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Sample records for colliculus central nucleus

  1. Tonotopic and localized pathways from primary auditory cortex to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Markovitz, Craig D.; Tang, Tien T.; Lim, Hubert H.

    2013-01-01

    Descending projections from the cortex to subcortical structures are critical for auditory plasticity, including the ability for central neurons to adjust their frequency tuning to relevant and meaningful stimuli. We show that focal electrical stimulation of primary auditory cortex in guinea pigs produces excitatory responses in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) with two tonotopic patterns: a narrow tuned pattern that is consistent with previous findings showing direct frequency-aligned projections; and a broad tuned pattern in which the auditory cortex can influence multiple frequency regions. Moreover, excitatory responses could be elicited in the caudomedial portion along the isofrequency laminae of the CNIC but not in the rostrolateral portion. This descending organization may underlie or contribute to the ability of the auditory cortex to induce changes in frequency tuning of subcortical neurons as shown extensively in previous studies. PMID:23641201

  2. Representation of interaural time difference in the central nucleus of the barn owl's inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Wagner, H; Takahashi, T; Konishi, M

    1987-10-01

    This paper investigates the role of the central nucleus of the barn owl's inferior colliculus in determination of the sound-source azimuth. The central nucleus contains many neurons that are sensitive to interaural time difference (ITD), the cue for azimuth in the barn owl. The response of these neurons varies in a cyclic manner with the ITD of a tone or noise burst. Response maxima recur at integer multiples of the period of the stimulating tone, or, if the stimulus is noise, at integer multiples of the period corresponding to the neuron's best frequency. Such neurons can signal, by means of their relative spike rate, the phase difference between the sounds reaching the left and right ears. Since an interaural phase difference corresponds to more than one ITD, these neurons represent ITD ambiguously. We call this phenomenon phase ambiguity. The central nucleus is tonotopically organized and its neurons are narrowly tuned to frequency. Neurons in an array perpendicular to isofrequency laminae form a physiological and anatomical unit; only one ITD, the array-specific ITD, activates all neurons in an array at the same relative level. We, therefore, may say that, in the central nucleus, an ITD is conserved in an array of neurons. Array-specific ITDs are mapped and encompass the entire auditory space of the barn owl. Individual space-specific neurons of the external nucleus, which receive inputs from a wide range of frequency channels (Knudsen and Konishi, 1978), are selective for a unique ITD. Space-specific neurons do not show phase ambiguity when stimulated with noise (Takahashi and Konishi, 1986). Space-specific neurons receive inputs from arrays that are selective for the same ITD. The collective response of the neurons in an array may be the basis for the absence of phase ambiguity in space-specific neurons.

  3. Differential Patterns of Inputs Create Functional Zones in Central Nucleus of Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Loftus, William C.; Bishop, Deborah C.; Oliver, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    Distinct pathways carry monaural and binaural information from the lower auditory brainstem to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). Previous anatomical and physiological studies suggest that differential ascending inputs to regions of the ICC create functionally distinct zones. Here, we provide direct evidence of this relationship by combining recordings of single unit responses to sound in the ICC with focal, iontophoretic injections of the retrograde tracer Fluoro-gold (FG) at the physiologically characterized sites. Three main patterns of anatomical inputs were observed. One pattern was identified by inputs from the cochlear nucleus and ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL) in isolation, and these injection sites were correlated with monaural responses. The second pattern had inputs only from the ipsilateral medial and lateral superior olive (MSO, LSO), and these sites were correlated with ITD-sensitive responses to low frequency (< 500 Hz). A third pattern had inputs from a variety of olivary and lemniscal sources, notably the contralateral lateral superior olive and dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. These were correlated with high-frequency ITD sensitivity to complex acoustic stimuli. These data support the notion of anatomical regions formed by specific patterns of anatomical inputs to the ICC. Such synaptic domains may represent functional zones in ICC. PMID:20926666

  4. Binaural electric-acoustic interactions recorded from the inferior colliculus of Guinea pigs: the effect of masking observed in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Noh, Heil; Lee, Dong-Hee

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the electric-acoustic interactions within the inferior colliculus of guinea pigs and to observe how central masking appears in invasive neural recordings of the inferior colliculus (IC). A platinum-iridium wire was inserted to scala tympani through cochleostomy with a depth no greater than 1 mm for intracochlear stimulation of electric pulse train. A 5 mm 100 µm, single-shank, thin-film, penetrating recording probe was inserted perpendicularly to the surface of the IC in the coronal plane at an angle of 30-40° off the parasagittal plane with a depth of 2.0-2.5 mm. The peripheral and central masking effects were compared using electric pulse trains to the left ear and acoustic noise to the left ear (ipsilateral) and to the right ear (contralateral). Binaural acoustic stimuli were presented with different time delays and compared with combined electric and acoustic stimuli. The averaged evoked potentials and total spike numbers were measured using thin-film electrodes inserted into the central nucleus of the IC. Ipsilateral noise had more obvious effects on the electric response than did contralateral noise. Contralateral noise decreased slightly the response amplitude to the electric pulse train stimuli. Immediately after the onset of acoustic noise, the response pattern changed transiently with shorter response intervals. The effects of contralateral noise were evident at the beginning of the continuous noise. The total spike number decreased when the binaural stimuli reached the IC most simultaneously. These results suggest that central masking is quite different from peripheral masking and occurs within the binaural auditory system, and this study showed that the effect of masking could be observed in the IC recording. These effects are more evident and consistent with the psychophysical data from spike number analyses than with the previously reported gross potential data.

  5. Development of neuronal types and laminar organization in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus in the cat.

    PubMed

    González-Hernández, T H; Meyer, G; Ferres-Torres, R

    1989-01-01

    The development of neuronal morphology and laminar organization in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus has been studied with the different Golgi methods in kittens and cats of 1 day-2 years of age. The different Golgi methods used allowed us to selectively visualize the axonal or dendritic component of the fibrodendritic laminae. The characteristic lamination of the central nucleus defined by the fiber system of the lateral lemniscus is already present at birth. The axonal component of the laminae is constituted by parallel condensations of varicose terminals, myelinated axons, and preterminal fibers, oriented from ventrolateral to dorsomedial. The laminae are smaller in the dorsolateral edge of the nucleus. Neurons are classified mainly on the basis of their dendritic trees and the axonal ramification patterns. Three main types are distinguished: spinous disk-shaped neurons, aspinous to sparsely spinous disk-shaped neurons, and large or giant multipolar neurons. Our results suggest that the basic structures of the central nucleus--neuronal types and lamination of the lemniscal fibers--are already established at birth. The different neuronal types can be distinguished from the first days of life according to the ramification pattern of dendritic and axonal arbors. The characteristics of the different cell types, such as the density and distribution of dendritic spines, and the presence of varicose dendritic branchlets, are recognizable from the second week. At the end of the first month, neurons display an adult-like morphology, although the density of dendritic spines is higher than in the adult. Our morphological data can be related to the development of response properties in the inferior colliculus.

  6. Early segregation of layered projections from the lateral superior olivary nucleus to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus in the neonatal cat.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Mark L; Shahmoradian, Sarah H; French, Christopher C; Henkel, Craig K; McHaffie, John G

    2007-10-10

    The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) is a laminated structure that receives multiple converging afferent projections. These projections terminate in a layered arrangement and are aligned with dendritic arbors of the predominant disc-shaped neurons, forming fibrodendritic laminae. Within this structural framework, inputs terminate in a precise manner, establishing a mosaic of partially overlapping domains that likely define functional compartments. Although several of these patterned inputs have been described in the adult, relatively little is known about their organization prior to hearing onset. The present study used the lipophilic carbocyanine dyes DiI and DiD to examine the ipsilateral and contralateral projections from the lateral superior olivary (LSO) nucleus to the IC in a developmental series of paraformaldehyde-fixed kitten tissue. By birth, the crossed and uncrossed projections had reached the IC and were distributed across the frequency axis of the central nucleus. At this earliest postnatal stage, projections already exhibited a characteristic banded arrangement similar to that described in the adult. The heaviest terminal fields of the two inputs were always complementary in nature, with the ipsilateral input appearing slightly denser. This early arrangement of interdigitating ipsilateral and contralateral LSO axonal bands that occupy adjacent sublayers supports the idea that the initial establishment of this highly organized mosaic of inputs that defines distinct synaptic domains within the IC occurs largely in the absence of auditory experience. Potential developmental mechanisms that may shape these highly ordered inputs prior to hearing onset are discussed.

  7. Response properties of neurons in the core of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Hermann; Mazer, James A; von Campenhausen, Mark

    2002-04-01

    The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) is particularly important for the processing of interaural time differences (ITDs). In the barn owl, neuronal best frequencies in a subnucleus of the ICC, the ICCcore, span the animal's entire hearing range (approximately equal to 200-10 000 Hz). This means that low-frequency ITD-sensitive ICCcore neurons in the owl can be directly compared to ITD-sensitive mammalian ICC neurons with similar best frequencies as well as to the high-frequency ITD-sensitive neurons usually studied in owls. This report represents a first attempt to systematically describe important physiological properties of ICCcore neurons in the barn owl, with particular attention to the low-frequency region (< 2 kHz). Responses were obtained from 133 neurons or small clusters of neurons; recording sites were confirmed by histological reconstruction of electrode tracks based on electrolytic lesions. Iso-intensity frequency response functions were typically approximately equal to 1 octave wide in the low-frequency range and approximately equal to 1/3 octave wide in the high-frequency range. Most neurons were ITD-tuned; both noise and pure tone stimuli yielded periodic ITD tuning curves with several equivalent response maxima. In most cases ITD tuning curves had a response peak within the barn owl's physiological ITD range. ITD tuning widths were inversely correlated with neuronal best frequency. None of the ICCcore neurons studied were sensitive to interaural level differences. Monaural inputs to ICCcore cells were typically binaurally balanced, i.e. they exhibited similar response thresholds, dynamic ranges, slopes and saturation levels, for both left and right ear monaural stimulation.

  8. Antidromic activation reveals tonotopically organized projections from primary auditory cortex to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus in guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hubert H; Anderson, David J

    2007-02-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) is highly modulated by descending projections from higher auditory and nonauditory centers. Traditionally, corticofugal fibers were believed to project mainly to the extralemniscal IC regions. However, there is some anatomical evidence suggesting that a substantial number of fibers from the primary auditory cortex (A1) project into the IC central nucleus (ICC) and appear to be tonotopically organized. In this study, we used antidromic stimulation combined with other electrophysiological techniques to further investigate the spatial organization of descending fibers from A1 to the ICC in ketamine-anesthetized guinea pigs. Based on our findings, corticofugal fibers originate predominantly from layer V of A1, are amply scattered throughout the ICC and only project to ICC neurons with a similar best frequency (BF). This strict tonotopic pattern suggests that these corticofugal projections are involved with modulating spectral features of sound. Along the isofrequency dimension of the ICC, there appears to be some differences in projection patterns that depend on BF region and possibly isofrequency location within A1 and may be indicative of different descending coding strategies. Furthermore, the success of the antidromic stimulation method in our study demonstrates that it can be used to investigate some of the functional properties associated with corticofugal projections to the ICC as well as to other regions (e.g., medial geniculate body, cochlear nucleus). Such a method can address some of the limitations with current anatomical techniques for studying the auditory corticofugal system.

  9. Projections of the cochlear nuclei and nucleus laminaris to the inferior colliculus of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T T; Konishi, M

    1988-08-08

    The barn owl determines the directions from which sounds emanate by computing the interaural differences in the timing and intensity of sounds. These cues for sound localization are processed in independent channels originating at nucleus magnocellularis (NM) and nucleus angularis (NA), the cochlear nuclei. The cells of NM are specialized for encoding the phase of sounds in the ipsilateral ear. The cells of NA are specialized for encoding the intensity of sounds in the ipsilateral ear. NM projects solely, bilaterally, and tonotopically to nucleus laminaris (NL). NL and NA project to largely nonoverlapping zones in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc), thus forming hodological subdivisions in which time and intensity information may be processed. The terminal field of NL occupies a discrete zone in the rostromedial portion of the contralateral ICc, which we have termed the "core" of ICc. The terminal field of NA surrounds the core of ICc and thus forms a "shell" around it. The projection from NL to the core conserves tonotopy. Low-frequency regions of NL project to the dorsal portions of the core whereas higher-frequency regions project to more ventral portions. This innervation pattern is consistent with earlier physiological studies of tonotopy. Physiological studies have also suggested that NL and the core of ICs contain a representation of the location of a sound source along the horizontal axis. Our data suggest that the projection from NL to the core preserves spatiotopy. Thus, the dorsal portion of NL on the left, which contains a representation of eccentric loci in the right hemifield, innervates the area of the right ICc core that represents eccentric right loci. The more ventral portion of the left NL, which represents loci close to the vertical meridian, innervates the more rostral portions of the right core, which also represents loci near the vertical meridian.

  10. Preservation of Spectrotemporal Tuning Between the Nucleus Laminaris and the Inferior Colliculus of the Barn Owl

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, G. Björn; Peña, José Luis

    2008-01-01

    Performing sound recognition is a task that requires an encoding of the time-varying spectral structure of the auditory stimulus. Similarly, computation of the interaural time difference (ITD) requires knowledge of the precise timing of the stimulus. Consistent with this, low-level nuclei of birds and mammals implicated in ITD processing encode the ongoing phase of a stimulus. However, the brain areas that follow the binaural convergence for the computation of ITD show a reduced capacity for phase locking. In addition, we have shown that in the barn owl there is a pooling of ITD-responsive neurons to improve the reliability of ITD coding. Here we demonstrate that despite two stages of convergence and an effective loss of phase information, the auditory system of the anesthetized barn owl displays a graceful transition to an envelope coding that preserves the spectrotemporal information throughout the ITD pathway to the neurons of the core of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. PMID:17314241

  11. Responses from two firing patterns in inferior colliculus neurons to stimulation of the lateral lemniscus dorsal nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-ting; Wang, Ning-yu; Wang, Yan-jun; Xu, Zhi-qing; Liu, Jin-feng; Bai, Yun-fei; Dai, Jin-sheng; Zhao, Jing-yi

    2016-01-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid neurons (GABAergic neurons) in the inferior colliculus are classified into various patterns based on their intrinsic electrical properties to a constant current injection. Although this classification is associated with physiological function, the exact role for neurons with various firing patterns in acoustic processing remains poorly understood. In the present study, we analyzed characteristics of inferior colliculus neurons in vitro, and recorded responses to stimulation of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Seven inferior colliculus neurons were tested and were classified into two firing patterns: sustained-regular (n = 4) and sustained-adapting firing patterns (n = 3). The majority of inferior colliculus neurons exhibited slight changes in response to stimulation and bicuculline. The responses of one neuron with a sustained-adapting firing pattern were suppressed after stimulation, but recovered to normal levels following application of the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonist. One neuron with a sustained-regular pattern showed suppressed stimulation responses, which were not affected by bicuculline. Results suggest that GABAergic neurons in the inferior colliculus exhibit sustained-regular or sustained-adapting firing patterns. Additionally, GABAergic projections from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus to the inferior colliculus are associated with sound localization. The different neuronal responses of various firing patterns suggest a role in sound localization. A better understanding of these mechanisms and functions will provide better clinical treatment paradigms for hearing deficiencies. PMID:27335563

  12. Microinfusion of nefazodone into the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala enhances defensive behavior induced by NMDA stimulation of the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Maisonnette, S; Villela, C; Carotti, A P; Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2000-01-01

    The inferior colliculus is notably associated with defensive behavior. Electrical or pharmacological stimulation of the inferior colliculus induces aversive reactions such as running and jumping. Lesion of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala decreases the threshold of aversive reactions induced by electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus. The present work examined the influence of microinjections of nefazodone, a serotonin (5-HT(2)) antagonist, into the basolateral nucleus of amygdala on aversive reactions induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) microinjected into the inferior colliculus. Rats implanted with cannulae in the inferior colliculus and in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala were submitted to the open-field test where defensive behaviors were observed. Results indicated that microinjection of nefazodone into the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala increases aversive responses induced by NMDA injections into the inferior colliculus. This result suggests that the inferior colliculus and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala have a functional relationship on the neural circuitry of defensive behavior. Moreover, 5-HT(2) receptors located at the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala seem to play an inhibitory role on defensive behaviors induced by inferior colliculus stimulation.

  13. The superior paraolivary nucleus shapes temporal response properties of neurons in the inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Richard A.; Magnusson, Anna K.; Berrebi, Albert S.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON) is a major source of GABAergic inhibition to neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC), a well-studied midbrain nucleus that is the site of convergence and integration for the majority ascending auditory pathways en route to the cortex. Neurons in the SPON and IC exhibit highly precise responses to temporal sound features, which are important perceptual cues for naturally occurring sounds. To determine how inhibitory input from the SPON contributes to the encoding of temporal information in the IC, a reversible inactivation procedure was conducted to silence SPON neurons while recording responses to amplitude-modulated tones and silent gaps between tones in the IC. The results show that SPON-derived inhibition shapes responses of onset and sustained units in the IC via different mechanisms. Onset neurons appear to be driven primarily by excitatory inputs and their responses are shaped indirectly by SPON-derived inhibition, whereas sustained neurons are heavily influenced directly by transient offset inhibition from the SPON. The findings also demonstrate that a more complete dissection of temporal processing pathways is critical for understanding how biologically important sounds are encoded by the brain. PMID:24973970

  14. An in vivo investigation of inferior colliculus single neuron responses to cochlear nucleus pulse train stimulation.

    PubMed

    Mauger, Stefan J; Shivdasani, Mohit N; Rathbone, Graeme D; Paolini, Antonio G

    2012-12-01

    The auditory brain stem implant (ABI) is being used clinically to restore hearing to patients unable to benefit from a cochlear implant (CI). Speech perception outcomes for ABI users are typically poor compared with most CI users. The ABI is implanted either on the surface of or penetrating through the cochlear nucleus in the auditory brain stem and uses stimulation strategies developed for auditory nerve stimulation with a CI. Although the stimulus rate may affect speech perception outcomes with current stimulation strategies, no studies have systematically investigated the effect of stimulus rate electrophysiologically or clinically. We therefore investigated rate response properties and temporal response properties of single inferior colliculus (IC) neurons from penetrating ABI stimulation using stimulus rates ranging from 100 to 1,600 pulses/s in the rat. We found that the stimulus rate affected the proportion of response types, thresholds, and dynamic ranges of IC activation. The stimulus rate was also found to affect the temporal properties of IC responses, with higher rates providing more temporally similar responses to acoustic stimulation. Suppression of neural firing and inhibition in IC neurons was also found, with response properties varying with the stimulus rate. This study demonstrated that changes in the ABI stimulus rate results in significant differences in IC neuron response properties. Due to electrophysiological differences, the stimulus rate may also change perceptual properties. We suggest that clinical evaluation of the ABI stimulus rate should be performed.

  15. Shared and distinct retinal input to the mouse superior colliculus and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Erika M.; Gauvain, Gregory; Sivyer, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian retina conveys the vast majority of information about visual stimuli to two brain regions: the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and the superior colliculus (SC). The degree to which retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) send similar or distinct information to the two areas remains unclear despite the important constraints that different patterns of RGC input place on downstream visual processing. To resolve this ambiguity, we injected a glycoprotein-deficient rabies virus coding for the expression of a fluorescent protein into the dLGN or SC; rabies virus labeled a smaller fraction of RGCs than lipophilic dyes such as DiI but, crucially, did not label RGC axons of passage. Approximately 80% of the RGCs infected by rabies virus injected into the dLGN were colabeled with DiI injected into the SC, suggesting that many dLGN-projecting RGCs also project to the SC. However, functional characterization of RGCs revealed that the SC receives input from several classes of RGCs that largely avoid the dLGN, in particular RGCs in which 1) sustained changes in light intensity elicit transient changes in firing rate and/or 2) a small range of stimulus sizes or temporal fluctuations in light intensity elicit robust activity. Taken together, our results illustrate several unexpected asymmetries in the information that the mouse retina conveys to two major downstream targets and suggest that differences in the output of dLGN and SC neurons reflect, at least in part, differences in the functional properties of RGCs that innervate the SC but not the dLGN. PMID:27169509

  16. Differential effects of cortical neurotrophic factors on development of lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus neurons: anterograde and retrograde actions.

    PubMed

    Wahle, Petra; Di Cristo, Graziella; Schwerdtfeger, Gudrun; Engelhardt, Maren; Berardi, Nicoletta; Maffei, Lamberto

    2003-02-01

    Neurotrophins strongly affect visual system development and plasticity. However, the mode of delivery and targets of neurotrophin action are still under debate. For instance, cortical NT-4/5 (neurotrophin 4/5; Ntf4/5) was shown to rescue lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons from monocular deprivation-induced atrophy suggesting a retrograde action on thalamic afferents. It is still unclear whether LGN neurons respond to NT-4/5 and other neurotrophins during development in animals with normal vision. We now show that infusions of NT-4/5 and NGF (nerve growth factor) into visual cortex at the onset and the peak of the critical period accelerated LGN neuron growth. BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) was ineffective. The effects of neurotrophin on LGN development were clearly dissociated from the effects at cortical level because soma growth of cortical layer IV and VI neurons was strongly promoted by BDNF. NT-4/5 was only effective at the onset, but no longer at the peak of the critical period suggesting a switch in neurotrophin dependency for these cortical cell classes. To dissociate retrograde and anterograde effects of the TrkB ligands, we analyzed the stratum griseum superficiale (SGS) of the superior colliculus, a target of visual cortical efferents. Indeed, TrkB-expressing inhibitory SGS neurons responded to cortical NT-4/5 infusion with somatic growth. Strikingly, the TrkB-expressing excitatory tectothalamic calbindin neurons in the SGS did not respond. This demonstrated for the first time a selective cell type-specific anterograde action of NT-4/5 and suggested for the LGN that anterograde as well as retrograde effects contribute to soma size regulation. Strikingly, cortical infusion of the cytokine LIF, which affects development of visual cortex neurochemical architecture, transiently inhibited growth of neurons in LGN, cortical layer IV and VI and SGS. In summary, the study presents three important results. First, central neurons regulate soma size

  17. A novel relay nucleus between the inferior colliculus and the optic tectum in the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Niederleitner, Bertram; Gutierrez-Ibanez, Cristian; Krabichler, Quirin; Weigel, Stefan; Luksch, Harald

    2017-02-15

    Processing multimodal sensory information is vital for behaving animals in many contexts. The barn owl, an auditory specialist, is a classic model for studying multisensory integration. In the barn owl, spatial auditory information is conveyed to the optic tectum (TeO) by a direct projection from the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX). In contrast, evidence of an integration of visual and auditory information in auditory generalist avian species is completely lacking. In particular, it is not known whether in auditory generalist species the ICX projects to the TeO at all. Here we use various retrograde and anterograde tracing techniques both in vivo and in vitro, intracellular fillings of neurons in vitro, and whole-cell patch recordings to characterize the connectivity between ICX and TeO in the chicken. We found that there is a direct projection from ICX to the TeO in the chicken, although this is small and only to the deeper layers (layers 13-15) of the TeO. However, we found a relay area interposed among the IC, the TeO, and the isthmic complex that receives strong synaptic input from the ICX and projects broadly upon the intermediate and deep layers of the TeO. This area is an external portion of the formatio reticularis lateralis (FRLx). In addition to the projection to the TeO, cells in FRLx send, via collaterals, descending projections through tectopontine-tectoreticular pathways. This newly described connection from the inferior colliculus to the TeO provides a solid basis for visual-auditory integration in an auditory generalist bird. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:513-534, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Linear processing of interaural level difference underlies spatial tuning in the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Slee, Sean J; Young, Eric D

    2013-02-27

    The spatial location of sounds is an important aspect of auditory perception, but the ways in which space is represented are not fully understood. No space map has been found within the primary auditory pathway. However, a space map has been found in the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus (BIN), which provides a major auditory projection to the superior colliculus. We measured the spectral processing underlying auditory spatial tuning in the BIN of unanesthetized marmoset monkeys. Because neurons in the BIN respond poorly to tones and are broadly tuned, we used a broadband stimulus with random spectral shapes (RSSs) from which both spatial receptive fields and frequency sensitivity can be derived. Responses to virtual space (VS) stimuli, based on the animal's own ear acoustics, were compared with the predictions of a weight-function model of responses to the RSS stimuli. First-order (linear) weight functions had broad spectral tuning (approximately three octaves) and were excitatory in the contralateral ear, inhibitory in the ipsilateral ear, and biased toward high frequencies. Responses to interaural time differences and spectral cues were relatively weak. In cross-validation tests, the first-order RSS model accurately predicted the measured VS tuning curves in the majority of neurons, but was inaccurate in 25% of neurons. In some cases, second-order weighting functions led to significant improvements. Finally, we found a significant correlation between the degree of binaural weight asymmetry and the best azimuth. Overall, the results suggest that linear processing of interaural level difference underlies spatial tuning in the BIN.

  19. Temporal Expression of Wnt1 Defines the Competency State and Terminal Identity of Progenitors in the Developing Cochlear Nucleus and Inferior Colliculus.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen; Zervas, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The auditory system contains a diverse array of interconnected anatomical structures that mediate the perception of sound. The cochlear nucleus of the hindbrain serves as the initial site of convergence for auditory stimuli, while the inferior colliculus of the midbrain serves as an integration and relay station for all ascending auditory information. We used Genetic Inducible Fate Mapping (GIFM) to determine how the timing of Wnt1 expression is related to the competency states of auditory neuron progenitors. We demonstrate that the Wnt1 lineage defines progenitor pools of auditory neurons in the developing midbrain and hindbrain. The timing of Wnt1 expression specifies unique cell types during embryogenesis and follows a mixed model encompassing a brief epoch of de novo expression followed by rapid and progressive lineage restriction to shape the inferior colliculus. In contrast, Wnt1 fate mapping of the embryonic hindbrain revealed de novo induction of Wnt1 in auditory hindbrain progenitors, which is related to the development of biochemically distinct neurons in the cochlear nucleus. Thus, we uncovered two modes of lineage allocation that explain the relationship between the timing of Wnt1 expression and the development of the cochlear nucleus and the inferior colliculus. Finally, our analysis of Wnt1(sw/sw) mutant mice demonstrated a functional requirement of Wnt1 for the development of auditory midbrain and hindbrain neurons. Collectively, our study provides a deeper understanding of Wnt1 lineage allocation and function in mammalian brain development.

  20. Temporal Expression of Wnt1 Defines the Competency State and Terminal Identity of Progenitors in the Developing Cochlear Nucleus and Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephen; Zervas, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The auditory system contains a diverse array of interconnected anatomical structures that mediate the perception of sound. The cochlear nucleus of the hindbrain serves as the initial site of convergence for auditory stimuli, while the inferior colliculus of the midbrain serves as an integration and relay station for all ascending auditory information. We used Genetic Inducible Fate Mapping (GIFM) to determine how the timing of Wnt1 expression is related to the competency states of auditory neuron progenitors. We demonstrate that the Wnt1 lineage defines progenitor pools of auditory neurons in the developing midbrain and hindbrain. The timing of Wnt1 expression specifies unique cell types during embryogenesis and follows a mixed model encompassing a brief epoch of de novo expression followed by rapid and progressive lineage restriction to shape the inferior colliculus. In contrast, Wnt1 fate mapping of the embryonic hindbrain revealed de novo induction of Wnt1 in auditory hindbrain progenitors, which is related to the development of biochemically distinct neurons in the cochlear nucleus. Thus, we uncovered two modes of lineage allocation that explain the relationship between the timing of Wnt1 expression and the development of the cochlear nucleus and the inferior colliculus. Finally, our analysis of Wnt1sw/sw mutant mice demonstrated a functional requirement of Wnt1 for the development of auditory midbrain and hindbrain neurons. Collectively, our study provides a deeper understanding of Wnt1 lineage allocation and function in mammalian brain development. PMID:28878630

  1. Anatomical evidence that the superior colliculus controls saccades through central mesencephalic reticular formation gating of omnipause neuron activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Niping; Perkins, Eddie; Zhou, Lan; Warren, Susan; May, Paul J

    2013-10-09

    Omnipause neurons (OPNs) within the nucleus raphe interpositus (RIP) help gate the transition between fixation and saccadic eye movements by monosynaptically suppressing activity in premotor burst neurons during fixation, and releasing them during saccades. Premotor neuron activity is initiated by excitatory input from the superior colliculus (SC), but how the tectum's saccade-related activity turns off OPNs is not known. Since the central mesencephalic reticular formation (cMRF) is a major SC target, we explored whether this nucleus has the appropriate connections to support tectal gating of OPN activity. In dual-tracer experiments undertaken in macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), cMRF neurons labeled retrogradely from injections into RIP had numerous anterogradely labeled terminals closely associated with them following SC injections. This suggested the presence of an SC-cMRF-RIP pathway. Furthermore, anterograde tracers injected into the cMRF of other macaques labeled axonal terminals in RIP, confirming this cMRF projection. To determine whether the cMRF projections gate OPN activity, postembedding electron microscopic immunochemistry was performed on anterogradely labeled cMRF terminals with antibody to GABA or glycine. Of the terminals analyzed, 51.4% were GABA positive, 35.5% were GABA negative, and most contacted glycinergic cells. In summary, a trans-cMRF pathway connecting the SC to the RIP is present. This pathway contains inhibitory elements that could help gate omnipause activity and allow other tectal drives to induce the bursts of firing in premotor neurons that are necessary for saccades. The non-GABAergic cMRF terminals may derive from fixation units in the cMRF.

  2. Wisteria Floribunda Agglutinin-Labeled Perineuronal Nets in the Mouse Inferior Colliculus, Thalamic Reticular Nucleus and Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Fader, Sarah M.; Imaizumi, Kazuo; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Lee, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized extracellular matrix molecules that are associated with the closing of the critical period, among other functions. In the adult brain, PNNs surround specific types of neurons, however the expression of PNNs in the auditory system of the mouse, particularly at the level of the midbrain and forebrain, has not been fully described. In addition, the association of PNNs with excitatory and inhibitory cell types in these structures remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to investigate the expression of PNNs in the inferior colliculus (IC), thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) and primary auditory cortex (A1) of the mouse brain by labeling with wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA). To aid in the identification of inhibitory neurons in these structures, we employed the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)-Venus transgenic mouse strain, which robustly expresses an enhanced yellow-fluorescent protein (Venus) natively in nearly all gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic inhibitory neurons, thus enabling a rapid and unambiguous assessment of inhibitory neurons throughout the nervous system. Our results demonstrate that PNNs are expressed throughout the auditory midbrain and forebrain, but vary in their local distribution. PNNs are most dense in the TRN and least dense in A1. Furthermore, PNNs are preferentially associated with inhibitory neurons in A1 and the TRN, but not in the IC of the mouse. These data suggest regionally specific roles for PNNs in auditory information processing. PMID:27089371

  3. Projection of the mammalian superior colliculus upon the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus: organization of tectogeniculate pathways in nineteen species.

    PubMed

    Harting, J K; Huerta, M F; Hashikawa, T; van Lieshout, D P

    1991-02-08

    Anterograde and retrograde transport methods have been used to analyze the projection of the superior colliculus upon the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in 19 mammalian species. Our retrograde findings reveal that tectogeniculate neurons are relatively small, and lie dorsally within the superficial gray. These small tectogeniculate neurons are spatially related to a dense tier of W-cell retinal input. Our anterograde tracing results show that tectogeniculate axons are visuotopically distributed to small-celled regions of the lateral geniculate in all nineteen species. In the majority of these species, the small-celled, tectally innervated regions of the lateral geniculate lie adjacent to the optic tract and contain W-cell-like neurons. Our findings suggest that neuroanatomical demonstration of the tectogeniculate projection is a relatively simple and straightforward way of revealing regions of the lateral geniculate which contain W-cells. This is true even in species in which the lateral geniculate lacks obvious cellular laminae, and in regions of the lateral geniculate where W-cells are few in number. The present data are especially interesting in light of the cortical projections of tectally innervated, small-celled regions of the lateral geniculate to the patches or puffs within layer III of area 17. Since these regions of small-celled geniculocortical axons are co-extensive with zones ("blobs") rich in cytochrome oxidase, it might be that information carried over the tectogeniculate circuitry plays an important role in the functions of the blob system.

  4. Efferent pathways modulate hyperactivity in inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Mulders, Wilhelmina Henrica A M; Seluakumaran, Kumar; Robertson, Donald

    2010-07-14

    Animal models have demonstrated that mild hearing loss caused by acoustic trauma results in spontaneous hyperactivity in the central auditory pathways. This hyperactivity has been hypothesized to be involved in the generation of tinnitus, a phantom auditory sensation. We have recently shown that such hyperactivity, recorded in the inferior colliculus, is still dependent on cochlear neural output for some time after recovery (up to 6 weeks). We have now studied the capacity of an intrinsic efferent system, i.e., the olivocochlear system, to alter hyperactivity. This system is known to modulate cochlear neural output. Anesthetized guinea pigs were exposed to a loud sound and after 2 or 3 weeks of recovery, single-neuron recordings in inferior colliculus were made to confirm hyperactivity. Olivocochlear axons were electrically stimulated and effects on cochlear neural output and on highly spontaneous neurons in inferior colliculus were assessed. Olivocochlear stimulation suppressed spontaneous hyperactivity in the inferior colliculus. This result is in agreement with our earlier finding that hyperactivity can be modulated by altering cochlear neural output. Interestingly, the central suppression was generally much larger and longer lasting than reported previously for primary afferents. Blockade of the intracochlear effects of olivocochlear system activation eliminated some but not all of the effects observed on spontaneous activity, suggesting also a central component to the effects of stimulation. More research is needed to investigate whether these central effects of olivocochlear efferent stimulation are due to central intrinsic circuitry or to coactivation of central efferent collaterals to the cochlear nucleus.

  5. Increased responsiveness and failure of habituation in neurons of the external nucleus of inferior colliculus associated with audiogenic seizures of the genetically epilepsy-prone rat.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, D N; Faingold, C L

    1996-10-01

    Initiation of audiogenic seizures (AGS) emanates from the inferior colliculus (IC) to other IC subnuclei in the genetically epilepsy-prone rat (GEPR). The external nucleus of IC (ICx) is a suggested site of convergence of the auditory output onto the sensorimotor integration network components for AGS in the brainstem. Neuronal firing was recorded from the ICx of the awake, freely moving GEPR and normal Sprague-Dawley rats using microwire electrodes in the present study. Auditory stimuli consisted of 12-kHz tones (100 ms, 5-ms rise-fall at rates of 1/4s, 1/2s, and 1/s). AGS incidence in the GEPR is highest at 12 kHz. In the GEPR, ICx neuronal responses to acoustic stimuli were significantly greater than those seen in normal rats. This increased ICx firing was observed at relatively high acoustic intensities (> 80 dB SPL), which are near the threshold for AGS induction. Repetition-induced response attenuation (habituation) is commonly observed in ICx neurons, which appears to be overcome in the GEPR during AGS initiation. Tonic, acoustically evoked ICx neuronal firing was observed just prior to wild running. ICx firing was suppressed during the tonic and postictal phases of AGS. Recovery of ICx responses occurred when the animal regained postural control. Abnormal, intense output has previously been observed in the GEPR IC central nucleus (ICc) neurons. The neuronal firing pattern changes observed in the ICx in the present study may result from this intense ICc output. Diminished efficacy of GABA, which has been observed in several regions of the GEPR brain, including the IC, in a number of previous studies, may be involved in the exaggerated ICx responses to acoustic stimuli in the GEPR. Participation of the ICx in the AGS neuronal network may be subserved by this acoustic hyperresponsiveness.

  6. Neuronal relationships between the dorsal periaqueductal nucleus and the inferior colliculus (nucleus commissuralis) in the cat. A Golgi study.

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, M; Sánchez del Campo, F; Ruiz, A; Smith Agreda, V

    1988-01-01

    Cell types in the dorsal periaqueductal nucleus (PAGd) were studied with the aid of the rapid Golgi method in young cats. The neurons were subdivided into fusiform and stellate types with several varieties of the latter class according to the final destination of their axons. Fusiform neurons send their axons to the neuropil of the Ncom. In turn these neurons receive descending fibres from the nucleus commissuralis (Ncom) which seem to establish axo-dendritic contacts. Also commissural neurons receive contacts from ascending fibres of the PAGd. On the basis of Golgi material it is concluded that particular neuronal types of the PAGd could establish reciprocal connections with neuronal elements of the ventral part of the Ncom. The present study supports the hypothesis that the PAGd could be subdivided into discrete cell groups according to their afferent and efferent projections. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:3225218

  7. The Distinct Role of the Amygdala, Superior Colliculus and Pulvinar in Processing of Central and Peripheral Snakes

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Inês; Soares, Sandra C.; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Visual processing of ecologically relevant stimuli involves a central bias for stimuli demanding detailed processing (e.g., faces), whereas peripheral object processing is based on coarse identification. Fast detection of animal shapes holding a significant phylogenetic value, such as snakes, may benefit from peripheral vision. The amygdala together with the pulvinar and the superior colliculus are implicated in an ongoing debate regarding their role in automatic and deliberate spatial processing of threat signals. Methods Here we tested twenty healthy participants in an fMRI task, and investigated the role of spatial demands (the main effect of central vs. peripheral vision) in the processing of fear-relevant ecological features. We controlled for stimulus dependence using true or false snakes; snake shapes or snake faces and for task constraints (implicit or explicit). The main idea justifying this double task is that amygdala and superior colliculus are involved in both automatic and controlled processes. Moreover the explicit/implicit instruction in the task with respect to emotion is not necessarily equivalent to explicit vs. implicit in the sense of endogenous vs. exogenous attention, or controlled vs. automatic processes. Results We found that stimulus-driven processing led to increased amygdala responses specifically to true snake shapes presented in the centre or in the peripheral left hemifield (right hemisphere). Importantly, the superior colliculus showed significantly biased and explicit central responses to snake-related stimuli. Moreover, the pulvinar, which also contains foveal representations, also showed strong central responses, extending the results of a recent single cell pulvinar study in monkeys. Similar hemispheric specialization was found across structures: increased amygdala responses occurred to true snake shapes presented to the right hemisphere, with this pattern being closely followed by the superior colliculus and the

  8. [Morphology of the posterior colliculus in epileptic hamsters].

    PubMed

    Gil Verona, J A; Gómez Carretero, M E; Manso Martínez, E; Gómez Bosque, P; García Atarés, N

    1990-01-01

    In an inbred strain of Golden hamsters with audiogenic seizures, we have studied the collicular participation, planning a morphologic study of posterior colliculus central nucleus. The parameters used have been: number of neurons and glia, neuronal areas and area of all the colliculus. The measurement and the counts have been done in both sides and for to validate the results we have used an A.N.O.V.A.. In the epileptic group, there are a less number of neurons and a major correlation Nucleus/cytoplasm. The left-right correlations are positive for the neurons, while in the control group are for the glia. Although, the number of neurons in the epileptic animals are less, this are more active, which can be related to the participation of the colliculus in the audiogenic seizures.

  9. Encoding of the amplitude modulation of pulsatile electrical stimulation in the feline cochlear nucleus by neurons in the inferior colliculus; effects of stimulus pulse rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreery, Douglas; Han, Martin; Pikov, Victor; Yadav, Kamal; Pannu, Satinderpall

    2013-10-01

    Objectives. Persons without a functional auditory nerve cannot benefit from cochlear implants, but some hearing can be restored by an auditory brainstem implant (ABI) with stimulating electrodes implanted on the surface of the cochlear nucleus (CN). Most users benefit from their ABI, but speech recognition tends to be poorer than for users of cochlear implants. Psychophysical studies suggest that poor modulation detection may contribute to the limited performance of ABI users. In a cat model, we determined how the pulse rate of the electrical stimulus applied within or on the CN affects temporal and rate encoding of amplitude modulation (AM) by neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). Approach. Stimulating microelectrodes were implanted chronically in and on the cats' CN, and multi-site recording microelectrodes were implanted chronically into the ICC. Encoding of AM pulse trains by neurons in the ICC was characterized as vector strength (VS), the synchrony of neural activity with the AM, and as the mean rate of neuronal action potentials (neuronal spike rate (NSR)). Main results. For intranuclear microstimulation, encoding of AM as VS was up to 3 dB greater when stimulus pulse rate was increased from 250 to 500 pps, but only for neuronal units with low best acoustic frequencies, and when the electrical stimulation was modulated at low frequencies (10-20 Hz). For stimulation on the surface of the CN, VS was similar at 250 and 500 pps, and the dynamic range of the VS was reduced for pulse rates greater than 250 pps. Modulation depth was encoded strongly as VS when the maximum stimulus amplitude was held constant across a range of modulation depth. This ‘constant maximum’ protocol allows enhancement of modulation depth while preserving overall dynamic range. However, modulation depth was not encoded as strongly as NSR. Significance. The findings have implications for improved sound processors for present and future ABIs. The performance of

  10. Classifiers for centrality determination in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altsybeev, Igor; Kovalenko, Vladimir

    2017-03-01

    Centrality, as a geometrical property of the collision, is crucial for the physical interpretation of nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus experimental data. However, it cannot be directly accessed in event-by-event data analysis. Common methods for centrality estimation in A-A and p-A collisions usually rely on a single detector (either on the signal in zero-degree calorimeters or on the multiplicity in some semi-central rapidity range). In the present work, we made an attempt to develop an approach for centrality determination that is based on machine-learning techniques and utilizes information from several detector subsystems simultaneously. Different event classifiers are suggested and evaluated for their selectivity power in terms of the number of nucleons-participants and the impact parameter of the collision. Finer centrality resolution may allow to reduce impact from so-called volume fluctuations on physical observables being studied in heavy-ion experiments like ALICE at the LHC and fixed target experiment NA61/SHINE on SPS.

  11. Inhibitory projections from the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and superior paraolivary nucleus create directional selectivity of frequency modulations in the inferior colliculus: a comparison of bats with other mammals.

    PubMed

    Pollak, George D; Gittelman, Joshua X; Li, Na; Xie, Ruili

    2011-03-01

    This review considers four auditory brainstem nuclear groups and shows how studies of both bats and other mammals have provided insights into their response properties and the impact of their convergence in the inferior colliculus (IC). The four groups are octopus cells in the cochlear nucleus, their connections with the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL) and the superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON), and the connections of the VNLL and SPON with the IC. The theme is that the response properties of neurons in the SPON and VNLL map closely onto the synaptic response features of a unique subpopulation of cells in the IC of bats whose inputs are dominated by inhibition. We propose that the convergence of VNLL and SPON inputs generates the tuning of these IC cells, their unique temporal responses to tones, and their directional selectivities for frequency modulated (FM) sweeps. Other IC neurons form directional properties in other ways, showing that selective response properties are formed in multiple ways. In the final section we discuss why multiple formations of common response properties could amplify differences in population activity patterns evoked by signals that have similar spectrotemporal features.

  12. Inhibitory projections from the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and superior paraolivary nucleus create directional selectivity of frequency modulations in the inferior colliculus: A comparison of bats with other mammals

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, George D.; Gittelman, Joshua X; Li, Na; Xie, Ruili

    2015-01-01

    This review considers four auditory brainstem nuclear groups and shows how studies of both bats and other mammals have provided insights into their response properties and the impact of their convergence in the inferior colliculus (IC). The four groups are octopus cells in the cochlear nucleus, their connections with the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL) and the superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON), and the connections of the VNLL and SPON with the IC. The theme is that the response properties of neurons in the SPON and VNLL map closely onto the synaptic response features of a unique subpopulation of cells in the IC of bats whose inputs are dominated by inhibition. We propose that the convergence of VNLL and SPON inputs generates the tuning of these IC cells, their unique temporal responses to tones, and their directional selectivities for frequency modulated (FM) sweeps. Other IC neurons form directional properties in other ways, showing that selective response properties are formed in multiple ways. In the final section we discuss why multiple formations of common response properties could amplify differences in population activity patterns evoked by signals that have similar spectrotemporal features. PMID:20451594

  13. Projections from the central amygdaloid nucleus to the precuneiform nucleus in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huazheng; Watson, Charles; Paxinos, George

    2015-01-01

    The mouse precuneiform nucleus has been proposed as the midbrain locomotion center, a function ascribed to its caudal neighbor, cuneiform nucleus, in the rat, cat and other species. The present study investigated the projections from the central amygdaloid nucleus to the precuneiform nucleus in the mouse using retrograde tracer injections (fluoro-gold) into the precuneiform nucleus and anterograde tracer injections (biotinylated dextran amine) into the central amygdaloid nucleus. The entire central amygdaloid nucleus except the rostral pole had retrogradely labeled neurons, especially in the middle portion where labeled neurons were densely packed. Anterogradely labeled amygdaloid fibers approached the precuneiform nucleus from the area ventrolateral to it and terminated in the entire precuneiform nucleus. Labeled fibers were also found in laminae 5 and 6 in the upper cervical cord on the ipsilateral side. The present study is the first demonstration of projections from the central amygdaloid nucleus to the precuneiform nucleus. This projection may underpin the role of the precuneiform nucleus in the modulation of the cardiovascular activity.

  14. Study of the inferior colliculus in patients with schizophrenia by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Granados, B; Martinez-Bisbal, M C; Sanjuan, J; Aguilar, E J; Marti-Bonmati, L; Molla, E; Celda, B

    2014-07-01

    INTRODUCTION. Previous studies have suggested morphometric and functional abnormalities in the inferior colliculus in patients with schizophrenia. Auditory hallucinations are one of the central symptoms in schizophrenia. In this complex and multidimensional event both attention and emotion are thought to play a key role. AIM. To study metabolic changes in the inferior colliculus, a nucleus integrated in the auditory pathway, in patients with schizophrenia and the possible relationship with auditory hallucinations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging studies were performed in 30 right-handed patients with chronic schizophrenia (19 of them with auditory hallucinations) and 28 controls. A magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging 2D slice was acquired and the voxels representative of both inferior colliculi were selected. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho) peak areas were measured. RESULTS. The patients with schizophrenia showed a NAA/Cr significant reduction in the right inferior colliculus compared to the control subjects. The metabolic data in the right inferior colliculus were correlated with emotional auditory hallucinations items. CONCLUSIONS. The contribution of the inferior colliculus on neural underpinnings of auditory hallucinations is particularly relevant for the right inferior colliculus and is centered on attention-emotional component of this symptom.

  15. Postnatal development of glutamatergic, GABAergic, and cholinergic neurotransmitter phenotypes in the visual cortex, lateral geniculate nucleus, pulvinar, and superior colliculus in cats.

    PubMed

    Fosse, V M; Heggelund, P; Fonnum, F

    1989-02-01

    We have analyzed the postnatal development of glutamatergic/aspartergic, GABAergic, and cholinergic neurotransmitter systems in the visual cortical Areas 17 and 18, lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), pulvinar, and the visual and non-visual parts of superior colliculus (SC) in kittens. High-affinity uptake of D-aspartate (HA D-Asp), glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activities were measured as a means of probing the development of the respective transmitter systems. HA D-Asp exceeded the adult level several-fold in all areas during the postnatal period which corresponded with the period of maximal dendritic/axonal branching patterns and synapse densities in the respective regions. GAD exhibited a gradual increase towards adult levels during the first month. The adult level was reached during postnatal week (PNW) 5-6 in Areas 17 and 18, during PNW3 within LGN, pulvinar, and the visual part of SC. In the nonvisual part of SC, the adult GAD level was reached as early as PNW2. ChAT exhibited biphasic developmental profiles in Areas 17 and 18. An initial peak of near adultlike activity in PNW2 was followed by a decline and subsequently by a slow increase towards adult levels during PNW5-17. ChAT developed very slowly in LGN and pulvinar, and in the latter structure only approximately 70% of the adult activity had been attained by PNW17. In both subdivisions of SC, ChAT had reached adult levels during PNW3-5. Dark-rearing from birth until PNW6 moderately attenuated GAD development in all areas and increased ChAT activity in Areas 17 and 18 but did not affect development of HA D-Asp in any part of the kitten visual system. Our neurochemical findings in the developing cat visual system are consistent with available evidence regarding localization of neurotransmitter systems, as well as postnatal changes in terms of cytoarchitectonics, synaptogenesis, functional development, and susceptibility to neonatal dark-rearing in visual pathways.

  16. Optogenetic stimulation of the cochlear nucleus using channelrhodopsin-2 evokes activity in the central auditory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, Keith N.; Slama, Michaël C. C.; Owoc, Maryanna; Kozin, Elliott; Hancock, Kenneth; Kempfle, Judith; Edge, Albert; Lacour, Stephanie; Boyden, Edward; Polley, Daniel; Brown, M. Christian; Lee, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics has become an important research tool and is being considered as the basis for several neural prostheses. However, few studies have applied optogenetics to the auditory brainstem. This study explored whether optical activation of the cochlear nucleus (CN) elicited responses in neurons in higher centers of the auditory pathway, and it measured the evoked response to optical stimulation. Viral-mediated gene transfer was used to express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in the mouse CN. Blue light was delivered via an optical fiber placed near the surface of the infected CN and recordings were made in higher-level centers. Optical stimulation evoked excitatory multiunit spiking activity throughout the tonotopic axis of central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) and the auditory cortex (Actx). The pattern and magnitude of IC activity elicited by optical stimulation was comparable to that obtained with a 50 dB SPL acoustic click stimulus. This broad pattern of activity was consistent with histological confirmation of GFP label of cell bodies and axons throughout the CN. Increasing pulse rates up to 320 Hz did not significantly affect threshold or bandwidth of the IC responses, but rates higher than 50 Hz resulted in desynchronized activity. Optical stimulation also evoked an auditory brainstem response, which had a simpler waveform than the response to acoustic stimulation. Control cases showed no responses to optical stimulation. These data suggest that optogenetic control of central auditory neurons is feasible, but opsins with faster channel kinetics will be necessary to convey information in rates typical of many auditory signals. PMID:25481416

  17. Coexistence of central nucleus, cores, and rods: Diagnostic relevance

    PubMed Central

    Dhinakaran, Sathiyabama; Kumar, Rashmi Santhosh; Thakkar, Ravindra; Narayanappa, Gayathri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Congenital myopathies (CMs) though considered distinct disorders, simultaneous occurrence of central nucleus, nemaline rods, and cores in the same biopsy are scarcely reported. Objective: A retrospective reassessment of cases diagnosed as CMs to look for multiple pathologies missed, if any, during the initial diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Enzyme histochemical, and immunohistochemical-stained slides from 125 cases diagnosed as congenital myopathy were reassessed. Results: The study revealed 15 cases (12%) of congenital myopathy with more than one morphological feature. Central nucleus with cores (n = 11), central nucleus, nemaline rods and cores (n = 3), and nemaline rods with cores (n = 1). 4/11 cases were diagnosed as centronuclear myopathy (CNM) in the first instance; in addition, cores were revealed on reassessment. Discussion: The prevalence of CMs of all neuromuscular disorders is approximately 6 in 100,000 live births, with regional variations. Three main defined CMs include centro nuclear myopathy (CNM), nemaline rod myopathy (NRM), and central core disease (CCD). However, they are more diverse with overlapping clinical and histopathological features, thus broadening the spectra within each category of congenital myopathy. Conclusion: Identification of cases with overlap of pathological features has diagnostic relevance. PMID:27293330

  18. Collateral projections from the lateral parabrachial nucleus to the paraventricular thalamic nucleus and the central amygdaloid nucleus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shao-Hua; Yin, Jun-Bin; Sun, Yi; Bai, Yang; Zhou, Kai-Xiang; Zhao, Wen-Jun; Wang, Wei; Dong, Yu-Lin; Li, Yun-Qing

    2016-08-26

    Combined the retrograde double tracing with immunofluorescence histochemical staining, we examined the neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPB) sent collateral projections to the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) and central amygdaloid nucleus (CeA) and their roles in the nociceptive transmission in the rat. After the injection of Fluoro-gold (FG) into the PVT and tetramethylrhodamine-dextran (TMR) into the CeA, respectively, FG/TMR double-labeled neurons were observed in the LPB. The percentages of FG/TMR double-labeled neurons to the total number of FG- or TMR-labeled neurons were 6.18% and 9.09%, respectively. Almost all of the FG/TMR double-labeled neurons (95%) exhibited calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactivity. In the condition of neuropathic pain, 94% of these neurons showed FOS immunoreactivity. The present data indicates that some of CGRP-expressing neurons in the LPB may transmit nociceptive information toward the PVT and CeA by way of axon collaterals.

  19. Direct synaptic connections between superior colliculus afferents and thalamo-insular projection neurons in the feline suprageniculate nucleus: a double-labeling study with WGA-HRP and kainic acid.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Kaeko; Horie, Masao; Nagy, Attila; Berényi, Antal; Benedek, György; Norita, Masao

    2010-01-01

    The suprageniculate nucleus (Sg) of the feline thalamus, which subserves largely unimodal sensory and orientation behavior, receives input from the deep layers of the superior colliculus (SC), and projects to the suprasylvian cortical areas, such as the anterior ectosylvian visual area and the insular visual area (IVA), which contain visually responsive neurons. Through a double tract-tracing procedure involving the injection of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) into the IVA and the injection of kainic acid into the SC, this study sought to determine the nature of the synaptic relationship between the SC afferents and the thalamo-cortical projection neurons. WGA-HRP injections labeled numerous neurons in the Sg, while kainic acid injections destroyed many tectothalamic terminals in the Sg. The distributions of the WGA-HRP-labeled neurons and the degenerated axon terminals overlapped in the dorsal part of the Sg. Electron microscopic observations demonstrated that the degenerated axon terminals made synaptic contacts with the dendrites of the WGA-HRP-labeled neurons in this overlapping region of the Sg. These results provide the first anatomical evidence that the Sg may play a role in the key relay of visual information from the SC to the IVA, within an identified extrageniculo-cortical pathway.

  20. Sources of subcortical projections to the superior colliculus in the cat.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S B; Ginsburgh, C L; Henkel, C K; Stein, B E

    1979-03-15

    A comprehensive search for subcortical projections to the cat superior colliculus was conducted using the retrograde horseradish peroxidase (HRP) method. Over 40 different subcortical structures project to the superior colliculus. The more notable among these are grouped under the following categories. Visual structures: ventral lateral geniculate nucleus, parabigeminal nucleus, pretectal area (nucleus of the optic tract, posterior pretectal nucleus, nuclei of the posterior commissure). Auditory structures: inferior colliculus (external and pericentral nuclei), dorsomedial periolivary nucleus, nuclei of the trapezoid body, ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. Somatosensory structures: sensory trigeminal complex (all divisions, but mainly the gamma division of nucleus oralis), dorsal column nuclei (mostly cuneate nucleus), and the lateral cervical nucleus. Catecholamine nuclei: locus coeruleus, raphe dorsalis, and the parabrachial nuclei. Cerebellum: medial, interposed, and lateral nuclei, and the perihypoglossal nuclei. Reticular areas: zona incerta, substantia nigra, midbrain tegmentum, nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis, and the hypothalamus. Evidence is presented that only the parabigeminal nucleus, the nucleus of the optic tract, and the posterior pretectal nucleus project to the superficial collicular layers (striatum griseum superficiale and stratum opticum), while all other afferents terminate in the deeper layers of the colliculus. Also presented is information concerning the rostrocaudal distribution of some of these afferent connections. These findings stress the multiplicity and diversity of inputs to the deeper collicular layers, and more specifically, identify multiple sources of the physiologically well-known representations of the somatic and auditory modalities in the colliculus.

  1. Mammal-Like Organization of the Avian Midbrain Central Gray and a Reappraisal of the Intercollicular Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Kingsbury, Marcy A.; Kelly, Aubrey M.; Schrock, Sara E.; Goodson, James L.

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, rostrocaudal columns of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) regulate diverse behavioral and physiological functions, including sexual and fight-or-flight behavior, but homologous columns have not been identified in non-mammalian species. In contrast to mammals, in which the PAG lies ventral to the superior colliculus and surrounds the cerebral aqueduct, birds exhibit a hypertrophied tectum that is displaced laterally, and thus the midbrain central gray (CG) extends mediolaterally rather than dorsoventrally as in mammals. We therefore hypothesized that the avian CG is organized much like a folded open PAG. To address this hypothesis, we conducted immunohistochemical comparisons of the midbrains of mice and finches, as well as Fos studies of aggressive dominance, subordinance, non-social defense and sexual behavior in territorial and gregarious finch species. We obtained excellent support for our predictions based on the folded open model of the PAG and further showed that birds possess functional and anatomical zones that form longitudinal columns similar to those in mammals. However, distinguishing characteristics of the dorsal/dorsolateral PAG, such as a dense peptidergic innervation, a longitudinal column of neuronal nitric oxide synthase neurons, and aggression-induced Fos responses, do not lie within the classical avian CG, but in the laterally adjacent intercollicular nucleus (ICo), suggesting that much of the ICo is homologous to the dorsal PAG. PMID:21694758

  2. The Double Nucleus and Central Black Hole of M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf

    1999-09-01

    New spectroscopy of M31 supports Tremaine's model in which both nuclei are parts of a single eccentric disk of stars orbiting the black hole (BH). The kinematics and Hubble Space Telescope photometry are used to measure the offset of the BH from the center of mass. This confirms that the BH mass is ~3×107 Msolar by a technique that is nearly independent of stellar-dynamical models. We present spectroscopy of the nucleus of M31 obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and Subarcsecond Imaging Spectrograph. Spectra at the Ca infrared triplet lines (seeing σ*=0.27") are used to measure the stellar kinematics, and spectra at the Mg I b lines (σ*=0.31") are used to measure metallicities. We also measure nonparametric line-of-sight velocity distributions (LOSVDs). All spectra confirm the steep rotation and velocity dispersion gradients that imply that M31 contains a 3.3×107 Msolar central dark object. At σ*=0.27", the maximum bulge-subtracted rotation velocity of the nucleus is 233+/-4 km s-1 on the P2 side, and the maximum velocity dispersion is 287+/-9 km s-1. The dispersion peak is displaced by 0.20"+/-0.03" from the velocity center in the direction opposite to P1, confirming a result by Bacon and coworkers. The higher surface brightness nucleus, P1, is colder than the bulge, with σ~=100 km s-1 at r~=1''. Cold light from P1 contributes at the velocity center; this explains part of the σ(r) asymmetry. The nucleus is cold at r>~1'' on both sides of the center. Our results are used to test Tremaine's model in which the double nucleus is a single eccentric disk of stars orbiting the BH. (1) The model predicts that the velocity center of the nucleus is displaced by 0.2" from P2 toward P1. Our observations show a displacement of 0.08"+/-0.01" before bulge subtraction and 0.10"+/-0.01" after bulge subtraction. (2) The model predicts a minimum σ~=135 km s-1 at P1. We observe σ=123+/-2 km s-1. Observations (1) and (2) may be reconciled with the model if its

  3. The inferior colliculus of the mouse. A Nissl and Golgi study.

    PubMed

    Meininger, V; Pol, D; Derer, P

    1986-04-01

    Serial sections of cell- and fiber-stained and Golgi-impregnated material from adult mice were used to study the cytoarchitectonics, fiber and neuronal architecture of the inferior colliculus. The size of the cells, the pattern of dendritic branching, and the appearance of the neuropil were the features used to delineate the three main regions of the auditory tectum: the central mass of cells or central nucleus, the cortex, and the paracentral nuclei. The central nucleus contains two major cell types: the bipolar cells, which are the most abundant, and the multipolar cells. The dendrites of the bipolar cells are oriented in the same direction and the afferent axons of the lateral lemniscus run along them, contributing to form fibrodendritic strips: the laminae of the central nucleus. The orientation of these laminae differs in the various parts of the central nucleus and delineates four subdivisions. In these four subdivisions, the laminae maintain the same relative position throughout the anteroposterior axis of the central nucleus, but they stop abruptly at the periphery of the nucleus. The cortex surrounds the central nucleus dorsally and caudally. The lamination in four layers concentric to the surface, the increasing gradient of size from the periphery to the deep tissue, the existence of two major types of cells, stellate and pyramidal, permit this structure to be considered as a true cortex. The paracentral nuclei are scattered around the central nucleus. The commissural nucleus is composed of cells with a simple dendritic branching pattern perpendicular or parallel to the fibers of the intercollicular commissure. The dorsomedial and ventrolateral nuclei are characterized by the presence of large multipolar cells. The nucleus of the rostral pole, distinct from the anterior pole of the central nucleus, is composed of small and medium-sized multipolar cells. The lateral nucleus appears as an extension of the dorsal cortex with only two or three layers of cells

  4. Neural correlates of binaural masking level difference in the inferior colliculus of the barn owl (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Asadollahi, Ali; Endler, Frank; Nelken, Israel; Wagner, Hermann

    2010-08-01

    Humans and animals are able to detect signals in noisy environments. Detection improves when the noise and the signal have different interaural phase relationships. The resulting improvement in detection threshold is called the binaural masking level difference. We investigated neural mechanisms underlying the release from masking in the inferior colliculus of barn owls in low-frequency and high-frequency neurons. A tone (signal) was presented either with the same interaural time difference as the noise (masker) or at a 180 degrees phase shift as compared with the interaural time difference of the noise. The changes in firing rates induced by the addition of a signal of increasing level while masker level was kept constant was well predicted by the relative responses to the masker and signal alone. In many cases, the response at the highest signal levels was dominated by the response to the signal alone, in spite of a significant response to the masker at low signal levels, suggesting the presence of occlusion. Detection thresholds and binaural masking level differences were widely distributed. The amount of release from masking increased with increasing masker level. Narrowly tuned neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus had detection thresholds that were lower than or similar to those of broadly tuned neurons in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Broadly tuned neurons exhibited higher masking level differences than narrowband neurons. These data suggest that detection has different spectral requirements from localization.

  5. Consolidation of altered associability information by amygdala central nucleus.

    PubMed

    Schiffino, Felipe L; Holland, Peter C

    2016-09-01

    The surprising omission of a reinforcer can enhance the associability of the stimuli that were present when the reward prediction error was induced, so that they more readily enter into new associations in the future. Previous research from this laboratory identified brain circuit elements critical to the enhancement of stimulus associability by the omission of an expected event and to the subsequent expression of that altered associability in more rapid learning. These elements include the amygdala, the midbrain substantia nigra, the basal forebrain substantia innominata, the dorsolateral striatum, the secondary visual cortex, and the posterior parietal cortex. Here, we found that consolidation of a surprise-enhanced associability memory in a serial prediction task depends on processing in the amygdala central nucleus (CeA) after completion of sessions that included the surprising omission of an expected event. Post-surprise infusions of anisomycin, lidocaine, or muscimol prevented subsequent display of surprise-enhanced associability. Because previous studies indicated that CeA function is unnecessary for the expression of associability enhancements that were induced previously when CeA function was intact (Holland & Gallagher, 2006), we interpreted these results as indicating that post-surprise activity of CeA ("surprise replay") is necessary for the consolidation of altered associability memories elsewhere in the brain, such as the posterior parietal cortex (Schiffino et al., 2014a). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of amygdala central nucleus in feature negative discriminations.

    PubMed

    Holland, Peter C

    2012-10-01

    Consistent with a popular theory of associative learning, the Pearce-Hall (1980) model, the surprising omission of expected events enhances cue associability (the ease with which a cue may enter into new associations), across a wide variety of behavioral training procedures. Furthermore, previous experiments from this laboratory showed that these enhancements are absent in rats with impaired function of the amygdala central nucleus (CeA). A notable exception to these assertions is found in feature negative (FN) discrimination learning, in which a "target" stimulus is reinforced when it is presented alone but nonreinforced when it is presented in compound with another, "feature" stimulus. According to the Pearce-Hall model, reinforcer omission on compound trials should enhance the associability of the feature relative to control training conditions. However, prior experiments have shown no evidence that CeA lesions affect FN discrimination learning. Here we explored this apparent contradiction by evaluating the hypothesis that the surprising omission of an event confers enhanced associability on a cue only if that cue itself generates the disconfirmed prediction. Thus, in a FN discrimination, the surprising omission of the reinforcer on compound trials would enhance the associability of the target stimulus but not that of the feature. Our data confirmed this hypothesis and showed this enhancement to depend on intact CeA function, as in other procedures. The results are consistent with modern reformulations of both cue and reward processing theories that assign roles for both individual and aggregate error terms in associative learning. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Role of amygdala central nucleus in feature negative discriminations

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Consistent with a popular theory of associative learning, the Pearce-Hall (1980) model, the surprising omission of expected events enhances cue associability (the ease with which a cue may enter into new associations), across a wide variety of behavioral training procedures. Furthermore, previous experiments from this laboratory showed that these enhancements are absent in rats with impaired function of the amygdala central nucleus (CeA). A notable exception to these assertions is found in feature negative (FN) discrimination learning, in which a “target” stimulus is reinforced when it is presented alone but nonreinforced when it is presented in compound with another, “feature” stimulus. According to the Pearce-Hall model, reinforcer omission on compound trials should enhance the associability of the feature relative to control training conditions. However, prior experiments have shown no evidence that CeA lesions affect FN discrimination learning. Here we explored this apparent contradiction by evaluating the hypothesis that the surprising omission of an event confers enhanced associability on a cue only if that cue itself generates the disconfirmed prediction. Thus, in a FN discrimination, the surprising omission of the reinforcer on compound trials would enhance the associability of the target stimulus but not that of the feature. Our data confirmed this hypothesis, and showed this enhancement to depend on intact CeA function, as in other procedures. The results are consistent with modern reformulations of both cue and reward processing theories that assign roles for both individual and aggregate error terms in associative learning. PMID:22889308

  8. Cardiovascular response to renin substrate microinjection into the central nucleus of the amygdala of rats.

    PubMed

    Heshmatian, Behnam; Parviz, Mohsen; Karimian, Sayed Morteza; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Sohanaki, Hamid

    2007-05-07

    Central nucleus of the amygdala is involved in cardiovascular regulation. Although most components of the renin-angiotensin system have been found to be distributed in amygdala, renin expression in brain has remained controversial. This work was undertaken to elucidate the extent of renin presence in this nucleus. A cannula was implanted bilaterally into the central nucleus of the amygdala. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were directly measured via indwelling femoral artery cannula post bilateral intra central nucleus of the amygdala microinjection of renin substrate. Renin substrate microinjection dose-dependently increased mean arterial pressure and heart rate, whereas captopril, saralasin and losartan pretreatment inhibited these effects. The results suggest the presence of local renin or similar proteases in this nucleus.

  9. Adaptive adjustment of connectivity in the inferior colliculus revealed by focal pharmacological inactivation.

    PubMed

    Gold, J I; Knudsen, E I

    2001-04-01

    In the midbrain sound localization pathway of the barn owl, a map of auditory space is synthesized in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX) and transmitted to the optic tectum. Early auditory experience shapes these maps of auditory space in part by modifying the tuning of the constituent neurons for interaural time difference (ITD), a primary cue for sound-source azimuth. Here we show that these adaptive modifications in ITD tuning correspond to changes in the pattern of connectivity within the inferior colliculus. We raised owls with an acoustic filtering device in one ear that caused frequency-dependent changes in sound timing and level. As reported previously, device rearing shifted the representation of ITD in the ICX and tectum but not in the primary source of input to the ICX, the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). We applied the local anesthetic lidocaine (QX-314) iontophoretically in the ICC to inactivate small populations of neurons that represented particular values of frequency and ITD. We measured the effect of this inactivation in the optic tecta of a normal owl and owls raised with the device. In the normal owl, inactivation at a critical site in the ICC eliminated responses in the tectum to the frequency-specific ITD value represented at the site of inactivation in the ICC. The location of this site was consistent with the known pattern of ICC-ICX-tectum connectivity. In the device-reared owls, adaptive changes in the representation of ITD in the tectum corresponded to dramatic and predictable changes in the locations of the critical sites of inactivation in the ICC. Given that the abnormal representation of ITD in the tectum depended on frequency and was likely conveyed directly from the ICX, these results suggest that experience causes large-scale, frequency-specific adjustments in the pattern of connectivity between the ICC and the ICX.

  10. Taurine acts as a glycine receptor agonist in slices of rat inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Han; Wang, Wei; Tang, Zheng-Quan; Xu, Tian-Le; Chen, Lin

    2006-10-01

    Taurine is an important endogenous amino acid for neural development and for many physiological functions, but little is known about its functional role in the central auditory system. We investigated in young rats (P10-P14) the effects of taurine on the neuronal responses and synaptic transmissions in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) with a brain slice preparation and with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Perfusion of taurine at 1mM reliably evoked a current across the membrane and decreased the input resistance in neurons of the ICC. Taurine also depressed the spontaneous and current-evoked firing of ICC neurons. All these effects were reversible after washout and could be blocked by 3 microM strychnine, an antagonist of glycine receptors, but not by 10 microM bicuculline, an antagonist of GABA(A) receptors. When the inhibitory receptors were not pharmacologically blocked, taurine reversibly reduced the postsynaptic currents/potentials evoked by electrically stimulating the commissure of the inferior colliculus or the ipsilateral lateral lemniscus. The results demonstrate that taurine reduces the neuronal excitability and depresses the synaptic transmission in the ICC by activating glycine-gated chloride channels. Our findings suggest that taurine acts as a ligand of glycine receptors in the ICC and can be involved in the information processing of the central auditory system similarly like the neurotransmitter glycine.

  11. Nicotine and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol withdrawal induce Narp in the central nucleus of the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Reti, Irving M; Han, Sungho; Miskimon, Matthew; Rosen, Jeffrey B; Baraban, Jay M

    2009-03-01

    The central nucleus of the amygdala plays a key role in mediating aversive responses to drug withdrawal, effects thought to contribute to continued drug use. In previous studies, we found that the immediate early gene Narp, which encodes a secreted protein that binds to AMPA receptors, is induced in this nucleus following opiate withdrawal. Furthermore, Narp deletion alters the acquisition and extinction of aversive conditioning induced by opiate withdrawal. We now report that Narp is also induced in the central nucleus following withdrawal from other drugs of abuse, nicotine and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, indicating that Narp is a common component of the transcriptional response triggered by drug withdrawal.

  12. Neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological study of opioid pathways in the mesencephalic tectum: effect of mu(1)- and kappa-opioid receptor blockade on escape behavior induced by electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Osaki, M Y; Castellan-Baldan, L; Calvo, F; Carvalho, A D; Felippotti, T T; de Oliveira, R; Ubiali, W A; Paschoalin-Maurin, T; Elias-Filho, D H; Motta, V; da Silva, L A; Coimbra, N C

    2003-12-05

    Deep layers of the superior colliculus (DLSC), the dorsal and ventral periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), and inferior colliculus (IC) are midbrain structures involved in the generation of defensive behavior. beta-Endorphin and Leu-enkephalin are some neurotransmitters that may modulate such behavior in mammals. Light microscopy immunocytochemistry with streptavidin method was used for the localization of the putative cells of defensive behavior with antibodies for endogenous opioids in rat brainstem. Midbrain structures showed positive neurons to beta-endorphin and Leu-enkephalin in similar distributions in the experimental animals, but we also noted the presence of varicose fibers positive to endogenous opioids in the PAG. Neuroanatomical techniques showed varicose fibers from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus to ventral aspects of the PAG, at more caudal levels. Naloxonazine and nor-binaltorphimine, competitive antagonists that block mu(1)- and kappa-opioid receptors, were then used in the present work to investigate the involvement of opioid peptide neural system in the control of the fear-induced reactions evoked by electrical stimulation of the neural substrates of the inferior colliculus. The fear-like responses were measured by electrical stimulation of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, eliciting the escape behavior, which is characterized by vigorous running and jumping. Central administration of opioid antagonists (2.5 microg/0.2 microl and 5.0 microg/0.2 microl) was performed in non-anesthetized animals (Rattus norvegicus), and the behavioral manifestations of fear were registered after 10 min, 2 h, and 24 h of the pretreatment. Naloxonazine caused an increase of the defensive threshold, as compared to control, suggesting an antiaversive effect of the antagonism on mu(1)-opioid receptor. This finding was corroborated with central administration of nor-binaltorphimine, which also induced a decrease of the fear-like responses

  13. Diencephalic connections of the superior colliculus in the hedgehog tenrec.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H

    1996-10-01

    Using different tracer substances the pathways connecting the superior colliculus with the diencephalon were studied in the Madagascan hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi), a nocturnal insectivore with tiny eyes, a small and little differentiated superior colliculus and a visual cortex with no obvious fourth granular layer. The most prominent tecto-thalamic projection terminated in the ipsilateral dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. The entire region receiving contralateral retinal afferents was labeled with variable density. In addition, there was a widespread, homogeneously distributed collicular input to the lateralis posterior-pulvinar complex and a distinct tectal projection to the suprageniculate nucleus. The latter projections were bilateral with a clear ipsilateral predominance. Among the intra- and paralaminar nuclei the centralis lateralis complex was most heavily labeled on both sides, followed by the nucleus centralis medialis. The paralamellar portion of the nucleus medialis dorsalis and the nucleus parafascicularis received sparse projections. A clear projection to the nucleus ventralis medialis could not be demonstrated but its presence was not entirely excluded either. There were also projections to medial thalamic nuclei, particularly the reuniens complex and the nucleus paraventricularis thalami. The main tecto-subthalamic target regions were the zona incerta, the dorsal hypothalamus and distinct subdivisons of the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus. These regions also gave rise to projections to the superior colliculus, as did the intergeniculate leaflet. The pathways oriented toward the visual or frontal cortex and the projections possibly involved in limbic and circadian mechanisms were compared with the connectivity patterns reported in mammals with more differentiated brains. Particular attention was given to the tenrec's prominent tecto-geniculate projection, the presumed W- or K-pathway directed toward the supragranular layers.

  14. Disconnection of the amygdala central nucleus and the substantia innominata / nucleus basalis magnocellularis disrupts performance in a sustained attention task

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    The basal forebrain cholinergic system is broadly implicated in the regulation of attention. Disruptions in the function of this system produce impairments in many attentional functions, including the performance of well-learned responses under increased attentional load, and the surprise-induced enhancement of learning rate. Similarly, lesions of the amygdala central nucleus (CeA) have been found to impair attentional function in some circumstances. Here we examined the effects of lesions that disconnected CeA from the cholinergic substantia innominata/nucleus basalis magnocellularis (SI/nBM) on performance in a modified five-choice serial reaction time (5CSRT) task, thought to assess selective or sustained attention. The lesions impaired performance under conditions of increased attentional load, suggesting that a circuit that includes CeA and SI/nBM regulates these aspects of attention. PMID:17324052

  15. Development of banded afferent compartments in the inferior colliculus before onset of hearing in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Henkel, C K; Keiger, C J; Franklin, S R; Brunso-Bechtold, J K

    2007-04-25

    Axonal projections from the lateral superior olivary nuclei (LSO), as well as from the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), converge in frequency-ordered layers in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) where they distribute among different synaptic compartments. A carbocyanine dye, 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), was used as a tracer to study the postnatal development of axonal projections in the ferret IC. The results indicated that projections from all three nuclei are present at birth, but are not segregated into bands. During the postnatal week between approximately postnatal days 4 and 12 (P4-P12), axons from LSO proliferate in IC, become more branched, and segregate into a series of bands composed of densely packed fibers and endings. LSO projections in these afferent bands course parallel to IC layers and are separated by intervening regions with few endings. A modest fit of a sine curve (R2>0.15) to the pattern of spacing of LSO projections in IC indicated that regularly spaced bands are forming by P7. Similarly, banded patterns of DCN and DNLL projections to IC have developed by the end of the first postnatal week. Thus, well before hearing onset in ferret (P28-30), three different afferent projections have segregated into banded compartments along layers in the central nucleus of the ferret IC. Possible mechanisms in circuit development are discussed.

  16. Intracellular responses to frequency modulated tones in the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Geis, H.-Rüdiger A. P.; Borst, J. Gerard G.

    2013-01-01

    Frequency modulations occur in many natural sounds, including vocalizations. The neuronal response to frequency modulated (FM) stimuli has been studied extensively in different brain areas, with an emphasis on the auditory cortex and the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Here, we measured the responses to FM sweeps in whole-cell recordings from neurons in the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus. Both up- and downward logarithmic FM sweeps were presented at two different speeds to both the ipsi- and the contralateral ear. Based on the number of action potentials that were fired, between 10 and 24% of cells were selective for rate or direction of the FM sweeps. A somewhat lower percentage of cells, 6–21%, showed selectivity based on EPSP size. To study the mechanisms underlying the generation of FM selectivity, we compared FM responses with responses to simple tones in the same cells. We found that if pairs of neurons responded in a similar way to simple tones, they generally also responded in a similar way to FM sweeps. Further evidence that FM selectivity can be generated within the dorsal cortex was obtained by reconstructing FM sweeps from the response to simple tones using three different models. In about half of the direction selective neurons the selectivity was generated by spectrally asymmetric synaptic inhibition. In addition, evidence for direction selectivity based on the timing of excitatory responses was also obtained in some cells. No clear evidence for the local generation of rate selectivity was obtained. We conclude that FM direction selectivity can be generated within the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus by multiple mechanisms. PMID:23386812

  17. An autoradiographic study of the projections of the central nucleus of the monkey amygdala

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.L.; Amaral, D.G.

    1981-11-01

    The efferent connections of the central nucleus of the monkey amygdala have been studied using the autoradiographic method for tracing axonal projections. Small injections of 3H-amino-acids which are largely confined to the central nucleus lead to the labeling of several brainstem nuclei as far caudally as the spinomedullary junction. A number of intra-amygdaloid connections between the basal and lateral nuclei of the amygdala and the central nucleus are also described. The present findings, taken together with recently reported widespread projections from the temporal association cortex to the amygdala, point out a potentially trisynaptic route between neocortical association regions and a variety of brainstem nuclei, many of which are related to autonomic function.

  18. Central pupillary light reflex circuits in the cat: I. The olivary pretectal nucleus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wensi; May, Paul J

    2014-12-15

    The central pathways subserving the feline pupillary light reflex were examined by defining retinal input to the olivary pretectal nucleus (OPt), the midbrain projections of this nucleus, and the premotor neurons within it. Unilateral intravitreal wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) injections revealed differences in the pattern of retinal OPt termination on the two sides. Injections of WGA-HRP into OPt labeled terminals bilaterally in the anteromedian nucleus, and to a lesser extent in the supraoculomotor area, centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus, and nucleus of the posterior commissure. Labeled terminals, as well as retrogradely labeled multipolar cells, were present in the contralateral OPt, indicating a commissural pathway. Injections of WGA-HRP into the anteromedian nucleus labeled fusiform premotor neurons within the OPt, as well as multipolar cells in the nucleus of the posterior commissure. Connections between retinal terminals and the pretectal premotor neurons were characterized by combining vitreous chamber and anteromedian nucleus injections of WGA-HRP in the same animal. Fusiform-shaped, retrogradely labeled cells fell within the anterogradely labeled retinal terminal field in the OPt. Ultrastructural analysis revealed labeled retinal terminals containing clear spherical vesicles. They contacted labeled pretectal premotor neurons via asymmetric synaptic densities. These results provide an anatomical substrate for the pupillary light reflex in the cat. Pretectal premotor neurons receive direct retinal input via synapses suggestive of an excitatory drive, and project directly to nuclei containing preganglionic motoneurons. These projections are concentrated in the anteromedian nucleus, indicating its involvement in the pupillary light reflex.

  19. Regularly firing neurons in the inferior colliculus have a weak interaural intensity difference sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Nasimi, Ali; Rees, Adrian

    2010-12-01

    The spike discharge regularity may be important in the processing of information in the auditory pathway. It has already been shown that many cells in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus fire regularly in response to monaural stimulation by the best frequency tones. The aim of this study was to find how the regularity of units was affected by adding ipsilateral tone, and how interaural intensity difference sensitivity is related to regularity. Single unit recordings were performed from 66 units in the inferior colliculus of the anaesthetized guinea pig in response to the best frequency tone. Regularity of firing was measured by calculating the coefficient of variation as a function of time of a unit's response. There was a positive correlation between coefficient of variation and interaural intensity difference sensitivity, indicating that highly regular units had very weak and irregular units had strong interaural intensity difference sensitivity responses. Three effects of binaural interaction on the sustained regularity were observed: constant coefficient of variation despite change in rate (66% of the units), negative (20%) and positive (13%) rate-CV relationships. A negative rate-coefficient of variation relationship was the dominant pattern of binaural interaction on the onset regularity.

  20. An Overrepresentation of High Frequencies in the Mouse Inferior Colliculus Supports the Processing of Ultrasonic Vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lazaro, Jose A; Shepard, Kathryn N; Miranda, Jason A; Liu, Robert C; Lesica, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Mice are of paramount importance in biomedical research and their vocalizations are a subject of interest for researchers across a wide range of health-related disciplines due to their increasingly important value as a phenotyping tool in models of neural, speech and language disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the auditory processing of vocalizations in mice are not well understood. The mouse audiogram shows a peak in sensitivity at frequencies between 15-25 kHz, but weaker sensitivity for the higher ultrasonic frequencies at which they typically vocalize. To investigate the auditory processing of vocalizations in mice, we measured evoked potential, single-unit, and multi-unit responses to tones and vocalizations at three different stages along the auditory pathway: the auditory nerve and the cochlear nucleus in the periphery, and the inferior colliculus in the midbrain. Auditory brainstem response measurements suggested stronger responses in the midbrain relative to the periphery for frequencies higher than 32 kHz. This result was confirmed by single- and multi-unit recordings showing that high ultrasonic frequency tones and vocalizations elicited responses from only a small fraction of cells in the periphery, while a much larger fraction of cells responded in the inferior colliculus. These results suggest that the processing of communication calls in mice is supported by a specialization of the auditory system for high frequencies that emerges at central stations of the auditory pathway.

  1. Temporal properties of inferior colliculus neurons to photonic stimulation in the cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaodong; Young, Hunter; Matic, Agnella Izzo; Zirkle, Whitney; Rajguru, Suhrud; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) may be beneficial in auditory prostheses because of its spatially selective activation of spiral ganglion neurons. However, the response properties of single auditory neurons to INS and the possible contributions of its optoacoustic effects are yet to be examined. In this study, the temporal properties of auditory neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) of guinea pigs in response to INS were characterized. Spatial selectivity of INS was observed along the tonotopically organized ICC. Trains of laser pulses and trains of acoustic clicks were used to evoke single unit responses in ICC of normal hearing animals. In response to INS, ICC neurons showed lower limiting rates, longer latencies, and lower firing efficiencies. In deaf animals, ICC neurons could still be stimulated by INS while unresponsive to acoustic stimulation. The site and spatial selectivity of INS both likely shaped the temporal properties of ICC neurons. PMID:26311831

  2. Responses to amplitude modulated infrared stimuli in the guinea pig inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Young, Hunter

    2013-03-08

    Responses of units in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the guinea pig were recorded with tungsten electrodes. The set of data presented here is limited to high stimulus levels. The effect of changing the modulation frequency and the modulation depth was explored for acoustic and laser stimuli. The selected units responded to sinusoidal amplitude modulated (AM) tones, AM trains of clicks, and AM trains of laser pulses with a modulation of their spike discharge. At modulation frequencies of 20 Hz, some units tended to respond with 40 Hz to the acoustic stimuli, but only at 20 Hz for the trains of laser pulses. For all modes of stimulation the responses revealed a dominant response to the first cycle of the modulation, with decreasing number of action potential during successive cycles. While amplitude modulated tone bursts and amplitude modulated trains of acoustic clicks showed similar patterns, the response to trains of laser pulses was different.

  3. Responses to amplitude modulated infrared stimuli in the guinea pig inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Young, Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Responses of units in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the guinea pig were recorded with tungsten electrodes. The set of data presented here is limited to high stimulus levels. The effect of changing the modulation frequency and the modulation depth was explored for acoustic and laser stimuli. The selected units responded to sinusoidal amplitude modulated (AM) tones, AM trains of clicks, and AM trains of laser pulses with a modulation of their spike discharge. At modulation frequencies of 20 Hz, some units tended to respond with 40 Hz to the acoustic stimuli, but only at 20 Hz for the trains of laser pulses. For all modes of stimulation the responses revealed a dominant response to the first cycle of the modulation, with decreasing number of action potential during successive cycles. While amplitude modulated tone bursts and amplitude modulated trains of acoustic clicks showed similar patterns, the response to trains of laser pulses was different. PMID:25075264

  4. Inputs to combination-sensitive neurons of the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Wenstrup, J J; Mittmann, D H; Grose, C D

    1999-07-12

    In the mustached bat, combination-sensitive neurons display integrative responses to combinations of acoustic elements in biosonar or social vocalizations. One type of combination-sensitive neuron responds to multiple harmonics of the frequency-modulated (FM) components in the sonar pulse and echo of the bat. These neurons, termed FM-FM neurons, are sensitive to the pulse-echo delay and may encode the distance of sonar targets. FM-FM neurons are common in high-frequency regions of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) and may be created there. If so, they must receive low-frequency inputs in addition to the expected high-frequency inputs. We placed single deposits of a tracer at FM-FM recording sites in the ICC and then analyzed retrograde labeling in the brainstem and midbrain. We were particularly interested in labeling patterns suggestive of low-frequency input to these FM-FM neurons. In most nuclei containing labeled cells, there was a single focus of labeling in regions thought to be responsive to high-frequency sounds. More complex labeling patterns were observed in three nuclei. In the anteroventral cochlear nucleus, labeling in the anterior and marginal cell divisions occurred in regions thought to respond to low-frequency sounds. This labeling comprised 6% of total brainstem labeled cells. Labeling in the intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and the magnocellular part of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus together comprised nearly 40% of all labeled cells. In both nuclei, multiple foci of labeling occurred. These different foci may represent groups of cells tuned to different frequency bands. Thus, one or more of these three nuclei may provide low-frequency input to high-frequency-sensitive cells in the ICC, creating FM-FM responses. We also examined whether ICC neurons responsive to lower frequencies project to high-frequency-sensitive ICC regions; only 0.15% of labeling originated from these lower frequency

  5. Investigation of a central nucleus of the amygdala/dorsal raphe nucleus serotonergic circuit implicated in fear-potentiated startle

    PubMed Central

    Spannuth, Benjamin M.; Hale, Matthew W.; Evans, Andrew K.; Lukkes, Jodi L.; Campeau, Serge; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Serotonergic systems are thought to play an important role in control of motor activity and emotional states. We used a fear-potentiated startle paradigm to investigate the effects of a motor-eliciting stimulus in the presence or absence of induction of an acute fear state on serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) and cells in subdivisions of the central amygdaloid nucleus (CE), a structure that plays an important role in fear responses, using induction of the protein product of the immediate-early gene, c-fos. In Experiment 1 we investigated the effects of fear conditioning training, by training rats to associate a light cue (conditioned stimulus, CS; 1000 lx, 2 sec) with foot shock (0.5 s, 0.5 mA) in a single session. In Experiment 2 rats were given two training sessions identical to Experiment 1 on days 1 and 2, then tested in one of four conditions on day 3: 1) placement in the training context without exposure to either the CS or acoustic startle (AS), 2) exposure to 10 trials of the 2 s CS, 3) exposure to 40 110 dB AS trials, or 4) exposure to 40 110 dB AS trials with 10 of the trials preceded by and co-terminating with the CS. All treatments were conducted during a 20 min session. Fear conditioning training, by itself, increased c-Fos expression in multiple subdivisions of the CE and throughout the DR. In contrast, fear-potentiated startle selectively increased c-Fos expression in the medial subdivision of the CE and in serotonergic neurons in the dorsal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRD). These data are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that fear-related stimuli selectively activate DRD serotonergic neurons. Further studies of this mesolimbocortical serotonergic system could have important implications for understanding mechanisms underlying vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and affective disorders. PMID:21277950

  6. [Morphometric features of the structure of the central nucleus of the amygdala in men and women].

    PubMed

    Antyukhov, A D

    2015-01-01

    To identify the interhemispheric asymmetry in the structure of the central nucleus of the amygdala in men and women. Morphometric features of the structure of neurons of the central nucleus amygdala complex were studied in histological sections of the brain of 6 men and 6 women (24 hemispheres), aged 19 to 55 years, with no lifetime diagnosis of mental or neurological disease. The value of the profile fields of neurons of the central nucleus amygdala complex in the left and right hemispheres of the brain were investigated. In women, the average value of neurons in the left hemisphere was somewhat greater than in the right hemisphere, while in men this value was greater in the right hemisphere. The interhemispheric morphometric differences were not significant regardless of gender. In addition, the quantity of relevant fields of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala in women was significantly larger than that of men in both hemispheres. The authors attempted to associate the results obtained in the study with emotional perception in men and women.

  7. Baroreflex failure in a patient with central nervous system lesions involving the nucleus tractus solitarii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaggioni, I.; Whetsell, W. O.; Jobe, J.; Nadeau, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Animal studies have shown the importance of the nucleus tractus solitarii, a collection of neurons in the brain stem, in the acute regulation of blood pressure. Impulses arising from the carotid and aortic baroreceptors converge in this center, where the first synapse of the baroreflex is located. Stimulation of the nucleus tractus solitarii provides an inhibitory signal to other brain stem structures, particularly the rostral ventrolateral medulla, resulting in a reduction in sympathetic outflow and a decrease in blood pressure. Conversely, experimental lesions of the nucleus tractus solitarii lead to loss of baroreflex control of blood pressure, sympathetic activation, and severe hypertension in animals. In humans, baroreflex failure due to deafferentation of baroreceptors has been previously reported and is characterized by episodes of severe hypertension and tachycardia. We present a patient with an undetermined process of the central nervous system characterized pathologically by ubiquitous infarctions that were particularly prominent in the nucleus tractus solitarii bilaterally but spared the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Absence of a functioning baroreflex was evidenced by the lack of reflex tachycardia to the hypotensive effects of sodium nitroprusside, exaggerated pressor responses to handgrip and cold pressor test, and exaggerated depressor responses to meals and centrally acting alpha 2-agonists. This clinicopathological correlate suggests that the patient's baroreflex failure can be explained by the unique combination of the destruction of sympathetic inhibitory centers (ie, the nucleus tractus solitarii) and preservation of centers that exert a positive modulation on sympathetic tone (ie, the rostral ventrolateral medulla).

  8. Baroreflex failure in a patient with central nervous system lesions involving the nucleus tractus solitarii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaggioni, I.; Whetsell, W. O.; Jobe, J.; Nadeau, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Animal studies have shown the importance of the nucleus tractus solitarii, a collection of neurons in the brain stem, in the acute regulation of blood pressure. Impulses arising from the carotid and aortic baroreceptors converge in this center, where the first synapse of the baroreflex is located. Stimulation of the nucleus tractus solitarii provides an inhibitory signal to other brain stem structures, particularly the rostral ventrolateral medulla, resulting in a reduction in sympathetic outflow and a decrease in blood pressure. Conversely, experimental lesions of the nucleus tractus solitarii lead to loss of baroreflex control of blood pressure, sympathetic activation, and severe hypertension in animals. In humans, baroreflex failure due to deafferentation of baroreceptors has been previously reported and is characterized by episodes of severe hypertension and tachycardia. We present a patient with an undetermined process of the central nervous system characterized pathologically by ubiquitous infarctions that were particularly prominent in the nucleus tractus solitarii bilaterally but spared the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Absence of a functioning baroreflex was evidenced by the lack of reflex tachycardia to the hypotensive effects of sodium nitroprusside, exaggerated pressor responses to handgrip and cold pressor test, and exaggerated depressor responses to meals and centrally acting alpha 2-agonists. This clinicopathological correlate suggests that the patient's baroreflex failure can be explained by the unique combination of the destruction of sympathetic inhibitory centers (ie, the nucleus tractus solitarii) and preservation of centers that exert a positive modulation on sympathetic tone (ie, the rostral ventrolateral medulla).

  9. Glucocorticoid rhythms control the rhythm of expression of the clock protein, Period2, in oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and central nucleus of the amygdala in rats.

    PubMed

    Segall, L A; Perrin, J S; Walker, C-D; Stewart, J; Amir, S

    2006-07-07

    We investigated the involvement of the adrenal glucocorticoid, corticosterone, in the control of the rhythmic expression of the circadian clock protein, Period2, in forebrain nuclei known to be sensitive to glucocorticoids, stressors and drugs of abuse, the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the central nucleus of the amygdala. We found previously that the daily rhythm of Period2 in these nuclei is uniquely dependent on the integrity of the adrenal glands (Amir S, Lamont EW, Robinson B, Stewart J (2004) A circadian rhythm in the expression of PERIOD2 protein reveals a novel SCN-controlled oscillator in the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. J Neurosci 24:781-790; Lamont EW, Robinson B, Stewart J, Amir S (2005) The central and basolateral nuclei of the amygdala exhibit opposite diurnal rhythms of expression of the clock protein Period2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:4180-4184). We now show that, in rats, in the absence of the adrenals, corticosterone replacement via the drinking water, which is associated with daily fluctuations in corticosterone levels, restores the rhythm of Period2 in the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and central nucleus of the amygdala. Corticosterone replacement via constant-release pellets has no effect. These results underscore the importance of circadian glucocorticoid signaling in Period2 rhythms in the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and central nucleus of the amygdala and suggest a novel mechanism whereby stressors, drugs of abuse, and other abnormal states that affect the patterns of circulating glucocorticoids can alter the functional output of these nuclei.

  10. Connections of the superior colliculus with the tegmentum and the cerebellum in the hedgehog tenrec.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H

    1997-06-01

    Different tracer substances were injected into the superior colliculus (CoS) in order to study its afferents and efferents with the meso-rhombencephalic tegmentum, the precerebellar nuclei and the cerebellum in the Madagascan hedgehog tenrec. The overall pattern of tectal connectivity in tenrec was similar to that in other mammals, as, e.g. the efferents to the contralateral paramedian reticular formation. Similarly the origin of the cerebello-tectal projection in mainly the lateral portions of the tenrec's cerebellar nuclear complex corresponded to the findings in species with little binocular overlap. In comparison to other mammals, however, the tenrec showed a consistent projection to the ipsilateral inferior olivary nucleus, in addition to the classical contralateral tecto-olivary projection. The tenrec's CoS also appeared to receive an unusually prominent monoaminergic input particularly from the substantia nigra, pars compacta. There was a reciprocal tecto-parabigeminal projection, a distinct nuclear aggregation of parabigeminal neurons, however, was difficult to identify. The dorsal lemniscal nucleus did not show perikaryal labeling in contrast to the paralemniscal region. Similar to the cat but unlike the rat there were a few neurons in the nucleus of the central acoustic tract. Unlike the cat, but similar to the rat there was a distinct, predominantly ipsilateral projection to the magnocellular reticular field known to project spinalward.

  11. Genetic identification of the central nucleus and other components of the central extended amygdala in chicken during development

    PubMed Central

    Vicario, Alba; Abellán, Antonio; Desfilis, Ester; Medina, Loreta

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, the central extended amygdala shows a highly complex organization, and is essential for animal survival due to its implication in fear responses. However, many aspects of its evolution are still unknown, and this structure is especially poorly understood in birds. The aim of this study was to define the central extended amygdala in chicken, by means of a battery of region-specific transcription factors (Pax6, Islet1, Nkx2.1) and phenotypic markers that characterize these different subdivisions in mammals. Our results allowed the identification of at least six distinct subdivisions in the lateral part of the avian central extended amygdala: (1) capsular central subdivision; (2) a group of intercalated-like cell patches; (3) oval central nucleus; (4) peri-intrapeduncular (peri-INP) island field; (5) perioval zone; and (6) a rostral part of the subpallial extended amygdala. In addition, we identified three subdivisions of the laterodorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTLd) belonging to the medial region of the chicken central extended amygdala complex. Based on their genetic profile, cellular composition and apparent embryonic origin of the cells, we discuss the similarity of these different subdivisions of chicken with different parts of the mouse central amygdala and surrounding cell masses, including the intercalated amygdalar masses and the sublenticular part of the central extended amygdala. Most of the subdivisions include various subpopulations of cells that apparently originate in the dorsal striatal, ventral striatal, pallidal, and preoptic embryonic domains, reaching their final location by either radial or tangential migrations. Similarly to mammals, the central amygdala and BSTLd of chicken project to the hypothalamus, and include different neurons expressing proenkephalin, corticotropin-releasing factor, somatostatin or tyrosine hydroxylase, which may be involved in the control of different aspects of fear/anxiety-related behavior

  12. The centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus--I: Efferents in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Júnior, Edmilson D; Da Silva, André V; Da Silva, Kelly R T; Haemmerle, Carlos A S; Batagello, Daniella S; Da Silva, Joelcimar M; Lima, Leandro B; Da Silva, Renata J; Diniz, Giovanne B; Sita, Luciane V; Elias, Carol F; Bittencourt, Jackson C

    2015-10-01

    The oculomotor accessory nucleus, often referred to as the Edinger-Westphal nucleus [EW], was first identified in the 17th century. Although its most well known function is the control of pupil diameter, some controversy has arisen regarding the exact location of these preganglionic neurons. Currently, the EW is thought to consist of two different parts. The first part [termed the preganglionic EW-EWpg], which controls lens accommodation, choroidal blood flow and pupillary constriction, primarily consists of cholinergic cells that project to the ciliary ganglion. The second part [termed the centrally projecting EW-EWcp], which is involved in non-ocular functions such as feeding behavior, stress responses, addiction and pain, consists of peptidergic neurons that project to the brainstem, the spinal cord and prosencephalic regions. However, in the literature, we found few reports related to either ascending or descending projections from the EWcp that are compatible with its currently described functions. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to systematically investigate the ascending and descending projections of the EW in the rat brain. We injected the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine into the EW or the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B into multiple EW targets as controls. Additionally, we investigated the potential EW-mediated innervation of neuronal populations with known neurochemical signatures, such as melanin-concentrating hormone in the lateral hypothalamic area [LHA] and corticotropin-releasing factor in the central nucleus of the amygdala [CeM]. We observed anterogradely labeled fibers in the LHA, the reuniens thalamic nucleus, the oval part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the medial part of the central nucleus of the amygdala, and the zona incerta. We confirmed our EW-LHA and EW-CeM connections using retrograde tracers. We also observed moderate EW-mediated innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the

  13. Integrated Control of Predatory Hunting by the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala.

    PubMed

    Han, Wenfei; Tellez, Luis A; Rangel, Miguel J; Motta, Simone C; Zhang, Xiaobing; Perez, Isaac O; Canteras, Newton S; Shammah-Lagnado, Sara J; van den Pol, Anthony N; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2017-01-12

    Superior predatory skills led to the evolutionary triumph of jawed vertebrates. However, the mechanisms by which the vertebrate brain controls predation remain largely unknown. Here, we reveal a critical role for the central nucleus of the amygdala in predatory hunting. Both optogenetic and chemogenetic stimulation of central amygdala of mice elicited predatory-like attacks upon both insect and artificial prey. Coordinated control of cervical and mandibular musculatures, which is necessary for accurately positioning lethal bites on prey, was mediated by a central amygdala projection to the reticular formation in the brainstem. In contrast, prey pursuit was mediated by projections to the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter. Targeted lesions to these two pathways separately disrupted biting attacks upon prey versus the initiation of prey pursuit. Our findings delineate a neural network that integrates distinct behavioral modules and suggest that central amygdala neurons instruct predatory hunting across jawed vertebrates.

  14. Multiple components of ipsilaterally evoked inhibition in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Klug, A; Bauer, E E; Pollak, G D

    1999-08-01

    The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) receives a large number of convergent inputs that are both excitatory and inhibitory. Although excitatory inputs typically are evoked by stimulation of the contralateral ear, inhibitory inputs can be recruited by either ear. Here we evaluate ipsilaterally evoked inhibition in single ICc cells in awake Mexican free-tailed bats. The principal question we addressed concerns the degree to which ipsilateral inhibition at the ICc suppresses contralaterally evoked discharges and thus creates the excitatory-inhibitory (EI) properties of ICc neurons. To study ipsilaterally evoked inhibition, we iontophoretically applied excitatory neurotransmitters and visualized the ipsilateral inhibition as a gap in the carpet of background activity evoked by the transmitters. Ipsilateral inhibition was seen in 86% of ICc cells. The inhibition in most cells had both glycinergic and GABAergic components that could be blocked by the iontophoretic application of bicuculline and strychnine. In 80% of the cells that were inhibited, the ipsilateral inhibition and contralateral excitation were temporally coincident. In many of these cells, the ipsilateral inhibition suppressed contralateral discharges and thus generated the cell's EI property in the ICc. In other cells, the ipsilateral inhibition was coincident with the initial portion of the excitation, but the inhibition was only 2-4 ms in duration and suppressed only the first few contralaterally evoked discharges. The suppression was so slight that it often could not be detected as a decrease in the spike count generated by increasing ipsilateral intensities. Twenty percent of the cells that expressed inhibition, however, had inhibitory latencies that were longer than the excitatory latencies. In these neurons, the inhibition arrived too late to suppress most or any of the discharges. Finally, in the majority of cells, the ipsilateral inhibition persisted for tens of milliseconds beyond

  15. The representation of sound localization cues in the barn owl's inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Singheiser, Martin; Gutfreund, Yoram; Wagner, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    The barn owl is a well-known model system for studying auditory processing and sound localization. This article reviews the morphological and functional organization, as well as the role of the underlying microcircuits, of the barn owl's inferior colliculus (IC). We focus on the processing of frequency and interaural time (ITD) and level differences (ILD). We first summarize the morphology of the sub-nuclei belonging to the IC and their differentiation by antero- and retrograde labeling and by staining with various antibodies. We then focus on the response properties of neurons in the three major sub-nuclei of IC [core of the central nucleus of the IC (ICCc), lateral shell of the central nucleus of the IC (ICCls), and the external nucleus of the IC (ICX)]. ICCc projects to ICCls, which in turn sends its information to ICX. The responses of neurons in ICCc are sensitive to changes in ITD but not to changes in ILD. The distribution of ITD sensitivity with frequency in ICCc can only partly be explained by optimal coding. We continue with the tuning properties of ICCls neurons, the first station in the midbrain where the ITD and ILD pathways merge after they have split at the level of the cochlear nucleus. The ICCc and ICCls share similar ITD and frequency tuning. By contrast, ICCls shows sigmoidal ILD tuning which is absent in ICCc. Both ICCc and ICCls project to the forebrain, and ICCls also projects to ICX, where space-specific neurons are found. Space-specific neurons exhibit side peak suppression in ITD tuning, bell-shaped ILD tuning, and are broadly tuned to frequency. These neurons respond only to restricted positions of auditory space and form a map of two-dimensional auditory space. Finally, we briefly review major IC features, including multiplication-like computations, correlates of echo suppression, plasticity, and adaptation. PMID:22798945

  16. Response of auditory units in the barn owl's inferior colliculus to continuously varying interaural phase differences.

    PubMed

    Moiseff, A; Haresign, T

    1992-06-01

    1. We studied the response of single units in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) of the barn owl (Tyto alba) to continuously varying interaural phase differences (IPDs) and static IPDs. Interaural phase was varied in two ways: continuously, by delivering tones to each ear that varied by a few hertz (binaural beat, Fig. 1), and discretely, by delaying in fixed steps the phase of sound delivered to one ear relative to the other (static phase). Static presentations were repeated at several IPDs to characterize interaural phase sensitivity. 2. Units sensitive to IPDs responded to the binaural beat stimulus over a broad range of delta f(Fig. 4). We selected a 3-Hz delta f for most of our comparative measurements on the basis of constraints imposed by our stimulus generation system and because it allowed us to reduce the influence of responses to stimulus onset and offset (Fig. 3A). 3. Characteristic interaural time or phase sensitivity obtained by the use of the binaural beat stimulus were comparable with those obtained by the use of the static technique (Fig. 5; r2 = 0.93, Fig. 6). 4. The binaural beat stimulus facilitated the measurement of characteristic delay (CD) and characteristic phase (CP) of auditory units. We demonstrated that units in the owl's inferior colliculus (IC) include those that are maximally excited by specific IPDs (CP = 0 or 1.0) as well as those that are maximally suppressed by specific IPDs (CP = 0.5; Figs. 7 and 8). 5. The selectivity of units sensitive to IPD or interaural time difference (ITD) were weakly influenced by interaural intensity difference (IID).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Optic nerve, superior colliculus, visual thalamus, and primary visual cortex of the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Turner, Emily C; Sawyer, Eva K; Kaas, Jon H

    2017-02-11

    The northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) are members of a diverse clade of carnivorous mammals known as pinnipeds. Pinnipeds are notable for their large, ape-sized brains, yet little is known about their central nervous system. Both the northern elephant seal and California sea lion spend most of their lives at sea, but each also spends time on land to breed and give birth. These unique coastal niches may be reflected in specific evolutionary adaptations to their sensory systems. Here, we report on components of the visual pathway in these two species. We found evidence for two classes of myelinated fibers within the pinniped optic nerve, those with thick myelin sheaths (elephant seal: 9%, sea lion: 7%) and thin myelin sheaths (elephant seal: 91%, sea lion: 93%). In order to investigate the architecture of the lateral geniculate nucleus, superior colliculus, and primary visual cortex, we processed brain sections from seal and sea lion pups for Nissl substance, cytochrome oxidase, and vesicular glutamate transporters. As in other carnivores, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus consisted of three main layers, A, A1, and C, while each superior colliculus similarly consisted of seven distinct layers. The sea lion visual cortex is located at the posterior side of cortex between the upper and lower banks of the postlateral sulcus, while the elephant seal visual cortex extends far more anteriorly along the dorsal surface and medial wall. These results are relevant to comparative studies related to the evolution of large brains.

  18. Partial anxiolytic action of morphine sulphate following microinjection into the central nucleus of the amygdala in rats.

    PubMed

    File, S E; Rodgers, R J

    1979-09-01

    In the social interaction test of anxiety, bilateral microinjections of morphine sulphate (10 microgram) into the central nucleus of the amygdala counteracted the reduction in social interaction normally seen when the test arena is unfamiliar to rats. However, these injections did not counteract the decrease in social interaction that is observed as illuminance of the arena is increased. Morphine injections into the medial site depressed social interaction below the levels shown by control animals. In the open field test, morphine produced a facilitation of peripheral activity when injected into the central nucleus whilst a decrease in rearing was observed following similar injections into the medial nucleus. Overall, these data indicate a partial anxiolytic action of morphine in the central amygdaloid nucleus. Results are discussed in relation to possible differences in opioid peptide innervation of these two amygdaloid nuclei.

  19. Removing Cool Cores and Central Metallicity Peaks in Galaxy Clusters with Powerful Active Galactic Nucleus Outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fulai; Mathews, William G.

    2010-07-01

    Recent X-ray observations of galaxy clusters suggest that cluster populations are bimodally distributed according to central gas entropy and are separated into two distinct classes: cool core (CC) and non-cool core (NCC) clusters. While it is widely accepted that active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback plays a key role in offsetting radiative losses and maintaining many clusters in the CC state, the origin of NCC clusters is much less clear. At the same time, a handful of extremely powerful AGN outbursts have recently been detected in clusters, with a total energy ~1061-1062 erg. Using two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we show that if a large fraction of this energy is deposited near the centers of CC clusters, which is likely common due to dense cores, these AGN outbursts can completely remove CCs, transforming them to NCC clusters. Our model also has interesting implications for cluster abundance profiles, which usually show a central peak in CC systems. Our calculations indicate that during the CC to NCC transformation, AGN outbursts efficiently mix metals in cluster central regions and may even remove central abundance peaks if they are not broad enough. For CC clusters with broad central abundance peaks, AGN outbursts decrease peak abundances, but cannot effectively destroy the peaks. Our model may simultaneously explain the contradictory (possibly bimodal) results of abundance profiles in NCC clusters, some of which are nearly flat, while others have strong central peaks similar to those in CC clusters. A statistical analysis of the sizes of central abundance peaks and their redshift evolution may shed interesting insights on the origin of both types of NCC clusters and the evolution history of thermodynamics and AGN activity in clusters.

  20. REMOVING COOL CORES AND CENTRAL METALLICITY PEAKS IN GALAXY CLUSTERS WITH POWERFUL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS OUTBURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Fulai; Mathews, William G.

    2010-07-10

    Recent X-ray observations of galaxy clusters suggest that cluster populations are bimodally distributed according to central gas entropy and are separated into two distinct classes: cool core (CC) and non-cool core (NCC) clusters. While it is widely accepted that active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback plays a key role in offsetting radiative losses and maintaining many clusters in the CC state, the origin of NCC clusters is much less clear. At the same time, a handful of extremely powerful AGN outbursts have recently been detected in clusters, with a total energy {approx}10{sup 61}-10{sup 62} erg. Using two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we show that if a large fraction of this energy is deposited near the centers of CC clusters, which is likely common due to dense cores, these AGN outbursts can completely remove CCs, transforming them to NCC clusters. Our model also has interesting implications for cluster abundance profiles, which usually show a central peak in CC systems. Our calculations indicate that during the CC to NCC transformation, AGN outbursts efficiently mix metals in cluster central regions and may even remove central abundance peaks if they are not broad enough. For CC clusters with broad central abundance peaks, AGN outbursts decrease peak abundances, but cannot effectively destroy the peaks. Our model may simultaneously explain the contradictory (possibly bimodal) results of abundance profiles in NCC clusters, some of which are nearly flat, while others have strong central peaks similar to those in CC clusters. A statistical analysis of the sizes of central abundance peaks and their redshift evolution may shed interesting insights on the origin of both types of NCC clusters and the evolution history of thermodynamics and AGN activity in clusters.

  1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine2A/2C receptors of nucleus raphe magnus and gigantocellularis/paragigantocellularis pars α reticular nuclei modulate the unconditioned fear-induced antinociception evoked by electrical stimulation of deep layers of the superior colliculus and dorsal periaqueductal grey matter.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Ricardo; de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; da Silva Soares, Raimundo; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2017-01-01

    The electrical stimulation of the dorsolateral columns of the periaquedutal grey matter (dlPAG) or deep layers of the superior colliculus (dlSC) evokes defensive behaviours followed by an antinociceptive response. Monoaminergic brainstem reticular nuclei are suggested to comprise the endogenous pain modulatory system. The aim of the present work was to investigate the role played by 5-HT2 subfamily of serotonergic receptors of the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and the gigantocellularis/paragigantocellularis pars α reticular nuclei (Gi/PGiα) in the elaboration of instinctive fear-induced antinociception elicited by electrical stimulation of dlPAG or of dlSC. The nociceptive thresholds were measured by the tail-flick test in Wistar rats. The 5-HT2A/2C-serotonergic receptors antagonist ritanserin was microinjected at different concentrations (0.05, 0.5 and 5.0μg/0.2μL) either in Gi/PGiα or in NRM. The blockade of 5-HT2 receptors in both Gi/PGiα and NRM decreased the innate fear-induced antinociception elicited by electrical stimulation of the dlSC or the dlPAG. These findings indicate that serotonin is involved in the hypo-algesia induced by unconditioned fear-induced behavioural responses and the 5-HT2A/2C-serotonergic receptor subfamily in neurons situated in the Gi/PGiα complex and NRM are critically recruited in pain modulation during the panic-like emotional behaviour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Peripheral Muscle Targets and Central Projections of the Mesencephalic Trigeminal Nucleus in Macaque Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Niping; May, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    The mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (MesV) contains the somata of primary afferent neurons that innervate muscle spindles in masticatory muscles and mechanoreceptors in the periodontal ligaments. There are conflicting reports about additional peripheral targets of MesV, such as the extraocular muscles, as well as about its central targets. In addition, only limited primate data are available. Consequently, we examined MesV projections in macaque monkeys. The retrograde tracer wheat germ agglutinin conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) was injected into masticatory or extraocular muscles to define the peripheral targets of the primate MesV. Numerous labeled neurons were found in ipsilateral MesV following masticatory muscle injections. The scattered distribution of labeled cells, and their presence amongst clusters of unlabeled cells, suggests the muscle representations overlap. Just a few MesV neurons were labeled after extraocular muscle injections. This correlates with the small number of muscle spindles present in macaque extraocular muscles, suggesting MesV cells supplying extraocular muscle spindles may contribute a minor component to oculomotor proprioception. To examine the central connections of MesV, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected into the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vs). The presence of retrogradely labeled MesV cells indicated a projection to Vs from MesV. These injections also anterogradely labeled terminals that lay in close association with MesV cells, suggesting an ascending projection from Vs to MesV. Finally, a small number of MesV neurons were labeled following WGA-HRP injections into the upper cervical spinal cord. This pattern of central connections indicates MesV and Vs information is combined to guide mastication. PMID:18461596

  3. Neuronal architecture in the rat central nucleus of the amygdala: a cytological, hodological, and immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Cassell, M D; Gray, T S; Kiss, J Z

    1986-04-22

    The organization of neurons in the rat central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) has been examined by using Nissl stain and immunocytochemical and retrograde tracing techniques. Four main subdivisions were identified on the basis of quantitative analyses of Nissl-stained material: medial (CM), lateral (CL), lateral capsular (CLC), and ventral (CV). An intermediate subdivision (CI), previously described by McDonald ('82), was apparent only in animals that had HRP-WGA injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Large populations of neurotensin-, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-, and enkephalin-immunoreactive neurons were present within the lateral divisions (mainly CL), although they were also seen within CM. Somatostatin-immunoreactive neurons were distributed mainly within CL and CM. Within CL, neurotensin- and enkephalin-immunoreactive neurons were more numerous laterally whereas CRF- and somatostatin-immunoreactive neurons were more numerous medially. Substance P-immunoreactive neurons were almost exclusively confined to CM. Only a few cholecystokinin- and vasoactive-polypeptide-immunoreactive neurons were seen in the CNA, and they were observed within CL, CV, and CM. The majority of neurons projecting to the dorsal medulla, hypothalamus, and ventral tegmental area were located within CM, although a significant number of cells were also seen within CL. Efferent projections to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis were found to arise from neurons located within all subdivisions of the CNA. Thus, the distributional patterns of peptidergic and efferent neurons were not confined to individual cytoarchitectonically- defined subdivisions of the CNA. Rather, the results suggest overlapping medial to the lateral trends. Comparisons with the results of previous studies indicate that peptidergic and afferent terminal distribution patterns are more restricted to individual cytoarchitectonically defined subregions of the CNA. These observations suggest that the

  4. Central control of penile erection: role of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria

    2005-05-01

    The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus is an integration centre between the central and peripheral autonomic nervous systems. It is involved in numerous functions from feeding, metabolic balance, blood pressure and heart rate, to erectile function and sexual behaviour. In particular, a group of oxytocinergic neurons originating in this nucleus and projecting to extra-hypothalamic brain areas (e.g., hippocampus, medulla oblongata and spinal cord) control penile erection in male rats. Activation of these neurons by dopamine and its agonists, excitatory amino acids (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid) or oxytocin itself, or by electrical stimulation leads to penile erection, while their inhibition by gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) and its agonists or by opioid peptides and opiate-like drugs inhibits this sexual response. The activation of these neurons is secondary to the activation of nitric oxide synthase, which produces nitric oxide. Nitric oxide in turn causes, by a mechanism that is as yet unidentified, the release of oxytocin in extra-hypothalamic brain areas. Other compounds recently identified that facilitate penile erection by activating central oxytocinergic neurons are peptide analogues of hexarelin, a growth hormone releasing peptide, pro-VGF-derived peptides, endogenous peptides that may be released by neuronal nerve endings impinging on oxytocinergic cell bodies, SR 141716A, a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, and, less convincingly, adrenocorticotropin-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (ACTH-MSH)-related peptides. Paraventricular oxytocinergic neurons and similar mechanisms are also involved in penile erection occurring in physiological contexts, namely noncontact erections that occur in male rats in the presence of an inaccessible receptive female, and during copulation. These findings show that the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus plays an important role in the control of erectile function and sexual activity. As the male rat is a model of

  5. The Zona Incerta Regulates Communication between the Superior Colliculus and the Posteromedial Thalamus: Implications for Thalamic Interactions with the Dorsolateral Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Glenn D.R.; Smith, Jared B.

    2015-01-01

    There is uncertainty concerning the circuit connections by which the superior colliculus interacts with the basal ganglia. To address this issue, anterograde and retrograde tracers were placed, respectively, into the superior colliculus and globus pallidus of Sprague-Dawley rats. In this two-tracer experiment, the projections from the superior colliculus terminated densely in the ventral zona incerta (ZIv), but did not overlap the labeled neurons observed in the subthalamic nucleus. In cases in which anterograde and retrograde tracers were placed, respectively, in sensory-responsive sites in the superior colliculus and posteromedial (POm) thalamus, the labeled projections from superior colliculus innervated the ZIv regions that contained the labeled neurons that project to POm. We also confirmed this colliculo–incertal–POm pathway by depositing a mixture of retrograde and anterograde tracers at focal sites in ZIv to reveal retrogradely labeled neurons in superior colliculus and anterogradely labeled terminals in POm. When combined with retrograde tracer injections in POm, immunohistochemical processing proved that most ZIv projections to POm are GABAergic. Consistent with these findings, direct stimulation of superior colliculus evoked neuronal excitation in ZIv and caused inhibition of spontaneous activity in POm. Collectively, these results indicate that superior colliculus can activate the inhibitory projections from ZIv to the POm. This is significant because it suggests that the superior colliculus could suppress the interactions between POm and the dorsolateral striatum, presumably to halt ongoing behaviors so that more adaptive motor actions are selected in response to unexpected sensory events. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT By demonstrating that the zona incerta regulates communication between the superior colliculus and the posteromedial thalamus, we have uncovered a circuit that partly explains the behavioral changes that occur in response to unexpected

  6. Neural correlates of variations in event processing during learning in central nucleus of amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Calu, Donna J.; Roesch, Matthew R.; Haney, Richard Z.; Holland, Peter C.; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Attention or variations in event processing help drive learning. Lesion studies have implicated the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in this process, particularly when expected rewards are omitted. However, lesion studies cannot specify how information processing in CeA supports such learning. To address these questions, we recorded CeA neurons in rats performing a task in which rewards were delivered or omitted unexpectedly. We found that activity in CeA neurons increased selectively at the time of omission and declined again with learning. Increased firing correlated with CeA-inactivation sensitive measures of attention. Notably CeA neurons did not fire to the cues or in response to unexpected rewards. These results indicate that CeA contributes to learning in response to reward omission due to a specific role in signaling actual omission rather than a more general involvement in signaling expectancies, errors, or reward value. PMID:21145010

  7. Constructing the suprachiasmatic nucleus: a watchmaker's perspective on the central clockworks

    PubMed Central

    Bedont, Joseph L.; Blackshaw, Seth

    2015-01-01

    The circadian system constrains an organism's palette of behaviors to portions of the solar day appropriate to its ecological niche. The central light-entrained clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the mammalian circadian system has evolved a complex network of interdependent signaling mechanisms linking multiple distinct oscillators to serve this crucial function. However, studies of the mechanisms controlling SCN development have greatly lagged behind our understanding of its physiological functions. We review advances in the understanding of adult SCN function, what has been described about SCN development to date, and the potential of both current and future studies of SCN development to yield important insights into master clock function, dysfunction, and evolution. PMID:26005407

  8. Amygdala central nucleus lesions attenuate acoustic startle stimulus-evoked heart rate changes in rats.

    PubMed

    Young, B J; Leaton, R N

    1996-04-01

    Amygdala central nucleus (CNA) lesions were used to test the hypothesis that stimulus-evoked heart rate changes can reflect the development of fear during acoustic startle testing. A 120-dB white noise startle stimulus produced freezing as well as phasic heart rate accelerations and decelerations, and an abrupt decrease in tonic heart rate, in sham-operated rats. These responses were all significantly reduced in CNA-lesioned rats. In contrast, an 87-dB stimulus elicited only significant phasic decelerations that were similarly attenuated by the CNA lesions. In a follow-up experiment, the CNA lesions also attenuated phasic cardiac decelerations evoked by a conditioned stimulus-like, 85-dB pure tone. The results support the contention (B. J. Young & R.N. Leaton, 1994) that heart rate changes can reflect fear conditioned during acoustic startle testing and, in addition, suggest that the amygdala mediates responses to nonsignal acoustic stimuli.

  9. Neural correlates of two different types of extinction learning in the amygdala central nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Iordanova, Mihaela D.; Deroche, Mickael L. D.; Esber, Guillem R.; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Extinction is a fundamental form of memory updating in which one learns to stop expecting an event that no longer occurs. This learning ensues when one experiences a change in environmental contingencies, that is, when an expected outcome fails to occur (simple extinction), or when a novel inflated expectation of a double outcome (overexpectation) is in conflict with the real outcome, and is a process that has been linked to amygdala function. Here, we show that in rats, the same neuronal population in the amygdala central nucleus updates reward expectancies and behaviour in both types of extinction, and neural changes in one paradigm are reflected in the other. This work may have implications for the management of addiction and anxiety disorders that require treatments based on the outcome omission, and disorders such as obesity that could use overexpectation, but not omission strategies. PMID:27531638

  10. NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons in the human inferior colliculus: morphology, distribution and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Hinova-Palova, D; Landzhov, B; Dzhambazova, E; Edelstein, L; Minkov, M; Fakih, K; Minkov, R; Paloff, A; Ovtscharoff, W

    2017-05-01

    Using the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) reaction with nitroblue tetrazolium, we provided a detailed investigation of the distribution, dimensional characteristics and morphology of NADPH-d-positive neurons in the three main subdivisions of the human inferior colliculus (IC): central nucleus, pericentral nucleus, and external nucleus. In accordance with their perikaryal diameter, dendritic and axonal morphology, these neurons were categorized as large (averaging up to 45 μm in diameter), medium (20-30 µm), small (13-16 µm) and very small (7-10 µm). Their morphological differences could contribute to varying functionality and processing capacity. Our results support the hypothesis that large and medium NADPH-d-positive cells represent projection neurons, while the small cells correspond to interneurons. Heretofore, the very small NADPH-d-positive neurons have not been described in any species. Their functions-and if they are, indeed, the smallest neurons in the IC of humans-remain to be clarified. Owing to their location, we posit that they are interneurons that connect the large NADPH-d-positive neurons and thereby serve as an anatomical substrate for information exchange and processing before feeding forward to higher brain centers. Our results also suggest that the broad distribution of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the human IC is closely tied to the neuromodulatory action of NO on collicular neurotransmitters such as GABA and glutamate, and to calcium-binding proteins such as parvalbumin. A deeper understanding of the relationship between NADPH-d-positive fibers in all IC connections and their co-localization with other neurotransmitters and calcium-binding proteins will assist in better defining the function of NO in the context of its interplay with the cerebral cortex, the sequelae of the aging process and neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. Characteristics of central collision events in Fe-nucleus interactions for 20 - 60 GeV/nucleon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T. H.; Drake, S.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Iwai, J.; Jones, W. V.

    1985-01-01

    A counter emulsion hybrid chamber in Japanese-American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment (JACEE-3) was flown on a balloon at the altitude (5.4 g/sq cm) in 1982 with the objective of probing the heavy nuclear collisions above 20 GeV per nucleon. In the energy region, it is suggested that nucleus-nucleus collisions provide dense collisions complex through compression and secondary particle production. In the lower energy region, an evidence of collective flow has been reported. And also, at higher energy region, it has been argued that nucleus has rather large stopping power. In this paper, the high multiplicity characteristics of Fe nucleus central collisions with energies 20 to 50 GeV/nucleon are presented. This is considered to be relevant to compressibility and collective flow of nuclear matter.

  12. Spectral and temporal auditory processing in the superior colliculus of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Costa, Margarida; Lepore, Franco; Guillemot, Jean-Paul

    2017-09-01

    Presbyacusis reflects dysfunctions present along the central auditory pathway. Given that the topographic representation of the auditory directional spatial map is deteriorated in the superior colliculus of aged animals, therefore, are spectral and temporal auditory processes altered with aging in the rat's superior colliculus? Extracellular single-unit recordings were conducted in the superior colliculus of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10 months) and aged (22 months) rats. In the spectral domain, level thresholds in aged rats were significantly increased when superior colliculus auditory neurons were stimulated with pure tones or Gaussian noise bursts. The sharpness of the frequency response tuning curve at 10 dB SPL above threshold was also significantly broader among the aged rats. Furthermore, in the temporal domain, the minimal silent gap thresholds to Gaussian noises were significantly longer in aged rats. Hence, these results highlight that spectral and temporal auditory processing in the superior colliculus are impaired during aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of neurotensin in positive reinforcement in the rat central nucleus of amygdala.

    PubMed

    László, Kristóf; Tóth, Krisztián; Kertes, Erika; Péczely, László; Lénárd, László

    2010-04-02

    In the central nervous system neurotensin (NT) acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. It was shown that NT has positive reinforcing effects after its direct microinjection into the ventral tegmental area. The central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), part of the limbic system, plays an important role in learning, memory, regulation of feeding, anxiety and emotional behavior. By means of immunohistochemical and radioimmune methods it was shown that the amygdaloid body is relatively rich in NT immunoreactive elements and NT receptors. The aim of our study was to examine the possible effects of NT on reinforcement and anxiety in the CeA. In conditioned place preference test male Wistar rats were microinjected bilaterally with 100 or 250 ng NT in volume of 0.4 microl or 35 ng neurotensin receptor 1 (NTS1) antagonist SR 48692 alone, or NTS1 antagonist 15 min before 100 ng NT treatment. Hundred or 250 ng NT significantly increased the time rats spent in the treatment quadrant. Prior treatment with the non-peptide NTS1 antagonist blocked the effects of NT. Antagonist itself did not influence the reinforcing effect. In elevated plus maze test we did not find differences among the groups as far as the anxiety index (time spent on the open arms) was concerned. Our results suggest that in the rat ACE NT has positive reinforcing effects. We clarified that NTS1s are involved in this action. It was also shown that NT does not influence anxiety behavior.

  14. Bar Effects on Central Star Formation and Active Galactic Nucleus Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seulhee; Oh, Kyuseok; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2012-01-01

    Galactic bars are often suspected to be channels of gas inflow to the galactic center and to trigger central star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. However, the current status on this issue based on empirical studies is unsettling, especially regarding AGNs. We investigate this question based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. From the nearby (0.01 < z < 0.05) bright (M r < -19) database, we have constructed a sample of 6658 relatively face-on late-type galaxies through visual inspection. We found 36% of them to have a bar. Bars are found to be more common in galaxies with earlier morphology. This makes sample selection critical. Parameter-based selections would miss a large fraction of barred galaxies of early morphology. Bar effects on star formation or AGNs are difficult to understand properly because multiple factors (bar frequency, stellar mass, black hole mass, gas contents, etc.) seem to contribute to them in intricate manners. In the hope of breaking these degeneracies, we inspect bar effects for fixed galaxy properties. Bar effects on central star formation seem higher in redder galaxies. Bar effects on AGNs on the other hand are higher in bluer and less massive galaxies. These effects seem more pronounced with increasing bar length. We discuss possible implications in terms of gas contents, bar strength, bar evolution, fueling timescale, and the dynamical role of supermassive black hole.

  15. Functional architecture of the inferior colliculus revealed with voltage-sensitive dyes.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Lakshmi; Xiao, Ying; Sivaramakrishnan, Shobhana

    2013-01-01

    We used optical imaging with voltage-sensitive dyes to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of synaptically evoked activity in brain slices of the inferior colliculus (IC). Responses in transverse slices which preserve cross-frequency connections and in modified sagittal slices that preserve connections within frequency laminae were evoked by activating the lateral lemniscal tract. Comparing activity between small and large populations of cells revealed response areas in the central nucleus of the IC that were similar in magnitude but graded temporally. In transverse sections, these response areas are summed to generate a topographic response profile. Activity through the commissure to the contralateral IC required an excitation threshold that was reached when GABAergic inhibition was blocked. Within laminae, module interaction created temporal homeostasis. Diffuse activity evoked by a single lemniscal shock re-organized into distinct spatial and temporal compartments when stimulus trains were used, and generated a directional activity profile within the lamina. Using different stimulus patterns to activate subsets of microcircuits in the central nucleus of the IC, we found that localized responses evoked by low-frequency stimulus trains spread extensively when train frequency was increased, suggesting recruitment of silent microcircuits. Long stimulus trains activated a circuit specific to post-inhibitory rebound neurons. Rebound microcircuits were defined by a focal point of initiation that spread to an annular ring that oscillated between inhibition and excitation. We propose that much of the computing power of the IC is derived from local circuits, some of which are cell-type specific. These circuits organize activity within and across frequency laminae, and are critical in determining the stimulus-selectivity of auditory coding.

  16. Neuronal activity in the inferior colliculus and bordering structures during vocalization in the squirrel monkey.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Florian; Jürgens, Uwe

    2003-07-25

    In four squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), the inferior colliculus, together with the neighboring superior colliculus, reticular formation, cuneiform nucleus and parabrachial area, were explored with microelectrodes, looking for neurons that might be involved in the discrimination between self-produced and external sounds. Vocalization was elicited by kainic acid injections into the periaqueductal gray of the midbrain. Acoustic tests were carried out with ascending and descending narrow-band noise sweeps spanning virtually the whole hearing range of the squirrel monkey. Altogether 577 neurons were analyzed. Neurons that both were audiosensitive and fired in advance of self-produced vocalization were found almost exclusively in the pericentral nuclei of the inferior colliculus and the adjacent reticular formation. Only the latter, however, contained, in addition, neurons that fired during external acoustic stimulation, but remained quiet during self-produced vocalization. These findings suggest that the reticular formation bordering the inferior colliculus is involved in the discrimination between self-produced and foreign vocalization on the basis of a vocalmotor feedforward mechanism.

  17. Involvement of the basolateral complex and central nucleus of amygdala in the omission effects of different magnitudes of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Judice-Daher, Danielle M; Tavares, Tatiane F; Bueno, José Lino O

    2012-07-15

    Evidence from appetitive Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning studies suggest that the amygdala is involved in modulation of responses correlated with motivational states, and therefore, to the modulation of processes probably underlying reinforcement omission effects. The present study aimed to clarify whether or not the mechanisms related to reinforcement omission effects of different magnitudes depend on basolateral complex and central nucleus of amygdala. Rats were trained on a fixed-interval 12s with limited hold 6s signaled schedule in which correct responses were always followed by one of two reinforcement magnitudes. Bilateral lesions of the basolateral complex and central nucleus were made after acquisition of stable performance. After postoperative recovery, the training was changed from 100% to 50% reinforcement schedules. The results showed that lesions of the basolateral complex and central nucleus did not eliminate or reduce, but interfere with reinforcement omission effects. The response from rats of both the basolateral complex and central nucleus lesioned group was higher relative to that of the rats of their respective sham-lesioned groups after reinforcement omission. Thus, the lesioned rats were more sensitive to the omission effect. Moreover, the basolateral complex lesions prevented the magnitude effect on reinforcement omission effects. Basolateral complex lesioned rats showed no differential performance following omission of larger and smaller reinforcement magnitude. Thus, the basolateral complex is involved in incentive processes relative to omission of different reinforcement magnitudes. Therefore, it is possible that reinforcement omission effects are modulated by brain circuitry which involves amygdala.

  18. A function for binaural integration in auditory grouping and segregation in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Kyle T; Shackleton, Trevor M; Magezi, David A; Palmer, Alan R

    2015-03-15

    Responses of neurons to binaural, harmonic complex stimuli in urethane-anesthetized guinea pig inferior colliculus (IC) are reported. To assess the binaural integration of harmonicity cues for sound segregation and grouping, responses were measured to harmonic complexes with different fundamental frequencies presented to each ear. Simultaneously gated harmonic stimuli with fundamental frequencies of 125 Hz and 145 Hz were presented to the left and right ears, respectively, and recordings made from 96 neurons with characteristic frequencies >2 kHz in the central nucleus of the IC. Of these units, 70 responded continuously throughout the stimulus and were excited by the stimulus at the contralateral ear. The stimulus at the ipsilateral ear excited (EE: 14%; 10/70), inhibited (EI: 33%; 23/70), or had no significant effect (EO: 53%; 37/70), defined by the effect on firing rate. The neurons phase locked to the temporal envelope at each ear to varying degrees depending on signal level. Many of the cells (predominantly EO) were dominated by the response to the contralateral stimulus. Another group (predominantly EI) synchronized to the contralateral stimulus and were suppressed by the ipsilateral stimulus in a phasic manner. A third group synchronized to the stimuli at both ears (predominantly EE). Finally, a group only responded when the waveform peaks from each ear coincided. We conclude that these groups of neurons represent different "streams" of information but exhibit modifications of the response rather than encoding a feature of the stimulus, like pitch.

  19. Spread of cochlear excitation during stimulation with pulsed infrared radiation: Inferior colliculus measurements

    PubMed Central

    Richter, C.-P.; Rajguru, S.M.; Matic, A.I.; Moreno, E.L.; Fishman, A.J.; Robinson, A.M.; Suh, E.; Walsh, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has received considerable attention over the last few years. It provides an alternative method to artificially stimulate neurons without electrical current or the introduction of exogenous chromophores. One of the primary benefits of INS could be the improved spatial selectivity when compared with electrical stimulation. In the present study, we have evaluated the spatial selectivity of INS in the acutely damaged cochlea of guinea pigs and compared it to stimulation with acoustic tone pips in normal hearing animals. The radiation was delivered via a 200 μm-diameter optical fiber, which was inserted through a cochleostomy into the scala tympani of the basal cochlear turn. The stimulated section along the cochlear spiral ganglion was estimated from the neural responses recorded from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). ICC responses were recorded in response to cochlear INS using a multichannel penetrating electrode array. Spatial tuning curves were constructed from the responses. For INS, approximately 55% of the activation profiles showed a single maximum, ~22% had two maxima, and ~13% had multiple maxima. The remaining 10% of the profiles occurred at the limits of the electrode array and could not be classified. The majority of ICC spatial tuning curves indicated that the spread of activation evoked by optical stimuli is comparable to that produced by acoustic pips. PMID:21828906

  20. Temporal properties of inferior colliculus neurons to photonic stimulation in the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaodong; Young, Hunter; Matic, Agnella Izzo; Zirkle, Whitney; Rajguru, Suhrud; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-08-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) may be beneficial in auditory prostheses because of its spatially selective activation of spiral ganglion neurons. However, the response properties of single auditory neurons to INS and the possible contributions of its optoacoustic effects are yet to be examined. In this study, the temporal properties of auditory neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) of guinea pigs in response to INS were characterized. Spatial selectivity of INS was observed along the tonotopically organized ICC. Trains of laser pulses and trains of acoustic clicks were used to evoke single unit responses in ICC of normal hearing animals. In response to INS, ICC neurons showed lower limiting rates, longer latencies, and lower firing efficiencies. In deaf animals, ICC neurons could still be stimulated by INS while unresponsive to acoustic stimulation. The site and spatial selectivity of INS both likely shaped the temporal properties of ICC neurons. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  1. A function for binaural integration in auditory grouping and segregation in the inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Shackleton, Trevor M.; Magezi, David A.; Palmer, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Responses of neurons to binaural, harmonic complex stimuli in urethane-anesthetized guinea pig inferior colliculus (IC) are reported. To assess the binaural integration of harmonicity cues for sound segregation and grouping, responses were measured to harmonic complexes with different fundamental frequencies presented to each ear. Simultaneously gated harmonic stimuli with fundamental frequencies of 125 Hz and 145 Hz were presented to the left and right ears, respectively, and recordings made from 96 neurons with characteristic frequencies >2 kHz in the central nucleus of the IC. Of these units, 70 responded continuously throughout the stimulus and were excited by the stimulus at the contralateral ear. The stimulus at the ipsilateral ear excited (EE: 14%; 10/70), inhibited (EI: 33%; 23/70), or had no significant effect (EO: 53%; 37/70), defined by the effect on firing rate. The neurons phase locked to the temporal envelope at each ear to varying degrees depending on signal level. Many of the cells (predominantly EO) were dominated by the response to the contralateral stimulus. Another group (predominantly EI) synchronized to the contralateral stimulus and were suppressed by the ipsilateral stimulus in a phasic manner. A third group synchronized to the stimuli at both ears (predominantly EE). Finally, a group only responded when the waveform peaks from each ear coincided. We conclude that these groups of neurons represent different “streams” of information but exhibit modifications of the response rather than encoding a feature of the stimulus, like pitch. PMID:25540219

  2. Spread of cochlear excitation during stimulation with pulsed infrared radiation: inferior colliculus measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, C.-P.; Rajguru, S. M.; Matic, A. I.; Moreno, E. L.; Fishman, A. J.; Robinson, A. M.; Suh, E.; Walsh, J. T., Jr.

    2011-10-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has received considerable attention over the last few years. It provides an alternative method to artificially stimulate neurons without electrical current or the introduction of exogenous chromophores. One of the primary benefits of INS could be the improved spatial selectivity when compared with electrical stimulation. In the present study, we have evaluated the spatial selectivity of INS in the acutely damaged cochlea of guinea pigs and compared it to stimulation with acoustic tone pips in normal-hearing animals. The radiation was delivered via a 200 µm diameter optical fiber, which was inserted through a cochleostomy into the scala tympani of the basal cochlear turn. The stimulated section along the cochlear spiral ganglion was estimated from the neural responses recorded from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). ICC responses were recorded in response to cochlear INS using a multichannel penetrating electrode array. Spatial tuning curves (STCs) were constructed from the responses. For INS, approximately 55% of the activation profiles showed a single maximum, ~22% had two maxima and ~13% had multiple maxima. The remaining 10% of the profiles occurred at the limits of the electrode array and could not be classified. The majority of ICC STCs indicated that the spread of activation evoked by optical stimuli is comparable to that produced by acoustic tone pips.

  3. Spread of cochlear excitation during stimulation with pulsed infrared radiation: inferior colliculus measurements.

    PubMed

    Richter, C-P; Rajguru, S M; Matic, A I; Moreno, E L; Fishman, A J; Robinson, A M; Suh, E; Walsh, J T

    2011-10-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has received considerable attention over the last few years. It provides an alternative method to artificially stimulate neurons without electrical current or the introduction of exogenous chromophores. One of the primary benefits of INS could be the improved spatial selectivity when compared with electrical stimulation. In the present study, we have evaluated the spatial selectivity of INS in the acutely damaged cochlea of guinea pigs and compared it to stimulation with acoustic tone pips in normal-hearing animals. The radiation was delivered via a 200 µm diameter optical fiber, which was inserted through a cochleostomy into the scala tympani of the basal cochlear turn. The stimulated section along the cochlear spiral ganglion was estimated from the neural responses recorded from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). ICC responses were recorded in response to cochlear INS using a multichannel penetrating electrode array. Spatial tuning curves (STCs) were constructed from the responses. For INS, approximately 55% of the activation profiles showed a single maximum, ∼22% had two maxima and ∼13% had multiple maxima. The remaining 10% of the profiles occurred at the limits of the electrode array and could not be classified. The majority of ICC STCs indicated that the spread of activation evoked by optical stimuli is comparable to that produced by acoustic tone pips.

  4. Central and peripheral contributions to dynamic changes in nucleus accumbens glucose induced by intravenous cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, Ken T.; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

    2015-01-01

    The pattern of neural, physiological and behavioral effects induced by cocaine is consistent with metabolic neural activation, yet direct attempts to evaluate central metabolic effects of this drug have produced controversial results. Here, we used enzyme-based glucose sensors coupled with high-speed amperometry in freely moving rats to examine how intravenous cocaine at a behaviorally active dose affects extracellular glucose levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a critical structure within the motivation-reinforcement circuit. In drug-naive rats, cocaine induced a bimodal increase in glucose, with the first, ultra-fast phasic rise appearing during the injection (latency 6–8 s; ~50 μM or ~5% of baseline) followed by a larger, more prolonged tonic elevation (~100 μM or 10% of baseline, peak ~15 min). While the rapid, phasic component of the glucose response remained stable following subsequent cocaine injections, the tonic component progressively decreased. Cocaine-methiodide, cocaine's peripherally acting analog, induced an equally rapid and strong initial glucose rise, indicating cocaine's action on peripheral neural substrates as its cause. However, this analog did not induce increases in either locomotion or tonic glucose, suggesting direct central mediation of these cocaine effects. Under systemic pharmacological blockade of dopamine transmission, both phasic and tonic components of the cocaine-induced glucose response were only slightly reduced, suggesting a significant role of non-dopamine mechanisms in cocaine-induced accumbal glucose influx. Hence, intravenous cocaine induces rapid, strong inflow of glucose into NAc extracellular space by involving both peripheral and central, non-dopamine drug actions, thus preventing a possible deficit resulting from enhanced glucose use by brain cells. PMID:25729349

  5. Exploring the Superior Colliculus In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The superior colliculus plays an important role in the translation of sensory signals that encode the location of objects in space into motor signals that encode vectors of the shifts in gaze direction called saccades. Since the late 1990s, our two laboratories have been applying whole cell patch-clamp techniques to in vitro slice preparations of rodent superior colliculus to analyze the structure and function of its circuitry at the cellular level. This review describes the results of these experiments and discusses their contributions to our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for sensorimotor integration in the superior colliculus. The experiments analyze vertical interactions between its superficial visuosensory and intermediate premotor layers and propose how they might contribute to express saccades and to saccadic suppression. They also compare and contrast the circuitry within each of these layers and propose how this circuitry might contribute to the selection of the targets for saccades and to the build-up of the premotor commands that precede saccades. Experiments also explore in vitro the roles of extrinsic inputs to the superior colliculus, including cholinergic inputs from the parabigeminal and parabrachial nuclei and GABAergic inputs from the substantia nigra pars reticulata, in modulating the activity of the collicular circuitry. The results extend and clarify our understanding of the multiple roles the superior colliculus plays in sensorimotor integration. PMID:19710376

  6. Capsaicin-responsive corneal afferents do not contain TRPV1 at their central terminals in trigeminal nucleus caudalis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Deborah M; Hermes, Sam M; Largent-Milnes, Tally M; Aicher, Sue A

    2014-11-01

    We examined the substrates for ocular nociception in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Capsaicin application to the ocular surface in awake rats evoked nocifensive responses and suppressed spontaneous grooming responses. Thus, peripheral capsaicin was able to activate the central pathways encoding ocular nociception. Our capsaicin stimulus evoked c-Fos expression in a select population of neurons within rostral trigeminal nucleus caudalis in anesthetized rats. These activated neurons also received direct contacts from corneal afferent fibers traced with cholera toxin B from the corneal surface. However, the central terminals of the corneal afferents that contacted capsaicin-activated trigeminal neurons did not contain TRPV1. To determine if TRPV1 expression had been altered by capsaicin stimulation, we examined TRPV1 content of corneal afferents in animals that did not receive capsaicin stimulation. These studies confirmed that while TRPV1 was present in 30% of CTb-labeled corneal afferent neurons within the trigeminal ganglion, TRPV1 was only detected in 2% of the central terminals of these corneal afferents within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Other TRP channels were also present in low proportions of central corneal afferent terminals in unstimulated animals (TRPM8, 2%; TRPA1, 10%). These findings indicate that a pathway from the cornea to rostral trigeminal nucleus caudalis is involved in corneal nociceptive transmission, but that central TRP channel expression is unrelated to the type of stimulus transduced by the peripheral nociceptive endings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Capsaicin-responsive corneal afferents do not contain TRPV1 at their central terminals in trigeminal nucleus caudalis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hegarty, Deborah M.; Hermes, Sam M.; Largent-Milnes, Tally M.; Aicher, Sue A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the substrates for ocular nociception in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Capsaicin application to the ocular surface in awake rats evoked nocifensive responses and suppressed spontaneous grooming responses. Thus, peripheral capsaicin was able to activate the central pathways encoding ocular nociception. Our capsaicin stimulus evoked c-Fos expression in a select population of neurons within rostral trigeminal nucleus caudalis in anesthetized rats. These activated neurons also received direct contacts from corneal afferent fibers traced with cholera toxin B from the corneal surface. However, the central terminals of the corneal afferents that contacted capsaicin-activated trigeminal neurons did not contain TRPV1. To determine if TRPV1 expression had been altered by capsaicin stimulation, we examined TRPV1 content of corneal afferents in animals that did not receive capsaicin stimulation. These studies confirmed that while TRPV1 was present in 30% of CTb-labeled corneal afferent neurons within the trigeminal ganglion, TRPV1 was only detected in 2% of the central terminals of these corneal afferents within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Other TRP channels were also present in low proportions of central corneal afferent terminals in unstimulated animals (TRPM8, 2%; TRPA1, 10%). These findings indicate that a pathway from the cornea to rostral trigeminal nucleus caudalis is involved in corneal nociceptive transmission, but that central TRP channel expression is unrelated to the type of stimulus transduced by the peripheral nociceptive endings. PMID:24996127

  8. The central nucleus of the amygdala and the wake-promoting effects of modafinil.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Amy J; Sanford, Larry D; Ross, Richard J; Mann, Graziella L; Pavlock, Amy; Morrison, Adrian R

    2002-06-21

    Modafinil, a novel non-amphetamine stimulant recently approved for the treatment of narcolepsy, has been shown to increase waking in both animals and humans. However, its mechanism of action is currently unknown. Earlier research into the brain structures responsible for the wake-producing actions of modafinil implicated the central nucleus of the amygdala (ACe) as a possible site of action [Neuroscience 87 (1998) 905-911; Neurosci. Lett. 241 (1998) 95-98]. The present experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that the ACe is, at least in part, involved in the wake-producing actions of modafinil. In the first experiment, rats with lesions of the ACe were injected systemically with varying doses of modafinil and sleep was recorded. At the highest dose, modafinil significantly increased waking and decreased sleep. However, there was no interaction between the lesion and the effect of the drug. In the second experiment, varying doses of modafinil were injected directly into the ACe and sleep was recorded. Injection of modafinil into the ACe did not affect sleep architecture. Thus, ACe does not play a simple role in modafinil's wake-promoting action. We suggest that more complex testing will be required to elucidate its role.

  9. Positive reinforcing effects of RFamide-related peptide-1 in the rat central nucleus of amygdala.

    PubMed

    Lénárd, László; Kovács, Anita; Ollmann, Tamás; Péczely, László; Zagoracz, Olga; Gálosi, Rita; László, Kristóf

    2014-12-15

    The amygdaloid body (AMY) plays an important role in memory, learning and reward-related processes. RFamide-related peptide-1 (RFRP-1) immunoreactive fibers and NPFF1 receptors were identified in the AMY, and previously we verified that neuropeptide RFRP-1 infused into the central nucleus of AMY (CeA) caused food intake decrease. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible rewarding or aversive effects of RFRP-1 in the CeA. In conditioned place preference, test male Wistar rats were microinjected bilaterally with 50 or 100ng RFRP-1 in volume of 0.4μl. In other groups of animals, 20ng NPFF receptor antagonist RF9 was applied or the antagonist was used 15min before 50ng RFRP-1 treatment. Fifty nanograms of RFRP-1 had positive reinforcing properties, while 100ng RFRP-1 had no effect. Prior treatment with NPFF receptor antagonist RF9 could block the rewarding effects of RFRP-1, while the antagonist applied alone did not influence the behavior of rats in place preference paradigm. Our results show that RFRP-1 and NPFF-1 receptors play important roles in the amygdaloid rewarding-reinforcing mechanisms.

  10. Synaptic and network consequences of monosynaptic nociceptive inputs of parabrachial nucleus origin in the central amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Sugimura, Yae K.; Takahashi, Yukari; Watabe, Ayako M.

    2016-01-01

    A large majority of neurons in the superficial layer of the dorsal horn projects to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPB). LPB neurons then project to the capsular part of the central amygdala (CeA; CeC), a key structure underlying the nociception-emotion link. LPB-CeC synaptic transmission is enhanced in various pain models by using electrical stimulation of putative fibers of LPB origin in brain slices. However, this approach has limitations for examining direct monosynaptic connections devoid of directly stimulating fibers from other structures and local GABAergic neurons. To overcome these limitations, we infected the LPB of rats with an adeno-associated virus vector expressing channelrhodopsin-2 and prepared coronal and horizontal brain slices containing the amygdala. We found that blue light stimulation resulted in monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), with very small latency fluctuations, followed by a large polysynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic current in CeC neurons, regardless of the firing pattern type. Intraplantar formalin injection at 24 h before slice preparation significantly increased EPSC amplitude in late firing-type CeC neurons. These results indicate that direct monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs from the LPB not only excite CeC neurons but also regulate CeA network signaling through robust feed-forward inhibition, which is under plastic modulation in response to persistent inflammatory pain. PMID:26888105

  11. The central nucleus of the amygdala is essential for acquiring and expressing conditional fear after overtraining.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Joshua M; Rabinak, Christine A; McLachlan, Ian G; Maren, Stephen

    2007-09-01

    The basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) is critical for the acquisition and expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats. Nonetheless, rats with neurotoxic BLA lesions can acquire conditional fear after overtraining (75 trials). The capacity of rats with BLA lesions to acquire fear memory may be mediated by the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA). To examine this issue, we examined the influence of neurotoxic CEA lesions or reversible inactivation of the CEA on the acquisition and expression of conditional freezing after overtraining in rats. Rats with pretraining CEA lesions (whether alone or in combination with BLA lesions) did not acquire conditional freezing to either the conditioning context or an auditory conditional stimulus after extensive overtraining. Similarly, post-training lesions of the CEA or BLA prevented the expression of overtrained fear. Lastly, muscimol infusions into the CEA prevented both the acquisition and the expression of overtrained fear, demonstrating that the effects of CEA lesions are not likely due to the destruction of en passant axons. These results suggest that the CEA is essential for conditional freezing after Pavlovian fear conditioning. Moreover, overtraining may engage a compensatory fear conditioning circuit involving the CEA in animals with damage to the BLA.

  12. Effects of lesions of the amygdala central nucleus on autoshaped lever pressing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Stephen E; Wheeler, Daniel S; Holland, Peter C

    2012-04-23

    Neutral cues paired with rewards often appear to acquire motivational significance, as if the incentive motivational value of the reward is transferred to the cue. Such cues have been reported to modulate the performance of instrumental action (Pavlovian-instrumental transfer, PIT), serve as conditioned reinforcers in the establishment of new learning, and be the targets of approach and other cue-directed behaviors. Here we examined the effects of lesions of the amygdala central nucleus (CeA) on the acquisition of discriminative autoshaped lever-pressing. Insertion of one lever into the experimental chamber was reinforced by sucrose delivery, but insertion of another lever was not reinforced. Although sucrose delivery was not contingent on lever pressing, both CeA- and sham-lesioned rats rapidly came to press the reinforced but not the nonreinforced lever. Despite their showing little evidence of impairments in autoshaped lever pressing, these same CeA-lesioned rats showed significant deficits in the expression of PIT in a subsequent phase of the experiment. The lack of impaired autoshaping in CeA-lesioned rats contrasts with effects previously reported for conditioned orienting responses (ORs) and for other putative measures of incentive learning including PIT and conditioned approach to visual cues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Individual Differences in Amphetamine Self-Administration: The Role of the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Mary E.; Denehy, Emily R.; Bardo, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    Rats categorized as high responder (HR) based on their activity in an inescapable novel environment self-administer more amphetamine than low responder (LR) rats. The current study examined if the central nucleus of the amygdala (ACe) contributes to the elevated response for amphetamine in HR rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were classified as HR and LR rats based on their activity in inescapable novelty and novelty place preference, and then were trained to self-administer amphetamine (0.1 mg/kg/infusion). Once stable responding was achieved, rats received microinfusions of the GABAA agonist muscimol (0.5 μg/0.5 μl) or phosphate buffered saline into the ACe immediately prior to self-administration of amphetamine (0.1, 0.03, 0.01, or 0.001 mg/kg/infusion) or saline. An additional group of rats was trained to lever press for sucrose rather than amphetamine. Based on the inescapable novelty test, HR rats self-administered more amphetamine than LR rats at the 0.03 and 0.01 mg/kg/infusion unit doses; there were no significant individual differences in amphetamine self-administration based on the novelty place preference test. Inactivation of the ACe with muscimol decreased self-administration at the 0.03 and 0.01 mg/kg/infusion unit doses in HR rats, but had no effect on LR rats. ACe inactivation had no reliable effect on inactive lever responding and appeared to be region-specific based on anatomical controls. In addition, while inactivation of the ACe decreased responding for sucrose, inactivation did not differentially affect HR and LR rats. These results suggest that the ACe contributes to the elevated rate of amphetamine self-administration in HR rats. PMID:17568395

  14. Positive reinforcing effect of oxytocin microinjection in the rat central nucleus of amygdala.

    PubMed

    László, K; Kovács, A; Zagoracz, O; Ollmann, T; Péczely, L; Kertes, E; Lacy, D G; Lénárd, L

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) receives increasing attention since, it plays a role in various behaviors including anxiety, drug addiction, learning, social recognition, empathy, pair bonding and decreased aggression. The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), part of the limbic system, plays an important role in learning, memory, anxiety and reinforcing mechanisms. CeA was shown to be rich in OT-receptors (OTR). The aim of our study was to examine the possible effects of OT and OTR antagonist in the CeA on reinforcement using the conditioned place preference test and on anxiety using the elevated plus maze test. Male Wistar rats were microinjected bilaterally with 10 ng OT or 100 ng OT (Sigma: O6379, injected in volume of 0.4μl) or 10ng OTR antagonist (Sigma: L-2540) alone, or OTR antagonist 15 min prior 10 ng OT treatment or vehicle solution into the CeA. Rats receiving 10 ng OT spent significantly more time in the treatment quadrant during the test session, while 100 ng OT treatment produced no effect. Prior treatment with the non-peptide OTR antagonist blocked the effects of OT. The antagonist in itself did not influence the place preference. The elevated plus maze test revealed that 10 ng OT significantly increased the time spent in the open arms. OTR antagonist pre-treatment could inhibit this effect and the antagonist in itself did not affect the time spent in the open arms. Our results show that in the rat CeA OT has dose-dependent, positive reinforcing and anxiolytic effects, via OTR demonstrated by the blocking effects of selective OTR antagonist.

  15. Amygdala central nucleus interacts with dorsolateral striatum to regulate the acquisition of habits.

    PubMed

    Lingawi, Nura W; Balleine, Bernard W

    2012-01-18

    The role of the amygdala central nucleus (CeN) in habit learning was assessed in two experiments. First, we examined the effects of bilateral lesions of the anterior CeN on an overtraining-induced lever press habit evaluated using an outcome devaluation protocol. Overtraining generated habitual performance and rendered sham lesioned rats insensitive to outcome devaluation, an effect that was also found in rats given control lesions of the posterior CeN. In contrast, rats with lesions of the anterior CeN did not show normal habit acquisition and their performance remained goal-directed and sensitive to outcome devaluation. Nevertheless, lesions of either the posterior or the anterior CeN abolished the general excitatory influence of a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus on instrumental performance. Second, we assessed the functional interaction between the CeN and dorsolateral striatum (DLS), a region previously implicated in the acquisition of habits, using asymmetrical lesions to disconnect these structures. Rats were given a unilateral lesion of anterior CeN and a unilateral lesion of the DLS, made either ipsilateral (control) or contralateral (disconnection) to the CeN lesion, and given overtraining followed by outcome devaluation. Although the ipsilateral lesioned rats were insensitive to devaluation, the contralateral CeN-DLS lesion impaired habit acquisition, rendering performance sensitive to the devaluation treatment. These results are the first to implicate the CeN and its connection with a circuit involving DLS in habit learning. They imply that, in instrumental conditioning, regions of amygdala parse the instrumental outcome into the reward and reinforcement signals mediating goal-directed and habitual actions, respectively.

  16. Amygdala central nucleus interacts with dorsolateral striatum to regulate the acquisition of habits

    PubMed Central

    Lingawi, Nura W.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the amygdala central nucleus (CeN) in habit learning was assessed in two experiments. First we examined the effects of bilateral lesions of the anterior CeN on an overtraining-induced lever press habit evaluated using an outcome devaluation protocol. Overtraining generated habitual performance and rendered sham lesioned rats insensitive to outcome devaluation, an effect that was also found in rats given control lesions of the posterior CeN. In contrast, rats with lesions of the anterior CeN did not show normal habit acquisition and their performance remained goal-directed and sensitive to outcome devaluation. Nevertheless, lesions of either the posterior or the anterior CeN abolished the general excitatory influence of a Pavlovian CS on instrumental performance. Next we assessed the functional interaction between the CeN and dorsolateral striatum (DLS), a region previously implicated in the acquisition of habits, using asymmetrical lesions to disconnect these structures. Rats were given a unilateral lesion of anterior CeN and a unilateral lesion of the DLS, made either ipsilateral (control) or contralateral (disconnection) to the CeN lesion, and given overtraining followed by outcome devaluation. Although the ipsilateral lesioned rats were insensitive to devaluation, the contralateral CeN-DLS lesion impaired habit acquisition rendering performance sensitive to the devaluation treatment. These results are the first to implicate the CeN and its connection with a circuit involving DLS in habit learning. They imply that, in instrumental conditioning, regions of amygdala parse the instrumental outcome into the reward and reinforcement signals mediating goal-directed and habitual actions, respectively. PMID:22262905

  17. Vestibular responses in the macaque pedunculopontine nucleus and central mesencephalic reticular formation

    PubMed Central

    Aravamuthan, Bhooma R.; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2012-01-01

    The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and central mesencephalic reticular formation (cMRF) both send projections and receive input from areas with known vestibular responses. Noting their connections with the basal ganglia, the locomotor disturbances that occur following lesions of the PPN or cMRF, and the encouraging results of PPN deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease patients, both the PPN and cMRF have been linked to motor control. In order to determine the existence of and characterize vestibular responses in the PPN and cMRF, we recorded single neurons from both structures during vertical and horizontal rotation, translation, and visual pursuit stimuli. The majority of PPN cells (72.5%) were vestibular-only cells that responded exclusively to rotation and translation stimuli but not visual pursuit. Visual pursuit responses were much more prevalent in the cMRF (57.1%) though close to half of cMRF cells were vestibular-only cells (41.1%). Directional preferences also differed between the PPN, which was preferentially modulated during nose-down pitch, and cMRF, which was preferentially modulated during ipsilateral yaw rotation. Finally, amplitude responses were similar between the PPN and cMRF during rotation and pursuit stimuli, but PPN responses to translation were of higher amplitude than cMRF responses. Taken together with their connections to the vestibular circuit, these results implicate the PPN and cMRF in the processing of vestibular stimuli and suggest important roles for both in responding to motion perturbations like falls and turns. PMID:22864184

  18. Central projections of the mesencephalic nucleus of the fifth nerve: an autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Luschei, E S

    1987-09-01

    Projections of cells of the mesencephalic nucleus of the fifth nerve (Mes V) to brainstem structures in the cat were studied by labelling Mes V cells with tritiated leucine. Before the leucine injections were made, however, large kainic acid lesions were produced in the vicinity of Mes V cells because these neurons are resistant to being killed or injured by this neurotoxin. Thus Mes V cells were selectively labelled by the leucine even though they are scattered among many other neurons. Leucine injections near Mes V cells located in the mesencephalon, which are primarily the somata of jaw muscle spindle afferent fibers, produced essentially the same pattern of terminal labelling as injections near a caudally located group of Mes V cells that includes the somata of many tooth mechanoreceptive afferents. Labelling was dense above the trigeminal motor nucleus in the nucleus supratrigeminalis and in the most medial portion of the principal trigeminal sensory nucleus. A scattering of labelled axons and diffuse label was seen along the length of the tract of Probst, which follows the medial border of the descending trigeminal sensory nucleus as far caudally as the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. Labelling within most of the trigeminal motor nucleus, which is known to receive direct synaptic input from Mes V cells, was very light. The only reasonably dense region of label was confined to a small dorsolateral portion of the motor nucleus. Although Mes V has generally been supposed to be involved with jaw control in a direct, reflexive manner, the extensive projections to nucleus supratrigeminalis and parts of the trigeminal sensory system draw attention to the potential proprioceptive sensory contribution of Mes V.

  19. Genipin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced persistent changes of emotional behaviors and neural activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and the central amygdala nucleus.

    PubMed

    Araki, Ryota; Hiraki, Yosuke; Yabe, Takeshi

    2014-10-15

    Sickness behavior is a series of behavioral and psychological changes that develop in inflammatory disease, including infections and cancers. Administration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces sickness behavior in rodents. Genipin, an aglycon derived from an iridoid glycoside geniposide extracted from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides, has anti-inflammatory and antidepressant activities. However, the effects of genipin on inflammation-induced changes in emotional behaviors are unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of genipin on LPS-induced inflammation in BV-2 cells and sickness behavior in mice. Pretreatment with genipin inhibited LPS-induced increases in NO production and reduced the mRNA levels of inflammation-related genes (iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β and IL-6) in BV-2 cells. Oral administration of genipin ameliorated LPS-induced depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test and social behavior deficits 24h after LPS administration in mice. LPS-induced expression of mRNAs for inflammation-related genes and the number of c-fos immunopositive cells decreased in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), suggesting that genipin attenuates LPS-induced changes of emotional behaviors through inhibition of neural activation and inflammatory responses in the PVN and CeA. These novel pharmacological effects of genipin may be useful for treatment of patients with sickness behavior.

  20. Somatosensory regulation of serotonin release in the central nucleus of the amygdala is mediated via corticotropin releasing factor and gamma-aminobutyric acid in the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Ryota; Shimoju, Rie; Shibata, Hideshi; Kurosawa, Mieko

    2016-10-15

    Noxious cutaneous stimulation increases, whereas innocuous cutaneous stimulation decreases serotonin (5-HT) release in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in anesthetized rats. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) to those responses. Release of 5-HT in the CeA was monitored by microdialysis before and after 10-min stimulation by pinching or stroking. Increased 5-HT release in the CeA in response to pinching was abolished by CRF2 receptor antagonism in the DRN. Decreased 5-HT release in the CeA in response to stroking was abolished by either CRF1 receptor antagonism or GABAA receptor antagonism in the DRN. These results suggest that opposite responses of 5-HT release in the CeA to noxious versus innocuous stimulation of the skin are due to separate contributions of CRF2, CRF1 and GABAA receptors in the DRN.

  1. Cardiovascular and phrenic nerve responses to stimulation of the amygdala central nucleus in the anaesthetized rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, G E; Jordan, D; Paton, J F; Spyer, K M; Wood, L M

    1987-01-01

    1. The cardiovascular responses to electrical stimulation of the central nucleus of the amygdala (c.n.) have been studied in chloralose-anaesthetized rabbits. A pattern of response involving bradycardia, hypotension and hind-limb vasodilatation, accompanied by an increase in the rate of phrenic nerve discharge, was evoked only in response to stimulation within the medial portion of the c.n. 2. The cardiovascular responses were not secondary to the changes in respiratory activity since they were unaffected by altering central respiratory drive by either hypo- or hyperventilation of the animal. 3. The bradycardia was attenuated by the administration of atropine sulphate and abolished by the subsequent administration of propranolol, which when given alone attenuated the bradycardia. Atropine or propranolol given alone also attenuated the hypotension evoked by medial c.n. stimulation but the concurrent hind-limb vasodilatation was unaffected. 4. Atenolol, which unlike propranolol does not cross the blood-brain barrier, had little effect on the bradycardia in response to medial c.n. stimulation, but the subsequent administration of atropine abolished it. The hypotension in response to medial c.n. stimulation was also unaffected by atenolol. 5. The vasodilatation in response to medial c.n. stimulation was abolished by administration of guanethidine even after restoration of hind-limb perfusion pressure to control values by the infusion of angiotensin II into the hind-limb perfusion circuit. 6. Electrical stimulation of areas within 0.5 mm of the medial c.n. also resulted in bradycardia but then it was accompanied by hypertension and hind-limb vasoconstriction. Stimulation of areas 1.0 mm distant to the medial c.n. resulted in small and inconsistent cardiovascular responses. 7. These results show that hind-limb vasodilatation, mediated by withdrawal of sympathetic tone, occurs in response to stimulation within the medial c.n. of the rabbit and is in part responsible for

  2. Monopolar intracochlear pulse trains selectively activate the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Schoenecker, Matthew C; Bonham, Ben H; Stakhovskaya, Olga A; Snyder, Russell L; Leake, Patricia A

    2012-10-01

    Previous cochlear implant studies using isolated electrical stimulus pulses in animal models have reported that intracochlear monopolar stimulus configurations elicit broad extents of neuronal activation within the central auditory system-much broader than the activation patterns produced by bipolar electrode pairs or acoustic tones. However, psychophysical and speech reception studies that use sustained pulse trains do not show clear performance differences for monopolar versus bipolar configurations. To test whether monopolar intracochlear stimulation can produce selective activation of the inferior colliculus, we measured activation widths along the tonotopic axis of the inferior colliculus for acoustic tones and 1,000-pulse/s electrical pulse trains in guinea pigs and cats. Electrical pulse trains were presented using an array of 6-12 stimulating electrodes distributed longitudinally on a space-filling silicone carrier positioned in the scala tympani of the cochlea. We found that for monopolar, bipolar, and acoustic stimuli, activation widths were significantly narrower for sustained responses than for the transient response to the stimulus onset. Furthermore, monopolar and bipolar stimuli elicited similar activation widths when compared at stimulus levels that produced similar peak spike rates. Surprisingly, we found that in guinea pigs, monopolar and bipolar stimuli produced narrower sustained activation than 60 dB sound pressure level acoustic tones when compared at stimulus levels that produced similar peak spike rates. Therefore, we conclude that intracochlear electrical stimulation using monopolar pulse trains can produce activation patterns that are at least as selective as bipolar or acoustic stimulation.

  3. Common and distinct neural inputs to the medial central nucleus of the amygdala and anterior ventrolateral bed nucleus of stria terminalis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bienkowski, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    The central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) and lateral bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST) are highly interconnected limbic forebrain regions that share similar connectivity with other brain regions that coordinate behavioral and physiological responses to internal and environmental stressors. Their similar connectivity is frequently referred to when describing the CEA and lateral BST together as a unified “central extended amygdala”. However, the CEA and BST reportedly play distinct roles in behavioral and physiological responses associated with fear, anxiety, and social defeat, presumably due to differences in connectivity. To identify common and unique sources of input to the CEA and lateral BST, we performed dual retrograde tracing. Fluorogold and cholera toxin β were iontophoresed into the medial CEA (CEAm) and the anterior ventrolateral BST (BSTvl) of adult male rats. The anatomical distribution of tracer-labeled neurons was mapped throughout the brain. Regions with overlapping populations of CEAm- and BSTvl-projecting neurons were further examined for the presence of double-labeled neurons. Although most regions with input to the mCEA also projected to the BSTvl, and vice versa, cortical and sensory system-related regions projected more robustly to the CEAm, while motor system-related regions primarily innervated the BSTvl. The incidence of double-labeled neurons with collateralized axonal inputs to the CEAm and BSTvl was relatively small (~2 to 13%) and varied across regions, suggesting regional differences in the degree of coordinated CEAm and BSTvl input. The demonstrated similarities and differences in inputs to CEAm and BSTvl provide new anatomical insights into the functional organization of these limbic forebrain regions. PMID:22362201

  4. A role for delta opioid receptors in the central nucleus of the amygdala in anxiety-like behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Randall-Thompson, Jovita F.; Pescatore, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Compounds acting on delta opioid receptors (DOR) modulate anxiety-like behaviors, yet the site of action underlying this effect is unknown. DOR mRNA and protein are expressed in the central nucleus of the amygdala, a region that plays an important role in processing fear, stress, and anxiety. We hypothesized that this brain region may contribute to the modulation of anxiety by DOR drugs. Objective The present study investigated the role of DOR in the central amygdala in anxiety-like behaviors. Methods The selective DOR agonist [D-Pen 2,5]-enkephalin (DPDPE) or antagonist naltrindole was bilaterally microinjected into the central nucleus of the amygdala of adult male Sprague Dawley rats and anxiety-like behaviors were assessed using the elevated plus maze. The effects of DOR agonists on heightened anxiety produced by stress were also investigated. Results Rats injected with DPDPE into the central nucleus of the amygdala demonstrated less anxiety-like behavior, as evidenced by significantly greater number of open-arm entries and time spent in the open arms than controls. Naltrindole administered alone did not affect the duration or number of entries onto the open arms; however, naltrindole pre-treatment blocked the anxiolytic effects produced by DPDPE. Systemic administration of the selective DOR agonist, SNC80, or microinjection of DPDPE into the central amygdala prior to a swim stress blocked the anxiogenic effect produced by the swim stress. Conclusions These findings provide direct evidence that activation of DOR in the central amygdala reduces anxiety-like behavior and suggest that DOR in this area are important for regulating anxious states. PMID:20730419

  5. Coordinated dynamic gene expression changes in the central nucleus of the amygdala during alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Kate; Staehle, Mary M; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Gonye, Gregory E; Ogunnaike, Babatunde A; Hoek, Jan B; Schwaber, James S

    2013-01-01

    Chronic alcohol use causes widespread changes in the cellular biology of the amygdala's central nucleus (CeA), a GABAergic center that integrates autonomic physiology with the emotional aspects of motivation and learning. While alcohol-induced neurochemical changes play a role in dependence and drinking behavior, little is known about the CeA's dynamic changes during withdrawal, a period of emotional and physiologic disturbance. We used a qRT-PCR platform to measure 139 transcripts in 92 rat CeA samples from control (N = 33), chronically alcohol exposed (N = 26), and withdrawn rats (t = 4, 8, 18, 32, and 48 hours; N = 5, 10, 7, 6, 5). This focused transcript set allowed us to identify significant dynamic expression patterns during the first 48 hours of withdrawal and propose potential regulatory mechanisms. Chronic alcohol exposure causes a limited number of small magnitude expression changes. In contrast, withdrawal results in a greater number of large changes within 4 hours of removal of the alcohol diet. Sixty-five of the 139 measured transcripts (47%) showed differential regulation during withdrawal. Over the 48-hour period, dynamic changes in the expression of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A) ), ionotropic glutamate and neuropeptide system-related G-protein-coupled receptor subunits, and the Ras/Raf signaling pathway were seen as well as downstream transcription factors (TFs) and epigenetic regulators. Four temporally correlated gene clusters were identified with shared functional roles including NMDA receptors, MAPKKK and chemokine signaling cascades, and mediators of long-term potentiation, among others. Cluster promoter regions shared overrepresented binding sites for multiple TFs including Cebp, Usf-1, Smad3, Ap-2, and c-Ets, suggesting a potential regulatory role. During alcohol withdrawal, the CeA experiences rapid changes in mRNA expression of these functionally related transcripts that were not predicted by measurement during chronic exposure. This

  6. Dopaminergic Input to the Inferior Colliculus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nevue, Alexander A.; Elde, Cameron J.; Perkel, David J.; Portfors, Christine V.

    2016-01-01

    The response of sensory neurons to stimuli can be modulated by a variety of factors including attention, emotion, behavioral context, and disorders involving neuromodulatory systems. For example, patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have disordered speech processing, suggesting that dopamine alters normal representation of these salient sounds. Understanding the mechanisms by which dopamine modulates auditory processing is thus an important goal. The principal auditory midbrain nucleus, the inferior colliculus (IC), is a likely location for dopaminergic modulation of auditory processing because it contains dopamine receptors and nerve terminals immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. However, the sources of dopaminergic input to the IC are unknown. In this study, we iontophoretically injected a retrograde tracer into the IC of mice and then stained the tissue for TH. We also immunostained for dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), an enzyme critical for the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, to differentiate between dopaminergic and noradrenergic inputs. Retrogradely labeled neurons that were positive for TH were seen bilaterally, with strong ipsilateral dominance, in the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (SPF). All retrogradely labeled neurons that we observed in other brain regions were TH-negative. Projections from the SPF were confirmed using an anterograde tracer, revealing TH-positive and DBH-negative anterogradely labeled fibers and terminals in the IC. While the functional role of this dopaminergic input to the IC is not yet known, it provides a potential mechanism for context dependent modulation of auditory processing. PMID:26834578

  7. Wakefulness-promoting role of the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Guillermo; Cavelli, Matías; Lopez, Carolina; Rodriguez-Servetti, Zulma; Vanini, Giancarlo; Chase, Michael H; Falconi, Atilio; Torterolo, Pablo

    2013-11-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) is a mesencephalic auditory nucleus involved in several functions including the analysis of the frequency and intensity of sounds as well as sound localization. In addition to auditory processes, the IC controls the expression of defensive responses. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the IC contributes to the maintenance of wakefulness. For this purpose, several experimental approaches were performed in urethane-anesthetized guinea pigs. Electrical or chemical stimulation of the IC resulted in electroencephalographic (EEG) desynchronization, theta rhythm in the hippocampus and an increase in heart rate; all of these effects suggest an arousal reaction. Furthermore, by means of extracellular unit recordings, we determined that most IC neurons increased their spontaneous and tone-evoked responses in association with EEG desynchronization. We also studied the effect on sleep and wakefulness of bilateral acute inhibition of the IC by microinjections of muscimol (a GABAA agonist), as well as the effect of bilateral IC lesions in chronically-instrumented (drug-free) guinea pigs. Acute (via muscimol microinjections), but not chronic (via electrolytic lesions) inhibition of the IC decreased wakefulness., We conclude that the IC plays an active role in the maintenance of wakefulness. Further, we propose that this nucleus may mediate arousal responses induced by biologically significant sounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Superior Colliculus Connections With Visual Thalamus in Gray Squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis): Evidence for Four Subdivisions Within the Pulvinar Complex

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Mary K.L.; Wong, Peiyan; Reed, Jamie L.; Kaas, Jon H.

    2013-01-01

    As diurnal rodents with a well-developed visual system, squirrels provide a useful comparison of visual system organization with other highly visual mammals such as tree shrews and primates. Here, we describe the projection pattern of gray squirrel superior colliculus (SC) with the large and well-differentiated pulvinar complex. Our anatomical results support the conclusion that the pulvinar complex of squirrels consists of four distinct nuclei. The caudal (C) nucleus, distinct in cytochrome oxidase (CO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and vesicular glutamate transporter-2 (VGluT2) preparations, received widespread projections from the ipsilateral SC, although a crude retinotopic organization was suggested. The caudal nucleus also received weaker projections from the contralateral SC. The caudal nucleus also projects back to the ipsilateral SC. Lateral (RLl) and medial (RLm) parts of the previously defined rostral lateral pulvinar (RL) were architectonically distinct, and each nucleus received its own retinotopic pattern of focused ipsilateral SC projections. The SC did not project to the rostral medial (RM) nucleus of the pulvinar. SC injections also revealed ipsilateral connections with the dorsal and ventral lateral geniculate nuclei, nuclei of the pretectum, and nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus and bilateral connections with the parabigeminal nuclei. Comparisons with other rodents suggest that a variously named caudal nucleus, which relays visual inputs from the SC to temporal visual cortex, is common to all rodents and possibly most mammals. RM and RL divisions of the pulvinar complex also appear to have homologues in other rodents. PMID:21344403

  9. Exogenous corticosterone induces the expression of the clock protein, PERIOD2, in the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the central nucleus of the amygdala of adrenalectomized and intact rats.

    PubMed

    Segall, Lauren A; Amir, Shimon

    2010-10-01

    The cyclical expression of the clock protein PERIOD2 (PER2) in select regions of the limbic forebrain is contingent upon the rhythmic secretion of the adrenal glucocorticoid, corticosterone. Daily rhythmic PER2 expression in the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTov) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) is abolished with the removal of the adrenal glands but restored with rhythmic hormone replacement via the drinking water at a time corresponding to the endogenous peak of circulating glucocorticoids. Here, we investigated the effects of serial or acute systemic injections of corticosterone on the expression of PER2 in the BNSTov and CEA of both adrenalectomized (ADX) and intact rats. We sought to determine whether there is a temporal window of corticosterone sensitivity by delivering the hormone at a time corresponding to trough levels of circulating glucocorticoids, at lights on. We found that daily morning injections of corticosterone induced PER2 expression in the BNSTov and CEA of ADX rats, with levels peaking 1 h after injection. In intact rats, daily morning injections significantly upregulated the expression of PER2 in the BNSTov and CEA 1 h after injection and dampened the evening peak, while a single injection abolished the rhythm of PER2 expression in the CEA but had no effect on PER2 in the BNSTov. Our findings suggest that despite the potential masking effect of signals from the light-entrained master clock, daytime chronic and acute corticosterone administration can alter the rhythmic expression of PER2 in the BNSTov and CEA, and that the response is region-specific and dependent on the duration of treatment.

  10. Retinal Origin of Direction Selectivity in the Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xuefeng; Barchini, Jad; Ledesma, Hector Acaron; Koren, David; Jin, Yanjiao; Liu, Xiaorong; Wei, Wei; Cang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Detecting visual features in the environment such as motion direction is crucial for survival. The circuit mechanisms that give rise to direction selectivity in a major visual center, the superior colliculus (SC), are entirely unknown. Here, we optogenetically isolate the retinal inputs that individual direction-selective SC neurons receive and find that they are already selective as a result of precisely converging inputs from similarly-tuned retinal ganglion cells. The direction selective retinal input is linearly amplified by the intracollicular circuits without changing its preferred direction or level of selectivity. Finally, using 2-photon calcium imaging, we show that SC direction selectivity is dramatically reduced in transgenic mice that have decreased retinal selectivity. Together, our studies demonstrate a retinal origin of direction selectivity in the SC, and reveal a central visual deficit as a consequence of altered feature selectivity in the retina. PMID:28192394

  11. Retinal origin of direction selectivity in the superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuefeng; Barchini, Jad; Ledesma, Hector Acaron; Koren, David; Jin, Yanjiao; Liu, Xiaorong; Wei, Wei; Cang, Jianhua

    2017-04-01

    Detecting visual features in the environment, such as motion direction, is crucial for survival. The circuit mechanisms that give rise to direction selectivity in a major visual center, the superior colliculus (SC), are entirely unknown. We optogenetically isolate the retinal inputs that individual direction-selective SC neurons receive and find that they are already selective as a result of precisely converging inputs from similarly tuned retinal ganglion cells. The direction-selective retinal input is linearly amplified by intracollicular circuits without changing its preferred direction or level of selectivity. Finally, using two-photon calcium imaging, we show that SC direction selectivity is dramatically reduced in transgenic mice that have decreased retinal selectivity. Together, our studies demonstrate a retinal origin of direction selectivity in the SC and reveal a central visual deficit as a consequence of altered feature selectivity in the retina.

  12. Ultrastructural characterization of GABAergic and excitatory synapses in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Kyle T; Mellott, Jeffrey G; Killius, Jeanette; Storey-Workley, Megan E; Sowick, Colleen S; Schofield, Brett R

    2014-01-01

    In the inferior colliculus (IC) cells integrate inhibitory input from the brainstem and excitatory input from both the brainstem and auditory cortex. In order to understand how these inputs are integrated by IC cells identification of their synaptic arrangements is required. We used electron microscopy to characterize GABAergic synapses in the dorsal cortex, central nucleus, and lateral cortex of the IC (ICd, ICc, and IClc) of guinea pigs. Throughout the IC, GABAergic synapses are characterized by pleomorphic vesicles and symmetric junctions. Comparisons of GABAergic synapses with excitatory synapses revealed differences (in some IC subdivisions) between the distributions of these synapse types onto IC cells. For excitatory cells in the IClc and ICd GABAergic synapses are biased toward the somas and large dendrites, whereas the excitatory boutons are biased toward spines and small dendrites. This arrangement could allow for strong inhibitory gating of excitatory inputs. Such differences in synaptic distributions were not observed in the ICc, where the two classes of bouton have similar distributions along the dendrites of excitatory cells. Interactions between excitatory and GABAergic inputs on the dendrites of excitatory ICc cells may be more restricted (i.e., reflecting local dendritic processing) than in the other IC subdivisions. Comparisons across IC subdivisions revealed evidence for two classes of GABAergic boutons, a small GABAergic (SG) class that is present throughout the IC and a large GABAergic (LG) class that is almost completely restricted to the ICc. In the ICc, LG, and SG boutons differ in their targets. SG boutons contact excitatory dendritic shafts most often, but also contact excitatory spines and somas (excitatory and GABAergic). LG synapses make comparatively fewer contacts on excitatory shafts, and make comparatively more contacts on excitatory spines and on somas (excitatory and GABAergic). LG boutons likely have a lemniscal origin.

  13. Frequency response areas in the inferior colliculus: nonlinearity and binaural interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jane J.; Young, Eric D.

    2013-01-01

    The tuning, binaural properties, and encoding characteristics of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) were investigated to shed light on nonlinearities in the responses of these neurons. Results were analyzed for three types of neurons (I, O, and V) in the CNIC of decerebrate cats. Rate responses to binaural stimuli were characterized using a 1st- plus 2nd-order spectral integration model. Parameters of the model were derived using broadband stimuli with random spectral shapes (RSS). This method revealed four characteristics of CNIC neurons: (1) Tuning curves derived from broadband stimuli have fixed (i. e., level tolerant) bandwidths across a 50–60 dB range of sound levels; (2) 1st-order contralateral weights (particularly for type I and O neurons) were usually larger in magnitude than corresponding ipsilateral weights; (3) contralateral weights were more important than ipsilateral weights when using the model to predict responses to untrained noise stimuli; and (4) 2nd-order weight functions demonstrate frequency selectivity different from that of 1st-order weight functions. Furthermore, while the inclusion of 2nd-order terms in the model usually improved response predictions related to untrained RSS stimuli, they had limited impact on predictions related to other forms of filtered broadband noise [e. g., virtual-space stimuli (VS)]. The accuracy of the predictions varied considerably by response type. Predictions were most accurate for I neurons, and less accurate for O and V neurons, except at the lowest stimulus levels. These differences in prediction performance support the idea that type I, O, and V neurons encode different aspects of the stimulus: while type I neurons are most capable of producing linear representations of spectral shape, type O and V neurons may encode spectral features or temporal stimulus properties in a manner not easily explained with the low-order model. Supported by NIH grant DC00115. PMID:23675323

  14. Information conveyed by inferior colliculus neurons about stimuli with aligned and misaligned sound localization cues

    PubMed Central

    Young, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that single neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) are sensitive to multiple sound localization cues. We investigated the hypothesis that ICC neurons are specialized to encode multiple sound localization cues that are aligned in space (as would naturally occur from a single broadband sound source). Sound localization cues including interaural time differences (ITDs), interaural level differences (ILDs), and spectral shapes (SSs) were measured in a marmoset monkey. Virtual space methods were used to generate stimuli with aligned and misaligned combinations of cues while recording in the ICC of the same monkey. Mutual information (MI) between spike rates and stimuli for aligned versus misaligned cues were compared. Neurons with best frequencies (BFs) less than ∼11 kHz mostly encoded information about a single sound localization cue, ITD or ILD depending on frequency, consistent with the dominance of ear acoustics by either ITD or ILD at those frequencies. Most neurons with BFs >11 kHz encoded information about multiple sound localization cues, usually ILD and SS, and were sensitive to their alignment. In some neurons MI between stimuli and spike responses was greater for aligned cues, while in others it was greater for misaligned cues. If SS cues were shifted to lower frequencies in the virtual space stimuli, a similar result was found for neurons with BFs <11 kHz, showing that the cue interaction reflects the spectra of the stimuli and not a specialization for representing SS cues. In general the results show that ICC neurons are sensitive to multiple localization cues if they are simultaneously present in the frequency response area of the neuron. However, the representation is diffuse in that there is not a specialization in the ICC for encoding aligned sound localization cues. PMID:21653729

  15. Excitatory and inhibitory projections in parallel pathways from the inferior colliculus to the auditory thalamus.

    PubMed

    Mellott, Jeffrey G; Foster, Nichole L; Ohl, Andrew P; Schofield, Brett R

    2014-01-01

    Individual subdivisions of the medial geniculate body (MG) receive a majority of their ascending inputs from 1 or 2 subdivisions of the inferior colliculus (IC). This establishes parallel pathways that provide a model for understanding auditory projections from the IC through the MG and on to auditory cortex. A striking discovery about the tectothalamic circuit was identification of a substantial GABAergic component. Whether GABAergic projections match the parallel pathway organization has not been examined. We asked whether the parallel pathway concept is reflected in guinea pig tectothalamic pathways and to what degree GABAergic cells contribute to each pathway. We deposited retrograde tracers into individual MG subdivisions (ventral, MGv; medial, MGm; dorsal, MGd; suprageniculate, MGsg) to label tectothalamic cells and used immunochemistry to identify GABAergic cells. The MGv receives most of its IC input (~75%) from the IC central nucleus (ICc); MGd and MGsg receive most of their input (~70%) from IC dorsal cortex (ICd); and MGm receives substantial input from both ICc (~40%) and IC lateral cortex (~40%). Each MG subdivision receives additional input (up to 32%) from non-dominant IC subdivisions, suggesting cross-talk between the pathways. The proportion of GABAergic cells in each pathway depended on the MG subdivision. GABAergic cells formed ~20% of IC inputs to MGv or MGm, ~11% of inputs to MGd, and 4% of inputs to MGsg. Thus, non-GABAergic (i.e., glutamatergic) cells are most numerous in each pathway with GABAergic cells contributing to different extents. Despite smaller numbers of GABAergic cells, their distributions across IC subdivisions mimicked the parallel pathways. Projections outside the dominant pathways suggest opportunities for excitatory and inhibitory crosstalk. The results demonstrate parallel tectothalamic pathways in guinea pigs and suggest numerous opportunities for excitatory and inhibitory interactions within and between pathways.

  16. Monaural Spectral Processing Differs between the Lateral Superior Olive and the Inferior Colliculus: Physiological Evidence for an Acoustic Chiasm

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Nathaniel T.; Lomakin, Oleg; Davis, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the lateral superior olive (LSO) initiates an excitatory pathway specialized to process interaural level differences (ILDs), the primary cues used by mammals to localize high-frequency sounds in the horizontal plane. Type I units in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) of decerebrate cats exhibit monaural and binaural response properties qualitatively similar to those of LSO units, and are thus supposed to be the midbrain component of the ILD pathway. Studies have shown, however, that the responses of ICC cells do not often reflect simply the output of any single source of excitatory inputs. The goal of this study was to compare directly the monaural, spectral response properties of LSO and type I units measured in unanesthetized decerebrate cats. Compared to LSO units, type I units have narrower V-shaped excitatory tuning curves, higher spontaneous rates, lower maximum stimulus-evoked firing rates and more nonmonotonic rate-level curves for tones and noise. In addition, low frequency type I units have lower thresholds to tones than corresponding LSO units. Taken together, these results suggest that the excitatory ILD pathway from LSO to ICC is mostly a high-frequency channel, and that additional inputs transform LSO influences in the ICC. PMID:20600738

  17. Deep brain stimulation of the inferior colliculus: a possible animal model to study paradoxical kinesia observed in some parkinsonian patients?

    PubMed

    Melo-Thomas, Liana; Thomas, Uwe

    2015-02-15

    The inferior colliculus (IC) plays an important role in the normal processing of the acoustic message and is also involved in the filtering of acoustic stimuli of aversive nature. The neural substrate of the IC can also influence haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Considering that (i) paradoxical kinesia, observed in some parkinsonian patients, seems to be dependent of their emotional state and (ii) deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents an alternative therapeutic route for the relief of parkinsonian symptoms, the present study investigated the consequence of DBS at the IC on the catalepsy induced by haloperidol in rats. Additionally, we investigated if DBS of the IC can elicit motor responses in anesthetized rats and whether DBS elicits distinct neural firing patterns of activity at the dorsal cortex (DCIC) or central nucleus (CNIC) of the IC. A significant reduction of the catalepsy response was seen in rats previously given haloperidol and receiving DBS at the IC. In addition, electrical stimulation to the ventral part of the CNIC induced immediate motor responses in anesthetized rats. The neuronal spontaneous activity was higher at the ventral part of the CNIC than the dorsal part. DBS to the ventral part but not to the dorsal part of the CNIC increased the spike rate at neurons a few hundred microns away from the stimulation site. It is possible that the IC plays a role in the sensorimotor gating activated by emotional stimuli, and that DBS at the IC can be a promising new animal model to study paradoxical kinesia in rats.

  18. Differences in the strength of cortical and brainstem inputs to SSA and non-SSA neurons in the inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Yaneri A.; Udeh, Adanna; Dutta, Kelsey; Bishop, Deborah; Malmierca, Manuel S.; Oliver, Douglas L.

    2015-01-01

    In an ever changing auditory scene, change detection is an ongoing task performed by the auditory brain. Neurons in the midbrain and auditory cortex that exhibit stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) may contribute to this process. Those neurons adapt to frequent sounds while retaining their excitability to rare sounds. Here, we test whether neurons exhibiting SSA and those without are part of the same networks in the inferior colliculus (IC). We recorded the responses to frequent and rare sounds and then marked the sites of these neurons with a retrograde tracer to correlate the source of projections with the physiological response. SSA neurons were confined to the non-lemniscal subdivisions and exhibited broad receptive fields, while the non-SSA were confined to the central nucleus and displayed narrow receptive fields. SSA neurons receive strong inputs from auditory cortical areas and very poor or even absent projections from the brainstem nuclei. On the contrary, the major sources of inputs to the neurons that lacked SSA were from the brainstem nuclei. These findings demonstrate that auditory cortical inputs are biased in favor of IC synaptic domains that are populated by SSA neurons enabling them to compare top-down signals with incoming sensory information from lower areas. PMID:25993334

  19. Differences in the strength of cortical and brainstem inputs to SSA and non-SSA neurons in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Yaneri A; Udeh, Adanna; Dutta, Kelsey; Bishop, Deborah; Malmierca, Manuel S; Oliver, Douglas L

    2015-05-20

    In an ever changing auditory scene, change detection is an ongoing task performed by the auditory brain. Neurons in the midbrain and auditory cortex that exhibit stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) may contribute to this process. Those neurons adapt to frequent sounds while retaining their excitability to rare sounds. Here, we test whether neurons exhibiting SSA and those without are part of the same networks in the inferior colliculus (IC). We recorded the responses to frequent and rare sounds and then marked the sites of these neurons with a retrograde tracer to correlate the source of projections with the physiological response. SSA neurons were confined to the non-lemniscal subdivisions and exhibited broad receptive fields, while the non-SSA were confined to the central nucleus and displayed narrow receptive fields. SSA neurons receive strong inputs from auditory cortical areas and very poor or even absent projections from the brainstem nuclei. On the contrary, the major sources of inputs to the neurons that lacked SSA were from the brainstem nuclei. These findings demonstrate that auditory cortical inputs are biased in favor of IC synaptic domains that are populated by SSA neurons enabling them to compare top-down signals with incoming sensory information from lower areas.

  20. Central connectivity of the chorda tympani afferent terminals in the rat rostral nucleus of the solitary tract.

    PubMed

    Park, Sook Kyung; Lee, Dae Seop; Bae, Jin Young; Bae, Yong Chul

    2016-03-01

    The rostral nucleus of the solitary tract (rNST) receives gustatory input via chorda tympani (CT) afferents from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and transmits it to higher brain regions. To help understand how the gustatory information is processed at the 1st relay nucleus of the brain stem, we investigated the central connectivity of the CT afferent terminals in the central subdivision of the rat rNST through retrograde labeling with horseradish peroxidase, immunogold staining for GABA, glycine, and glutamate, and quantitative ultrastructural analysis. Most CT afferents were small myelinated fibers (<5 µm(2) in cross-sectional area) and made simple synaptic arrangements with 1-2 postsynaptic dendrites. It suggests that the gustatory signal is relayed to a specific group of neurons with a small degree of synaptic divergence. The volume of the identified synaptic boutons was positively correlated with their mitochondrial volume and active zone area, and also with the number of their postsynaptic dendrites. One-fourth of the boutons received synapses from GABA-immunopositive presynaptic profiles, 27 % of which were also glycine-immunopositive. These results suggest that the gustatory information mediated by CT afferents to the rNST is processed in a simple and specific manner. They also suggest that the minority of CT afferents are presynaptically modulated by GABA- and/or glycine-mediated mechanism.

  1. Central Administration of Insulin and Leptin Together Enhance Renal Sympathetic Nerve Activity and Fos Production in the Arcuate Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Habeeballah, Hamza; Alsuhaymi, Naif; Stebbing, Martin J.; Jenkins, Trisha A.; Badoer, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the central actions of insulin and leptin. Both induce sympatho-excitation. This study (i) investigated whether centrally administered leptin and insulin together elicits greater increases in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) than when given alone, and (ii) quantified the number of activated neurons in brain regions influencing SNA, to identify potential central sites of interaction. In anesthetised (urethane 1.4–1.6 g/kg iv) male Sprague-Dawley rats, RSNA, MAP, and HR were recorded following intracerebroventricular (ICV) saline (control; n = 5), leptin (7 μg; n = 5), insulin (500 mU; n = 4) and the combination of leptin and insulin; (n = 4). Following leptin or insulin alone, RSNA was significantly increased (74 and 62% respectively). MAP responses were not significantly different between the groups. Insulin alone significantly increased HR. Leptin alone also increased HR but it was significantly less than following insulin alone (P < 0.005). When leptin and insulin were combined, the RSNA increase (124%) was significantly greater than the response to either alone. There were no differences between the groups in MAP responses, however, the increase in HR induced by insulin was attenuated by leptin. Of the brain regions examined, only in the arcuate nucleus did leptin and insulin together increase the number of Fos-positive cell nuclei significantly more than leptin or insulin alone. In the lamina terminalis and rostroventrolateral medulla, leptin and insulin together increased Fos, but the effect was not greater than leptin alone. The results suggest that when central leptin and insulin levels are elevated, the sympatho-excitatory response in RSNA will be greater. The arcuate nucleus may be a common site of cardiovascular integration. PMID:28119622

  2. Interactions between the Midbrain Superior Colliculus and the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Redgrave, Peter; Coizet, Veronique; Comoli, Eliane; McHaffie, John G.; Leriche, Mariana; Vautrelle, Nicolas; Hayes, Lauren M.; Overton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    An important component of the architecture of cortico-basal ganglia connections is the parallel, re-entrant looped projections that originate and return to specific regions of the cerebral cortex. However, such loops are unlikely to have been the first evolutionary example of a closed-loop architecture involving the basal ganglia. A phylogenetically older, series of subcortical loops can be shown to link the basal ganglia with many brainstem sensorimotor structures. While the characteristics of individual components of potential subcortical re-entrant loops have been documented, the full extent to which they represent functionally segregated parallel projecting channels remains to be determined. However, for one midbrain structure, the superior colliculus (SC), anatomical evidence for closed-loop connectivity with the basal ganglia is robust, and can serve as an example against which the loop hypothesis can be evaluated for other subcortical structures. Examination of ascending projections from the SC to the thalamus suggests there may be multiple functionally segregated systems. The SC also provides afferent signals to the other principal input nuclei of the basal ganglia, the dopaminergic neurones in substantia nigra and to the subthalamic nucleus. Recent electrophysiological investigations show that the afferent signals originating in the SC carry important information concerning the onset of biologically significant events to each of the basal ganglia input nuclei. Such signals are widely regarded as crucial for the proposed functions of selection and reinforcement learning with which the basal ganglia have so often been associated. PMID:20941324

  3. Optogenetic cholinergic modulation of the mouse superior colliculus in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, John A.; Felsen, Gidon

    2015-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) plays a critical role in orienting movements, in part by integrating modulatory influences on the sensorimotor transformations it performs. Many species exhibit a robust brain stem cholinergic projection to the intermediate and deep layers of the SC arising mainly from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg), which may serve to modulate SC function. However, the physiological effects of this input have not been examined in vivo, preventing an understanding of its functional role. Given the data from slice experiments, cholinergic input may have a net excitatory effect on the SC. Alternatively, the input could have mixed effects, via activation of inhibitory neurons within or upstream of the SC. Distinguishing between these possibilities requires in vivo experiments in which endogenous cholinergic input is directly manipulated. Here we used anatomical and optogenetic techniques to identify and selectively activate brain stem cholinergic terminals entering the intermediate and deep layers of the awake mouse SC and recorded SC neuronal responses. We first quantified the pattern of the cholinergic input to the mouse SC, finding that it was predominantly localized to the intermediate and deep layers. We then found that optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic terminals in the SC significantly increased the activity of a subpopulation of SC neurons. Interestingly, cholinergic input had a broad range of effects on the magnitude and timing of SC responses, perhaps reflecting both monosynaptic and polysynaptic innervation. These findings begin to elucidate the functional role of this cholinergic projection in modulating the processing underlying sensorimotor transformations in the SC. PMID:26019317

  4. Direction Selectivity Mediated by Adaptation in the Owl's Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Peña, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Motion direction is a crucial cue for predicting future states in natural scenes. In the auditory system, the mechanisms that confer direction selectivity to neurons are not well understood. Neither is it known whether sound motion is encoded independently of stationary sound location. Here we investigated these questions in neurons of the owl's external nucleus of the inferior colliculus, where auditory space is represented in a map. Using a high-density speaker array, we show that the preferred direction and the degree of direction selectivity can be predicted by response adaptation to sounds moving over asymmetric spatial receptive fields. At the population level, we found that preference for sounds moving toward frontal space increased with eccentricity in spatial tuning. This distribution was consistent with larger receptive-field asymmetry in neurons tuned to more peripheral auditory space. A model of suppression based on spatiotemporal summation predicted the observations. Thus, response adaptation and receptive-field shape can explain direction selectivity to acoustic motion and an orderly distribution of preferred direction. PMID:24305813

  5. Cooperative roles of the suprachiasmatic nucleus central clock and the adrenal clock in controlling circadian glucocorticoid rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sooyoung; Lee, Eun Jeong; Cha, Hyo Kyeong; Kim, Jeongah; Kim, Doyeon; Son, Gi Hoon; Kim, Kyungjin

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian circadian timing system consists of the central clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and subsidiary peripheral clocks in other tissues. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are adrenal steroid hormones with widespread physiological effects that undergo daily oscillations. We previously demonstrated that the adrenal peripheral clock plays a pivotal role in circadian GC rhythm by driving cyclic GC biosynthesis. Here, we show that the daily rhythm in circulating GC levels is controlled by bimodal actions of central and adrenal clockwork. When mice were subjected to daytime restricted feeding to uncouple central and peripheral rhythms, adrenal GC contents and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression peaked around zeitgeber time 00 (ZT00), consistent with shifted adrenal clock gene expression. However, restricted feeding produced two distinct peaks in plasma GC levels: one related to adrenal GC content and the other around ZT12, which required an intact SCN. Light pulse-evoked activation of the SCN increased circulating GC levels in both wild-type and adrenal clock-disrupted mutant mice without marked induction of GC biosynthesis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that adrenal clock-dependent steroidogenesis and a SCN-driven central mechanism regulating GC release cooperate to produce daily circulatory GC rhythm. PMID:28401917

  6. Motor Functions of the Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Neeraj J.; Katnani, Husam A.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian superior colliculus (SC) and its nonmammalian homolog, the optic tectum, constitute a major node in processing sensory information, incorporating cognitive factors, and issuing motor commands. The resulting action—to orient toward or away from a stimulus—can be accomplished as an integrated movement across oculomotor, cephalomotor, and skeletomotor effectors. The SC also participates in preserving fixation during intersaccadic intervals. This review highlights the repertoire of movements attributed to SC function and analyzes the significance of results obtained from causality-based experiments (microstimulation and inactivation). The mechanisms potentially used to decode the population activity in the SC into an appropriate movement command are also discussed. PMID:21456962

  7. Double dissociation between the involvement of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the central nucleus of the amygdala in startle increases produced by conditioned versus unconditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Walker, D L; Davis, M

    1997-12-01

    The amplitude of the acoustic startle response is reliably enhanced when elicited in the presence of bright light (light-enhanced startle) or in the presence of cues previously paired with shock (fear-potentiated startle). Light-enhanced startle appears to reflect an unconditioned response to an anxiogenic stimulus, whereas fear-potentiated startle reflects a conditioned response to a fear-eliciting stimulus. We examine the involvement of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, the central nucleus of the amygdala, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in both phenomena. Immediately before light-enhanced or fear-potentiated startle testing, rats received intracranial infusions of the AMPA receptor antagonist 2, 3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulphamoylbenzo(F)-quinoxaline (3 microg) or PBS. Infusions into the central nucleus of the amygdala blocked fear-potentiated but not light-enhanced startle, and infusions into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis blocked light-enhanced but not fear-potentiated startle. Infusions into the basolateral amygdala disrupted both phenomena. These findings indicate that the neuroanatomical substrates of fear-potentiated and light-enhanced startle, and perhaps more generally of conditioned and unconditioned fear, may be anatomically dissociated.

  8. Limited segregation of different types of sound localization information among classes of units in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Chase, Steven M; Young, Eric D

    2005-08-17

    The auditory system uses three cues to decode sound location: interaural time differences (ITDs), interaural level differences (ILDs), and spectral notches (SNs). Initial processing of these cues is done in separate brainstem nuclei, with ITDs in the medial superior olive, ILDs in the lateral superior olive, and SNs in the dorsal cochlear nucleus. This work addresses the nature of the convergence of localization information in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). Ramachandran et al. (1999) argued that ICC neurons of types V, I, and O, respectively, receive their predominant inputs from ITD-, ILD-, and SN-sensitive brainstem nuclei, suggesting that these ICC response types should be differentially sensitive to localization cues. Here, single-unit responses to simultaneous manipulation of pairs of localization cues were recorded, and the mutual information between discharge rate and individual cues was quantified. Although rate responses to cue variation were generally consistent with those expected from the hypothesized anatomical connections, the differences in information were not as large as expected. Type I units provide the most information, especially about SNs in the physiologically useful range. Type I and O units provide information about ILDs, even at low frequencies at which actual ILDs are very small. ITD information is provided by a subset of all low-frequency neurons. Type V neurons provide information mainly about ITDs and the average binaural intensity. These results are the first to quantify the relative representation of cues in terms of information and suggest a variety of degrees of cue integration in the ICC.

  9. The neuronal structure of the inferior colliculus in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus)--Golgi and Nissl studies.

    PubMed

    Najdzion, Janusz; Wasilewska, Barbara; Szteyn, Stanisław

    2002-01-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) of the bank vole is made up of 3 nuclei: the external and pericentral nucleus, which are located on the outer border of the IC, and the central nucleus, which is the largest part of IC and shows a laminated structure. On the basis of various morphological criteria 5 types of neurons have been distinguished in the bank vole IC: 1. The rounded cells (perikarya 10-15 microm) with 2-4 primary dendritic trunks. The dendritic tree has a spindle-like shape. The axon emerges from the soma or from the proximal portion of a dendrite. 2. The fusiform neurons (17-20 microm) with 2 primary dendrites arising from both poles of the perikaryon. The dendritic tree has the same shape as the previous type. The axon originates from the proximal dendritic trunk. The rounded and fusiform cells constitute the main neuronal type. 3. The pear-shaped neurons (10-13 microm) with 2 main stems or rarely 1. The axon emerges from the perikaryon or seldom from the dendritic trunk. 4. The multipolar cells (18-23 microm), which have from 4 to 6 primary dendrites radiating in all directions. The dendritic tree has a spherical shape. The axon emerges either from the proximal stem or directly from the soma. 5. The triangular neurons (15-18 microm) with 3 primary dendritic trunks. The axon originates from the perikaryon. The triangular cells are the least numerous. All types of neurons in the bank vole IC bear spines and protrusions.

  10. [An autopsy case with peculiar acidophilic bodies in the dentate nucleus and brain stem, associated with degeneration of the pyramidal-extrapyramidal systems].

    PubMed

    Kato, Y; Kashima, H; Tominaga, I; Nojima, T; Yanai, K; Takayama, K; Tamazawa, A; Miura, I; Oyanagi, S

    1985-12-01

    Case S.S. 59 years of age, male. At the age of 25, he had admitted to sanatorium for 7 years because of pulmonary tuberculosis. After his discharge, at the age of 45, he had started complaining of depressive mood or the idea of suicide and admitted to a mental hospital. Psychiatric diagnosis was depression and slight mental retardation. Shortly after, his depressive mood was improved, but his hypochondriac attitude was unchanged. No tendency toward dementia was proven. At the age of 54, he became enable to walk. Neurologically, pyramidal and some sort of extrapyramidal signs, dysarthria, disturbance of swallowing, fecal and urinary incontinence became apparent. Laboratory data showed scarcely any abnormality. At the age of 59, he died of bronchopneumonia. Neuropathologically, moderate degeneration of dentate nucleus, slight degeneration of pyramidal tract from medulla oblongata to spinal cord, striatum, substantia nigra were found. Neither senile plaques nor neurofibrillary changes could be seen throughout central nervous system. The most important finding is the presence of peculiar acidophilic bodies. They are round or oval, 10 approximately 20 mu in diameter and distributed in dentate nucleus, oculomotor nucleus, central grey of midbrain, superior colliculus, putamen, pallidum, subthalamic nucleus, Zona incerta, hypothalamus, Locus coeruleus, reticular formation of midbrain and pons, pontine nucleus, raphe nucleus, vestibular nucleus, inferior olive in order of number of the bodies. These bodies are scattered in so-called ground substance, and have no relations to any cell bodies or cell processes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Tolerance effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs microinjected into central amygdala, periaqueductal grey, and nucleus raphe

    PubMed Central

    Tsagareli, Merab G.; Tsiklauri, Nana; Nozadze, Ivliane; Gurtskaia, Gulnaz

    2012-01-01

    Pain is a sensation related to potential or actual damage in some tissue of the body. The mainstay of medical pain therapy remains drugs that have been around for decades, like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or opiates. However, adverse effects of opiates, particularly tolerance, limit their clinical use. Several lines of investigations have shown that systemic (intraperitoneal) administration of NSAIDs induces antinociception with some effects of tolerance. In this review, we report that repeated microinjection of NSAIDs analgin, clodifen, ketorolac and xefocam into the central nucleus of amygdala, the midbrain periaqueductal grey matter and nucleus raphe magnus in the following 4 days result in progressively less antinociception compared to the saline control testing in the tail-flick reflex and hot plate latency tests. Hence, tolerance develops to these drugs and cross-tolerance to morphine in male rats. These findings strongly support the suggestion of endogenous opioid involvement in NSAIDs antinociception and tolerance in the descending pain-control system. Moreover, the periaqueductal grey-rostral ventro-medial part of medulla circuit should be viewed as a pain-modulation system. These data are important for human medicine. In particular, cross-tolerance between non-opioid and opioid analgesics should be important in the clinical setting. PMID:25722692

  12. Probing gluon saturation with next-to-leading order photon production at central rapidities in proton-nucleus collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Benic, Sanjin; Fukushima, Kenji; Garcia-Montero, Oscar; ...

    2017-01-26

    Here, we compute the cross section for photons emitted from sea quarks in proton-nucleus collisions at collider energies. The computation is performed within the dilute-dense kinematics of the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) effective field theory. Albeit the result obtained is formally at next-to-leading order in the CGC power counting, it provides the dominant contribution for central rapidities. We observe that the inclusive photon cross section is proportional to all-twist Wilson line correlators in the nucleus. These correlators also appear in quark-pair production; unlike the latter, photon production is insensitive to hadronization uncertainties and therefore more sensitive to multi-parton correlations inmore » the gluon saturation regime of QCD. We demonstrate that k⊥ and collinear factorized expressions for inclusive photon production are obtained as leading twist approximations to our result. In particular, the collinearly factorized expression is directly sensitive to the nuclear gluon distribution at small x. Other results of interest include the realization of the Low-Burnett-Kroll soft photon theorem in the CGC framework and a comparative study of how the photon amplitude is obtained in Lorenz and light-cone gauges.« less

  13. Probing gluon saturation with next-to-leading order photon production at central rapidities in proton-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benić, Sanjin; Fukushima, Kenji; Garcia-Montero, Oscar; Venugopalan, Raju

    2017-01-01

    We compute the cross section for photons emitted from sea quarks in proton-nucleus collisions at collider energies. The computation is performed within the dilute-dense kinematics of the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) effective field theory. Albeit the result obtained is formally at next-to-leading order in the CGC power counting, it provides the dominant contribution for central rapidities. We observe that the inclusive photon cross section is proportional to all-twist Wilson line correlators in the nucleus. These correlators also appear in quark-pair production; unlike the latter, photon production is insensitive to hadronization uncertainties and therefore more sensitive to multi-parton correlations in the gluon saturation regime of QCD. We demonstrate that k ⊥ and collinear factorized expressions for inclusive photon production are obtained as leading twist approximations to our result. In particular, the collinearly factorized expression is directly sensitive to the nuclear gluon distribution at small x. Other results of interest include the realization of the Low-Burnett-Kroll soft photon theorem in the CGC framework and a comparative study of how the photon amplitude is obtained in Lorenz and light-cone gauges.

  14. Neuromodulation of Whisking Related Neural Activity in Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Bezdudnaya, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    The superior colliculus is part of a broader neural network that can decode whisker movements in air and on objects, which is a strategy used by behaving rats to sense the environment. The intermediate layers of the superior colliculus receive whisker-related excitatory afferents from the trigeminal complex and barrel cortex, inhibitory afferents from extrinsic and intrinsic sources, and neuromodulatory afferents from cholinergic and monoaminergic nuclei. However, it is not well known how these inputs regulate whisker-related activity in the superior colliculus. We found that barrel cortex afferents drive the superior colliculus during the middle portion of the rising phase of the whisker movement protraction elicited by artificial (fictive) whisking in anesthetized rats. In addition, both spontaneous and whisker-related neural activities in the superior colliculus are under strong inhibitory and neuromodulator control. Cholinergic stimulation activates the superior colliculus by increasing spontaneous firing and, in some cells, whisker-evoked responses. Monoaminergic stimulation has the opposite effects. The actions of neuromodulator and inhibitory afferents may be the basis of the different firing rates and sensory responsiveness observed in the superior colliculus of behaving animals during distinct behavioral states. PMID:24872572

  15. Development of the human superior colliculus and the retinocollicular projection.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jia; Zhou, Xiangtian; Zhu, Hua; Cheng, Gang; Ashwell, Ken W S; Lu, Fan

    2006-02-01

    We have used carbocyanine dye tracing from the brachium of the superior colliculus in conjunction with Nissl staining and immunohistochemistry to GAP-43 and calretinin to study the development of retinal projections to the superior colliculus in 17 human embryos and fetuses aged from 8 to 28 weeks. Lamination of the superior colliculus begins to emerge by 11 weeks, and by 16 weeks all seven layers of the mature superior colliculus are visible. Fibres immunoreactive to GAP-43 were seen at 13 weeks in the most superficial layers. By 19 weeks, GAP-43 immunoreactivity was present in the stratum opticum as well as the deeper fibres layers, indicating the development of fibre pathways following those laminae. Carbocyanine dye tracing of retinocollicular projections showed extensive rostrocaudally running unbranched fibres in the superficial superior colliculus at 12 weeks. Shortly after this (13 weeks), retinocollicular fibres penetrate the deeper collicular layers and branching becomes apparent. We also saw occasional retrogradely labelled somata following DiI insertion into the superior brachium. Our findings indicate that development of the human superior colliculus and its connections is largely complete by 20 weeks. This would suggest that functional capacity of the human superior colliculus should also be mature by the middle of gestation.

  16. GABAergic Antagonism of the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Attenuates Reductions in Rapid Eye Movement Sleep After Inescapable Footshock Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xianling; Yang, Linghui; Wellman, Laurie L.; Tang, Xiangdong; Sanford, Larry D.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Rapid eye movement sleep (REM) appears to be especially susceptible to the effects of stress; inescapable footshock stress (IS) can produce reductions in REM that can occur without recovery sleep. The amygdala has well-established roles in stress and emotion; the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) projects to REM regulatory regions in the brainstem and has been found to play a key role in the regulation of REM. The objective of this study was to determine whether the reduction in REM induced by IS could be regulated by CNA and brainstem regions. Design: The GABAergic agonist muscimol (MUS) and GABAergic antagonist bicuculline (BIC) were microinjected into CNA before IS, and sleep was recorded for 20 h. In a second experiment using the same manipulations, sleep was recorded for 2 h, after which the rats were killed to evaluate Fos expression (a marker of neuronal activity) in the locus coeruleus (LC), a brainstem REM regulatory region. Setting: NA. Patients or Participants: The subjects were male, outbred Wistar rats. Interventions: The rats were surgically implanted with standard electrodes or with telemetry transmitters for determining arousal state. Measurements and Results: IS preceded by control or MUS microinjections selectively reduced REM and increased Fos expression in LC. By comparison, microinjection of BIC into CNA prior to IS attenuated both the reduction in REM and Fos expression in LC to levels seen in non-shocked controls. Conclusions: The results suggest that the effects of IS on REM may involve local GABAergic inhibition in CNA and activation of LC. Citation: Liu X; Yang L; Wellman LL; Tang X; Sanford LD. GABAergic antagonism of the central nucleus of the amygdala attenuates reductions in rapid eye movement sleep after inescapable footshock stress. SLEEP 2009;32(7):888-896. PMID:19639751

  17. Model of the songbird nucleus HVC as a network of central pattern generators.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Eve; Abarbanel, Henry D I

    2016-11-01

    We propose a functional architecture of the adult songbird nucleus HVC in which the core element is a "functional syllable unit" (FSU). In this model, HVC is organized into FSUs, each of which provides the basis for the production of one syllable in vocalization. Within each FSU, the inhibitory neuron population takes one of two operational states: 1) simultaneous firing wherein all inhibitory neurons fire simultaneously, and 2) competitive firing of the inhibitory neurons. Switching between these basic modes of activity is accomplished via changes in the synaptic strengths among the inhibitory neurons. The inhibitory neurons connect to excitatory projection neurons such that during state 1 the activity of projection neurons is suppressed, while during state 2 patterns of sequential firing of projection neurons can occur. The latter state is stabilized by feedback from the projection to the inhibitory neurons. Song composition for specific species is distinguished by the manner in which different FSUs are functionally connected to each other. Ours is a computational model built with biophysically based neurons. We illustrate that many observations of HVC activity are explained by the dynamics of the proposed population of FSUs, and we identify aspects of the model that are currently testable experimentally. In addition, and standing apart from the core features of an FSU, we propose that the transition between modes may be governed by the biophysical mechanism of neuromodulation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Modulating Central Gain in Tinnitus: Changes in Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Coomber, Ben; Kowalkowski, Victoria L.; Berger, Joel I.; Palmer, Alan Richard; Wallace, Mark Nelson

    2015-01-01

    A significant challenge in tinnitus research lies in explaining how acoustic insult leads to tinnitus in some individuals, but not others. One possibility is genetic variability in the expression and function of neuromodulators – components of neural signaling that alter the balance of excitation and inhibition in neural circuits. An example is nitric oxide (NO) – a free radical and potent neuromodulator in the mammalian brain – that regulates plasticity via both pre-synaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. Changes in NO have previously been implicated in tinnitus generation, specifically in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). Here, we examined nitric oxide synthase (NOS) – the enzyme responsible for NO production – in the guinea pig VCN following acoustic trauma. NOS was present in most cell types – including spherical and globular bushy cells, small, medium, and large multipolar cells, and octopus cells – spanning the entire extent of the VCN. The staining pattern was symmetrical in control animals. Unilateral acoustic over-exposure (AOE) resulted in marked asymmetries between ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the VCN in terms of the distribution of NOS across the cochlear nuclei in animals with behavioral evidence of tinnitus: fewer NOS-positive cells and a reduced level of NOS staining was present across the whole extent of the contralateral VCN, relative to the ipsilateral VCN. The asymmetric pattern of NOS-containing cells was observed as early as 1 day after AOE and was also present in some animals at 3, 7, and 21 days after AOE. However, it was not until 8 weeks after AOE, when tinnitus had developed, that asymmetries were significant overall, compared with control animals. Asymmetrical NOS expression was not correlated with shifts in the threshold hearing levels. Variability in NOS expression between animals may represent one underlying difference that can be linked to whether or not tinnitus develops after noise exposure. PMID:25806021

  19. Variable Stars and Stellar Populations in Andromeda XXV. III. a Central Cluster or the Galaxy NUCLEUS?*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusano, Felice; Garofalo, Alessia; Clementini, Gisella; Cignoni, Michele; Federici, Luciana; Marconi, Marcella; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Musella, Ilaria; Testa, Vincenzo; Carini, Roberta; Faccini, Marco

    2016-09-01

    We present B and V time series photometry of Andromeda XXV, the third galaxy in our program on the Andromeda’s satellites, which we have imaged with the Large Binocular Cameras of the Large Binocular Telescope. The field of Andromeda XXV is found to contain 62 variable stars, for which we present light curves and characteristics of the light variation (period, amplitudes, variability type, mean magnitudes, etc.). The sample includes 57 RR Lyrae variables (46 fundamental-mode—RRab, and 11 first-overtone—RRc, pulsators), 3 anomalous Cepheids, 1 eclipsing binary system, and 1 unclassified variable. The average period of the RRab stars (< {Pab}> =0.60 σ = 0.04 days) and the period-amplitude diagram place Andromeda XXV in the class of the Oosterhoff-Intermediate objects. From the average luminosity of the RR Lyrae stars we derive for the galaxy a distance modulus of (m-M)0 = 24.63 ± 0.17 mag. The color-magnitude diagram reveals the presence in Andromeda XXV of a single, metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -1.8 dex) stellar population as old as ˜10-12 Gyr, traced by a conspicuous red giant branch and the large population of RR Lyrae stars. We discovered a spherically shaped high density of stars near the galaxy center. This structure appears to be at a distance consistent with Andromeda XXV and we suggest it could either be a star cluster or the nucleus of Andromeda XXV. We provide a summary and compare the number and characteristics of the pulsating stars in the M31 satellites analyzed so far for variability. Based on data collected with the Large Binocular Cameras at the Large Binocular Telescope.

  20. Inflammatory responses in the rat superior colliculus after eye enucleation.

    PubMed

    Hernandes, Marina S; Britto, Luiz R G

    2014-02-01

    Ocular enucleation induces profound morphological alterations in central visual areas. However, little is known about the response of glial cells and possible inflammatory processes in visual brain areas resulting from eye enucleation. In this study, immunoblotting and immunostaining assays revealed increased expression of astrocyte and microglia markers in the rat superior colliculus (SC) between 1 and 15 days after contralateral enucleation. A transient increase of neuronal COX-2 protein expression was also found in the SC. To evaluate the role of an anti-inflammatory drug in attenuating both COX-2 and glial cell activation, the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) was administered (1 mg/kg i.p., for 3 days) to enucleated rats. Immunoblotting data revealed that DEX treatment significantly inhibited COX-2 protein expression. Postlesion immunostaining for astrocyte and microglia markers was also significantly reduced by DEX treatment. These findings suggest that the removal of retinal ganglion cell input generates inflammatory responses in central retinorecipient structures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Superior colliculus and visual spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Krauzlis, Richard J; Lovejoy, Lee P; Zénon, Alexandre

    2013-07-08

    The superior colliculus (SC) has long been known to be part of the network of brain areas involved in spatial attention, but recent findings have dramatically refined our understanding of its functional role. The SC both implements the motor consequences of attention and plays a crucial role in the process of target selection that precedes movement. Moreover, even in the absence of overt orienting movements, SC activity is related to shifts of covert attention and is necessary for the normal control of spatial attention during perceptual judgments. The neuronal circuits that link the SC to spatial attention may include attention-related areas of the cerebral cortex, but recent results show that the SC's contribution involves mechanisms that operate independently of the established signatures of attention in visual cortex. These findings raise new issues and suggest novel possibilities for understanding the brain mechanisms that enable spatial attention.

  2. Cell death in the central division of the medial preoptic nucleus of male and female lamb fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Radhika C.; Scheldrup, Melissa; Meaker, Mary; Stormshak, Fred; Estill, Charles T.; Roselli, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    The medial preoptic area of the adult sheep contains an ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN) that is larger and has more neurons in males than in females. In the lamb fetus, the nascent oSDN occupies the central division of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPNc) and consists of a cluster of cells that is organized by the action of testosterone during gestational days 60 to 90 of a 147 day term pregnancy. The current study sought to determine whether programmed cell death contributes to the emergence of the oSDN. Male and female lamb fetuses were euthanized at different ages spanning the period during which the oSDN is organized. The expression of the pro- and anti-apoptotic genes bcl-2 and bax, respectively, was measured by quantitative RT-PCR to assess possible sex differences in neuron vulnerability to programmed cell death. The appearance of DNA-fragmentation was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and used to estimate the occurrence of apoptotic cell death. We found that bcl-2 and bax mRNA expression in the medial preoptic area of the developing lamb fetus decreased during the last half of the 147-day gestation. The ratio of bcl-2/bax gene expression was highest at gestational day 85 but was equivalent between males and females. TUNEL staining in the MPNc was very low and although it decreased significantly with age, it was not significantly different between sexes. These results using two different methods to assess cell death indicate that a sex difference in the incidence of cell death is not a primary mechanism leading to sexual differentiation of the oSDN. PMID:24491631

  3. Integration of stress and leptin signaling by CART producing neurons in the rodent midbrain centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lu; Janssen, Donny; van der Knaap, Noortje; Roubos, Eric W.; Leshan, Rebecca L.; Myers, Martin G.; Gaszner, Balázs; Kozicz, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    Leptin targets the brain to regulate feeding, neuroendocrine function and metabolism. The leptin receptor is present in hypothalamic centers controlling energy metabolism as well as in the centrally projecting Edinger–Westphal nucleus (EWcp), a region implicated in the stress response and in various aspects of stress-related behaviors. We hypothesized that the stress response by cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)-producing EWcp-neurons would depend on the animal’s energy state. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of changes in energy state (mimicked by low, normal and high leptin levels, which were achieved by 24 h fasting, normal chow and leptin injection, respectively) on the response of CART neurons in the EWcp of rats subjected or not to acute restraint stress. Our data show that leptin treatment alone significantly increases CART mRNA expression in the rat EWcp and that in leptin receptor deficient (db/db) mice, the number of CART producing neurons in this nucleus is reduced. This suggests that leptin has a stimulatory effect on the production of CART in the EWcp under non-stressed condition. Under stressed condition, however, leptin blunts stress-induced activation of EWcp neurons and decreases their CART mRNA expression. Interestingly, fasting, does not influence the stress-induced activation of EWcp-neurons, and specifically EWcp-CART neurons are not activated. These results suggest that the stress response by the EWcp depends to some degree on the animal’s energy state, a mechanism that may contribute to a better understanding of the complex interplay between obesity and stress. PMID:24624061

  4. Cell death in the central division of the medial preoptic nucleus of male and female lamb fetuses.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Radhika C; Scheldrup, Melissa; Meaker, Mary; Stormshak, Fred; Estill, Charles T; Roselli, Charles E

    2014-03-20

    The medial preoptic area of the adult sheep contains an ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN) that is larger and has more neurons in males than in females. In the lamb fetus, the nascent oSDN occupies the central division of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPNc) and consists of a cluster of cells that is organized by the action of testosterone during gestational days 60-90 of a 147 day term pregnancy. The current study sought to determine whether programmed cell death contributes to the emergence of the oSDN. Male and female lamb fetuses were euthanized at different ages spanning the period during which the oSDN is organized. The expression of the pro- and anti-apoptotic genes bcl-2 and bax, respectively, was measured by quantitative RT-PCR to assess possible sex differences in neuron vulnerability to programmed cell death. The appearance of DNA-fragmentation was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and used to estimate the occurrence of apoptotic cell death. We found that bcl-2 and bax mRNA expression in the medial preoptic area of the developing lamb fetus decreased during the last half of the 147-day gestation. The ratio of bcl-2/bax gene expression was highest at gestational day 85 but was equivalent between males and females. TUNEL staining in the MPNc was very low and although it decreased significantly with age, it was not significantly different between sexes. These results using two different methods to assess cell death indicate that a sex difference in the incidence of cell death is not a primary mechanism leading to sexual differentiation of the oSDN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Auditory scene analysis following unilateral inferior colliculus infarct.

    PubMed

    Champoux, François; Paiement, Philippe; Vannasing, Phetsamone; Mercier, Claude; Gagné, Jean-Pierre; Lepore, Franco; Lassonde, Maryse

    2007-11-19

    Event-related potentials in the form of mismatch negativity were recorded to investigate auditory scene analysis capabilities in a person with a very circumscribed haemorrhagic lesion at the level of the right inferior colliculus. The results provide the first objective evidence that processing at the level of the inferior colliculus plays an important role in human auditory frequency discrimination. Moreover, the electrophysiological data suggest that following this unilateral lesion, the auditory pathways fail to reorganize efficiently.

  6. Powerful outflows in the central parsecs of the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus NGC 1386

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Prieto, M. A.; Mazzalay, X.; Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A.; Luque, R.; Müller-Sánchez, F.

    2017-09-01

    Low-luminosity active galactic nuclei, i.e. L_{bol}/Ledd ∼ 10-6-10-3, constitute the bulk population of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Powerful jets, common in these objects, are a crucial source of feedback energy-driving mass outflows into the host galaxy and the intergalactic medium. This paper reports the first direct measurement of powerful mass outflows traced by the forbidden high-ionization gas in the low-luminosity AGN NGC 1386 at scales of a few parsecs from the central engine. The high-angular resolution of the data allows us to directly measure the location, morphology and kinematic of the outflow. This has the form of two symmetrical expanding hot gas shells moving in opposite directions along the line of sight. The co-spatiality of the gas shells with radio emission seen at the same parsec scales and with X-rays indicates that this is a shock-driven outflow presumably induced by an incipient core jet. With a minimum number of assumptions, we derive a mass outflow rate of 11 M⊙ yr-1, comparable to those of powerful AGN. The result has strong implications in the global accounting of feedback mass and energy driven by a low-luminosity AGN into the medium and the corresponding galaxy evolution.

  7. The central dusty torus in the active nucleus of NGC 1068.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, W; Meisenheimer, K; Röttgering, H J A; Leinert, Ch; Richichi, A; Chesneau, O; Fraix-Burnet, D; Glazenborg-Kluttig, A; Granato, G-L; Graser, U; Heijligers, B; Köhler, R; Malbet, F; Miley, G K; Paresce, F; Pel, J-W; Perrin, G; Przygodda, F; Schoeller, M; Sol, H; Waters, L B F M; Weigelt, G; Woillez, J; De Zeeuw, P T

    2004-05-06

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) display many energetic phenomena--broad emission lines, X-rays, relativistic jets, radio lobes--originating from matter falling onto a supermassive black hole. It is widely accepted that orientation effects play a major role in explaining the observational appearance of AGNs. Seen from certain directions, circum-nuclear dust clouds would block our view of the central powerhouse. Indirect evidence suggests that the dust clouds form a parsec-sized torus-shaped distribution. This explanation, however, remains unproved, as even the largest telescopes have not been able to resolve the dust structures. Here we report interferometric mid-infrared observations that spatially resolve these structures in the galaxy NGC 1068. The observations reveal warm (320 K) dust in a structure 2.1 parsec thick and 3.4 parsec in diameter, surrounding a smaller hot structure. As such a configuration of dust clouds would collapse in a time much shorter than the active phase of the AGN, this observation requires a continual input of kinetic energy to the cloud system from a source coexistent with the AGN.

  8. Recruitment of a Neuronal Ensemble in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Is Required for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    de Guglielmo, Giordano; Crawford, Elena; Kim, Sarah; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.; Hope, Bruce T.; Brennan, Molly; Cole, Maury; Koob, George F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstinence from alcohol is associated with the recruitment of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in nondependent rats that binge drink alcohol and in alcohol-dependent rats. However, whether the recruitment of this neuronal ensemble in the CeA is causally related to excessive alcohol drinking or if it represents a consequence of excessive drinking remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the recruitment of a neuronal ensemble in the CeA during abstinence is required for excessive alcohol drinking in nondependent rats that binge drink alcohol and in alcohol-dependent rats. We found that inactivation of the CeA neuronal ensemble during abstinence significantly decreased alcohol drinking in both groups. In nondependent rats, the decrease in alcohol intake was transient and returned to normal the day after the injection. In dependent rats, inactivation of the neuronal ensemble with Daun02 produced a long-term decrease in alcohol drinking. Moreover, we observed a significant reduction of somatic withdrawal signs in dependent animals that were injected with Daun02 in the CeA. These results indicate that the recruitment of a neuronal ensemble in the CeA during abstinence from alcohol is causally related to excessive alcohol drinking in alcohol-dependent rats, whereas a similar neuronal ensemble only partially contributed to alcohol-binge-like drinking in nondependent rats. These results identify a critical neurobiological mechanism that may be required for the transition to alcohol dependence, suggesting that focusing on the neuronal ensemble in the CeA may lead to a better understanding of the etiology of alcohol use disorders and improve medication development. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alcohol dependence recruits neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Here, we found that inactivation of a specific dependence-induced neuronal ensemble in the CeA reversed excessive alcohol drinking and somatic signs of alcohol dependence in rats. These

  9. Superior colliculus connections with visual thalamus in gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis): evidence for four subdivisions within the pulvinar complex.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Wong, Peiyan; Reed, Jamie L; Kaas, Jon H

    2011-04-15

    As diurnal rodents with a well-developed visual system, squirrels provide a useful comparison of visual system organization with other highly visual mammals such as tree shrews and primates. Here, we describe the projection pattern of gray squirrel superior colliculus (SC) with the large and well-differentiated pulvinar complex. Our anatomical results support the conclusion that the pulvinar complex of squirrels consists of four distinct nuclei. The caudal (C) nucleus, distinct in cytochrome oxidase (CO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and vesicular glutamate transporter-2 (VGluT2) preparations, received widespread projections from the ipsilateral SC, although a crude retinotopic organization was suggested. The caudal nucleus also received weaker projections from the contralateral SC. The caudal nucleus also projects back to the ipsilateral SC. Lateral (RLl) and medial (RLm) parts of the previously defined rostral lateral pulvinar (RL) were architectonically distinct, and each nucleus received its own retinotopic pattern of focused ipsilateral SC projections. The SC did not project to the rostral medial (RM) nucleus of the pulvinar. SC injections also revealed ipsilateral connections with the dorsal and ventral lateral geniculate nuclei, nuclei of the pretectum, and nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus and bilateral connections with the parabigeminal nuclei. Comparisons with other rodents suggest that a variously named caudal nucleus, which relays visual inputs from the SC to temporal visual cortex, is common to all rodents and possibly most mammals. RM and RL divisions of the pulvinar complex also appear to have homologues in other rodents. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. System-size and centrality dependence of charged kaon and pion production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 40A GeV and 158A GeV beam energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anticic, T.; Baatar, B.; Barna, D.; Bartke, J.; Beck, H.; Betev, L.; Białkowska, H.; Blume, C.; Bogusz, M.; Boimska, B.; Book, J.; Botje, M.; Bunčić, P.; Cetner, T.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cramer, J. G.; Dinkelaker, P.; Eckardt, V.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Friese, V.; Gaździcki, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Höhne, C.; Kadija, K.; Karev, A.; Kliemant, M.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Kollegger, T.; Kowalski, M.; Kresan, D.; Laszlo, A.; Lacey, R.; van Leeuwen, M.; Lungwitz, B.; Mackowiak, M.; Makariev, M.; Malakhov, A. I.; Mateev, M.; Melkumov, G. L.; Mitrovski, M.; Mrówczyński, St.; Nicolic, V.; Pálla, G.; Panagiotou, A. D.; Peryt, W.; Pluta, J.; Prindle, D.; Pühlhofer, F.; Renfordt, R.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rybczyński, M.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Schmitz, N.; Schuster, T.; Seyboth, P.; Siklér, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Stefanek, G.; Stock, R.; Ströbele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Utvić, M.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G. I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranić, D.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.

    2012-11-01

    Measurements of charged pion and kaon production are presented in centrality selected Pb+Pb collisions at 40A GeV and 158A GeV beam energy as well as in semicentral C+C and Si+Si interactions at 40A GeV. Transverse mass spectra, rapidity spectra, and total yields are determined as a function of centrality. The system-size and centrality dependence of relative strangeness production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 40A GeV and 158A GeV beam energy are derived from the data presented here and from published data for C+C and Si+Si collisions at 158A GeV beam energy. At both energies a steep increase with centrality is observed for small systems followed by a weak rise or even saturation for higher centralities. This behavior is compared to calculations using transport models (ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamics and hadron-string dynamics), a percolation model, and the core-corona approach.

  11. The central amygdala nucleus is critical for incubation of methamphetamine craving.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Zeric, Tamara; Kambhampati, Sarita; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2015-03-13

    Cue-induced methamphetamine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal but mechanisms underlying this 'incubation of methamphetamine craving' are unknown. Here we studied the role of central amygdala (CeA), ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), brain regions implicated in incubation of cocaine and heroin craving, in incubation of methamphetamine craving. We also assessed the role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). We trained rats to self-administer methamphetamine (10 days; 9 h/day, 0.1 mg/kg/infusion) and tested them for cue-induced methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions during early (2 days) or late (4-5 weeks) withdrawal. We first confirmed that 'incubation of methamphetamine craving' occurs under our experimental conditions. Next, we assessed the effect of reversible inactivation of CeA or BLA by GABAA+GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol+baclofen, 0.03+0.3 nmol) on cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during early and late withdrawal. We also assessed the effect of muscimol+baclofen reversible inactivation of vmPFC, dmPFC, and OFC on 'incubated' cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late withdrawal. Lever presses in the cue-induced methamphetamine extinction tests were higher during late withdrawal than during early withdrawal (incubation of methamphetamine craving). Muscimol+baclofen injections into CeA but not BLA decreased cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late but not early withdrawal. Muscimol+baclofen injections into dmPFC, vmPFC, or OFC during late withdrawal had no effect on incubated cue-induced methamphetamine seeking. Together with previous studies, results indicate that the CeA has a critical role in incubation of both drug and non-drug reward craving and demonstrate an unexpected dissociation in mechanisms of incubation of methamphetamine vs cocaine craving.

  12. The Central Amygdala Nucleus is Critical for Incubation of Methamphetamine Craving

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Zeric, Tamara; Kambhampati, Sarita; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2015-01-01

    Cue-induced methamphetamine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal but mechanisms underlying this ‘incubation of methamphetamine craving' are unknown. Here we studied the role of central amygdala (CeA), ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), brain regions implicated in incubation of cocaine and heroin craving, in incubation of methamphetamine craving. We also assessed the role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). We trained rats to self-administer methamphetamine (10 days; 9 h/day, 0.1 mg/kg/infusion) and tested them for cue-induced methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions during early (2 days) or late (4–5 weeks) withdrawal. We first confirmed that ‘incubation of methamphetamine craving' occurs under our experimental conditions. Next, we assessed the effect of reversible inactivation of CeA or BLA by GABAA+GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol+baclofen, 0.03+0.3 nmol) on cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during early and late withdrawal. We also assessed the effect of muscimol+baclofen reversible inactivation of vmPFC, dmPFC, and OFC on ‘incubated' cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late withdrawal. Lever presses in the cue-induced methamphetamine extinction tests were higher during late withdrawal than during early withdrawal (incubation of methamphetamine craving). Muscimol+baclofen injections into CeA but not BLA decreased cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late but not early withdrawal. Muscimol+baclofen injections into dmPFC, vmPFC, or OFC during late withdrawal had no effect on incubated cue-induced methamphetamine seeking. Together with previous studies, results indicate that the CeA has a critical role in incubation of both drug and non-drug reward craving and demonstrate an unexpected dissociation in mechanisms of incubation of methamphetamine vs cocaine craving. PMID:25475163

  13. Effects of lidocaine injections into the lateral parabrachial nucleus on dipsogenic and pressor response to central angiotensin 2 in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menani, Jose Vanderlei; Beltz, Terry G.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bilateral injections of the local anesthetic, lidocaine, into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) on the dipsogenic and pressor responses induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of angiotensin 2 (ANG 2). Centrally injected ANG 2 (50 ng/1 microliter) induced water intake ( IO.2 +/- 0.8 ml/h) and pressor responses (22 +/- 1 mmHg). Prior bilateral injection of 10% lidocaine (200 nl) into the LPBN increased the water intake (14.2 +/- 1.4 ml/h), but did not change the pressor response (17 +/- 1 mmHg) to i.c.v. ANG 2. Lidocaine alone injected into the LPBN also induced a pressor response (23 +/- 3 mmHg). These results showing that bilateral LPBN injection of lidocaine increase water intake induced bv i.c.v. ANG 2 are consistent with electrolytic and neurotoxic lesion studies and suggest that the LPBN is associated with inhibitory mechanisms controlling water intake induced by ANG 2. These results also provide evidence that it is feasible to reversibly anesthetize this brain area to facilitate fluid-related ingestive behavior.

  14. Noradrenergic transmission in the central medial thalamic nucleus modulates the electroencephalographic activity and emergence from propofol anesthesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Bao; Yu, Tian; Yuan, Jie; Gong, Xingrui; Zhang, Mazhong

    2017-03-01

    At present, the mechanisms by which general anesthetics causing loss of consciousness remain unclear. The central medial thalamic nucleus (CMT) is a rarely studied component of the midline thalamic complex, which is deemed to be a part of the nonspecific arousal system. Although the CMT participates in modulating arousal and receives excitatory noradrenergic projections from locus coeruleus, it remains unknown whether the noradrenergic pathway in the CMT takes part in modulating the arousal system. Therefore, we hypothesized that noradrenergic transmission in the CMT is involved in modulating induction and emergence of propofol anesthesia. First, we infused norepinephrine (NE) into the CMT to observe the role of CMT noradrenergic pathway in modulating the anesthetic state induced by propofol. The results showed that microinjection of NE into the CMT accelerated emergence from propofol anesthesia, but had no impact on the induction of or sensitivity to propofol anesthesia in rats. In addition, infusion of NE into the CMT caused electroencephalography changes in the prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, we used a whole-cell patch clamp to examine the effects of NE on neuronal excitability and GABAergic transmission in the CMT. In the CMT slices, propofol suppressed neuronal excitability and enhanced GABAergic transmission, while application of NE partly reversed these effects. These findings support the hypothesis that the CMT noradrenergic pathway plays an important role in modulating the emergence from general anesthesia. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  15. GABAA receptors are involved in the analgesic effects of morphine microinjected into the central nucleus of the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Rashvand, Mina; Khajavai, Ali; Parviz, Mohsen; Hasanein, Parisa; Keshavarz, Mansoor

    2014-05-01

    The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) has an important role in pain perception and analgesia. Opioid and GABAA receptors, which are both involved in pain modulation, are found in high concentration in the CeA. The present study was designed to examine the interaction of opioidergic and GABAergic systems in the CeA during modulation of acute thermal pain. In the present study, different doses of morphine (25, 50 and 100 μg/rat), either alone or after 5 min pretreatment with the selective GABAA receptor agonist muscimol (60 ng/rat) or the selective GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (50 ng/rat), were injected bilaterally into the CeA of each rat. Tail-flick latencies (TFL) were measured every 5 min for 60 min. The results revealed that microinjection of morphine into the CeA significantly increased TFL in a dose-dependent manner. Microinjection of bicuculline or muscimol in combination with morphine into the CeA increased and decreased TFL, respectively. It seems that morphine in the CeA facilitates the function of descending inhibitory systems by interacting with the activity of local GABAA receptors.

  16. Serotonin release in the central nucleus of the amygdala in response to noxious and innocuous cutaneous stimulation in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Ryota; Shimoju, Rie; Takagi, Noriaki; Shibata, Hideshi; Kurosawa, Mieko

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effect of noxious (pinching) and innocuous (stroking) stimulation of skin on serotonin (5-HT) release in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in anesthetized rats. 5-HT in the CeA was collected by microdialysis methods. Dialysate output from consecutive 10-min periods was injected into a high-performance liquid chromatograph and 5-HT was measured with an electrochemical detector. Bilateral pinching of the back for 10 min increased 5-HT release significantly; 5-HT release was also increased with stimulation of the forelimb or hindlimb. In contrast, stroking of these areas decreased 5-HT release significantly. Furthermore, simultaneous stroking and pinching produced no change in the 5-HT release. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that 5-HT release in the CeA is regulated by somatic afferent stimulation in a modality-dependent manner, and that innocuous stimulation can dampen the change in 5-HT release that occurs in response to noxious stimulation.

  17. Weak orientation and direction selectivity in lateral geniculate nucleus representing central vision in the gray squirrel Sciurus carolinensis

    PubMed Central

    Zaltsman, Julia B.; Heimel, J. Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Classic studies of lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and visual cortex (V1) in carnivores and primates have found that a majority of neurons in LGN exhibit a center-surround organization, while V1 neurons exhibit strong orientation selectivity and, in many species, direction selectivity. Recent work in the mouse and the monkey has discovered previously unknown classes of orientation- and direction-selective neurons in LGN. Furthermore, some recent studies in the mouse report that many LGN cells exhibit pronounced orientation biases that are of comparable strength to the subthreshold inputs to V1 neurons. These results raise the possibility that, in rodents, orientation biases of individual LGN cells make a substantial contribution to cortical orientation selectivity. Alternatively, the size and contribution of orientation- or direction-selective channels from LGN to V1 may vary across mammals. To address this question, we examined orientation and direction selectivity in LGN and V1 neurons of a highly visual diurnal rodent: the gray squirrel. In the representation of central vision, only a few LGN neurons exhibited strong orientation or direction selectivity. Across the population, LGN neurons showed weak orientation biases and were much less selective for orientation compared with V1 neurons. Although direction selectivity was weak overall, LGN layers 3abc, which contain neurons that express calbindin, exhibited elevated direction selectivity index values compared with LGN layers 1 and 2. These results suggest that, for central visual fields, the contribution of orientation- and direction-selective channels from the LGN to V1 is small in the squirrel. As in other mammals, this small contribution is elevated in the calbindin-positive layers of the LGN PMID:25717157

  18. Weak orientation and direction selectivity in lateral geniculate nucleus representing central vision in the gray squirrel Sciurus carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Zaltsman, Julia B; Heimel, J Alexander; Van Hooser, Stephen D

    2015-04-01

    Classic studies of lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and visual cortex (V1) in carnivores and primates have found that a majority of neurons in LGN exhibit a center-surround organization, while V1 neurons exhibit strong orientation selectivity and, in many species, direction selectivity. Recent work in the mouse and the monkey has discovered previously unknown classes of orientation- and direction-selective neurons in LGN. Furthermore, some recent studies in the mouse report that many LGN cells exhibit pronounced orientation biases that are of comparable strength to the subthreshold inputs to V1 neurons. These results raise the possibility that, in rodents, orientation biases of individual LGN cells make a substantial contribution to cortical orientation selectivity. Alternatively, the size and contribution of orientation- or direction-selective channels from LGN to V1 may vary across mammals. To address this question, we examined orientation and direction selectivity in LGN and V1 neurons of a highly visual diurnal rodent: the gray squirrel. In the representation of central vision, only a few LGN neurons exhibited strong orientation or direction selectivity. Across the population, LGN neurons showed weak orientation biases and were much less selective for orientation compared with V1 neurons. Although direction selectivity was weak overall, LGN layers 3abc, which contain neurons that express calbindin, exhibited elevated direction selectivity index values compared with LGN layers 1 and 2. These results suggest that, for central visual fields, the contribution of orientation- and direction-selective channels from the LGN to V1 is small in the squirrel. As in other mammals, this small contribution is elevated in the calbindin-positive layers of the LGN. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Melanocortin 4 receptor ligands modulate energy homeostasis through urocortin 1 neurons of the centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus.

    PubMed

    Füredi, Nóra; Nagy, Ákos; Mikó, Alexandra; Berta, Gergely; Kozicz, Tamás; Pétervári, Erika; Balaskó, Márta; Gaszner, Balázs

    2017-03-03

    The role of the urocortin 1 (Ucn1) expressing centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal (EWcp) nucleus in energy homeostasis and stress adaptation response has previously been investigated. Morphological and functional studies have proven that orexigenic and anorexigenic peptidergic afferents and receptors for endocrine messengers involved in the energy homeostasis are found in the EWcp. The central role of the hypothalamic melanocortin system in energy homeostasis is well known, however, no data have been published so far on possible crosstalk between melanocortins and EWcp-Ucn1. First, we hypothesized that members of the melanocortin system [i.e. alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R)] would be expressed in the EWcp. Second, we put forward, that alpha-MSH and AgRP contents as well as neuronal activity and Ucn1 peptide content of the EWcp would be affected by fasting. Third, we assumed that the intra-EWcp injections of exogenous MC4R agonists and antagonist would cause food intake-related and metabolic changes. Ucn1 neurons were found to carry MC4Rs, and they were contacted both by alpha-MSH and AgRP immunoreactive nerve fibers in the rat. The alpha-MSH immunosignal was reduced, while that of AgRP was increased upon starvation. These were associated with the elevation of FosB and Ucn1 expression. The intra-EWcp administration of MC4R blocker (i.e. HS024) had a similar, but enhanced effect on FosB and Ucn1. Furthermore, alpha-MSH injected into the EWcp had anorexigenic effect, increased oxygen consumption and caused peripheral vasodilation. We conclude that the melanocortin system influences the EWcp that contributes to energy-homeostasis.

  20. Neuropeptide Y in the central nucleus of the amygdala suppresses dependence-induced increases in alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Misra, Kaushik; Koob, George F

    2008-09-01

    The anxiolytic effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) are mediated in part by the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a brain region involved in the regulation of alcohol-drinking behaviors. Centrally administered NPY suppresses alcohol drinking in subpopulations of rats vulnerable to the development of high alcohol-drinking behavior. The purpose of the current study was to determine the role of NPY in the CeA on elevated alcohol drinking produced by alcohol dependence. Adult male Wistar rats were trained to respond for 10% w/v alcohol in an operant situation with the use of a supersaccharin fading procedure. Following stabilization of responding, rats were divided into two groups matched for intake and given daily access to either alcohol-containing (9.2% v/v) liquid diet or an isocaloric control diet. Following extended access to the diet and reliable separation of operant responding between dependent and non-dependent rats during 6-h withdrawal tests, all rats were implanted bilaterally with cannulae aimed at the CeA. Rats were then infused with 4 NPY doses (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 microg/0.5 microl aCSF) in a within-subjects Latin-square design during acute withdrawal and tested for operant alcohol responding 30 min later. Alcohol-dependent rats exhibited higher operant alcohol responding than non-dependent rats when infused with vehicle, but responding was similar in the two groups following infusion of all doses of NPY. These results indicate that NPY abolishes dependence-induced elevations in alcohol drinking and implicate the recruitment of limbic NPY systems in the motivational drive to consume alcohol following the transition to dependence.

  1. Contributions of the amygdala central nucleus and ventrolateral periaqueductal grey to freezing and instrumental suppression in Pavlovian fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    McDannald, Michael A

    2010-07-29

    In Pavlovian fear conditioning animals receive pairings of a neutral cue and an aversive stimulus such as an electric foot-shock. Through such pairings, the cue will come to elicit a central state of fear that produces a variety of autonomic and behavioral responses, among which are conditioned freezing and suppression of instrumental responding, termed conditioned suppression. The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (vlPAG) has been strongly implicated in the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. However, previous work suggests different roles for the CeA and vlPAG in fear learning maybe revealed when fear is assessed with conditioned freezing or conditioned suppression. To further explore this possibility we gave rats selective lesions of either the CeA or vlPAG and trained them in Pavlovian first-order fear conditioning as well as Pavlovian second-order fear conditioning. We concurrently assessed the acquisition of conditioned freezing and conditioned suppression. We found that vlPAG and CeA lesions impaired both first- and second-order conditioned freezing. VlPAG lesions did not impair, and CeA lesions only transiently impaired, first-order conditioned suppression. However, both vlPAG and CeA lesions impaired second-order conditioned suppression. These results suggest that the CeA and vlPAG are critically important to expressing fear through conditioned freezing but play different and less critical roles in expressing fear through conditioned suppression.

  2. Nucleus-nucleus potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Satchler, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The significance of a nucleus-nucleus potential is discussed. Information about such potentials obtained from scattering experiments is reviewed, including recent examples of so-called rainbow scattering that probe the potential at smaller distances. The evidence for interactions involving the nuclear spins is summarized, and their possible origin in couplings to non-elastic channels. Various models of the potentials are discussed.

  3. Late postnatal shifts of parvalbumin and nitric oxide synthase expression within the GABAergic and glutamatergic phenotypes of inferior colliculus neurons.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Hisataka; Konno, Kotaro; Watanabe, Masahiko; Jinno, Shozo

    2017-03-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) is partitioned into three subdivisions: the dorsal and lateral cortices (DC and LC) and the central nucleus (ICC), and serves as an integration center of auditory information. Recent studies indicate that a certain population of IC neurons may represent the non-GABAergic phenotype, while they express well-established cortical/hippocampal GABAergic neuron markers. In this study we used the optical disector to investigate the phenotype of IC neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV) and/or nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in C57BL/6J mice during the late postnatal period. Four major types of IC neurons were defined by the presence (+) or absence (-) of PV, NOS, and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67): PV(+) /NOS(-) /GAD67(+) , PV(+) /NOS(+) /GAD67(+) , PV(+) /NOS(-) /GAD67(-) , and PV(-) /NOS(+) /GAD67(-) . Fluorescent in situ hybridization for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 mRNA indicated that almost all GAD67(-) IC neurons represented the glutamatergic phenotype. The numerical densities (NDs) of total GAD67(+) IC neurons remained unchanged in all subdivisions. The NDs of PV(+) /NOS(-) /GAD67(+) neurons and PV(-) /NOS(+) /GAD67(-) neurons were reduced with age in the ICC, while they remained unchanged in the DC and LC. By contrast, the NDs of PV(+) /NOS(+) /GAD67(+) neurons and PV(+) /NOS(-) /GAD67(-) neurons were increased with age in the ICC, although there were no changes in the DC and LC. The cell body size of GAD67(+) IC neurons did not vary according to the expression of PV with or without NOS. The present findings indicate that the expression of PV and NOS may shift with age within the GABAergic and glutamatergic phenotypes of IC neurons during the late postnatal period. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:868-884, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Anatomical changes of the GABAergic system in the inferior colliculus of the genetically epilepsy-prone rat.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R C; Ribak, C E

    1986-09-01

    The number of GABAergic neurons as determined by GAD immunocytochemistry and total neurons as determined from Nissl preparations were counted and classified at the light microscopic level in the inferior colliculus (IC) of the genetically epilepsy prone rat (GEPR) and the non-epileptic Sprague-Dawley (SD) strain of rat. GAD-positive neurons are abundant in the IC and a significant increase in the number of GAD-positive neurons occurs in the GEPR as compared to the SD in all three subdivisions. However, the most pronounced difference occurs in the ventral lateral portion of the central nucleus, where there is a selective increase in the small (200%) and medium-sized (90%) GABAergic somata (10-15 microns in diameter and 15-25 microns in diameter, respectively). As determined from Nissl preparations an increase in total numbers of neurons also occurs. Thus, a 100% increase in the number of small neurons and a 30% increase in the number of medium-sized neurons occur in the adult GEPR as compared to the SD rat. A statistically significant increase in the numbers of small neurons also occurred in the IC of the young GEPR. At 4 days of age, a 55% increase in the number of small neurons was found, and at 10 days of age this increase was 105%. The numbers of the medium and large neurons were similar in the older group of rats. These data suggest that the increase in cell number observed in the adult GEPR is not compensatory to the seizure activity, but may either be genetically programmed or be a failure of cell death. Based on other studies of genetic models of epilepsy, we propose that the additional GABAergic neurons may disinhibit excitatory projection neurons in the IC.

  5. Glutamate receptor antagonism in inferior colliculus attenuates elevated startle response of high anxiety diazepam-withdrawn rats.

    PubMed

    Cabral, A; De Ross, J; Castilho, V M; Brandão, M L; Nobre, M J

    2009-07-07

    Rats segregated according to low (LA) or high (HA) anxiety levels have been used as an important tool in the study of fear and anxiety. Since the efficacy of an anxiolytic compound is a function of the animal's basal anxiety level, it is possible that chronic treatment with a benzodiazepine (Bzp) affects LA and HA animals differently. Based on these assumptions, this study aimed to provide some additional information on the influence of acute, chronic (18 days) and withdrawal effects (48 h) from diazepam (10 mg/kg), in rats with LA or HA levels, on startle response amplitude. For this purpose, the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test was used. In addition, the role of glutamate receptors of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (cIC), the most important mesencephalic tectum integrative structure of the auditory pathways and a brain region that is linked to the processing of auditory information of aversive nature, was also evaluated. Our results showed that, contrary to the results obtained in LA rats, long-term treatment with diazepam promoted anxiolytic and aversive effects in HA animals that were tested under chronic effects or withdrawal from this drug, respectively. In addition, since Bzp withdrawal may function as an unconditioned stressor, the negative affective states observed in HA rats could be a by-product of GABA-glutamate imbalance in brain systems that modulate unconditioned fear and anxiety behaviors, since the blockade of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors in the cIC clearly reduced the aversion promoted by diazepam withdrawal.

  6. Desipramine and citalopram attenuate pretest swim-induced increases in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala in the forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sung; Kim, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Sun Hye; Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2014-10-01

    Dynorphin in the nucleus accumbens shell plays an important role in antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test (FST), but it is unclear whether desipramine and citalopram treatments alter prodynorphin levels in other brain areas. To explore this possibility, we injected mice with desipramine and citalopram 0.5, 19, and 23 h after a 15-min pretest swim and observed changes in prodynorphin expression before the test swim, which was conducted 24 h after the pretest swim. The pretest swim increased prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST) and lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeL). This increase in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dBNST and CeL was blocked by desipramine and citalopram treatments. Similar changes in prodynorphin mRNA levels were observed in the dBNST and CeL, but these changes did not reach significance. To understand the underlying mechanism, we assessed changes in phosphorylated CREB at Ser(133) (pCREB) immunoreactivity in the dBNST and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Treatment with citalopram but not desipramine after the pretest swim significantly increased pCREB immunoreactivity only in the dBNST. These results suggest that regulation of prodynorphin in the dBNST and CeL before the test swim may be involved in the antidepressant-like effect of desipramine and citalopram in the FST and suggest that changes in pCREB immunoreactivity in these areas may not play an important role in the regulation of prodynorphin in the dBNST and CeA.

  7. Lipopolysaccharide inhibits ghrelin-excited neurons of the arcuate nucleus and reduces food intake via central nitric oxide signaling.

    PubMed

    Borner, Tito; Pinkernell, Sarah; Lutz, Thomas A; Riediger, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces anorexia and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc). Peripheral administration of the iNOS inhibitor 1400 W counteracts the anorectic effects of LPS. Here we investigated the role of central NO signaling in LPS anorexia. In electrophysiological studies we tested whether 1400 W counteracts the iNOS-dependent inhibition of Arc neurons triggered by in vivo or in vitro stimulation with LPS. We used the hormone ghrelin as a functional reference stimulus because ghrelin is known to activate orexigenic Arc neurons. Further, we investigated whether in vitro LPS stimulation induces an iNOS-mediated formation of the second messenger cGMP. Since the STAT1 pathway contributes to the regulation of iNOS expression we investigated whether LPS treatment induces STAT1 phosphorylation in the Arc. Finally we tested the effect of intracerebroventricular injection of 1400 W on LPS-induced anorexia. Superfusion with 1400 W (10(-4) M) increased neuronal activity in 37% of neurons in Arc slices from LPS treated (100 μg/kg ip) but not from saline treated rats. Similarly, 1400 W excited 45% of Arc neurons after in vitro stimulation with LPS (100 ng/ml). In both approaches, a considerable percentage of 1400 W sensitive neurons were excited by ghrelin (10(-8)M; 50% and 75%, respectively). In vitro stimulation with LPS induced cGMP formation in the Arc, which was blocked by co-incubation with 1400 W. LPS treatment elicited a pSTAT1 response in the Arc of mice. Central 1400 W injection (4 μg/rat) attenuated LPS-induced anorexia and counteracted the LPS-dependent decrease in respiratory quotient and energy expenditure. In conclusion, the current findings substantiate a role of central iNOS dependent NO formation in LPS-induced effects on eating and energy homeostasis. A pharmacological blockade of NO formation might be a therapeutic approach to ameliorate disease-related anorexia.

  8. Effects of pulse phase duration and location of stimulation within the inferior colliculus on auditory cortical evoked potentials in a guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Neuheiser, Anke; Lenarz, Minoo; Reuter, Guenter; Calixto, Roger; Nolte, Ingo; Lenarz, Thomas; Lim, Hubert H

    2010-12-01

    The auditory midbrain implant (AMI), which consists of a single shank array designed for stimulation within the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC), has been developed for deaf patients who cannot benefit from a cochlear implant. Currently, performance levels in clinical trials for the AMI are far from those achieved by the cochlear implant and vary dramatically across patients, in part due to stimulation location effects. As an initial step towards improving the AMI, we investigated how stimulation of different regions along the isofrequency domain of the ICC as well as varying pulse phase durations and levels affected auditory cortical activity in anesthetized guinea pigs. This study was motivated by the need to determine in which region to implant the single shank array within a three-dimensional ICC structure and what stimulus parameters to use in patients. Our findings indicate that complex and unfavorable cortical activation properties are elicited by stimulation of caudal-dorsal ICC regions with the AMI array. Our results also confirm the existence of different functional regions along the isofrequency domain of the ICC (i.e., a caudal-dorsal and a rostral-ventral region), which has been traditionally unclassified. Based on our study as well as previous animal and human AMI findings, we may need to deliver more complex stimuli than currently used in the AMI patients to effectively activate the caudal ICC or ensure that the single shank AMI is only implanted into a rostral-ventral ICC region in future patients.

  9. Distinct representation and distribution of visual information by specific cell types in mouse superficial superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Gale, Samuel D; Murphy, Gabe J

    2014-10-01

    The superficial superior colliculus (sSC) occupies a critical node in the mammalian visual system; it is one of two major retinorecipient areas, receives visual cortical input, and innervates visual thalamocortical circuits. Nonetheless, the contribution of sSC neurons to downstream neural activity and visually guided behavior is unknown and frequently neglected. Here we identified the visual stimuli to which specific classes of sSC neurons respond, the downstream regions they target, and transgenic mice enabling class-specific manipulations. One class responds to small, slowly moving stimuli and projects exclusively to lateral posterior thalamus; another, comprising GABAergic neurons, responds to the sudden appearance or rapid movement of large stimuli and projects to multiple areas, including the lateral geniculate nucleus. A third class exhibits direction-selective responses and targets deeper SC layers. Together, our results show how specific sSC neurons represent and distribute diverse information and enable direct tests of their functional role.

  10. The contribution of the central nucleus of the amygdala to individual differences in amphetamine-induced hyperactivity

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Mary E.; Coolon, Rosemary A.; Gill, Margaret J.

    2009-01-01

    Rats classified as high responders (HR) based on their response to an inescapable novel environment self-administer more amphetamine and have greater amphetamine-induced sensitization than rats classified as low responders (LR). Recent research suggests that the central nucleus of the amygdala (ACe) contributes to the elevated self-administration in HR rats. Therefore, the current study examined the role of the ACe in the expression of both amphetamine-induced sensitization and conditioned hyperactivity in HR and LR rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were screened for their response to inescapable novelty and classified as HR or LR rats. Rats were implanted with bilateral cannulae into the ACe and received amphetamine (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) or saline injections immediately prior to 1-hr locomotor sessions. Following five training sessions, all rats received an infusion of muscimol (0.5 μg/0.5 μl) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) followed by a saline injection to measure conditioned hyperactivity. HR rats displayed conditioned hyperactivity, while LR rats did not, suggesting that HR and LR rats differ in the expression of conditioned hyperactivity. While ACe inactivation attenuated the expression of conditioned hyperactivity, it did not differentially affect HR and LR rats. Following additional training and a 10 day rest period, all rats were then tested for amphetamine-induced sensitization (1.0 mg/kg) following an infusion of muscimol or PBS. Inactivation of the ACe attenuated the expression of sensitization only in HR rats. These results suggest the ACe contributes to the greater amphetamine sensitization in HR rats. PMID:19447275

  11. Microinjection of glycine into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus produces diuresis, natriuresis, and inhibition of central sympathetic outflow.

    PubMed

    Krowicki, Zbigniew K; Kapusta, Daniel R

    2011-04-01

    Strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and glycine-immunoreactive fibers are expressed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), yet the functional significance of this innervation is unclear. Therefore, these studies examined the changes in cardiovascular and renal function and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) produced by the microinjection of glycine (5 and 50 nmol) into the PVN of conscious Sprague-Dawley rats. Microinjection of glycine into, but not outside of, the PVN dose-dependently increased urine flow rate and urinary sodium excretion and decreased RSNA. At the higher dose, PVN glycine also decreased heart rate; neither 5 nor 50 nmol PVN glycine altered mean arterial pressure. The glycine (50 nmol)-evoked diuresis and natriuresis were abolished in rats continuously infused intravenously with [Arg(8)]-vasopressin. Furthermore, chronic bilateral renal denervation prevented the bradycardia and diuresis to PVN glycine and blunted the natriuresis. In other studies, unilateral PVN pretreatment with the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine (1.6 nmol) prevented the effects of PVN glycine (50 nmol) on heart rate, RSNA, and renal excretory function. When microinjected bilaterally, PVN strychnine (1.6 nmol per site) evoked a significant increase in heart rate and RSNA without altering renal excretory function. These findings demonstrate that in conscious rats glycine acts in the PVN to enhance the renal excretion of water and sodium and decrease central sympathetic outflow to the heart and kidneys. Although endogenous PVN glycine inputs elicit a tonic control of heart rate and RSNA, the renal excretory responses to PVN glycine seem to be caused primarily by the inhibition of arginine vasopressin secretion.

  12. Role of amygdala central nucleus in aversive learning produced by shock or by unexpected omission of food

    PubMed Central

    Purgert, Robert J.; Wheeler, Daniel S.; McDannald, Michael A.; Holland, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Many psychological learning theories have noted commonalities between aversive states produced by presentation of negative reinforcers such as electric shock and the omission of expected positive reinforcers such as food. Here, three groups of rats received training with one auditory cue paired with shock and another with the omission of expected food, a shock-paired cue and a food-omission control cue, or a food-omission cue and a shock control cue. Food-omission cues were established by contrast with food delivery; after extensive light-food pairings, the light was followed by the food-omission cue instead of food. Aversiveness of the food-omission cue was assessed with a conditioned punishment procedure, in which presentation of that cue was made contingent on performance of one previously-trained instrumental response, while a second response had no consequences. We found that rats with lesions of amygdala central nucleus (CeA) showed impaired acquisition of freezing to the cue paired with shock and no evidence for acquisition of aversive properties by the cue that accompanied the omission of expected food. Furthermore, analyses of Arc and Homer1a mRNAs after rats were exposed to a two-epoch test procedure that allowed assessment of gene expression produced by two different test stimuli showed that both food-omission and shock-paired cues generated more neuronal activity in CeA than appropriate control cues. However, the number of neurons that were activated by both shock and food-omission cues was not significantly greater than expected by chance. Thus, under these test conditions, different subsets of CeA neurons represented these two aversive states. PMID:22396420

  13. Inactivation of the central nucleus of the amygdala reduces the effect of punishment on cocaine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Xue, YueQiang; Steketee, Jeffery D; Sun, WenLin

    2012-03-01

    Continued cocaine use despite the negative consequences is a hallmark of cocaine addiction. One such consequence is punishment, which is often used by society to curb cocaine use. Unfortunately, we know little about the mechanism involved in regulation by punishment of cocaine use. The fact that cocaine addicts continue to use cocaine despite potentially severe punishment suggests that the mechanism may be impaired. Such impairment is expected to critically contribute to compulsive cocaine use. This study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeN) plays a critical role in such regulation. To this end, rats were trained to press a lever to self-administer cocaine under a chained schedule: a response on one lever (cocaine-seeking lever) led to access to the other lever (cocaine-taking lever), on which a response was reinforced by cocaine and cues. Thereafter, responses on the seeking lever were punished by footshock with a probability of 0.5. Cocaine self-administration (SA) was significantly suppressed by punishment in an intensity-dependent manner. Interestingly, rats trained with daily 6-h (extended access) but not 2-h (limited access) sessions showed resistance to the lower intensity of punishment. Inactivation of the CeN induced a robust anti-punishment effect in both groups. These data provided evidence that the CeN is a critical neural substrate involved in regulation by punishment of cocaine SA. Rats with a history of extended cocaine SA appeared to be less sensitive to punishment. The decreased sensitivity could result from the neuroplastic changes induced by extended cocaine SA in the CeN.

  14. Presynaptic BK Channels Modulate Ethanol-Induced Enhancement of GABAergic Transmission in the Rat Central Amygdala Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Madison, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium BK channels are widely expressed in the brain and are involved in the regulation of neuronal functions such as neurotransmitter release. However, their possible role in mediating ethanol-induced GABA release is still unknown. We assessed the role of BK channels in modulating the action of ethanol on inhibitory synaptic transmission mediated via GABAA receptors in the rat central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs) mediated by GABAA receptors were isolated from CeA neurons under whole-cell voltage clamp, and their response to selective BK channel antagonists, channel activators, or ethanol was analyzed. Blocking BK channels with the specific BK channel antagonist paxilline significantly increased the mean amplitude of eIPSCs, whereas the activation of BK channels with the channel opener NS1619 reversibly attenuated the mean amplitude of eIPSCs. Ethanol (50 mm) alone enhanced the amplitude of eIPSCs but failed to further enhance eIPSCs in the slices pretreated with paxilline. Bath application of either BK channel blockers significantly increased the frequency of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs). Similarly, 50 mm ethanol alone also enhanced mIPSC frequency. Increases in mIPSC frequency by either selective BK channel antagonists or ethanol were not accompanied with changes in the amplitude of mIPSCs. Furthermore, following bath application of BK channel blockers for 10 min, ethanol failed to further increase mIPSC frequency. Together, these results suggest that blocking BK channels mimics the effects of ethanol on GABA release and that presynaptic BK channels could serve as a target for ethanol effects in CeA. PMID:25297098

  15. Acute tianeptine treatment selectively modulates neuronal activation in the central nucleus of the amygdala and attenuates fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Godsil, B P; Bontempi, B; Mailliet, F; Delagrange, P; Spedding, M; Jay, T M

    2015-11-01

    Antidepressant drugs are commonly prescribed treatments for anxiety disorders, and there is growing interest in understanding how these drugs impact fear extinction because extinction learning is pivotal to successful exposure-based therapy (EBT). A key objective within this domain is understanding how antidepressants alter the activation of specific elements of the limbic-based network that governs such fear processing. Chronic treatment with the antidepressant tianeptine has been shown to reduce the acquisition of extinction learning in rats, yet the drug's acute influence on activation in prefrontal and amygdalar regions, and on extinction learning are not well understood. To assess its influence on cellular activation, rats were injected with tianeptine and Fos immunoreactivity was measured in these regions. Acute tianeptine treatment selectively altered Fos expression within subdivisions of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) in a bidirectional manner that varied in relation to ongoing activation within the capsular subdivision and its prefrontal and intra-amygdalar inputs. This pattern of results suggests that the drug can conditionally modulate the activation of CEA subdivisions, which contain microcircuits strongly implicated in fear processing. The effect of acute tianeptine was also examined with respect to the acquisition, consolidation and expression of fear extinction in rats. Acute tianeptine attenuated extinction learning as well as the recall of extinction memory, which underscores that acute dosing with the drug could alter learning during EBT. Together these findings provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism supporting tianeptine's clinical efficacy, as well as its potential influence on CEA-based learning mechanisms.

  16. Binge Alcohol Drinking by Mice Requires Intact Group1 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Signaling Within the Central Nucleus of the Amygdale

    PubMed Central

    Cozzoli, Debra K; Courson, Justin; Wroten, Melissa G; Greentree, Daniel I; Lum, Emily N; Campbell, Rianne R; Thompson, Andrew B; Maliniak, Dan; Worley, Paul F; Jonquieres, Georg; Klugmann, Matthias; Finn, Deborah A; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that binge alcohol drinking (intake resulting in blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) ⩾80 mg% within a 2-h period) is the most prevalent form of alcohol-use disorders (AUD), a large knowledge gap exists regarding how this form of AUD influences neural circuits mediating alcohol reinforcement. The present study employed integrative approaches to examine the functional relevance of binge drinking-induced changes in glutamate receptors, their associated scaffolding proteins and certain signaling molecules within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). A 30-day history of binge alcohol drinking (for example, 4–5 g kg−1 per 2 h−1) elevated CeA levels of mGluR1, GluN2B, Homer2a/b and phospholipase C (PLC) β3, without significantly altering protein expression within the adjacent basolateral amygdala. An intra-CeA infusion of mGluR1, mGluR5 and PLC inhibitors all dose-dependently reduced binge intake, without influencing sucrose drinking. The effects of co-infusing mGluR1 and PLC inhibitors were additive, whereas those of coinhibiting mGluR5 and PLC were not, indicating that the efficacy of mGluR1 blockade to lower binge intake involves a pathway independent of PLC activation. The efficacy of mGluR1, mGluR5 and PLC inhibitors to reduce binge intake depended upon intact Homer2 expression as revealed through neuropharmacological studies of Homer2 null mutant mice. Collectively, these data indicate binge alcohol-induced increases in Group1 mGluR signaling within the CeA as a neuroadaptation maintaining excessive alcohol intake, which may contribute to the propensity to binge drink. PMID:23966068

  17. Natural Vocalizations in the Mammalian Inferior Colliculus are Broadly Encoded by a Small Number of Independent Multi-Units.

    PubMed

    Lyzwa, Dominika; Herrmann, J Michael; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2015-01-01

    How complex natural sounds are represented by the main converging center of the auditory midbrain, the central inferior colliculus, is an open question. We applied neural discrimination to determine the variation of detailed encoding of individual vocalizations across the best frequency gradient of the central inferior colliculus. The analysis was based on collective responses from several neurons. These multi-unit spike trains were recorded from guinea pigs exposed to a spectrotemporally rich set of eleven species-specific vocalizations. Spike trains of disparate units from the same recording were combined in order to investigate whether groups of multi-unit clusters represent the whole set of vocalizations more reliably than only one unit, and whether temporal response correlations between them facilitate an unambiguous neural representation of the vocalizations. We found a spatial distribution of the capability to accurately encode groups of vocalizations across the best frequency gradient. Different vocalizations are optimally discriminated at different locations of the best frequency gradient. Furthermore, groups of a few multi-unit clusters yield improved discrimination over only one multi-unit cluster between all tested vocalizations. However, temporal response correlations between units do not yield better discrimination. Our study is based on a large set of units of simultaneously recorded responses from several guinea pigs and electrode insertion positions. Our findings suggest a broadly distributed code for behaviorally relevant vocalizations in the mammalian inferior colliculus. Responses from a few non-interacting units are sufficient to faithfully represent the whole set of studied vocalizations with diverse spectrotemporal properties.

  18. Computer-assisted 3-D reconstructions of Golgi-impregnated neurons in the cortical regions of the inferior colliculus of rat.

    PubMed

    Malmierca, Manuel S; Blackstad, Theodor W; Osen, Kirsten K

    2011-04-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) is the main auditory nucleus in the midbrain. This auditory center is made of a central nucleus (CNIC) characterized by a distinct laminar organization that is surrounded by cortical regions. The neuronal types in the CNIC are well established but thus far, the neuronal composition and functional roles of the cortical regions are not fully appreciated. As dendritic architecture is critical for the synaptic integrative properties of neurons, a detailed analysis of the dendritic architecture of the neurons in the collicular cortical regions should shed light on our understanding of their roles in collicular function. In the present study, we have used the del Rio-Hortega Golgi procedure to impregnate individual neurons within the IC. Rat brains were embedded in resin and sectioned serially to allow quantitative 3-D analyses of single neurons or groups of neurons. Our results demonstrate that the cortical regions of the IC are made up of unique sets of neuronal types and that there is an interdigitation of dendrites at the cortical borders. This latter feature may have led to difficulty in delineating a sharp border between the CNIC and cortical regions in previous studies. The quantitative analysis further demonstrates that there are significant differences in many of the dendritic parameters tested when compared to the neurons from the CNIC. Moreover, we observed that the neuronal populations of the cortical regions vary from the laminar pattern of the CNIC and from each other. Since the main organizing principle of the CNIC is the laminar organization of 'flat' neurons, evidence that cortical IC regions lack flat neurons supports the subdivision schema presented here.

  19. Interactions of norepinephrine and galanin in the central amygdala and lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulate the behavioral response to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Morilak, David A; Cecchi, Marco; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2003-06-27

    Many aspects of drug abuse and addiction share neurobiological substrates with the modulatory processes underlying the response and adaptation to acute stress. In particular, the ascending noradrenergic system has been implicated in facilitating the response to stress, and in stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking behavior. Thus, to better understand the link between stress and addictive behaviors, it would be informative to understand better the modulatory function of the ascending noradrenergic system, and its interaction with other neurotransmitters with which it is closely associated or co-localized, such as the neuropeptide galanin. In this paper, we review a series of studies investigating the functional interactions of norepinephrine and galanin in modulating the behavioral response to acute stress in two components of the extended amygdala, the central nucleus of the amygdala and the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. We showed that norepinephrine facilitates behavioral reactivity to stress on the elevated plus-maze and social interaction tests. However, when stress-induced activation of the noradrenergic system was enhanced by blocking inhibitory adrenergic autoreceptors, galanin release was recruited in the central amygdala, acting to attenuate the behavioral response to stress. By contrast, stress-induced galanin release in the lateral bed nucleus appeared to be independent of enhanced noradrenergic activation, and unlike the central amygdala, both galanin and norepinephrine facilitated behavioral stress reactivity in the bed nucleus. The different modes of interaction and differential region- and response-specificity of galanin and norepinephrine suggest that a complex neural circuit interconnecting these two regions is involved in the modulatory effects of norepinephrine and galanin on the behavioral response to stress. Such complexity may allow for flexibility and plasticity in stress adaptation, and may also contribute to behavioral

  20. Autoradiographic distribution of /sup 125/I-galanin binding sites in the rat central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Skofitsch, G.; Sills, M.A.; Jacobowitz, D.M.

    1986-11-01

    Galanin (GAL) binding sites in coronal sections of the rat brain were demonstrated using autoradiographic methods. Scatchard analysis of /sup 125/I-GAL binding to slide-mounted tissue sections revealed saturable binding to a single class of receptors with a Kd of approximately 0.2 nM. /sup 125/I-GAL binding sites were demonstrated throughout the rat central nervous system. Dense binding was observed in the following areas: prefrontal cortex, the anterior nuclei of the olfactory bulb, several nuclei of the amygdaloid complex, the dorsal septal area, dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the ventral pallidum, the internal medullary laminae of the thalamus, medial pretectal nucleus, nucleus of the medial optic tract, borderline area of the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus adjacent to the spinal trigeminal tract, the substantia gelatinosa and the superficial layers of the dorsal spinal cord. Moderate binding was observed in the piriform, periamygdaloid, entorhinal, insular cortex and the subiculum, the nucleus accumbens, medial forebrain bundle, anterior hypothalamic, ventromedial, dorsal premamillary, lateral and periventricular thalamic nuclei, the subzona incerta, Forel's field H1 and H2, periventricular gray matter, medial and superficial gray strata of the superior colliculus, dorsal parts of the central gray, peripeduncular area, the interpeduncular nucleus, substantia nigra zona compacta, ventral tegmental area, the dorsal and ventral parabrachial and parvocellular reticular nuclei. The preponderance of GAL-binding in somatosensory as well as in limbic areas suggests a possible involvement of GAL in a variety of brain functions.

  1. Functional Microarchitecture of the Mouse Dorsal Inferior Colliculus Revealed through In Vivo Two-Photon Calcium Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barnstedt, Oliver; Keating, Peter; Weissenberger, Yves

    2015-01-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) is an obligatory relay for ascending auditory inputs from the brainstem and receives descending input from the auditory cortex. The IC comprises a central nucleus (CNIC), surrounded by several shell regions, but the internal organization of this midbrain nucleus remains incompletely understood. We used two-photon calcium imaging to study the functional microarchitecture of both neurons in the mouse dorsal IC and corticocollicular axons that terminate there. In contrast to previous electrophysiological studies, our approach revealed a clear functional distinction between the CNIC and the dorsal cortex of the IC (DCIC), suggesting that the mouse midbrain is more similar to that of other mammals than previously thought. We found that the DCIC comprises a thin sheet of neurons, sometimes extending barely 100 μm below the pial surface. The sound frequency representation in the DCIC approximated the mouse's full hearing range, whereas dorsal CNIC neurons almost exclusively preferred low frequencies. The response properties of neurons in these two regions were otherwise surprisingly similar, and the frequency tuning of DCIC neurons was only slightly broader than that of CNIC neurons. In several animals, frequency gradients were observed in the DCIC, and a comparable tonotopic arrangement was observed across the boutons of the corticocollicular axons, which form a dense mesh beneath the dorsal surface of the IC. Nevertheless, acoustically responsive corticocollicular boutons were sparse, produced unreliable responses, and were more broadly tuned than DCIC neurons, suggesting that they have a largely modulatory rather than driving influence on auditory midbrain neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Due to its genetic tractability, the mouse is fast becoming the most popular animal model for sensory neuroscience. Nevertheless, many aspects of its neural architecture are still poorly understood. Here, we image the dorsal auditory midbrain and its

  2. Functional Microarchitecture of the Mouse Dorsal Inferior Colliculus Revealed through In Vivo Two-Photon Calcium Imaging.

    PubMed

    Barnstedt, Oliver; Keating, Peter; Weissenberger, Yves; King, Andrew J; Dahmen, Johannes C

    2015-08-05

    The inferior colliculus (IC) is an obligatory relay for ascending auditory inputs from the brainstem and receives descending input from the auditory cortex. The IC comprises a central nucleus (CNIC), surrounded by several shell regions, but the internal organization of this midbrain nucleus remains incompletely understood. We used two-photon calcium imaging to study the functional microarchitecture of both neurons in the mouse dorsal IC and corticocollicular axons that terminate there. In contrast to previous electrophysiological studies, our approach revealed a clear functional distinction between the CNIC and the dorsal cortex of the IC (DCIC), suggesting that the mouse midbrain is more similar to that of other mammals than previously thought. We found that the DCIC comprises a thin sheet of neurons, sometimes extending barely 100 μm below the pial surface. The sound frequency representation in the DCIC approximated the mouse's full hearing range, whereas dorsal CNIC neurons almost exclusively preferred low frequencies. The response properties of neurons in these two regions were otherwise surprisingly similar, and the frequency tuning of DCIC neurons was only slightly broader than that of CNIC neurons. In several animals, frequency gradients were observed in the DCIC, and a comparable tonotopic arrangement was observed across the boutons of the corticocollicular axons, which form a dense mesh beneath the dorsal surface of the IC. Nevertheless, acoustically responsive corticocollicular boutons were sparse, produced unreliable responses, and were more broadly tuned than DCIC neurons, suggesting that they have a largely modulatory rather than driving influence on auditory midbrain neurons. Due to its genetic tractability, the mouse is fast becoming the most popular animal model for sensory neuroscience. Nevertheless, many aspects of its neural architecture are still poorly understood. Here, we image the dorsal auditory midbrain and its inputs from the cortex

  3. Orexin-1 receptor antagonist in central nucleus of the amygdala attenuates the acquisition of flavor-taste preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Risco, Severiano; Mediavilla, Cristina

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the intracerebroventricular administration of SB-334867-A, a selective antagonist of orexin OX1R receptors, blocks the acquisition of saccharin-induced conditioned flavor preference (CFP) but not LiCl-induced taste aversion learning (TAL). Orexinergic fibers from the lateral hypothalamus end in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), which expresses orexin OX1R receptors. Taste and sensory inputs also are present in CeA, which may contribute to the development of taste learning. This study analyzed the effect of two doses (1.5 and 6μg/0.5μl) of SB-334867-A administered into the CeA on flavor-taste preference induced by saccharin and on TAL induced by a single administration of LiCl (0.15M, 20ml/kg, i.p.). Outcomes indicate that inactivation of orexinergic receptors in the CeA attenuates flavor-taste preference in a two-bottle test (saccharin vs. water). Intra-amygdalar SB-334867-A does not affect gustatory processing or the preference for the sweet taste of saccharin given that SB-334867-A- and DMSO-treated groups (control animals) increased the intake of the saccharin-associated flavor across training acquisition sessions. Furthermore, SB-334867-A in the CeA does not block TAL acquisition ruling out the possibility that functional inactivation of OX1R receptors interferes with taste processing. Orexin receptors in the CeA appear to intervene in the association of a flavor with orosensory stimuli, e.g., a sweet and pleasant taste, but could be unnecessary when the association is established with visceral stimuli, e.g., lithium chloride. These data suggest that orexinergic projections to the CeA may contribute to the reinforcing signals facilitating the acquisition of taste learning and the change in hedonic evaluation of the taste, which would have important implications for the OX1R-targeted pharmacological treatment of eating disorders.

  4. The impact of ageing, fasting and high-fat diet on central and peripheral glucose tolerance and glucose-sensing neural networks in the arcuate nucleus.

    PubMed

    van den Top, Marco; Zhao, Fei-Yue; Pattaranit, Ratchada; Michael, Natalie J; Munder, Astrid; Pryor, Jack T; Renaud, Leo P; Spanswick, David

    2017-08-23

    Obesity and aging are risk factors for diabetes. Here we investigated effects of aging, obesity and fasting on central and peripheral glucose tolerance and on glucose-sensing neuronal function in the arcuate nucleus of rats, with a view to providing insight into central mechanisms regulating glucose homeostasis and how they change or are subject to dysfunction with aging and obesity. We show that following a glucose load, central glucose tolerance at the level of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma is significantly reduced in rats maintained on high fat diet (HFD). With aging, up to 2 years, central glucose tolerance was impaired in an age-dependent manner whilst peripheral glucose tolerance remained unaffected. Aging-induced peripheral glucose intolerance was improved by a 24 hour fast, whilst central glucose tolerance was not corrected. Pre-wean, immature animals have elevated basal plasma glucose levels and a delayed increase in central glucose levels following peripheral glucose injection compared to mature animals. Electrophysiological recording techniques revealed an energy-status-dependent role for glucose excited, inhibited and adapting neurons along with glucose-induced changes in synaptic transmission. We conclude that aging affects central whilst HFD profoundly affects central and peripheral glucose tolerance, and glucose-sensing neurons adapt function in an energy-status-dependent manner. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Inferior Colliculus Lesions Impair Eyeblink Conditioning in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, John H.; Halverson, Hunter E.; Hubbard, Erin M.

    2007-01-01

    The neural plasticity necessary for acquisition and retention of eyeblink conditioning has been localized to the cerebellum. However, the sources of sensory input to the cerebellum that are necessary for establishing learning-related plasticity have not been identified completely. The inferior colliculus may be a source of sensory input to the…

  6. Inferior Colliculus Lesions Impair Eyeblink Conditioning in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, John H.; Halverson, Hunter E.; Hubbard, Erin M.

    2007-01-01

    The neural plasticity necessary for acquisition and retention of eyeblink conditioning has been localized to the cerebellum. However, the sources of sensory input to the cerebellum that are necessary for establishing learning-related plasticity have not been identified completely. The inferior colliculus may be a source of sensory input to the…

  7. Interactions between opioid-peptides-containing pathways and GABA(A)-receptors-mediated systems modulate panic-like-induced behaviors elicited by electric and chemical stimulation of the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Fabrício; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2006-08-09

    Aiming to clarify the effect of interactive interconnections between the endogenous opioid peptides-neural links and GABAergic pathways on panic-like responses, in the present work, the effect of the peripheral and central administration of morphine or the non-specific opioid receptors antagonist naloxone was evaluated on the fear-induced responses (defensive attention, defensive immobility and escape behavior) elicited by electric and chemical stimulation of the inferior colliculus. Central microinjections of opioid drugs in the inferior colliculus were also performed followed by local administration of the GABA(A)-receptor antagonist bicuculline. The defensive behavior elicited by the blockade of GABAergic receptors in the inferior colliculus had been quantitatively analyzed, recording the number of crossing, jump, rotation and rearing, in each minute, during 30 min, in the open-field test. The opioid receptors stimulation with morphine decreased the defensive attention, the defensive immobility and escape behavior thresholds, and the non-specific opioid receptors blockade caused opposite effects, enhancing the defensive behavior thresholds. These effects were corroborated by either the stimulation or the inhibition of opioid receptors followed by the GABA(A) receptor blockade with bicuculline, microinjected into the inferior colliculus. There was a significant increase in the diverse fear-induced responses caused by bicuculline with the pretreatment of the inferior colliculus with morphine, and the opposite effect was recorded after the pretreatment of the inferior colliculus nuclei with naloxone followed by bicuculline local administration. These findings suggest an interaction between endogenous opioid-peptides-containing connections and GABA(A)-receptor-mediated system with direct influence on the organization of the panic-like or fear-induced responses elaborated in the inferior colliculus during critical emotional states.

  8. Stimulation of food intake after central galanin is associated with arcuate nucleus activation and does not differ between genetically selected low and high body weight lines of chickens.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Christopher J; Newmyer, Brandon A; Webster, Rebekah I; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Siegel, Paul B; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Cline, Mark A

    2013-08-01

    Galanin, a 29 residue peptide found in the hypothalamus, causes orexigenic effects in a variety of species. In the present study, we investigated appetite-associated effects of galanin in chicks from lines which have been selected from a common founder population for either low or high body weight. The low line consists of some anorexic individuals and there are obese individuals in the high line. Central galanin caused increased food intake in both lines with the magnitude of response similar in both lines. We also quantified the number of c-Fos immunoreactive cells in several hypothalamic nuclei that are associated with appetite. Only the arcuate nucleus had an increase in the number of reactive cells, a response that was similar for both lines. From these results we concluded that selection for body weight likely did not affect galanin function on induction of feeding in either lines, and that the effect of galanin is associated with arcuate nucleus activation in chicks.

  9. Projections from the cochlear nucleus to the superior paraolivary nucleus in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Schofield, B R

    1995-09-11

    Axonal tracing techniques were used to study the projection from the cochlear nucleus to the superior paraolivary nucleus in guinea pigs. Different tracers were used to identify the cell types that give rise to the projections, the morphology of their axons, and the cell types that they contact in the superior paraolivary nucleus. Injections of Fluoro-Gold or peroxidase-labeled-WGA and HRP into the superior paraolivary nucleus labeled multipolar cells and octopus cells bilaterally in the ventral cochlear nucleus, mainly on the contralateral side. Injections of PHAL into the ventral cochlear nucleus labeled two types of axons in the superior paraolivary nucleus. Thin axons branch infrequently and give rise primarily to small, en passant boutons. Thick axons have larger boutons, many of which are terminal boutons that arise from short collaterals. Thin axons appear to originate from multipolar cells, whereas thick axons probably originate from octopus cells. Both types are found bilaterally after an injection into the ventral cochlear nucleus on one side. Individual thick or thin axons may contact multiple cell types in the superior paraolivary nucleus. Individual cells in the superior paraolivary nucleus can receive convergent input from both thick and thin axons. Combined anterograde and retrograde transport of different fluorescent tracers was used to identify the projections of the cells in the superior paraolivary nucleus that receive inputs from the ventral cochlear nucleus. Cells in the superior paraolivary nucleus that projected to the ipsilateral cochlear nucleus or to the ipsilateral inferior colliculus appeared to be contacted by axons that were labeled by anterograde transport from the contralateral ventral cochlear nucleus. Thus the projections to the superior paraolivary nucleus are in a position to affect the activity in both ascending and descending auditory pathways.

  10. Pathology of the Superior Colliculus in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Richard A; McKee, Ann C; Cairns, Nigel J

    2017-01-01

    To investigate neuropathological changes in the superior colliculus in chronic traumatic encephalopathy. The densities of the tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary tangles, neuropil threads, dot-like grains, astrocytic tangles, and neuritic plaques, together with abnormally enlarged neurons, typical neurons, vacuolation, and frequency of contacts with blood vessels, were studied across the superior colliculus from pia mater to the periaqueductal gray in eight chronic traumatic encephalopathy and six control cases. Tau-immunoreactive pathology was absent in the superior colliculus of controls but present in varying degrees in all chronic traumatic encephalopathy cases, significant densities of tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary tangles, NT, or dot-like grains being present in three cases. No significant differences in overall density of the tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary tangles, neuropil threads, dot-like grains, enlarged neurons, vacuoles, or contacts with blood vessels were observed in control and chronic traumatic encephalopathy cases, but chronic traumatic encephalopathy cases had significantly lower mean densities of neurons. The distribution of surviving neurons across the superior colliculus suggested greater neuronal loss in intermediate and lower laminae in chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Changes in density of the tau-immunoreactive pathology across the laminae were variable, but in six chronic traumatic encephalopathy cases, densities of tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary tangles, neuropil threads, or dot-like grains were significantly greater in intermediate and lower laminae. Pathological changes were not correlated with the distribution of blood vessels. The data suggest significant pathology affecting the superior colliculus in a proportion of chronic traumatic encephalopathy cases with a laminar distribution which could compromise motor function rather than sensory analysis.

  11. Calcitonin gene-related peptide erases the fear memory and facilitates long-term potentiation in the central nucleus of the amygdala in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin; Zhang, Jie-Ting; Liu, Jue; Yang, Si; Chen, Tao; Chen, Jian-Guo; Wang, Fang

    2015-11-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37 amino acid neuropeptide, which plays a critical role in the central nervous system. CGRP binds to G protein-coupled receptors, including CGRP1, which couples positively to adenylyl cyclase (AC) and protein kinase A (PKA) activation. CGRP and CGRP1 receptors are enriched in central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), the main part of the amygdala, which regulates conditioned fear memories. Here, we reported the importance of CGRP and CGRP1 receptor for synaptic plasticity in the CeA and the extinction of fear memory in rats. Our electrophysiological and behavioral in vitro and in vivo results showed exogenous application of CGRP induced an immediate and lasting long-term potentiation in the basolateral nucleus of amygdala-CeA pathway, but not in the lateral nucleus of amygdala-CeA pathway, while bilateral intra-CeA infusion CGRP (0, 5, 13 and 21 μM/side) dose dependently enhanced fear memory extinction. The effects were blocked by CGRP1 receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37 ), N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors antagonist MK801 and PKA inhibitor H89. These results demonstrate that CGRP can lead to long-term potentiation of basolateral nucleus of amygdala-CeA pathway through a PKA-dependent postsynaptic mechanism that involved N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and enhance the extinction of fear memory in rats. Together, the results strongly support a pivotal role of CGRP in the synaptic plasticity of CeA and extinction of fear memory. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays an essential role in synaptic plasticity in the amygdala and fear memory. We found that CGRP-induced chemical long-term potentiation (LTP) in a dose-dependent way in the BLA-CeA (basolateral and central nucleus of amygdala, respectively) pathway and enhanced fear memory extinction in rats through a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent postsynaptic mechanism that involved NMDA receptors. These results support a pivotal role of CGRP in amygdala. © 2015 International

  12. Neurochemical properties of the synapses between the parabrachial nucleus-derived CGRP-positive axonal terminals and the GABAergic neurons in the lateral capsular division of central nucleus of amygdala.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ya-Cheng; Chen, Yan-Zhou; Wei, Yan-Yan; He, Xiao-Tao; Li, Xia; Hu, Wei; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Wang, Wen; Wu, Sheng-Xi; Dong, Yu-Lin

    2015-02-01

    The lateral capsular division of central nucleus of amygdala (CeC) contains neurons using γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) as the predominant neurotransmitter and expresses abundant calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-positive terminals. However, the relationship between them has not been revealed yet. Using GAD67-green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in mouse, we investigated the neurochemical features of synapses between CGRP-positive terminals and GABAergic neurons within CeC and the potential involvement of CGRP1 receptor by combining fluorescent in situ hybridization for CGRP1 receptor mRNA with immunofluorescent histochemistry for GFP and CGRP. The ultrastructures of these synapses were investigated with pre-embedding electron microscopy for GFP and CGRP. We found that some GABAergic neurons in the CeC received parabrachial nucleus (PBN) derived CGRP innervations and some of these GABAergic neurons can be activated by subcutaneous injection of formalin. Moreover, more than 90 % GABAergic neurons innervated by CGRP-positive terminal also express CGRP1 receptor mRNA. The CGRP-positive fibers made symmetric synapses onto the GABAergic somata, and asymmetric synapses onto the GABA-LI dendritic shafts and spines. This study provides direct ultrastructural evidences for the synaptic contacts between CGRP-positive terminals and GABAergic neurons within the CeC, which may underlie the pain-related neural pathway from PBN to CeC and be involved in the chronic pain modulation.

  13. Cortical projections to the superior colliculus in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri)

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Wei, Haiyang; Reed, Jamie L; Bickford, Martha E; Petry, Heywood M; Kaas, Jon H

    2012-01-01

    The visuomotor functions of the superior colliculus depend not only on direct inputs from the retina, but also on inputs from neocortex. As mammals vary in the areal organization of neocortex, and in the organization of the number of visual and visuomotor areas, patterns of corticotectal projections vary. Primates in particular have a large number of visual areas projecting to the superior colliculus. As tree shrews are close relatives of primates, and they are also highly visual, we studied the distribution of cortical neurons projecting to the superior colliculus by injecting anatomical tracers into the colliculus. Since projections from visuotopically organized visual areas are expected to match the visuotopy of the superior colliculus, injections at different retinotopic locations in the superior colliculus provide information about the locations and organization of topographic areas in extrastriate cortex. Small injections in the superior colliculus labeled neurons in locations within areas 17 (V1) and 18 (V2) that are consistent with the known topography of these areas and the superior colliculus. In addition, the separate locations of clusters of labeled cells in temporal visual cortex provide evidence for five or more topographically organized areas. Injections that included deeper layers of the superior colliculus also labeled neurons in medial frontal cortex, likely in premotor cortex. Only occasional labeled neurons were observed in somatosensory or auditory cortex. Regardless of tracer injection location, we found that unlike primates, a substantial projection to the superior colliculus from posterior parietal cortex is not a characteristic of tree shrews. PMID:23124770

  14. Cortical projections to the superior colliculus in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Wei, Haiyang; Reed, Jamie L; Bickford, Martha E; Petry, Heywood M; Kaas, Jon H

    2013-05-01

    The visuomotor functions of the superior colliculus depend not only on direct inputs from the retina, but also on inputs from neocortex. As mammals vary in the areal organization of neocortex, and in the organization of the number of visual and visuomotor areas, patterns of corticotectal projections vary. Primates in particular have a large number of visual areas projecting to the superior colliculus. As tree shrews are close relatives of primates, and they are also highly visual, we studied the distribution of cortical neurons projecting to the superior colliculus by injecting anatomical tracers into the colliculus. Since projections from visuotopically organized visual areas are expected to match the visuotopy of the superior colliculus, injections at different retinotopic locations in the superior colliculus provide information about the locations and organization of topographic areas in extrastriate cortex. Small injections in the superior colliculus labeled neurons in locations within areas 17 (V1) and 18 (V2) that are consistent with the known topography of these areas and the superior colliculus. In addition, the separate locations of clusters of labeled cells in temporal visual cortex provide evidence for five or more topographically organized areas. Injections that included deeper layers of the superior colliculus also labeled neurons in medial frontal cortex, likely in premotor cortex. Only occasional labeled neurons were observed in somatosensory or auditory cortex. Regardless of tracer injection location, we found that, unlike primates, a substantial projection to the superior colliculus from posterior parietal cortex is not a characteristic of tree shrews.

  15. A phenomenological model of peripheral and central neural responses to amplitude-modulated tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Paul C.; Carney, Laurel H.

    2004-10-01

    A phenomenological model with time-varying excitation and inhibition was developed to study possible neural mechanisms underlying changes in the representation of temporal envelopes along the auditory pathway. A modified version of an existing auditory-nerve model [Zhang et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 648-670 (2001)] was used to provide inputs to higher hypothetical processing centers. Model responses were compared directly to published physiological data at three levels: the auditory nerve, ventral cochlear nucleus, and inferior colliculus. Trends and absolute values of both average firing rate and synchrony to the modulation period were accurately predicted at each level for a wide range of stimulus modulation depths and modulation frequencies. The diversity of central physiological responses was accounted for with realistic variations of model parameters. Specifically, enhanced synchrony in the cochlear nucleus and rate-tuning to modulation frequency in the inferior colliculus were predicted by choosing appropriate relative strengths and time courses of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to postsynaptic model cells. The proposed model is fundamentally different than others that have been used to explain the representation of envelopes in the mammalian midbrain, and it provides a computational tool for testing hypothesized relationships between physiology and psychophysics. .

  16. Colour and pattern selectivity of receptive fields in superior colliculus of marmoset monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Tailby, Chris; Cheong, Soon Keen; Pietersen, Alexander N; Solomon, Samuel G; Martin, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    The main subcortical visual targets of retinal output neurones (ganglion cells) are the parvocellular and magnocellular layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in the thalamus. In addition, a small and heterogeneous collection of ganglion cell axons projects to the koniocellular layers of the LGN, to the superior colliculus (SC), and to other subcortical targets. The functional (receptive field) properties and target specificity of these non-parvocellular, non-magnocellular populations remain poorly understood. It is known that one population of koniocellular layer cells in the LGN (blue-On cells) receives dominant functional input from short-wavelength sensitive (S or ‘blue’) cones. Here we asked whether SC neurones also receive S cone inputs. We made extracellular recordings from single neurones (n = 38) in the SC of anaesthetised marmoset monkeys. Responses to drifting and flashed gratings providing defined levels of cone contrast were measured. The SC receptive fields we recorded were often binocular, showed ‘complex cell’ like responses (On–Off responses), strong bandpass spatial frequency tuning, direction selectivity, and many showed strong and rapid habituation to repeatedly presented stimuli. We found no evidence for dominant S cone input to any SC neurone recorded. These data suggest that S cone signals may reach cortical pathways for colour vision exclusively through the koniocellular division of the lateral geniculate nucleus. PMID:22687612

  17. Onset of deconfinement in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gazdzicki, M.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Seyboth, P.

    2012-05-15

    The energy dependence of hadron production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions reveals anomalies-the kink, horn, and step. They were predicted as signals of the deconfinement phase transition and observed by the NA49 Collaboration in central PbPb collisions at the CERN SPS. This indicates the onset of the deconfinement in nucleus-nucleus collisions at about 30 A GeV.

  18. Effects of aging on peripheral and central auditory processing in rats.

    PubMed

    Costa, Margarida; Lepore, Franco; Prévost, François; Guillemot, Jean-Paul

    2016-08-01

    Hearing loss is a hallmark sign in the elderly population. Decline in auditory perception provokes deficits in the ability to localize sound sources and reduces speech perception, particularly in noise. In addition to a loss of peripheral hearing sensitivity, changes in more complex central structures have also been demonstrated. Related to these, this study examines the auditory directional maps in the deep layers of the superior colliculus of the rat. Hence, anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10 months) and aged (22 months) rats underwent distortion product of otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) to assess cochlear function. Then, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were assessed, followed by extracellular single-unit recordings to determine age-related effects on central auditory functions. DPOAE amplitude levels were decreased in aged rats although they were still present between 3.0 and 24.0 kHz. ABR level thresholds in aged rats were significantly elevated at an early (cochlear nucleus - wave II) stage in the auditory brainstem. In the superior colliculus, thresholds were increased and the tuning widths of the directional receptive fields were significantly wider. Moreover, no systematic directional spatial arrangement was present among the neurons of the aged rats, implying that the topographical organization of the auditory directional map was abolished. These results suggest that the deterioration of the auditory directional spatial map can, to some extent, be attributable to age-related dysfunction at more central, perceptual stages of auditory processing. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The central anorexigenic mechanism of amylin in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) involves pro-opiomelanocortin, calcitonin receptor, and the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jingwei; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Cline, Mark A

    2017-08-01

    Amylin is a 37-amino acid peptide hormone that exerts anorexigenic effects in humans and animals. We demonstrated that central injection of amylin into chicks affected feeding and related behaviors via the hypothalamus and brainstem, although the molecular mechanisms remained elusive. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying anorexigenic effects of amylin in 7 day-old Japanese quail. Food but not water intake was reduced after intracerebroventricular amylin injection, and the behavior analysis indicated that this was associated with decreased food pecks and preening. Whole hypothalamus and hypothalamic nuclei including the arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) and lateral hypothalamic area (LH) were extracted from quail at 1h post-injection for total RNA isolation. Real time PCR was performed to quantify mRNA abundance of amylin receptors, appetite-associated neuropeptides and monoamine-synthesis-related enzymes. Central amylin injection increased the mRNA abundance of calcitonin receptor (CALCR), receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) in the hypothalamus and individual hypothalamic nuclei. Relative quantities of CALCR and POMC mRNA were greater in the ARC of the amylin- than vehicle-treated group. Thus, amylin-mediated effects on food intake may involve POMC, monoamine synthesis, and amylin receptor 1 (a complex of CALCR and RAMP1) in the ARC. Together, these data provide novel insights on the hypothalamic-specific molecular mechanisms of amylin-induced food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Central auditory plasticity after carboplatin-induced unilateral inner ear damage in the chinchilla: up-regulation of GAP-43 in the ventral cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kraus, K S; Ding, D; Zhou, Y; Salvi, R J

    2009-09-01

    Inner ear damage may lead to structural changes in the central auditory system. In rat and chinchilla, cochlear ablation and noise trauma result in fiber growth and synaptogenesis in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). In this study, we documented the relationship between carboplatin-induced hair cell degeneration and VCN plasticity in the chinchilla. Unilateral application of carboplatin (5mg/ml) on the round window membrane resulted in massive hair cell loss. Outer hair cell degeneration showed a pronounced basal-to-apical gradient while inner hair cell loss was more equally distributed throughout the cochlea. Expression of the growth associated protein GAP-43, a well-established marker for synaptic plasticity, was up-regulated in the ipsilateral VCN at 15 and 31 days post-carboplatin, but not at 3 and 7 days. In contrast, the dorsal cochlear nucleus showed only little change. In VCN, the high-frequency area dorsally showed slightly yet significantly stronger GAP-43 up-regulation than the low-frequency area ventrally, possibly reflecting the high-to-low frequency gradient of hair cell degeneration. Synaptic modification or formation of new synapses may be a homeostatic process to re-adjust mismatched inputs from two ears. Alternatively, massive fiber growth may represent a deleterious process causing central hyperactivity that leads to loudness recruitment or tinnitus.

  1. Attention modulates sound processing in human auditory cortex but not the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Rinne, Teemu; Stecker, G Christopher; Kang, Xiaojian; Yund, E William; Herron, Timothy J; Woods, David L

    2007-08-27

    Auditory attention powerfully influences perception and modulates sound processing in auditory cortex, but the extent of attentional modulation in the subcortical auditory pathway remains poorly understood. We examined the effects of intermodal attention using functional magnetic resonance imaging of the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex in a demanding intermodal selective attention task using a silent imaging paradigm designed to optimize inferior colliculus activations. Both the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex showed strong activations to sound, but attentional modulations were restricted to auditory cortex.

  2. Superior colliculus encodes visual saliency before the primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    White, Brian J; Kan, Janis Y; Levy, Ron; Itti, Laurent; Munoz, Douglas P

    2017-08-29

    Models of visual attention postulate the existence of a bottom-up saliency map that is formed early in the visual processing stream. Although studies have reported evidence of a saliency map in various cortical brain areas, determining the contribution of phylogenetically older pathways is crucial to understanding its origin. Here, we compared saliency coding from neurons in two early gateways into the visual system: the primary visual cortex (V1) and the evolutionarily older superior colliculus (SC). We found that, while the response latency to visual stimulus onset was earlier for V1 neurons than superior colliculus superficial visual-layer neurons (SCs), the saliency representation emerged earlier in SCs than in V1. Because the dominant input to the SCs arises from V1, these relative timings are consistent with the hypothesis that SCs neurons pool the inputs from multiple V1 neurons to form a feature-agnostic saliency map, which may then be relayed to other brain areas.

  3. Damage to the dorsomedial thalamic nucleus, central lateral intralaminar thalamic nucleus, and midline thalamic nuclei on the right-side impair executive function and attention under conditions of high demand but not low demand.

    PubMed

    Edelstyn, N M J; Mayes, A R; Ellis, S J

    2014-04-01

    This study reports a patient, OG, with a unilateral right-sided thalamic lesion. High resolution 3T magnetic resonance imaging revealed damage to the parvicellular and magnocellular subdivisions of the dorsomedial thalamus (DMT), the central lateral intralaminar nucleus (also known as the paralamellar DMT), the paraventricular and the central medial midline thalamic nuclei. According to the neuropsychological literature, the DMT, the midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei influence a wide array of cognitive functions by virtue of their modulatory influences on executive function and attention, and this is particularly indicated under conditions of low arousal or high cognitive demand. We explored this prediction in OG, and compared his performance on a range of low and high demand versions of tests that tapped executive function and attention to a group of 6 age- and IQ-matched controls. OG, without exception, significantly under performed on the high-demand attention and executive function tasks, but performed normally on the low-demand versions. These findings extend and refine current understanding of the effects of thalamic lesion on attention and executive function.

  4. Electrophysiologic Responses in Hamster Superior Colliculus Evoked by Regenerating Retinal Axons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keirstead, S. A.; Rasminsky, M.; Fukuda, Y.; Carter, D. A.; Aguayo, A. J.; Vidal-Sanz, M.

    1989-10-01

    Autologous peripheral nerve grafts were used to permit and direct the regrowth of retinal ganglion cell axons from the eye to the ipsilateral superior colliculus of adult hamsters in which the optic nerves had been transected within the orbit. Extracellular recordings in the superior colliculus 15 to 18 weeks after graft insertion revealed excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic responses to visual stimulation. The finding of light-induced responses in neurons in the superficial layers of the superior colliculus close to the graft indicates that axons regenerating from axotomized retinal ganglion cells can establish electrophysiologically functional synapses with neurons in the superior colliculus of these adult mammals.

  5. Enhanced Modiolar Stimulation Effects in the Inferior Colliculus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    stimulation. Keywords: Cochlear Implant , Inferior Colliculus, Modiolar Stimulation I. INTRODUCTION Cochlear implants are used to provide hearing sensation...to the sensoneurally deaf. Bipolar electrical stimulation of a scala tympani cochlear implant produces a localized stimulus which has been measured...to diminish at about 9dB/octave [1]. Blamey et al. (1994) describes both a perceived low frequency shift by cochlear implant patients in response to

  6. Investigating the dynamics of the brain response to music: A central role of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Karsten; Fritz, Thomas; Mildner, Toralf; Richter, Maxi; Schulze, Katrin; Lepsien, Jöran; Schroeter, Matthias L; Möller, Harald E

    2015-08-01

    Ventral striatal activity has been previously shown to correspond well to reward value mediated by music. Here, we investigate the dynamic brain response to music and manipulated counterparts using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Counterparts of musical excerpts were produced by either manipulating the consonance/dissonance of the musical fragments or playing them backwards (or both). Results show a greater involvement of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens both when contrasting listening to music that is perceived as pleasant and listening to a manipulated version perceived as unpleasant (backward dissonant), as well as in a parametric analysis for increasing pleasantness. Notably, both analyses yielded a ventral striatal response that was strongest during an early phase of stimulus presentation. A hippocampal response to the musical stimuli was also observed, and was largely mediated by processing differences between listening to forward and backward music. This hippocampal involvement was again strongest during the early response to the music. Auditory cortex activity was more strongly evoked by the original (pleasant) music compared to its manipulated counterparts, but did not display a similar decline of activation over time as subcortical activity. These findings rather suggest that the ventral striatal/nucleus accumbens response during music listening is strongest in the first seconds and then declines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antagonizing Corticotropin-Releasing Factor in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Attenuates Fear-induced Reductions in Sleep but not Freezing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xianling; Wellman, Laurie L.; Yang, Linghui; Ambrozewicz, Marta A.; Tang, Xiangdong; Sanford, Larry D.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Contextual fear is followed by significant reductions in rapid eye movement sleep (REM) that are regulated by the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA). Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a major role in regulating the stress response as well as arousal, and CRF in CNA is implicated in stress-related behavior. To test the hypothesis that CRF regulation of CNA is involved in fear-induced alterations in REM, we determined the effects of microinjections into CNA of the CRF1 antagonist, antalarmin (ANT) on fear-induced reductions in REM. We also evaluated c-Fos activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), locus coeruleus (LC), and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) to determine whether activation of these regions was consistent with their roles in regulating stress and in the control of REM. Design: On separate days, rats were subjected to baseline and 2 shock training sessions (S1 and S2). Five days later, the rats received bilateral microinjections of ANT (4.8 mM) or vehicle (VEH) prior to exposure to the fearful context. Sleep was recorded for 20 h in each condition. Freezing was assessed during S1, S2, and context. Separate groups of rats received identical training and microinjections or handling control (HC) only, but were sacrificed 2 h after context exposure to assess c-Fos expression. Setting: NA. Patients or Participants: NA. Interventions: NA. Measurements and Results: Compared to baseline, S1 and S2 significantly reduced REM. Exposure to the fearful context reduced REM in VEH treated rats, whereas REM in ANT treated rats did not differ from baseline. ANT did not significantly alter freezing. Fear-induced c-Fos expression was decreased in PVN and LC after ANT compared to VEH. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that CRF receptors in CNA are involved in fear-induced reductions in REM and neural activation (as indicated by c-Fos) in stress and REM regulatory regions, but not in fear-induced freezing. Citation: Liu X; Wellman

  8. The selective neurotoxin DSP-4 impairs the noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus to the inferior colliculus in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hormigo, Sebastián; Horta Júnior, José de Anchieta de Castro e; Gómez-Nieto, Ricardo; López, Dolores E.

    2012-01-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) and the locus coeruleus (LC) are two midbrain nuclei that integrate multimodal information and play a major role in novelty detection to elicit an orienting response. Despite the reciprocal connections between these two structures, the projection pattern and target areas of the LC within the subdivisions of the rat IC are still unknown. Here, we used tract-tracing approaches combined with immunohistochemistry, densitometry, and confocal microscopy (CM) analysis to describe a projection from the LC to the IC. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) injections into the LC showed that the LC-IC projection is mainly ipsilateral (90%) and reaches, to a major extent, the dorsal and lateral part of the IC and the intercollicular commissure. Additionally, some LC fibers extend into the central nucleus of the IC. The neurochemical nature of this projection is noradrenergic, given that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) colocalize with the BDA-labeled fibers from the LC. To determine the total field of the LC innervations in the IC, we destroyed the LC neurons and fibers using a highly selective neurotoxin, DSP-4, and then studied the distribution and density of TH- and DBH-immunolabeled axons in the IC. In the DSP-4 treated animals, the number of axonal fibers immunolabeled for TH and DBH were deeply decreased throughout the entire rostrocaudal extent of the IC and its subdivisions compared to controls. Our densitometry results showed that the IC receives up to 97% of its noradrenergic innervations from the LC neurons and only 3% from non-coeruleus neurons. Our results also indicate that TH immunoreactivity in the IC was less impaired than the immunoreactivity for DBH after DSP-4 administration. This is consistent with the existence of an important dopaminergic projection from the substantia nigra to the IC. In conclusion, our study demonstrates and quantifies the noradrenergic projection from the LC to the IC and its

  9. The selective neurotoxin DSP-4 impairs the noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus to the inferior colliculus in rats.

    PubMed

    Hormigo, Sebastián; Horta Júnior, José de Anchieta de Castro E; Gómez-Nieto, Ricardo; López, Dolores E

    2012-01-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) and the locus coeruleus (LC) are two midbrain nuclei that integrate multimodal information and play a major role in novelty detection to elicit an orienting response. Despite the reciprocal connections between these two structures, the projection pattern and target areas of the LC within the subdivisions of the rat IC are still unknown. Here, we used tract-tracing approaches combined with immunohistochemistry, densitometry, and confocal microscopy (CM) analysis to describe a projection from the LC to the IC. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) injections into the LC showed that the LC-IC projection is mainly ipsilateral (90%) and reaches, to a major extent, the dorsal and lateral part of the IC and the intercollicular commissure. Additionally, some LC fibers extend into the central nucleus of the IC. The neurochemical nature of this projection is noradrenergic, given that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) colocalize with the BDA-labeled fibers from the LC. To determine the total field of the LC innervations in the IC, we destroyed the LC neurons and fibers using a highly selective neurotoxin, DSP-4, and then studied the distribution and density of TH- and DBH-immunolabeled axons in the IC. In the DSP-4 treated animals, the number of axonal fibers immunolabeled for TH and DBH were deeply decreased throughout the entire rostrocaudal extent of the IC and its subdivisions compared to controls. Our densitometry results showed that the IC receives up to 97% of its noradrenergic innervations from the LC neurons and only 3% from non-coeruleus neurons. Our results also indicate that TH immunoreactivity in the IC was less impaired than the immunoreactivity for DBH after DSP-4 administration. This is consistent with the existence of an important dopaminergic projection from the substantia nigra to the IC. In conclusion, our study demonstrates and quantifies the noradrenergic projection from the LC to the IC and its

  10. Age-Related Neurochemical Changes in the Rhesus Macaque Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Daniel T.; Engle, James R.; Recanzone, Gregg H.

    2014-01-01

    Neurochemical changes in the expression of various proteins within the central auditory system have been associated with natural aging. These changes may compensate in part for the loss of auditory sensitivity arising from two phenomena of the aging auditory system: cochlear histopathologies and increased excitability of central auditory neurons. Recent studies in the macaque monkey have revealed age-related changes in the density of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase (NADPHd) and parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells within the inferior colliculus and superior olivary complex. The cochlear nucleus (CN), which is the first central auditory nucleus, remains unstudied. Since the CN participates in the generation of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and receives direct innervation from the cochlea, it serves as an ideal nucleus to compare the relationship between these neurochemical changes and the physiological and peripheral changes of the aging auditory system. We used stereological sampling to calculate the densities of NADPHd and PV reactive neurons within the three subdivisions of the CN in middle-aged and aged rhesus macaques. Regression analyses of these values with ABR properties and cochlear histopathologies revealed relationships between these cell types and the changing characteristics of the aging auditory system. Our results indicate that NADPHd expression does change with age in a specific subdivision of the CN, but PV does not. Conversely, PV expression correlated with ABR amplitudes and outer hair cell loss in the cochlea, but NADPHd did not. These results indicate that NADPHd and PV may take part in distinct compensatory efforts of the aging auditory system. PMID:24127432

  11. Central projections of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, J; Kankipati, L; Strang, C E; Peterson, B B; Dacey, D; Gamlin, P D

    2014-07-01

    Circadian rhythms generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin and the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). The ipRGCs regulate other nonimage-forming visual functions such as the pupillary light reflex, masking behavior, and light-induced melatonin suppression. To evaluate whether PACAP-immunoreactive retinal projections are useful as a marker for central projection of ipRGCs in the monkey brain, we characterized the occurrence of PACAP in melanopsin-expressing ipRGCs and in the retinal target areas in the brain visualized by the anterograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (CtB) in combination with PACAP staining. In the retina, PACAP and melanopsin were found to be costored in 99% of melanopsin-expressing cells characterized as inner and outer stratifying melanopsin RGCs. Two macaque monkeys were anesthetized and received a unilateral intravitreal injection of CtB. Bilateral retinal projections containing colocalized CtB and PACAP immunostaining were identified in the SCN, the lateral geniculate complex including the pregeniculate nucleus, the pretectal olivary nucleus, the nucleus of the optic tract, the brachium of the superior colliculus, and the superior colliculus. In conclusion, PACAP-immunoreactive projections with colocalized CtB represent retinal projections of ipRGCs in the macaque monkey, supporting previous retrograde tracer studies demonstrating that melanopsin-containing retinal projections reach areas in the primate brain involved in both image- and nonimage-forming visual processing.

  12. Synaptic Organization of Connections between the Temporal Cortex and Pulvinar Nucleus of the Tree Shrew

    PubMed Central

    Chomsung, Ranida D.; Wei, Haiyang; Day-Brown, Jonathan D.; Petry, Heywood M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the synaptic organization of reciprocal connections between the temporal cortex and the dorsal (Pd) and central (Pc) subdivisions of the tree shrew pulvinar nucleus, regions innervated by the medial and lateral superior colliculus, respectively. Both Pd and Pc subdivisions project topographically to 2 separate regions of the temporal cortex; small injections of anterograde tracers placed in either Pd or Pc labeled 2 foci of terminals in the temporal cortex. Pulvinocortical pathways innervated layers I–IV, with beaded axons oriented perpendicular to the cortical surface, where they synapsed with spines that did not contain gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), likely located on the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells. Projections from the temporal cortex to the Pd and Pc originate from layer VI cells, and form small terminals that contact small caliber non-GABAergic dendrites. These results suggest that cortical terminals are located distal to tectopulvinar terminals on the dendritic arbors of Pd and Pc projection cells, which subsequently contact pyramidal cells in the temporal cortex. This circuitry could provide a mechanism for the pulvinar nucleus to activate subcortical visuomotor circuits and modulate the activity of other visual cortical areas. The potential relation to primate tecto-pulvino-cortical pathways is discussed. PMID:19684245

  13. Natural Vocalizations in the Mammalian Inferior Colliculus are Broadly Encoded by a Small Number of Independent Multi-Units

    PubMed Central

    Lyzwa, Dominika; Herrmann, J. Michael; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2016-01-01

    How complex natural sounds are represented by the main converging center of the auditory midbrain, the central inferior colliculus, is an open question. We applied neural discrimination to determine the variation of detailed encoding of individual vocalizations across the best frequency gradient of the central inferior colliculus. The analysis was based on collective responses from several neurons. These multi-unit spike trains were recorded from guinea pigs exposed to a spectrotemporally rich set of eleven species-specific vocalizations. Spike trains of disparate units from the same recording were combined in order to investigate whether groups of multi-unit clusters represent the whole set of vocalizations more reliably than only one unit, and whether temporal response correlations between them facilitate an unambiguous neural representation of the vocalizations. We found a spatial distribution of the capability to accurately encode groups of vocalizations across the best frequency gradient. Different vocalizations are optimally discriminated at different locations of the best frequency gradient. Furthermore, groups of a few multi-unit clusters yield improved discrimination over only one multi-unit cluster between all tested vocalizations. However, temporal response correlations between units do not yield better discrimination. Our study is based on a large set of units of simultaneously recorded responses from several guinea pigs and electrode insertion positions. Our findings suggest a broadly distributed code for behaviorally relevant vocalizations in the mammalian inferior colliculus. Responses from a few non-interacting units are sufficient to faithfully represent the whole set of studied vocalizations with diverse spectrotemporal properties. PMID:26869890

  14. Dissociation of attention in learning and action: effects of lesions of the amygdala central nucleus, medial prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Maddux, Jean-Marie; Kerfoot, Erin C; Chatterjee, Souvik; Holland, Peter C

    2007-02-01

    Many associative learning theories assert that the predictive accuracy of events affects the allocation of attention to them. More reliable predictors of future events are usually more likely to control action based on past learning, but less reliable predictors are often more likely to capture attention when new information is acquired. Previous studies showed that a circuit including the amygdala central nucleus (CEA) and the cholinergic substantia innominata/nucleus basalis magnocellularis (SI/nBM) is important for both sustained attention guiding action in a five-choice serial reaction time (5CSRT) task and for enhanced new learning about less predictive cues in a serial conditioning task. In this study, the authors found that lesions of the cholinergic afferents of the medial prefrontal cortex interfered with 5CSRT performance but not with surprise-induced enhancement of learning, whereas lesions of cholinergic afferents of posterior parietal cortex impaired the latter effects but did not affect 5CSRT performance. CEA lesions impaired performance in both tasks. These results are consistent with the view that CEA affects these distinct aspects of attention by influencing the activity of separate, specialized cortical regions via modulation of SI/nBM. Copyright (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Continuous expression of corticotropin-releasing factor in the central nucleus of the amygdala emulates the dysregulation of the stress and reproductive axes

    PubMed Central

    Keen-Rhinehart, E; Michopoulos, V; Toufexis, DJ; Martin, EI; Nair, H; Ressler, KJ; Davis, M; Owens, MJ; Nemeroff, CB; Wilson, ME

    2009-01-01

    An increase in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a putative factor in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. As CRF expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is important in adaptation to chronic stress, we hypothesized that unrestrained synthesis of CRF in CeA would mimic the consequences of chronic stress exposure and cause dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, increase emotionality and disrupt reproduction. To test this hypothesis, we used a lentiviral vector to increase CRF-expression site specifically in CeA of female rats. Increased synthesis of CRF in CeA amplified CRF and arginine vasopressin peptide concentration in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and decreased glucocorticoid negative feedback, both markers associated with the pathophysiology of depression. In addition, continuous expression of CRF in CeA also increased the acoustic startle response and depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test. Protein levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the medial preoptic area were significantly reduced by continuous expression of CRF in CeA and this was associated with a lengthening of estrous cycles. Finally, sexual motivation but not sexual receptivity was significantly attenuated by continuous CRF synthesis in ovariectomized estradiol-progesterone-primed females. These data indicate that unrestrained CRF synthesis in CeA produces a dysregulation of the HPA axis, as well as many of the behavioral, physiological and reproductive consequences associated with stress-related disorders. PMID:18698320

  16. Dissociation of attention in learning and action: Effects of lesions of the amygdala central nucleus, medial prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Maddux, Jean-Marie; Kerfoot, Erin C.; Chatterjee, Souvik; Holland, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Many associative learning theories assert that the predictive accuracy of events affects the allocation of attention to them. More reliable predictors of future events are usually more likely to control action based on past learning, but less reliable predictors are often more likely to capture attention when new information is acquired. Previous studies showed that a circuit that includes the amygdala central nucleus (CEA) and the cholinergic substantia innominata/nucleus basalis magnocellularis (SI/nBM) is important for both sustained attention guiding action in a five-choice serial reaction time (5CSRT) task, and for enhanced new learning about less predictive cues in a serial conditioning task. In this study, we found that lesions of the cholinergic afferents of the medial prefrontal cortex interfered with 5CSRT performance but not with surprise-induced enhancement of learning, whereas lesions of cholinergic afferents of posterior parietal cortex impaired the latter effects but did not affect 5CSRT performance. CEA lesions impaired performance in both tasks. These results are consistent with the view that CEA affects these distinct aspects of attention by influencing the activity of separate, specialized cortical regions, via its modulation of SI/nBM. PMID:17324051

  17. Central action of ELABELA reduces food intake and activates arginine vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    PubMed

    Santoso, Putra; Maejima, Yuko; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Shimomura, Kenju

    2015-09-30

    ELABELA (ELA) is a novel hormone consisting of 32 amino acid peptides found in humans as well as other vertebrates and is considered to play an important role in the circulatory system through the apelin receptor (APJ). However, whether ELA also acts in the central nervous system remains unknown. Here, we show that ELA functions as an anorexigenic hormone in adult mouse brain. An intracerebroventricular injection of ELA reduces food intake and activates arginine vasopressin (AVP) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a hypothalamic region that regulates food intake. Cytosolic calcium ([Ca]i) measurement shows that ELA dose dependently increases [Ca]i in single AVP and CRH-immunoreactive neurons isolated from the PVN. Our data suggest that ELA functions as an anorexigenic hormone through activation of AVP and CRH neurons in the PVN.

  18. Gene expression in autonomic areas of the medulla and the central nucleus of the amygdala in rats during and after space flight.

    PubMed

    Pompeiano, O; d'Ascanio, P; Balaban, E; Centini, C; Pompeiano, M

    2004-01-01

    During space flight astronauts show vestibular-related changes in balance, eye movements, and spontaneous and reflex control of cardiovascular, respiratory and gastrointestinal function, sometimes associated with space motion sickness. These symptoms undergo compensation over time. Here we used changes in the expression of two immediate-early gene (IEG) products to identify cellular and molecular changes occurring in autonomic brainstem regions of adult male albino rats killed at different times during the Neurolab Space Mission (STS-90). Both direct effects of gravitational changes, as well as indirect effects of gravitational changes on responses to light exposure were examined. Regions under the direct control of vestibular afferents such as the area postrema and the caudal part of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTSC) were both directly and indirectly affected by gravity changes. These areas showed no changes in the expression of IEG products during exposure to microgravity with respect to ground controls, but did show a significant increase 24 h after return to 1 G (gravity). Exposure to microgravity significantly inhibited gene responses to light exposure seen after return to 1 G. A similar direct and indirect response pattern was also shown by the central nucleus of the amygdala, a basal forebrain structure anatomically and functionally related to the NTS. The rostral part of the NTS (NTSR) receives different afferent projections than the NTSC. This region did not show any direct gravity-related changes in IEG expression, but showed an indirect effect of gravity on IEG responses to light. A similar pattern was also obtained in the intermediate reticular nucleus and the parvocellular reticular nucleus. Two other medullary reticular structures, the dorsal and the ventral medullary reticular nuclei showed a less well defined pattern of responses that differed from those seen in the NTSC and NTSR. The short- and long-lasting molecular changes in medullary

  19. Differential modulation of arcuate nucleus and mesolimbic gene expression levels by central leptin in rats on short-term high-fat high-sugar diet.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, José K; Eggels, Leslie; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; Adan, Roger A H; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2014-01-01

    Leptin resistance is a common hallmark of obesity. Rats on a free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet are resistant to peripherally administered leptin. The aim of this study was to investigate feeding responses to central leptin as well as the associated changes in mRNA levels in hypothalamic and mesolimbic brain areas. Rats on a CHOW or fcHFHS diet for 8 days received leptin or vehicle intracerebro(lateral)ventricularly (ICV) and food intake was measured 5 h and 24 h later. Four days later, rats were sacrificed after ICV leptin or vehicle and mRNA levels were quantified for hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) and for preproenkephalin (ppENK) in nucleus accumbens and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in ventral tegmental area (VTA). ICV leptin decreased caloric intake both in CHOW and fcHFHS rats. In fcHFHS, leptin preferentially decreased chow and fat intake. Leptin increased POMC and decreased NPY mRNA in CHOW, but not in fcHFHS rats. In CHOW rats, leptin had no effect on ppENK mRNA and decreased TH mRNA. In fcHFHS, leptin decreased ppENK mRNA and increased TH mRNA. Despite peripheral and arcuate leptin resistance, central leptin suppresses feeding in fcHFHS rats. As the VTA and nucleus accumbens are still responsive to leptin, these brain areas may therefore, at least partly, account for the leptin-induced feeding suppression in rats on a fcHFHS diet.

  20. Differential Modulation of Arcuate Nucleus and Mesolimbic Gene Expression Levels by Central Leptin in Rats on Short-Term High-Fat High-Sugar Diet

    PubMed Central

    van den Heuvel, José K.; Eggels, Leslie; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; Adan, Roger A. H.; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Leptin resistance is a common hallmark of obesity. Rats on a free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet are resistant to peripherally administered leptin. The aim of this study was to investigate feeding responses to central leptin as well as the associated changes in mRNA levels in hypothalamic and mesolimbic brain areas. Design and Methods Rats on a CHOW or fcHFHS diet for 8 days received leptin or vehicle intracerebro(lateral)ventricularly (ICV) and food intake was measured 5 h and 24 h later. Four days later, rats were sacrificed after ICV leptin or vehicle and mRNA levels were quantified for hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) and for preproenkephalin (ppENK) in nucleus accumbens and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in ventral tegmental area (VTA). Results ICV leptin decreased caloric intake both in CHOW and fcHFHS rats. In fcHFHS, leptin preferentially decreased chow and fat intake. Leptin increased POMC and decreased NPY mRNA in CHOW, but not in fcHFHS rats. In CHOW rats, leptin had no effect on ppENK mRNA and decreased TH mRNA. In fcHFHS, leptin decreased ppENK mRNA and increased TH mRNA. Conclusion Despite peripheral and arcuate leptin resistance, central leptin suppresses feeding in fcHFHS rats. As the VTA and nucleus accumbens are still responsive to leptin, these brain areas may therefore, at least partly, account for the leptin-induced feeding suppression in rats on a fcHFHS diet. PMID:24498181

  1. Echo-location and evoked potentials of bats after ablation of inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Suga, N

    1969-08-01

    1. Echo-location and evoked potentials of blinded Yuma bats (Myotis yumanensis) were studied before and after ablation of the inferior colliculus (I.C.). A task of obstacle-avoidance was given to the bats: hits and misses of strands in the flight path were counted. Orientation sounds emitted by the bats during flight were recorded.2. Bilateral ablation of the dorso-medial region of I.C. including the internuclear cortex and commissure had no effect on obstacle-avoidance performance. The bats avoided even strands of 0.2 mm diameter with orientation sounds.3. Bilateral ablation of the dorsal half of I.C. including the external nucleus (lateral cortex) also had no effect on echo-location.4. Bilateral ablation of the ventral half of I.C. caused severe deficiency in ability to avoid obstacles. The main nucleus appeared to be very important for echo-location. When bilateral ablation including the main nucleus was moderate, the bats failed to avoid strands of less than 0.5 mm diameter in spite of detecting them, but avoided large obstacles such as 3.7 mm strands. With severe bilateral ablation including the main nucleus, the bats did not avoid even the 3.7 mm strands in spite of frequent emission of orientation sounds, but often avoided crashing into the wall.5. Severe unilateral ablation of I.C. including the main nucleus and a part of the lateral lemniscus had no effect on ability to avoid obstacles. Since sound localization by such bats are not explained by Van Bergeijk's model based on Békésy's, a modification of Van Bergeijk's model has to be considered.6. Of the positive evoked potentials recorded with an active electrode placed at the dorsal surface of I.C., the slow component with a 7-9 msec peak latency reflected activity of inferior collicular neurones, while the fast component (N(4)) with a 3 msec peak latency represented activity of ascending lateral lemniscal fibres.

  2. Nucleus Paragigantocellularis Afferents in Male and Female Rats: Organization, Gonadal Steroid Sensitivity, and Activation During Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Normandin, Joseph J.; Murphy, Anne Z.

    2010-01-01

    The central regulation of genital reflexes is poorly understood. The brainstem nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi) of rats is a well-established source of tonic inhibition of genital reflexes. However the organization, gonadal steroid sensitivity, and activity of nPGi afferents during sex have not been fully characterized in male and female rats. To delineate the anatomical and physiological organization of nPGi afferents, the retrograde tracer Fluorogold (FG) was injected into the nPGi of sexually experienced male and female rats. Animals engaged in sexual behavior one hour before sacrifice. Cells containing FG, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), androgen receptor (AR), and the immediate-early gene product Fos were identified immunocytochemically. Retrograde labeling from the nPGi was prominent in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus, posterior hypothalamus, precommissural nucleus, deep mesencephalic nucleus, and periaqueductal gray (PAG) of both sexes. Sex differences were observed in the caudal medial preoptic area (MPO), with significantly more FG+ cells observed in males and in the PAG and inferior colliculus where significantly more FG+ cells were observed in females. The majority of regions that contained FG+ cells also contained ERα or AR, indicating sensitivity to gonadal steroids. The proportions of FG+ cells that co-localized with sex-induced Fos was high in the PVN of both sexes, high in the MPO of males, but low in the PAG of both sexes despite the large number of PAG-nPGi output neurons and Fos+ cells in both sexes. The characterization of these afferents will lead to a further understanding of the neural regulation of genital reflexes. PMID:18393295

  3. Dissociable effects of disconnecting amygdala central nucleus from the ventral tegmental area or substantia nigra on learned orienting and incentive motivation

    PubMed Central

    El-Amamy, Heather; Holland, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the amygdala central nucleus (CeA) and midbrain-striatal dopamine systems are critically involved in the alteration of attentional and emotional processing of initially neutral stimuli by associative learning. In rats, the acquisition of learned orienting responses to visual cues paired with food is impaired by lesions of the CeA, and by lesions that disconnect CeA from the dorsolateral striatum, a region traditionally implicated in elevated responsiveness to sensory stimuli. Similarly, the acquisition of emotional significance to cues paired with food also depends on the function of CeA and of the ventral striatal nucleus accumbens, a region often considered crucial to acquired reward and motivation. For example, the ability of a cue previously paired with food to increase the rate of food-reinforced instrumental responding (Pavlovian-instrumental transfer) is eliminated by lesions of the CeA or the accumbens core. In this experiment, we found that lesions that functionally disconnected CeA from the substantia nigra pars compacta impaired the acquisition of conditioned orienting to auditory cues paired with food, but had no effect on their ability to enhance instrumental responding, relative to the effects of unilateral lesions of that region. By contrast, lesions that disconnected CeA from the ventral tegmental area had no effect on the acquisition of conditioned orienting, but facilitated Pavlovian-instrumental transfer relative to unilateral midbrain lesions, rescuing that function to sham-lesion control levels. Otherwise, unilateral lesions of either midbrain region impaired transfer. Implications of these results for circuit models of amygdalo-striatal interactions in associative learning are discussed. PMID:17425582

  4. Inhibition of the amygdala central nucleus by stimulation of cerebellar output in rats: a putative mechanism for extinction of the conditioned fear response.

    PubMed

    Magal, Ari; Mintz, Matti

    2014-11-01

    The amygdala and the cerebellum serve two distinctively different functions. The amygdala plays a role in the expression of emotional information, whereas the cerebellum is involved in the timing of discrete motor responses. Interaction between these two systems is the basis of the two-stage theory of learning, according to which an encounter with a challenging event triggers fast classical conditioning of fear-conditioned responses in the amygdala and slow conditioning of motor-conditioned responses in the cerebellum. A third stage was hypothesised when an apparent interaction between amygdala and cerebellar associative plasticity was observed: an adaptive rate of cerebellum-dependent motor-conditioned responses was associated with a decrease in amygdala-dependent fear-conditioned responses, and was interpreted as extinction of amygdala-related fear-conditioned responses by the cerebellar output. To explore this hypothesis, we mimicked some components of classical eyeblink conditioning in anesthetised rats by applying an aversive periorbital pulse as an unconditioned stimulus and a train of pulses to the cerebellar output nuclei as a cerebellar neuronal-conditioned response. The central amygdala multiple unit response to the periorbital pulse was measured with or without a preceding train to the cerebellar output nuclei. The results showed that activation of the cerebellar output nuclei prior to periorbital stimulation produced diverse patterns of inhibition of the amygdala response to the periorbital aversive stimulus, depending upon the nucleus stimulated, the laterality of the nucleus stimulated, and the stimulus interval used. These results provide a putative extinction mechanism of learned fear behavior, and could have implications for the treatment of pathologies involving abnormal fear responses by using motor training as therapy.

  5. Orexinergic innervation of urocortin1 and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript neurons in the midbrain centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus.

    PubMed

    Emmerzaal, T L; vd Doelen, R H A; Roubos, E W; Kozicz, T

    2013-12-01

    Orexin is a neuropeptide that has been implicated in several processes, such as induction of appetite, arousal and alertness and sleep/wake regulation. Multiple lines of evidence also suggest that orexin is involved in the stress response. When orexin is administered intracerebroventricular it activates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis, which is the main regulator of the stress response. The HPA-axis is not the only player in the stress response evidence suggests that urocortin 1 (Ucn1), a member of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) neuropeptide family, also plays an important role in the stress response adaptation. Ucn1 is primarily synthetized in the centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWcp), which also receives dense innervation by orexin terminals. In this study we tested the hypothesis that orexin would directly shape the response of EWcp-Ucn1 neurons to acute cold stress. To test this hypothesis, we first assessed whether orexinergic axon terminals would innervate EWcp-Ucn1/CART neurons, and next we exposed orexin deficient (orexin-KO) male mice and their male wild-type (WT) littermates to acute cold stress for 2h. We also assessed stress-associated changes in plasma corticosterone (CORT), as well as the activation of Ucn1/CART neurons in the EWcp nucleus. We found that orexin immunoreactive axon terminals were juxtaposed to EWcp-Ucn1/CART neurons, which also expressed orexin receptor 1 mRNA. Furthermore, acute stress strongly activated the EWcp-Ucn1/CART neurons and increased plasma CORT in both WT littermates and orexin-KO mice, however no genotype effect was found on these indices. Taken together our data show that orexin in general is not involved in the animal's acute stress response (plasma CORT) and it does not play a direct role in shaping the response of EWcp-Ucn1 neurons to acute stress either.

  6. Wisteria floribunda lectin is associated with specific cell types in the ventral cochlear nucleus of the gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus.

    PubMed

    Cant, Nell B; Benson, Christina G

    2006-01-01

    The cochlear nucleus is made up of a number of diverse cell types with different anatomical and physiological properties. A plant lectin, Wisteria floribunda agglutinin, that recognizes specific carbohydrate residues in the extracellular matrix binds to some cell types in the ventral cochlear nucleus but not to cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus. In the ventral cochlear nucleus, the most intensely labeled cells are octopus cells, a subset of multipolar cells and cochlear root neurons. The multipolar cells that are labeled may correspond to the population that projects to the inferior colliculus.

  7. Superior colliculus encodes visual saliency before the primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    White, Brian J.; Kan, Janis Y.; Levy, Ron; Itti, Laurent; Munoz, Douglas P.

    2017-01-01

    Models of visual attention postulate the existence of a bottom-up saliency map that is formed early in the visual processing stream. Although studies have reported evidence of a saliency map in various cortical brain areas, determining the contribution of phylogenetically older pathways is crucial to understanding its origin. Here, we compared saliency coding from neurons in two early gateways into the visual system: the primary visual cortex (V1) and the evolutionarily older superior colliculus (SC). We found that, while the response latency to visual stimulus onset was earlier for V1 neurons than superior colliculus superficial visual-layer neurons (SCs), the saliency representation emerged earlier in SCs than in V1. Because the dominant input to the SCs arises from V1, these relative timings are consistent with the hypothesis that SCs neurons pool the inputs from multiple V1 neurons to form a feature-agnostic saliency map, which may then be relayed to other brain areas. PMID:28808026

  8. Layer-specific response properties of the human lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hao; Wen, Wen; He, Sheng

    2015-05-01

    The human LGN and SC consist of distinct layers, but their layer-specific response properties remain poorly understood. In this fMRI study, we characterized visual response properties of the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) layers of the human LGN, as well as at different depths in the SC. Results show that fMRI is capable of resolving layer-specific signals from the LGN and SC. Compared to the P layers of the LGN, the M layers preferred higher temporal frequency, lower spatial frequency stimuli, and their responses saturated at lower contrast. Furthermore, the M layers are colorblind while the P layers showed robust response to both chromatic and achromatic stimuli. Visual responses in the SC were strongest in the superficial voxels, which showed similar spatiotemporal and contrast response properties as the M layers of the LGN, but were sensitive to color and responded strongly to isoluminant color stimulus. Thus, the non-invasive fMRI measures show that the M and P layers of human LGN have similar response properties as that observed in non-human primates and the superficial layers of the human SC prefer transient inputs but are not colorblind. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro characterisation of dopamine receptors in the superior colliculus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Weller, M E; Rose, S; Jenner, P; Marsden, C D

    1987-04-01

    In membrane preparations of superior colliculus of the rat, the binding of [3H]spiperone (0.15 nM) was displaced by the incorporation of (+)-butaclamol, haloperidol, apomorphine and (+/-)-sulpiride, but not by (-)-butaclamol, prazosin, propranolol, ketanserin or cinanserin. The Ki values for the displacement of [3H]spiperone by (+/-)-sulpiride, (+)-butaclamol and haloperidol were similar in tissue preparations from superior colliculus and striatum. Equilibrium analysis of the specific binding of [3H]spiperone (0.03-1.0 nM), defined by 10(-5) M (+/-)-sulpiride, to membrane preparations of the superior colliculus, showed the interaction to be saturable and of high affinity. However, the Bmax was only approximately 10% of that found in preparations of striatum; the apparent dissociation constant (KD) was the same in both preparations of the superior colliculus and striatum. Uptake of [3H]dopamine into synaptosomal preparations of the superior colliculus was approximately 20% of that found in synaptosomes from the striatum. In preparations of striatum nomifensine, but not desipramine or fluoxetine, inhibited the uptake of [3H]dopamine. However, in preparations from the superior colliculus, nomifensine, desipramine and fluoxetine were without effect on the uptake of [3H]dopamine. Dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) were present in small concentrations in the superior colliculus. Homovanillic acid (HVA) was present in larger concentrations and the HVA plus DOPAC/dopamine ratios were greater in the superior colliculus than in the striatum. The superior colliculus contained only small amounts of noradrenaline but 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were present in larger amounts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Mifepristone in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Reduces Yohimbine Stress-Induced Reinstatement of Ethanol-Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Simms, Jeffrey A; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L; Bito-Onon, Jade; Li, Rui; Bartlett, Selena E

    2012-01-01

    Chronic ethanol exposure leads to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to changes in glucocorticoid release and function that have been proposed to maintain pathological alcohol consumption and increase vulnerability to relapse during abstinence. The objective of this study was to determine whether mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, plays a role in ethanol self-administration and reinstatement. Male, Long–Evans rats were trained to self-administer either ethanol or sucrose in daily 30 min operant self-administration sessions using a fixed ratio 3 schedule of reinforcement. Following establishment of stable baseline responding, we examined the effects of mifepristone on maintained responding and yohimbine-induced increases in responding for ethanol and sucrose. Lever responding was extinguished in separate groups of rats and animals were tested for yohimbine-induced reinstatement and corticosterone release. We also investigated the effects of local mifepristone infusions into the central amygdala (CeA) on yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol- and sucrose-seeking. In addition, we infused mifepristone into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in ethanol-seeking animals as an anatomical control. We show that both systemic and intra-CeA (but not BLA) mifepristone administration suppressed yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol-seeking, while only systemic injections attenuated sucrose-seeking. In contrast, baseline consumption, yohimbine-induced increases in responding, and circulating CORT levels were unaffected. The data indicate that the CeA plays an important role in the effects of mifepristone on yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol-seeking. Mifepristone may be a valuable pharmacotherapeutic strategy for preventing relapse to alcohol use disorders and, as it is FDA approved, may be a candidate for clinical trials in the near future. PMID:22048462

  11. The role of glucocorticoid receptor-dependent activity in the amygdala central nucleus and reversibility of early-life stress programmed behavior.

    PubMed

    Arnett, M G; Pan, M S; Doak, W; Cyr, P E P; Muglia, L M; Muglia, L J

    2015-04-07

    Early-life stress (ELS) leads to sustained changes in gene expression and behavior, increasing the likelihood of developing a psychiatric disorder in adulthood. The neurobiological basis for the later-in-life psychopathology is relatively unknown. The current study used a mouse model of ELS, achieved by daily maternal separations during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life, to test the role of amygdalar glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function in mediating the persistent increase in risk-taking behaviors. ELS produced a decrease in GR mRNA in the brain, with a notable reduction in the amygdala that was associated with sustained alterations in anxiety, fear and sociability-like behaviors. Lentiviral-mediated restoration of the GR mRNA deficit, specifically within the adult central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), reversed the enduring changes in anxiety and social behavior after ELS. These results provide evidence of lasting changes in CeA GR neural circuitry following ELS and suggest a mechanistic role for GR-regulated processes in the CeA in mediating the lifelong maladaptive behaviors of ELS. We demonstrate that the long-lasting behavioral effects of ELS are reversible later in life and implicate the involvement of CeA GR-dependent activity in the sustained dysregulation of emotion following ELS.

  12. Shaker-Related Potassium Channels in the Central Medial Nucleus of the Thalamus Are Important Molecular Targets for Arousal Suppression by Volatile General Anesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Alexandra M.; Tanaka, Brian S.; Sokolov, Yuri; Goldin, Alan L.; Chandy, K. George; Hall, James E.; Alkire, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular targets and neural circuits that underlie general anesthesia are not fully elucidated. Here, we directly demonstrate that Kv1-family (Shaker-related) delayed rectifier K+ channels in the central medial thalamic nucleus (CMT) are important targets for volatile anesthetics. The modulation of Kv1 channels by volatiles is network specific as microinfusion of ShK, a potent inhibitor of Kv1.1, Kv1.3, and Kv1.6 channels, into the CMT awakened sevoflurane-anesthetized rodents. In heterologous expression systems, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and desflurane at subsurgical concentrations potentiated delayed rectifier Kv1 channels at low depolarizing potentials. In mouse thalamic brain slices, sevoflurane inhibited firing frequency and delayed the onset of action potentials in CMT neurons, and ShK-186, a Kv1.3-selective inhibitor, prevented these effects. Our findings demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of delayed rectifier Kv1 channels to modulation by volatile anesthetics and highlight an arousal suppressing role of Kv1 channels in CMT neurons during the process of anesthesia. PMID:24107962

  13. Electroacupuncture attenuates morphine withdrawal signs and c-Fos expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala in freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng; Zhou, Wenhua; Liu, Huifen; Yang, Guodong; Zhao, Weikang

    2005-05-24

    Experimental efforts for understanding the mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) for opiate addiction are partially hampered by restraint stress. In unrestrained animals, it is difficult to perform EA stimulation at acupuncture points frequently selected on the four limbs. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of EA at the acupuncture point Shen-Shu (BL.23) on morphine withdrawal signs and c-Fos expression of the amygdala in freely moving rats or restrained rats. We applied immunohistochemistry to detect c-Fos-positive nuclei. Corticosterone levels and behavioral responses were measured during EA stimulation. The needles were bilaterally inserted and fixed at BL.23, and 100-Hz electric stimulation was conducted 30 min before naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. In both freely moving rats and restrained rats, EA significantly reduced the signs of morphine withdrawal. Notably, EA stimulation in freely moving rats attenuated c-Fos expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala while EA in restrained animals increased this response. In addition, the restrained rats emitted greater levels of vocalization and facial expression than freely moving rats during EA stimulation. Corticosterone levels were also significantly higher in restrained animals after EA stimulation. The new EA paradigm demonstrated in the present study might help the analysis of certain physiological responses induced by EA that would otherwise have been hindered by restraint stress.

  14. Is state-dependent alternation of slow dynamics in central single neurons during sleep present in the rat ventroposterior thalamic nucleus?

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazumi; Koyama, Yoshimasa; Kayama, Yukihiko; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Mitsuaki

    2004-02-01

    Based upon our previous results in cats, we hypothesized that neurons in the central processor systems of the brain generally exhibit state-dependent dynamics alternation of slow fluctuations in spontaneous activity during sleep. To test the validity of this hypothesis across species, we recorded single neuronal activity during sleep from the ventroposterior (VP) thalamic nucleus in unanesthetized, head-restrained rats. Spectral analysis was performed on successive spike-counts of neuronal activity recorded during three stages of the sleep-wakefulness cycle: wakefulness (W, n=6), slow-wave sleep (SWS, n=20), and paradoxical sleep (PS, n=32). We found that firing of VP neurons displayed white-noise-like dynamics over the range of 0.04-1.0 Hz during SWS and 1/f-noise-like dynamics over the same range during PS. We also demonstrated for the first time that the slow dynamics of neuronal activity during quiet wakefulness (but not drowsiness) are white-noise-like. These results suggest that our hypothesis is true across species. During W and SWS, the brain may be considered as under global inhibition. Conversely, PS may represent a state of global disinhibition in the brain, where neuronal activity exhibits 1/f-noise-like dynamics. Fluctuations observed in living organisms may be involved in essential processes in generation and function of sleep states.

  15. Identification of a Circadian Clock in the Inferior Colliculus and Its Dysregulation by Noise Exposure.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Sub; Cederroth, Christopher R; Basinou, Vasiliki; Meltser, Inna; Lundkvist, Gabriella; Canlon, Barbara

    2016-05-18

    Circadian rhythms regulate bodily functions within 24 h and long-term disruptions in these rhythms can cause various diseases. Recently, the peripheral auditory organ, the cochlea, has been shown to contain a self-sustained circadian clock that regulates differential sensitivity to noise exposure throughout the day. Animals exposed to noise during the night are more vulnerable than when exposed during the day. However, whether other structures throughout the auditory pathway also possess a circadian clock remains unknown. Here, we focus on the inferior colliculus (IC), which plays an important role in noise-induced pathologies such as tinnitus, hyperacusis, and audiogenic seizures. Using PER2::LUC transgenic mice and real-time bioluminescence recordings, we revealed circadian oscillations of Period 2 protein in IC explants for up to 1 week. Clock genes (Cry1, Bmal1, Per1, Per2, Rev-erbα, and Dbp) displayed circadian molecular oscillations in the IC. Averaged expression levels of early-induced genes and clock genes during 24 h revealed differential responses to day or night noise exposure. Rev-erbα and Dbp genes were affected only by day noise exposure, whereas Per1 and Per2 were affected only by night noise exposure. However, the expression of Bdnf was affected by both day and night noise exposure, suggesting that plastic changes are unlikely to be involved in the differences in day or night noise sensitivity in the IC. These novel findings highlight the importance of circadian responses in the IC and emphasize the importance of circadian mechanisms for understanding central auditory function and disorders. Recent findings identified the presence of a circadian clock in the inner ear. Here, we present novel findings that neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC), a central auditory relay structure involved in sound processing, express a circadian clock as evidenced at both the mRNA and protein levels. Using a reporter mouse that expresses a luciferase protein

  16. Identification of a Circadian Clock in the Inferior Colliculus and Its Dysregulation by Noise Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-sub; Cederroth, Christopher R.; Basinou, Vasiliki; Meltser, Inna; Lundkvist, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms regulate bodily functions within 24 h and long-term disruptions in these rhythms can cause various diseases. Recently, the peripheral auditory organ, the cochlea, has been shown to contain a self-sustained circadian clock that regulates differential sensitivity to noise exposure throughout the day. Animals exposed to noise during the night are more vulnerable than when exposed during the day. However, whether other structures throughout the auditory pathway also possess a circadian clock remains unknown. Here, we focus on the inferior colliculus (IC), which plays an important role in noise-induced pathologies such as tinnitus, hyperacusis, and audiogenic seizures. Using PER2::LUC transgenic mice and real-time bioluminescence recordings, we revealed circadian oscillations of Period 2 protein in IC explants for up to 1 week. Clock genes (Cry1, Bmal1, Per1, Per2, Rev-erbα, and Dbp) displayed circadian molecular oscillations in the IC. Averaged expression levels of early-induced genes and clock genes during 24 h revealed differential responses to day or night noise exposure. Rev-erbα and Dbp genes were affected only by day noise exposure, whereas Per1 and Per2 were affected only by night noise exposure. However, the expression of Bdnf was affected by both day and night noise exposure, suggesting that plastic changes are unlikely to be involved in the differences in day or night noise sensitivity in the IC. These novel findings highlight the importance of circadian responses in the IC and emphasize the importance of circadian mechanisms for understanding central auditory function and disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recent findings identified the presence of a circadian clock in the inner ear. Here, we present novel findings that neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC), a central auditory relay structure involved in sound processing, express a circadian clock as evidenced at both the mRNA and protein levels. Using a reporter mouse that expresses a

  17. Superior colliculus cells sensitive to active touch and texture during whisking

    PubMed Central

    Bezdudnaya, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Rats sense the environment through rhythmic vibrissa protractions, called active whisking, which can be simulated in anesthetized rats by electrically stimulating the facial motor nerve. Using this method, we investigated barrel cortex field potential and superior colliculus single-unit responses during passive touch, whisking movement, active touch, and texture discrimination. Similar to passive touch, whisking movement is signaled during the onset of the whisker protraction by short-latency responses in barrel cortex that drive corticotectal responses in superior colliculus, and all these responses show robust adaptation with increases in whisking frequency. Active touch and texture are signaled by longer latency responses, first in superior colliculus during the rising phase of the protraction, likely driven by trigeminotectal inputs, and later in barrel cortex by the falling phase of the protraction. Thus, superior colliculus is part of a broader vibrissa neural network that can decode whisking movement, active touch, and texture. PMID:21525369

  18. Superior colliculus inactivation alters the weighted integration of visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Nummela, Samuel U; Krauzlis, Richard J

    2011-06-01

    The primate superior colliculus (SC) is important for the winner-take-all selection of targets for orienting movements. Such selection takes time, however, and the earliest motor responses typically are guided by a weighted vector average of the visual stimuli, before the winner-take-all selection of a single target. We tested whether SC activity plays a role in this initial stage of orienting by inactivating the SC in two macaques (Macaca mulatta) with local muscimol injections. After SC inactivation, initial orienting responses still followed a vector average, but the contribution of the visual stimulus inside the affected field was decreased, and the contribution of the stimulus outside the affected field was increased. These results demonstrate that the SC plays an important role in the weighted integration of visual signals for orienting, in addition to its role in the winner-take-all selection of the target.

  19. Commissural functional topography of the inferior colliculus assessed in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Charles C.; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Imaizumi, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) receives ascending and descending information from several convergent neural sources. As such, exploring the neural pathways that converge in the IC is crucial to uncovering their multi-varied roles in the integration of auditory and other sensory information. Among these convergent pathways, the IC commissural connections represent an important route for the integration of bilateral information in the auditory system. Here, we describe the preparation and validation of a novel in vitro slice preparation for examining the functional topography and synaptic properties of the commissural and intrinsic projections in the IC of the mouse. This preparation, in combination with modern genetic approaches in the mouse, enables the specific examination of these pathways, which potentially can reveal cell-type specific processing channels in the auditory midbrain. PMID:26319767

  20. Glutamate Receptors in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Mediate Cisplatin-Induced Malaise and Energy Balance Dysregulation through Direct Hindbrain Projections.

    PubMed

    Alhadeff, Amber L; Holland, Ruby A; Nelson, Alexandra; Grill, Harvey J; De Jonghe, Bart C

    2015-08-05

    Cisplatin chemotherapy is used commonly to treat a variety of cancers despite severe side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and anorexia that compromise quality of life and limit treatment adherence. The neural mechanisms mediating these side effects remain elusive despite decades of clinical use. Recent data highlight the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN), and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) as potential sites of action in mediating the side effects of cisplatin. Here, results from immunohistochemical studies in rats identified a population of cisplatin-activated DVC neurons that project to the lPBN and a population of cisplatin-activated lPBN calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, a marker for glutamatergic neurons in the lPBN) neurons that project to the CeA, outlining a neuroanatomical circuit that is activated by cisplatin. CeA gene expressions of AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor subunits were markedly increased after cisplatin treatment, suggesting that CeA glutamate receptor signaling plays a role in mediating cisplatin side effects. Consistent with gene expression results, behavioral/pharmacological data showed that CeA AMPA/kainate receptor blockade attenuates cisplatin-induced pica (a proxy for nausea/behavioral malaise in nonvomiting laboratory rodents) and that CeA NMDA receptor blockade attenuates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss in addition to pica, demonstrating that glutamate receptor signaling in the CeA is critical for the energy balance dysregulation caused by cisplatin treatment. Together, these data highlight a novel circuit and CGRP/glutamatergic mechanism through which cisplatin-induced malaise and energy balance dysregulation are mediated. To treat cancer effectively, patients must follow prescribed chemotherapy treatments without interruption, yet most cancer treatments produce side effects that devastate quality of life (e.g., nausea, vomiting, anorexia, weight loss). Although hundreds of

  1. The TLC: a novel auditory nucleus of the mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, Enrique; Viñuela, Antonio; Marshall, Allen F; Fitzpatrick, Douglas C; Aparicio, M-Auxiliadora

    2007-11-28

    We have identified a novel nucleus of the mammalian brain and termed it the tectal longitudinal column (TLC). Basic histologic stains, tract-tracing techniques and three-dimensional reconstructions reveal that the rat TLC is a narrow, elongated structure spanning the midbrain tectum longitudinally. This paired nucleus is located close to the midline, immediately dorsal to the periaqueductal gray matter. It occupies what has traditionally been considered the most medial region of the deep superior colliculus and the most medial region of the inferior colliculus. The TLC differs from the neighboring nuclei of the superior and inferior colliculi and the periaqueductal gray by its distinct connections and cytoarchitecture. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings show that TLC neurons respond to auditory stimuli with physiologic properties that differ from those of neurons in the inferior or superior colliculi. We have identified the TLC in rodents, lagomorphs, carnivores, nonhuman primates, and humans, which indicates that the nucleus is conserved across mammals. The discovery of the TLC reveals an unexpected level of longitudinal organization in the mammalian tectum and raises questions as to the participation of this mesencephalic region in essential, yet completely unexplored, aspects of multisensory and/or sensorimotor integration.

  2. Sensitivity of rat inferior colliculus neurons to frequency distributions

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Aravindakshan; Han, Emily X.; Bartlett, Edward L.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulus-specific adaptation refers to a neural response reduction to a repeated stimulus that does not generalize to other stimuli. However, stimulus-specific adaptation appears to be influenced by additional factors. For example, the statistical distribution of tone frequencies has recently been shown to dynamically alter stimulus-specific adaptation in human auditory cortex. The present study investigated whether statistical stimulus distributions also affect stimulus-specific adaptation at an earlier stage of the auditory hierarchy. Neural spiking activity and local field potentials were recorded from inferior colliculus neurons of rats while tones were presented in oddball sequences that formed two different statistical contexts. Each sequence consisted of a repeatedly presented tone (standard) and three rare deviants of different magnitudes (small, moderate, large spectral change). The critical manipulation was the relative probability with which large spectral changes occurred. In one context the probability was high (relative to all deviants), while it was low in the other context. We observed larger responses for deviants compared with standards, confirming previous reports of increased response adaptation for frequently presented tones. Importantly, the statistical context in which tones were presented strongly modulated stimulus-specific adaptation. Physically and probabilistically identical stimuli (moderate deviants) in the two statistical contexts elicited different response magnitudes consistent with neural gain changes and thus neural sensitivity adjustments induced by the spectral range of a stimulus distribution. The data show that already at the level of the inferior colliculus stimulus-specific adaptation is dynamically altered by the statistical context in which stimuli occur. PMID:26354316

  3. Neural correlates for task switching in the macaque superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jason L; Koval, Michael J; Johnston, Kevin; Everling, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Successful task switching requires a network of brain areas to select, maintain, implement, and execute the appropriate task. Although frontoparietal brain areas are thought to play a critical role in task switching by selecting and encoding task rules and exerting top-down control, how brain areas closer to the execution of tasks participate in task switching is unclear. The superior colliculus (SC) integrates information from various brain areas to generate saccades and is likely influenced by task switching. Here, we investigated switch costs in nonhuman primates and their neural correlates in the activity of SC saccade-related neurons in monkeys performing cued, randomly interleaved pro- and anti-saccade trials. We predicted that behavioral switch costs would be associated with differential modulations of SC activity in trials on which the task was switched vs. repeated, with activity on the current trial resembling that associated with the task set of the previous trial when a switch occurred. We observed both error rate and reaction time switch costs and changes in the discharge rate and timing of activity in SC neurons between switch and repeat trials. These changes were present later in the task only after fixation on the cue stimuli but before saccade onset. These results further establish switch costs in macaque monkeys and suggest that SC activity is modulated by task-switching processes in a manner inconsistent with the concept of task set inertia.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Task-switching behavior and superior colliculus (SC) activity were investigated in nonhuman primates performing randomly interleaved pro- and anti-saccade tasks. Here, we report error rate and reaction time switch costs in macaque monkeys and associated differences in stimulus-related activity of saccade-related neurons in the SC. These results provide a neural correlate for task switching and suggest that the SC is modulated by task-switching processes and may reflect the completion of task

  4. Activation of corticotropin releasing factor-containing neurons in the rat central amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis following exposure to two different anxiogenic stressors.

    PubMed

    Butler, Ryan K; Oliver, Elisabeth M; Sharko, Amanda C; Parilla-Carrero, Jeffrey; Kaigler, Kris F; Fadel, Jim R; Wilson, Marlene A

    2016-05-01

    Rats exposed to the odor of a predator or to the elevated plus maze (EPM) express unique unconditioned fear behaviors. The extended amygdala has previously been demonstrated to mediate the response to both predator odor and the EPM. We seek to determine if divergent amygdalar microcircuits are associated with the different behavioral responses. The current experiments compared activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-containing neuronal populations in the central amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) of rats exposed to either the EPM (5 min) versus home cage controls, or predator (ferret) odor versus butyric acid, or no odor (30 min). Sections of the brains were prepared for dual-labeled immunohistochemistry and counts of c-Fos co-localized with CRF were made in the centrolateral and centromedial amygdala (CLA and CMA) as well as the dorsolateral (dl), dorsomedial (dm), and ventral (v) BNST. Ferret odor-exposed rats displayed an increase in duration and a decrease in latency of defensive burying versus control rats. Exposure to both predator stress and EPM induced neuronal activation in the BNST, but not the central amygdala, and similar levels of neuronal activation were seen in both the high and low anxiety groups in the BNST after EPM exposure. Dual-labeled immunohistochemistry showed a significant increase in the percentage of CRF/c-Fos co-localization in the vBNST of ferret odor-exposed rats compared to control and butyric acid-exposed groups as well as EPM-exposed rats compared to home cage controls. In addition, an increase in the percentage of CRF-containing neurons co-localized with c-Fos was observed in the dmBNST after EPM exposure. No changes in co-localization of CRF with c-Fos was observed with these treatments in either the CLA or CMA. These results suggest that predator odor and EPM exposure activates CRF neurons in the BNST to a much greater extent than CRF neurons of the central amygdala, and indicates unconditioned

  5. Activation of corticotropin releasing factor-containing neurons in the rat central amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis following exposure to two different anxiogenic stressors

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Ryan K.; Oliver, Elisabeth M.; Sharko, Amanda C.; Parilla-Carrero, Jeffrey; Kaigler, Kris F.; Fadel, Jim R.; Wilson, Marlene A.

    2016-01-01

    Rats exposed to the odor of a predator or to the elevated plus maze (EPM) express unique unconditioned fear behaviors. The extended amygdala has previously been demonstrated to mediate the response to both predator odor and the EPM. We seek to determine if divergent amygdalar microcircuits are associated with the different behavioral responses. The current experiments compared activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-containing neuronal populations in the central amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) of rats exposed to either the EPM (5 minutes) versus home cage controls, or predator ferret odor versus butyric acid, or no odor (30 minutes). Sections of the brains were prepared for dual-labeled immunohistochemistry and counts of c-Fos co-localized with CRF were made in the centrolateral and centromedial amygdala (CLA and CMA) as well as the dorsolateral (dl), dorsomedial (dm), and ventral (v) BNST. Ferret odor-exposed rats displayed an increase in duration and a decrease in latency of defensive burying versus control rats. Exposure to both predator stress and EPM induced neuronal activation in the BNST, but not the central amygdala, and similar levels of neuronal activation were seen in both the high and low anxiety groups in the BNST after EPM exposure. Dual-labeled immunohistochemistry showed a significant increase in the percentage of CRF/c-Fos co-localization in the vBNST of ferret odor-exposed rats compared to control and butyric acid-exposed groups as well as EPM-exposed rats compared to home cage controls. In addition, an increase in the percentage of CRF-containing neurons co-localized with c-Fos was observed in the dmBNST after EPM exposure. No changes in co-localization of CRF with c-Fos was observed with these treatments in either the CLA or CMA. These results suggest that predator odor and EPM exposure activates CRF neurons in the BNST to a much greater extent than CRF neurons of the central amygdala, and indicates

  6. Age-related audiovisual interactions in the superior colliculus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Costa, M; Piché, M; Lepore, F; Guillemot, J-P

    2016-04-21

    It is well established that multisensory integration is a functional characteristic of the superior colliculus that disambiguates external stimuli and therefore reduces the reaction times toward simple audiovisual targets in space. However, in a condition where a complex audiovisual stimulus is used, such as the optical flow in the presence of modulated audio signals, little is known about the processing of the multisensory integration in the superior colliculus. Furthermore, since visual and auditory deficits constitute hallmark signs during aging, we sought to gain some insight on whether audiovisual processes in the superior colliculus are altered with age. Extracellular single-unit recordings were conducted in the superior colliculus of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10-12 months) and aged (21-22 months) rats. Looming circular concentric sinusoidal (CCS) gratings were presented alone and in the presence of sinusoidally amplitude modulated white noise. In both groups of rats, two different audiovisual response interactions were encountered in the spatial domain: superadditive, and suppressive. In contrast, additive audiovisual interactions were found only in adult rats. Hence, superior colliculus audiovisual interactions were more numerous in adult rats (38%) than in aged rats (8%). These results suggest that intersensory interactions in the superior colliculus play an essential role in space processing toward audiovisual moving objects during self-motion. Moreover, aging has a deleterious effect on complex audiovisual interactions. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanisms of spectral and temporal integration in the mustached bat inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Wenstrup, Jeffrey James; Nataraj, Kiran; Sanchez, Jason Tait

    2012-01-01

    This review describes mechanisms and circuitry underlying combination-sensitive response properties in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. Combination-sensitive neurons, performing a type of auditory spectro-temporal integration, respond to specific, properly timed combinations of spectral elements in vocal signals and other acoustic stimuli. While these neurons are known to occur in the auditory forebrain of many vertebrate species, the work described here establishes their origin in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. Focusing on the mustached bat, we review several major findings: (1) Combination-sensitive responses involve facilitatory interactions, inhibitory interactions, or both when activated by distinct spectral elements in complex sounds. (2) Combination-sensitive responses are created in distinct stages: inhibition arises mainly in lateral lemniscal nuclei of the auditory brainstem, while facilitation arises in the inferior colliculus (IC) of the midbrain. (3) Spectral integration underlying combination-sensitive responses requires a low-frequency input tuned well below a neuron's characteristic frequency (ChF). Low-ChF neurons in the auditory brainstem project to high-ChF regions in brainstem or IC to create combination sensitivity. (4) At their sites of origin, both facilitatory and inhibitory combination-sensitive interactions depend on glycinergic inputs and are eliminated by glycine receptor blockade. Surprisingly, facilitatory interactions in IC depend almost exclusively on glycinergic inputs and are largely independent of glutamatergic and GABAergic inputs. (5) The medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), the lateral lemniscal nuclei, and the IC play critical roles in creating combination-sensitive responses. We propose that these mechanisms, based on work in the mustached bat, apply to a broad range of mammals and other vertebrates that depend on temporally sensitive integration of information across the audible spectrum. PMID:23109917

  8. Circuits for Processing Dynamic Interaural Intensity Disparities in the Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, George D.

    2013-01-01

    Interaural intensity disparities (IIDs), the cues all animals use to localize high frequency sounds, are initially processed in the lateral superior olive (LSO) by a subtractive process where inputs from one ear excite and inputs from the other ear inhibit LSO neurons. Such cells are called excitatory-inhibitory (EI) neurons and are prominent not only in the LSO but also in higher nuclei, which include the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) and inferior colliculus (IC). The IC is of particular interest since its EI cells receive diverse innervation patterns from a large number of lower nuclei, which include the DNLLs and LSOs, and thus comprise a population with diverse binaural properties. The first part of this review focuses on the circuits that create EI cells in the LSO, DNLL and IC. The second section then turns to the responses evoked by dynamic IIDs that change over time, as with multiple sounds that emanate from different regions of space or moving sound sources. I show that many EI neurons in the IC respond to dynamic IIDs in ways that are not predictable from their responses to static IIDs, IIDs presented one at a time. In the final section, results from in vivo whole cell recording in the IC are presented and address the connectional basis for the responsiveness to dynamic IIDs. The principal conclusion is that EI cells comprise a diverse population. The diversity is created by the particular set of inputs each EI type receives and is expressed in the differences in the responses to dynamic IIDs that are generated by those inputs. These results show that the construction of EI neurons in the IC imparts features that not only encode the location of an individual sound source, but also that allow animals to determine the direction of a moving sound and to focus and localize a single sound in midst of many sounds, as typically occurs in the daily lives of all animals. PMID:22343068

  9. Development of output connections from the inferior colliculus to the optic tectum in barn owls.

    PubMed

    Nieder, Bärbel; Wagner, Hermann; Luksch, Harald

    2003-09-29

    We studied the development of the projection from the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX) to the optic tectum (OT) in the barn owl. The projection was labeled by tracer application in vitro to either the OT or the ICX, or by staining ICX cells intracellularly with biocytin. The axons of ICX neurons bifurcated into an ascending branch that projected toward the OT and a descending branch that coursed caudally to an unknown target in the brainstem. Axons of the ICX were observed to grow into the OT from embryonic day 16 (E16) on. From E22 on, side branches of the axonal projections could be found within the OT. At the day of hatching (E32), the projection displayed a dorsoventral topography comparable to the adult owl; however, atopically projecting cells remained. The complexity of the axonal arborization in the adult barn owl was found to be slightly increased compared with the hatchling. The terminal area of individual ICX cells in the OT of the adult barn owl was still broad, a finding that had not been expected from the sharply defined physiological response properties of the bimodal neurons in the space map of the OT. However, the width of the termination zone was in accordance with the large dendritic tree of the adult ICX cells, because both spanned comparable angles in their respective maps. Our data suggest that a coarse projection from the ICX to the OT can develop without coherent sensory input and may, therefore, be innately determined. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Novel Models of Visual Topographic Map Alignment in the Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    El-Ghazawi, Tarek A.; Triplett, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of precise neuronal connectivity during development is critical for sensing the external environment and informing appropriate behavioral responses. In the visual system, many connections are organized topographically, which preserves the spatial order of the visual scene. The superior colliculus (SC) is a midbrain nucleus that integrates visual inputs from the retina and primary visual cortex (V1) to regulate goal-directed eye movements. In the SC, topographically organized inputs from the retina and V1 must be aligned to facilitate integration. Previously, we showed that retinal input instructs the alignment of V1 inputs in the SC in a manner dependent on spontaneous neuronal activity; however, the mechanism of activity-dependent instruction remains unclear. To begin to address this gap, we developed two novel computational models of visual map alignment in the SC that incorporate distinct activity-dependent components. First, a Correlational Model assumes that V1 inputs achieve alignment with established retinal inputs through simple correlative firing mechanisms. A second Integrational Model assumes that V1 inputs contribute to the firing of SC neurons during alignment. Both models accurately replicate in vivo findings in wild type, transgenic and combination mutant mouse models, suggesting either activity-dependent mechanism is plausible. In silico experiments reveal distinct behaviors in response to weakening retinal drive, providing insight into the nature of the system governing map alignment depending on the activity-dependent strategy utilized. Overall, we describe novel computational frameworks of visual map alignment that accurately model many aspects of the in vivo process and propose experiments to test them. PMID:28027309

  11. Sounds and beyond: multisensory and other non-auditory signals in the inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Gruters, Kurtis G.; Groh, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) is a major processing center situated mid-way along both the ascending and descending auditory pathways of the brain stem. Although it is fundamentally an auditory area, the IC also receives anatomical input from non-auditory sources. Neurophysiological studies corroborate that non-auditory stimuli can modulate auditory processing in the IC and even elicit responses independent of coincident auditory stimulation. In this article, we review anatomical and physiological evidence for multisensory and other non-auditory processing in the IC. Specifically, the contributions of signals related to vision, eye movements and position, somatosensation, and behavioral context to neural activity in the IC will be described. These signals are potentially important for localizing sound sources, attending to salient stimuli, distinguishing environmental from self-generated sounds, and perceiving and generating communication sounds. They suggest that the IC should be thought of as a node in a highly interconnected sensory, motor, and cognitive network dedicated to synthesizing a higher-order auditory percept rather than simply reporting patterns of air pressure detected by the cochlea. We highlight some of the potential pitfalls that can arise from experimental manipulations that may disrupt the normal function of this network, such as the use of anesthesia or the severing of connections from cortical structures that project to the IC. Finally, we note that the presence of these signals in the IC has implications for our understanding not just of the IC but also of the multitude of other regions within and beyond the auditory system that are dependent on signals that pass through the IC. Whatever the IC “hears” would seem to be passed both “upward” to thalamus and thence to auditory cortex and beyond, as well as “downward” via centrifugal connections to earlier areas of the auditory pathway such as the cochlear nucleus. PMID:23248584

  12. Electrical stimulation of the parabrachial nucleus induces reanimation from isoflurane general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Muindi, Fanuel; Kenny, Jonathan D; Taylor, Norman E; Solt, Ken; Wilson, Matthew A; Brown, Emery N; Van Dort, Christa J

    2016-06-01

    Clinically, emergence from general anesthesia is viewed as a passive process where anesthetics are discontinued at the end of surgery and anesthesiologists wait for the drugs to wear off. The mechanisms involved in emergence are not well understood and there are currently no drugs that can actively reverse the state of general anesthesia. An emerging hypothesis states that brain regions that control arousal become active during emergence and are a key part of the return to wakefulness. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that electrical activation of the glutamatergic parabrachial nucleus (PBN) in the brainstem is sufficient to induce reanimation (active emergence) during continuous isoflurane general anesthesia. Using c-Fos immunohistochemistry as a marker of neural activity, we first show a selective increase in active neurons in the PBN during passive emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. We then electrically stimulated the PBN to assess whether it is sufficient to induce reanimation from isoflurane general anesthesia. Stimulation induced behavioral arousal and restoration of the righting reflex during continuous isoflurane general anesthesia. In contrast, stimulation of the nearby central inferior colliculus (CIC) did not restore the righting reflex. Spectral analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed that stimulation produced a significant decrease in EEG delta power during PBN stimulation. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the PBN provides critical arousal input during emergence from isoflurane anesthesia.

  13. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase in the central nucleus of the amygdala induces anhedonic behavior and recurrent seizures in a rat model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gruenbaum, Shaun E.; Wang, Helen; Zaveri, Hitten P.; Tang, Amber B.; Lee, Tih-Shih W.; Eid, Tore; Dhaher, Roni

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of depression and suicide is increased in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE); however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Anhedonia, a core symptom of depression that is predictive of suicide, is common in patients with MTLE. Glutamine synthetase, an astrocytic enzyme that metabolizes glutamate and ammonia to glutamine, is reduced in the amygdala in patients with epilepsy and depression and in suicide victims. Here, we sought to develop a novel model of anhedonia in MTLE by testing the hypothesis that deficiency in glutamine synthetase in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) leads to epilepsy and comorbid anhedonia. Nineteen male Sprague–Dawley rats were implanted with an osmotic pump infusing either the glutamine synthetase inhibitor methionine sulfoximine [MSO (n = 12)] or phosphate buffered saline [PBS (n = 7)] into the right CeA. Seizure activity was monitored by video-intracranial electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings for 21 days after the onset of MSO infusion. Sucrose preference, a measure of anhedonia, was assessed after 21 days. Methionine sulfoximine-infused rats exhibited recurrent seizures during the monitoring period and showed decreased sucrose preference over days when compared with PBS-infused rats (p < 0.01). Water consumption did not differ between the PBS-treated group and the MSO-treated group. Neurons were lost in the CeA, but not the medial amygdala, lateral amygdala, basolateral amygdala, or the hilus of the dentate gyrus, in the MSO-treated rats. The results suggest that decreased glutamine synthetase activity in the CeA is a possible common cause of anhedonia and seizures in TLE. We propose that the MSO CeA model can be used for mechanistic studies that will lead to the development and testing of novel drugs to prevent seizures, depression, and suicide in patients with TLE. PMID:26262937

  14. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase in the central nucleus of the amygdala induces anhedonic behavior and recurrent seizures in a rat model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gruenbaum, Shaun E; Wang, Helen; Zaveri, Hitten P; Tang, Amber B; Lee, Tih-Shih W; Eid, Tore; Dhaher, Roni

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of depression and suicide is increased in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE); however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Anhedonia, a core symptom of depression that is predictive of suicide, is common in patients with MTLE. Glutamine synthetase, an astrocytic enzyme that metabolizes glutamate and ammonia to glutamine, is reduced in the amygdala in patients with epilepsy and depression and in suicide victims. Here, we sought to develop a novel model of anhedonia in MTLE by testing the hypothesis that deficiency in glutamine synthetase in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) leads to epilepsy and comorbid anhedonia. Nineteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with an osmotic pump infusing either the glutamine synthetase inhibitor methionine sulfoximine [MSO (n=12)] or phosphate buffered saline [PBS (n=7)] into the right CeA. Seizure activity was monitored by video-intracranial electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings for 21days after the onset of MSO infusion. Sucrose preference, a measure of anhedonia, was assessed after 21days. Methionine sulfoximine-infused rats exhibited recurrent seizures during the monitoring period and showed decreased sucrose preference over days when compared with PBS-infused rats (p<0.01). Water consumption did not differ between the PBS-treated group and the MSO-treated group. Neurons were lost in the CeA, but not the medial amygdala, lateral amygdala, basolateral amygdala, or the hilus of the dentate gyrus, in the MSO-treated rats. The results suggest that decreased glutamine synthetase activity in the CeA is a possible common cause of anhedonia and seizures in TLE. We propose that the MSO CeA model can be used for mechanistic studies that will lead to the development and testing of novel drugs to prevent seizures, depression, and suicide in patients with TLE.

  15. Effects of unilatral- and bilateral inhibition of rostral ventral tegmental area and central nucleus of amygdala on morphine-induced place conditioning in male Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Mohammadian, Zahra; Sahraei, Hedayat; Meftahi, Gholam Hossein; Ali-Beik, Hengameh

    2017-03-01

    The rostral ventral tegmental area (VTAR) and central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) are considered the main regions for induction of psychological dependence on abused drugs, such as morphine. The main aim of this study was to investigate the transient inhibition of each right and left side as well as both sides of the VTAR and the CeA by lidocaine (2%) on morphine reward properties using the conditioned place preference (CPP) method. Male Wistar rats (250±20 g) 7 days after recovery from surgery and cannulation were conditioned to morphine (7.5 mg/kg) in CPP apparatus. Five minutes before morphine injection in conditioning phase, lidocaine was administered either uni- or bilaterally into the VTAR (0.25 μL/site) or CeA (0.5 μL/site). The results revealed that lidocaine administration into the left side, but not the right side of the VTAR and the CeA reduced morphine CPP significantly. The reduction was potentiated when lidocaine was injected into both sides of the VTAR and the CeA. The number of compartment crossings was reduced when lidocaine was injected into both sides of the VTAR and the CeA as well as the left side. Rearing was reduced when lidocaine was injected into the right, but not the left side of the VTAR. Sniffing and rearing increased when animals received lidocaine in the right side and reduced in the group that received lidocaine in the left side of the CeA. It was concluded that the right and the left side of VTAR and the CeA play different roles in morphine-induced activity and reward. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Glutamatergic transmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala is selectively altered in Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats: alcohol and CRF effects

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Melissa A.; Varodayan, Florence P.; Oleata, Christopher S.; Luu, George; Kirson, Dean; Heilig, Markus; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Roberto, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    The CRF system of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is important for the processing of anxiety, stress, and effects of acute and chronic ethanol. We previously reported that ethanol decreases evoked glutamate transmission in the CeA of Sprague Dawley rats and that ethanol dependence alters glutamate release in the CeA. Here, we examined the effects of ethanol, CRF and a CRF1 receptor antagonist on spontaneous and evoked glutamatergic transmission in CeA neurons from Wistar and Marchigian Sardinian Preferring (msP) rats, a rodent line genetically selected for excessive alcohol drinking and characterized by heightened activity of the CRF1 system. Basal spontaneous and evoked glutamate transmission in CeA neurons from msP rats was increased compared to Wistar rats. Ethanol had divergent effects, either increasing or decreasing spontaneous glutamate release in the CeA of Wistar rats. This bidirectional effect was retained in msP rats, but the magnitude of the ethanol-induced increase in glutamate release was significantly smaller. The inhibitory effect of ethanol on evoked glutamatergic transmission was similar in both strains. CRF also either increased or decreased spontaneous glutamate release in CeA neurons of Wistar rats, however, in msP rats CRF only increased glutamate release. The inhibitory effect of CRF on evoked glutamatergic transmission was also lost in neurons from msP rats. A CRF1 antagonist produced only minor effects on spontaneous glutamate transmission, which were consistent across strains, and no effects on evoked glutamate transmission. These results demonstrate that the genetically altered CRF system of msP rats results in alterations in spontaneous and stimulated glutamate signaling in the CeA that may contribute to both the anxiety and drinking behavioral phenotypes. PMID:26519902

  17. Central mechanism of the cardiovascular responses caused by L-proline microinjected into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in unanesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Azevedo, Silvana; Busnardo, Cristiane; Corrêa, Fernando Morgan Aguiar

    2016-12-01

    Previously, we reported that microinjection of L-proline (L-Pro) into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) caused vasopressin-mediated pressor responses in unanesthetized rats. In the present study, we report on the central mechanisms involved in the mediation of the cardiovascular effects caused by the microinjection of L-Pro into the PVN. Microinjection of increasing doses of L-Pro (3-100nmol/100nL) into the PVN caused dose-related pressor and bradycardic responses. No cardiovascular responses were observed after the microinjection of equimolar doses (33nmol/100nL) of its isomer D-Proline (D-Pro) or Mannitol. The PVN pretreatment with either a selective non-NMDA (NBQX) or selective NMDA (LY235959 or DL-AP7) glutamate receptor antagonists blocked the cardiovascular response to L-Pro (33nmol/100nL). The dose-effect curve for the pretreatment with increasing doses of LY235959 was located at the left in relation to the curves for NBQX and DL-AP7, showing that LY235959 is more potent than NBQX, which is more potent than DL-AP7 in inhibiting the cardiovascular response to L-Pro. The cardiovascular response to the microinjection of L-Pro into the PVN was not affected by local pretreatment with N(ω)-Propyl-l-arginine (N-Propyl), a selective inhibitor of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), suggesting that NO does not mediate the responses to L-Pro in the PVN. In conclusion, the results suggest that ionotropic receptors in the PVN, blocked by both NMDA and non-NMDA receptor antagonists, mediate the pressor response to L-Pro that results from activation of PVN vasopressinergic magnocellular neurons and vasopressin release into the systemic circulation.

  18. NMDA receptors regulate nicotine-enhanced brain reward function and intravenous nicotine self-administration: Role of the ventral tegmental area and central nucleus of the amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, Paul J.; Chartoff, Elena; Roberto, Marisa; Carlezon, William A.; Markou, Athina

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine is considered an important component of tobacco responsible for the smoking habit in humans. Nicotine increases glutamate-mediated transmission throughout brain reward circuitries. This action of nicotine could potentially contribute to its intrinsic rewarding and reward-enhancing properties, which motivate consumption of the drug. Here we show that the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist LY235959 (0.5–2.5 mg/kg) abolished nicotine-enhanced brain reward function, reflected in blockade of the lowering of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds usually observed after experimenter-administered (0.25 mg/kg) or intravenously self-administered (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) nicotine injections. The highest LY235959 dose (5 mg/kg) tested reversed the hedonic valence of nicotine from positive to negative, reflected in nicotine-induced elevations of ICSS thresholds. LY235959 doses that reversed nicotine-induced lowering of ICSS thresholds also markedly decreased nicotine self-administration without altering responding for food reinforcement, whereas the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist NBQX had no effects on nicotine intake. In addition, nicotine self-administration upregulated NMDA receptor subunit expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), suggesting important interactions between nicotine and the NMDA receptor. Furthermore, nicotine (1 μM) increased NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in rat CeA slices, similar to its previously described effects in the VTA. Finally, infusion of LY235959 (0.1–10 ng/side) into the CeA or VTA decreased nicotine self-administration. Taken together, these data suggest that NMDA receptors, including those in the CeA and VTA, gate the magnitude and valence of the effects of nicotine on brain reward systems, thereby regulating motivation to consume the drug. PMID:18418357

  19. Chronic stress exacerbates neuropathic pain via the integration of stress-affect-related information with nociceptive information in the central nucleus of the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Jia; Liu, Ling-Yu; Chen, Lin; Cai, Jie; Wan, You; Xing, Guo-Gang

    2017-04-01

    Exacerbation of pain by chronic stress and comorbidity of pain with stress-related psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression, represent significant clinical challenges. However, the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether chronic forced swim stress (CFSS)-induced exacerbation of neuropathic pain is mediated by the integration of stress-affect-related information with nociceptive information in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We first demonstrated that CFSS indeed produces both depressive-like behaviors and exacerbation of spared nerve injury (SNI)-induced mechanical allodynia in rats. Moreover, we revealed that CFSS induces both sensitization of basolateral amygdala (BLA) neurons and augmentation of long-term potentiation (LTP) at the BLA-CeA synapse and meanwhile, exaggerates both SNI-induced sensitization of CeA neurons and LTP at the parabrachial (PB)-CeA synapse. In addition, we discovered that CFSS elevates SNI-induced functional up-regulation of GluN2B-containing NMDA (GluN2B-NMDA) receptors in the CeA, which is proved to be necessary for CFSS-induced augmentation of LTP at the PB-CeA synapse and exacerbation of pain hypersensitivity in SNI rats. Suppression of CFSS-elicited depressive-like behaviors by antidepressants imipramine or ifenprodil inhibits the CFSS-induced exacerbation of neuropathic pain. Collectively, our findings suggest that CFSS potentiates synaptic efficiency of the BLA-CeA pathway, leading to the activation of GluN2B-NMDA receptors and sensitization of CeA neurons, which subsequently facilitate pain-related synaptic plasticity of the PB-CeA pathway, thereby exacerbating SNI-induced neuropathic pain. We conclude that chronic stress exacerbates neuropathic pain via the integration of stress-affect-related information with nociceptive information in the CeA.

  20. Ultrastructural relationship between the AMPA-GluR2 receptor subunit and the mu-opioid receptor in the mouse central nucleus of the amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Beckerman, Marc A.; Glass, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Activation of GluR2 expressing non-calcium permeable AMPA-type glutamate receptors in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) may play an important role in integrating emotion and memory with goal directed behaviors involved in opioid addiction. The location of non-calcium permeable AMPA receptors within distinct neuronal compartments (i.e. soma, dendrite, or axon) is an important functional feature of these proteins, however, their ultrastructural location and subcellular relationship with mu-opioid receptors (μOR) in the CeA are unknown. Immunocytochemical electron microscopy was used to characterize the ultrastructural distribution of GluR2 and its association with μOR in the mouse CeA. A single labeling analysis of GluR2 distribution employing immunoperoxidase or immunogold markers revealed that this protein was frequently affiliated with intracellular vesicular organelles, as well as the plasma membrane of CeA neuronal profiles. Among all GluR2 labeled neuronal structures, over 85% were dendrites or somata. Unlabeled axon terminals frequently formed asymmetric excitatory-type synaptic junctions with GluR2 labeled dendritic profiles. Dual labeling immunocytochemical analysis showed that GluR2 and μOR were co-localized in neuronal compartments. Among all dual labeled structures, approximately 80% were dendritic. Synaptic inputs to these dual labeled dendrites were frequently from unlabeled axon terminals forming asymmetric excitatory-type synapses. The presence of GluR2 in dendritic profiles receiving asymmetric synapses suggests that activation of the non-calcium permeable AMPA receptor plays a role in the postsynaptic modulation of excitatory signaling involving CeA neuronal circuits that coordinate sensory, affective, and behavioral processes involved in drug addiction. Given the critical role of non-calcium permeable AMPA receptor function in neural and behavioral adaptability, their dendritic association with μOR in CeA dendrites provides a neuronal

  1. An integrative role for the superior colliculus in selecting targets for movements

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Andrew B.; Lintz, Mario J.; Costabile, Jamie D.; Thompson, John A.

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental goal of systems neuroscience is to understand the neural mechanisms underlying decision making. The midbrain superior colliculus (SC) is known to be central to the selection of one among many potential spatial targets for movements, which represents an important form of decision making that is tractable to rigorous experimental investigation. In this review, we first discuss data from mammalian models—including primates, cats, and rodents—that inform our understanding of how neural activity in the SC underlies the selection of targets for movements. We then examine the anatomy and physiology of inputs to the SC from three key regions that are themselves implicated in motor decisions—the basal ganglia, parabrachial region, and neocortex—and discuss how they may influence SC activity related to target selection. Finally, we discuss the potential for methodological advances to further our understanding of the neural bases of target selection. Our overarching goal is to synthesize what is known about how the SC and its inputs act together to mediate the selection of targets for movements, to highlight open questions about this process, and to spur future studies addressing these questions. PMID:26203103

  2. BDNF injected into the superior colliculus reduces developmental retinal ganglion cell death.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y T; Hsieh, T; Forbes, M E; Johnson, J E; Frost, D O

    1998-03-15

    The role of neurotrophins as survival factors for developing CNS neurons, including retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), is uncertain. Null mutations for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or neurotrophin 4 (NT4), individually or together, are without apparent effect on the number of RGCs that survive beyond the period of normal, developmental RGC death. This contrasts with the BDNF dependence of RGCs in vitro and the effectiveness of BDNF in reducing RGC loss after axotomy. To investigate the effect of target-derived neurotrophins on the survival of developing RGCs, we injected BDNF into the superior colliculus (SC) of neonatal hamsters. At the age when the rate of developmental RGC death is greatest, BDNF produces, 20 hr after injection, a 13-15-fold reduction in the rate of RGC pyknosis compared with the rates in vehicle-injected and untreated hamsters. There is no effect 8 hr after injection. Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay measurements of BDNF protein in the retinae and SC of normal and BDNF-treated hamsters demonstrate that the time course of BDNF transport to RGCs supports a role for target-derived BDNF in promoting RGC survival. The effectiveness of pharmacological doses of BDNF in reducing developmental RGC death may be useful in further studies of the mechanisms of stabilization and elimination of immature central neurons.

  3. An integrative role for the superior colliculus in selecting targets for movements.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Andrew B; Lintz, Mario J; Costabile, Jamie D; Thompson, John A; Stubblefield, Elizabeth A; Felsen, Gidon

    2015-10-01

    A fundamental goal of systems neuroscience is to understand the neural mechanisms underlying decision making. The midbrain superior colliculus (SC) is known to be central to the selection of one among many potential spatial targets for movements, which represents an important form of decision making that is tractable to rigorous experimental investigation. In this review, we first discuss data from mammalian models-including primates, cats, and rodents-that inform our understanding of how neural activity in the SC underlies the selection of targets for movements. We then examine the anatomy and physiology of inputs to the SC from three key regions that are themselves implicated in motor decisions-the basal ganglia, parabrachial region, and neocortex-and discuss how they may influence SC activity related to target selection. Finally, we discuss the potential for methodological advances to further our understanding of the neural bases of target selection. Our overarching goal is to synthesize what is known about how the SC and its inputs act together to mediate the selection of targets for movements, to highlight open questions about this process, and to spur future studies addressing these questions.

  4. Neural correlates of context-dependent perceptual enhancement in the inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Paul C.; Young, Eric D.

    2010-01-01

    In certain situations, preceding auditory stimulation can actually result in heightened sensitivity to subsequent sounds. Many of these phenomena appear to be generated in the brain as reflections of central computations. One example is the robust perceptual enhancement (or “pop out”) of a probe signal within a broad-band sound whose onset time is delayed relative to the remainder of a mixture of tones. Here we show that the neural representation of such stimuli undergoes a dramatic transformation as the pathway is ascended, from an implicit and distributed peripheral code to explicitly facilitated single-neuron responses at the level of the inferior colliculus (IC) of two awake and passively listening female marmoset monkeys (callithrix jacchus). Many key features of the IC responses directly parallel psychophysical measures of enhancement, including the dependence on the width of a spectral notch surrounding the probe, the overall level of the complex, and the duration of the preceding sound (referred to as the conditioner). Neural detection thresholds for the probe with and without the conditioner were also in qualitative agreement with analogous psychoacoustic measures. Response characteristics during the conditioners were predictive of the enhancement or suppression of the ensuing probe response: build-up responses were associated with enhancement while adapting conditioner responses were more likely to result in suppression. These data can be largely explained by a phenomenological computational model using dynamic (adapting) inhibition as a necessary ingredient in the generation of neural enhancement. PMID:20463220

  5. Stimulus-specific adaptation and deviance detection in the inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Yaneri A.; Malmierca, Manuel S.

    2013-01-01

    Deviancy detection in the continuous flow of sensory information into the central nervous system is of vital importance for animals. The task requires neuronal mechanisms that allow for an efficient representation of the environment by removing statistically redundant signals. Recently, the neuronal principles of auditory deviance detection have been approached by studying the phenomenon of stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). SSA is a reduction in the responsiveness of a neuron to a common or repetitive sound while the neuron remains highly sensitive to rare sounds (Ulanovsky et al., 2003). This phenomenon could enhance the saliency of unexpected, deviant stimuli against a background of repetitive signals. SSA shares many similarities with the evoked potential known as the “mismatch negativity,” (MMN) and it has been linked to cognitive process such as auditory memory and scene analysis (Winkler et al., 2009) as well as to behavioral habituation (Netser et al., 2011). Neurons exhibiting SSA can be found at several levels of the auditory pathway, from the inferior colliculus (IC) up to the auditory cortex (AC). In this review, we offer an account of the state-of-the art of SSA studies in the IC with the aim of contributing to the growing interest in the single-neuron electrophysiology of auditory deviance detection. The dependence of neuronal SSA on various stimulus features, e.g., probability of the deviant stimulus and repetition rate, and the roles of the AC and inhibition in shaping SSA at the level of the IC are addressed. PMID:23335883

  6. Flattened facial colliculus on magnetic resonance imaging in Machado-Joseph disease.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yoshitsugu; Ito, Shoichi; Makino, Takahiro; Kanai, Kazuaki; Arai, Kimihito; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2012-07-01

    Atrophy of the pontine tegmentum and facial colliculus is a characteristic pathological feature of Machado-Joseph disease. We assessed whether this finding can be detected by conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 17 patients with genetically confirmed Machado-Joseph disease, 15 disease controls (spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 and dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy), and 17 normal subjects were examined using a 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. The widths of the facial colliculus, pontine tegmentum, and pontine base and the area of the fourth ventricle were measured on axial T2-weighted imaging. Pathological examination was performed in 9 Machado-Joseph disease patients. In addition, visual inspection of the facial colliculus was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. The width of the facial colliculus was significantly smaller in Machado-Joseph disease patients (0.37 ± 0.16 mm; mean ± standard deviation) than in normal subjects (0.73 ± 0.30 mm; P < .01), whereas the width of the pontine tegmentum was smaller in both Machado-Joseph disease (4.85 ± 0.58 mm) and dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (4.72 ± 0.59) patients than in normal subjects (6.35 ± 0.74 mm; P < .01). Visual evaluation of the facial colliculus showed sufficient area under the receiver operating characteristic curves to differentiate Machado-Joseph disease from dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (0.78) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (0.87). Pathological evaluation showed significant atrophy of the facial colliculus in all Machado-Joseph disease patients. Atrophy of the facial colliculus is a feasible magnetic resonance imaging finding for diagnosing Machado-Joseph disease, and it is easily found as a flattening of the fourth ventricular floor. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  7. Spatial determinants of multisensory integration in cat superior colliculus neurons.

    PubMed

    Meredith, M A; Stein, B E

    1996-05-01

    1. Although a representation of multisensory space is contained in the superior colliculus, little is known about the spatial requirements of multisensory stimuli that influence the activity of neurons here. Critical to this problem is an assessment of the registry of the different receptive fields within individual multisensory neurons. The present study was initiated to determine how closely the receptive fields of individual multisensory neurons are aligned, the physiological role of that alignment, and the possible functional consequences of inducing receptive-field misalignment. 2. Individual multisensory neurons in the superior colliculus of anesthetized, paralyzed cats were studied with the use of standard extracellular recording techniques. The receptive fields of multisensory neurons were large, as reported previously, but exhibited a surprisingly high degree of spatial coincidence. The average proportion of receptive-field overlap was 86% for the population of visual-auditory neurons sampled. 3. Because of this high degree of intersensory receptive-field correspondence, combined-modality stimuli that were coincident in space tended to fall within the excitatory regions of the receptive fields involved. The result was a significantly enhanced neuronal response in 88% of the multisensory neurons studied. If stimuli were spatially disparate, so that one fell outside its receptive field, either a decreased response occurred (56%), or no intersensory effect was apparent (44%). 4. The normal alignment of the different receptive fields of a multisensory neuron could be disrupted by passively displacing the eyes, pinnae, or limbs/body. In no case was a shift in location or size observed in a neuron's other receptive field(s) to compensate for this displacement. The physiological result of receptive-field misalignment was predictable and based on the location of the stimuli relative to the new positions of their respective receptive fields. Now, for example, one

  8. Expression of cadherin-8 mRNA in the developing mouse central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Korematsu, K; Redies, C

    1997-10-20

    The expression of cadherin-8 was mapped by in situ hybridization in the embryonic and postnatal mouse central nervous system (CNS). From embryonic day 18 (E18) to postnatal day 6 (P6), cadherin-8 expression is restricted to a subset of developing brain nuclei and cortical areas in all major subdivisions of the CNS. The anlagen of some of the cadherin-8-positive structures also express this molecule at earlier developmental stages (E12.5-E16). The cadherin-8-positive neuroanatomical structures are parts of several functional systems in the brain. In the limbic system, cadherin-8-positive regions are found in the septal region, habenular nuclei, amygdala, interpeduncular nucleus, raphe nuclei, and hippocampus. Cerebral cortex shows expression in several limbic areas at P6. In the basal ganglia and related nuclei, cadherin-8 is expressed by parts of the striatum, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, entopeduncular nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, zona incerta, and pedunculopontine nuclei. A third group of cadherin-8-positive gray matter structures has functional connections with the cerebellum (superior colliculus, anterior pretectal nucleus, red nucleus, nucleus of posterior commissure, inferior olive, pontine, pontine reticular, and vestibular nuclei). The cerebellum itself shows parasagittal stripes of cadherin-8 expression in the Purkinje cell layer. In the hindbrain, cadherin-8 is expressed by several cranial nerve nuclei. Results from this study show that cadherin-8 expression in the embryonic and postnatal mouse brain is restricted to specific developing gray matter structures. These data support the idea that cadherins are a family of molecules whose expression provides a molecular code for the regionalization of the developing vertebrate brain.

  9. Neonatal cortical ablation disrupts multisensory development in superior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wan; Jiang, Huai; Stein, Barry E.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of cat superior colliculus (SC) neurons to synthesize information from different senses depends on influences from two areas of the cortex: the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (AES) and the rostral lateral suprasylvian sulcus (rLS). Reversibly deactivating the inputs to the SC from either of these areas in normal adults severely compromises this ability and the SC-mediated behaviors that depend on it. In the present study we found that removal of these areas in neonatal animals precluded the normal development of multisensory SC processes. At maturity there was a substantial decrease in the incidence of multisensory neurons, and those multisensory neurons that did develop were highly abnormal. Their cross-modal receptive field register was severely compromised, as was their ability to integrate cross-modal stimuli. Apparently, despite the impressive plasticity of the neonatal brain, it cannot compensate for the early loss of these cortices. Surprisingly, however, neonatal removal of either AES or rLS had comparatively minor consequences on these properties. At maturity multisensory SC neurons were quite common: they developed the characteristic spatial register among their unisensory receptive fields and exhibited normal adult-like multisensory integration. These observations suggest that during early ontogeny, when the multisensory properties of SC neurons are being crafted, AES and rLS may have the ability to compensate for the loss of one another’s cortico-collicular influences so that normal multisensory processes can develop in the SC. PMID:16267111

  10. Neural Prediction of Multidimensional Decisions in Monkey Superior Colliculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Ryohei P.; Hasegawa, Yukako T.; Segraves, Mark A.

    To examine the function of the superior colliculus (SC) in decision-making processes and the application of its single trial activity for “neural mind reading,” we recorded from SC deep layers while two monkeys performed oculomotor go/no-go tasks. We have recently focused on monitoring single trial activities in single SC neurons, and designed a virtual decision function (VDF) to provide a good estimation of single-dimensional decisions (go/no-go decisions for a cue presented at a specific visual field, a response field of each neuron). In this study, we used two VDFs for multidimensional decisions (go/no-go decisions at two cue locations) with the ensemble activity which was simultaneously recorded from a small group (4 to 6) of neurons at both sides of the SC. VDFs predicted cue locations as well as go/no-go decisions. These results suggest that monitoring of ensemble SC activity had sufficient capacity to predict multidimensional decisions on a trial-by-trial basis, which is an ideal candidate to serve for cognitive brain-machine interfaces (BMI) such as two-dimensional word spellers.

  11. Modeling the Value of Strategic Actions in the Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Thevarajah, Dhushan; Webb, Ryan; Ferrall, Christopher; Dorris, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    In learning models of strategic game play, an agent constructs a valuation (action value) over possible future choices as a function of past actions and rewards. Choices are then stochastic functions of these action values. Our goal is to uncover a neural signal that correlates with the action value posited by behavioral learning models. We measured activity from neurons in the superior colliculus (SC), a midbrain region involved in planning saccadic eye movements, while monkeys performed two saccade tasks. In the strategic task, monkeys competed against a computer in a saccade version of the mixed-strategy game ”matching-pennies”. In the instructed task, saccades were elicited through explicit instruction rather than free choices. In both tasks neuronal activity and behavior were shaped by past actions and rewards with more recent events exerting a larger influence. Further, SC activity predicted upcoming choices during the strategic task and upcoming reaction times during the instructed task. Finally, we found that neuronal activity in both tasks correlated with an established learning model, the Experience Weighted Attraction model of action valuation (Camerer and Ho, 1999). Collectively, our results provide evidence that action values hypothesized by learning models are represented in the motor planning regions of the brain in a manner that could be used to select strategic actions. PMID:20161807

  12. Effect of Reversible Inactivation of Superior Colliculus on Head Movements

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Mark M. G.; Bechara, Bernard; Gandhi, Neeraj J.

    2013-01-01

    Because of limitations in the oculomotor range, many gaze shifts must be accomplished using coordinated movements of the eyes and head. Stimulation and recording data have implicated the primate superior colliculus (SC) in the control of these gaze shifts. The precise role of this structure in head movement control, however, is not known. The present study uses reversible inactivation to gain insight into the role of this structure in the control of head movements, including those that accompany gaze shifts and those that occur in the absence of a change in gaze. Forty-five lidocaine injections were made in two monkeys that had been trained on a series of behavioral tasks that dissociate movements of the eyes and head. Reversible inactivation resulted in clear impairments in the animals’ ability to perform gaze shifts, manifested by increased reaction times, lower peak velocities, and increased durations. In contrast, comparable effects were not found for head movements (with or without gaze shifts) with the exception of a very small increase in reaction times of head movements associated with gaze shifts. Eye-head coordination was clearly affected by the injections with gaze onset occurring relatively later with respect to head onset. Following the injections, the head contributed slightly more to the gaze shift. These results suggest that head movements (with and without gaze shifts) can be controlled by pathways that do not involve SC. PMID:18305088

  13. Responses of inferior colliculus neurons to double harmonic tones.

    PubMed

    Sinex, Donal G; Li, Hongzhe

    2007-12-01

    The auditory system can segregate sounds that overlap in time and frequency, if the sounds differ in acoustic properties such as fundamental frequency (f0). However, the neural mechanisms that underlie this ability are poorly understood. Responses of neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) of the anesthetized chinchilla were measured. The stimuli were harmonic tones, presented alone (single harmonic tones) and in the presence of a second harmonic tone with a different f0 (double harmonic tones). Responses to single harmonic tones exhibited no stimulus-related temporal pattern, or in some cases, a simple envelope modulated at f0. Responses to double harmonic tones exhibited complex slowly modulated discharge patterns. The discharge pattern varied with the difference in f0 and with characteristic frequency. The discharge pattern also varied with the relative levels of the two tones; complex temporal patterns were observed when levels were equal, but as the level difference increased, the discharge pattern reverted to that associated with single harmonic tones. The results indicated that IC neurons convey information about simultaneous sounds in their temporal discharge patterns and that the patterns are produced by interactions between adjacent components in the spectrum. The representation is "low-resolution," in that it does not convey information about single resolved components from either individual sound.

  14. Tinnitus-Related Changes in the Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Joel I.; Coomber, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Tinnitus is highly complex, diverse, and difficult to treat, in part due to the fact that the underlying causes and mechanisms remain elusive. Tinnitus is generated within the auditory brain; however, consolidating our understanding of tinnitus pathophysiology is difficult due to the diversity of reported effects and the variety of implicated brain nuclei. Here, we focus on the inferior colliculus (IC), a midbrain structure that integrates the vast majority of ascending auditory information and projects via the thalamus to the auditory cortex. The IC is also a point of convergence for corticofugal input and input originating outside the auditory pathway. We review the evidence, from both studies with human subjects and from animal models, for the contribution the IC makes to tinnitus. Changes in the IC, caused by either noise exposure or drug administration, involve fundamental, heterogeneous alterations in the balance of excitation and inhibition. However, differences between hearing loss-induced pathology and tinnitus-related pathology are not well understood. Moreover, variability in tinnitus induction methodology has a significant impact on subsequent neural and behavioral changes, which could explain some of the seemingly contradictory data. Nonetheless, the IC is likely involved in the generation and persistence of tinnitus perception. PMID:25870582

  15. Subthreshold activation of the superior colliculus drives saccade motor learning.

    PubMed

    Soetedjo, Robijanto; Fuchs, Albert F; Kojima, Yoshiko

    2009-12-02

    How the brain learns and maintains accurate precision movements is currently unknown. At times throughout life, rapid gaze shifts (saccades) become inaccurate, but the brain makes gradual adjustments so they again stop on target. Previously, we showed that complex spikes (CSs) in Purkinje cells of the oculomotor cerebellum report the direction and amplitude by which saccades are in error. Anatomical studies indicate that this error signal could originate in the superior colliculus (SC). Here, we deliver subthreshold electrical stimulation of the SC after the saccade lands to signal an apparent error. The size of saccades in the same direction as the simulated error gradually increase; those in the opposite direction decrease. The electrically adapted saccades endure after stimulation is discontinued, exhibit an adaptation field, can undergo changes in direction, and depend on error timing. These electrically induced adaptations were virtually identical with those produced by the visually induced adaptations that we report here for comparable visual errors in the same monkeys. Therefore, our experiments reveal that an additional role for the SC in the generation of saccades is to provide a vector error signal that drives dysmetric saccades to adapt. Moreover, the characteristics of the electrically induced adaptation reflect those of error-related CS activity in the oculomotor cerebellum, suggesting that CS activity serves as the learning signal. We speculate that CS activity may serve as the error signal that drives other kinds of motor learning as well.

  16. Dorsal periaqueductal gray post-stimulation freezing is counteracted by neurokinin-1 receptor antagonism in the central nucleus of the amygdala in rats.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M C; Santos, J M; Brandão, M L

    2015-05-01

    Electrical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) in rats generates defensive responses that are characterized by freezing and escape behaviors, followed by post-stimulation freezing that resembles symptoms of panic attacks. dPAG post-stimulation freezing involves the processing of ascending aversive information to prosencephalic centers, including the amygdala, which allows the animal to evaluate the consequences of stressful situations. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) is thought to act as a filter for innate and learned aversive information that is transmitted to higher structures. The central (CeA) and medial (MeA) nuclei of the amygdala constitute an output for the expression of fear reactions through projections to limbic and brainstem regions. Neurokinin (NK) receptors are abundant in the CeA, MeA, and BLA, but their role in the expression of defensive responses and processing of aversive information that is evoked by electrical stimulation of the dPAG is still unclear. In the present study, we examined the role of NK1 receptors in these amygdala nuclei in the expression of defensive responses induced by electrical stimulation of the dPAG in rats and fear memory of this aversive stimulation. Rats were implanted with an electrode into the dPAG for electrical stimulation and one cannula in the CeA, MeA, or BLA for injections of vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) or the NK1 receptor antagonist spantide (SPA; 100 pmol/0.2 μl). Injections of SPA into the CeA but not BLA or MeA reduced the duration of post-stimulation freezing evoked by electrical stimulation of the dPAG, without changing the aversive thresholds of freezing or escape. Twenty-four hours later, exploratory behavior was evaluated in the elevated plus maze test (EPM) in the CeA group of rats. Electrical stimulation of the dPAG rats that received vehicle exhibited higher aversion to the open arms of the EPM than sham rats that did not receive any dPAG stimulation. SPA

  17. Synaptogenesis and Myelination in the Nucleus/Tractus Solitarius: Potential Role in Apnea of Prematurity, Congenital Central Hypoventilation, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sarnat, Harvey B; Flores-Sarnat, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Fetuses as early as 15 weeks' gestation exhibit rhythmical respiratory movements shown by real-time ultrasonography. The nucleus/tractus solitarius is the principal brainstem respiratory center; other medullary nuclei also participate. The purpose was to determine temporal maturation of synaptogenesis. Delayed synaptic maturation may explain neurogenic apnea or hypoventilation of prematurity and some cases of sudden infant death syndrome. Sections of medulla oblongata were studied from 30 human fetal and neonatal brains 9 to 41 weeks' gestation. Synaptophysin demonstrated the immunocytochemical sequence of synaptogenesis. Other neuronal markers and myelin stain also were applied. The nucleus/tractus solitarius was similarly studied in fetuses with chromosomopathies, metabolic encephalopathies, and brain malformations. Synapse formation in the nucleus solitarius begins at about 12 weeks' gestation and matures by 15 weeks; myelination initiated at 33 weeks. Synaptogenesis was delayed in 3 fetuses with different conditions, but was not specific for only nucleus solitarius. Delayed synaptogenesis or myelination in the nucleus solitarius may play a role in neonatal hypoventilation, especially in preterm infants and in some sudden infant death syndrome cases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Veazey, R.B.; Severin, C.M.

    1982-01-10

    Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus (DMN) of the rat were demonstrated with axonal transport techniques. Potential sources for projections to the DMN were first identified by injecting the nucleus with HRP and examining the cervical spinal cord, brain stem, and cortex for retrogradely labeled neurons. Areas consistently labeled were then injected with a tritiated radioisotope, the tissue processed for autoradiography, and the DMN examined for anterograde labeling. Afferent projections to the medial and/or lateral parts of the DMN were found to originate from a number of spinal, bulbar, and cortical centers. Rostral brain centers projecting to both medial and lateral parts of the DMN include the ipsilateral motor and somatosensory cortex, the entopeduncular nucleus, and zona incerta. at the level of the midbrain, the ipsilateral substantia nigra and contralateral DMN likewise project to the DMN. Furthermore, the ipsilateral superior colliculus projects to the DMN, involving mainly the lateral part of the nucleus. Afferents from caudal centers include bilateral projections from the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal complex and the nucleus medulla oblongata centralis, as well as from the contralateral dentate nucleus. The projections from the trigeminal complex and nucleus medullae oblongatae centralis terminate in the intermediate and medial parts of the DMN, whereas projections from the contralateral dentate nucleus terminate mainly in its lateral part. In general, the afferent connections of the DMN arise from diverse areas of the brain. Although most of these projections distribute throughout the entire extent of the DMN, some of them project mainly to either medial or lateral parts of the nucleus, thus suggesting that the organization of the DMN is comparable, at least in part, to that of the reticular formation of the pons and medulla, a region in which hodological differences between medial and lateral subdivisions are known to exist.

  19. Segregated Anatomical Input to Sub-Regions of the Rodent Superior Colliculus Associated with Approach and Defense

    PubMed Central

    Comoli, Eliane; Das Neves Favaro, Plínio; Vautrelle, Nicolas; Leriche, Mariana; Overton, Paul G.; Redgrave, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) is responsible for sensorimotor transformations required to direct gaze toward or away from unexpected, biologically salient events. Significant changes in the external world are signaled to SC through primary multisensory afferents, spatially organized according to a retinotopic topography. For animals, where an unexpected event could indicate the presence of either predator or prey, early decisions to approach or avoid are particularly important. Rodents’ ecology dictates predators are most often detected initially as movements in upper visual field (mapped in medial SC), while appetitive stimuli are normally found in lower visual field (mapped in lateral SC). Our purpose was to exploit this functional segregation to reveal neural sites that can bias or modulate initial approach or avoidance responses. Small injections of Fluoro-Gold were made into medial or lateral sub-regions of intermediate and deep layers of SC (SCm/SCl). A remarkable segregation of input to these two functionally defined areas was found. (i) There were structures that projected only to SCm (e.g., specific cortical areas, lateral geniculate and suprageniculate thalamic nuclei, ventromedial and premammillary hypothalamic nuclei, and several brainstem areas) or SCl (e.g., primary somatosensory cortex representing upper body parts and vibrissae and parvicellular reticular nucleus in the brainstem). (ii) Other structures projected to both SCm and SCl but from topographically segregated populations of neurons (e.g., zona incerta and substantia nigra pars reticulata). (iii) There were a few brainstem areas in which retrogradely labeled neurons were spatially overlapping (e.g., pedunculopontine nucleus and locus coeruleus). These results indicate significantly more structures across the rat neuraxis are in a position to modulate defense responses evoked from SCm, and that neural mechanisms modulating SC-mediated defense or appetitive behavior are almost entirely

  20. Erratum to "Noise-induced changes of neuronal spontaneous activity in mice inferior colliculus brain slices".

    PubMed

    Basta, Dietmar; Ernst, Arne

    2005-02-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) in vivo is reportedly subject to a noise-induced decrease of GABA-related inhibitory synaptic transmission accompanied by an amplitude increase of auditory evoked responses, a widening of tuning curves and a higher neuronal discharge rate at suprathreshold levels. However, other in vivo experiments which demonstrated constant neuronal auditory thresholds or unchanged spontaneous activity in the IC after noise exposure did not confirm those findings. Perhaps this can be the result of complex noise-induced interactions between different central auditory structures. It was, therefore, the aim of the present study to investigate the effects of noise exposure on the spontaneous electrical activity of single neurons in a slice preparation of the isolated mouse IC. Normal hearing mice were exposed to noise (10 kHz center frequency at 115 dB SPL for 3 h) at the age of 21 days under anesthesia (Ketamin/Rompun 10:1). After one week, auditory brainstem response (ABR) recordings and extracellular single-unit recordings from spontaneously active neurons within the IC slice were performed in noise-exposed and in normal hearing control mice. Noise-exposed animals showed a significant ABR threshold shift in the whole tested frequency range and a significant lower neuronal spontaneous activity in all investigated isofrequency laminae compared to controls. In both groups, the firing rate of 80% of IC neurons (approximately) increased significantly during the application of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist Bicucullin (10 microM). The present findings demonstrate a noise-related modulation of spontaneous activity in the IC, which possibly contribute to the generation of noise-induced tinnitus and hearing loss.

  1. Noise-induced changes of neuronal spontaneous activity in mice inferior colliculus brain slices.

    PubMed

    Basta, Dietmar; Ernest, Arne

    2004-09-30

    The inferior colliculus (IC) in vivo is reportedly subject to a noise-induced decrease of GABA-related inhibitory synaptic transmission accompanied by an amplitude increase of auditory evoked responses, a widening of tuning curves and a higher neuronal discharge rate at suprathreshold levels. However, other in vivo experiments which demonstrated constant neuronal auditory thresholds or unchanged spontaneous activity in the IC after noise exposure did not confirm those findings. Perhaps this can be the result of complex noise-induced interactions between different central auditory structures. It was, therefore, the aim of the present study to investigate the effects of noise exposure on the spontaneous electrical activity of single neurons in a slice preparation of the isolated mouse IC. Normal hearing mice were exposed to noise (10 kHz center frequency at 115 dB SPL for 3 h) at the age of 21 days under anesthesia (Ketamin/Rompun 10:1). After one week, auditory brainstem response (ABR) recordings and extracellular single-unit recordings from spontaneously active neurons within the IC slice were performed in noise-exposed and in normal hearing control mice. Noise-exposed animals showed a significant ABR threshold shift in the whole tested frequency range and a significant lower neuronal spontaneous activity in all investigated isofrequency laminae compared to controls. In both groups, the firing rate of 80% of IC neurons (approximately) increased significantly during the application of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist Bicucullin (10 microM). The present findings demonstrate a noise-related modulation of spontaneous activity in the IC, which possibly contribute to the generation of noise-induced tinnitus and hearing loss.

  2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of sound pressure level encoding in the rat central auditory system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jevin W; Lau, Condon; Cheng, Joe S; Xing, Kyle K; Zhou, Iris Y; Cheung, Matthew M; Wu, Ed X

    2013-01-15

    Intensity is an important physical property of a sound wave and is customarily reported as sound pressure level (SPL). Invasive techniques such as electrical recordings, which typically examine one brain region at a time, have been used to study neuronal encoding of SPL throughout the central auditory system. Non-invasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with large field of view can simultaneously examine multiple auditory structures. We applied fMRI to measure the hemodynamic responses in the rat brain during sound stimulation at seven SPLs over a 72 dB range. This study used a sparse temporal sampling paradigm to reduce the adverse effects of scanner noise. Hemodynamic responses were measured from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CIC), external cortex of the inferior colliculus (ECIC), lateral lemniscus (LL), medial geniculate body (MGB), and auditory cortex (AC). BOLD signal changes generally increase significantly (p<0.001) with SPL and the dependence is monotonic in CIC, ECIC, and LL. The ECIC has higher BOLD signal change than CIC and LL at high SPLs. The difference between BOLD signal changes at high and low SPLs is less in the MGB and AC. This suggests that the SPL dependences of the LL and IC are different from those in the MGB and AC and the SPL dependence of the CIC is different from that of the ECIC. These observations are likely related to earlier observations that neurons with firing rates that increase monotonically with SPL are dominant in the CIC, ECIC, and LL while non-monotonic neurons are dominant in the MGB and AC. Further, the IC's SPL dependence measured in this study is very similar to that measured in our earlier study using the continuous imaging method. Therefore, sparse temporal sampling may not be a prerequisite in auditory fMRI studies of the IC.

  3. Origins of Glutamatergic Terminals in the Inferior Colliculus Identified by Retrograde Transport and Expression of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tetsufumi; Oliver, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    Terminals containing vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 2 make dense axosomatic synapses on tectothalamic GABAergic neurons. These are one of the three types of glutamatergic synapses in the inferior colliculus (IC) identified by one of three combinations of transporter protein: VGLUT1 only, VGLUT2 only, or both VGLUT1 and 2. To identify the source(s) of these three classes of glutamatergic terminals, we employed the injection of Fluorogold (FG) into the IC and retrograde transport in combination with in situ hybridization for VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 mRNA. The distribution of FG-positive soma was consistent with previous reports. In the auditory cortex, all FG-positive cells expressed only VGLUT1. In the IC, the majority of FG-positive cells expressed only VGLUT2. In the intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, most FG-positive cells expressed VGLUT2, and a few FG-positive cells expressed both VGLUT1 and 2. In the superior olivary complex (SOC), the majority of FG-positive cells expressing VGLUT2 were in the lateral superior olive, medial superior olive, and some periolivary nuclei. Fewer FG-positive cells expressed VGLUT1&2. In the ventral cochlear nucleus, almost all FG-positive cells expressed VGLUT1&2. On the other hand in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the vast majority of FG-positive cells expressed only VGLUT2. Our data suggest that (1) the most likely sources of VGLUT2 terminals in the IC are the intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the medial and lateral superior olive, and the IC itself, (2) VGLUT1 terminals in the IC originate only in the ipsilateral auditory cortex, and (3) VGLUT1&2 terminals in IC originate mainly from the VCN with minor contributions from the SOC and the lateral lemniscal nuclei. PMID:21048892

  4. [Involvement of cross interaction between central cholinergic and histaminergic systems in the nucleus tractus solitarius in regulating carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex].

    PubMed

    Hu, Li-Xun; Zhang, Guo-Xing; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Zhao, Hong-Fen; Yu, Kang-Ying; Wang, Guo-Qing

    2013-12-25

    The carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex (CSR) is an important approach for regulating arterial blood pressure homeostasis instantaneously and physiologically. Activation of the central histaminergic or cholinergic systems results in CSR functional inhibitory resetting. However, it is unclear whether two systems at the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) level display cross interaction to regulate the CSR or not. In the present study, the left or right carotid sinus region was isolated from the systemic circulation in Sprague-Dawley rats (sinus nerve was reserved) anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. Respective intubation was conducted into one side isolated carotid sinus and into the femoral artery for recording the intracarotid sinus pressure (ISP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) simultaneously with pressure transducers connection in vivo. ISP was set at the level of 0 mmHg to eliminate the effect of initial internal pressure of the carotid sinus on the CSR function. To trigger CSR, the ISP was quickly elevated from 0 mmHg to 280 mmHg in a stepwise manner (40 mmHg) which was added at every step for over 4 s, and then ISP returned to 0 mmHg in similar steps. The original data of ISP and corresponding MAP were fitted to a modified logistic equation with five parameters to obtain the ISP-MAP, ISP-Gain relationship curves and the CSR characteristic parameters, which were statistically compared and analyzed separately. Under the precondition of no influence on the basic levels of the artery blood pressure, the effects and potential regulatory mechanism of preceding microinjection with different cholinoceptor antagonists, the selective cholinergic M1 receptor antagonist, i.e., pirenzepine (PRZ), the M2 receptor antagonist, i.e., methoctramine (MTR) or the N1 receptor antagonist, i.e., hexamethonium (HEX) into the NTS on the changes in function of CSR induced by intracerebroventricular injection (i.c.v.) of histamine (HA) in rats were observed. Meanwhile, the actions and

  5. [Colliculus atlantis--a rarely observed anatomic structure--in a transoral roentgen image of the thoracic spine].

    PubMed

    Schmidberger, H R; Weiglein, A H

    1998-12-01

    To study the time and mode of the development of the colliculus atlantis, the rate of its occurrence, the causes for its absence, and the radiological-clinical importance in the analysis of open-mouth-view radiographs. Retrospective analysis of standardized radiographs of the cervical spine in more than 20,000 adults and 100 children. Study of 234 human skeletons of different ages and of 38 isolated adult atlases. Cadaveric dissection of 42 adults (age 48-87). Axial radiographs of isolated atlases and analysis of the bony structures of the colliculus atlantis. The colliculus atlantis develops between age 10 and 13 years. It is always present after age 13 years. For the development of the colliculus atlantis a normal function of the craniocervical joints is necessary. In congenital dysmorphias of the craniocervical region with dysfunction of the craniocervical joints and in fractures of the dens axis before age 10 years with instable healing the colliculus atlantis is absent. The colliculus atlantis is developed at age 13 years apart from some rare exceptions as mentioned. Changes of the site and the structure of the colliculus atlantis allow an early diagnosis of certain traumatically and inflammatory diseases of this region. Furthermore, it serves as an additional parameter in functional analysis of the craniocervical joints.

  6. Differences in synaptic and intrinsic properties result in topographic heterogeneity of temporal processing of neurons within the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Lina; Pecka, Michael; Kajopoulos, Jasmin; Gleiss, Helge; Li, Lu; Leibold, Christian; Felmy, Felix

    2016-11-01

    The identification and characterization of organization principals is essential for the understanding of neural function of brain areas. The inferior colliculus (IC) represents a midbrain nexus involved in numerous aspects of auditory processing. Likewise, neurons throughout the IC are tuned to a diverse range of specific stimulus features. Yet beyond a topographic arrangement of the cochlea-inherited frequency tuning, the functional organization of the IC is not well understood. Particularly, a common principle that links the diverse tuning characteristics is unknown. Here we used in vitro patch clamp recordings combined with laser-uncaging, and in vivo single cell recordings to study the spatial and functional organization principles of the central IC. We identified a topographic bias of ascending synaptic input timing that is balanced between inhibition and excitation and co-varies with in vivo first-spike latency. This bias was paralleled post-synaptically by differences in biophysical membrane properties and firing patterns, with integrating neurons predominantly found in the dorso-medial part, and coincidence-detector neurons biased to the ventro-lateral IC. Importantly, these cellular and network features translated into distinct temporal processing capabilities irrespectively of the neurons' characteristic frequency. Our data therefore imply that heterogeneity of synaptic inputs, intrinsic properties and temporal processing are functional principles that underlie the spatial organization of the central IC.

  7. Sensibility of grey particle production system to energy and centrality in 60A and 200A GeV 16O-Nucleus interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsalam, A.; El–Nagdy, M. S.; Badawy, B. M.; Osman, W.; Fayed, M.

    2016-06-01

    The grey particle production following 60 A and 200A GeV 16O interactions with emulsion nuclei is investigated at different centralities. The evaporated target fragment multiplicity is voted as a centrality parameter. The target size effect is examined over a wide range, where the C, N and O nuclei present the light target group while the Br and Ag nuclei are the heavy group. In the framework of the nuclear limiting fragmentation hypothesis, the grey particle multiplicity characteristics depend only on the target size and centrality while the projectile size and energy are not effective. The grey particle is suggested to be a multisource production system. The emission direction in the 4π space depends upon the production source. Either the exponential decay or the Poisson’s peaking curves are the usual characteristic shapes of the grey particle multiplicity distributions. The decay shape is suggested to be a characteristic feature of the source singularity while the peaking shape is a multisource super-position. The sensibility to the centrality varies from a source to other. The distribution shape is identified at each centrality region according to the associated source contribution. In general, the multiplicity characteristics seem to be limited w.r.t. the collision system centrality using light target nuclei. The selection of the black particle multiplicity as a centrality parameter is successful through the collision with the heavy target nuclei. In the collision with the light target nuclei it may be qualitatively better to vote another centrality parameter.

  8. [The role of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus in sound signal processing and auditory ascending transmission].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-Hua; Luo, Feng; Wang, Xin

    2014-06-25

    The ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL) is an important nucleus in the central auditory pathway which connects the lower brainstem and the midbrain inferior colliculus (IC). Previous studies have demonstrated that neurons in the VNLL could respond to sound signal parameters. Frequency tuning curves (FTCs) of VNLL neurons are generally wider than FTCs of IC neurons, suggesting that the VNLL does not enhance abilities of frequency discrimination and coding. Two types of rate-intensity functions (RIFs) are found in the VNLL: monotonic and non-monotonic RIFs. Intensity-tuning of VNLL neurons are affected by the temporal firing patterns during processing and encoding intensity. There are multiple temporal firing patterns in VNLL neurons. Onset pattern has a precise timing characteristic which is well suited to encode temporal features of stimuli, and also very important to animal behavior including bat's echolocation. The VNLL accepts inputs from lower nuclei, uploads glycine inhibitory outputs to IC, and modulates response characteristics generating and acoustic signal processing of IC neurons. Recent research suggests that fast inhibitory projection from the VNLL may delay the first spike latency of IC neurons, and the delayed inhibitory projection from the VNLL may mediate the temporal firing patterns of IC neurons. But how inhibitory inputs from the VNLL integrate in IC, and how inhibitory inputs from the VNLL enhance the ability of detecting sound signal of IC neurons are not very clear and need more direct evidence at the level of neurons. These questions will help further understand the role of upload during IC processes acoustic signal, which are our research target in the future. This article reviews the current literature regarding the roles of the VNLL in sound signal processing and the auditory ascending transmission, including advances in the relevant research in our laboratory.

  9. Relationship between auditory thresholds, central spontaneous activity and hair cell loss after acoustic trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mulders, W.H.A.M.; Ding, D.; Salvi, R.; Robertson, D.

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic trauma caused by exposure to a very loud sound increases spontaneous activity in central auditory structures such as the inferior colliculus. This hyperactivity has been suggested as a neural substrate for tinnitus, a phantom hearing sensation. In previous studies we have described a tentative link between the frequency region of hearing impairment and the corresponding tonotopic regions in the inferior colliculus showing hyperactivity. In this study we further investigated the relationship between cochlear compound action potential threshold loss, cochlear outer and inner hair cell loss and central hyperactivity in inferior colliculus of guinea pigs. Two weeks after a 10 kHz pure tone acoustic trauma, a tight relationship was demonstrated between the frequency region of compound action potential threshold loss and frequency regions in the inferior colliculus showing hyperactivity. Extending the duration of the acoustic trauma from 1 to 2 h did not result in significant increases in final cochlear threshold loss, but did result in a further increase of spontaneous firing rates in the inferior colliculus. Interestingly, hair cell loss was not present in the frequency regions where elevated cochlear thresholds and central hyperactivity were measured, suggesting that subtle changes in hair cell or primary afferent neural function are sufficient for central hyperactivity to be triggered and maintained. PMID:21491427

  10. Auditory Responses to Electric and Infrared Neural Stimulation of the Rat Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rohit; Guex, Amelie A.; Hancock, Kenneth E.; Durakovic, Nedim; McKay, Colette M.; Slama, Michaël C. C.; Brown, M. Christian; Lee, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve the auditory brainstem implant, a prosthesis in which user outcomes are modest, we applied electric and infrared neural stimulation (INS) to the cochlear nucleus in a rat animal model. Electric stimulation evoked regions of neural activation in the inferior colliculus and short-latency, multipeaked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). Pulsed INS, delivered to the surface of the cochlear nucleus via an optical fiber, evoked broad neural activation in the inferior colliculus. Strongest responses were recorded when the fiber was placed at lateral positions on the cochlear nucleus, close to the temporal bone. INS-evoked ABRs were multipeaked but longer in latency than those for electric stimulation; they resembled the responses to acoustic stimulation. After deafening, responses to electric stimulation persisted, whereas those to INS disappeared, consistent with a reported “optophonic” effect, a laser-induced acoustic artifact. Thus, for deaf individuals who use the auditory brainstem implant, INS alone did not appear promising as a new approach. PMID:24508368

  11. Regulation of self-renewing neural progenitors by FGF/ERK signaling controls formation of the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Dee, Alexander; Li, Kairong; Heng, Xin; Guo, Qiuxia; Li, James Y H

    2016-10-15

    The embryonic tectum displays an anteroposterior gradient in development and produces the superior colliculus and inferior colliculus. Studies suggest that partition of the tectum is controlled by different strengths and durations of FGF signals originated from the so-called isthmic organizer at the mid/hindbrain junction; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. We show that deleting Ptpn11, which links FGF with the ERK pathway, prevents inferior colliculus formation by depleting a previously uncharacterized stem cell zone. The stem-zone loss is attributed to shortening of S phase and acceleration of cell cycle exit and neurogenesis. Expression of a constitutively active Mek1 (Mek1(DD)), the known ERK activator, restores the tectal stem zone and the inferior colliculus without Ptpn11. By contrast, Mek1(DD) expression fails to rescue the tectal stem zone and the inferior colliculus in the absence of Fgf8 and the isthmic organizer, indicating that FGF and Mek1(DD) initiate qualitatively and/or quantitatively distinctive signaling. Together, our data show that the formation of the inferior colliculus relies on the provision of new cells from the tectal stem zone. Furthermore, distinctive ERK signaling mediates Fgf8 in the control of cell survival, tissue polarity and cytogenetic gradient during the development of the tectum.

  12. Demonstration of prosthetic activation of central auditory pathways using ( sup 14 C)-2-deoxyglucose

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.A.; Niparko, J.K.; Altschuler, R.A.; Frey, K.A.; Miller, J.M. )

    1990-02-01

    The cochlear prosthesis is not applicable to patients who lack an implantable cochlea or an intact vestibulocochlear nerve. Direct electrical stimulation of the cochlear nucleus (CN) of the brain stem might provide a method for auditory rehabilitation of these patients. A penetrating CN electrode has been developed and tissue tolerance to this device demonstrated. This study was undertaken to evaluate metabolic activation of central nervous system (CNS) auditory tracts produced by such implants. Regional cerebral glucose use resulting from CN stimulation was estimated in a series of chronically implanted guinea pigs with the use of ({sup 14}C)-2-deoxyglucose (2-DG). Enhanced 2-DG uptake was observed in structures of the auditory tract. The activation of central auditory structures achieved with CN stimulation was similar to that produced by acoustic stimulation and by electrical stimulation of the modiolar portion of the auditory nerve in control groups. An interesting banding pattern was observed in the inferior colliculus following CN stimulation, as previously described with acoustic stimulation. This study demonstrates that functional metabolic activation of central auditory pathways can be achieved with a penetrating CNS auditory prosthesis.

  13. Functional connectivity between the superficial and deeper layers of the superior colliculus: an anatomical substrate for sensorimotor integration.

    PubMed

    Doubell, Timothy P; Skaliora, Irini; Baron, Jérôme; King, Andrew J

    2003-07-23

    The superior colliculus (SC) transforms both visual and nonvisual sensory signals into motor commands that control orienting behavior. Although the afferent and efferent connections of this midbrain nucleus have been well characterized, little is know about the intrinsic circuitry involved in sensorimotor integration. Transmission of visual signals from the superficial (sSC) to the deeper layers (dSC) of the SC has been implicated in both the triggering of orienting movements and the activity-dependent processes that align maps of different sensory modalities during development. However, evidence for the synaptic connectivity appropriate for these functions is lacking. In this study, we used a variety of anatomical and physiological methods to examine the functional organization of the sSC-dSC pathway in juvenile and adult ferrets. Axonal tracing in adult ferrets showed that, as in other species, sSC neurons project topographically to the dSC, providing a route for the transmission of visual signals to the multisensory output layers of the SC. We found that sSC axons terminate on dSC neurons that stain prominently for the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor, a subpopulation of which were identified as tectoreticulospinal projection neurons. We also show that the sSC-dSC pathway is topographically organized and mediated by monosynaptic excitatory synapses even before eye opening in young ferrets, suggesting that visual signals routed via the sSC may influence the activity of dSC neurons before the emergence of their multisensory response properties. These findings indicate that superficial- to deep-layer projections provide spatially ordered visual signals, both during development and into adulthood, directly to SC neurons that are involved in coordinating sensory inputs with motor outputs.

  14. Central Sensitization in the Trigeminal Nucleus Caudalis Produced by a Conjugate of Substance P and the A Subunit of Cholera Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Caudle, Robert M.; King, Christopher; Nolan, Todd A.; Suckow, Shelby K.; Vierck, Charles J.; Neubert, John K.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with chronic craniofacial pain experience symptoms that are consistent with central sensitization. In fact, central sensitization may constitute the major disease process in these conditions, particularly if the original injury has healed or the condition is idiopathic. To understand central sensitization we have developed a conjugate of substance P and cholera toxin (SP-CTA). SP-CTA is selectively taken up by cells that express neurokinin receptors. Twenty four hours following intracisternal administration of SP-CTA wild type rats and mice demonstrated signs of persistent background nociception, but when tested for facial cold sensitivity they did not differ from controls. However, treating the SP-CTA injected animals with naloxone exposed cold hypersensitivity in the face. Mu opioid receptor knockout mice treated with SP-CTA demonstrated hypersensitivity without naloxone treatment. These findings suggest that central sensitization leads to activation of an endogenous opioid system. The data also demonstrate that the intracisternal administration of SP-CTA in rodents is a useful model for studying central sensitization as a disease process without having to induce a peripheral injury. PMID:20620120

  15. Does the Superior Colliculus Control Perceptual Sensitivity or Choice Bias during Attention? Evidence from a Multialternative Decision Framework.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Steinmetz, Nicholas A; Moore, Tirin; Knudsen, Eric I

    2017-01-18

    Distinct networks in the forebrain and the midbrain coordinate to control spatial attention. The critical involvement of the superior colliculus (SC)-the central structure in the midbrain network-in visuospatial attention has been shown by four seminal, published studies in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performing multialternative tasks. However, due to the lack of a mechanistic framework for interpreting behavioral data in such tasks, the nature of the SC's contribution to attention remains unclear. Here we present and validate a novel decision framework for analyzing behavioral data in multialternative attention tasks. We apply this framework to re-examine the behavioral evidence from these published studies. Our model is a multidimensional extension to signal detection theory that distinguishes between two major classes of attentional mechanisms: those that alter the quality of sensory information or "sensitivity," and those that alter the selective gating of sensory information or "choice bias." Model-based simulations and model-based analyses of data from these published studies revealed a converging pattern of results that indicated that choice-bias changes, rather than sensitivity changes, were the primary outcome of SC manipulation. Our results suggest that the SC contributes to attentional performance predominantly by generating a spatial choice bias for stimuli at a selected location, and that this bias operates downstream of forebrain mechanisms that enhance sensitivity. The findings lead to a testable mechanistic framework of how the midbrain and forebrain networks interact to control spatial attention. Attention involves the selection of the most relevant information for differential sensory processing and decision making. While the mechanisms by which attention alters sensory encoding (sensitivity control) are well studied, the mechanisms by which attention alters decisional weighting of sensory evidence (choice-bias control) are poorly understood. Here

  16. Does the Superior Colliculus Control Perceptual Sensitivity or Choice Bias during Attention? Evidence from a Multialternative Decision Framework

    PubMed Central

    Steinmetz, Nicholas A.; Moore, Tirin; Knudsen, Eric I.

    2017-01-01

    Distinct networks in the forebrain and the midbrain coordinate to control spatial attention. The critical involvement of the superior colliculus (SC)—the central structure in the midbrain network—in visuospatial attention has been shown by four seminal, published studies in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performing multialternative tasks. However, due to the lack of a mechanistic framework for interpreting behavioral data in such tasks, the nature of the SC's contribution to attention remains unclear. Here we present and validate a novel decision framework for analyzing behavioral data in multialternative attention tasks. We apply this framework to re-examine the behavioral evidence from these published studies. Our model is a multidimensional extension to signal detection theory that distinguishes between two major classes of attentional mechanisms: those that alter the quality of sensory information or “sensitivity,” and those that alter the selective gating of sensory information or “choice bias.” Model-based simulations and model-based analyses of data from these published studies revealed a converging pattern of results that indicated that choice-bias changes, rather than sensitivity changes, were the primary outcome of SC manipulation. Our results suggest that the SC contributes to attentional performance predominantly by generating a spatial choice bias for stimuli at a selected location, and that this bias operates downstream of forebrain mechanisms that enhance sensitivity. The findings lead to a testable mechanistic framework of how the midbrain and forebrain networks interact to control spatial attention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Attention involves the selection of the most relevant information for differential sensory processing and decision making. While the mechanisms by which attention alters sensory encoding (sensitivity control) are well studied, the mechanisms by which attention alters decisional weighting of sensory evidence (choice

  17. Association of efferent neurons to the compartmental architecture of the superior colliculus.

    PubMed Central

    Illing, R B

    1992-01-01

    The superior colliculus is a layered structure in the mammalian midbrain serving multimodal sensorimotor integration. Its intermediate layers are characterized by a compartmental architecture. These compartments are apparent through the clustering of terminals of major collicular afferents, which in many instances match the heterogeneous distribution of tissue components such as acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, substance P, and parvalbumin. The present study was undertaken to determine whether efferent cells observe this compartmental architecture. It was found that subpopulations of both descending and ascending collicular efferents originate from perikarya situated in characteristic positions relative to the collicular compartments defined by elevated acetylcholinesterase activity and that their dendrites appear to be specifically coordinated with the heterogeneous environment. With the specific interlocking of afferent and efferent neurons through spatially distinguished neural networks, the compartmental architecture apparently constitutes an essential element for the determination of information flow in the superior colliculus. Images PMID:1438296

  18. Central mineralocorticoid receptors and the role of angiotensin II and glutamate in the paraventricular nucleus of rats with angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gabor, Alexander; Leenen, Frans H H

    2013-05-01

    A chronic increase in circulating angiotensin II (Ang II) activates an aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor-ouabain neuromodulatory pathway in the brain that increases neuronal activation in hypothalamic nuclei, such as the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and causes progressive hypertension. Several models of chronic sympathetic hyperactivity are associated with an increase in AT1 and glutamate receptor activation in the PVN. The current study evaluated whether increased angiotensin type 1 (AT1) and glutamate receptor-dependent signaling in the PVN contributes to the maintenance of blood pressure (BP) in Ang II-hypertensive Wistar rats, and the role of aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor pathway in this enhanced signaling. After subcutaneous infusion of Ang II for 2 weeks, in conscious rats BP and heart rate were recorded after (1) 10-minute bilateral infusions of candesartan and kynurenate in the PVN; (2) 1 hour intracerebroventricular infusion of eplerenone, and (3) candesartan and kynurenate after eplerenone. Candesartan or kynurenate in the PVN fully reversed the increase in BP from circulating Ang II. Kynurenate after candesartan or candesartan after kynurenate did not further lower BP. Intracerebroventricular infusion of eplerenone at 16 hours after its infusion fully reversed the increase in BP from circulating Ang II. After eplerenone, candesartan and kynurenate in the PVN did not further decrease BP. These findings suggest that increased mineralocorticoid receptor activation in the brain activates a slow neuromodulatory pathway that maintains enhanced AT1 and glutamate receptor-dependent signaling in the PVN, and thereby the hypertension from a chronic increase in circulating Ang II.

  19. GABA and NMDA receptors in CRF neurons have opposing effects in fear acquisition and anxiety in central amygdala vs. bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    PubMed

    Gafford, Georgette M; Ressler, Kerry J

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Beginning with Vale and Colleagues in 1981, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) also called corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) has repeatedly been identified as an important contributor to fear and anxiety behavior. These findings have proven useful to further our understanding of disorders that have significant fear-dysregulation, such as post-traumatic stress, as well as other stress- and anxiety-related disorders. Unfortunately, the data are not all in agreement. In particular the role of CRF in fear learning is controversial, with studies pointing to contradictory effects from CRF manipulation even within the same brain structure. Further, very few studies address the potentially promising role of CRF manipulation in fear extinction behavior. Here, we briefly review the role of CRF in anxiety, fear learning and extinction, focusing on recent cell-type and neurotransmitter-specific studies in the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) that may help to synthesize the available data on the role of CRF in fear and anxiety-related behaviors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. CTR1 phosphorylates the central regulator EIN2 to control ethylene hormone signaling from the ER membrane to the nucleus in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ju, Chuanli; Yoon, Gyeong Mee; Shemansky, Jennifer Marie; Lin, David Y; Ying, Z Irene; Chang, Jianhong; Garrett, Wesley M; Kessenbrock, Mareike; Groth, Georg; Tucker, Mark L; Cooper, Bret; Kieber, Joseph J; Chang, Caren

    2012-11-20

    The gaseous phytohormone ethylene C(2)H(4) mediates numerous aspects of growth and development. Genetic analysis has identified a number of critical elements in ethylene signaling, but how these elements interact biochemically to transduce the signal from the ethylene receptor complex at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane to transcription factors in the nucleus is unknown. To close this gap in our understanding of the ethylene signaling pathway, the challenge has been to identify the target of the CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 (CTR1) Raf-like protein kinase, as well as the molecular events surrounding ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2), an ER membrane-localized Nramp homolog that positively regulates ethylene responses. Here we demonstrate that CTR1 interacts with and directly phosphorylates the cytosolic C-terminal domain of EIN2. Mutations that block the EIN2 phosphorylation sites result in constitutive nuclear localization of the EIN2 C terminus, concomitant with constitutive activation of ethylene responses in Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that phosphorylation of EIN2 by CTR1 prevents EIN2 from signaling in the absence of ethylene, whereas inhibition of CTR1 upon ethylene perception is a signal for cleavage and nuclear localization of the EIN2 C terminus, allowing the ethylene signal to reach the downstream transcription factors. These findings significantly advance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying ethylene signal transduction.

  1. Centrally mediated ejaculatory response via sympathetic outflow in rats: role of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors in paraventricular nucleus.

    PubMed

    Xia, J-D; Chen, J; Sun, H-J; Zhou, L-H; Zhu, G-Q; Chen, Y; Dai, Y-T

    2017-01-01

    Ejaculation is mediated by a spinal generator, which integrates inputs related to the sexual activity and coordinates sympathetic, parasympathetic, and motor outflow. Previous clinical studies indicate that primary premature ejaculation is related to the hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. In this study, we explored the roles of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors in paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) on ejaculatory responses and its potential mechanism in the rats. We found that microinjection of 0.20 nmol NMDA into the PVN reduced the latency of intromission and facilitated ejaculation during copulation. Moreover, delayed ejaculation and intromission were observed after the rats were microinjected with NMDA receptor antagonist D (-)-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5). However, we discovered that microinjection of NMDA into PVN significantly increased baseline lumbar splanchnic nerve activity (LSNA), and the NMDA dose was positively correlated with the increased LSNA (r = 0.875, p = 0.04). Meanwhile, the plasma norepinephrine level in rats injected with NMDA was much higher than that in rats injected with saline (1453.4 ± 136.4 pg/mL vs. 492.3 ± 36.8 pg/mL, p < 0.01). Additionally, AP-5 reduced the baseline LSNA and abrogated the enhancing activity of NMDA in LSNA. Thus, we propose that NMDA receptors in PVN may facilitate ejaculation through enhancing the activity of sympathetic system.

  2. Neuroanatomical approaches of the tectum-reticular pathways and immunohistochemical evidence for serotonin-positive perikarya on neuronal substrates of the superior colliculus and periaqueductal gray matter involved in the elaboration of the defensive behavior and fear-induced analgesia.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, N C; De Oliveira, R; Freitas, R L; Ribeiro, S J; Borelli, K G; Pacagnella, R C; Moreira, J E; da Silva, L A; Melo, L L; Lunardi, L O; Brandão, M L

    2006-01-01

    Deep layers of the superior colliculus, the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter and the inferior colliculus are midbrain structures involved in the generation of defensive behavior and fear-induced anti-nociception. Local injections of the GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline into these structures have been used to produce this defense reaction. Serotonin is thought to be the main neurotransmitter to modulate such defense reaction in mammals. This study is the first attempt to employ immunohistochemical techniques to locate serotonergic cells in the same midbrain sites from where defense reaction is evoked by chemical stimulation with bicuculline. The blockade of GABA(A) receptors in the neural substrates of the dorsal mesencephalon was followed by vigorous defensive reactions and increased nociceptive thresholds. Light microscopy immunocytochemistry with streptavidin method was used for the localization of the putative cells of defensive behavior with antibodies to serotonin in the rat's midbrain. Neurons positive to serotonin were found in the midbrain sites where defensive reactions were evoked by microinjection of bicuculline. Serotonin was localized to somata and projections of the neural networks of the mesencephalic tectum. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the sites in which neuronal perikarya positive to serotonin were identified in intermediate and deep layers of the superior colliculus, and in the dorsal and ventral columns of the periaqueductal gray matter are the same which were activated during the generation of defense behaviors, such as alertness, freezing, and escape reactions, induced by bicuculline. These findings support the contention that serotonin and GABAergic neurons may act in concert in the modulation of defense reaction in the midbrain tectum. Our neuroanatomical findings indicate a direct neural pathway connecting the dorsal midbrain and monoaminergic nuclei of the descending pain inhibitory system, with profuse synaptic terminals mainly

  3. Local inhibition of GABA affects precedence effect in the inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanjun; Wang, Ningyu; Wang, Dan; Jia, Jun; Liu, Jinfeng; Xie, Yan; Wen, Xiaohui; Li, Xiaoting

    2014-01-01

    The precedence effect is a prerequisite for faithful sound localization in a complex auditory environment, and is a physiological phenomenon in which the auditory system selectively suppresses the directional information from echoes. Here we investigated how neurons in the inferior colliculus respond to the paired sounds that produce precedence-effect illusions, and whether their firing behavior can be modulated through inhibition with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We recorded extracellularly from 36 neurons in rat inferior colliculus under three conditions: no injection, injection with saline, and injection with gamma-aminobutyric acid. The paired sounds that produced precedence effects were two identical 4-ms noise bursts, which were delivered contralaterally or ipsilaterally to the recording site. The normalized neural responses were measured as a function of different inter-stimulus delays and half-maximal interstimulus delays were acquired. Neuronal responses to the lagging sounds were weak when the inter-stimulus delay was short, but increased gradually as the delay was lengthened. Saline injection produced no changes in neural responses, but after local gamma-aminobutyric acid application, responses to the lagging stimulus were suppressed. Application of gamma-aminobutyric acid affected the normalized response to lagging sounds, independently of whether they or the paired sounds were contralateral or ipsilateral to the recording site. These observations suggest that local inhibition by gamma-aminobutyric acid in the rat inferior colliculus shapes the neural responses to lagging sounds, and modulates the precedence effect. PMID:25206830

  4. Laminar distribution and patchiness of cytochrome oxidase in mouse superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Wiener, S I

    1986-02-08

    The cytochrome oxidase (CO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), myelin, and Nissl stains were studied and compared to develop an anatomical system identifying the laminar architecture of the mouse superior colliculus. The CO and myelin stains are shown to define collicular laminae more distinctly than does the Nissl stain. The layer of large rostrocaudally coursing fiber bundles that has formerly been referred to in the rodent literature as stratum album intermediale (SAI; layer V) is renamed as a sublayer of the stratum griseum intermediale (SGI; layer IV) to conform with the nomenclature for the cat superior colliculus of Kaneseki and Sprague ('74, J. Comp. Neurol. 158:319-338). Patches of CO activity in layer IV (SGI) are shown that contain intensely stained, large, multipolar cell bodies. The CO patches do not correspond to those previously reported for AChE. The CO, myelin, and AChE stains all indicate the presence of a large lateral extension termed the flank of layer IV (SGI). In contrast to the classical lamination pattern of the superior colliculus, the flank has no overlying layer II (stratum griseum superficiale, SGS) or layer III (stratum opticum, SO).

  5. The dissimilar time course of temporary threshold shifts and reduction of inhibition in the inferior colliculus following intense sound exposure.

    PubMed

    Heeringa, A N; van Dijk, P

    2014-06-01

    Excessive noise exposure is known to produce an auditory threshold shift, which can be permanent or transient in nature. Recent studies showed that noise-induced temporary threshold shifts are associated with loss of synaptic connections to the inner hair cells and with cochlear nerve degeneration, which is reflected in a decreased amplitude of wave I of the auditory brainstem response (ABR). This suggests that, despite normal auditory thresholds, central auditory processing may be abnormal. We recorded changes in central auditory processing following a sound-induced temporary threshold shift. Anesthetized guinea pigs were exposed for 1 h to a pure tone of 11 kHz (124 dB sound pressure level). Hearing thresholds, amplitudes of ABR waves I and IV, and spontaneous and tone-evoked firing rates in the inferior colliculus (IC) were assessed immediately, one week, two weeks, and four weeks post exposure. Hearing thresholds were elevated immediately following overexposure, but recovered within one week. The amplitude of the ABR wave I was decreased in all sound-exposed animals for all test periods. In contrast, the ABR wave IV amplitude was only decreased immediately after overexposure and recovered within a week. The proportion of IC units that show inhibitory responses to pure tones decreased substantially up to two weeks after overexposure, especially when stimulated with high frequencies. The proportion of excitatory responses to low frequencies was increased. Spontaneous activity was unaffected by the overexposure. Despite rapid normalization of auditory thresholds, our results suggest an increased central gain following sound exposure and an abnormal balance between excitatory and inhibitory responses in the midbrain up to two weeks after overexposure. These findings may be associated with hyperacusis after a sound-induced temporary threshold shift.

  6. Neuropeptide Y conjugated to saporin alters anxiety-like behavior when injected into the central nucleus of the amygdala or basomedial hypothalamus in BALB/cJ mice.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Angela M; Thiele, Todd E

    2010-12-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino-acid neuromodulator that is distributed throughout the central nervous system and has been implicated in a wide range of neurobiological responses including the integration of emotional behavior. The anxiolytic properties of NPY are modulated by NPY signaling in the hippocampus and in the central (CeA) and basolateral (BLA) nuclei of the amygdala. Recently, the neurotoxin saporin, when conjugated to NPY (NPY-SAP), was shown to selectively kill NPY receptor-expressing neurons and has been used as a tool to study the central NPY neurocircuitry involved with feeding behaviors. Here we determined if NPY-SAP can be used as a tool to study the central NPY neurocircuitry that modulates anxiety-like behaviors. BALB/cJ mice were given injection of either NPY-SAP or a control blank saporin (B-SAP) into the CeA or the basomedial hypothalamus (BMH) as a control injection site. The elevated zero maze test was used to assess anxiety-like behavior and NPY-SAP-induced lesions were verified using NPY Y1 receptor (Y1R) immunoreactivity (IR). Results showed that injection of NPY-SAP into the CeA site-specifically blunted Y1R IR in the CeA which was associated with a significant increase in anxiety-like behavior. Injection of NPY-SAP into the BMH, while locally blunting Y1R IR, promoted a compensatory increase of Y1R IR in the BLA and the CA3 region of the hippocampus which was associated with a significant reduction of anxiety-like behavior. The present set of experiments suggest that the NPY-SAP neurotoxin may be a useful tool for studying the NPY neurocircuitry that modulates anxiety-like behaviors.

  7. Central administration of tert-butylhydroquinone attenuates hypertension via regulating Nrf2 signaling in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Bai, Juan; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Liu, Kai-Li; Wang, Fang-Fang; Jing, Gui-Xia; Li, Hong-Bao; Zhang, Yan; Huo, Chan-Juan; Li, Xiang; Gao, Hong-Li; Qi, Jie; Kang, Yu-Ming

    2017-10-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is an important transcription factor that modulates cell antioxidant defense response against oxidative stress. The present study aimed to explore the efficacy of PVN administration of tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a selective Nrf2 activator, in hypertensive rats. 16-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were used in this study. These rats were chronic bilateral PVN infusion of tBHQ (0.8μg/day), or oxygen free radical scavenger tempol (20μg/h), or vehicle for 2weeks. SHR rats had higher mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels, and sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and lower PVN levels of Nrf2, hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT) as compared with those in the WKY group. Bilateral PVN infusion of tBHQ or tempol significantly reduced MAP, RSNA, plasma NE levels in SHR rats. In addition, tBHQ treatment enhanced the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and increased the expression of HO-1, CAT and SOD1 in SHR rats. Furthermore, tBHQ attenuated PVN levels of ROS, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and restored the imbalance of neurotransmitters in PVN. Knockdown of Nrf2 in the PVN by adeno-associated virus mediated small interfering RNA abrogated the protective effects of tBHQ on hypertension. These findings suggest that PVN administration of tBHQ can attenuate hypertension by activation of the Nrf2-mediated signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wosiek, B.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results on high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions are presented. The data are discussed within the framework of standard super-position models and from the point-of-view of the possible formation of new states of matter in heavy ion collisions.

  9. The superior colliculus of the camel: a neuronal-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) and neuropeptide study

    PubMed Central

    Mensah-Brown, E P K; Garey, L J

    2006-01-01

    In this study we examined the superior colliculus of the midbrain of the one-humped (dromedary) camel, Camelus dromedarius, using Nissl staining and anti-neuronal-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) immunohistochemistry for total neuronal population as well as for the enkephalins, somatostatin (SOM) and substance P (SP). It was found that, unlike in most mammals, the superior colliculus is much larger than the inferior colliculus. The superior colliculus is concerned with visual reflexes and the co-ordination of head, neck and eye movements, which are certainly of importance to this animal with large eyes, head and neck, and apparently good vision. The basic neuronal architecture and lamination of the superior colliculus are similar to that in other mammals. However, we describe for the first time an unusually large content of neurons in the superior colliculus with strong immunoreactivity for met-enkephalin, an endogenous opioid. We classified the majority of these neurons as small (perimeters of 40–50 µm), and localized diffusely throughout the superficial grey and stratum opticum. In addition, large pyramidal-like neurons with perimeters of 100 µm and above were present in the intermediate grey layer. Large unipolar cells were located immediately dorsal to the deep grey layer. By contrast, small neurons (perimeters of 40–50 µm) immunopositive to SOM and SP were located exclusively in the superficial grey layer. We propose that this system may be associated with a pain-inhibiting pathway that has been described from the periaqueductal grey matter, juxtaposing the deep layers of the superior colliculus, to the lower brainstem and spinal cord. Such pain inhibition could be important in relation to the camel's life in the harsh environment of its native deserts, often living in very high temperatures with no shade and a diet consisting largely of thorny branches. PMID:16441568

  10. The development and migration of large multipolar neurons into the cochlear nucleus of the North American opossum.

    PubMed

    Willard, F H; Martin, G F

    1986-06-01

    We have studied the maturation of the inferior colliculus and cochlear nuclei of the North American opossum with particular emphasis on the large multipolar neurons of the cochlear nucleus. These neurons include the principal and giant cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and the large neurons of the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), all of which can be labelled by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injections into the contralateral inferior colliculus (IC). The size of these neurons, their characteristic Nissl patterns, and their labelling density after injections into the IC render them distinguishable from other neurons in this nuclei, even in young animals. In Nissl-stained sections of newborn opossums, a band of horizontally oriented neurons can be identified dorsomedial to the vestibular nerve root. This band extends from an apparent cytogenetic zone close to the sulcus limitans, to, but not within, the presumptive cochlear nucleus. Between birth and estimated postnatal day 22 (EPND 22) the band shifts laterally, eventually becoming incorporated into the cochlear nucleus. Many neurons in this band have perinuclear caps of Nissl substance similar to those present in the principal cells of the adult DCN. Injections of HRP into the IC as early as EPND 5 (17 days after conception) labelled neurons in the band referred to above but not in the presumptive cochlear nucleus. By EPND 15, labelled cells were clustered mainly within the nucleus proper. Most of these cells were located in the DCN, but a few were scattered in the dorsocentral VCN. Consistent labelling of small neurons in VCN was not obtained until sometime later. From EPND 15 to EPND 20 most of the labelled cells in DCN reoriented in the vertical plane, aligned in layer II, and differentiated into principal neurons. Some, however, remained deep to layer II and differentiated into giant neurons. The heavily labelled cells in VCN differentiated into large neurons. Our results suggest that the large multipolar

  11. Effects of age on binding sites for calcitonin gene-related peptide in the rat central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Guidobono, F; Netti, C; Bettica, P; Sibilia, V; Pagani, F; Cazzamalli, E; Pecile, A

    1989-07-17

    The binding site distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was studied in the central nervous system of aged rats (22 months old) and compared with that of young rats (2 months). The regional distribution of [125I]Tyr-rat CGRP binding in coronal sections of young and old rat CNS was examined by an in vitro autoradiographic technique. The results, showed that in aged rats there was a marked reduction in CGRP binding, without any change in binding affinity, in the hippocampus, the nucleus rhomboideus, the nucleus arcuatus, the colliculus superior, the substantia grisea centralis and the spinal cord. In the cortical areas, the amygdala, the caudatus putamen and the accumbens binding was not modified. In the cortex cerebellaris CGRP binding was strikingly greater in the aged rats. The increase in binding might be a consequence of an adaptive process due to a decline of the peptide synthesis with age and is suggestive of a role for CGRP in the cerebellum functions.

  12. Dorsal raphe nucleus projecting retinal ganglion cells: Why Y cells?

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Gary E.; So, Kwok-Fai; Pu, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion Y (alpha) cells are found in retinas ranging from frogs to mice to primates. The highly conserved nature of the large, fast conducting retinal Y cell is a testament to its fundamental task, although precisely what this task is remained ill-defined. The recent discovery that Y-alpha retinal ganglion cells send axon collaterals to the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in addition to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), medial interlaminar nucleus (MIN), pretectum and the superior colliculus (SC) has offered new insights into the important survival tasks performed by these cells with highly branched axons. We propose that in addition to its role in visual perception, the Y-alpha retinal ganglion cell provides concurrent signals via axon collaterals to the DRN, the major source of serotonergic afferents to the forebrain, to dramatically inhibit 5-HT activity during orientation or alerting/escape responses, which dis-facilitates ongoing tonic motor activity while dis-inhibiting sensory information processing throughout the visual system. The new data provide a fresh view of these evolutionarily old retinal ganglion cells. PMID:26363667

  13. Differential distribution of 5-HT 1A and 5-HT 1B-like immunoreactivities in rat central nucleus of the amygdala neurones projecting to the caudal dorsomedial medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sikha; Gamboa-Esteves, Filomena O; Batten, Trevor F C

    2010-05-12

    Neurones in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) projecting to the caudal dorsomedial medulla oblongata play a key role in the autonomic expression of emotional behaviour. We have earlier shown that these projections from the CeA contain gamma-aminobutyric acid. The CeA receives a dense serotonergic innervation from the raphé nuclei and expresses several serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptor subtypes, including the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) subtypes. However, there have been no reports on the cellular distribution of these receptors in CeA projection neurones. This study was therefore designed to investigate the localisation of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) receptors in CeA projection neurones identified by microinjection of a retrograde tracer, cholera toxin B-subunit (CTb) into the caudal dorsomedial medulla, targeting projections to the nucleus of the solitary tract. A large proportion (approximately 60%) of amygdala neurones retrogradely-labelled with CTb expressed 5-HT(1B) receptor-like immunoreactivity, whereas fewer (approximately 30%) expressed 5-HT(1A) receptor-like immunoreactivity. The retrogradely-labelled neurones positive for 5-HT(1B) receptor were present in both lateral and medial parts of the CeA whereas 5-HT(1A) receptor positive neurones were located mainly in the lateral part of the CeA. Since 5-HT plays an important role in controlling emotional behaviour and the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) receptors have been shown to have distinct roles in the regulation of anxiety and depression, the differential expression of these receptors in CeA neurones projecting to the caudal dorsomedial medulla suggests that these projection neurones may act differentially in controlling autonomic expression of emotional behaviour. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A radial velocity survey for post-common-envelope Wolf-Rayet central stars of planetary nebulae: first results and discovery of the close binary nucleus of NGC 5189

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manick, Rajeev; Miszalski, Brent; McBride, Vanessa

    2015-04-01

    The formation of Wolf-Rayet central stars of planetary nebulae ([WR] CSPNe) whose spectroscopic appearance mimics massive WR stars remains poorly understood. Least understood is the nature and frequency of binary companions to [WR] CSPNe that may explain their H-deficiency. We have conducted a systematic radial velocity (RV) study of six [WR] CSPNe to search for post-common-envelope (post-CE) [WR] binaries. We used a cross-correlation method to construct the RV time series as successfully done for massive close binary WR stars. No significant RV variability was detected for the late-[WC] type nuclei of Hen 2-113, Hen 3-1333, PMR 2 and Hen 2-99. Significant, large-amplitude variability was found in the [WC4] nucleus of NGC 5315. In the [WO1] nucleus of NGC 5189, we discovered significant periodic variability that reveals a close binary with Porb = 4.04 ± 0.1 d. We measured a semi-amplitude of 62.3 ± 1.3 km s-1 that gives a companion mass of m2 ≥ 0.5 M⊙ or m2 = 0.84 M⊙ (assuming i = 45°). The most plausible companion type is a massive white dwarf (WD) as found in Fleming 1. The spectacular nebular morphology of NGC 5189 fits the pattern of recently discovered post-CE PNe extremely well with its dominant low-ionization structures (e.g. as in NGC 6326) and collimated outflows (e.g. as in Fleming 1). The long 4.04 d orbital period is either anomalous (e.g. NGC 2346) or it may indicate that there is a sizeable population of [WR] binaries with massive WD companions in relatively wide orbits, perhaps influenced by interactions with the strong [WR] wind.

  15. An Abnormal GABAergic System in the Inferior Colliculus Provides a Basis for Audiogenic Seizures in Genetically Epilepsy-Prone Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ribak, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    In this review of neuroanatomical studies of the genetically epilepsy-prone rat (GEPR), three main topics will be covered. First, the number of GABAergic neurons and total neurons in the inferior colliculus of GEPRs will be compared to those of the non-epileptic Sprague-Dawley rat. Next, the number of small neurons in the inferior colliculus will be described in both developmental and genetic analyses of GEPRs and their backcrosses. Last, results from two types of studies on the propagation pathways for audiogenic seizures in GEPRs will be shown. Together, these studies demonstrate a unique GABAergic, small neuron defect in the inferior colliculus of GEPRs that may play a vital role in the initiation and spread of seizure activity during audiogenic seizures. PMID:25812940

  16. An in vivo investigation of first spike latencies in the inferior colliculus in response to multichannel penetrating auditory brainstem implant stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauger, Stefan J.; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Rathbone, Graeme D.; Argent, Rebecca E.; Paolini, Antonio G.

    2010-06-01

    The cochlear nucleus (CN) is the first auditory processing site within the brain and the target location of the auditory brainstem implant (ABI), which provides speech perception to patients who cannot benefit from a cochlear implant (CI). Although there is variance between ABI recipient speech performance outcomes, performance is typically low compared to CI recipients. Temporal aspects of neural firing such as first spike latency (FSL) are thought to code for many speech features; however, no studies have investigated FSL from CN stimulation. Consequently, ABIs currently do not incorporate CN-specific temporal information. We therefore systematically investigated inferior colliculus (IC) neuron's FSL response to frequency-specific electrical stimulation of the CN in rats. The range of FSLs from electrical stimulation of many neurons indicates that both monosynaptic and polysynaptic pathways were activated, suggesting initial activation of multiple CN neuron types. Electrical FSLs for a single neuron did not change irrespective of the CN frequency region stimulated, indicating highly segregated projections from the CN to the IC. These results present the first evidence of temporal responses to frequency-specific CN electrical stimulation. Understanding the auditory system's temporal response to electrical stimulation will help in future ABI designs and stimulation strategies.

  17. Blockade of the GLT-1 Transporter in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Induces both Anxiety and Depressive-Like Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    John, Catherine S; Sypek, Elizabeth I; Carlezon, William A; Cohen, Bruce M; Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J

    2015-01-01

    Depression has been associated with abnormalities in glutamatergic neurotransmission and decreased astrocyte number in limbic areas. We previously demonstrated that global and prefrontal cortical blockade of the astrocytic glutamate transporter (GLT-1) induces anhedonia and c-Fos expression in areas that regulate anxiety, including the central amygdala (CEA). Given the role of the amygdala in anxiety and the high degree of comorbidity between anxiety and depression, we hypothesized that GLT-1 blockade in the CEA would induce symptoms of anhedonia and anxiety in rats. We microinjected the GLT-1 inhibitor, dihydrokainic acid (DHK), into the CEA and examined effects on intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) as an index of hedonic state, and on behavior in two anxiety paradigms, elevated plus maze (EPM) and fear conditioning. At lower doses, intra-CEA DHK produced modest increases in ICSS responding (T0). Higher doses resulted in complete cessation of responding for 15 min, suggesting an anhedonic or depressive-like effect. Intra-CEA DHK also increased anxiety-like behavior such that percent time in the open arms and total entries were decreased in the EPM and acquisition of freezing behavior to the tone was increased in a fear-conditioning paradigm. These effects did not appear to be explained by non-specific changes in activity, because effects on fear conditioning were assessed in a drug-free state, and a separate activity test showed no significant effects of intra-CEA DHK on locomotion. Taken together, these studies suggest that blockade of GLT-1 in the CEA is sufficient to induce both anhedonia and anxiety and therefore that a lack of glutamate uptake resulting from glial deficits may contribute to the comorbidity of depression and anxiety. PMID:25586634

  18. Regional and laminar distribution of cortical neurons projecting to either superior or inferior colliculus in the hedgehog tenrec.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H

    1995-01-01

    Retrograde tracer substances were injected into either the inferior or the superior colliculus in the Madagascan hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi (Insectivora), to reveal the laminar and regional distribution of corticotectal cells and to correlate the labeled areas with architectural data. The tenrecs, taken from our breeding colony, have one of the least differentiated cerebral cortices among mammals, and experimental investigations of such brains are important for the understanding of the evolution and intrinsic organization of the more highly differentiated cerebral cortex in other placental mammals. Following injections into the inferior colliculus, cortical neurons were labeled bilaterally, with an ipsilateral predominance. Most labeled cells were found in the caudolateral hemisphere, area 4 as defined by Rehkämper (1981); some were in the somatosensorimotor cortex, as defined in a previous study. The labeled neurons in area 4 were located in layers V and VI, forming two bands of cells separated from each other by a poorly labeled interspace. A further subdivision of this presumed auditory region could not be achieved. This entire area was also weakly labeled following tracer injections into the superior colliculus. The labeled cells, however, were restricted to layer V of the ipsilateral side. The most consistent sites of labeled cells following injections into the superior colliculus were found in layer V of the ipsilateral caudomedial hemisphere, Rehkämper's caudal area 3, and the transitional zone adjacent to the retrosplenial cortex. This area is small in comparison to the entire region that was found in this study to project to the superior colliculus. The superior colliculus also receives projections from the ipsilateral sensorimotor and cingulate cortices. The latter projections are particularly striking in comparison to other mammals because they originate from along the entire rostrocaudal extent of the cingulate/retrosplenial region.

  19. Retinal ganglion cell projections to the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus, intergeniculate leaflet, and visual midbrain: bifurcation and melanopsin immunoreactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Lawrence P.; Blanchard, Jane H.; Provencio, Ignacio

    2003-01-01

    The circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) receives direct retinal input via the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT), and the retinal ganglion cells contributing to this projection may be specialized with respect to direct regulation of the circadian clock. However, some ganglion cells forming the RHT bifurcate, sending axon collaterals to the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) through which light has secondary access to the circadian clock. The present studies provide a more extensive examination of ganglion cell bifurcation and evaluate whether ganglion cells projecting to several subcortical visual nuclei contain melanopsin, a putative ganglion cell photopigment. The results showed that retinal ganglion cells projecting to the SCN send collaterals to the IGL, olivary pretectal nucleus, and superior colliculus, among other places. Melanopsin-immunoreactive (IR) ganglion cells are present in the hamster retina, and some of these cells project to the SCN, IGL, olivary pretectal nucleus, or superior colliculus. Triple-label analysis showed that melanopsin-IR cells bifurcate and project bilaterally to each SCN, but not to the other visual nuclei evaluated. The melanopsin-IR cells have photoreceptive characteristics optimal for circadian rhythm regulation. However, the presence of moderately widespread bifurcation among ganglion cells projecting to the SCN, and projection by melanopsin-IR cells to locations distinct from the SCN and without known rhythm function, suggest that this ganglion cell type is generalized, rather than specialized, with respect to the conveyance of photic information to the brain. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Retinal ganglion cell projections to the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus, intergeniculate leaflet, and visual midbrain: bifurcation and melanopsin immunoreactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Lawrence P.; Blanchard, Jane H.; Provencio, Ignacio

    2003-01-01

    The circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) receives direct retinal input via the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT), and the retinal ganglion cells contributing to this projection may be specialized with respect to direct regulation of the circadian clock. However, some ganglion cells forming the RHT bifurcate, sending axon collaterals to the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) through which light has secondary access to the circadian clock. The present studies provide a more extensive examination of ganglion cell bifurcation and evaluate whether ganglion cells projecting to several subcortical visual nuclei contain melanopsin, a putative ganglion cell photopigment. The results showed that retinal ganglion cells projecting to the SCN send collaterals to the IGL, olivary pretectal nucleus, and superior colliculus, among other places. Melanopsin-immunoreactive (IR) ganglion cells are present in the hamster retina, and some of these cells project to the SCN, IGL, olivary pretectal nucleus, or superior colliculus. Triple-label analysis showed that melanopsin-IR cells bifurcate and project bilaterally to each SCN, but not to the other visual nuclei evaluated. The melanopsin-IR cells have photoreceptive characteristics optimal for circadian rhythm regulation. However, the presence of moderately widespread bifurcation among ganglion cells projecting to the SCN, and projection by melanopsin-IR cells to locations distinct from the SCN and without known rhythm function, suggest that this ganglion cell type is generalized, rather than specialized, with respect to the conveyance of photic information to the brain. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Microinfusion of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide into the central nucleus of amygdala of the rat produces a shift from an active to passive mode of coping in the shock-probe fear/defensive burying test.

    PubMed

    Legradi, Gabor; Das, Mahasweta; Giunta, Brian; Hirani, Khemraj; Mitchell, E Alice; Diamond, David M

    2007-01-01

    High concentrations of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) nerve fibers are present in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), a brain region implicated in the control of fear-related behavior. This study evaluated PACAPergic modulation of fear responses at the CeA in male Sprague-Dawley rats. PACAP (50-100 pmol) microinfusion via intra-CeA cannulae produced increases in immobility and time the rats spent withdrawn into a corner opposite to the electrified probe compared to controls in the shock-probe fear/defensive burying test. Shock-probe burying and exploration, numbers of shocks received, locomotion distance, and velocity were all reduced by intra-CeA PACAP injection. Further, intra-CeA PACAP effects were manifested only when the animals were challenged by shock, as intra-CeA PACAP injections did not cause significant changes in the behaviors of unshocked rats. Thus, intra-CeA administration of PACAP produces a distinct reorganization of stress-coping behaviors from active (burying) to passive modes, such as withdrawal and immobility. These findings are potentially significant toward enhancing our understanding of the involvement of PACAP and the CeA in the neural basis of fear and anxiety.

  2. Microinfusion of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide into the Central Nucleus of Amygdala of the Rat Produces a Shift from an Active to Passive Mode of Coping in the Shock-Probe Fear/Defensive Burying Test

    PubMed Central

    Legradi, Gabor; Das, Mahasweta; Giunta, Brian; Hirani, Khemraj; Mitchell, E. Alice; Diamond, David M.

    2007-01-01

    High concentrations of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) nerve fibers are present in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), a brain region implicated in the control of fear-related behavior. This study evaluated PACAPergic modulation of fear responses at the CeA in male Sprague-Dawley rats. PACAP (50–100 pmol) microinfusion via intra-CeA cannulae produced increases in immobility and time the rats spent withdrawn into a corner opposite to the electrified probe compared to controls in the shock-probe fear/defensive burying test. Shock-probe burying and exploration, numbers of shocks received, locomotion distance, and velocity were all reduced by intra-CeA PACAP injection. Further, intra-CeA PACAP effects were manifested only when the animals were challenged by shock, as intra-CeA PACAP injections did not cause significant changes in the behaviors of unshocked rats. Thus, intra-CeA administration of PACAP produces a distinct reorganization of stress-coping behaviors from active (burying) to passive modes, such as withdrawal and immobility. These findings are potentially significant toward enhancing our understanding of the involvement of PACAP and the CeA in the neural basis of fear and anxiety. PMID:17641738

  3. Passive stimulation and behavioral training differentially transform temporal processing in the inferior colliculus and primary auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Maike; Beitel, Ralph E; Schreiner, Christoph E; Leake, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    In profoundly deaf cats, behavioral training with intracochlear electric stimulation (ICES) can improve temporal processing in the primary auditory cortex (AI). To investigate whether similar effects are manifest in the auditory midbrain, ICES was initiated in neonatally deafened cats either during development after short durations of deafness (8 wk of age) or in adulthood after long durations of deafness (≥3.5 yr). All of these animals received behaviorally meaningless, "passive" ICES. Some animals also received behavioral training with ICES. Two long-deaf cats received no ICES prior to acute electrophysiological recording. After several months of passive ICES and behavioral training, animals were anesthetized, and neuronal responses to pulse trains of increasing rates were recorded in the central (ICC) and external (ICX) nuclei of the inferior colliculus. Neuronal temporal response patterns (repetition rate coding, minimum latencies, response precision) were compared with results from recordings made in the AI of the same animals (Beitel RE, Vollmer M, Raggio MW, Schreiner CE. J Neurophysiol 106: 944-959, 2011; Vollmer M, Beitel RE. J Neurophysiol 106: 2423-2436, 2011). Passive ICES in long-deaf cats remediated severely degraded temporal processing in the ICC and had no effects in the ICX. In contrast to observations in the AI, behaviorally relevant ICES had no effects on temporal processing in the ICC or ICX, with the single exception of shorter latencies in the ICC in short-deaf cats. The results suggest that independent of deafness duration passive stimulation and behavioral training differentially transform temporal processing in auditory midbrain and cortex, and primary auditory cortex emerges as a pivotal site for behaviorally driven neuronal temporal plasticity in the deaf cat.

  4. The shape of the human lens nucleus with accommodation.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Erik; Dubbelman, Michiel; van der Heijde, Rob; Heethaar, Rob

    2007-07-31

    Knowledge about geometric properties such as shape and volume and Poisson's ratio of the nucleus can be used in the mechanical and optical modeling of the accommodation process. Therefore, Scheimpflug imaging was used to determine the shape of the human lens nucleus during accommodation in five subjects. To describe the shape of the nucleus, we fitted a parametric model of the cross-sectional geometry to the gradient of the Scheimpflug images using the Hough transform. The geometric model made it possible to estimate the anterior and the posterior central radius, central thickness, equatorial diameter, and cross-sectional area of the nucleus. Assuming that the nucleus is rotationally symmetric, the volume of the nucleus can be estimated by integrating around the circumference. For all five subjects, the results show that during accommodation the nucleus became more convex and that the central thickness increased whereas the equatorial diameter decreased. This decrease in equatorial diameter of the nucleus with accommodation is in accordance with the Helmholtz accommodation theory. Finally, the volume of the nucleus (on average 35 mm(3)) showed no significant change during accommodation in any of the subjects, presumably due to the fact that the human nucleus consists of incompressible material with a Poisson's ratio that is near .5.

  5. Early monaural occlusion alters the neural map of interaural level differences in the inferior colliculus of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Mogdans, J; Knudsen, E I

    1993-08-13

    Monaural occlusion during early life causes adaptive changes in the tuning of units in the owl's optic tectum to interaural level differences (ILD) that tend to align the auditory with the visual map of space. We investigated whether these changes could be due to experience-dependent plasticity occurring in the auditory pathway prior to the optic tectum. Units were recorded in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICx), which is a major source of auditory input to the optic tectum. The tuning of ICx units to ILD was measured in normal barn owls and in barn owls raised with one ear occluded. ILD tuning at each recording site was measured with dichotic noise bursts, presented at a constant average binaural level, 20 dB above threshold. The best ILD at each site was defined as the midpoint of the range of ILD values which elicited more than 50% of the maximum response. A physiological map of ILD was found in the ICx of normal owls: best ILDs changed systematically from right-ear-greater to left-ear-greater as the electrode progressed from dorsal to ventral. Best ILDs ranged from 13 dB right-ear-greater to 15 dB left-ear-greater and progressed at an average rate of 12 dB/mm. The representations of ILD were similar on both sides of the brain. In the ICx of owls raised with one ear occluded, the map of ILD was shifted in the adaptive direction: ILD tuning was shifted towards values favoring the non-occluded ear (the direction that would restore a normal space map). The average magnitude of the shift was on the order of 8-10 dB in each of 4 owls. In one owl, the mean shift in ILD tuning was almost identical on both sides of the brain. In another owl, the mean shift was much larger on the side ipsilateral to the occlusion than on the contralateral side. In both cases, the mean shifts measured in each ICx were comparable to the mean shifts measured in the optic tectum on the same sides of the brain. Thus, the adjustments in ILD tuning that have been observed in

  6. Connections between the zona incerta and superior colliculus in the monkey and squirrel.

    PubMed

    May, Paul J; Basso, Michele A

    2017-08-29

    The zona incerta contains GABAergic neurons that project to the superior colliculus in the cat and rat, suggesting that it plays a role in gaze changes. However, whether this incertal connection represents a general mammalian pattern remains to be determined. We used neuronal tracers to examine the zona incerta connections with the midbrain tectum in the gray squirrel and macaque monkey. Collicular injections in both species revealed that most incertotectal neurons lay in the ventral layer, but anterogradely labeled tectoincertal terminals were found in both the dorsal and ventral layers. In the monkey, injections of the pretectum also produced retrograde labeling, but mainly in the dorsal layer. The dendritic fields of incertotectal and incertopretectal cells were generally contained within the layer inhabited by their somata. The macaque, but not the squirrel, zona incerta extended dorsolaterally, within the external medullary lamina. Zona incerta injections produced retrogradely labeled neurons in the superior colliculus of both species. In the squirrel, most cells inhabited the lower sublamina of the intermediate gray layer, but in the monkey, they were scattered throughout the deeper layers. Labeled cells were present among the pretectal nuclei in both species. Labeled terminals were concentrated in the lower sublamina of the intermediate gray layer of both species, but were dispersed among the pretectal nuclei. In summary, an incertal projection that is concentrated on the collicular motor output layers and that originates in the ventral layer of the ipsilateral zona incerta is a common mammalian feature, suggesting an important role in collicular function.

  7. Modeling the Minimal Newborn's Intersubjective Mind: The Visuotopic-Somatotopic Alignment Hypothesis in the Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Pitti, Alexandre; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo; Quoy, Mathias; Gaussier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The question whether newborns possess inborn social skills is a long debate in developmental psychology. Fetal behavioral and anatomical observations show evidences for the control of eye movements and facial behaviors during the third trimester of pregnancy whereas specific sub-cortical areas, like the superior colliculus (SC) and the striatum appear to be functionally mature to support these behaviors. These observations suggest that the newborn is potentially mature for developing minimal social skills. In this manuscript, we propose that the mechanism of sensory alignment observed in SC is particularly important for enabling the social skills observed at birth such as facial preference and facial mimicry. In a computational simulation of the maturing superior colliculus connected to a simulated facial tissue of a fetus, we model how the incoming tactile information is used to direct visual attention toward faces. We suggest that the unisensory superficial visual layer (eye-centered) and the deep somatopic layer (face-centered) in SC are combined into an intermediate layer for visuo-tactile integration and that multimodal alignment in this third layer allows newborns to have a sensitivity to configuration of eyes and mouth. We show that the visual and tactile maps align through a Hebbian learning stage and and strengthen their synaptic links from each other into the intermediate layer. It results that the global network produces some emergent properties such as sensitivity toward the spatial configuration of face-like patterns and the detection of eyes and mouth movement. PMID:23922718

  8. Dopamine D2-Like Receptors Modulate Unconditioned Fear: Role of the Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Amanda Ribeiro; Colombo, Ana Caroline; Muthuraju, Sangu; Almada, Rafael Carvalho; Brandão, Marcus Lira

    2014-01-01

    Background A reduction of dopamine release or D2 receptor blockade in the terminal fields of the mesolimbic system clearly reduces conditioned fear. Injections of haloperidol, a preferential D2 receptor antagonist, into the inferior colliculus (IC) enhance the processing of unconditioned aversive information. However, a clear characterization of the interplay of D2 receptors in the mediation of unconditioned and conditioned fear is still lacking. Methods The present study investigated the effects of intra-IC injections of the D2 receptor-selective antagonist sulpiride on behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM), auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) to loud sounds recorded from the IC, fear-potentiated startle (FPS), and conditioned freezing. Results Intra-IC injections of sulpiride caused clear proaversive effects in the EPM and enhanced AEPs induced by loud auditory stimuli. Intra-IC sulpiride administration did not affect FPS or conditioned freezing. Conclusions Dopamine D2-like receptors of the inferior colliculus play a role in the modulation of unconditioned aversive information but not in the fear-potentiated startle response. PMID:25133693

  9. Spectral integration in the inferior colliculus: role of glycinergic inhibition in response facilitation.

    PubMed

    Wenstrup, J; Leroy, S A

    2001-02-01

    This study examined the contribution of glycinergic inhibition to the time-sensitive spectral integration performed by neurons in the inferior colliculus of the mustached bat (Pteronotus parnellii). These neurons are sometimes called combination-sensitive because they display facilitatory (or inhibitory) responses to the combination of distinct spectral elements in sonar or social vocalizations. Present in a wide range of vertebrates, their temporally and spectrally selective integration is thought to endow them with the ability to discriminate among social vocalizations or to analyze particular cues concerning sonar targets. The mechanisms that underlie these responses or the sites in the auditory system where they are created are not known. We examined combination-sensitive neurons that are facilitated by the presentation of two different harmonic elements of the bat's sonar call and echo. Responses of 24 single units were recorded before and during local application of strychnine, an antagonist of glycinergic inhibition. For each of the 24 units, strychnine application eliminated or greatly reduced temporally sensitive facilitation. There was no difference in this effect for neurons tuned to frequencies associated with the frequency-modulated or the constant-frequency sonar components. These results are unusual because glycine is considered to be an inhibitory neurotransmitter, but here it appears to be essential for the expression of combination-sensitive facilitation. The findings provide strong evidence that facilitatory combination-sensitive response properties present throughout the mustached bat's auditory midbrain, thalamus, and cortex originate through neural interactions in the inferior colliculus.

  10. Postnatal alterations of GABA receptor profiles in the rat superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Clark, S E; Garret, M; Platt, B

    2001-01-01

    Midbrain sections taken from Sprague-Dawley rats of varying ages within the first four postnatal weeks were used to determine, immunocytochemically, putative changes of GABA(A) receptor beta2/3 subunits, GABA(B) receptor (R1a and R1b splice variants), and GABA(C) receptor rho1 subunit expression and distribution in the superficial, visual layers of the superior colliculus. Immunoreactivity for the GABA(A) receptor beta2/3 subunits was found in the superficial grey layer from birth. The labelling changed with age, with an overall continuous reduction in the number of cells labelled and a significant increase in the labelling intensity distribution (neuropil vs soma). Further analysis revealed an initial increase in the labelling intensity between postnatal days 0 and 7 in parallel with an overall reduction of labelled neurones. This was followed by a significant decrease in labelling intensity distribution between postnatal days 7 and 16, and a subsequent increase in intensity between postnatal days 16 and 28. The labelling profiles for GABA(B) receptors (R1a and R1b splice variants) and GABA(C) receptors (rho1 subunit) showed similar patterns. Both receptors could be found in the superficial layers of the superior colliculus from birth, and the intensity and distribution of labelling remained constant during the first postnatal month. However, the cell body count showed a significant decrease between postnatal days 7 and 16. These changes may be related to the time-point of eye opening, which occurred approximately two weeks after birth. For all three receptor types, the cell body count remained constant after postnatal day 16. By four weeks of age, there was no significant difference between the cell numbers obtained for the different receptors. Both GABA itself and neurofilament labelling were also obtained in the superficial superior colliculus at birth. Neurofilament, although found at birth, showed very little ordered arrangement until 16days after birth. When

  11. Biomimetic race model of the loop between the superior colliculus and the basal ganglia: Subcortical selection of saccade targets.

    PubMed

    Thurat, Charles; N'Guyen, Steve; Girard, Benoît

    2015-07-01

    The superior colliculus, a laminar structure involved in the retinotopic mapping of the visual field, plays a cardinal role in several cortical and subcortical pathways of the saccadic system. Although the selection of saccade targets has long been thought to be mainly the product of cortical processes, a growing body of evidence hints at the implication of the superior colliculus in selection processes independent from cortical inputs, capable of producing saccades at latencies incompatible with the cortical pathways. This selection ability could be produced firstly by the lateral connections between the neurons of its maps, and secondly by its interactions with the midbrain basal ganglia, already renowned for their role in decision making. We propose a biomimetic population-coded race model of selection based on a dynamic tecto-basal loop that reproduces the observed ability of the superior colliculus to stochastically select between similar stimuli. Our model's selection accuracy depends on the discriminability of the target and the distractors. Our model also offers an explanation for the phenomenon of Remote Distractor Effect based on the lateral connectivity within the basal ganglia circuitry rather than on lateral inhibitions within the collicular maps. Finally, we propose a role for the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus, as stochastic integrators dynamically gated by the selective disinhibition of the basal ganglia channels that is consistent with the recorded activity profiles of these neurons.

  12. Restoration of quinine-stimulated Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala and gustatory cortex following reinnervation or cross-reinnervation of the lingual taste nerves in rats

    PubMed Central

    King, Camille Tessitore; Garcea, Mircea; Spector, Alan C.

    2014-01-01

    Remarkably, when lingual gustatory nerves are surgically re-routed to inappropriate taste fields in the tongue, some taste functions recover. We previously demonstrated that quinine-stimulated oromotor rejection reflexes and neural activity (assessed by Fos-immunoreactivity) in subregions of hindbrain gustatory nuclei were restored if the posterior tongue, which contains receptor cells that respond strongly to bitter compounds, was cross-reinnervated by the chorda tympani nerve. Such functional recovery was not seen if instead, the anterior tongue, where receptor cells are less responsive to bitter compounds, was cross-reinnervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve, despite that this nerve typically responds robustly to bitter substances. Thus, recovery depended more on the taste field being reinnervated than on the nerve itself. Here, the distribution of quinine-stimulated Fos-immunoreactive neurons in two taste-associated forebrain areas was examined in these same rats. In the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a rostrocaudal gradient characterized the normal quinine-stimulated Fos response, with the greatest number of labeled cells rostrally situated. Quinine-stimulated neurons were found throughout the gustatory cortex but a ‘hot spot’ was observed in its anterior-posterior center in subregions approximating the dysgranular/agranular layers. Fos neurons here and in the rostral CeA were highly correlated with quinine-elicited gapes. Denervation of the posterior tongue eliminated, and its reinnervation by either nerve restored, numbers of quinine-stimulated labeled cells in the rostral-most CeA and in the subregion approximating dysgranular gustatory cortex. These results underscore the remarkable plasticity of the gustatory system and also help clarify the functional anatomy of neural circuits activated by bitter taste stimulation. PMID:24477770

  13. Restoration of quinine-stimulated Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala and gustatory cortex following reinnervation or cross-reinnervation of the lingual taste nerves in rats.

    PubMed

    King, Camille Tessitore; Garcea, Mircea; Spector, Alan C

    2014-08-01

    Remarkably, when lingual gustatory nerves are surgically rerouted to inappropriate taste fields in the tongue, some taste functions recover. We previously demonstrated that quinine-stimulated oromotor rejection reflexes and neural activity (assessed by Fos immunoreactivity) in subregions of hindbrain gustatory nuclei were restored if the posterior tongue, which contains receptor cells that respond strongly to bitter compounds, was cross-reinnervated by the chorda tympani nerve. Such functional recovery was not seen if instead, the anterior tongue, where receptor cells are less responsive to bitter compounds, was cross-reinnervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve, even though this nerve typically responds robustly to bitter substances. Thus, recovery depended more on the taste field being reinnervated than on the nerve itself. Here, the distribution of quinine-stimulated Fos-immunoreactive neurons in two taste-associated forebrain areas was examined in these same rats. In the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a rostrocaudal gradient characterized the normal quinine-stimulated Fos response, with the greatest number of labeled cells situated rostrally. Quinine-stimulated neurons were found throughout the gustatory cortex, but a "hot spot" was observed in its anterior-posterior center in subregions approximating the dysgranular/agranular layers. Fos neurons here and in the rostral CeA were highly correlated with quinine-elicited gapes. Denervation of the posterior tongue eliminated, and its reinnervation by either nerve restored, numbers of quinine-stimulated labeled cells in the rostralmost CeA and in the subregion approximating the dysgranular gustatory cortex. These results underscore the remarkable plasticity of the gustatory system and also help clarify the functional anatomy of neural circuits activated by bitter taste stimulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The mechanism of saccade motor pattern generation investigated by a large-scale spiking neuron model of the superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Morén, Jan; Shibata, Tomohiro; Doya, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    The subcortical saccade-generating system consists of the retina, superior colliculus, cerebellum and brainstem motoneuron areas. The superior colliculus is the site of sensory-motor convergence within this basic visuomotor loop preserved throughout the vertebrates. While the system has been extensively studied, there are still several outstanding questions regarding how and where the saccade eye movement profile is generated and the contribution of respective parts within this system. Here we construct a spiking neuron model of the whole intermediate layer of the superior colliculus based on the latest anatomy and physiology data. The model consists of conductance-based spiking neurons with quasi-visual, burst, buildup, local inhibitory, and deep layer inhibitory neurons. The visual input is given from the superficial superior colliculus and the burst neurons send the output to the brainstem oculomotor nuclei. Gating input from the basal ganglia and an integral feedback from the reticular formation are also included.We implement the model in the NEST simulator and show that the activity profile of bursting neurons can be reproduced by a combination of NMDA-type and cholinergic excitatory synaptic inputs and integrative inhibitory feedback. The model shows that the spreading neural activity observed in vivo can keep track of the collicular output over time and reset the system at the end of a saccade through activation of deep layer inhibitory neurons. We identify the model parameters according to neural recording data and show that the resulting model recreates the saccade size-velocity curves known as the saccadic main sequence in behavioral studies. The present model is consistent with theories that the superior colliculus takes a principal role in generating the temporal profiles of saccadic eye movements, rather than just specifying the end points of eye movements.

  15. Nucleon-nucleus interactions from JACEE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T. H.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Iwai, J.; Jones, W. V.; Jurak, A.; Lord, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    Results on hadron-nucleus interactions from the Japanese-American Cooperation Emulsion Experiment experiment are presented. Angular distributions for charged particles, and angular and transverse momentum spectra for photons have been measured for a sample of events with sigma epsilon sub gamma. Results on central rapidity density and transverse energy flow are discussed.

  16. Uptake, release, and modulation of release of noradrenaline in rabbit superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, T; Starke, K

    1988-08-01

    The noradrenaline content, the uptake of [3H]noradrenaline, and the release of previously incorporated [3H]noradrenaline were studied in slices of rabbit superior colliculus. The concentration of endogenous noradrenaline was higher in superficial than in deep layers of the superior colliculus. Upon incubation with [3H]noradrenaline, tritium was accumulated by a mechanism that was strongly inhibited by oxaprotiline but little inhibited by 6-nitroquipazine. Electrical stimulation at 0.2 or 3 Hz increased the outflow of tritium from slices preincubated with [3H]noradrenaline; the increase was almost abolished by tetrodotoxin or a low calcium medium. Clonidine reduced the evoked overflow of tritium, whereas yohimbine increased it and antagonized clonidine. The evoked overflow was also reduced by the dopamine D2-receptor-selective agonists apomorphine and quinpirole, an effect antagonized by sulpiride. The preferential opioid kappa-receptor agonist ethylketocyclazocine produced an inhibition that was counteracted by naloxone. Nicotine accelerated the basal outflow of tritium; part of the acceleration was blocked by hexamethonium. The muscarinic agonist oxotremorine slightly diminished the electrically evoked overflow, and its effect was abolished by atropine. The oxaprotiline-sensitive uptake of [3H]noradrenaline as well as the tetrodotoxin-sensitive and calcium-dependent overflow of tritium upon electrical stimulation (presumably reflecting the release of [3H]noradrenaline) indicate that noradrenaline is a neurotransmitter in the superior colliculus. The release of [3H]noradrenaline is modulated through alpha 2-adrenoceptors as well as dopamine D2-receptors, opioid kappa-receptors and nicotine and muscarine receptors. No clear evidence was found for modulation through beta-adrenoceptors, D1-receptors, serotonin receptors, opioid mu- or delta-receptors or receptors for GABA or glutamate. Only the alpha 2-adrenoceptors receive an endogenous agonist input, at least under

  17. Auditory fear conditioning modifies steady-state evoked potentials in the rat inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Lockmann, André Luiz Vieira; Mourão, Flávio Afonso Gonçalves; Moraes, Marcio Flávio Dutra

    2017-08-01

    The rat inferior colliculus (IC) is a major midbrain relay for ascending inputs from the auditory brain stem and has been suggested to play a key role in the processing of aversive sounds. Previous studies have demonstrated that auditory fear conditioning (AFC) potentiates transient responses to brief tones in the IC, but it remains unexplored whether AFC modifies responses to sustained periodic acoustic stimulation-a type of response called the steady-state evoked potential (SSEP). Here we used an amplitude-modulated tone-a 10-kHz tone with a sinusoidal amplitude modulation of 53.7 Hz-as the conditioning stimulus (CS) in an AFC protocol (5 CSs per day in 3 consecutive days) while recording local field potentials (LFPs) from the IC. In the preconditioning session (day 1), the CS elicited prominent 53.7-Hz SSEPs. In the training session (day 2), foot shocks occurred at the end of each CS (paired group) or randomized in the inter-CS interval (unpaired group). In the test session (day 3), SSEPs markedly differed from preconditioning in the paired group: in the first two trials the phase to which the SSEP coupled to the CS amplitude envelope shifted ~90°; in the last two trials the SSEP power and the coherence of SSEP with the CS amplitude envelope increased. LFP power decreased in frequency bands other than 53.7 Hz. In the unpaired group, SSEPs did not change in the test compared with preconditioning. Our results show that AFC causes dissociated changes in the phase and power of SSEP in the IC.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Local field potential oscillations in the inferior colliculus follow the amplitude envelope of an amplitude-modulated tone, originating a neural response called the steady-state evoked potential. We show that auditory fear conditioning of an amplitude-modulated tone modifies two parameters of the steady-state evoked potentials in the inferior colliculus: first the phase to which the evoked oscillation couples to the amplitude-modulated tone shifts; subsequently

  18. Systematic mapping of the monkey inferior colliculus reveals enhanced low frequency sound representation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the functional architecture of the inferior colliculus (IC) in rhesus monkeys. We systematically mapped multiunit responses to tonal stimuli and noise in the IC and surrounding tissue of six rhesus macaques, collecting data at evenly placed locations and recording nonresponsive locations to define boundaries. The results show a modest tonotopically organized region (17 of 100 recording penetration locations in 4 of 6 monkeys) surrounded by a large mass of tissue that, although vigorously responsive, showed no clear topographic arrangement (68 of 100 penetration locations). Rather, most cells in these recordings responded best to frequencies at the low end of the macaque auditory range. The remaining 15 (of 100) locations exhibited auditory responses that were not sensitive to sound frequency. Potential anatomical correlates of functionally defined regions and implications for midbrain auditory prosthetic devices are discussed. PMID:21307328

  19. Superior colliculus neurons encode a visual saliency map during free viewing of natural dynamic video.

    PubMed

    White, Brian J; Berg, David J; Kan, Janis Y; Marino, Robert A; Itti, Laurent; Munoz, Douglas P

    2017-01-24

    Models of visual attention postulate the existence of a saliency map whose function is to guide attention and gaze to the most conspicuous regions in a visual scene. Although cortical representations of saliency have been reported, there is mounting evidence for a subcortical saliency mechanism, which pre-dates the evolution of neocortex. Here, we conduct a strong test of the saliency hypothesis by comparing the output of a well-established computational saliency model with the activation of neurons in the primate superior colliculus (SC), a midbrain structure associated with attention and gaze, while monkeys watched video of natural scenes. We find that the activity of SC superficial visual-layer neurons (SCs), specifically, is well-predicted by the model. This saliency representation is unlikely to be inherited from fronto-parietal cortices, which do not project to SCs, but may be computed in SCs and relayed to other areas via tectothalamic pathways.

  20. Superior colliculus neurons encode a visual saliency map during free viewing of natural dynamic video

    PubMed Central

    White, Brian J.; Berg, David J.; Kan, Janis Y.; Marino, Robert A.; Itti, Laurent; Munoz, Douglas P.

    2017-01-01

    Models of visual attention postulate the existence of a saliency map whose function is to guide attention and gaze to the most conspicuous regions in a visual scene. Although cortical representations of saliency have been reported, there is mounting evidence for a subcortical saliency mechanism, which pre-dates the evolution of neocortex. Here, we conduct a strong test of the saliency hypothesis by comparing the output of a well-established computational saliency model with the activation of neurons in the primate superior colliculus (SC), a midbrain structure associated with attention and gaze, while monkeys watched video of natural scenes. We find that the activity of SC superficial visual-layer neurons (SCs), specifically, is well-predicted by the model. This saliency representation is unlikely to be inherited from fronto-parietal cortices, which do not project to SCs, but may be computed in SCs and relayed to other areas via tectothalamic pathways. PMID:28117340

  1. Dissonance encoding in human inferior colliculus covaries with individual differences in dislike of dissonant music.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Lepsien, Jöran; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Mildner, Toralf; Mueller, Karsten

    2017-07-18

    Harmony is one of the most fundamental elements of music that evokes emotional response. The inferior colliculus (IC) has been known to detect poor agreement of harmonics of sound, that is, dissonance. Electrophysiological evidence has implicated a relationship between a sustained auditory response mainly from the brainstem and unpleasant emotion induced by dissonant harmony. Interestingly, an individual's dislike of dissonant harmony of an individual correlated with a reduced sustained auditory response. In the current paper, we report novel evidence based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for such a relationship between individual variability in dislike of dissonance and the IC activation. Furthermore, for the first time, we show how dissonant harmony modulates functional connectivity of the IC and its association with behaviourally reported unpleasantness. The current findings support important contributions of low level auditory processing and corticofugal interaction in musical harmony preference.

  2. Interaural time sensitivity of high-frequency neurons in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Yin, T C; Kuwada, S; Sujaku, Y

    1984-11-01

    Recent psychoacoustic experiments have shown that interaural time differences provide adequate cues for lateralizing high-frequency sounds, provided the stimuli are complex and not pure tones. We present here physiological evidence in support of these findings. Neurons of high best frequency in the cat inferior colliculus respond to interaural phase differences of amplitude modulated waveforms, and this response depends upon preservation of phase information of the modulating signal. Interaural phase differences were introduced in two ways: by interaural delays of the entire waveform and by binaural beats in which there was an interaural frequency difference in the modulating waveform. Results obtained with these two methods are similar. Our results show that high-frequency cells can respond to interaural time differences of amplitude modulated signals and that they do so by a sensitivity to interaural phase differences of the modulating waveform.

  3. The ability of inferior colliculus neurons to signal differences in interaural delay

    PubMed Central

    Skottun, Bernt C.; Shackleton, Trevor M.; Arnott, Robert H.; Palmer, Alan R.

    2001-01-01

    Sound localization in humans depends largely on interaural time delay (ITD). The ability to discriminate differences in ITD is highly accurate. ITD discrimination (Δ ITD) thresholds, under some circumstances, are as low as 10–20 μs. It has been assumed that thresholds this low could only be obtained if the outputs from many neurons were combined. Here we use Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis to compute neuronal Δ ITD thresholds from 53 cells in the inferior colliculus in guinea pigs. The Δ ITD thresholds of single neurons range from several hundreds of μs down to 20–30 μs. The lowest single-cell thresholds are comparable to human thresholds determined with similar stimuli. This finding suggests that the highly accurate sound localization of human observers is consistent with the resolution of single cells and need not reflect the combined activity of many neurons. PMID:11707595

  4. Auditory cortex controls sound-driven innate defense behaviour through corticofugal projections to inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xiaorui R.; Liang, Feixue; Zingg, Brian; Ji, Xu-ying; Ibrahim, Leena A.; Tao, Huizhong W.; Zhang, Li I.

    2015-01-01

    Defense against environmental threats is essential for animal survival. However, the neural circuits responsible for transforming unconditioned sensory stimuli and generating defensive behaviours remain largely unclear. Here, we show that corticofugal neurons in the auditory cortex (ACx) targeting the inferior colliculus (IC) mediate an innate, sound-induced flight behaviour. Optogenetic activation of these neurons, or their projection terminals in the IC, is sufficient for initiating flight responses, while the inhibition of these projections reduces sound-induced flight responses. Corticocollicular axons monosynaptically innervate neurons in the cortex of the IC (ICx), and optogenetic activation of the projections from the ICx to the dorsal periaqueductal gray is sufficient for provoking flight behaviours. Our results suggest that ACx can both amplify innate acoustic-motor responses and directly drive flight behaviours in the absence of sound input through corticocollicular projections to ICx. Such corticofugal control may be a general feature of innate defense circuits across sensory modalities. PMID:26068082

  5. A Disynaptic Relay from Superior Colliculus to Dorsal Stream Visual Cortex in Macaque Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, David C.; Nassi, Jonathan J.; Callaway, Edward M.

    2010-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) is the first station in a subcortical relay of retinal information to extrastriate visual cortex. Ascending SC projections pass through pulvinar and LGN on their way to cortex, but it is not clear how many synapses are required to complete these circuits or which cortical areas are involved. To examine this relay directly, we injected transynaptic rabies virus into several extrastriate visual areas. We observed disynaptically labeled cells in superficial, retino-recipient SC layers from injections in dorsal stream areas MT and V3, but not the earliest extrastriate area, V2, nor ventral stream area V4. This robust SC-dorsal stream pathway is most likely relayed through the inferior pulvinar and can provide magnocellular-like sensory inputs necessary for motion perception and the computation of orienting movements. Furthermore, by circumventing primary visual cortex, this pathway may also underlie the remaining visual capacities associated with blindsight. PMID:20152132

  6. Deafferentation of the Superior Colliculus Abolishes Spatial Summation of Redundant Visual Signals

    PubMed Central

    van Koningsbruggen, Martijn; Koller, Kristin; Rafal, Robert D.

    2017-01-01

    Two visual signals appearing simultaneously are detected more rapidly than either signal appearing alone. Part of this redundant target effect (RTE) can be attributed to neural summation that has been proposed to occur in the superior colliculus (SC). We report direct evidence in two neurological patients for neural summation in the SC, and that it is mediated by afferent visual information transmitted through its brachium. The RTE was abolished in one patient with a hemorrhage involving the right posterior thalamus that damaged part of the SC and that disrupted its brachium; and in another patient in whom the SC appeared intact but deafferented due to traumatic avulsion of its brachium. In addition reaction time for unilateral targets in the contralesional field was slowed in both patients, providing the first evidence that visual afferents to the SC contribute to the efficiency of target detection. PMID:28286472

  7. GABAA-Mediated Inhibition Modulates Stimulus-Specific Adaptation in the Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, David; Hernández, Olga; Covey, Ellen; Malmierca, Manuel S.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to detect novel sounds in a complex acoustic context is crucial for survival. Neurons from midbrain through cortical levels adapt to repetitive stimuli, while maintaining responsiveness to rare stimuli, a phenomenon called stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). The site of origin and mechanism of SSA are currently unknown. We used microiontophoretic application of gabazine to examine the role of GABAA-mediated inhibition in SSA in the inferior colliculus, the midbrain center for auditory processing. We found that gabazine slowed down the process of adaptation to high probability stimuli but did not abolish it, with response magnitude and latency still depending on the probability of the stimulus. Blocking GABAA receptors increased the firing rate to high and low probability stimuli, but did not completely equalize the responses. Together, these findings suggest that GABAA-mediated inhibition acts as a gain control mechanism that enhances SSA by modifying the responsiveness of the neuron. PMID:22479591

  8. Endogenous attention signals evoked by threshold contrast detection in human superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Katyal, Sucharit; Ress, David

    2014-01-15

    Human superior colliculus (SC) responds in a retinotopically selective manner when attention is deployed on a high-contrast visual stimulus using a discrimination task. To further elucidate the role of SC in endogenous visual attention, high-resolution fMRI was used to demonstrate that SC also exhibits a retinotopically selective response for covert attention in the absence of significant visual stimulation using a threshold-contrast detection task. SC neurons have a laminar organization according to their function, with visually responsive neurons present in the superficial layers and visuomotor neurons in the intermediate layers. The results show that the response evoked by the threshold-contrast detection task is significantly deeper than the response evoked by the high-contrast speed discrimination task, reflecting a functional dissociation of the attentional enhancement of visuomotor and visual neurons, respectively. Such a functional dissociation of attention within SC laminae provides a subcortical basis for the oculomotor theory of attention.

  9. Multisensory Plasticity in Superior Colliculus Neurons is Mediated by Association Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Liping; Xu, Jinghong; Rowland, Benjamin A.; Stein, Barry E.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to integrate information from different senses, and thereby facilitate detecting and localizing events, normally develops gradually in cat superior colliculus (SC) neurons as experience with cross-modal events is acquired. Here, we demonstrate that the portal for this experience-based change is association cortex. Unilaterally deactivating this cortex whenever visual–auditory events were present resulted in the failure of ipsilateral SC neurons to develop the ability to integrate those cross-modal inputs, even though they retained the ability to respond to them. In contrast, their counterparts in the opposite SC developed this capacity normally. The deficits were eliminated by providing cross-modal experience when cortex was active. These observations underscore the collaborative developmental processes that take place among different levels of the neuraxis to adapt the brain's multisensory (and sensorimotor) circuits to the environment in which they will be used. PMID:25552270

  10. Optogenetic activation of superior colliculus neurons suppresses seizures originating in diverse brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Soper, Colin; Wicker, Evan; Kulick, Catherine V.; N’Gouemo, Prosper; Forcelli, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    Because sites of seizure origin may be unknown or multifocal, identifying targets from which activation can suppress seizures originating in diverse networks is essential. We evaluated the ability of optogenetic activation of the deep/intermediate layers of the superior colliculus (DLSC) to fill this role. Optogenetic activation of DLSC suppressed behavioral and electrographic seizures in the pentylenetetrazole (forebrain+brainstem seizures) and Area Tempestas (forebrain/complex partial seizures) models; this effect was specific to activation of DLSC, and not neighboring structures. DLSC activation likewise attenuated seizures evoked by gamma butyrolactone (thalamocortical/absence seizures), or acoustic stimulation of genetically epilepsy prone rates (brainstem seizures). Anticonvulsant effects were seen with stimulation frequencies as low as 5 Hz. Unlike previous applications of optogenetics for the control of seizures, activation of DLSC exerted broad-spectrum anticonvulsant actions, attenuating seizures originating in diverse and distal brain networks. These data indicate that DLSC is a promising target for optogenetic control of epilepsy. PMID:26721319

  11. Superior colliculus neurons encode a visual saliency map during free viewing of natural dynamic video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Brian J.; Berg, David J.; Kan, Janis Y.; Marino, Robert A.; Itti, Laurent; Munoz, Douglas P.

    2017-01-01

    Models of visual attention postulate the existence of a saliency map whose function is to guide attention and gaze to the most conspicuous regions in a visual scene. Although cortical representations of saliency have been reported, there is mounting evidence for a subcortical saliency mechanism, which pre-dates the evolution of neocortex. Here, we conduct a strong test of the saliency hypothesis by comparing the output of a well-established computational saliency model with the activation of neurons in the primate superior colliculus (SC), a midbrain structure associated with attention and gaze, while monkeys watched video of natural scenes. We find that the activity of SC superficial visual-layer neurons (SCs), specifically, is well-predicted by the model. This saliency representation is unlikely to be inherited from fronto-parietal cortices, which do not project to SCs, but may be computed in SCs and relayed to other areas via tectothalamic pathways.

  12. The Nucleus Introduced

    PubMed Central

    Pederson, Thoru

    2011-01-01

    Now is an opportune moment to address the confluence of cell biological form and function that is the nucleus. Its arrival is especially timely because the recognition that the nucleus is extremely dynamic has now been solidly established as a paradigm shift over the past two decades, and also because we now see on the horizon numerous ways in which organization itself, including gene location and possibly self-organizing bodies, underlies nuclear functions. PMID:20660024

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF VIBRISSAL SOMATOSENSORY PROCESSING IN RAT SUPERIOR COLLICULUS ON PREY CAPTURE

    PubMed Central

    FAVARO, P. D. N.; GOUVÊA, T. S.; DE OLIVEIRA, S. R.; VAUTRELLE, N.; REDGRAVE, P.; COMOLI, E.

    2011-01-01

    The lateral part of intermediate layer of superior colliculus (SCl) is a critical substrate for successful predation by rats. Hunting-evoked expression of the activity marker Fos is concentrated in SCl while prey capture in rats with NMDA lesions in SCl is impaired. Particularly affected are rapid orienting and stereotyped sequences of actions associated with predation of fast moving prey. Such deficits are consistent with the view that the deep layers of SC are important for sensory guidance of movement. Although much of the relevant evidence involves visual control of movement, less is known about movement guidance by somatosensory input from vibrissae. Indeed, our impression is that prey contact with whiskers is a likely stimulus to trigger predation. Moreover, SCl receives whisker and orofacial somatosensory information directly from trigeminal complex, and indirectly from zona incerta, parvicelular reticular formation and somatosensory barrel cortex. To better understand sensory guidance of predation by vibrissal information we investigated prey capture by rats after whisker removal and the role of superior colliculus (SC) by comparing Fos expression after hunting with and without whiskers. Rats were allowed to hunt cockroaches, after which their whiskers were removed. Two days later they were allowed to hunt cockroaches again. Without whiskers the rats were less able to retain the cockroaches after capture and less able to pursue them in the event of the cockroach escaping. The predatory behaviour of rats with re-grown whiskers returned to normal. In parallel, Fos expression in SCl induced by predation was significantly reduced in whiskerless animals. We conclude that whiskers contribute to the efficiency of rat prey capture and that the loss of vibrissal input to SCl, as reflected by reduced Fos expression, could play a critical role in predatory deficits of whiskerless rats. PMID:21163336

  14. Deactivation of the inferior colliculus by cooling demonstrates intercollicular modulation of neuronal activity

    PubMed Central

    Orton, Llwyd D.; Poon, Paul W. F.; Rees, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The auditory pathways coursing through the brainstem are organized bilaterally in mirror image about the midline and at several levels the two sides are interconnected. One of the most prominent points of interconnection is the commissure of the inferior colliculus (CoIC). Anatomical studies have revealed that these fibers make reciprocal connections which follow the tonotopic organization of the inferior colliculus (IC), and that the commissure contains both excitatory and, albeit fewer, inhibitory fibers. The role of these connections in sound processing is largely unknown. Here we describe a method to address this question in the anaesthetized guinea pig. We used a cryoloop placed on one IC to produce reversible deactivation while recording electrophysiological responses to sounds in both ICs. We recorded single units, multi-unit clusters and local field potentials (LFPs) before, during and after cooling. The degree and spread of cooling was measured with a thermocouple placed in the IC and other auditory structures. Cooling sufficient to eliminate firing was restricted to the IC contacted by the cryoloop. The temperature of other auditory brainstem structures, including the contralateral IC and the cochlea were minimally affected. Cooling below 20°C reduced or eliminated the firing of action potentials in frequency laminae at depths corresponding to characteristic frequencies up to ~8 kHz. Modulation of neural activity also occurred in the un-cooled IC with changes in single unit firing and LFPs. Components of LFPs signaling lemniscal afferent input to the IC showed little change in amplitude or latency with cooling, whereas the later components, which likely reflect inter- and intra-collicular processing, showed marked changes in form and amplitude. We conclude that the cryoloop is an effective method of selectively deactivating one IC in guinea pig, and demonstrate that auditory processing in the IC is strongly influenced by the other. PMID:23248587

  15. Altered somatosensory receptive fields in hamster colliculus after infraorbital nerve section and xylocaine injection.

    PubMed Central

    Jacquin, M F; Mooney, R D; Rhoades, R W

    1984-01-01

    The effects of acute infraorbital (i.o.) nerve section upon the responses of somatosensory cells in the rostral part of the deep layers of the hamster's superior colliculus were studied using standard extracellular single-unit recording and receptive field mapping techniques. In nine animals a given cell's receptive field was determined both before and after i.o. nerve section and, in all cases, new areas of sensitivity were unmasked within 15 min after the nerve was cut. In a given electrode penetration where the i.o. nerve was sectioned (n = 13), somatosensory cells recorded after the nerve was cut, as the electrode was being withdrawn from the colliculus, exhibited receptive fields considerably different from those of somatosensory cells isolated during the descent of the recording electrode. Seventeen deep-layer somatosensory cells (in eight hamsters) were tested before and after subcutaneous injections of xylocaine into their receptive fields. This manipulation unmasked new areas of cutaneous sensitivity for sixteen units. Of these, the new receptive fields of nine cells disappeared as sensitivity in the original receptive field returned; five ultimately retained both the new and old receptive fields; in two instances, sensitivity in the original receptive field never returned over the 3 h of testing. Control experiments (n = 7) demonstrated that the changes observed did not result from spontaneous alterations in receptive field borders, changes induced by variations in the level of general anaesthesia, or non-specific trauma associated with the xylocaine injections or the surgery required to expose the i.o. nerve. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Plate 1 PMID:6716292

  16. UNCOVERING THE NUCLEUS CANDIDATE FOR NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Günthardt, G. I.; Camperi, J. A.; Agüero, M. P.; Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Schirmer, M.; Bosch, G. E-mail: camperi@oac.uncor.edu E-mail: rdiaz@gemini.edu E-mail: mschirmer@gemini.edu

    2015-11-15

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H{sub 2} rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  17. Uncovering the Nucleus Candidate for NGC 253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Agüero, M. P.; Camperi, J. A.; Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Bosch, G.; Schirmer, M.

    2015-11-01

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H2 rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  18. Hyperon-nucleus potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dover, C. B.; Gal, A.

    We review models for the interaction of baryons ( N, Λ, Σ and Ξ) with nuclei, emphasizing the underlying meson exchange picture. Starting from a phenomenological one boson exchange model (the Nijmegen potential, as an example) which accounts for the available NN, ΛN and ΣN two-body scattering data, we show how to construct the effective baryon-nucleon interaction ( G-matrix). Employing the folding model, we then obtain the many-body potentials for bound states in terms of the nuclear density and the appropriate spin-isospin weighted G-matrices. The models we emphasize most impose SU(3) constraints on baryon-baryon coupling constants SU(3) is broken through the use of physical masses), although we also compare with rough estimates based on quark model relations between coupling constants. We stress the essential unity and economy of such models, in which nucleon and hyperon-nucleus potentials are intimately related via SU(3), and the connection between the two-body and many-body potentials is preserved. We decompose the nuclear potentials into central and spin-orbit parts, each of which is isospin dependent. For nucleons, the microscopic origin of the isospin dependent Lane potential V1 N is clarified. For Λ and Σ hyperons, the one boson exchange model with SU(3) constraints leads to one-body spin-orbit strengths VLSB which are relatively weak ( VLSΛ ≈ 1.5-2 MeV, VLSΣ ≈ 2.5-;3 MeV, compared to VLSN ≈ 7-9 MeV). We demonstrate the interplay between symmetric and antisymmetric two-body spin-orbit forces which give rise to these results, as well as the special role of K and K ∗ exchange for hyperons. We contrast these results with predictions based on the naive quark model. From S and P-wave two-body interactions, a Lane potential for the Σ of depth V1 Σ ≈ 50-60 MeV is predicted although this result is somewhat uncertain. For the Ξ, the nuclear potential is very different in various models for the two-body interaction based on SU(3) or the quark

  19. 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors differentially modulate rate and timing of auditory responses in the mouse inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Lissandra Castellan Baldan; Sinha, Shiva R.; Hurley, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin is a physiological signal that translates both internal and external information about behavioral context into changes in sensory processing through a diverse array of receptors. The details of this process, particularly how receptors interact to shape sensory encoding, are poorly understood. In the inferior colliculus, a midbrain auditory nucleus, serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptors have suppressive and 5-HT1B receptors have facilitatory effects on evoked responses of neurons. We explored how these two receptor classes interact by testing three hypotheses: that they 1) affect separate neuron populations, 2) affect different response properties, or 3) have different endogenous patterns of activation. The first two hypotheses were tested by iontophoretic application of 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor agonists individually and together to neurons in vivo. 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B agonists affected overlapping populations of neurons. During co-application, 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B agonists influenced spike rate and frequency bandwidth additively, with each moderating the effect of the other. In contrast, although both agonists individually influenced latencies and interspike intervals, the 5-HT1A agonist dominated these measurements during co-application. The third hypothesis was tested by applying antagonists of the 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors. Blocking 5-HT1B receptors was complementary to activation of the receptor, but blocking 5-HT1A receptors was not, suggesting the endogenous activation of additional receptor types. These results suggest that cooperative interactions between 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors shape auditory encoding in the IC, and that the effects of neuromodulators within sensory systems may depend nonlinearly on the specific profile of receptors that are activated. PMID:20646059

  20. Atypical antipsychotic clozapine reversed deficit on prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex produced by microinjection of DOI into the inferior colliculus in rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rodolpho Pereira; Nagaishi, Karen Yuriko; Barbosa Silva, Regina Cláudia

    2017-05-15

    Dysfunctions of the serotonergic system have been suggested to be important in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia exhibit deficits in an operational measure of sensorimotor gating: prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle. PPI is the normal reduction in the startle response caused by a low intensity non-startling stimulus (prepulse) which is presented shortly before the startle stimulus (pulse). The hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), a 5-hydroxytryptamine(HT)2 receptor agonist disrupted PPI in rats. The inferior colliculus (IC) is a critical nucleus of the auditory pathway mediating acoustic PPI. The activation of the IC by the acoustic prepulse reduces startle magnitude. The present study investigated the role of serotonergic transmission in the IC on the expression of acoustic PPI. For that we investigated whether 5-HT2A receptor activation or blockade would affect this response. Unilateral microinjection of DOI (10μg/0.3μl) into the IC disrupted PPI, while microinjection of the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ritanserin (4μg/0.3μl), into this structure did not alter PPI. We also examined the ability of the atypical antipsychotic clozapine (5.0mg/kg; I.P.) to reverse the disruption of PPI produced by unilateral microinjections of DOI into the IC of rats. Pretreatment with clozapine blocked DOI-induced disruption of PPI. Altogether, these results suggest that serotonin-mediated mechanisms of the IC are involved in the expression of PPI in rodents and that this response is sensitive to atypical antipsychotic clozapine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Visual field topography and binocular responses in frog's nucleus isthmi.

    PubMed

    Wang, S R; Yan, K; Wang, Y T

    1981-09-01

    Visual responses of 125 units have been extracellularly recorded with glass micropipettes from the left nucleus isthmi in the frog Rana nigromaculata, and 101 electrode tip positions marked with cobalt staining to reconstruct a visual field map in the nucleus. 80% of the units recorded show ON-OFF responses to a stationary spot of light and many are directionally selective in response to black or white targets moving through their receptive fields. All the cobalt-marked spots are within the nucleus, indicating that the nucleus isthmus proper is a restricted part of the frog visual system. There is a visual field map in the nucleus. The entire contralateral hemifield and the nasal 40 degrees of the ipsilateral hemifield project on the nucleus topographically. A cell-free band inside the nucleus is a boundary line separating the contralateral hemifield from the ipsilateral one. Dorsal to it is the contralateral field representation. The upper visual field projects on the rostral half of the nucleus and the central and medio-ventral portion of its caudal half. The lower field is represented on the dorsal and lateral part of the caudal half. Fifteen binocular units have been found from the nucleus, 13 of which are dominantly activated by the contralateral eye, the other two are almost equally excited by either eye. These binocular units are mainly situated in the medulla of the rostral half of the nucleus isthmus.

  2. The immediate effects of acoustic trauma on excitation and inhibition in the inferior colliculus: A Wiener-kernel analysis.

    PubMed

    Heeringa, Amarins Nieske; van Dijk, Pim

    2016-01-01

    Noise-induced tinnitus and hyperacusis are thought to correspond to a disrupted balance between excitation and inhibition in the central auditory system. Excitation and inhibition are often studied using pure tones; however, these responses do not reveal inhibition within the excitatory pass band. Therefore, we used a Wiener-kernel analysis, complemented with singular value decomposition (SVD), to investigate the immediate effects of acoustic trauma on excitation and inhibition in the inferior colliculus (IC). Neural responses were recorded from the IC of three anesthetized albino guinea pigs before and immediately after a one-hour bilateral exposure to an 11-kHz tone of 124 dB SPL. Neural activity was recorded during the presentation of a 1-h continuous 70 dB SPL Gaussian-noise stimulus. Spike trains were subjected to Wiener-kernel analysis in which the second-order kernel was decomposed into excitatory and inhibitory components using SVD. Hearing thresholds between 3 and 22 kHz were elevated (13-47 dB) immediately after acoustic trauma. The presence and frequency tuning of excitation and inhibition in units with a low characteristic frequency (CF; < 3 kHz) was not affected, inhibition disappeared whereas excitation was not affected in mid-CF units (3 < CF < 11 kHz), and both excitation and inhibition disappeared in high-CF units (CF > 11 kHz). This specific differentiation could not be identified by tone-evoked receptive-field analysis, in which inhibitory responses disappeared in all units, along with excitatory responses in high-CF units. This study is the first to apply Wiener-kernel analysis, complemented with SVD, to study the effects of acoustic trauma on spike trains derived from the IC. With this analysis, a reduction of inhibition and preservation of good response thresholds was shown in mid-CF units immediately after acoustic trauma. These neurons may mediate noise-induced tinnitus and/or hyperacusis. Moreover, an immediate profound high

  3. A quantitative comparison of the hemispheric, areal, and laminar origins of sensory and motor cortical projections to the superior colliculus of the cat.

    PubMed

    Butler, Blake E; Chabot, Nicole; Lomber, Stephen G

    2016-09-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) is a midbrain structure central to orienting behaviors. The organization of descending projections from sensory cortices to the SC has garnered much attention; however, rarely have projections from multiple modalities been quantified and contrasted, allowing for meaningful conclusions within a single species. Here, we examine corticotectal projections from visual, auditory, somatosensory, motor, and limbic cortices via retrograde pathway tracers injected throughout the superficial and deep layers of the cat SC. As anticipated, the majority of cortical inputs to the SC originate in the visual cortex. In fact, each field implicated in visual orienting behavior makes a substantial projection. Conversely, only one area of the auditory orienting system, the auditory field of the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (fAES), and no area involved in somatosensory orienting, shows significant corticotectal inputs. Although small relative to visual inputs, the projection from the fAES is of particular interest, as it represents the only bilateral cortical input to the SC. This detailed, quantitative study allows for comparison across modalities in an animal that serves as a useful model for both auditory and visual perception. Moreover, the differences in patterns of corticotectal projections between modalities inform the ways in which orienting systems are modulated by cortical feedback. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2623-2642, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Target nucleus in relativistic nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gutbrod, H.H.; Warwick, A.I.; Wieman, H.

    1982-03-01

    Both the fireball model and hydrodynamical model predict, in a central collision, a fast energy dissipation in the early diving stage of the projectile into the target nucleus. In the final state both models show total incident energy largely dispersed over the whole target nucleus. In a quantitative comparison with the data for the Intranuclear Cascade Calculations, however, the 90/sup 0/ double differential cross section seems to be flatter than the calculated one. If the slope is reflecting the temperature in the system then the data are having apparently a higher temperature than the cascade would predict. This report suggests and discusses a picture of the reaction mechanism where the light projectile (e.g. Ne) gets stopped very early in the large target nucleus (e.g. Au or U) forming a small fireball at approximately half the beam rapidity, which decays inside the target nucleus, heating it up and causing thee whole system to expand. The expansion cools the system and big clusters can condense out if the total energy and thus entropy in the system is not too high to prevent it. Such a qualitative picture of a reaction mechanism emerges when we consider the information obtained about relativistic nuclear collisions from measurements of the remnants of a large target nucleus struck by a smaller projectile (Ne + Au) and relate it to the complementary information from earlier measurements of fast light reaction products. (WHK)

  5. Control of nucleus positioning in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Almonacid, Maria; Terret, Marie-Emilie; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène

    2017-08-12

    The position of the nucleus in a cell can instruct morphogenesis in some cases, conveying spatial and temporal information and abnormal nuclear positioning can lead to disease. In oocytes from worm, sea urchin, frog and some fish, nucleus position regulates embryo development, it marks the animal pole and in Drosophila it defines the future dorso-ventral axis of the embryo and of the adult body plan. However, in mammals, the oocyte nucleus is centrally located and does not instruct any future embryo axis. Yet an off-center nucleus correlates with poor outcome for mouse and human oocyte development. This is surprising since oocytes further undergo two extremely asymmetric divisions in terms of the size of the daughter cells (enabling polar body extrusion), requiring an off-centering of their chromosomes. In this review we address not only the bio-physical mechanism controlling nucleus positioning via an actin-mediated pressure gradient, but we also speculate on potential biological relevance of nuclear positioning in mammalian oocytes and early embryos. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Kaon-nucleus scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Byungsik; Maung, Khin Maung; Wilson, John W.; Buck, Warren W.

    1989-01-01

    The derivations of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and Watson multiple scattering are given. A simple optical potential is found to be the first term of that series. The number density distribution models of the nucleus, harmonic well, and Woods-Saxon are used without t-matrix taken from the scattering experiments. The parameterized two-body inputs, which are kaon-nucleon total cross sections, elastic slope parameters, and the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, are presented. The eikonal approximation was chosen as our solution method to estimate the total and absorptive cross sections for the kaon-nucleus scattering.

  7. Kaon-nucleus scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Byungsik; Buck, Warren W.; Maung, Khin M.

    1989-01-01

    Two kinds of number density distributions of the nucleus, harmonic well and Woods-Saxon models, are used with the t-matrix that is taken from the scattering experiments to find a simple optical potential. The parameterized two body inputs, which are kaon-nucleon total cross sections, elastic slope parameters, and the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, are shown. The eikonal approximation was chosen as the solution method to estimate the total and absorptive cross sections for the kaon-nucleus scattering.

  8. Orientation-selective Responses in the Mouse Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinyu; Chen, Hui; Liu, Xiaorong

    2013-01-01

    The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) receives visual information from the retina and transmits it to the cortex. In this study, we made extracellular recordings in the dLGN of both anesthetized and awake mice, and found that a surprisingly high proportion of cells were selective for stimulus orientation. The orientation selectivity of dLGN cells was unchanged after silencing the visual cortex pharmacologically, indicating that it is not due to cortical feedback. The orientation tuning of some dLGN cells correlated with their elongated receptive fields, while in others orientation selectivity was observed despite the fact that their receptive fields were circular, suggesting that their retinal input might already be orientation selective. Consistently, we revealed orientation/axis-selective ganglion cells in the mouse retina using multielectrode arrays in an in vitro preparation. Furthermore, the orientation tuning of dLGN cells was largely maintained at different stimulus contrasts, which could be sufficiently explained by a simple linear feedforward model. We also compared the degree of orientation selectivity in different visual structures under the same recording condition. Compared with the dLGN, orientation selectivity is greatly improved in the visual cortex, but is similar in the superior colliculus, another major retinal target. Together, our results demonstrate prominent orientation selectivity in the mouse dLGN, which may potentially contribute to visual processing in the cortex. PMID:23904611

  9. Representation and integration of multiple sensory inputs in primate superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M T; Wilkinson, L K; Stein, B E

    1996-08-01

    1. The properties of visual-, auditory-, and somatosensory-responsive neurons, as well as of neurons responsive to multiple sensory cues (i.e., multisensory), were examined in the superior colliculus of the rhesus monkey. Although superficial layer neurons responded exclusively to visual stimuli and visual inputs predominated in deeper layers, there was also a rich nonvisual and multisensory representation in the superior colliculus. More than a quarter (27.8%) of the deep layer population responded to stimuli from more than a single sensory modality. In contrast, 37% responded only to visual cues, 17.6% to auditory cues, and 17.6% to somatosensory cues. Unimodal- and multisensory-responsive neurons were clustered by modality. Each of these modalities was represented in map-like fashion, and the different representations were in alignment with one another. 2. Most deep layer visually responsive neurons were binocular and exhibited poor selectivity for such stimulus characteristics as orientation, velocity, and direction of movement. Similarly, most auditory-responsive neurons had contralateral receptive fields and were binaural, but had little frequency selectivity and preferred complex, broad-band sounds. Somatosensory-responsive neurons were overwhelmingly contralateral, high velocity, and rapidly adapting. Only rarely did somatosensory-responsive neurons require distortion of subcutaneous tissue for activation. 3. The spatial congruence among the different receptive fields of multisensory neurons was a critical feature underlying their ability to synthesize cross-modal information. 4. Combinations of stimuli could have very different consequences in the same neuron, depending on their temporal and spatial relationships. Generally, multisensory interactions were evident when pairs of stimuli were separated from one another by < 500 ms, and the products of these interactions far exceeded the sum of their unimodal components. Whether the combination of stimuli

  10. Inputs to the ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung-Won; Geerling, Joel C.; Loewy, Arthur D.

    2009-01-01

    The ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTvl) receives direct input from two specific subpopulations of neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). It is heavily innervated by aldosterone-sensitive NTS neurons, which are selectively activated by sodium depletion, and by the A2 noradrenergic neurons, which are activated by visceral, immune- and stress-related stimuli. Here, we used a retrograde neuronal tracer to identify other brain sites that innervate the BSTvl. Five general brain regions contained retrogradely labeled neurons: cerebral cortex (infralimbic and insular regions), rostral forebrain structures (subfornical organ, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, taenia tecta, nucleus accumbens, lateral septum, endopiriform nucleus, dorsal BST, substantia innominata, and most prominently the amygdala – primarily its basomedial and central subnuclei), thalamus (central medial, intermediodorsal, reuniens, and most prominently the paraventricular thalamic nucleus), hypothalamus (medial preoptic area, perifornical, arcuate, dorsomedial, parasubthalamic, and posterior hypothalamic nuclei), and brainstem (periaqueductal gray matter, dorsal and central superior raphe nuclei, parabrachial nucleus, pre-locus coeruleus region, NTS, and A1 noradrenergic neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla). In the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus, some retrogradely-labeled neurons contained either agouti-related peptide or cocaine-amphetamine regulated transcript. Of the numerous retrogradely labeled neurons in the perifornical hypothalamic area, few contained melanin concentrating hormone or orexin. In the brainstem, many retrogradely labeled neurons were either serotoninergic or catecholaminergic. In summary, the BSTvl receives inputs from a variety of brain sites implicated in hunger, salt and water intake, stress, arousal, and reward. PMID:18853414

  11. Interactions between extraocular proprioceptive and visual signals in the superior colliculus of the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, I M; Long, A C

    1980-01-01

    1. The responses of units in the superficial layers of the superior colliculus to stretch of extrinsic ocular muscles (e.o.m.) and to visual stimuli, delivered singly and paired at various inter-stimulus intervals, were studied in chloralose-anaesthetized cats. 2. Most units responded to visual stimuli and about half also gave phasic excitatory responses to stretch of e.o.m. 3. Signals from the e.o.m. of each eye reach both superior colliculi; only those in the colliculus ipsilateral to the e.o.m. stretched were studied in detail. 4. A variety of control experiments provided evidence that the signal leading to the responses to e.o.m. stretch was extraretinal. The strong probability is that the receptors responsible were in the extrinsic ocular muscles or their tendons. 5. Of fifty-six units, twenty-four (43%) showed definite interactions between the effects of visual stimuli delivered to the left eye and those due to stretch of e.o.m. of the right eye whose retina had been destroyed. 6. Interactions were found with both stationary and moving visual stimuli. They involved either enhancement or reduction (sometimes abolition) of the response to either e.o.m. or visual stimulation, particularly the latter. 7. Units with interactions showed one of three types of behaviour. (1) Excitatory responses to visual and e.o.m. stimuli given singly, and interactions when the two types of stimulus were paired at some time intervals. Suppression and abolition of visual responses by preceding e.o.m. stretch was common. (2) Units with little or no excitatory response to e.o.m. stretch applied alone, but with showed reduction of their visual responses by preceding e.o.m. stretch. (3) Units with minimal responses to either type of stimulus presented alone but which gave markedly enhanced responses when visual and e.o.m. stimuli were paired. 8. These interactions between proprioceptive and retinal signals are thought to allow retinal image movements which result from saccades to be

  12. Release and modulation of release of serotonin in rabbit superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, T; Limberger, N; Starke, K

    1989-01-01

    The release of previously incorporated [3H]serotonin and its presynaptic modulation were studied in slices of rabbit superior colliculus. Electrical stimulation at frequencies of 0.017-3 Hz greatly increased the outflow of tritiated compounds; this response was almost abolished by tetrodotoxin and in a low calcium medium. Unlabelled serotonin, when added in the presence of nitroquipazine, an inhibitor of high-affinity neuronal serotonin uptake, reduced the electrically evoked overflow of tritium, an effect antagonized by metitepin. Given alone, metitepin caused an increase. The evoked overflow was also decreased by clonidine, and the effect of clonidine was counteracted by phentolamine. Phentolamine itself increased the overflow response. However, this was probably not due to antagonism against an inhibitory effect of endogenous noradrenaline because, first, the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan did not share with phentolamine the overflow-enhancing effect, second, phentolamine continued to increase the overflow after noradrenergic axons had been destroyed by 6-hydroxydopamine, and third, the facilitatory effects of metitepin and phentolamine were not additive. Phentolamine, like metitepin, antagonized the presynaptic inhibitory effect of serotonin, indicating that it may increase the evoked overflow of tritium by blocking serotonin receptors rather than alpha-adrenoceptors. Ethylketocyclazocine decrease the electrically evoked overflow, and its effect was prevented by naloxone: peptides selective for opioid mu- or delta-receptors caused no change. Nicotine increased the basal outflow of tritium (in the absence of electrical stimulation); the increase was attenuated by hexamethonium and low calcium medium. No or minimal changes in tritium outflow were obtained with beta-adrenoceptor, dopamine receptor, muscarine receptor and GABA receptor ligands or with substance P and glutamate. In conjunction with our previous studies, these results indicate

  13. A Model of the Superior Colliculus Predicts Fixation Locations during Scene Viewing and Visual Search.

    PubMed

    Adeli, Hossein; Vitu, Françoise; Zelinsky, Gregory J

    2017-02-08

    Modern computational models of attention predict fixations using saliency maps and target maps, which prioritize locations for fixation based on feature contrast and target goals, respectively. But whereas many such models are biologically plausible, none have looked to the oculomotor system for design constraints or parameter specification. Conversely, although most models of saccade programming are tightly coupled to underlying neurophysiology, none have been tested using real-world stimuli and tasks. We combined the strengths of these two approaches in MASC, a model of attention in the superior colliculus (SC) that captures known neurophysiological constraints on saccade programming. We show that MASC predicted the fixation locations of humans freely viewing naturalistic scenes and performing exemplar and categorical search tasks, a breadth achieved by no other existing model. Moreover, it did this as well or better than its more specialized state-of-the-art competitors. MASC's predictive success stems from its inclusion of high-level but core principles of SC organization: an over-representation of foveal information, size-invariant population codes, cascaded population averaging over distorted visual and motor maps, and competition between motor point images for saccade programming, all of which cause further modulation of priority (attention) after projection of saliency and target maps to the SC. Only by incorporating these organizing brain principles into our models can we fully understand the transformation of complex visual information into the saccade programs underlying movements of overt attention. With MASC, a theoretical footing now exists to generate and test computationally explicit predictions of behavioral and neural responses in visually complex real-world contexts.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The superior colliculus (SC) performs a visual-to-motor transformation vital to overt attention, but existing SC models cannot predict saccades to visually

  14. Segregation of Visual Response Properties in the Mouse Superior Colliculus and Their Modulation during Locomotion.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shinya; Feldheim, David A; Litke, Alan M

    2017-08-30

    The superior colliculus (SC) receives direct input from the retina and integrates it with information about sound, touch, and state of the animal that is relayed from other parts of the brain to initiate specific behavioral outcomes. The superficial SC layers (sSC) contain cells that respond to visual stimuli, whereas the deep SC layers (dSC) contain cells that also respond to auditory and somatosensory stimuli. Here, we used a large-scale silicon probe recording system to examine the visual response properties of SC cells of head-fixed and alert male mice. We found cells with diverse response properties including: (1) orientation/direction-selective (OS/DS) cells with a firing rate that is suppressed by drifting sinusoidal gratings (negative OS/DS cells); (2) suppressed-by-contrast cells; (3) cells with complex-like spatial summation nonlinearity; and (4) cells with Y-like spatial summation nonlinearity. We also found specific response properties that are enriched in different depths of the SC. The sSC is enriched with cells with small RFs, high evoked firing rates (FRs), and sustained temporal responses, whereas the dSC is enriched with the negative OS/DS cells and with cells with large RFs, low evoked FRs, and transient temporal responses. Locomotion modulates the activity of the SC cells both additively and multiplicatively and changes the preferred spatial frequency of some SC cells. These results provide the first description of the negative OS/DS cells and demonstrate that the SC segregates cells with different response properties and that the behavioral state of a mouse affects SC activity.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The superior colliculus (SC) receives visual input from the retina in its superficial layers (sSC) and induces eye/head-orientating movements and innate defensive responses in its deeper layers (dSC). Despite their importance, very little is known about the visual response properties of dSC neurons. Using high-density electrode recordings and novel

  15. Visual Experience Is Required for the Development of Eye Movement Maps in the Mouse Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lupeng; Liu, Mingna

    2015-01-01

    Topographic maps are a fundamental feature of the brain's representations of the sensory environment as well as an efficient way to organize motor control networks. Although great progress has been made in our understanding of sensory map development, very little is known about how topographic representations for motor control develop and interface with sensory maps. Here we map the representation for eye movements in the superior colliculus (SC) in awake mice. As stimulation sites were sampled along the anterior–posterior axis, small amplitude, nasally directed (ipsiversive) saccadic eye movements were evoked by microstimulation in anterior SC, followed by a smooth progression to large, temporally directed (contraversive) movements in posterior SC. This progressive change of movement amplitude and direction is consistent with the global polarity of the retinotopic map in the superficial SC, just as in primates and cats. We then investigated the role of visual experience in the development of eye movement map by studying mice reared in complete darkness. Saccades evoked by SC stimulation as well as spontaneous saccadic eye movements were larger in the dark-reared mice, indicating that visual experience is required to fine-tune the gain of saccades and to establish normal eye movement maps in the SC. Our experiments provide a foundation for future studies to investigate the synaptic organization and developmental mechanisms of sensorimotor transformations in mice. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The superior colliculus (SC) is a midbrain structure important for multisensory integration and sensorimotor transformation. Here we have studied eye movement representations in the SC of mice, a species that has become a popular model in vision research because of available genetic tools. Our studies show mice make saccadic eye movements spontaneously and in response to SC stimulation. The mouse SC contains an eye movement map that has the same global polarity as the overlaying

  16. Visual Experience Is Required for the Development of Eye Movement Maps in the Mouse Superior Colliculus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lupeng; Liu, Mingna; Segraves, Mark A; Cang, Jianhua

    2015-09-02

    Topographic maps are a fundamental feature of the brain's representations of the sensory environment as well as an efficient way to organize motor control networks. Although great progress has been made in our understanding of sensory map development, very little is known about how topographic representations for motor control develop and interface with sensory maps. Here we map the representation for eye movements in the superior colliculus (SC) in awake mice. As stimulation sites were sampled along the anterior-posterior axis, small amplitude, nasally directed (ipsiversive) saccadic eye movements were evoked by microstimulation in anterior SC, followed by a smooth progression to large, temporally directed (contraversive) movements in posterior SC. This progressive change of movement amplitude and direction is consistent with the global polarity of the retinotopic map in the superficial SC, just as in primates and cats. We then investigated the role of visual experience in the development of eye movement map by studying mice reared in complete darkness. Saccades evoked by SC stimulation as well as spontaneous saccadic eye movements were larger in the dark-reared mice, indicating that visual experience is required to fine-tune the gain of saccades and to establish normal eye movement maps in the SC. Our experiments provide a foundation for future studies to investigate the synaptic organization and developmental mechanisms of sensorimotor transformations in mice. The superior colliculus (SC) is a midbrain structure important for multisensory integration and sensorimotor transformation. Here we have studied eye movement representations in the SC of mice, a species that has become a popular model in vision research because of available genetic tools. Our studies show mice make saccadic eye movements spontaneously and in response to SC stimulation. The mouse SC contains an eye movement map that has the same global polarity as the overlaying visual map, just like in

  17. Arcuate nucleus transcriptome profiling identifies ankyrin repeat and suppressor of cytokine signalling box-containing protein 4 as a gene regulated by fasting in central nervous system feeding circuits.

    PubMed

    Li, J-Y; Kuick, R; Thompson, R C; Misek, D E; Lai, Y-M; Liu, Y-Q; Chai, B-X; Hanash, S M; Gantz, I

    2005-06-01

    The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is a primary site for sensing blood borne nutrients and hormonal messengers that reflect caloric status. To identify novel energy homeostatic genes, we examined RNA extracts from the microdissected arcuate nucleus of fed and 48-h fasted rats using oligonucleotide microarrays. The relative abundance of 118 mRNA transcripts was increased and 203 mRNA transcripts was decreased during fasting. One of the down-regulated mRNAs was ankyrin-repeat and suppressor of cytokine signalling box-containing protein 4 (Asb-4). The predicted structure of Asb-4 protein suggested that it might encode an intracellular regulatory protein, and therefore its mRNA expression was investigated further. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to validate down-regulation of Asb-4 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus of the fasted Sprague-Dawley rat (relative expression of Asb-4 mRNA: fed = 4.66 +/- 0.26; fasted = 3.96 +/- 0.23; n = 4, P < 0.01). Down-regulation was also demonstrated in the obese fa/fa Zucker rat, another model of energy disequilibrium (relative expression of Asb-4 mRNA: lean Zucker = 3.91 +/- 0.32; fa/fa = 2.93 +/- 0.26; n = 5, P < 0.001). In situ hybridisation shows that Asb-4 mRNA is expressed in brain areas linked to energy homeostasis, including the arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, dorsomedial nucleus, lateral hypothalamus and posterodorsal medial amygdaloid area. Double in situ hybridisation revealed that Asb-4 mRNA colocalises with key energy homeostatic neurones. In the fed state, Asb-4 mRNA is expressed by 95.6% of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurones and 46.4% of neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurones. By contrast, in the fasted state, the percentage of POMC neurones expressing Asb-4 mRNA drops to 73.2% (P < 0.001). Moreover, the density of Asb-4 mRNA per fasted POMC neurone is markedly decreased. Conversely, expression of Asb-4 mRNA by NPY neurones in the fasted state is modestly increased to 52.7% (P < 0

  18. Dopaminergic projections of the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus to the auditory brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Nevue, Alexander A.; Felix, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Neuromodulators can alter the response properties of sensory neurons, including those in the auditory system. Dopamine, which plays a major role in reward and movement, has been shown to alter neural responses in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. Recently we identified the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (SPF), part of the A11 dopaminergic cell group, as the source of dopamine to the inferior colliculus (IC). The superior olivary complex (SOC) is also a likely target of dopaminergic projections from the SPF because it receives projections from the SPF and contains fibers and terminals immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. However, it is unknown if the projections from the SPF to SOC are dopaminergic, and if single neurons in the SPF project to both the IC and SOC. Using anterograde tracing combined with fluorescent immunohistochemistry, we found that the SPF sends dopaminergic projections to the superior paraolivary nucleus and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, but not the lateral superior olive. We confirmed these projections using a retrograde tracer. By making dual retrograde deposits in the IC and SOC, we found that individual dopaminergic cells innervate both the IC and SOC. These results suggest dopaminergic innervation, likely released in a context dependent manner, occurs at multiple levels of the auditory pathway. PMID:27620513

  19. Serotonin in the inferior colliculus fluctuates with behavioral state and environmental stimuli.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ian C; Rebec, George V; Hurley, Laura M

    2010-04-01

    Neuromodulation by serotonin (5-HT) could link behavioral state and environmental events with sensory processing. Within the auditory system, the presence of 5-HT alters the activity of neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC), but the conditions that influence 5-HT neurotransmission in this region of the brain are unknown. We used in vivo voltammetry to measure extracellular 5-HT in the IC of behaving mice to address this issue. Extracellular 5-HT increased with the recovery from anesthesia, suggesting that the neuromodulation of auditory processing is correlated with the level of behavioral arousal. Awake mice were further exposed to auditory (broadband noise), visual (light) or olfactory (2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, TMT) stimuli, presented with food or confined in a small arena. Only the auditory stimulus or restricted movement increased the concentration of extracellular 5-HT in the IC. Changes occurred within minutes of stimulus onset, with the auditory stimulus increasing extracellular 5-HT by an average of 5% and restricted movement increasing it by an average of 14%. These findings suggest that the neuromodulation of auditory processing by 5-HT is a dynamic process that is dependent on internal state and behavioral conditions.

  20. Properties of echo delay-tuning receptive fields in the inferior colliculus of the mustached bat.

    PubMed

    Macías, Silvio; Mora, Emanuel C; Hechavarría, Julio C; Kössl, Manfred

    2012-04-01

    One role of the inferior colliculus (IC) in bats is to create neuronal delay-tuning, which is used for the estimation of target distance in the echolocating bat's auditory system. In this study, we describe response properties of IC delay-tuned neurons of the mustached bat (Pteronotus parnellii) and compare it with those of delay-tuned neurons of the auditory cortex (AC). We also address the question if frequency content of the stimulus (pure-tone (PT) or frequency-modulated (FM) pairs stimulation) affects combination-sensitive interaction in the same neuron. Sharpness and sensitivity of delay-tuned neurons in the IC are similar to those described in the AC. However, in contrast to cortical responses, in collicular neurons the delay at which the neurons show the maximum response does not change with changes in echo level. This tolerance to changes in the echo level seems to be a property of collicular delay-tuned neurons, which is modified along the ascending auditory pathway. In the IC we found neurons that showed a facilitated delay-tuned response when stimulated with FM components and did not show any delay-tuning with PT stimulation. This result suggests that not only is echo delay-tuning generated in the IC but also its FM-specificity observed in the cortex could be created to some extent in the IC and then topographically organized at higher levels.

  1. Human inferior colliculus activity relates to individual differences in spoken language learning.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Kraus, Nina; Wong, Patrick C M

    2012-03-01

    A challenge to learning words of a foreign language is encoding nonnative phonemes, a process typically attributed to cortical circuitry. Using multimodal imaging methods [functional magnetic resonance imaging-adaptation (fMRI-A) and auditory brain stem responses (ABR)], we examined the extent to which pretraining pitch encoding in the inferior colliculus (IC), a primary midbrain structure, related to individual variability in learning to successfully use nonnative pitch patterns to distinguish words in American English-speaking adults. fMRI-A indexed the efficiency of pitch representation localized to the IC, whereas ABR quantified midbrain pitch-related activity with millisecond precision. In line with neural "sharpening" models, we found that efficient IC pitch pattern representation (indexed by fMRI) related to superior neural representation of pitch patterns (indexed by ABR), and consequently more successful word learning following sound-to-meaning training. Our results establish a critical role for the IC in speech-sound representation, consistent with the established role for the IC in the representation of communication signals in other animal models.

  2. Negative temporal summation of the responses to pairs of tone bursts in albino mice inferior colliculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibikov, Nikolay G.; Cai, Chen Qi; Jie, Tang

    2003-10-01

    The extracellular activities of single units in an inferior colliculus of narcotized albino mice have been studied. As a stimuli pairs of best frequency (BF) tone bursts with different duration have been used and forward masking has been studied. The test tone usually has a 40 ms duration at intensity 5 dB above threshold. The intensity and duration of the masker could be changed. It was shown that the forward masking essentially depends upon the duration of the first burst. In many cases, the negative temporal summation can be seen. The increase in the duration of first burst (or masker) leads to the decrease in the whole response. Moreover, the BF tone burst which did not evoke any spike response could inhibit the response to the second (test) tone in some cases. Therefore in many units the inhibitory threshold was lower than the excitatory threshold even at the best frequency. The local application of bicuculline through a multibarrel-electrode increased the pulse activity considerably. However, the effect of forward masking usually left even after an inhibitory antagonist (bicuculline) application. [Work supported by grants 39970251 from NSFC, T010360056 from the Foreign Expert Bureau of the State Council of China, and 02-04-3900 from RFBR-NSFC.

  3. Serotonin in the inferior colliculus fluctuates with behavioral state and environmental stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Ian C.; Rebec, George V.; Hurley, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Neuromodulation by serotonin (5-HT) could link behavioral state and environmental events with sensory processing. Within the auditory system, the presence of 5-HT alters the activity of neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC), but the conditions that influence 5-HT neurotransmission in this region of the brain are unknown. We used in vivo voltammetry to measure extracellular 5-HT in the IC of behaving mice to address this issue. Extracellular 5-HT increased with the recovery from anesthesia, suggesting that the neuromodulation of auditory processing is correlated with the level of behavioral arousal. Awake mice were further exposed to auditory (broadband noise), visual (light) or olfactory (2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, TMT) stimuli, presented with food or confined in a small arena. Only the auditory stimulus or restricted movement increased the concentration of extracellular 5-HT in the IC. Changes occurred within minutes of stimulus onset, with the auditory stimulus increasing extracellular 5-HT by an average of 5% and restricted movement increasing it by an average of 14%. These findings suggest that the neuromodulation of auditory processing by 5-HT is a dynamic process that is dependent on internal state and behavioral conditions. PMID:20228336

  4. Anatomical characterization of subcortical descending projections to the inferior colliculus in mouse.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mili B; Sons, Stacy; Yudintsev, Georgiy; Lesicko, Alexandria M H; Yang, Luye; Taha, Gehad A; Pierce, Scott M; Llano, Daniel A

    2017-03-01

    Descending projections from the thalamus and related structures to the midbrain are evolutionarily highly conserved. However, the basic organization of this auditory thalamotectal pathway has not yet been characterized. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the anatomical and neurochemical features of this pathway. Analysis of the distributions of retrogradely labeled cells after focal injections of retrograde tracer into the inferior colliculus (IC) of the mouse revealed that most of the subcortical descending projections originated in the brachium of the IC and the paralaminar portions of the auditory thalamus. In addition, the vast majority of thalamotectal cells were found to be negative for the calcium-binding proteins calbindin, parvalbumin, or calretinin. Using two different strains of GAD-GFP mice, as well as immunostaining for GABA, we found that a subset of neurons in the brachium of the IC is GABAergic, suggesting that part of this descending pathway is inhibitory. Finally, dual retrograde injections into the IC and amygdala plus corpus striatum as well into the IC and auditory cortex did not reveal any double labeling. These data suggest that the thalamocollicular pathway comprises a unique population of thalamic neurons that do not contain typical calcium-binding proteins and do not project to other paralaminar thalamic forebrain targets, and that a previously undescribed descending GABAergic pathway emanates from the brachium of the IC. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:885-900, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Simulations of Saccade Curvature by Models That Place Superior Colliculus Upstream From the Local Feedback Loop

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Mark M. G.; Sparks, David L.; Gandhi, Neeraj J.

    2013-01-01

    When humans or monkeys are asked to make saccades to visual targets accompanied by one or more distractors, the two dimensional trajectory of the saccade will sometimes display significant curvature. Port and Wurtz used dual electrode recordings to show that this phenomenon is associated with activity at more than one site in superior colliculus (SC). The timing and initial direction of the curvature could be predicted by computing a weighted vector average of the normalized activity of the two neurons. As these authors noted, however, this approach does not result in correct predictions of the final direction of curved saccades. We show that the final direction of these movements can be predicted by taking into account the brain stem saccade generator and the local feedback loop. If the output of SC is computed as a weighted vector average of the saccades requested by the activated sites, and this collicular output is interpreted by downstream structures as desired displacement, existing models that place SC upstream from the local feedback loop can generate realistic saccade trajectories, including the final direction. We propose that saccade curvature is the result of a change in the relative level of activity at the two sites, which the brain stem saccade generator interprets as a change in desired displacement. PMID:15615826

  6. A hard-wired priority map in the superior colliculus shaped by asymmetric inhibitory circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Bayguinov, Peter O.; Ghitani, Nima; Jackson, Meyer B.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian superior colliculus (SC) is a laminar midbrain structure that translates visual signals into commands to shift the focus of attention and gaze. The SC plays an integral role in selecting targets and ultimately generating rapid eye movements to those targets. In all mammals studied to date, neurons in the SC are arranged topographically such that the location of visual stimuli and the endpoints of orienting movements form organized maps in superficial and deeper layers, respectively. The organization of these maps is thought to underlie attentional priority by assessing which regions of the visual field contain behaviorally relevant information. Using voltage imaging and patch-clamp recordings in parasagittal SC slices from the rat, we found the synaptic circuitry of the visuosensory map in the SC imposes a strong bias. Voltage imaging of responses to electrical stimulation revealed more spread in the caudal direction than the rostral direction. Pharmacological experiments demonstrated that this asymmetry arises from GABAA receptor activation rostral to the site of stimulation. Patch-clamp recordings confirmed this rostrally directed inhibitory circuit and showed that it is contained within the visuosensory layers of the SC. Stimulation of two sites showed that initial stimulation of a caudal site can take priority over subsequent stimulation of a rostral site. Taken together, our data indicate that the circuitry of the visuosensory SC is hard-wired to give higher priority to more peripheral targets, and this property is conferred by a uniquely structured, dedicated inhibitory circuit. PMID:25995346

  7. Activity in the human superior colliculus relating to endogenous saccade preparation and execution

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, Michele; Smith, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years a small number of studies have applied functional imaging techniques to investigate visual responses in the human superior colliculus (SC), but few have investigated its oculomotor functions. Here, in two experiments, we examined activity associated with endogenous saccade preparation. We used 3-T fMRI to record the hemodynamic activity in the SC while participants were either preparing or executing saccadic eye movements. Our results showed that not only executing a saccade (as previously shown) but also preparing a saccade produced an increase in the SC hemodynamic activity. The saccade-related activity was observed in the contralateral and to a lesser extent the ipsilateral SC. A second experiment further examined the contralateral mapping of saccade-related activity with a larger range of saccade amplitudes. Increased activity was again observed in both the contralateral and ipsilateral SC that was evident for large as well as small saccades. This suggests that the ipsilateral component of the increase in BOLD is not due simply to small-amplitude saccades producing bilateral activity in the foveal fixation zone. These studies provide the first evidence of presaccadic preparatory activity in the human SC and reveal that fMRI can detect activity consistent with that of buildup neurons found in the deeper layers of the SC in studies of nonhuman primates. PMID:26041830

  8. Population coding of saccadic eye movements by neurons in the superior colliculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choongkil; Rohrer, William H.; Sparks, David L.

    1988-03-01

    The deeper layers of the superior colliculus are involved in the initiation and execution of saccadic (high velocity) eye movements1. A large population of coarsely tuned collicular neurons is active before each saccade. The mechanisms by which the signals that precisely control the direction and amplitude of a saccade are extracted from the activity of the population are unknown. It has been assumed2 6 that the exact trajectory of a saccade is determined by the activity of the entire population and that information is not extracted from only the most active cells in the population at a subsequent stage of neural processing. The trajectory of a saccade could be based on vector summation of the movement tendencies provided by each member of the population of active neurons4 or be determined by a weighted average of the vector contributions of each neuron in the active population2. Here we present the results of experiments in which a small subset of the active population was reversibly deactivated with lidocaine. These results are consistent with the predictions of the latter population-averaging hypothesis and support the general idea that the direction, amplitude and velocity of saccadic eye movements are based on the responses of the entire population of cells active before a saccadic eye movement.

  9. Multisensory Response Modulation in the Superficial Layers of the Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Alexander; Nidiffer, Aaron; Wallace, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian superior colliculus (SC) is made up of seven distinct layers. Based on overall differences in neuronal morphology, afferent and efferent projection patterns, physiological properties, and presumptive behavioral role, the upper three layers have been classically grouped together as the superficial layers and the remaining four layers collectively make up the deep layers. Although the superficial layers receive their primary inputs from the retina and primary visual cortex, the deep layers receive inputs from extrastriate visual cortical areas and from auditory, somatosensory, and motor-related structures. In contrast, there is no evidence of monosynaptic nonvisual inputs to the superficial layers. However, more recent studies have revealed anatomical connections between the superficial and deep layers, thus providing the substrate for possible communication between these two functional divisions of the SC. In this study, we provide physiological evidence for auditory influences on visual responses in the superficial layers of the SC. Using extracellular recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) and multiunit activity, we demonstrate multisensory effects in the superficial layers of the cat SC such that subthreshold auditory activity (as seen in the LFP) modulates visual responses (reflected in spiking activity) when the two stimuli are presented together. These results have important implications for our understanding of the functional organization of the SC and for the neural basis of multisensory integration in general. PMID:24647954

  10. Activation of serotonin 3 receptors changes in vivo auditory responses in the mouse inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Bohorquez, Alexander; Hurley, Laura M.

    2009-01-01

    Metabotropic serotonin receptors such as 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors shape the level, selectivity, and timing of auditory responses in the inferior colliculus (IC). Less is known about the effects of ionotropic 5-HT3 receptors, which are cation channels that depolarize neurons. In the current study, the influence of the 5-HT3 receptor on auditory responses in vivo was explored by locally iontophoresing a 5-HT3 receptor agonist and antagonists onto single neurons recorded extracellularly in mice. Three main findings emerge from these experiments. First, activation of the 5-HT3 receptor can either facilitate or suppress auditory responses, but response suppressions are not consistent with 5-HT3 effects on presynaptic GABAergic neurons. Both response facilitations and suppressions are less pronounced in neurons with high precision in response latency, suggesting functional differences in the role of receptor activation for different classes of neuron. Finally, the effects of 5-HT3 activation vary across repetition rate within a subset of single neurons, suggesting that the influence of receptor activation sometimes varies with the level of activity. These findings contribute to the view of the 5-HT3 receptor as an important component of the serotonergic infrastructure in the IC, with effects that are complex and neuron- selective. PMID:19236912

  11. Decreased norepinephrine (NE) uptake in cerebral cortex and inferior colliculus of genetically epilepsy prone (GEP) rats

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, R.A.; Rigler-Daugherty, S.K.; Long, G.; Jobe, P.C.; Wade, D.R.

    1986-03-01

    GEP rats are characterized by an enhanced susceptibility to seizures caused by a variety of stimuli, most notably sound. Pharmacological treatments that reduce the synaptic concentration of NE increase seizure severity in GEP rats while elevations in NE have the opposite effect. GEP rats also display a widespread deficit in brain NE concentration suggesting that their increased seizure susceptibility is related to a deficit in noradrenergic transmission. The authors have compared the kinetics of /sup 3/H-NE uptake in the P/sub 2/ synaptosomal fraction isolated from the cerebral cortex of normal and GEP-rats. Although the apparent Kms were not significantly different (Normal +/- SEM:0.37 +/- 0.13..mu..M; GEP +/- SEM: 0.29 +/- 0.07..mu..M), the Vmax for GEP rats was 48% lower than that of normal rats (Normal +/- SEM: 474 +/- 45 fmole/mg/4min; GEP +/- SEM: 248 +/- 16 fmole/mg/4min). Because of the possible role of the inferior colliculus (IC) in the initiation of sound-induced seizures in GEP rats, the authors measured synaptosomal NE uptake in the IC using a NE concentration of 50 nM. The IC synaptosomal NE uptake was found to be 35% lower in GEP than in normal rats. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a deficit in noradrenergic transmission is related to the increased seizure susceptibility of GEP rats.

  12. Endocannabinoid Modulation of Stimulus-Specific Adaptation in Inferior Colliculus Neurons of the Rat.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Baizabal, C; Parras, G G; Ayala, Y A; Malmierca, M S

    2017-08-01

    Cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) are widely distributed in the brain, including the inferior colliculus (IC). Here, we aim to study whether endocannabinoids influence a specific type of neuronal adaptation, namely, stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) found in some IC neurons. SSA is important because it has been found as early as the level of the midbrain and therefore it may be a neuronal correlate of early indices of deviance detection. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated a direct link between SSA and MMN, that is widely used as an outcome measure in a variety of human neurodegenerative disorders. SSA is considered a form of short-term plasticity, and CBRs have been shown to play a role in short-term neural plasticity. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that endocannabinoids may play a role in the generation or modulation of SSA. We recorded single units in the IC under an oddball paradigm stimulation. The results demonstrate that cannabinoid agonists lead to a reduction in the neuronal adaptation. This change is due to a differential increase of the neuronal firing rate to the standard tone alone. Furthermore, we show that the effect is mediated by the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CBR1). Thus, cannabinoid agonists down-modulate SSA in IC neurons.

  13. Neural activity profiles of the neocortex and superior colliculus after bimodal sensory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zangenehpour, S; Chaudhuri, A

    2001-10-01

    Current efforts at functional mapping of multisensory neurons are hampered by the need for both cellular-level resolution and the separate visualization of activity by different sensory cues. We have used a recently developed technique that exploits the differential time course of zif268 mRNA versus protein induction in neurons after sensory stimulation. Adult male rats were visually and acoustically deprived and then exposed to one of the following stimulation sequences: (i) no sensory stimulation; (ii) 2 h visual stimulation followed by 30 min auditory stimulation; (iii) 2 h auditory stimulation followed 30 min of visual stimulation; and (iv) 2 h compound visual and auditory stimulation. The neocortex and superior colliculus (SC) were then processed for fluorescent immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization for staining of Zif268 protein and mRNA products. We have found that activity patterns in primary visual and auditory cortices were in accord with the sequence of the compound stimulus. We also show that SC superficial layers contained a pool of exclusively unimodal neurons, similar to that of visual cortex. Activity patterns of deep SC layers contained multimodal neurons with varying degrees of visual and auditory convergence. The deep SC layers also showed that auditory processing was largely carried out by a small, bimodal group of neurons whereas visual processing was coordinated by both a large unimodal and a small bimodal pool of neurons.

  14. Periodotopy in the gerbil inferior colliculus: local clustering rather than a gradient map

    PubMed Central

    Schnupp, Jan W. H.; Garcia-Lazaro, Jose A.; Lesica, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Periodicities in sound waveforms are widespread, and shape important perceptual attributes of sound including rhythm and pitch. Previous studies have indicated that, in the inferior colliculus (IC), a key processing stage in the auditory midbrain, neurons tuned to different periodicities might be arranged along a periodotopic axis which runs approximately orthogonal to the tonotopic axis. Here we map out the topography of frequency and periodicity tuning in the IC of gerbils in unprecedented detail, using pure tones and different periodic sounds, including click trains, sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) noise and iterated rippled noise. We found that while the tonotopic map exhibited a clear and highly reproducible gradient across all animals, periodotopic maps varied greatly across different types of periodic sound and from animal to animal. Furthermore, periodotopic gradients typically explained only about 10% of the variance in modulation tuning between recording sites. However, there was a strong local clustering of periodicity tuning at a spatial scale of ca. 0.5 mm, which also differed from animal to animal. PMID:26379508

  15. The serotonin releaser fenfluramine alters the auditory responses of inferior colliculus neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Ian C.; Hurley, Laura M.

    2007-01-01

    Local direct application of the neuromodulator serotonin strongly influences auditory response properties of neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC), but endogenous stores of serotonin may be released in a distinct spatial or temporal pattern. To explore this issue, the serotonin releaser fenfluramine was iontophoretically applied to extracellularly recorded neurons in the IC of the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis). Fenfluramine mimicked the effects of serotonin on spike count and first spike latency in most neurons, and its effects could be blocked by co-application of serotonin receptor antagonists, consistent with fenfluramine-evoked serotonin release. Responses to fenfluramine did not vary during single applications or across multiple applications, suggesting that fenfluramine did not deplete serotonin stores. A predicted gradient in the effects of fenfluramine with serotonin fiber density was not observed, but neurons with fenfluramine-evoked increases in latency occurred at relatively greater recording depths compared to other neurons with similar characteristic frequencies. These findings support the conclusion that there may be spatial differences in the effects of exogenous and endogenous sources of serotonin, but that other factors such as the identities and locations of serotonin receptors are also likely to play a role in determining the dynamics of serotonergic effects. PMID:17339086

  16. Activity in the human superior colliculus relating to endogenous saccade preparation and execution.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Michele; Smith, Andrew T; Walker, Robin

    2015-08-01

    In recent years a small number of studies have applied functional imaging techniques to investigate visual responses in the human superior colliculus (SC), but few have investigated its oculomotor functions. Here, in two experiments, we examined activity associated with endogenous saccade preparation. We used 3-T fMRI to record the hemodynamic activity in the SC while participants were either preparing or executing saccadic eye movements. Our results showed that not only executing a saccade (as previously shown) but also preparing a saccade produced an increase in the SC hemodynamic activity. The saccade-related activity was observed in the contralateral and to a lesser extent the ipsilateral SC. A second experiment further examined the contralateral mapping of saccade-related activity with a larger range of saccade amplitudes. Increased activity was again observed in both the contralateral and ipsilateral SC that was evident for large as well as small saccades. This suggests that the ipsilateral component of the increase in BOLD is not due simply to small-amplitude saccades producing bilateral activity in the foveal fixation zone. These studies provide the first evidence of presaccadic preparatory activity in the human SC and reveal that fMRI can detect activity consistent with that of buildup neurons found in the deeper layers of the SC in studies of nonhuman primates.

  17. Temporo-nasal asymmetry in multisensory integration mediated by the Superior Colliculus.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Caterina; Leo, Fabrizio; Làdavas, Elisabetta

    2008-11-25

    Temporo-nasal asymmetry in visual responses has been observed in many behavioural studies. These observations have typically been attributed to the anatomical asymmetry of fibres projecting to the Superior Colliculus (SC), even though this attribution is debated. The present study investigates temporo-nasal asymmetry in multisensory integration, and, by exploiting the absence of S-cone input to the SC, measures a behavioural response dependent strictly on the activity of the SC itself. We used a redundant signal paradigm for simple reaction times, with visual stimuli (red or purple) presented in either the temporal or the nasal hemifield. Participants responded more quickly to concurrent audio-visual (AV) stimuli than to either an auditory or a visual stimulus alone, an established phenomenon known as the Redundant Target Effect (RTE). The nature of this effect was dependent on the colour of the visual stimuli, suggesting its modulation by collicular circuits. When spatially-coincident audio-visual stimuli were visible to the SC (i.e. red stimuli), the RTE depended on a neural coactivation mechanism, suggesting an integration of multisensory information. When using stimuli invisible to the SC (i.e. purple stimuli), the RTE depended only on a simple statistical facilitation effect, in which the two sensory stimuli were processed by independent channels. Finally, we demonstrate that the multisensory integration effect was stronger for stimuli presented to the temporal hemifield than to the nasal hemifield. Taken together, these findings suggested that multisensory stimulation can be differentially effective depending on specific stimulus parameters.

  18. Changes in the Response Properties of Inferior Colliculus Neurons Relating to Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Joel I.; Coomber, Ben; Wells, Tobias T.; Wallace, Mark N.; Palmer, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus is often identified in animal models by using the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle. Impaired gap detection following acoustic over-exposure (AOE) is thought to be caused by tinnitus “filling in” the gap, thus, reducing its salience. This presumably involves altered perception, and could conceivably be caused by changes at the level of the neocortex, i.e., cortical reorganization. Alternatively, reduced gap detection ability might reflect poorer temporal processing in the brainstem, caused by AOE; in which case, impaired gap detection would not be a reliable indicator of tinnitus. We tested the latter hypothesis by examining gap detection in inferior colliculus (IC) neurons following AOE. Seven of nine unilaterally noise-exposed guinea pigs exhibited behavioral evidence of tinnitus. In these tinnitus animals, neural gap detection thresholds (GDTs) in the IC significantly increased in response to broadband noise stimuli, but not to pure tones or narrow-band noise. In addition, when IC neurons were sub-divided according to temporal response profile (onset vs. sustained firing patterns), we found a significant increase in the proportion of onset-type responses after AOE. Importantly, however, GDTs were still considerably shorter than gap durations commonly used in objective behavioral tests for tinnitus. These data indicate that the neural changes observed in the IC are insufficient to explain deficits in behavioral gap detection that are commonly attributed to tinnitus. The subtle changes in IC neuron response profiles following AOE warrant further investigation. PMID:25346722

  19. Superior Colliculus Responses to Attended, Unattended, and Remembered Saccade Targets during Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Suryadeep; Nazari, Sina Alipour; Yan, Xiaogang; Wang, Hongying; Crawford, J. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    In realistic environments, keeping track of multiple visual targets during eye movements likely involves an interaction between vision, top-down spatial attention, memory, and self-motion information. Recently we found that the superior colliculus (SC) visual memory response is attention-sensitive and continuously updated relative to gaze direction. In that study, animals were trained to remember the location of a saccade target across an intervening smooth pursuit (SP) eye movement (Dash et al., 2015). Here, we modified this paradigm to directly compare the properties of visual and memory updating responses to attended and unattended targets. Our analysis shows that during SP, active SC visual vs. memory updating responses share similar gaze-centered spatio-temporal profiles (suggesting a common mechanism), but updating was weaker by ~25%, delayed by ~55 ms, and far more dependent on attention. Further, during SP the sum of passive visual responses (to distracter stimuli) and memory updating responses (to saccade targets) closely resembled the responses for active attentional tracking of visible saccade targets. These results suggest that SP updating signals provide a damped, delayed estimate of attended location that contributes to the gaze-centered tracking of both remembered and visible saccade targets. PMID:27147987

  20. Distinct neural firing mechanisms to tonal stimuli offset in the inferior colliculus of mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Masatoshi; Ono, Munenori; Ohmori, Harunori

    2012-07-01

    Offset neurons, which fire at the termination of sound, likely encode sound duration and serve to process temporal information. Offset neurons are found in most ascending auditory nuclei; however, the neural mechanisms that evoke offset responses are not well understood. In this study, we examined offset neural responses to tonal stimuli in the inferior colliculus (IC) in vivo with extracellular and intracellular recording techniques in mice. Based on peristimulus time histogram (PSTH) patterns, we classified extracellular offset responses into four types: Offset, Onset-Offset, Onset-Sustained-Offset and Inhibition-Offset types. Moreover, using in vivo whole-cell recording techniques, we found that offset responses were generated in most cells through the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. However, in a small number of cells, the offset responses were generated as a rebound to hyperpolarization during tonal stimulation. Many offset neurons fired robustly at a preferred duration of tonal stimulus, which corresponded with the timing of rich excitatory synaptic inputs. We concluded that most IC offset neurons encode the termination of the tone stimulus by responding to inherited ascending synaptic information, which is tuned to sound duration. The remainder generates offset spikes de novo through a post-inhibitory rebound mechanism.

  1. GATA2 IS REQUIRED FOR MIGRATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF RETINORECIPIENT NEURONS IN THE SUPERIOR COLLICULUS

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Ryan T.; Greene, Lloyd A.

    2011-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC)/optic tectum of the dorsal mesencephalon plays a major role in responses to visual input, yet regulation of neuronal differentiation within this layered structure is only partially understood. Here, we show that the zinc finger transcription factor Gata2 is required for normal SC development. Starting at e15 (corresponding to the times at which neurons of the outer and intermediate layers of the SC are generated), Gata2 is transiently expressed in the rat embryonic dorsal mesencephalon within a restricted region between proliferating cells of the ventricular zone and the deepest neuronal layers of the developing SC. The Gata2 positive cells are post-mitotic and lack markers of differentiated neurons, but express markers for immature neuronal precursors including Ascl1 and Pax3/7. In utero electroporation with Gata2 shRNAs at e16 into cells along the dorsal mesencephalic ventricle interferes with their normal migration into the SC and maintains them in a state characterized by retention of Pax3 expression and the absence of mature neuronal markers. Collectively, these findings indicate that Gata2 plays a required role in the transition of post-mitotic neuronal precursor cells of the retinorecipient layers of the SC into mature neurons and that loss of Gata2 arrests them at an intermediate stage of differentiation. PMID:21430145

  2. Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Deactivation in Monkeys Reduces Preparatory Beta and Gamma Power in the Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jason L.; Koval, Michael J.; Womelsdorf, Thilo; Lomber, Stephen G.; Everling, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control requires the selection and maintenance of task-relevant stimulus–response associations, or rules. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been implicated by lesion, functional imaging, and neurophysiological studies to be involved in encoding rules, but the mechanisms by which it modulates other brain areas are poorly understood. Here, the functional relationship of the DLPFC with the superior colliculus (SC) was investigated by bilaterally deactivating the DLPFC while recording local field potentials (LFPs) in the SC in monkeys performing an interleaved pro- and antisaccade task. Event-related LFPs showed differences between pro- and antisaccades and responded prominently to stimulus presentation. LFP power after stimulus onset was higher for correct saccades than erroneous saccades. Deactivation of the DLPFC did not affect stimulus onset related LFP activity, but reduced high beta (20–30 Hz) and high gamma (60–150 Hz) power during the preparatory period for both pro- and antisaccades. Spike rate during the preparatory period was positively correlated with gamma power and this relationship was attenuated by DLPFC deactivation. These results suggest that top-down control of the SC by the DLPFC may be mediated by beta oscillations. PMID:25037923

  3. Calcium Channel Dysfunction in Inferior Colliculus Neurons of the Genetically Epilepsy-Prone Rat

    PubMed Central

    N’Gouemo, Prosper; Faingold, Carl L.; Morad, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Summary Voltage-gated calcium (Ca2+) channels are thought to play an important role in epileptogenesis and seizure generation. Here, using the whole-cell configuration of patch-clamp techniques, we report on the modifications of biophysical and pharmacological properties of high threshold voltage-activated Ca2+ channel currents in inferior colliculus (IC) neurons of the genetically epilepsy-prone rats (GEPR-3s). Ca2+channel currents were measured by depolarizing pulses from a holding potential of −80 mV using barium (Ba2+) as the charge carrier. We found that the current density of high threshold voltage-activated Ca2+ channels was significantly larger in IC neurons of seizure-naive GEPR-3s compared to control Sprague-Dawley rats, and that seizure episodes further enhanced the current density in the GEPR-3s. The increased current density was reflected by both a −20 mV shifts in channel activation and a 25% increase in the non-inactivating fraction of channels in seizure-naive GEPR-3s. Such changes were reduced by seizure episodes in the GEPR-3s. Pharmacological analysis of the current density suggests that upregulation of L-, N- and R-type of Ca2+ channels may contribute to IC neuronal hyperexcitability that leads to seizure susceptibility in the GEPR-3s. PMID:19084544

  4. Antinucleon-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical results on anti p-nucleus interactions are reviewed. We focus on determinations of the anti p optical potential from elastic scattering, the use of (anti p, anti p') inelastic scattering to reveal aspects of the spin-isospin dependence of N anti N amplitudes, and some puzzling features of (anti p, anti n) charge exchange reactions on nuclei. 47 refs., 7 figs.

  5. The Galactic nucleus: A unique region in the Galactic ecosystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genzel, Reinhard; Poglitsch, Albrecht

    1995-01-01

    The nucleus is a unique region in the Galactic ecosystem. It is also superb laboratory of modern astrophysics where astronomers can study, at unprecedented spatial resolution and across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, physical processes that may also happen at the cores of other galaxies. Infrared observations from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory have made important contributions to unraveling the mysteries of the Galactic nucleus and this review highlights some of these measurements, as well as recent results regarding the central parsec.

  6. Under Pressure: Mechanical Stress Management in the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Belaadi, Néjma; Aureille, Julien; Guilluy, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Cells are constantly adjusting to the mechanical properties of their surroundings, operating a complex mechanochemical feedback, which hinges on mechanotransduction mechanisms. Whereas adhesion structures have been shown to play a central role in mechanotransduction, it now emerges that the nucleus may act as a mechanosensitive structure. Here, we review recent advances demonstrating that mechanical stress emanating from the cytoskeleton can activate pathways in the nucleus which eventually impact both its structure and the transcriptional machinery. PMID:27314389

  7. Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging for the pedunculopontine nucleus: proof of concept and histological correlation.

    PubMed

    Alho, A T D L; Hamani, C; Alho, E J L; da Silva, R E; Santos, G A B; Neves, R C; Carreira, L L; Araújo, C M M; Magalhães, G; Coelho, D B; Alegro, M C; Martin, M G M; Grinberg, L T; Pasqualucci, C A; Heinsen, H; Fonoff, E T; Amaro, E

    2017-03-10

    The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has been proposed as target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with postural instability and gait disorders due to its involvement in muscle tonus adjustments and control of locomotion. However, it is a deep-seated brainstem nucleus without clear imaging or electrophysiological markers. Some studies suggested that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may help guiding electrode placement in the PPN by showing the surrounding fiber bundles, but none have provided a direct histological correlation. We investigated DTI fractional anisotropy (FA) maps from in vivo and in situ post-mortem magnetic resonance images (MRI) compared to histological evaluations for improving PPN targeting in humans. A post-mortem brain was scanned in a clinical 3T MR system in situ. Thereafter, the brain was processed with a special method ideally suited for cytoarchitectonic analyses. Also, nine volunteers had in vivo brain scanning using the same MRI protocol. Images from volunteers were compared to those obtained in the post-mortem study. FA values of the volunteers were obtained from PPN, inferior colliculus, cerebellar crossing fibers and medial lemniscus using histological data and atlas information. FA values in the PPN were significantly lower than in the surrounding white matter region and higher than in areas with predominantly gray matter. In Nissl-stained histologic sections, the PPN extended for more than 10 mm in the rostro-caudal axis being closely attached to the lateral parabrachial nucleus. Our DTI analyses and the spatial correlation with histological findings proposed a location for PPN that matched the position assigned to this nucleus in the literature. Coregistration of neuroimaging and cytoarchitectonic features can add value to help establishing functional architectonics of the PPN and facilitate neurosurgical targeting of this extended nucleus.

  8. Projections to the rostral reticular thalamic nucleus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, J; Cooper, J D; Phillipson, O T

    1990-01-01

    Afferent pathways to the rostral reticular thalamic nucleus (Rt) in the rat were studied using anterograde and retrograde lectin tracing techniques, with sensitive immunocytochemical methods. The analysis was carried out to further investigate previously described subregions of the reticular thalamic nucleus, which are related to subdivisions of the dorsal thalamus, in the paraventricular and midline nuclei and t