved treatment for the patients. In order to improve treatment, genotyping would have to (1) improve our ability to select the drug of choice for a given epilepsy or epileptic syndrome; (2) improve our ability to predict the individual risk of adverse reactions to certain drugs; (3) improve our ability to avoid unnecessary treatments or treatments that could aggravate seizures. Many example illustrate the lack of impact of genetic information on the treatment outcome: we do not treat Dravet syndrome more successfully since SCN1A testing became available; we do not treat Lafora disease more successfully since testing for laforin and malin became available; we do not need to know the genetic nature of Unverricht-Lundborg disease or test for the cystatin B mutation in order to select or avoid certain drugs; we do not treat Rett syndrome more successfully since MECP2 testing became available; we do not treat JME more successfully since we know its genetic origin; we do not treat autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy more successfully since we know its

  10. Influence of different modifications of a calcium phosphate cement on resorption and new bone formation: an in vivo study in the minipig.

    PubMed

    Tödtmann, Ninette; Lode, Anja; Mann, Romy; Mai, Ronald; Lauer, Günter; Wieczorek, Kathrin; Eckelt, Uwe

    2013-11-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are established in surgery as temporary bone replacement materials. The most common and important class of CPC, transformed into nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite after setting, is characterized by good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. However, acceleration of remodelling is in the focus of ongoing research. In the present study, the bone healing efficacy of Biocement D (BioD) modified with mineralized collagen alone (BioD/coll) or in combination with osteocalcin (BioD/coll/OC), O-phospho-L-serine (BioD/coll/PS), sodium citrate (BioD/coll/cit), and polylactide (BioD/coll/PL), respectively, was evaluated in a large animal model. Resorption of the bone substitutes and new bone formation were studied in cyst-like jaw defects of minipigs after filling with the unmodified BioD and the modified BioD variants, respectively. Histomorphometric analysis revealed small differences between the different cement types with respect to resorption. However, new bone formation was improved in case of defects repaired with BioD/coll/OC and BioD/coll/PS and slightly improved in case of BioD/coll and BioD/coll/PL.

  11. 78 FR 95 - Notice of Receipt of Requests for Amendments To Delete Uses in Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ...-Through nitrilopropiona Applications mide. for Colling Water, Metal working Fluids, Paints and Coatings...... Approved Seed 480 SC Treatment Use. Fungicide. 66330-65 Fluoxastrobin Fluoxastrobin... Approved...

  12. Short-Communication: Revisiting conclusions of the report titled, "The impact of psychological factors on self-reported sleep disturbance among people living in the vicinity of wind turbines," by Leila Jalali, Mohammad-Reza Nezhad-Ahmadi, Mahmood Gohari, Philip Bigelow, & Stephen McColl, published in environmental research, volume 148, July 2016, 401-410.

    PubMed

    Palmer, William K G

    2017-05-01

    The research report concluded, "It appears that self-reported sleep reported of participants may be associated to the indirect effects of visual and attitudinal cue and concern about property devaluation rather than distance to the nearest WT's or noise as itself." Careful reading of the report shows that the conclusions presented are not supported by the data provided in the report.

  13. Estudio de la fotoabsorción y fotoionización de la molécula de alta relevancia atmosférica no a través de los estados Rydberg con la metodología MQDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los procesos de fotoionización son de una importancia fundamental [1] y encuentran aplicación en un gran número de contextos científicos: Astrofísica [2], química de las radiaciones, biología. Los investigadores de dichos campos, necesitan de valores de fiables de secciones eficaces para la fotoionización parcial, la Fotoabsorción, así como para los procesos de fotofragmentación en amplios intervalos espectrales, particularmente en estudios de modelización [3-5]. En este trabajo se ha centrado la atención sobre el oxido nítrico, que se ha considerado apropiado y relevante por varios motivos: por el trascendental papel que representa en la física y química de la alta atmosfera [6], aparte de por estar íntimamente relacionado con los problemas de contaminación. Los procesos de recombinación disociativa [7] del NO, donde los estados Rydberg se encuentran directamente implicados, son relevantes, por ejemplo, en las regiones E y F de la ionosfera [7]. En este trabajo se estudia la fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental con la versión molecular del método del orbital de defecto cuántico (MQDO). Para ello se calcula el diferencial de las fuerzas de oscilador parciales que constituyen los canales de fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental. La continuidad del diferencial de fuerza de oscilador calculada a través del umbral de fotoionización, esto es, en las regiones del espectro discreta y del continua, se adopta como criterio de calidad la escasez de datos comparativos [8].

  14. [Platelet-rich plasma: updating of extraction devices].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Raquel; Gaspar Carreño, Marisa; Alonso Herreros, Jose María; Romero Garrido, Jose Antonio; López-Sánchez, Piedad

    2016-09-01

    Objetivo: Describir los dispositivos para la obtención de Plasma Rico en Plaquetas (PRP) mediante la revisión de los productos existentes en España, teniendo en consideración las aportaciones de la Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios (AEMPS) y los grupos de trabajo de Productos Sanitarios (GPS), Farmacotecnia y Hemoderivados de la Sociedad Española de Farmacia Hospitalaria (SEFH). Método: Se realizaron tres búsquedas independientes sobre dispositivos de fraccionamiento de plasma. Se contactó con los proveedores y se estableció una reunión con cada uno de ellos. Se revisaron las características de cada dispositivo mediante una demostración del proceso de fraccionamiento virtual y se elaboró una tabla de comparación de kits. Los dispositivos se clasificaron como Técnica cerrada y Técnica abierta de acuerdo al informe del comité técnico de inspección de la AEMPS. Resultados: Se localizaron diez dispositivos: ACP®; Angel®, Cascade®, Endoret®, GPS®, Magellan®, Minos®, Ortho-pras®, Smart-prepr® y Tricell®, pudiendo conocer de forma detallada el funcionamiento en siete de ellos. Sin embargo, de Cascade ®, Magellan® y Smart-prepr® no se consiguió información suficiente. Conclusión: La revisión permitió conocer los principales dispositivos de extracción de PRP disponibles con marcado CE y sus características diferenciales; sin embargo, para garantizar la calidad del producto final es crucial poner atención en el propio proceso de extracción y administración del PRP. El Servicio de Farmacia debe implicarse en su selección por la estrecha relación que mantiene con la calidad del medicamento elaborado. El trabajo conjunto con la AEMPS permitirá definir de forma más específica el proceso correcto de elaboración.

  15. Use of closed systems in the Hospital Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Forte Pérez-Minayo, María; Castillo Bazán, Eva; Hernández Segurado, Marta; Arias Moya, María Ángeles; Pelegrín Torres, Paloma; Bécares Martínez, Francisco Javier

    2016-03-01

    Objetivo: En el contexto del auge de los sistemas cerrados para la reconstitución y preparación de estos fármacos, se propone analizar el uso correcto de estos sistemas en el servicio de farmacia, con el objetivo de minimizar los riesgos de exposición no solo de los trabajadores expuestos, sino de todos los trabajadores del servicio, atendiendo también a criterios de eficiencia. Método: Puesto que algunos sistemas protegen frente a la formación de aerosoles pero no frente a vapores, decidimos revisar qué citostáticos debían prepararse con un punzón que constase de una válvula de admisión de aire para implementar un nuevo procedimiento de trabajo. Se revisaron las presentaciones disponibles en nuestro hospital atendiendo a: vía de administración, excipientes y riesgo para el personal manipulador, y se midieron los diámetros de los viales. Se seleccionaron tanto los fármacos de riesgo 1 como aquellos cuyos excipientes incluyesen vehículos alcohólicos, susceptibles de formar vapores. Resultados: De las 66 presentaciones revisadas, un total de 11 fármacos debían reconstituirse con este tipo de punzón: busulfán, cabazitaxel, carmustina, ciclofosfamida, eribulina, etopósido, fotemustina, melfalán, paclitaxel, temsirolimús y tiotepa; representando un 18% respecto al volumen total de presentaciones. Conclusiones: La selección de los productos sanitarios debe realizarse desde los servicios de farmacia, ya que la utilización de un sistema con válvula de admisión de aire para tan solo los fármacos seleccionados supuso un ahorro y un empleo más eficiente del material. Desde nuestra experiencia comprobamos que el uso de la aguja solo podía relegarse si el punzón se adaptaba a las diferentes presentaciones de citostáticos, y esto solo se consigue disponiendo de varios tipos de punzones. Además, las conexiones solo estaban realmente cerradas si se utilizaba un punzón por cada vial. Con el cambio en la metodología de trabajo a la hora de

  16. The Social Ecology of Maternal Infant Care in Socially and Economically Marginalized Community in Southern Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoud, Nihaya; O'Campo, Patricia; Anderson, Kim; Agbaria, Ayman K.; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to better understand the social ecology of infant care (IC) as experienced and perceived by mothers living in a deprived Arab Bedouin community in Israel, where children's health indicators are poor. We used the integrative model of Garcia Coll et al. (Garcia Coll C, Lamberty G, Jenkins R "et al." An integrative model for…

  17. Comparative Graphics: History and Applications of Perceptual Integrality Theory and the Proximity Compatibility Hypothesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    of displaying multiple sources of information in similar or proximal ways (Wickens et al., 1985; Polson, Wickens, Colle, & Klapp , 1986). This...Corry. Playfair, W. (1801). Commercial and political atlas (3rd ed.). London: Stockdale. Poison, M., Wickens, C., Colle, H., & Klapp , H. (1986

  18. Synthesis, characterization and bioevaluation of drug-collagen hybrid materials for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Voicu, Georgeta; Geanaliu-Nicolae, Ruxandra-Elena; Pîrvan, Adrian-Alexandru; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Iordache, Florin

    2016-08-30

    This work presents a study based on the preparation and characterization of drug-collagen hybrid materials. Materials used for obtaining drug-collagen hybrids were collagen type I (Coll) as matrix and fludarabine (F) and epirubicin (E) as hydrophilic active substances. After incorporation of drugs into Coll in different ratios, the obtained hybrid materials (Coll/F and Coll/E) could be used according to our results as potential drug delivery systems in medicine for the topical (local) treatment of cancerous tissues (e.g. the treatment of breast, stomach, lung, colorectal or advanced ovarian cancer). The materials were characterized considering their composition (by XRD, FT-IR and DTA-TG) and their morphology (by SEM). The delivery of drug was assessed by UV-vis. The in vitro citotoxicity demonstrates an antitumoral activity of the obtained hybrid materials and their potential use for biomedical applications as drug delivery systems in tumoral treatments.

  19. [Home parenteral nutrition; satisfaction of patients and their caregivers with nutrition unit and pharmacy service].

    PubMed

    Arrabal Durán, Paula; Romero Jiménez, Rosa María; Cuerda Compes, Cristina; Camblor Álvarez, Miguel; Bretón Lesmes, Irene; De Lorenzo Pinto, Ana; Buendía Bravo, Silvia; Frías Soriano, Laura; García Peris, Pilar; Sanjurjo Sáez, María

    2014-05-01

    Introducción: La Nutrición Parenteral Domiciliaria (NPD) es una práctica en continuo crecimiento por las importantes ventajas que presenta para el paciente y el sistema sanitario. En la investigación de los resultados en salud resulta hoy en día fundamental evaluar el punto de vista del paciente. Dentro de las medidas centradas en el paciente con NPD se han realizado varios estudios sobre la calidad de vida, pero no se ha evaluado el grado de satisfacción con esta modalidad de tratamiento. Objetivos: Evaluar el grado de satisfacción de los pacientes que reciben NPD y sus cuidadores con los médicos, farmacéuticos y enfermeros de hospital. Métodos: Se repartió una encuesta anónima y que constaba de 48 preguntas cerradas a los pacientes que recibían NPD y a sus cuidadores, los cuales contestaron de forma voluntaria. Con las respuestas recogidas se creó una base de datos en el programa SPSS con las siguientes variables: datos personales, socioculturales, clínicos y relacionados con la NPD y valoración del personal sanitario implicado (área de nutrición del Servicio de Farmacia y Unidades Médica y de Enfermería de Nutrición) y de las instalaciones del hospital relacionadas con la NPD. También se incluyó un apartado de sugerencias con respuesta abierta. Resultados: Se repartieron 24 encuestas, 12 a pacientes y 12 a cuidadores. La tasa de respuesta fue un 91,7% en el caso de los pacientes y un 58,3% en los cuidadores. El 63,6% de los pacientes y el 42,9% de los cuidadores eran mujeres. La media de edad fue, respectivamente, 46,1 años (DE: 13,7) y 47,0 años (DE: 3,6). La mayoría de los pacientes (54,5%) y de los cuidadores (42,9%) tenían estudios secundarios y eran pensionistas (72,7% y 71,4%, respectivamente). Las enfermedades de base de los pacientes fueron: enteritis rádica (27,3%), obstrucción intestinal (18,2%), carcinomatosis intestinal (45,5%) y enfermedad de Crohn (9,1%). Con respecto a los ítems que evaluaban la satisfacción con m

  20. [Implementation of respiratory rehabilitation in the municipalities of Valparaíso, Viña del Mar, Quilpué and Villa Alemana in 2013].

    PubMed

    Manriquez Villarroel, Pablo; Colines Rodríguez, Yasna; Poblete Vega, Felipe; Otárola Bravo, Jaime; Paredes Barrera, Cristhian; Acuña Cabrera, Ana María

    2014-10-03

    Introducción: La rehabilitación respiratoria es un pilar fundamental en el tratamiento del paciente con Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica. Reduce importantemente los costos para el sistema de salud, el uso de recursos sanitarios, disminuyendo la estadía hospitalaria y las consultas a servicios de urgencia. Objetivo: Describir la condición actual de la rehabilitación respiratoria en los centros de atención primaria ubicados en la región de Valparaíso. Método: Se aplicó una encuesta cerrada a cada profesional a cargo del área respiratoria en los centros de atención primaria de salud. La muestra estuvo conformada por 32 centros de salud correspondientes a las comunas de Valparaíso, Viña del Mar, Quilpué y Villa Alemana. Resultados: 9 centros (28%) del total de la muestra realizan rehabilitación respiratoria y el mismo número tiene un programa de rehabilitación estructurado. En 15 (47%) de los centros existe un Nutricionista dentro del equipo de salud. En el 100% de los centros se evalúa a los pacientes mediante espirometría y escalas de disnea. La mayoría de los centros (89%) realiza entrenamiento de extremidades superiores e inferiores. Dentro de los factores que limitan la realización de la rehabilitación respiratoria, 20 (63%) centros refieren que el horario de atención es uno de los factores más limitantes, mientras que 23 (72%) centros refieren que no cuentan con espacio físico adecuado y 22 (69%) centros relatan no contar con los implementos mínimos necesarios. Discusión: Los datos obtenidos indican que en la mayoría de los centros encuestados no se realiza rehabilitación respiratoria como parte del tratamiento del paciente con Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica, principalmente por problemas de recursos humanos, materiales e infraestructura.

  1. The Pros and Cons of Performance-Based Compensation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solmon, Lewis C.; Podgursky, Michael

    This paper analyzes the current and historical criticism of performance-based compensation in K-12 education. It claims that new compensation methods are feasible and are necessary in order to attract and retain the best and the brightest into the teaching profession. The document outlines the objections to performance-based compensation, which in…

  2. Bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome: Pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, O. P.; Verma, A. K.; Mishra, A.; Agarwal, G.; Agarwal, A.; Mishra, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess the outcome of patients undergoing bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS). Methods: All patients who underwent bilateral adrenalectomy for CS at the Department of Endocrine Surgery, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences hospital between 1991 and 2013 were included. Medical records were reviewed to obtain patient characteristics and follow-up data. Results: Twenty-seven patients were studied. Mean age was 28.74 ± 12.95 years (range 9–60), male:female ratio was 1.7:1. About half that is, 48.19% were of Cushing's disease (failed trans-sphenoidal surgery [TSS]), 37.04% were of ectopic CS (ECS), and 14.81% were of CS due to bilateral adrenal pathology. Median follow-up period was 80.5 months. Before surgery, 74.1% patients had body mass index > which after surgery declined to <25 in 75% of them. Hypertension was present in 85.2% and after surgery resolved in 40%. Diabetes mellitus was present in 44.4% and after surgery resolved in 33% of them. Hirsutism and proximal muscle weakness were present in 55.6% and 70.4% patients, respectively, and after surgery improved markedly in all patients. Adrenal crisis developed in 36.3% and Nelson's syndrome in 41.7% patients during follow-up. Three patients died in perioperative period while three succumbed to the disease during follow-up. Two patients developed recurrence of endogenous cortisol production during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Bilateral adrenalectomy is a valid treatment option for palliating severe symptoms in Pituitary Cushing's with failed TSS and unlocalized ECS but the procedure is curative for CS due to bilateral adrenal disease. Overall morbidity and mortality is higher than other endocrine operations. Co-morbidities tend to be more severe and are a risk factor for mortality during the time patient survives. PMID:26693437

  3. Cancer vaccines inducing antibody production: more pros than cons.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Singer, Josef

    2011-09-01

    To date, passive immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies is a well-established option in clinical oncology. By contrast, anticancer vaccines are less advanced, with the exception of successfully applied prophylactic vaccines against oncogenic virus infections. The creation of therapeutic vaccines is still a great challenge mostly due to the self-nature of tumor antigens. Therapeutic vaccines may be based on patient-specific material including pulsed effector cells, or tumor-associated antigens and derivatives thereof, such as peptides, mimotopes and nucleic acids. The latter represents a more universal approach, which would set an ideal economic framework resulting in broad patient access. In this article we focus on cancer vaccines for antibody production, in particular mimotope vaccines. The collected evidence suggests that they will open up new treatment options in minimal residual disease and early stage disease.

  4. Astrobiological aspects of Mars and human presence: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Horneck, G

    2008-08-01

    After the realization of the International Space Station, human exploratory missions to Moon or Mars, i.e. beyond low Earth orbit, are widely considered as the next logical step of peaceful cooperation in space on a global scale. Besides the human desire to extend the window of habitability, human exploratory missions are driven by several aspects of science, technology, culture and economy. Mars is currently considered as a major target in the search for life beyond the Earth. Understanding the history of water on Mars appears to be one of the clues to the puzzle on the probability of life on Mars. On Earth microorganisms have flourished for more than 3.5 Ga and have developed strategies to cope with so-called extreme conditions (e.g., hot vents, permafrost, subsurface regions, rocks or salt crystals). Therefore, in search for life on Mars, microorganisms are the most likely candidates for a putative biota on Mars and the search for morphological or chemical signatures of life or its relics is one of the primary and most exciting goals of Mars exploration. The presence of humans on the surface of Mars will substantially increase this research potential, e.g., by supporting deep subsurface drilling and by allowing intellectual collection and sophisticated in situ analysis of samples of astrobiological interest. On the other hand, such long-duration missions beyond LEO will add a new dimension to human space flight, concerning the distance of travel, the radiation environment, the gravity levels, the duration of the mission, and the level of confinement and isolation the crew will be exposed to. This will raise the significance of several health issues, above all radiation protection, gravity related effects as well as psychological issues. Furthermore, the import of internal and external microorganisms inevitably accompanying any human mission to Mars, or brought purposely to Mars as part of a bioregenerative life support system needs careful consideration with regard to planetary protection issues. Therefore, before planning any human exploratory mission, the critical issues concerning human health and wellbeing as well as protection of Mars in its pristine condition need to be investigated.

  5. Two Year College Faculty Problems: Master Contracts, Pros and Cons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Don A., Ed.

    The principal papers presented at this conference were as follows: (1) "We've Come a Long Way, Baby" by Thomas F. Stark, (2) "Hey! Who Runs This Show?" by Clair T. Blikre, and (3) "Bargaining Allows Teachers to Teach!" by Ralph Chesebrough. The background, purposes and activities of the Iron Range Institute are described. The appendix, Career…

  6. Consolidating federal facility cleanup: Some pros and cons

    SciTech Connect

    Raynes, D.B.; Boss, G.R. )

    1993-01-01

    It has been suggested that Congress establish a permanent, full-time, independent national commission for radioactive waste management activities at DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex. DOE regulates certain aspects of its treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive waste by orders that are not promulgated by notice and comment'' or other procedures in the Administration Procedures Act. Because many agencies are not legally and technologically structured to handle their own cleanup problems, these activities might be conducted by one entity that can share information and staff among these agencies. There are rational arguments for both sides of this issue. Some of the advantages of such an organization include: focusing Congress's attention on an integrated federal facility cleanup instead of a fragmented, agency by agency approach, and an ability to prioritize cleanup decisions among agencies. Some significant obstacles include: reluctance by Congress and the executive branch to create any new bureaucracy at a time of budget deficits, and a loss of momentum from the progress already being made by the agencies. Given that more than $9 billion was proposed for FY 93 alone for federal facilities' cleanup programs and that decades will pass before all problems are addressed, it is appropriate to consider new approaches to environmental cleanup. This paper begins the dialogue about new ways to improve decision-making and government spending.

  7. Anthologies in the College Curriculum: A Pro and Con Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Dallas E.; Piro, Vince; Nicoll-Johnson, Mark

    The three papers collected in this document present opinions for and against the use of anthologies in introductory writing and literature classes at community colleges. The first paper, "College Students Must Read Book-Length Works," by Dallas E. Dillon, proposes that students, even non-traditional community college students, should be pushed to…

  8. Pros and cons of stem cell transplantation for autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E D

    1997-05-01

    The data and discussion at this symposium have provided a most useful analysis of the autoimmune diseases and their potential for therapy by stem cell transplantation. These diseases are characterized by threat to life and particularly by chronic, painful and debilitating courses that warrant aggressive therapy. Selection of patients will be difficult because of the variable disease course and the necessity to choose patients who still have reversible disease. The safety of both autologous and allogeneic stem cell grafting has progressed to the point where, in many cases, the risks of the disease far outweigh those of transplantation. In my opinion the data presented at this symposium show that we should proceed cautiously with both autologous and allogeneic stem cell grafts. Purified stem cells, which have the advantage of being free of lymphocytes, should be used for the first series of autologous studies. These studies are attractive because of the low risk of transplant related complications but are less likely to be curative. Allogeneic grafts from perfectly matched donors have the advantage of providing a completely new immunological environment. For this reason, I believe that curative results are most probable after allogeneic stem cell engraftment. Emphasis should be on the identification of patients with HLA matched siblings. Initially, these studies will be carried out in patients with advanced disease, as was the case in the early days of transplantation for leukemia. In considering more aggressive treatment for autoimmune diseases it appears there are 3 possible approaches. First, and most conservative, is to store peripheral blood stem cells for possible future marrow rescue and then to give higher doses of immunosuppressive agents, especially in combination, to see whether there is an improvement over conventional doses. Second, for those who prefer a conservative approach to stem cell transplantation, is to give myeloablative and lymphoablative chemotherapy followed by purified (lymphocyte-free) hematopoietic stem cells. Third, and most likely to be curative, is myeloablative and lymphoablative therapy followed by stem cells from an HLA matched family member with subsequent short methotrexate and cyclosporine treatment to control GVHD. As we have heard, there are differences of opinion about whether the preparative regimen should include irradiation. It should be pointed out that total body irradiation is the most effective way to destroy lymphoid cells throughout the body. Careful monitoring of accumulating clinical results will pilot future investigation.

  9. [Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in autoimmune diseases. Pros and cons

    PubMed

    Ferraccioli, G. F.

    2001-01-01

    New therapeutics have clearly advanced our chances of inducing remission in several aggressive autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Despite this, subgroups of patients with RA or SLE or of other diseases like systemic sclerosis (SSc) or multiple sclerosis (MS) still present a poor response to conventional drugs. In this kind of patients, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) provided important clinical benefits in several studies. This might depend upon several possible mechanisms such as purging of autoreactive T cells during conditioning or changes of the TH1/TH2 biological milieu. An overview of the results obtained so far, the drawbacks and the perspectives in this field are presented.

  10. Culturing murine embryonic organs: Pros, cons, tips and tricks.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Kathryn S; Bowles, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    There are three established techniques described for ex vivo culture of the early embryonic organs: filter culture, agar block culture and hanging drop culture. Each of these protocols has advantages and disadvantages; here we assess the merits of each approach. Agar block culture has a long history and has been well described. This method results in good embryonic organ morphology. Filter culture has been used to culture a number of different embryonic organs and there are a variety of filter choices available. The key disadvantage of agar-block and filter based culture is that the large amount of media required can make the approach expensive, especially if biologicals such as growth factors are necessary; in addition, using these methods it can be difficult to track particular samples. Hanging drop culture is most commonly used to enable the aggregation of embryonic stem cells into embryoid bodies but it has also been employed for ex vivo organ culture. This method requires only 40μL of media per drop and isolates every organ to a trackable unit. We describe each of these methods and the use of different medias and provide the user with a matrix to help determine the optimal culture method for their needs. Glass-based culture methods required for live imaging are not discussed here.

  11. Umbilical cord blood transplantation: pros, cons and beyond.

    PubMed

    Stanevsky, Anfisa; Goldstein, Gal; Nagler, Arnon

    2009-09-01

    Large body of clinical and scientific data has been generated since the first cord blood transplantation (CBT) was performed in 1989. Superior immune plasticity of CB grafts, that allows for less stringent HLA matching, is especially valuable in the face of a persistently growing need for unrelated donor (UD) transplants. Limited cell dose remains the main setback of CBT, particularly in adult population. New strategies, such as transplantation with two cord blood units or using non-myeloablative conditioning, have remarkably expanded the availability of CB transplants in adults with hematological malignancies. Clinical trials with in vitro expanded CB-derived stem cells are under way. Currently cord blood is considered a second best choice after matched bone marrow. However, results of recent international studies indicate that in particular clinical settings, such as in children with leukemia, CB may become a frontline hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) source for transplantation. Recent advances in understanding the unique biology of cord blood will further expand indications for its use in different settings, including those beyond hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (HSCT).

  12. The pros and cons of using irradiation for phytosanitary treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irradiation is increasingly being used as a phytosanitary treatment in Asia, Australia and the Americas, but the process is not being used or promoted in the European Union. However, under the current regulatory framework it is possible for food commodities irradiated to prevent the spread of alien...

  13. Stories in Games for Health: More Pros or Cons?

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Moderator: Tom; Lu, Participants: Amy Shirong; Buday, Richard; Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Schell, Jesse; Russoniello, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    There has been a debate about whether entertainment videogames should incorporate story or narrative. A concern has been whether story cut scenes break game immersion, and thereby minimize the fun of gameplay. Alternatively, games for health (G4H) have an agenda that goes beyond just having fun. The possible role of story in G4H has not been thoroughly addressed. We have assembled a group of experts who have worked with stories in G4H, and asked some pointed questions. PMID:26196925

  14. Con: Cyclophosphamide for the treatment of lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Mok, Chi Chiu

    2016-07-01

    Kidney involvement is a major determinant for morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The treatment target of lupus renal disease is to induce and maintain remission and to minimize disease or treatment-related comorbidities. Cyclophosphamide (CYC), in conjunction with glucocorticoids, has conventionally been used for the initial treatment of lupus nephritis. However, the major concerns of CYC are its toxicities, such as infertility, urotoxicity and oncogenicity, which are particularly relevant in women of childbearing age. As a result, maintenance therapy of lupus nephritis with an extended course of CYC pulses has largely been replaced by other immunosuppressive agents such as mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and azathioprine. Recent randomized controlled trials have demonstrated non-inferiority of MMF to pulse CYC as induction therapy of lupus nephritis. Although MMF as induction-maintenance therapy has been increasingly used in lupus nephritis, its efficacy in the long-term preservation of renal function remains to be elucidated. MMF is not necessarily less toxic than CYC. Meta-analyses of clinical trials show similar incidence of infective complications and gastrointestinal adverse events in both MMF- and CYC-based regimens. However, considering the reduction in gonadal toxicity and the risk of oncogenicity, MMF may be used as first-line therapy of lupus nephritis. Tacrolimus (TAC) has recently been shown to be equivalent to either MMF or CYC for inducing remission of lupus nephritis and may be considered as another non-CYC alternative. Combined low-dose MMF and TAC appears to be more effective than CYC pulses in Chinese patients with lupus nephritis and has the potential to replace the more toxic CYC regimens in high-risk patients. Currently, CYC still plays an important role in the management of lupus nephritis patients with impaired or rapidly deteriorating renal function, crescentic glomerulonephritis or as salvage therapy for recalcitrant disease.

  15. Pros and Cons of ID vs. 3D Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in computing capability have led to tremendous improvements in 3D modeling. Entire active regions are being simulated in what might be described as a first principles way, in which plasma heating is treated self consistently rather than through the specification of heating functions. There are limitations to this approach, however, as actual heating mechanisms on the Sun involve spatial scales orders of magnitude smaller than what these simulations can resolve. Other simulations begin to resolve these scales, but they only treat a tiny volume and do not include the all important coupling with larger scales or with other parts of the atmosphere, and so cannot be readily compared with observations. Finally, ID hydrodynamic models capture the field-aligned evolution of the plasma extremely well and are ideally suited for data comparison, but they treat the heating in a totally ad hoc manner. All of these approaches have important contributions to make, but we must be aware of their limitations. I will highlight some of the strengths. and weaknesses of each.

  16. Choice-Based Credit System in India: Pros and Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Mohammad; Parvez, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Education system of India is full of intricacies of different nature. Every ladder of education has its own problems and prospects. However, attempts have been taken to lessen complexities. From ages, time to time commissions have been constituted to improve and remove the anomalies of Indian education system especially, ensuring quality and…

  17. Motor evoked potentials in thoracoabdominal aortic surgery: CON.

    PubMed

    Coselli, Joseph S; Tsai, Peter I

    2010-05-01

    Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs) have a dismal natural history that frequently necessitates surgical repair, but such repairs sometimes result in paraplegia and paraparesis. To reduce the risk of these complications, intraoperative monitoring of spinal cord motor evoked potentials (MEPs) can be used to guide TAAA repair procedures and may potentially minimize spinal cord ischemia. However, the use of MEP monitoring techniques requires important changes to anesthetic management, entails certain risks, and has important contraindications.

  18. The Prose of Blogging (and a Few Cons, Too)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2008-01-01

    "Blogging for the sake of blogging is fine, but what is the value added?" That's a question educational blogging advocates are now coming around to answer, and the value they're finding may seem preposterous to those who associate blogging with barely literate loudmouths and cyber predators. Can this often belligerent wasteland of poor…

  19. Clinical drawbacks of total lymphoid irradiation: the cons

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, L.W.; Ellison, G.W.; Fahey, J.L.; Tesler, A.; Gottlieb, M.S.

    1988-07-01

    Success has been reported with use of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in organ transplant recipients and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. In a well-conducted randomized double blind clinical trial, Cook et al have found that TLI was superior to sham irradiation of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it is clear from looking at this data that not all patients responded to TLI and that with time disease activity returned. Our own experience with TLI in two MS patients was very disappointing. Despite its apparent benefit in some conditions, considerable drawbacks are associated with TLI. These include high financial cost, unpleasant treatment-related side effects, and the possibility that more serious morbidity as well as mortality may be treatment-related. Furthermore, the optimum therapeutic regimen for TLI has not yet been established. Issues related to cumulative dose, dose per fraction, frequency of fractions, field of irradiation, and interaction with other therapies still need clarification. For these reasons we do not recommend TLI as a treatment for MS.

  20. Expresiones de Desarrollo Profesional en Educadoras Principiantes y con Experiencia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betsalel-Presser, Raquel

    1986-01-01

    Attempts to identify the conditions which affect the professional development of both experienced and inexperienced teachers. After presenting the theoretical and conceptual framework of the problem, discusses professional development needs identified by preschool and primary school teachers in an exploratory study done in Montreal, Quebec…

  1. Cons and pros of female anesthesiologists: Academic versus nonacademic

    PubMed Central

    Shams, Tarek; El-Masry, Ragaa

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: We hypothesized that “Feminization” of medicine has an impact on the choice of anesthesiology as a specialty. However anesthesiology is still not a more popular choice among women in medicine. We aimed to evaluate the implications of anesthesiology as a profession on personal and family life of women anesthesiologists; the differences between academic and nonacademic women anesthesiologists with respect to these effects and the effect of women anesthesiologists on the profession. Materials and Methods: This study surveyed a total of 46 woman anesthesiologists; both academic and nonacademic institutions in our country between January and May 2013. A convenient sampling method was used. A constructed self-reported questionnaire was developed to explore the 29 items of woman-anesthesiology-related implications (family, personal, and job), in the form of close-ended questions. Results: Negative implications of anesthesiology on personal and family life of woman were common. With the exception of financial limitation, academic group was significantly more affected. Increased surgeons conflict (98%), poor surgeon acceptance (87%), poor patient acceptance and recurrent change of work schedule (80% each) were the most common perceived negative impacts of women in the field of anesthesiology. Some positive implications were perceived as independent, positive social interaction, empowerment, soothing work environment, emotional reaction to patient complaint, and increased perfectionism (nearly 94%, 98%, 87%, 91%, 89%, and 76%, respectively). Conclusion: Serious implications exist for the personality and family life of women who chose anesthesiology as a specialty and career, and most of these implications were significantly more prevalent among women with an academic career. Furthermore, anesthesiology as a profession was significantly affected by women joining the department. PMID:25788779

  2. Rifaximin therapy and hepatic encephalopathy: Pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Zullo, Angelo; Hassan, Cesare; Ridola, Lorenzo; Lorenzetti, Roberto; Campo, Salvatore MA; Riggio, Oliviero

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is the second most common major complication in cirrhotics and it significantly impacts quality of life. Therapeutic approaches for HE treatment and prevention mainly continue to rely on ammonia-lowering strategies and non-absorbable disaccharides are currently considered the cornerstone therapy. Non-absorbable antibiotics, such as neomycin and paramomycin, are effective in treatment of acute HE episodes but their prolonged use for recurrence prevention is hampered by possible side-effects. To overcome these limitations, rifaximin use has been proposed. Rifaximin has been shown to be not superior to non-absorbable disaccharides for either HE treatment or prevention, with a similar incidence of side-effects. Cirrhosis significantly increases rifaximin absorption and this could be a cause for concern. Following long-term rifaximin therapy, Clostridium difficile colitis has been observed and Candida albicans has been isolated from 20% of patients. In addition, selection of resistant mutants of both Gram-negative and -positive bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract cannot be definitely ruled out. Electrolyte alterations (sodium and potassium) have been reported during rifaximin therapy, a warning for its long-term use in cirrhotics. Moreover, a potential interference with vitamin K production should be considered which could further impair the already altered clotting status of these patients. The therapeutic cost of rifaximin is markedly higher than non-absorbable disaccharides. While waiting for further safety data, caution should be used to limit the use of rifaximin therapy for a very short-term period in selected HE cirrhotics not responding to non-absorbable disaccharides. PMID:22966484

  3. Allineamenti di tre basiliche romane con il Sole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-06-01

    The astronomical azimut of a wall can be measured by timing the grazing Sun and computing the ephemerides of the Sun for that place, similarly the windows can cast sunbeams into the building allowing to time the alignments. The azimut of Saint Peter's Basilica, Saint Paul and Saint Pancratius outside the walls have been measured by timing the Sun at opportune positions.

  4. Pros, Cons, and Other Comments About Education for Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forecast for Home Economics, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Comments are offered by numerous home economics teachers in reaction to the January issue presentation of an overview of a new Federal priority program, Education for Parenthood, and an interview with W. Stanley Kruger. (Author)

  5. [Infertility over forty: Pros and cons of IVF].

    PubMed

    Belaisch-Allart, J; Maget, V; Mayenga, J-M; Grefenstette, I; Chouraqui, A; Belaid, Y; Kulski, O

    2015-09-01

    The population attempting pregnancy and having babies is ageing. The declining fertility potential and the late age of motherhood are increasing significantly the number of patients over forty consulting infertility specialists. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) cannot compensate the natural decline in fertility with age. In France, in public hospital, ART is free of charge for women until 43 years, over 43, social insurance does not reimburse ART. Hence, 43 years is the usual limit, but between 40 and 42 is ART useful? The answer varies according to physicians, couples or society. On medical level, the etiology of the infertility must be taken into account. If there is an explanation to infertility (male or tubal infertility) ART is better than abstention. If the infertility is only due to age the question is raised. In France, the reimbursement by the society of a technique with very low results is discussed. However efficacy is not absolutely compulsory in Medicine. On the opposite to give false hopes may be discussed too. To obtain a reasonable consensus is rather difficult.

  6. The pros and cons of using irradiation for phytosanitary treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irradiation is increasingly being used as a phytosanitary treatment in Asia, Australia and the Americas, but the process is not being used or promoted in the European Union. However, under the current regulatory framework it is possible for food commodities irradiated to prevent the spread of alien ...

  7. Hand Transplantation Versus Hand Prosthetics: Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Salminger, S; Roche, A D; Sturma, A; Mayer, J A; Aszmann, O C

    Composite tissue transplantation and new developments in the field of prosthetics have opened new frontiers in the restoration of function among upper limb amputees. It is now possible to restore hand function in affected patients; however, the indications, advantages, and limitations for either hand transplantation or prosthetic fitting must be carefully considered depending on the level and extent of the limb loss. Hand transplantation allows comprehensive hand function to be restored, yet composite tissue transplantation comes with disadvantages, making this method a controversial topic in the hand surgical community. Alternatively, prosthetic limb replacement represents the standard of care for upper limb amputees, but results in the known limitations of function, sensation, and usage. The indication for hand transplantation or prosthetic fitting strongly depends on the level of amputation, as well as on the extent (unilateral/bilateral) of the amputation. In this review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of hand transplantation and prosthetic replacement for upper limb amputees in general, as well as in regard to the different levels of amputation.

  8. Travellers' diarrhoea - pros and cons of different prophylactic measures.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Angelika; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2009-10-01

    Travellers' diarrhoea is the most likely cause for disturbing travel arrangements. At an average, 30-40% of tourists are concerned, depending on the travel destination. Due to the high impact on the travellers' health this topic is still of utmost importance in travel medicine. A wide spectrum of enteropathogens can be accountable, with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli being the major causing pathogen among other bacteria, parasites and viruses. Here we discuss advantages and disadvantages of different prophylactic measures against travellers' diarrhoea. The effectiveness but also the relevance of hygiene education, vaccination and antibiotic or probiotic application will be discussed in the context of the travellers' different risk profiles.

  9. Re(con)ceiving Young Children's Curricular Performativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Marg

    2010-01-01

    Working (with) Deleuzo-Guattarian philosophical imaginaries opens (to) a multiplicity of possibilities for thinking differently about curriculum, young children and how they perform their curricular understandings. In this article I work (as) rhizome, bringing the imaginaries "becoming" and "milieu" into an early childhood curriculum conversation…

  10. Simplifying electrocardiographic assessment in STEMI reperfusion management: Pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cheuk-Kit

    2017-01-15

    Current guidelines on STEMI reperfusion management do not incorporate further electrocardiographic details over the presence of significant ST elevation. Fibrinolysis is considered an alternative therapy to primary PCI if there is a long PCI-related delay, but the 2 therapies should not be combined. Meanwhile, reperfusion for ischemic stroke has evolved on mechanistic understanding - reperfusion benefit being greatest in the patient with small "core" infarct and large ischemic "penumbra". Fibrinolysis is not regarded as an alternative to mechanical thrombectomy, and the 2 therapies can be combined. In this article describing how reperfusion regimes have evolved along different paths for STEMI and for ischemic stroke, a new concept is made that in STEMI infarct lead Q waves can be the counterpart of the "core" and ST elevation the "penumbra". Suggestions to modify STEMI treatment algorithms are made, exploring further the relative role of (pre-hospital) fibrinolysis versus PCI particularly in younger patients presenting at the onset of their STEMI (no Q waves). In contrast, some patients particularly the older ones with more evolved STEMI (large Q waves present) may be much more suited for PCI despite expecting a long delay. The article finishes by describing potential future alterations in the method of reperfusion. Despite primary PCI being the well-established therapy, there are rooms for further research to optimize STEMI outcomes.

  11. Early testing for Huntington disease in children: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Toufexis, Megan; Gieron-Korthals, Maria

    2010-04-01

    We report 2 young children who are examples of the consequences of premature testing for Huntington disease. Premature testing of a child or fetus carries complex medical and psychological issues to both the child and the family that need to be considered and explored more than in an adult with Huntington disease. We suggest that a child at risk for juvenile Huntington disease not be tested until symptoms are progressive and consistent with the disease and all other mimickers are excluded. When testing is indicated, a multidisciplinary approach is essential to educate the family about the risks and benefits of testing and improve their coping skills when the final diagnosis is made.

  12. Noise in biological systems: pros, cons, and mechanisms of control.

    PubMed

    Pilpel, Yitzhak

    2011-01-01

    Genetic regulatory circuits are often regarded as precise machines that accurately determine the level of expression of each protein. Most experimental technologies used to measure gene expression levels are incapable of testing and challenging this notion, as they often measure levels averaged over entire populations of cells. Yet, when expression levels are measured at the single cell level of even genetically identical cells, substantial cell-to-cell variation (or "noise") may be observed. Sometimes different genes in a given genome may display different levels of noise; even the same gene, expressed under different environmental conditions, may display greater cell-to-cell variability in specific conditions and more tight control in other situations. While at first glance noise may seem to be an undesired property of biological networks, it might be beneficial in some cases. For instance, noise will increase functional heterogeneity in a population of microorganisms facing variable, often unpredictable, environmental changes, increasing the probability that some cells may survive the stress. In that respect, we can speculate that the population is implementing a risk distribution strategy, long before genetic heterogeneity could be acquired. Organisms may have evolved to regulate not only the averaged gene expression levels but also the extent of allowed deviations from such an average, setting it at the desired level for every gene under each specific condition. Here we review the evolving understanding of noise, its molecular underpinnings, and its effect on phenotype and fitness--when it can be detrimental, beneficial, or neutral and which regulatory tools eukaryotic cells may use to optimally control it.

  13. Pros and cons in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Kantha, S S

    1996-03-01

    I propose a new term, 'galactic organism with distinct intelligence', for the extraterrestrial forms, with which humans can make contact. This is because, among the three existing terms: (a) 'the search for extraterrestrial intelligence' 'excludes biology and is inelegant'; (b) 'extraterrestrial' does not distinguish between the micro-organisms and highly-evolved intelligent life-forms; and (c) 'unidentified flying object' projects a sense of mysticism. On the presence of galactic organisms with distinct intelligence, scientists belong to three camps. Astronomers, physicists and some biochemists belong to the believers group. Evolutionists are in the doubters category. The third camp is represented by the 'uncommitted'. Approaches for contacting galactic organisms with distinct intelligence would take three steps. These are: (a) radioastronomical observations in the galaxy and interstellar space for the presence of organic matter; (b) initiating radio contact and listening to any transmitted message, as set out by the search for extraterrestrial intelligence program, and (c) landing instruments and humans in the galaxy.

  14. VapeCons: E-cigarette user conventions

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Rebecca S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction E-cigarette ‘vaping conventions’ provide a venue for user social networking, parties, and ‘try before you buy’ access to a wide range of e-cigarette products. This study identifies and describes vaping conventions, raising awareness of this potentially problematic practice. Methods Conventions were identified via Google searches in April and May 2014 and August 2015. Details captured included location, sponsors, admission cost, event features, and promotions. Results 41 distinct organizations have planned 90 vaping conventions in 37 different locations since 2010. Conventions promoted access to a wide range of product vendors, seminars, social interactions with other users, parties, gifts, vaping contests, and other events. E-cigarette use at conventions was encouraged. Conclusions Vaping conventions promote e-cigarette use and social norms without public health having a voice to educate attendees about negative consequences of use. Future research should focus on the effects of attending these conventions on attendees and on indoor air quality in vapor-filled convention rooms. PMID:26424201

  15. Lysosomal Multienzyme Complex: Pros and Cons of Working Together

    PubMed Central

    Bonten, Erik J.; Annunziata, Ida; d’Azzo, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitous distribution of lysosomes and their heterogeneous protein composition reflects the versatility of these organelles in maintaining cell homeostasis and their importance in tissue differentiation and remodeling. In lysosomes, the degradation of complex, macromolecular substrates requires the synergistic action of multiple hydrolases that usually work in a stepwise fashion. This catalytic machinery explains the existence of lysosomal enzyme complexes that can be dynamically assembled and disassembled to efficiently and quickly adapt to the pool of substrates to be processed or degraded, adding extra tiers to the regulation of the individual protein components. An example of such a complex is the one composed of three hydrolases that are ubiquitously but differentially expressed: the serine carboxypeptidase, Protective Protein/Cathepsin A (PPCA), the sialidase, Neuraminidase-1 (NEU1), and the glycosidase β-Galactosidase (β-GAL). Next to this ‘core’ complex, the existence of sub-complexes, that may contain additional components, and function at the cell surface or extracellularly, suggests as yet unexplored functions of these enzymes. Here we review how studies of basic biological processes in the mouse models of three lysosomal storage disorders, galactosialidosis, sialidosis, and GM1-gangliosidosis, revealed new and unexpected roles for the three respective affected enzymes, Ppca, Neu1 and β-Gal, that go beyond their canonical degradative activities. These findings have broadened our perspective on their functions and may pave the way for the development of new therapies for these lysosomal storage disorders. PMID:24337808

  16. Encompassing Sexual Medicine within Psychiatry: Pros and Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segraves, Robert Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the positive and negative aspects of psychiatry encompassing sexual medicine within its purview. Methods: MEDLINE searches for the period between 1980 to the present were performed with the terms "psychiatry," "sexual medicine," and "sexual dysfunction." In addition, sexual medicine texts were reviewed for chapters…

  17. Pros and cons of immediately sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS).

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Wasinska-Borowiec, Weronika; Claoué, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Immediately sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) is currently a "hot topic" in ophthalmology. There are well-documented advantages in terms of quicker visual rehabilitation and reduced costs. The risk of bilateral simultaneous endophthalmitis and bilateral blindness is now recognized to be minuscule with the advent of intracameral antibiotics and modern management of endophthalmitis. Refractive surprises are rare for normal eyes and with the use of optical biometry. Where a general anesthetic is indicated for cataract surgery, the risk of death from a second anesthetic is much higher than the risk of blindness. A widely recognized protocol from the International Society of Bilateral Cataract Surgeons needs to be adhered to if surgeons wish to start practicing ISBCS.

  18. Con: Can biomarkers be gold standards in Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As Alzheimer's disease remains a clinical diagnosis, and as clinical diagnosis can be difficult, it makes sense to look for so-called biomarkers. A biomarker predicts who is likely to have the illness and who is not. Some biomarkers might even correlate with a clinically meaningful response to treatment. Developing biomarkers is often characterized as searching for a diagnostic gold standard that can seem appealing in its promise of certainty. Even so, considering both the economic history of the gold standard and the results of neuropathological studies, framing the search for measurable, biological correlates of dementia syndromes in this way is likely to be self-defeating. Instead of considering biomarkers as providing certainty through referent criterion validation, currently it makes more sense to test their construct validity and their predictive ability. This means that while biomarkers should inform, they will not dictate clinical meaningfulness. For the foreseeable future, even were they to inform diagnosis, biomarkers cannot substitute for understanding whether patients and caregivers find a given dementia treatment effective. Instead, clinicians should recognize their own determining role, both in dementia diagnosis and in the evaluation of treatment. These roles will best be executed by hearing what patients and caregivers tell us about dementia, and its response to treatment. PMID:20587007

  19. ?`Caos en la Resonancia 2:3 con Urano?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, S.; Nicotra, M. A.

    The 2:3 resonace with Uranus and 3:2 with Neptune define limits in the semi -major axis interval, where some objects like 7066 Nessus (semi-major axis 24.456 au) has been observed. In this contribution, we describe the dynamics of a mass-less test particle near the critical value of the semi-major axis for each resonance. We analize the structure of the phase space in each case, using the restricted three-body planar approach, for different values of the Jacobi constant. Although this aproximation does not reflect the whole complexity of this region, it constitutes a good first solution, since there are not first or second order orbital resonances with the major planets. For the 2:3 resonance with Uranus, we find a smooth curve of quasi-periodical orbits surrounding the periodic orbit corresponding to the critical value of the semi-major axis. This region is also surrounded by chaotic orbits, probably due to the presence of other conmensurabilities of first or second order with Uranus. At the internal resonance 3:2 with Neptune, the structure of the section surfaces varies with the value of the C constant. In general, periodic orbits are found for the critical semi-major axis, but for other values of the Jacobi constant, which are obtained modifying the eccentricity of the particle orbit, the region is not closed anymore, so the test particle crosses the Neptune orbit, and escapes from this region.

  20. Pros and cons of swimming in a noisy environment.

    PubMed

    Olla, Piero

    2014-03-01

    The problem of optimal microscopic swimming in a noisy environment is analyzed. A simplified model in which propulsion is generated by the relative motion of three spheres connected by immaterial links has been considered. We show that an optimized noisy microswimmer requires less power for propulsion (on average) than an optimal noiseless counterpart migrating with identical mean velocity and swimming stroke amplitude. We also show that noise can be used to overcome some of the limitations of the scallop theorem and have a swimmer that is able to propel itself with control over just one degree of freedom.