Science.gov

Sample records for colliding beam accelerator

  1. Colliding-beam-accelerator lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Claus, J.; Cornacchia, M.; Courant, E.D.; Parzen, G.

    1983-01-01

    We describe the lattice of the Colliding Beam Accelerator, a 400 x 400 GeV pp facility proposed for construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The structure adopted is very versatile, in part in consequence of its desirable behavior as function of momentum deviation and as function of the betatron tunes. Each of the six insertions can be arranged to meet specific requirements at the crossing points as illustrated by a discussion of the tuneable low-beta insertions. The luminosity in these low-beta insertions (2 x 10/sup 33/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/) would be an order of magnitude larger than the standard insertions.

  2. A DSP based data acquisition module for colliding beam accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, J.A.; Shea, T.J.

    1995-10-01

    In 1999, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory will accelerate and store two beams of gold ions. The ions will then collide head on at a total energy of nearly 40 trillion electron volts. Attaining these conditions necessitates real-time monitoring of beam parameters and for this purpose a flexible data acquisition platform has been developed. By incorporating a floating point digital signal processor (DSP) and standard input/output modules, this system can acquire and process data from a variety of beam diagnostic devices. The DSP performs real time corrections, filtering, and data buffering to greatly reduce control system computation and bandwidth requirements. We will describe the existing hardware and software while emphasizing the compromises required to achieve a flexible yet cost effective system. Applications in several instrumentation systems currently construction will also be presented.

  3. High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, G.A.; Skuja, A.

    1992-05-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas: the study of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions; Hadron collider physics at Fermilab; fixed target physics and particle physics of general interest; and, the solenoidal detector collaboration at SSCL.

  4. Optics measurement and correction during beam acceleration in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Marusic, A.; Minty, M.

    2014-09-09

    To minimize operational complexities, setup of collisions in high energy circular colliders typically involves acceleration with near constant β-functions followed by application of strong focusing quadrupoles at the interaction points (IPs) for the final beta-squeeze. At the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beam acceleration and optics squeeze are performed simultaneously. In the past, beam optics correction at RHIC has taken place at injection and at final energy with some interpolation of corrections into the acceleration cycle. Recent measurements of the beam optics during acceleration and squeeze have evidenced significant beta-beats which if corrected could minimize undesirable emittance dilutions and maximize the spin polarization of polarized proton beams by avoidance of higher-order multipole fields sampled by particles within the bunch. In this report the methodology now operational at RHIC for beam optics corrections during acceleration with simultaneous beta-squeeze will be presented together with measurements which conclusively demonstrate the superior beam control. As a valuable by-product, the corrections have minimized the beta-beat at the profile monitors so reducing the dominant error in and providing more precise measurements of the evolution of the beam emittances during acceleration.

  5. High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group: Progress report, March 1, 1988--February 28, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This report discusses work carried out by the High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group at the University of Maryland. Particular topics discussed are: OPAL experiment at LEP; deep inelastic muon interactions; B physics with the CLEO detector at CESR; further results from JADE; and search for ''small'' violation of the Pauli principle. (LSP)

  6. Online beam energy measurement of Beijing electron positron collider II linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Iqbal, M; Liu, R; Chi, Y

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes online beam energy measurement of Beijing Electron Positron Collider upgraded version II linear accelerator (linac) adequately. It presents the calculation formula, gives the error analysis in detail, discusses the realization in practice, and makes some verification. The method mentioned here measures the beam energy by acquiring the horizontal beam position with three beam position monitors (BPMs), which eliminates the effect of orbit fluctuation, and is much better than the one using the single BPM. The error analysis indicates that this online measurement has further potential usage such as a part of beam energy feedback system. The reliability of this method is also discussed and demonstrated in this paper.

  7. Online beam energy measurement of Beijing electron positron collider II linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Iqbal, M.; Liu, R.; Chi, Y.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes online beam energy measurement of Beijing Electron Positron Collider upgraded version II linear accelerator (linac) adequately. It presents the calculation formula, gives the error analysis in detail, discusses the realization in practice, and makes some verification. The method mentioned here measures the beam energy by acquiring the horizontal beam position with three beam position monitors (BPMs), which eliminates the effect of orbit fluctuation, and is much better than the one using the single BPM. The error analysis indicates that this online measurement has further potential usage such as a part of beam energy feedback system. The reliability of this method is also discussed and demonstrated in this paper.

  8. High energy accelerator and colliding beam user group

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report discusses the following topics: OPAL experiment at LEP; D{phi} experiment at Fermilab; deep inelastic muon interactions at TEV II; CYGNUS experiment; final results from {nu}{sub e}{sup {minus}e} elastic scattering; physics with CLEO detector at CESR; results from JADE at PETRA; rare kaon-decay experiment at BNL; search for top quark; and super conducting super collider activities.

  9. Relativistic-Klystron two-beam accelerator as a power source for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Lidia, S. M.; Anderson, D. E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Vanecek, D. L.; Yu, S. S.; Houck, T. L.; Westenskow, G. A.

    1999-05-07

    The technical challenge for making two-beam accelerators into realizable power sources for high-energy colliders lies in the creation of the drive beam and in its propagation over long distances through multiple extraction sections. This year we have been constructing a 1.2-kA, 1-MeV, induction gun for a prototype relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA). The electron source will be a 8.9 cm diameter, thermionic, flat-surface cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150-ns flat top (1% energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 300 pi-mm-mr. The prototype accelerator will be used to study, physics, engineering, and costing issues involved in the application of the RK-TBA concept to linear colliders. We have also been studying optimization parameters, such as frequency, for the application of the RK-TBA concept to multi-TeV linear colliders. As an rf power source the RK-TBA scales favorably up to frequencies around 35 GHz. An overview of this work with details of the design and performance of the prototype injector, beam line, and diagnostics will be presented.

  10. Relativistic-Klystron two-beam accelerator as a power source for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Lidia, S.M.; Anderson, D.E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Vanecek, D.L.; Yu, S.S.; Westenskow, G.A.

    1999-05-01

    The technical challenge for making two-beam accelerators into realizable power sources for high-energy colliders lies in the creation of the drive beam and in its propagation over long distances through multiple extraction sections. This year we have been constructing a 1.2-kA, 1-MeV, induction gun for a prototype relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA). The electron source will be a 8.9 cm diameter, thermionic, flat-surface cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150-ns flat top (1{percent} energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 300 pi-mm-mr. The prototype accelerator will be used to study, physics, engineering, and costing issues involved in the application of the RK-TBA concept to linear colliders. We have also been studying optimization parameters, such as frequency, for the application of the RK-TBA concept to multi-TeV linear colliders. As an rf power source the RK-TBA scales favorably up to frequencies around 35 GHz. An overview of this work with details of the design and performance of the prototype injector, beam line, and diagnostics will be presented. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator as a power source for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D E; Eylon, S; Henestroza, E; Houck, T L; Lidia, M; Vanecek, D L; Westenskow, G A; Yu, S S

    1998-10-05

    The technical challenge for making two-beam accelerators into realizable power sources for high-energy colliders lies in the creation of the drive beam and in its propagation over long distances through multiple extraction sections. This year we have been constructing a 1.2&A, l-MeV, induction gun for a prototype relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA). The electron source will be a 8.9 cm diameter, thermionic, flat-surface cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150-ns flat top (1% energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 300 pi-mm-n-n. The prototype accelerator will be used to study physics, engineering, and costing issues involved in the application of the RK-TBA concept to linear colliders. We have also been studying optimization parameters, such as frequency, for the application of the RK-TBA concept to multi-TeV linear colliders. As an rf power source the RK-TBA scales favorably up to frequencies around 35 GHz. An overview of this work with details of the design and performance of the prototype injector, beam line, and diagnostics will be presented.

  12. The generation and acceleration of low emittance flat beams for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1991-11-01

    Many future linear collider designs call for electron and positron beams with normalized rms horizontal and vertical emittances of {gamma}{epsilon}{sub x} = 3{times}10{sup {minus}6} m-rad and {gamma}{epsilon}{sub y} = 3{times}10{sup {minus}8} m-rad; these are a factor of 10 to 100 below those observed in the Stanford Linear Collider. In this dissertation, we examine the feasibility of achieving beams with these very small vertical emittances. We examine the limitations encountered during both the generation and the subsequent acceleration of such low emittance beams. We consider collective limitations, such as wakefields, space charge effects, scattering processes, and ion trapping; and also how intensity limitations, such as anomalous dispersion, betatron coupling, and pulse-to-pulse beam jitter. In general, the minimum emittance in both the generation and the acceleration stages is limited by the transverse misalignments of the accelerator components. We describe a few techniques of correcting the effect of these errors, thereby easing the alignment tolerances by over an order of magnitude. Finally, we also calculate ``fundamental`` limitations on the minimum vertical emittance; these do not constrain the current designs but may prove important in the future.

  13. The generation and acceleration of low emittance flat beams for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1991-11-01

    Many future linear collider designs call for electron and positron beams with normalized rms horizontal and vertical emittances of {gamma}{epsilon}{sub x} = 3{times}10{sup {minus}6} m-rad and {gamma}{epsilon}{sub y} = 3{times}10{sup {minus}8} m-rad; these are a factor of 10 to 100 below those observed in the Stanford Linear Collider. In this dissertation, we examine the feasibility of achieving beams with these very small vertical emittances. We examine the limitations encountered during both the generation and the subsequent acceleration of such low emittance beams. We consider collective limitations, such as wakefields, space charge effects, scattering processes, and ion trapping; and also how intensity limitations, such as anomalous dispersion, betatron coupling, and pulse-to-pulse beam jitter. In general, the minimum emittance in both the generation and the acceleration stages is limited by the transverse misalignments of the accelerator components. We describe a few techniques of correcting the effect of these errors, thereby easing the alignment tolerances by over an order of magnitude. Finally, we also calculate fundamental'' limitations on the minimum vertical emittance; these do not constrain the current designs but may prove important in the future.

  14. Muon Collider Progress: Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2011-09-10

    A muon collider would be a powerful tool for exploring the energy-frontier with leptons, and would complement the studies now under way at the LHC. Such a device would offer several important benefits. Muons, like electrons, are point particles so the full center-of-mass energy is available for particle production. Moreover, on account of their higher mass, muons give rise to very little synchrotron radiation and produce very little beamstrahlung. The first feature permits the use of a circular collider that can make efficient use of the expensive rf system and whose footprint is compatible with an existing laboratory site. The second feature leads to a relatively narrow energy spread at the collision point. Designing an accelerator complex for a muon collider is a challenging task. Firstly, the muons are produced as a tertiary beam, so a high-power proton beam and a target that can withstand it are needed to provide the required luminosity of ~1 × 10{sup 34} cm{sup –2}s{sup –1}. Secondly, the beam is initially produced with a large 6D phase space, which necessitates a scheme for reducing the muon beam emittance (“cooling”). Finally, the muon has a short lifetime so all beam manipulations must be done very rapidly. The Muon Accelerator Program, led by Fermilab and including a number of U.S. national laboratories and universities, has undertaken design and R&D activities aimed toward the eventual construction of a muon collider. Design features of such a facility and the supporting R&D program are described.

  15. GEANT4 simulations for beam emittance in a linear collider based on plasma wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Mete, O. Xia, G.; Hanahoe, K.; Labiche, M.

    2015-08-15

    Alternative acceleration technologies are currently under development for cost-effective, robust, compact, and efficient solutions. One such technology is plasma wakefield acceleration, driven by either a charged particle or laser beam. However, the potential issues must be studied in detail. In this paper, the emittance evolution of a witness beam through elastic scattering from gaseous media and under transverse focusing wakefields is studied.

  16. Design study of beam dynamics issues for 1 TeV next linear collider based upon the relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Goffeney, N.; Henestroza, E.; Sessler, A.; Yu, S.; Houck, T.; Westenskow, G.

    1994-11-01

    A design study has recently been conducted for exploring the feasibility of a relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA) system as a rf power source for a 1 TeV linear collider. The author present, in this paper, the beam dynamics part of this study. They have achieved in their design study acceptable transverse and longitudinal beam stability properties for the resulting high efficiency and low cost RK-TBA.

  17. Design study of beam dynamics issues for a one TeV next linear collider based upon the relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Houck, T.; Goffeney, N.; Henestroza, E.; Sessler, A.; Westenskow, G.; Yu, S.

    1995-06-01

    A design study has recently been conducted for exploring the feasibility of a relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA) system as a rf power source for a 1 TeV linear collider. We present, in this paper, the beam dynamics part of this study. We have achieved in our design study acceptable transverse and longitudinal beam stability properties for the resulting high efficiency and low cost RK-TBA. {copyright} 1995 {ital American Institute of Physics}.

  18. Beam collimation at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolai V. Mokhov

    2003-08-12

    Operational and accidental beam losses in hadron colliders can have a serious impact on machine and detector performance, resulting in effects ranging from minor to catastrophic. Principles and realization are described for a reliable beam collimation system required to sustain favorable background conditions in the collider detectors, provide quench stability of superconducting magnets, minimize irradiation of accelerator equipment, maintain operational reliability over the life of the machine, and reduce the impact of radiation on personnel and the environment. Based on detailed Monte-Carlo simulations, such a system has been designed and incorporated in the Tevatron collider. Its performance, comparison to measurements and possible ways to further improve the collimation efficiency are described in detail. Specifics of the collimation systems designed for the SSC, LHC, VLHC, and HERA colliders are discussed.

  19. Simulations of an acceleration scheme for producing high intensity and low emittance antiproton beam for Fermilab collider operation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Vincent; Bhat, C.M.; MacLachlan, J.A.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    During Fermilab collider operation, the Main Injector (MI) provides high intensity and low emittance proton and antiproton beams for the Tevatron. The present coalescing scheme for antiprotons in the Main Injector yields about a factor of two increase in the longitudinal emittance and a factor of 5% to 20% decrease in intensity before injection to the Tevatron. In order to maximize the integrated luminosity delivered to the collider experiments, it is important to minimize the emittance growth and maximize the intensity of the MI beam. To this end, a new scheme using a combination of 2.5 MHz and 53 MHz accelerations has been developed and tested. This paper describes the full simulation of the new acceleration scheme, taking account of space charge, 2.5 MHz and 53 MHz beam loading, and the effect of residual 53 MHz rf voltage during 2.5 MHz acceleration and rf manipulations. The simulations show the longitudinal emittance growth at the 10% level with no beam loss. The experimental test of the new scheme is reported in another PAC05 paper.

  20. Beam-based measurements of long-range transverse wakefields in the Compact Linear Collider main-linac accelerating structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Hao; Latina, Andrea; Grudiev, Alexej; De Michele, Giovanni; Solodko, Anastasiya; Wuensch, Walter; Schulte, Daniel; Adli, Erik; Lipkowitz, Nate; Yocky, Gerald S.

    2016-01-01

    The baseline design of CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) uses X-band accelerating structures for its main linacs. In order to maintain beam stability in multibunch operation, long-range transverse wakefields must be suppressed by 2 orders of magnitude between successive bunches, which are separated in time by 0.5 ns. Such strong wakefield suppression is achieved by equipping every accelerating structure cell with four damping waveguides terminated with individual rf loads. A beam-based experiment to directly measure the effectiveness of this long-range transverse wakefield and benchmark simulations was made in the FACET test facility at SLAC using a prototype CLIC accelerating structure. The experiment showed good agreement with the simulations and a strong suppression of the wakefields with an unprecedented minimum resolution of 0.1 V /(pC mm m ) .

  1. Linear Collider Accelerator Physics Issues Regarding Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.T.; /SLAC

    2005-08-12

    The next generation of linear colliders will require more stringent alignment tolerances than those for the SLC with regard to the accelerating structures, quadrupoles, and beam position monitors. New techniques must be developed to achieve these tolerances. A combination of mechanical-electrical and beam-based methods will likely be needed.

  2. Studies of the chromatic properties and dynamic aperture of the BNL colliding-beam accelerator. [PATRICIA particle tracking code

    SciTech Connect

    Dell, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    The PATRICIA particle tracking program has been used to study chromatic effects in the Brookhaven CBA (Colliding Beam Accelerator). The short term behavior of particles in the CBA has been followed for particle histories of 300 turns. Contributions from magnet multipoles characteristic of superconducting magnets and closed orbit errors have been included in determining the dynamic aperture of the CBA for on and off momentum particles. The width of the third integer stopband produced by the temperature dependence of magnetization induced sextupoles in the CBA cable dipoles is evaluated for helium distribution systems having periodicity of one and six. The stopband width at a tune of 68/3 is naturally zero for the system having a periodicity of six and is approx. 10/sup -4/ for the system having a periodicity of one. Results from theory are compared with results obtained with PATRICIA; the results agree within a factor of slightly more than two.

  3. High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group. Progress report, March 1, 1992--October 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, G.A.; Skuja, A.

    1992-05-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas: the study of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions; Hadron collider physics at Fermilab; fixed target physics and particle physics of general interest; and, the solenoidal detector collaboration at SSCL.

  4. Next linear collider test accelerator injector upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Yeremian, A.D.; Miller, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    The Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) is being constructed at SLAC to demonstrate multibunch beam loading compensation, suppression of higher order deflecting modes and measure transverse components of the accelerating fields in X-band accelerating structures. Currently a simple injector which provides the average current necessary for the beam loading compensations studies is under construction. An injector upgrade is planned to produce bunch trains similar to that of the NLC with microbunch intensity, separation and energy spread, identical to that of NLC. We discuss the design of the NLCTA injector upgrade.

  5. Beam Rounders for Circular Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    A. Burov; S. Nagaitsev; Ya. Derbenev

    2001-07-01

    By means of linear optics, an arbitrary uncoupled beam can be locally transformed into a round (rotation-invariant) state and then back. This provides an efficient way to round beams in the interaction region of circular colliders.

  6. Beam rounders for circular colliders

    SciTech Connect

    A. Burov and S. Nagaitsev

    2002-12-10

    By means of linear optics, an arbitrary uncoupled beam can be locally transformed into a round (rotation-invariant) state and then back. This provides an efficient way to round beams in the interaction region of circular colliders.

  7. High energy accelerator and colliding beam user group. Progress report, March 1, 1983-February 29, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Topics covered in this research summary include: status of the OPAL collaboration at LEP, CERN; two-photon physics at PLUTO; search for new particles at JADE; neutrinoless double beta decay at DESY; Fermilab jet experiment; neutrino deuterium experiment in the 15 foot bubble chamber at Fermilab; deep inelastic muon experiment at Fermilab; new experiments at the proton-antiproton collider; neutrino-electron scattering at Los Alamos; parity violation in proton-proton scattering; an upgrade of laboratory and computer facilities; and a study of bismuth germanate as a durable scintillation crystal. (GHT)

  8. CLASHING BEAM PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Burleigh, R.J.

    1961-04-11

    A charged-particle accelerator of the proton synchrotron class having means for simultaneously accelerating two separate contra-rotating particle beams within a single annular magnet structure is reported. The magnet provides two concentric circular field regions of opposite magnetic polarity with one field region being of slightly less diameter than the other. The accelerator includes a deflector means straddling the two particle orbits and acting to collide the two particle beams after each has been accelerated to a desired energy. The deflector has the further property of returning particles which do not undergo collision to the regular orbits whereby the particles recirculate with the possibility of colliding upon subsequent passages through the deflector.

  9. FFAG Designs for Muon Collider Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J. Scott

    2014-01-13

    I estimate FFAG parameters for a muon collider with a 70mm longitudinal emittance. I do not discuss the lower emittance beam for a Higgs factory. I produce some example designs, giving only parameters relevant to estimating cost and performance. The designs would not track well, but the parameters of a good design will be close to those described. I compare these cost estimates to those for a fast-ramping synchrotron and a recirculating linear accelerator. I conclude that FFAGs do not appear to be cost-effective for the large longitudinal emittance in a high-energy muon collider.

  10. Proton-proton colliding beam facility ISABELLE

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H

    1980-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the status of the ISABELLE construction project, which has the objective of building a 400 + 400 GeV proton colliding beam facility. The major technical features of the superconducting accelerators with their projected performance are described. Progress made so far, difficulties encountered, and the program until completion in 1986 is briefly reviewed.

  11. Next linear collider test accelerator injector design and status

    SciTech Connect

    Yeremian, A.D.; Miller, R.H.; Wang, J.W.

    1994-08-01

    The Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) being built at SLAC will integrate the new technologies of X-band accelerator structures and RF systems for the Next Linear Collider, demonstrate multibunch beam-loading energy compensation and suppression of higher-order deflecting modes, measure transverse components of the accelerating field, and measure the dark current generated by RF field emission in the accelerator Injector design and simulation results for the NLCTA injector are discussed.

  12. Accelerator physics of the Stanford Linear Collider and SLC accelerator experiments towards the Next Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.T.

    1992-06-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) was built to collide single bunches of electrons and positrons head-on at a single interaction point with single beam energies up to 55 GeV. The small beam sizes and high currents required for high luminosity operation have significantly pushed traditional beam quality limits. The Polarized Electron Source produces about 8 {times} 10{sup 10} electrons in each of two bunches with up to 28% polarization,. The Damping Rings provide coupled invariant emittances of 1.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} r-m with 4.5 {times} 10{sup 10} particles per bunch. The 57 GeV Linac has successfully accelerated over 3 {times} 10{sup 10} particles with design invariant emittances of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} r-m. Both longitudinal and transverse wakefields affect strongly the trajectory and emittance corrections used for operations. The Arc systems routinely transport decoupled and betatron matched beams. In the Final Focus, the beams are chromatically corrected and demagnified producing spot sizes of 2 to 3 {mu}m at the focal point. Spot sizes below 2 {mu}m have been made during special tests. Instrumentation and feedback systems are well advanced, providing continuous beam monitoring and pulse-by-pulse control. A luminosity of 1.6 {times} 10{sup 29} cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1} has been produced. Several experimental tests for a Next Linear Collider (NLC) are being planned or constructed using the SLC accelerator as a test facility. The Final Focus Test Beam will demagnify a flat 50 GeV electron beam to dimensions near 60 nm vertically and 900 nm horizontally. A potential Emittance Dynamics Test Area has the capability to test the acceleration and transport of very low emittance beams, the compression of bunch lengths to 50 {mu}m, the acceleration and control of multiple bunches, and the properties of wakefields in the very short bunch length regime.

  13. Preliminary design report of a relativistic-Klystron two-beam-accelerator based power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass next linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Goffeney, N.; Henestroza, E.

    1995-02-22

    A preliminary point design for an 11.4 GHz power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass Next Linear Collider (NLC) based on the Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam-Accelerator (RK-TBA) concept is presented. The present report is the result of a joint LBL-LLNL systems study. consisting of three major thrust areas: physics, engineering, and costing. The new RK-TBA point design, together with our findings in each of these areas, are reported.

  14. Beam Dynamics Considerations in Electron Ion Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, Geoffrey

    2015-04-01

    The nuclear physics community is converging on the idea that the next large project after FRIB should be an electron-ion collider. Both Brookhaven National Lab and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility have developed accelerator designs, both of which need novel solutions to accelerator physics problems. In this talk we discuss some of the problems that must be solved and their solutions. Examples in novel beam optics systems, beam cooling, and beam polarization control will be presented. Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177. The U.S. Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce this manuscript for U.S. Government purposes.

  15. Accelerator R&D toward Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiltsev, V.

    2010-12-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, accelerate and collide high intensity beams of muons. At present, a high-luminosity multi-TeV muon collider presents a viable option for the next generation lepton-lepton collider, which is believed to be needed to fully explore high energy physics in the era following LHC discoveries. Such a collider can offer superb energy resolution, smaller size, and potentially cost and power consumption compared to multi-TeV e + e - linear colliders. This article briefly reviews the motivation, design and status of accelerator R&D for Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory.

  16. Accelerator R&D toward Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, Vladimir; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, accelerate and collide high intensity beams of muons. At present, a high-luminosity multi-TeV muon collider presents a viable option for the next generation lepton-lepton collider, which is believed to be needed to fully explore high energy physics in the era following LHC discoveries. Such a collider can offer superb energy resolution, smaller size, and potentially cost and power consumption compared to multi-TeV e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders. This article briefly reviews the motivation, design and status of accelerator R&D for Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory.

  17. A systems study of an RF power source for a 1 TeV next linear collider based upon the relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Goffeney, N.; Deadrick, F.

    1994-11-01

    A systems study, including physics, engineering and costing, has been conducted to assess the feasibility of a relativistic-klystron two-beam-accelerator (RK-TBA) system as a RF power source candidate for a 1 TeV linear collider. Several key issues associated with a realizable RK-TBA system have been addressed, and corresponding schemes have been developed and examined quantitatively. A point design example has been constructed to present a concrete conceptual design which has acceptable transverse and longitudinal beam stability properties. The overall efficiency of RF production for such a power source is estimated to be 36%, and the cost of the full system is estimated to be less than 1 billion dollars.

  18. A systems study of an RF power source for a 1 TeV next linear collider based upon the relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Deadrick, F.; Goffeney, N.; Henestroza, E.; Houck, T.; Li, H.; Peters, C.; Reginato, L.; Sessler, A.; Vanecek, D.; Westenskow, G.

    1995-07-05

    A systems study, including physics, engineering, and costing, has been conducted to assess the feasibility of a relativistic-klystron two-beam-accelerator (RK-TBA) system as a RF power source candidate for a 1 TeV linear collider. Several key issues associated with a realizable RK-TBA system have been addressed, and corresponding schemes have been developed and examined quantitatively. A point design example has been constructed to present a concrete conceptual design which has acceptable transverse and longitudinal beam stability properties. The overall efficiency of RF production for such a power source is estimated to be 36%, and the cost of the full system is estimated to be less than 1 billion dollars. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  19. PROTON BEAM REQUIREMENTS FOR A NEUTRINO FACTORY AND MUON COLLIDER

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2009-12-11

    Both a Neutrino Factory and a Muon Collider place stringent demands on the proton beam used to generate the desired beam of muons. Here we discuss the advantages and challenges of muon accelerators and the rationale behind the requirements on proton beam energy, intensity, bunch length, and repetition rate. Example proton driver configurations that have been considered in recent years are also briefly indicated.

  20. Staging optics considerations for a plasma wakefield acceleration linear collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrøm, C. A.; Adli, E.; Allen, J. M.; Delahaye, J. P.; Hogan, M. J.; Joshi, C.; Muggli, P.; Raubenheimer, T. O.; Yakimenko, V.

    2016-09-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration offers acceleration gradients of several GeV/m, ideal for a next-generation linear collider. The beam optics requirements between plasma cells include injection and extraction of drive beams, matching the main beam beta functions into the next cell, canceling dispersion as well as constraining bunch lengthening and chromaticity. To maintain a high effective acceleration gradient, this must be accomplished in the shortest distance possible. A working example is presented, using novel methods to correct chromaticity, as well as scaling laws for a high energy regime.

  1. Accelerator physics in ERL based polarized electron ion collider

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Yue

    2015-05-03

    This talk will present the current accelerator physics challenges and solutions in designing ERL-based polarized electron-hadron colliders, and illustrate them with examples from eRHIC and LHeC designs. These challenges include multi-pass ERL design, highly HOM-damped SRF linacs, cost effective FFAG arcs, suppression of kink instability due to beam-beam effect, and control of ion accumulation and fast ion instabilities.

  2. Accelerator considerations of large circular colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Alex

    2016-07-01

    As we consider the tremendous physics reaches of the big future circular electron-positron and proton-proton colliders, it might be advisable to keep a close track of what accelerator challenges they face. Good progresses are being made, and yet it is reported here that substantial investments in funding, manpower, as well as a long sustained time to the R&D efforts will be required in preparation to realize these dream colliders.

  3. Beam dynamics verification in linacs of linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    The SLAC two-mile linac has been upgraded to accelerate high current, low emittance electron and positron beams to be used in the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). After the upgrade was completed, extensive beam studies were made to verify that the design criteria have been met. These tests involved the measurement of emittance, beam phase space orientation, energy dispersion, trajectory oscillations, bunch length, energy spectrum and wakefields. The methods, the systems and the data cross checks are compared for the various measurements. Implications for the next linear collider are discussed. 12 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Future Accelerators, Muon Colliders, and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A Carrigan, Jr.

    2001-12-19

    Particle physics is driven by five great topics. Neutrino oscillations and masses are now at the fore. The standard model with extensions to supersymmetry and a Higgs to generate mass explains much of the field. The origins of CP violation are not understood. The possibility of extra dimensions has raised tantalizing new questions. A fifth topic lurking in the background is the possibility of something totally different. Many of the questions raised by these topics require powerful new accelerators. It is not an overstatement to say that for some of the issues, the accelerator is almost the experiment. Indeed some of the questions require machines beyond our present capability. As this volume attests, there are parts of the particle physics program that have been significantly advanced without the use of accelerators such as the subject of neutrino oscillations and many aspects of the particle-cosmology interface. At this stage in the development of physics, both approaches are needed and important. This chapter first reviews the status of the great accelerator facilities now in operation or coming on within the decade. Next, midrange possibilities are discussed including linear colliders with the adjunct possibility of gamma-gamma colliders, muon colliders, with precursor neutrino factories, and very large hadron colliders. Finally visionary possibilities are considered including plasma and laser accelerators.

  5. Beam dynamics issues for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, R.D.

    1987-09-01

    In this paper we discuss various beam dynamics issues for linear colliders. The emphasis is to explore beam dynamics effects which lead to an effective dilution of the emittance of the beam and thus to a loss of luminosity. These considerations lead to various tolerances which are evaluated for a particular parameter set.

  6. GPU-optimized Code for Long-term Simulations of Beam-beam Effects in Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Roblin, Yves; Morozov, Vasiliy; Terzic, Balsa; Aturban, Mohamed A.; Ranjan, D.; Zubair, Mohammed

    2013-06-01

    We report on the development of the new code for long-term simulation of beam-beam effects in particle colliders. The underlying physical model relies on a matrix-based arbitrary-order symplectic particle tracking for beam transport and the Bassetti-Erskine approximation for beam-beam interaction. The computations are accelerated through a parallel implementation on a hybrid GPU/CPU platform. With the new code, a previously computationally prohibitive long-term simulations become tractable. We use the new code to model the proposed medium-energy electron-ion collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab.

  7. Collider and detector protection at beam accidents

    SciTech Connect

    I. L. Rakhno; N. V. Mokhov; A. I. Drozhdin

    2003-12-10

    Dealing with beam loss due to abort kicker prefire is considered for hadron colliders. The prefires occurred at Tevatron (Fermilab) during Run I and Run II are analyzed and a protection system implemented is described. The effect of accidental beam loss in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN on machine and detector components is studied via realistic Monte Carlo calculations. The simulations show that beam loss at an unsynchronized beam abort would result in severe heating of conventional and superconducting magnets and possible damage to the collider detector elements. A proposed set of collimators would reduce energy deposition effects to acceptable levels. Special attention is paid to reducing peak temperature rise within the septum magnet and minimizing quench region length downstream of the LHC beam abort straight section.

  8. Accelerator Test Facility for Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory R&d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir

    2010-06-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, accelerate and collide high intensity beams of muons. At present, a high-luminosity multi-TeV muon collider presents a viable option for the next generation lepton-lepton collider, which is believed to be needed to fully explore high energy physics in the era following LHC discoveries. This article briefly reviews the needs and possibilities for a Muon Collider beam test facility to carry out the R&D program on the collider front-end and 6D cooling demonstration experiment.

  9. TRANSVERSE BEAM TRANSFER FUNCTIONS OF COLLIDING BEAMS IN RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; CALAGA, R.; CAMERON, P.; HERR, W.; PIELONI, T.

    2007-06-25

    We use transverse beam transfer functions to measure tune distributions of colliding beams in RHIC. The tune has a distribution due to the beam-beam interaction, nonlinear magnetic fields -- particularly in the interaction region magnets, and non-zero chromaticity in conjunction with momentum spread. The measured tune distributions are compared with calculations.

  10. Relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Westenskow, G.A.; Houck, T.L. )

    1994-10-01

    Relativistic klystrons (RKs) are being developed as an RF power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron-positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. In a relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA), the drive beam passes through a large number of RF output structures. High conversion efficiency of electron beam energy to RF energy is achieved in this concept by reacceleration of the modulated drive beam between output structures. The authors have conducted experiments studying the RF power extracted from various RK structures driven by modulated induction accelerator current pulses; the studies include work on improving the transport dynamics of the drive beam. They have started a demonstration in which the modulated induction beam current is reaccelerated by passage through subsequent induction accelerator cells.

  11. Ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system is described that combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing of an accelerated ion beam. The apparatus includes a pair of curved extraction grids (16, 18) with multiple pairs of aligned holes positioned to direct a group of beamlets (20) along converging paths. The extraction grids are closely spaced and maintained at a moderate potential to efficiently extract beamlets of ions and allow them to combine into a single beam (14). An accelerator electrode device (22) downstream from the extraction grids, is at a much lower potential than the grids to accelerate the combined beam.

  12. Ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system is described that combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing of an accelerated ion beam. The apparatus includes a pair of curved extraction grids with multiple pairs of aligned holes positioned to direct a group of beamlets along converging paths. The extraction grids are closely spaced and maintained at a moderate potential to efficiently extract beamlets of ions and allow them to combine into a single beam. An accelerator electrode device downstream from the extraction grids is at a much lower potential than the grids to accelerate the combined beam. The application of the system to ion implantation is mentioned.

  13. Future e/sup +/e/sup -/ linear colliders and beam-beam effects

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.B.

    1986-05-01

    Numerous concepts, ranging from conventional to highly exotic, hae been proposed for the acceleration of electrons and positrons to very high energies. For any such concept to be viable, it must be possible to produce from it a set of consistent parameters for one of these ''benchmark'' machines. Attention is directed to the choice of parameters for a collider in the 300 GeV energy range, operating at a gradient on the order of 200 MV/m, using X-band power sources to drive a conventional disk-loaded accelerating structure. These rf power sources, while not completely conventional represent a reasonable extrapolation from present technology. The choice of linac parameters is strongly coupled to various beam-beam effects which take place when the electron and positron bunches collide. We summarize these beam-beam effects, and then return to the rf design of a 650 GeV center-of-mass collider. 14 refs.

  14. Beam trajectory acquisition system for the arcs of the Stanford Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrin, J.L.; Ross, M.C.; Scott, B.D.; Wilson, D.S.

    1987-02-01

    This report describes the beam position monitoring system of the collider arcs at the Stanford Linear Collider. This beam position monitoring system is different from others at SLAC in its large amount of hardware and its use of ungated, self-triggered electronics. All of the processing electronics are installed in the accelerator tunnel. (JDH)

  15. Beam instrumentation for the Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Ronald S.; Jansson, Andreas; Shiltsev, Vladimir; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with six times more bunches and many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Beam diagnostics were crucial for the machine start-up and the never-ending luminosity upgrade campaign. We present the overall picture of the Tevatron diagnostics development for Run II, outline machine needs for new instrumentation, present several notable examples that led to Tevatron performance improvements, and discuss the lessons for future colliders.

  16. Photon Collider Physics with Real Photon Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J; Asztalos, S

    2005-11-03

    Photon-photon interactions have been an important probe into fundamental particle physics. Until recently, the only way to produce photon-photon collisions was parasitically in the collision of charged particles. Recent advances in short-pulse laser technology have made it possible to consider producing high intensity, tightly focused beams of real photons through Compton scattering. A linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider could thus be transformed into a photon-photon collider with the addition of high power lasers. In this paper they show that it is possible to make a competitive photon-photon collider experiment using the currently mothballed Stanford Linear Collider. This would produce photon-photon collisions in the GeV energy range which would allow the discovery and study of exotic heavy mesons with spin states of zero and two.

  17. Beam Induced Hydrodynamic Tunneling in the Future Circular Collider Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, N. A.; Burkart, F.; Schmidt, R.; Shutov, A.; Wollmann, D.; Piriz, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    A future circular collider (FCC) has been proposed as a post-Large Hadron Collider accelerator, to explore particle physics in unprecedented energy ranges. The FCC is a circular collider in a tunnel with a circumference of 80-100 km. The FCC study puts an emphasis on proton-proton high-energy and electron-positron high-intensity frontier machines. A proton-electron interaction scenario is also examined. According to the nominal FCC parameters, each of the 50 TeV proton beams will carry an amount of 8.5 GJ energy that is equivalent to the kinetic energy of an Airbus A380 (560 t) at a typical speed of 850 km /h . Safety of operation with such extremely energetic beams is an important issue, as off-nominal beam loss can cause serious damage to the accelerator and detector components with a severe impact on the accelerator environment. In order to estimate the consequences of an accident with the full beam accidently deflected into equipment, we have carried out numerical simulations of interaction of a FCC beam with a solid copper target using an energy-deposition code (fluka) and a 2D hydrodynamic code (big2) iteratively. These simulations show that, although the penetration length of a single FCC proton and its shower in solid copper is about 1.5 m, the full FCC beam will penetrate up to about 350 m into the target because of the "hydrodynamic tunneling." These simulations also show that a significant part of the target is converted into high-energy-density matter. We also discuss this interesting aspect of this study.

  18. Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2011-10-24

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  19. RF properties of periodic accelerating structures for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.W.

    1989-07-01

    With the advent of the SLAC electron-positron linear collider (SLC) in the 100 GeV center-of-mass energy range, research and development work on even higher energy machines of this type has started in several laboratories in the United States, Europe, the Soviet Union and Japan. These linear colliders appear to provide the only promising approach to studying e/sup /plus//e/sup /minus// physics at center-of-mass energies approaching 1 TeV. This thesis concerns itself with the study of radio frequency properties of periodic accelerating structures for linear colliders and their interaction with bunched beams. The topics that have been investigated are: experimental measurements of the energy loss of single bunches to longitudinal modes in two types of structures, using an equivalent signal on a coaxial wire to simulate the beam; a method of canceling the energy spread created within a single bunch by longitudinal wakefields, through appropriate shaping of the longitudinal charge distribution of the bunch; derivation of the complete transient beam-loading equation for a train of bunches passing through a constant-gradient accelerator section, with application to the calculation and minimization of multi-bunch energy spread; detailed study of field emission and radio frequency breakdown in disk-loaded structures at S-, C- and X-band frequencies under extremely high-gradient conditions, with special attention to thermal effects, radiation, sparking, emission of gases, surface damage through explosive emission and its possible control through RF-gas processing. 53 refs., 49 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.; White, S.

    2015-06-24

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.

  1. Accelerator physics and technology challenges of very high energy hadron colliders

    DOE PAGES

    Shiltsev, Vladimir D.

    2015-08-20

    High energy hadron colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present, international particle physics community considers several options for a 100 TeV proton–proton collider as a possible post-LHC energy frontier facility. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but has slowed down considerably in its progress. This article briefly reviews the accelerator physics and technology challenges of the future very high energy colliders and outlines the areas of required research and development towards their technical and financial feasibility.

  2. Beam parametr measurements for the SLAC linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    Clendenin, J.E.; Blocker, C.; Breidenbach, M.

    1981-01-01

    A stable, closely-controlled, high-intensity, single-bunch beam will be required for the SLAC Linear Collider. The characteristics of short-pulse, low-intensity beams in the SLAC linac have been studied. A new, high-intensity thermionic gun, subharmonic buncher and S-band buncher/accelerator section were installed recently at SLAC. With these components, up to 10/sup 11/ electrons in a single S-band bunch are available for injection into the linac. the first 100-m accelerator sector has been modified to allow control of short-pulse beams by a model-driven computer program. Additional instrumentation, including a computerized energy analyzer and emittance monitor have been added at the end of the 100-m sector. The beam intensity, energy spectrum, emittance, charge distribution and the effect of wake fields in the first accelerator sector have been measured. The new source and beam control system are described and the most recent results of the beam parameter measurements are discussed.

  3. SciDAC advances in beam dynamics simulation: from light sources to colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Qiang, J.; Borland, M.; Kabel, A.; Li, R.; Ryne, R.; Stern, E.; Wang, Y.; Wasserman, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2008-06-16

    In this paper, we report on progress that has been made in beam dynamics simulation, from light sources to colliders, during the first year of SciDAC-II accelerator project,"Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS)." Several parallel computational tools for beam dynamics simulation will be described. A number of applications in current and future accelerator facilities, e.g., LCLS, RHIC, Tevatron, LHC, ELIC, are presented.

  4. SciDAC advances in beam dynamics simulation: from light sources to colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, J.; Borland, M.; Kabel, A.; Li, Rui; Ryne, Robert; Stern, E.; Wang, Y.; Wasserman, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, we report on progress that has been made in beam dynamics simulation, from light sources to colliders, during the first year of the SciDAC-2 accelerator project 'Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS).' Several parallel computational tools for beam dynamics simulation are described. Also presented are number of applications in current and future accelerator facilities (e.g., LCLS, RHIC, Tevatron, LHC, and ELIC).

  5. FUTURE LEPTON COLLIDERS AND LASER ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2000-05-30

    Future high energy colliders along with their physics potential, and relationship to new laser technology are discussed. Experimental approaches and requirements for New Physics exploration are also described.

  6. Beam dynamics design of the Compact Linear Collider Drive Beam injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajari, Sh. Sanaye; Shaker, H.; Doebert, S.

    2015-11-01

    In the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) the RF power for the acceleration of the Main Beam is extracted from a high-current Drive Beam that runs parallel to the main linac. The longitudinal and transverse beam dynamics of the Drive Beam injector has been studied in detail and optimized. The injector consists of a thermionic gun followed by a bunching system, some accelerating structures, and a magnetic chicane. The bunching system contains three sub-harmonic bunchers, a prebuncher, and a traveling wave buncher all embedded in a solenoidal magnetic field. The main characteristic of the Drive Beam injector is the phase coding process done by the sub-harmonic bunching system operating at half the acceleration frequency. This process is essential for the frequency multiplication of the Drive Beam. During the phase coding process the unwanted satellite bunches are produced that adversely affects the machine power efficiency. The main challenge is to reduce the population of particles in the satellite bunches in the presence of strong space-charge forces due to the high beam current. The simulation of the beam dynamics has been carried out with PARMELA with the goal of optimizing the injector performance compared to the existing model studied for the Conceptual Design Report (CDR). The emphasis of the optimization was on decreasing the satellite population, the beam loss in the magnetic chicane and limiting the beam emittance growth in transverse plane.

  7. Status and future directions for advanced accelerator research - conventional and non-conventional collider concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between advanced accelerator research and future directions for particle physics is discussed. Comments are made about accelerator research trends in hadron colliders, muon colliders, and e{sup +}3{sup {minus}} linear colliders.

  8. Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, A.; Binderbauer, M.; Liu, F.; Qerushi, A.; Rostoker, N.; Wessel, F. J.

    2004-02-01

    The Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion System, CBFR-SPS, is an aneutronic, magnetic-field-reversed configuration, fueled by an energetic-ion mixture of hydrogen and boron11 (H-B11). Particle confinement and transport in the CBFR-SPS are classical, hence the system is scaleable. Fusion products are helium ions, α-particles, expelled axially out of the system. α-particles flowing in one direction are decelerated and their energy recovered to ``power'' the system; particles expelled in the opposite direction provide thrust. Since the fusion products are charged particles, the system does not require the use of a massive-radiation shield. This paper describes a 100 MW CBFR-SPS design, including estimates for the propulsion-system parameters and masses. Specific emphasis is placed on the design of a closed-cycle, Brayton-heat engine, consisting of heat-exchangers, turbo-alternator, compressor, and finned radiators.

  9. When will we know a muon collider is feasible? Status and directions of muon accelerator R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, Vladimir; /Fermilab

    2010-03-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, accelerate and collide high intensity beams of muons. At present, a high-luminosity multi-TeV muon collider presents a viable option for the next generation of lepton-lepton collider, which is believed to be needed to fully explore high energy physics in the era following the LHC discoveries. This paper briefly reviews the status of the accelerator R&D, addresses the question of the feasibility of a Muon Collider, what needs to be done to prove it and presents projected timeline of the project.

  10. Laser cooling of electron beams for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Telnov, V.

    1996-10-01

    A novel method of electron beam cooling is considered which can be used for linear colliders. The electron beam is cooled during collision with focused powerful laser pulse. With reasonable laser parameters (laser flash energy about 10 J) one can decrease transverse beam emittances by a factor about 10 per one stage. The ultimate transverse emittances are much below that given by other methods. Depolarization of a beam during the cooling is about 5--15% for one stage. This method is especially useful for photon colliders and open new possibilities for e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders and x-ray FEL based on high energy linacs.

  11. Experimental demonstration of colliding beam lifetime improvement by electron lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, Vladimir; Alexahin, Yuri; Kamerdzhiev, Vsevolod; Kuznetsov, Gennady; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Bishofberger, Kip; /Los Alamos

    2007-10-01

    We report successful application of space-charge forces of a low-energy electron beam for improvement of particle lifetime determined by beam-beam interaction in high-energy collider. In our experiments, an electron lens, a novel instrument developed for the beam-beam compensation, was set on a 980-GeV proton bunch in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The proton bunch losses due to its interaction with antiproton beam were reduced by a factor of 2 when the electron lens was operating. We describe the principle of electron lens operation and present experimental results.

  12. Excitation of Accelerating Plasma Waves by Counter-propagating Laser Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gennady Shvets; Nathaniel J. Fisch; and Alexander Pukhov

    2001-08-30

    Generation of accelerating plasma waves using two counter-propagating laser beams is considered. Colliding-beam accelerator requires two laser pulses: the long pump and the short timing beam. We emphasize the similarities and differences between the conventional laser wakefield accelerator and the colliding-beam accelerator (CBA). The highly nonlinear nature of the wake excitation is explained using both nonlinear optics and plasma physics concepts. Two regimes of CBA are considered: (i) the short-pulse regime, where the timing beam is shorter than the plasma period, and (ii) the parametric excitation regime, where the timing beam is longer than the plasma period. Possible future experiments are also outlined.

  13. SciDAC Advances in Beam Dynamics Simulation: From Light Sources to Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, J.; Borland, M.; Kabel, A.; Li, R.; Ryne, R.; Stern, E.; Wang, Y.; Wasserman, H.; Zhang, Y.; /SLAC

    2011-11-14

    In this paper, we report on progress that has been made in beam dynamics simulation, from light sources to colliders, during the first year of the SciDAC-2 accelerator project 'Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS).' Several parallel computational tools for beam dynamics simulation are described. Also presented are number of applications in current and future accelerator facilities (e.g., LCLS, RHIC, Tevatron, LHC, and ELIC). Particle accelerators are some of most important tools of scientific discovery. They are widely used in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and other basic and applied sciences to study the interaction of elementary particles, to probe the internal structure of matter, and to generate high-brightness radiation for research in materials science, chemistry, biology, and other fields. Modern accelerators are complex and expensive devices that may be several kilometers long and may consist of thousands of beamline elements. An accelerator may transport trillions of charged particles that interact electromagnetically among themselves, that interact with fields produced by the accelerator components, and that interact with beam-induced fields. Large-scale beam dynamics simulations on massively parallel computers can help provide understanding of these complex physical phenomena, help minimize design cost, and help optimize machine operation. In this paper, we report on beam dynamics simulations in a variety of accelerators ranging from next generation light sources to high-energy ring colliders that have been studied during the first year of the SciDAC-2 accelerator project.

  14. Beam dynamics for induction accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Edward P.

    2014-01-01

    An induction linac uses pulsed power that is applied directly, without any intervening resonant cavities, to accelerate a charged particle pulse. This approach can accommodate a large multiple-beam focusing lattice capable of transporting a large total beam current with a long pulse duration, which may be compressed while accelerating as well as afterward. The mean accelerating gradient is relatively low (less than about 1.5 MV/m), but the potential efficiency of energy transfer can be large up to about 50%. A multiple-beam induction linac is therefore a natural candidate accelerator for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) driver. However, the accelerated beams must meet stringent requirements on occupied phase space volume in order to be focused accurately and with small radius onto the fusion target. Dynamical considerations in the beam injector and linac, as well as in the final compression, final focus, and the fusion chamber, determine the quality of the driver beams as they approach the target. Requirements and tolerances derived from beam dynamics strongly influence the linac configuration and component design.

  15. Tests of the FONT3 Linear Collider Intra-Train Beam Feedback System at the ATF

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.N.; Christian, G.; Clarke, C.; Hartin, A.; Dabiri Khah, H.; Molloy, S.; White, G.R.; Frisch, J.C.; Markiewicz, T.W.; McCormick, D.J.; Ross, M.C.; Smith, S.; Smith, T.J.; Kalinin, A.; Perry, C.; /Oxford Instruments

    2006-03-14

    We report preliminary results of beam tests of the FONT3 Linear Collider intra-train position feedback system prototype at the Accelerator Test Facility at KEK. The feedback system incorporates a novel beam position monitor (BPM) processor with a latency below 5 nanoseconds, and a kicker driver amplifier with similar low latency. The 56 nanosecond-long bunchtrain in the ATF extraction line was used to test the prototype BPM processor. The achieved latency will allow a demonstration of intra-train feedback on timescales relevant even for the CLIC Linear Collider design.

  16. Proposal of the Next Incarnation of Accelerator Test Facility at KEK for the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, S.; Hayano, H.; Higashi, Y.; Honda, Y.; Kanazawa, K.; Kubo, K.; Kume, T.; Kuriki, M.; Kuroda, S.; Masuzawa, M.; Naito, T.; Okugi, T.; Sugahara, R.; Takahashi, T.; Tauchi, T.; Terunuma, N.; Toge, N.; Urakawa, J.; Vogel, V.; Yamaoka, H.; Yokoya, K.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Novosibirsk, IYF /Daresbury /CERN /Hiroshima U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /North Carolina A-T State U. /Oxford U. /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /DESY /SLAC /University Coll. London /Oregon U. /Tokyo U.

    2005-05-27

    To reach design luminosity, the International Linear Collider (ILC) must be able to create and reliably maintain nanometer size beams. The ATF damping ring is the unique facility where ILC emittances are possible. In this paper we present and evaluate the proposal to create a final focus facility at the ATF which, using compact final focus optics and an ILC-like bunch train, would be capable of achieving 37 nm beam size. Such a facility would enable the development of beam diagnostics and tuning methods, as well as the training of young accelerator physicists.

  17. A Concept of Plasma Wake Field Acceleration Linear Collider (PWFA-LC)

    SciTech Connect

    Seryi, Andrei; Hogan, Mark; Pei, Shilun; Raubenheimer, Tor; Tenenbaum, Peter; Katsouleas, Tom; Huang, Chengkun; Joshi, Chan; Mori, Warren; Muggli, Patric; /Southern California U.

    2009-10-30

    Plasma Wake-Field Acceleration (PWFA) has demonstrated acceleration gradients above 50 GeV/m. Simulations have shown drive/witness bunch configurations that yield small energy spreads in the accelerated witness bunch and high energy transfer efficiency from the drive bunch to the witness bunch, ranging from 30% for a Gaussian drive bunch to 95% for a shaped longitudinal profile. These results open the opportunity for a linear collider that could be compact, efficient and more cost effective that the present microwave technologies. A concept of a PWFA-based Linear Collider (PWFA-LC) has been developed and is described in this paper. The drive beam generation and distribution, requirements on the plasma cells, and optimization of the interaction region parameters are described in detail. The R&D steps needed for further development of the concept are also outlined.

  18. Injection of electrons by colliding laser pulses in a laser wakefield accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, M.; Aurand, B.; Ekerfelt, H.; Persson, A.; Lundh, O.

    2016-09-01

    To improve the stability and reproducibility of laser wakefield accelerators and to allow for future applications, controlling the injection of electrons is of great importance. This allows us to control the amount of charge in the beams of accelerated electrons and final energy of the electrons. Results are presented from a recent experiment on controlled injection using the scheme of colliding pulses and performed using the Lund multi-terawatt laser. Each laser pulse is split into two parts close to the interaction point. The main pulse is focused on a 2 mm diameter gas jet to drive a nonlinear plasma wave below threshold for self-trapping. The second pulse, containing only a fraction of the total laser energy, is focused to collide with the main pulse in the gas jet under an angle of 150°. Beams of accelerated electrons with low divergence and small energy spread are produced using this set-up. Control over the amount of accelerated charge is achieved by rotating the plane of polarization of the second pulse in relation to the main pulse. Furthermore, the peak energy of the electrons in the beams is controlled by moving the collision point along the optical axis of the main pulse, and thereby changing the acceleration length in the plasma.

  19. Summary Report of Working Group 5: Electron Beam Driven Plasma Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Mark J.; Conde, Manoel E.

    2009-01-22

    Electron beam driven plasma accelerators have seen rapid progress over the last decade. Recent efforts have built on this success by constructing a concept for a plasma wakefield accelerator based linear collider. The needs for any future collider to deliver both energy and luminosity have substantial implications for interpreting current experiments and setting priorities for the future. This working group reviewed current experiments and ideas in the context of the demands of a future collider. The many discussions and presentations are summarized here.

  20. An MCNPX accelerator beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Durkee, Joe W.; Elson, Jay S.; Jason, Andrew; Johns, Russell C.; Waters, Laurie S.

    2009-06-04

    MCNPX is a powerful Monte Carlo code that can be used to conduct sophisticated radiation-transport simulations involving complex physics and geometry. Although MCNPX possesses a wide assortment of standardized modeling tools, there are instances in which a user's needs can eclipse existing code capabilities. Fortunately, although it may not be widely known, MCNPX can accommodate many customization needs. In this article, we demonstrate source-customization capability for a new SOURCE subroutine as part of our development to enable simulations involving accelerator beams for active-interrogation studies. Simulation results for a muon beam are presented to illustrate the new accelerator-source capability.

  1. Effect of 3D Polarization profiles on polarization measurements and colliding beam experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Bazilevsky, A.

    2011-08-18

    The development of polarization profiles are the primary reason for the loss of average polarization. Polarization profiles have been parametrized with a Gaussian distribution. We derive the effect of 3-dimensional polarization profiles on the measured polarization in polarimeters, as well as the observed polarization and the figure of merit in single and double spin experiments. Examples from RHIC are provided. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the only collider of spin polarized protons. During beam acceleration and storage profiles of the polarization P develop, which affect the polarization measured in a polarimeter, and the polarization and figure of merit (FOM) in colliding beam experiments. We calculate these for profiles in all dimensions, and give examples for RHIC. Like in RHIC we call the two colliding beams Blue and Yellow. We use the overbar to designate intensity-weighted averages in polarimeters (e.g. {bar P}), and angle brackets to designate luminosity-weighted averages in colliding beam experiments (e.g.

    ).

  2. Linear accelerators for TeV colliders. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.B.

    1985-10-01

    The basic scaling relations for important linear collider design parameters are introduced. Some of the basic concepts concerning the design of accelerating structures are presented, and breakdown limitations are discussed. Rf power sources are considered. Some of the key concepts of wakefield accelerators are discussed, and some examples of wake fields for typical linac structures are presented. Some general concepts concerning emittance, and the limitations on the emittance that can be obtained from linac guns and damping rings are discussed. 49 refs., 15 figs. (LEW)

  3. Design and construction of vacuum systems for large colliders using superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Halama, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Vacuum system requirements for proton accelerators and colliders with superconducting megnets are discussed. The vacuum systems for the colliding beam accelerator and the Tevatron are described. (WHK)

  4. Depolarization due to beam-beam interaction in electron-positron linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoya, Kaoru; Chen, Pisin

    1988-09-01

    We investigate two major mechanisms which induce depolarization of electron beams during beam-beam interaction in linear colliders. These are the classical spin precession under the collective field of the oncoming beam, and the spin-flip effect from beamstrahlung. Analytic formulas are derived for estimating these depolarization effects. As examples, we estimate the depolarization in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) and a possible future TeV linear collider (TLC). The effects are found to be negligibly small for SLC and not very large for TLC. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Effect of Beam-Beam Interactions on Stability of Coherent Oscillations in a Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; Ohmi, K.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2012-05-01

    In order to achieve peak luminosity of a muon collider in the 10{sup 34}/cm{sup 2}/s range the number of muons per bunch should be of the order of a few units of 10{sup 12} rendering the beam-beam parameter as high as 0.1 per IP. Such strong beam-beam interaction can be a source of instability if the working point is chosen close to a coherent beam-beam resonance. On the other hand, the beam-beam tunespread can provide a mechanism of suppression of the beam-wall driven instabilities. In this report the coherent instabilities driven by beam-beam and beam-wall interactions are studied with the help of BBSS code for the case of 1.5 TeV c.o.m muon collider.

  6. Pair production as a probe of colliding beam size

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pisin; Irwin, J.; Spitkovsky, A.

    1994-07-01

    We propose the use of soft e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} pairs as a non-evasive measurement of the colliding beam size. The angular distribution of the pair particles that have different sign of charge from that of the opposing beam, provides the information about the aspect ratio of the beam. The transverse momentum of the other species in the pair, on the other hand, carries information about the horizontal dimension of the beam. Together, one can in principle measure both {sigma}{sub x} and {sigma}{sub y}.

  7. Proton Beams from Nanotube Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Masakatsu; Tanaka, Motohiko

    2013-10-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) is known to have extraordinary material and mechanical properties. Here we propose a novel ion acceleration scheme with nanometer-size CNT working at such an extreme circumstance as temperatures higher than billions of degree and durations shorter than tens of femtosecond, dubbed as nanotube accelerator, with which quasimonoenergetic and collimated MeV-order proton beams are generated. In nanotube accelerators, CNTs with fragments of a hydrogen compound embedded inside are irradiated by an ultrashort ultraintense laser. Under such laser and target conditions, low-Z materials such as hydrogen and carbon will be fully ionized. Substantial amount of electrons of the system are then blown off by the brutal laser electric field within only a few laser cycles. This leads to a new type of ion acceleration, in which the nanotube and embedded materials play the roles of a gun barrel and bullets, respectively, to produce highly collimated and quasimonoenergetic proton beams. Three-dimensional particle simulations, that take all the two-body Coulomb interactions into account, demonstrate generation of quasimonoenergetic 1.5-MeV proton beams under a super-intense electrostatic field ~ 1014 V m-1.

  8. Single bunch beam measurements for the proposed SLAC linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    Clendenin, J.E.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Truher, J.B.

    1981-02-01

    Single S-band bunches of approx. 10/sup 9/ electrons have been used to study the characteristics of the SLAC linac in anticipation of its operation as a linear collider. Emittance measurements have been made, the longitudinal charge distribution within single bunches has been determined and transverse emittance growth has been produced by deliberately missteering the beam. New equipment is being installed and checked out, and the sensitivity of new traveling-wave beam position monitors has been measured.

  9. Studies of beam dynamics in relativistic klystron two- beam accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidia, Steven Michael

    Two-beam accelerators (TBAs) based upon free-electron lasers (FELs) or relativistic klystrons (RK-TBAs) have been proposed as efficient power sources for next generation high-energy linear colliders. Studies have demonstrated the possibility of building TBAs from X-band (~8-12 GHz) through Ka-band (~30-35 GHz) frequency regions. A new method of simulating the beam dynamics in accelerators of this type has been developed in this dissertation. There are three main components to this simulation. The first is a tracking algorithm to generate nonlinear transfer maps for pushing noninteracting particles through the external fields. A mapping algorithm is used so that tens or hundreds of thousands of macroparticles can be pushed from the solution of a few hundreds of differential equations. This is a great cost-savings device from the standpoint of CPU cycles. It can increase by several orders of magnitude the number of macroparticles that take place in the simulation, enabling more accurate modeling of the evolution of the beam distribution and enhanced sensitivity to effects due to the beam's halo. The second component is a 3D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) algorithm that solves a set of Helmholtz equations for the self-fields, including the conducting boundary condition, and generates impulses that are interleaved with the nonlinear maps by means of a split- operator algorithm. The Helmholtz equations are solved by a multi-grid algorithm. The third component is an equivalent circuit equation solver that advances the modal rf cavity fields in time due to excitation by the modulated beam. The beam-cavity interaction is analyzed and divided naturally into two distinct times scales. The RTA project is described, and the simulation code is used to design the latter portions of the experiment. Detailed calculations of the beam dynamics and of the rf cavity output are presented and discussed. A beamline design is presented that will generate nearly 1.2 TW of power from 40 input, gain

  10. Degradation of multibunch luminosity in a linear collider due to cumulative beam breakup

    SciTech Connect

    Courtlandt L. Bohn; Michael J. Syphers; Daniel Schulte

    2001-06-26

    Beam-excited transverse wakes in accelerating radiofrequency structures will influence the transverse offsets of each bunch in a multibunch train, causing the projected emittance of the bunch train to grow. An analytic theory of this phenomenon that includes the mitigating influence of a correlated energy spread across the bunch train was recently devised and applied to electron-positron linear colliders. We use the results of this theory to estimate analytically the associated degradation of multibunch luminosity in terms of top-level parameters for the two beams, the two accelerators, and the final-focus system. Then we compare the estimates with results from GUINEA-PIG, a code that includes the detailed physics of beam-beam interactions.

  11. International X-Band Linear Collider Accelerator Structure R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.W.; /SLAC

    2009-03-04

    For more than fifteen years before the International Technology Recommendation Panel (ITRP) decision in August, 2004, there were intensive R&D activities and broad international collaboration among the groups at SLAC, KEK, FNAL, LLNL and other labs for the room temperature X-Band accelerator structures. The goal was to provide an optimized design of the main linac structure for the NLC (Next Linear Collider) or GLC (Global Linear Collider). There have been two major challenges in developing X-band accelerator structures for the linear colliders. The first is to demonstrate stable, long-term operation at the high gradient (65 MV/m) that is required to optimize the machine cost. The second is to strongly suppress the beam induced long-range wakefields, which is required to achieve high luminosity. More than thirty X-band accelerator structures with various RF parameters, cavity shapes and coupler types have been fabricated and tested since 1989. A summary of the main achievements and experiences are presented in this talk including the structure design, manufacturing techniques, high power performance, and other structure related issues. Also, the new progress in collaborating with the CLIC, high gradient structures and X-Band structure applications for RF deflectors and others are briefly introduced.

  12. Beam dynamics studies for the relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidia, Steven M.

    2001-04-01

    Two-beam accelerators (TBAs) have been proposed as efficient power sources for next generation high-energy linear colliders. Studies have demonstrated the possibility of building TBAs from X-band \\(~8-12 GHz\\) through Ka-band \\(~30-35 GHz\\) frequency regions. The relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator project, whose aim is to study TBAs based upon extended relativistic klystrons, is described, and a new simulation code is used to design the latter portions of the experiment. Detailed, self-consistent calculations of the beam dynamics and of the rf cavity output are presented and discussed together with a beam line design that will generate nearly 1.2 GW of power from 40 rf cavities over a 10 m distance. The simulations show that beam current losses are acceptable and that longitudinal and transverse focusing techniques are sufficiently capable of maintaining a high degree of beam quality along the entire beam line.

  13. Approaches to Beam Stabilization in X-Band Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, Josef; Hendrickson, Linda; Himel, Thomas; Markiewicz, Thomas; Raubenheimer, Tor; Seryi, Andrei; Burrow, Philip; Molloy, Stephen; White, Glen; /Queen Mary U. of London

    2006-09-05

    In order to stabilize the beams at the interaction point, the X-band linear collider proposes to use a combination of techniques: inter-train and intra-train beam-beam feedback, passive vibration isolation, and active vibration stabilization based on either accelerometers or laser interferometers. These systems operate in a technologically redundant fashion: simulations indicate that if one technique proves unusable in the final machine, the others will still support adequate luminosity. Experiments underway for all of these technologies have already demonstrated adequate performance.

  14. Multi-beam linear accelerator EVT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teryaev, Vladimir E.; Kazakov, Sergey Yu.; Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2016-09-01

    A novel electron multi-beam accelerator is presented. The accelerator, short-named EVT (Electron Voltage Transformer) belongs to the class of two-beam accelerators. It combines an RF generator and essentially an accelerator within the same vacuum envelope. Drive beam-lets and an accelerated beam are modulated in RF modulators and then bunches pass into an accelerating structure, comprising uncoupled with each other and inductive tuned cavities, where the energy transfer from the drive beams to the accelerated beam occurs. A phasing of bunches is solved by choice correspond distances between gaps of the adjacent cavities. Preliminary results of numerical simulations and the initial specification of EVT operating in S-band, with a 60 kV gun and generating a 2.7 A, 1.1 MV beam at its output is presented. A relatively high efficiency of 67% and high design average power suggest that EVT can find its use in industrial applications.

  15. Obtaining slow beam spills at the SSC collider

    SciTech Connect

    Ritson, D.

    1993-08-01

    There is substantial interest in providing slow-spill external proton beams in parallel with ``interaction running`` at the 20 TeV SSC collider. The proposal is to cause a flux of particles to impinge on a target consisting of a bent crystal extraction channel. Additionally, a slow spill onto a conventional internal target could be used as a source of secondary beams for physics or test purposes and might also be used for B-physics as proposed for HERA. The ``natural`` beam loss rates from elastic and diffractive beam gas scattering and IP collisions are not sufficient to provide suitably intense external proton beams. To prevent loss of luminosity, the rf excitation is non-linear and preferentially blows up the halo of the beam. The ``target`` is to be located at a region of high dispersion forcing particles at the edge of the momentum space onto the target. T. Lohse in this workshop has described a proposed internal target to be used at HERA that will not employ rf excitation but will use the finite loss rates observed at the HERA machine. The Hera losses are caused by a variety of sources in addition to beam gas scattering or IP interactions. Initially, the beam lifetime at HERA was too short to obtain satisfactory integrated luminosities. Subsequently, through careful attention to detail, the beam lifetime was increased to > 20 hours. Even with these changes, present loss rates provide the required intensity onto an internal target. The Tevatron and SPS proton anti-proton colliders have had similar experiences with their investigations of loss rates and also find that beam lifetimes may be substantially shorter than expected solely from beam gas and IP interactions. This paper proposes deliberately introducing controlled errors li

  16. Interplay of space-charge and beam-beam effects in a collider

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A.V.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.

    2010-09-27

    Operation of a collider at low energy or use of cooling techniques to increase beam density may result in luminosity limitation due to the space-charge effects. Understanding of such limitation became important for Low-Energy RHIC physics program with heavy ions at the center of mass energies of 5-20 GeV/nucleon. For a collider, we are interested in a long beam lifetime, which limits the allowable space-charge tune shift. An additional complication comes from the fact that ion beams are colliding, which requires careful consideration of the interplay of direct space-charge and beam-beam effects. This paper summarizes the initial observations during experimental studies in RHIC at low energies.

  17. Linear Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Yokoya, Kaoru

    2015-02-01

    An overview of linear collider programs is given. The history and technical challenges are described and the pioneering electron-positron linear collider, the SLC, is first introduced. For future energy frontier linear collider projects, the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) are introduced and their technical features are discussed. The ILC is based on superconducting RF technology and the CLIC is based on two-beam acceleration technology. The ILC collaboration completed the Technical Design Report in 2013, and has come to the stage of "Design to Reality." The CLIC collaboration published the Conceptual Design Report in 2012, and the key technology demonstration is in progress. The prospects for further advanced acceleration technology are briefly discussed for possible long-term future linear colliders.

  18. Linear Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Yokoya, Kaoru

    An overview of linear collider programs is given. The history and technical challenges are described and the pioneering electron-positron linear collider, the SLC, is first introduced. For future energy frontier linear collider projects, the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) are introduced and their technical features are discussed. The ILC is based on superconducting RF technology and the CLIC is based on two-beam acceleration technology. The ILC collaboration completed the Technical Design Report in 2013, and has come to the stage of "Design to Reality." The CLIC collaboration published the Conceptual Design Report in 2012, and the key technology demonstration is in progress. The prospects for further advanced acceleration technology are briefly discussed for possible long-term future linear colliders.

  19. Annular beam-driven high-gradient accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Keinigs, R.; Jones, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    During the past several years there has been an increasing interest in using wakefield acceleration techniques as a means for achieving TeV energies with the next generation of linear colliders. The principal design goals for a wakefield accelerator that is to be sued in this context are high accelerating gradients and large transformer ratios. Fundamentally any slow wave structure can function as a wakefield accelerator, and several interesting concepts have been proposed. In this paper we consider for the slow wave structure a dielectrically loaded waveguide. The Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator is a very simple device. The geometry consists of a gapless cavity filled with a dielectric. The dielectric may fill all or just part of the cavity. Here we investigate driving the system with an intense annular beam, so the dielectric is separated from the wall by a vacuum region in which this beam is propagated. The primary advantage of driving with an annular beam is that larger currents can be achieved, and thus larger accelerating gradients can be generated. The drive beam is stabilized by a strong, axial magnetic field. The wall is coated with a dielectric liner to provide for better coupling. A small hole is drilled in the center of the dielectric to allow for the passage of a low current, witness beam.

  20. Intense beams at the micron level for the Next Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.T.

    1991-08-01

    High brightness beams with sub-micron dimensions are needed to produce a high luminosity for electron-positron collisions in the Next Linear Collider (NLC). To generate these small beam sizes, a large number of issues dealing with intense beams have to be resolved. Over the past few years many have been successfully addressed but most need experimental verification. Some of these issues are beam dynamics, emittance control, instrumentation, collimation, and beam-beam interactions. Recently, the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) has proven the viability of linear collider technology and is an excellent test facility for future linear collider studies.

  1. Beam dynamics studies for the relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lidia, Steven M.

    2001-06-22

    Two-beam accelerators based upon relativistic klystron s (RK s) have been proposed as power sources for future generation linear electron-positron colliders. These drivers are known to suffer from several transverse beam break-up (BBU) instabilities. A program to study a particular technique (the betatron node scheme ) for ameliorating the high frequency BBU is under way at LBNL. Central to this study are the pillbox RF cavities and RF beam position monitors (BPM s) employed. This paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of the RF components. Performance details during operation are also discussed.

  2. Proposing a Laser Based Beam Size Monitor for the Future Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Marc C

    2001-12-10

    Compton scattering techniques for the measurement of the transverse beam size of particle beams at future linear colliders (FLC) are proposed. At several locations of the beam delivery system (BDS) of the FLC, beam spot sizes ranging from several hundreds to a few micrometers have to be measured. This is necessary to verify beam optics, to obtain the transverse beam emittance, and to achieve the highest possible luminosity. The large demagnification of the beam in the BDS and the high beam power puts extreme conditions on any measuring device. With conventional techniques at their operational limit in FLC scenarios, new methods for the detection of the transverse beam size have to be developed. For this laser based techniques are proposed capable of measuring high power beams with sizes in the micrometer range. In this paper general aspects and critical issues of a generic device are outlined and specific solutions proposed. Plans to install a laser wire experiment at an accelerator test facility are presented.

  3. Electron beam accelerator with magnetic pulse compression and accelerator switching

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L.; Reginato, Louis L.

    1988-01-01

    An electron beam accelerator comprising an electron beam generator-injector to produce a focused beam of .gtoreq.0.1 MeV energy electrons; a plurality of substantially identical, aligned accelerator modules to sequentially receive and increase the kinetic energies of the beam electrons by about 0.1-1 MeV per module. Each accelerator module includes a pulse-forming network that delivers a voltage pulse to the module of substantially .gtoreq.0.1-1 MeV maximum energy over a time duration of .ltoreq.1 .mu.sec.

  4. Electron beam accelerator with magnetic pulse compression and accelerator switching

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L.; Reginato, Louis L.

    1987-01-01

    An electron beam accelerator comprising an electron beam generator-injector to produce a focused beam of .gtoreq.0.1 MeV energy electrons; a plurality of substantially identical, aligned accelerator modules to sequentially receive and increase the kinetic energies of the beam electrons by about 0.1-1 MeV per module. Each accelerator module includes a pulse-forming network that delivers a voltage pulse to the module of substantially 0.1-1 MeV maximum energy over a time duration of .ltoreq.1 .mu.sec.

  5. Electron beam accelerator with magnetic pulse compression and accelerator switching

    DOEpatents

    Birx, D.L.; Reginato, L.L.

    1984-03-22

    An electron beam accelerator is described comprising an electron beam generator-injector to produce a focused beam of greater than or equal to .1 MeV energy electrons; a plurality of substantially identical, aligned accelerator modules to sequentially receive and increase the kinetic energies of the beam electron by about .1-1 MeV per module. Each accelerator module includes a pulse-forming network that delivers a voltage pulse to the module of substantially .1-1 MeV maximum energy over a time duration of less than or equal to 1 ..mu..sec.

  6. Beam tube vacuum in future superconducting proton colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, W.

    1994-10-01

    The beam tube vacuum requirements in future superconducting proton colliders that have been proposed or discussed in the literature -- SSC, LHC, and ELN -- are reviewed. The main beam tube vacuum problem encountered in these machines is how to deal with the magnitude of gas desorption and power deposition by synchrotron radiation while satisfying resistivity, impedance, and space constraints in the cryogenic environment of superconducting magnets. A beam tube vacuum model is developed that treats photodesorption of tightly bound H, C, and 0, photodesorption of physisorbed molecules, and the isotherm vapor pressure of H{sub 2}. Experimental data on cold tube photodesorption experiments are reviewed and applied to model calculations of beam tube vacuum performance for simple cold beam tube and liner configurations. Particular emphasis is placed on the modeling and interpretation of beam tube photodesorpiion experiments at electron synchrotron light sources. The paper also includes discussion of the constraints imposed by beam image current heating, the growth rate of the resistive wall instability, and single-bunch instability impedance limits.

  7. Colliding pulse injection experiments in non-collinear geometryfor controlled laser plasma wakefield acceleration of electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, Carl B.; Esarey, Eric H.; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Leemans,Wim P.; Nakamura, Kei; Panasenko, Dmitriy; Schroeder, Carl B.; Bruhwiler,D.; Cary, J.R.

    2007-06-25

    An optical injection scheme for a laser-plasma basedaccelerator which employs a non-collinear counter-propagating laser beamto push background electrons in the focusing and acceleration phase viaponderomotive beat with the trailing part of the wakefield driver pulseis discussed. Preliminary experiments were performed using a drive beamof a_0 = 2.6 and colliding beam of a_1 = 0.8 both focused on the middleof a 200 mu m slit jet backed with 20 bar, which provided ~; 260 mu mlong gas plume. The enhancement in the total charge by the collidingpulse was observed with sharp dependence on the delay time of thecolliding beam. Enhancement of the neutron yield was also measured, whichsuggests a generation of electrons above 10 MeV.

  8. Thermomechanical response of Large Hadron Collider collimators to proton and ion beam impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauchi, Marija; Assmann, R. W.; Bertarelli, A.; Carra, F.; Cerutti, F.; Lari, L.; Redaelli, S.; Mollicone, P.; Sammut, N.

    2015-04-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to accelerate and bring into collision high-energy protons as well as heavy ions. Accidents involving direct beam impacts on collimators can happen in both cases. The LHC collimation system is designed to handle the demanding requirements of high-intensity proton beams. Although proton beams have 100 times higher beam power than the nominal LHC lead ion beams, specific problems might arise in case of ion losses due to different particle-collimator interaction mechanisms when compared to protons. This paper investigates and compares direct ion and proton beam impacts on collimators, in particular tertiary collimators (TCTs), made of the tungsten heavy alloy INERMET® 180. Recent measurements of the mechanical behavior of this alloy under static and dynamic loading conditions at different temperatures have been done and used for realistic estimates of the collimator response to beam impact. Using these new measurements, a numerical finite element method (FEM) approach is presented in this paper. Sequential fast-transient thermostructural analyses are performed in the elastic-plastic domain in order to evaluate and compare the thermomechanical response of TCTs in case of critical beam load cases involving proton and heavy ion beam impacts.

  9. Simulation Studies of Beam-Beam Effects of a Ring-Ring Electron-Ion Collider Based on CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Yuhong Zhang,Ji Qiang

    2009-05-01

    The collective beam-beam effect can potentially cause a rapid growth of beam sizes and reduce the luminosity of a collider to an unacceptably low level. The ELIC, a proposed ultra high luminosity electron-ion collider based on CEBAF, employs high repetition rate crab crossing colliding beams with very small bunch transverse sizes and very short bunch lengths, and collides them at up to 4 interaction points with strong final focusing. All of these features can make the beam-beam effect challenging. In this paper, we present simulation studies of the beam-beam effect in ELIC using a self-consistent strong-strong beam-beam simulation code developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This simulation study is used for validating the ELIC design and for searching for an optimal parameter set.

  10. Ion beam parameters of a plasma accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, V.G.; Vinogradov, A.M.; Veselovzorov, A.N.; Efremov, V.K.

    1987-08-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the dependences of the current density, the energy, and the divergence of the ion beams of an UZDP-type source (a plasma accelerator with closed electron drift in the accelerator channel and an extended zone of ion acceleration) on the parameters which determine its performance, and to establish qualitative relationships between these values.

  11. To study the emittance dilution in Superconducting Linear Accelerator Design for International Linear Collider (ILC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Kirti; Solyak, Nikolay; Tenenbaum, Peter

    2005-04-01

    Recently the particle physics community has chosen a single technology for the new accelerator, opening the way for the world community to unite and concentrate resources on the design of an International Linear collider (ILC) using superconducting technology. One of the key operational issues in the design of the ILC will be the preservation of the small beam emittances during passage through the main linear accelerator (linac). Sources of emittance dilution include incoherent misalignments of the quadrupole magnets and rf-structure misalignments. In this work, the study of emittance dilution for the 500-GeV center of mass energy main linac of the Superconducting Linear Accelerator design, based on adaptation of the TESLA TDR design is performed using LIAR simulation program. Based on the tolerances of the present design, effect of two important Beam-Based steering algorithms, Flat Steering and Dispersion Free Steering, are compared with respect to the emittance dilution in the main linac. We also investigated the effect of various misalignments on the emittance dilution for these two steering algorithms.

  12. Review of linear collider beam-beam interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.

    1989-01-01

    Three major effects from the interaction of e/sup +/e/sup /minus// beams---disruption, beamstrahlung, and electron-positron pair creation---are reviewed. For the disruption effects we discuss the luminosity enhancement factor, the maximum and rms disruption angles, and the ''kink instability''. All the results are obtained from computer simulations. Scaling laws for the numerical results and theoretical explanations of the computer acquired phenomena are offered wherever possible. For the beamstrahlung effects we concentrate only on the final electron energy spectrum resulting from multiple photon radiation process, and the deflection angle associated with low energy particles. For the effects from electron-positron pair creation, both coherent and incoherent processes of beamstrahlung pair creation are discussed. In addition to the estimation on total number of such pairs, we also look into the energy spectrum and the deflection angle. 17 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Beam break-up in the two beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, D.H.; Travish, G.A.; Sessler, A.M.; Craig, G.D.; DeFord, J.F.

    1989-03-01

    We have studied numerically beam break-up (BBU) in the drive beam of a Two-Beam Accelerator (TBA), using transverse wakes calculated numerically using the AMOS Code. We examine only cumulative BBU due to the wake of the linear induction accelerator cavities. We do not consider regenerative BBU due to the relativistic klystron (RK) cavities. We find growth lengths of order /approximately/100 m for typical parameters. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Measurement of nonlinear observables in the Large Hadron Collider using kicked beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, E. H.; Tomás, R.; Schmidt, F.; Persson, T. H. B.

    2014-08-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a circular accelerator such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) may significantly impact its performance. As the LHC progresses to more challenging regimes of operation it is to be expected that the nonlinear single particle dynamics in the transverse planes will play an increasing role in limiting the reach of the accelerator. As such it is vital that the nonlinear sources are well understood. The nonlinear fields of a circular accelerator may be probed through measurement of the amplitude detuning: the variation of tune with single particle emittance. This quantity may be assessed experimentally by exciting the beam to large amplitudes with kicks, and obtaining the tunes and actions from turn-by-turn data at Beam Position Monitors. The large amplitude excitations inherent to such a measurement also facilitate measurement of the dynamic aperture from an analysis of beam losses following the kicks. In 2012 these measurements were performed on the LHC Beam 2 at injection energy (450 GeV) with the nominal magnetic configuration. Nonlinear coupling was also observed. A second set of measurements were performed following the application of corrections for b4 and b5 errors. Analysis of the experimental results, and a comparison to simulation are presented herein.

  15. High efficiency ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.

    1981-01-01

    An ion accelerator system that successfully combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing principles is presented. This accelerator system uses thin, concave, multiple-hole, closely spaced graphite screen and focusing grids which are coupled to single slot accelerator and decelerator grids to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing. Tests with the system showed a substantial improvement in ion beam current density and collimation as compared with a Pierce electrode configuration. Durability of the thin graphite screen and focusing grids has been proven, and tests are being performed to determine the minimum screen and focusing grid spacing and thickness required to extract the maximum reliable beam current density. Compared with present neutral beam injector accelerator systems, this one has more efficient ion extraction, easier grid alignment, easier fabrication, a less cumbersome design, and the capacity to be constructed in a modular fashion. Conceptual neutral beam injector designs using this modular approach have electrostatic beam deflection plates downstream of each module.

  16. Ion colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions [77Asb1, 81Bou1]. The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the

  17. Simulations and measurements of beam loss patterns at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, R.; Assmann, R. W.; Boccone, V.; Bracco, C.; Brugger, M.; Cauchi, M.; Cerutti, F.; Deboy, D.; Ferrari, A.; Lari, L.; Marsili, A.; Mereghetti, A.; Mirarchi, D.; Quaranta, E.; Redaelli, S.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Rossi, A.; Salvachua, B.; Skordis, E.; Tambasco, C.; Valentino, G.; Weiler, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Wollmann, D.

    2014-08-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide proton beams of unprecedented energy, in order to extend the frontiers of high-energy particle physics. During the first very successful running period in 2010-2013, the LHC was routinely storing protons at 3.5-4 TeV with a total beam energy of up to 146 MJ, and even higher stored energies are foreseen in the future. This puts extraordinary demands on the control of beam losses. An uncontrolled loss of even a tiny fraction of the beam could cause a superconducting magnet to undergo a transition into a normal-conducting state, or in the worst case cause material damage. Hence a multistage collimation system has been installed in order to safely intercept high-amplitude beam protons before they are lost elsewhere. To guarantee adequate protection from the collimators, a detailed theoretical understanding is needed. This article presents results of numerical simulations of the distribution of beam losses around the LHC that have leaked out of the collimation system. The studies include tracking of protons through the fields of more than 5000 magnets in the 27 km LHC ring over hundreds of revolutions, and Monte Carlo simulations of particle-matter interactions both in collimators and machine elements being hit by escaping particles. The simulation results agree typically within a factor 2 with measurements of beam loss distributions from the previous LHC run. Considering the complex simulation, which must account for a very large number of unknown imperfections, and in view of the total losses around the ring spanning over 7 orders of magnitude, we consider this an excellent agreement. Our results give confidence in the simulation tools, which are used also for the design of future accelerators.

  18. Beam Breakup Effects in Dielectric Based Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Kanareykin, A.; Jing, C.; Kustov, A.; Altmark, A.; Power, J. G.; Gai, W.

    2009-01-22

    The dynamics of the beam in structure-based wakefield accelerators leads to beam stability issues not ordinarily found in other machines. In particular, the high current drive beam in an efficient wakefield accelerator loses a large fraction of its energy in the decelerator structure, resulting in physical emittance growth, increased energy spread, and the possibility of head-tail instability for an off axis beam, all of which can lead to severe reduction of beam intensity. Beam breakup (BBU) effects resulting from parasitic wakefields provide a potentially serious limitation to the performance of dielectric structure based wakefield accelerators as well. We report on experimental and numerical investigation of BBU and its mitigation. The experimental program focuses on BBU measurements at the AWA facility in a number of high gradient and high transformer ratio wakefield devices. New pickup-based beam diagnostics will provide methods for studying parasitic wakefields that are currently unavailable. The numerical part of this research is based on a particle-Green's function beam breakup code we are developing that allows rapid, efficient simulation of beam breakup effects in advanced linear accelerators. The goal of this work is to be able to compare the results of detailed experimental measurements with the accurate numerical results and to design an external FODO channel for the control of the beam in the presence of strong transverse wakefields.

  19. Thermomechanical assessment of the effects of a jaw-beam angle during beam impact on Large Hadron Collider collimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauchi, Marija; Assmann, R. W.; Bertarelli, A.; Carra, F.; Lari, L.; Rossi, A.; Mollicone, P.; Sammut, N.

    2015-02-01

    The correct functioning of a collimation system is crucial to safely and successfully operate high-energy particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). However, the requirements to handle high-intensity beams can be demanding, and accident scenarios must be well studied in order to assess if the collimator design is robust against possible error scenarios. One of the catastrophic, though not very probable, accident scenarios identified within the LHC is an asynchronous beam dump. In this case, one (or more) of the 15 precharged kicker circuits fires out of time with the abort gap, spraying beam pulses onto LHC machine elements before the machine protection system can fire the remaining kicker circuits and bring the beam to the dump. If a proton bunch directly hits a collimator during such an event, severe beam-induced damage such as magnet quenches and other equipment damage might result, with consequent downtime for the machine. This study investigates a number of newly defined jaw error cases, which include angular misalignment errors of the collimator jaw. A numerical finite element method approach is presented in order to precisely evaluate the thermomechanical response of tertiary collimators to beam impact. We identify the most critical and interesting cases, and show that a tilt of the jaw can actually mitigate the effect of an asynchronous dump on the collimators. Relevant collimator damage limits are taken into account, with the aim to identify optimal operational conditions for the LHC.

  20. Research and Development of Future Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Muon collider is a considerable candidate of the next generation high-energy lepton collider machine. A novel accelerator technology must be developed to overcome several intrinsic issues of muon acceleration. Recent research and development of critical beam elements for a muon accelerator, especially muon beam phase space ionization cooling channel, are reviewed in this paper.

  1. Pointing of laser-accelerated proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, J.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Risse, E.; Kalachnikov, M.P.; Nickles, P.V.; Sandner, W.; Schramm, U.; Habs, D.; Witte, J.; Schnuerer, M.

    2006-03-15

    Small fluctuations in the acceleration sheath change the pointing of a proton beam accelerated from the rear side of a laser irradiated thin aluminum foil. The proton acceleration was produced with 40 fs pulses of a Ti:sapphire laser at an intensity of approximately 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. This observation has been made with a high spatial resolution Thomson spectrometer. The proton beam pointing has appeared stable in the energy range between the high energy cutoff (3 MeV) and 50% of this value. Deviations of the beam position at lower energies changes in a range of 0-3 mrad. The recorded pictures show wiggled and continuous proton traces which imply a release of the proton beam from the acceleration zone with a velocity chirp.

  2. Intensity-symmetric accelerating caustic beams.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhijun; Jin, Hongzhen; Peng, Baojin; Shi, Yile

    2016-09-20

    We construct and generate symmetric accelerating caustic beams (ACBs) by using 3/2-order phase-only masks with elliptical contour based on optical caustics and diffraction theory. The symmetric ACBs are a type of bimodal accelerating caustic beam with two quasi-constant intensity peaks, very similar to the combination of two face-to-face Airy-like beams judging by appearance. Their fundamental optical morphology and force properties of particles in ACBs are subsequently provided. The unique optical properties of ACBs can be exploited for practical uses, such as accelerating electrons and clearing micrometer-sized particles as a laser micrometer-sized "water pump" instead of a laser micrometer-sized "snowblower" of accelerating Airy beams. PMID:27661599

  3. RF BEAM CONTROL SYSTEM FOR THE BROOKHAVEN RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER, RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    BRENNAN,J.M.; CAMPBELL,A.; DELONG,J.; HAYES,T.; ONILLON,E.; ROSE,J.; VETTER,K.

    1998-06-22

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC, is two counter-rotating rings with six interaction points. The RF Beam Control system for each ring will control two 28 MHz cavities for acceleration, and five 197 MHz cavities for preserving the 5 ns bunch length during 10 hour beam stores. Digital technology is used extensively in: Direct Digital Synthesis of rf signals and Digital Signal Processing for, the realization of state-variable feedback loops, real-time calculation of rf frequency, and bunch-by-bunch phase measurement of the 120 bunches. DSP technology enables programming the parameters of the feedback loops in order to obtain closed-loop dynamics that are independent of synchrotron frequency.

  4. Microwave accelerator E-beam pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Brau, Charles A.; Stein, William E.; Rockwood, Stephen D.

    1980-01-01

    A device and method for pumping gaseous lasers by means of a microwave accelerator. The microwave accelerator produces a relativistic electron beam which is applied along the longitudinal axis of the laser through an electron beam window. The incident points of the electron beam on the electron beam window are varied by deflection coils to enhance the cooling characteristics of the foil. A thyratron is used to reliably modulate the microwave accelerator to produce electron beam pulses which excite the laser medium to produce laser pulse repetition frequencies not previously obtainable. An aerodynamic window is also disclosed which eliminates foil heating problems, as well as a magnetic bottle for reducing laser cavity length and pressures while maintaining efficient energy deposition.

  5. Studying astrophysical particle acceleration mechanisms with colliding magnetized laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, W.; Deng, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Fiksel, G.; Nilson, P.; Haberberger, D.; Chang, P.-Y.; Barnak, D.

    2015-11-01

    Significant particle energization is observed to occur in many astrophysical environments, and in the standard models this acceleration occurs as a part of the energy conversion processes associated with collisionless shocks or magnetic reconnection. A recent generation of laboratory experiments conducted using magnetized laser-produced plasmas has opened opportunities to study these particle acceleration processes in the laboratory. Ablated plasma plumes are externally magnetized using an externally-applied magnetic field in combination with a low-density background plasma. Colliding unmagnetized plasmas demonstrated ion-driven Weibel instability while colliding magnetized plasmas drive magnetic reconnection. Both magnetized and unmagnetized colliding plasma are modeled with electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations which provide an end-to-end model of the experiments. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we provide predictions of particle acceleration driven by reconnection, resulting from both direct x-line acceleration and Fermi-like acceleration at contracting magnetic fields lines near magnetic islands.

  6. Beam Control for Ion Induction Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sangster, T.C.; Ahle, L.

    2000-02-17

    Coordinated bending and acceleration of an intense space-charge-dominated ion beam has been achieved for the first time. This required the development of a variable waveform, precision, bi-polar high voltage pulser and a precision, high repetition rate induction core modulator. Waveforms applied to the induction cores accelerate the beam as the bi-polar high voltage pulser delivers a voltage ramp to electrostatic dipoles which bend the beam through a 90 degree permanent magnet quadrupole lattice. Further work on emittance minimization is also reported.

  7. Generalized radially self-accelerating helicon beams.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Christian; Eichelkraut, Toni; Ornigotti, Marco; Szameit, Alexander

    2014-10-31

    We report, in theory and experiment, on a new class of optical beams that are radially self-accelerating and nondiffracting. These beams continuously evolve on spiraling trajectories while maintaining their amplitude and phase distribution in their rotating rest frame. We provide a detailed insight into the theoretical origin and characteristics of radial self-acceleration and prove our findings experimentally. As radially self-accelerating beams are nonparaxial and a solution to the full scalar Helmholtz equation, they can be implemented in many linear wave systems beyond optics, from acoustic and elastic waves to surface waves in fluids and soft matter. Our work generalized the study of classical helicon beams to a complete set of solutions for rotating complex fields. PMID:25396370

  8. International Linear Collider Accelerator Physics R&D

    SciTech Connect

    George D. Gollin; Michael Davidsaver; Michael J. Haney; Michael Kasten; Jason Chang; Perry Chodash; Will Dluger; Alex Lang; Yehan Liu

    2008-09-03

    ILC work at Illinois has concentrated primarily on technical issues relating to the design of the accelerator. Because many of the problems to be resolved require a working knowledge of classical mechanics and electrodynamics, most of our research projects lend themselves well to the participation of undergraduate research assistants. The undergraduates in the group are scientists, not technicians, and find solutions to problems that, for example, have stumped PhD-level staff elsewhere. The ILC Reference Design Report calls for 6.7 km circumference damping rings (which prepare the beams for focusing) using “conventional” stripline kickers driven by fast HV pulsers. Our primary goal was to determine the suitability of the 16 MeV electron beam in the AØ region at Fermilab for precision kicker studies.We found that the low beam energy and lack of redundancy in the beam position monitor system complicated the analysis of our data. In spite of these issues we concluded that the precision we could obtain was adequate to measure the performance and stability of a production module of an ILC kicker, namely 0.5%. We concluded that the kicker was stable to an accuracy of ~2.0% and that we could measure this precision to an accuracy of ~0.5%. As a result, a low energy beam like that at AØ could be used as a rapid-turnaround facility for testing ILC production kicker modules. The ILC timing precision for arrival of bunches at the collision point is required to be 0.1 picosecond or better. We studied the bunch-to-bunch timing accuracy of a “phase detector” installed in AØ in order to determine its suitability as an ILC bunch timing device. A phase detector is an RF structure excited by the passage of a bunch. Its signal is fed through a 1240 MHz high-Q resonant circuit and then down-mixed with the AØ 1300 MHz accelerator RF. We used a kind of autocorrelation technique to compare the phase detector signal with a reference signal obtained from the phase detector

  9. Design of a relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Westenskow, G.; Caporaso, G.; Chen, Y.; Houck, T.; Yu, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Henestroza, E.; Li, H.; Peters, C.; Reginato, L.; Sessler, Andrew M.

    1995-04-01

    We are designing an experiment to study physics, engineering, and costing issues of an extended Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator (RK-TBA). The experiment is a prototype for an RK-TBA based microwave power source suitable for driving a 1 TeV linear collider. Major components of the experiment include a 2.5-MV, 1.5-kA electron source, a 11.4-GHz modulator, a bunch compressor, and a 8-m extraction section. The extraction section will be comprised of 4 traveling-wave output structures, each generating about 360 MW of rf power. Induction cells will be used in the extraction section to maintain the average beam energy at 5 MeV. Status of the design is presented.

  10. Design of a relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Westenskow, G.; Caporaso, G.; Chen, Y.

    1995-10-01

    We are designing an experiment to study physics, engineering, and costing issues of an extended Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator (RK-TBA). The experiment is a prototype for an RK-TBA based microwave power source suitable for driving a 1 TeV linear collider. Major components of the experiment include a 2.5-MV, 1.5-kA electron source, a 11.4-GHz modulator, a bunch compressor, and a 8-m extraction section. The extraction section will be comprised of 4 traveling-wave output structures, each generating about 360 MW of rf power. Induction cells will be used in the extraction section to maintain the average beam energy at 5 MeV. Status of the design is presented.

  11. Beam acceleration through proton radio frequency quadrupole accelerator in BARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwat, P. V.; Krishnagopal, S.; Mathew, J. V.; Singh, S. K.; Jain, P.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Pande, M.; Kumar, R.; Roychowdhury, P.; Kelwani, H.; Rama Rao, B. V.; Gupta, S. K.; Agarwal, A.; Kukreti, B. M.; Singh, P.

    2016-05-01

    A 3 MeV proton Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been designed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India, for the Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) programme. The 352 MHz RFQ is built in 4 segments and in the first phase two segments of the LEHIPA RFQ were commissioned, accelerating a 50 keV, 1 mA pulsed proton beam from the ion source, to an energy of 1.24 MeV. The successful operation of the RFQ gave confidence in the physics understanding and technology development that have been achieved, and indicate that the road forward can now be traversed rather more quickly.

  12. Operational plasma density and laser parameters for future colliders based on laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2012-12-21

    The operational plasma density and laser parameters for future colliders based on laser-plasma accelerators are discussed. Beamstrahlung limits the charge per bunch at low plasma densities. Reduced laser intensity is examined to improve accelerator efficiency in the beamstrahlung-limited regime.

  13. Linear beam-beam tune shift calculations for the Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.

    1989-01-12

    A realistic estimate of the linear beam-beam tune shift is necessary for the selection of an optimum working point in the tune diagram. Estimates of the beam-beam tune shift using the ''Round Beam Approximation'' (RBA) have over estimated the tune shift for the Tevatron. For a hadron machine with unequal lattice functions and beam sizes, an explicit calculation using the beam size at the crossings is required. Calculations for various Tevatron lattices used in Collider operation are presented. Comparisons between the RBA and the explicit calculation, for elliptical beams, are presented. This paper discusses the calculation of the linear tune shift using the program SYNCH. Selection of a working point is discussed. The magnitude of the tune shift is influenced by the choice of crossing points in the lattice as determined by the pbar ''cogging effects''. Also discussed is current cogging procedures and presents results of calculations for tune shifts at various crossing points in the lattice. Finally, a comparison of early pbar tune measurements with the present linear tune shift calculations is presented. 17 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Explore the possibility of accelerating polarized He-3 beam in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Bai M.; Courant, E.; Fischer, W.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.

    2012-05-20

    As the world's first high energy polarized proton collider, RHIC has made significant progresses in measuring the proton spin structure in the past decade. In order to have better understanding of the contribution of up quarks and down quarks to the proton spin structure, collisions of high energy polarized neutron beams are required. Polarized He-3 beams offer an effectiveway to provide polarized neutron beams. In this paper, we present studies of accelerating polarized He-3 in RHIC with the current dual snake configuration. Possibilities of adding two more pairs of snakes for accelerating polarized He-3 were explored. Results of six snake configuration in RHIC are also reported in the paper.

  15. Pulsed power accelerators for particle beam fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.H.; Barr, G.W.; VanDevender, J.P.; White, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is completing the construction phase of the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator-I (PBFA-I). Testing of the 36 module, 30 TW, 1 MJ output accelerator is in the initial stages. The 4 MJ, PBFA Marx generator has provided 3.6 MA into water-copper sulfate load resistors with a spread from first to last Marx firing between 15 to 25 ns and an output power of 5.7 TW. This accelerator is a modular, lower voltage, pulsed power device that is capable of scaling to power levels exceeding 100 TW. The elements of the PBFA technology and their integration into an accelerator system for particle beam fusion will be discussed.

  16. Single crystal niobium tubes for particle colliders accelerator cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, James E

    2013-02-28

    The objective of this research project is to produce single crystal niobium (Nb) tubes for use as particle accelerator cavities for the Fermi laboratory’s International Linear Collider project. Single crystal Nb tubes may have superior performance compared to a polycrystalline tubes because the absence of grain boundaries may permit the use of higher accelerating voltages. In addition, Nb tubes that are subjected to the high temperature, high vacuum crystallization process are very pure and well annealed. Any impurity with a significantly higher vapor pressure than Nb should be decreased by the relatively long exposure at high temperature to the high vacuum environment. After application of the single crystal process, the surfaces of the Nb tubes are bright and shiny, and the tube resembles an electro polished Nb tube. For these reasons, there is interest in single crystal Nb tubes and in a process that will produce single crystal tubes. To convert a polycrystalline niobium tube into a single crystal, the tube is heated to within a few hundred °C of the melting temperature of niobium, which is 2477 °C. RF heating is used to rapidly heat the tube in a narrow zone and after reaching the operating temperature, the hot zone is slowly passed along the length of the tube. For crystallization tests with Nb tubes, the traverse rate was in the range of 1-10 cm per hour. All the crystallization tests in this study were performed in a water-cooled, stainless steel chamber under a vacuum of 5 x10-6 torr or better. In earliest tests of the single crystal growth process, the Nb tubes had an OD of 1.9 cm and a wall thickness of 0.15 mm. With these relatively small Nb tubes, the single crystal process was always successful in producing single crystal tubes. In these early tests, the operating temperature was normally maintained at 2200 °C, and the traverse rate was 5 cm per hour. In the next test series, the Nb tube size was increased to 3.8 cm OD and the wall thickness was

  17. Radio Frequency Station - Beam Dynamics Interaction in Circular Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Mastoridis, Themistoklis

    2010-08-01

    The longitudinal beam dynamics in circular accelerators is mainly defined by the interaction of the beam current with the accelerating Radio Frequency (RF) stations. For stable operation, Low Level RF (LLRF) feedback systems are employed to reduce coherent instabilities and regulate the accelerating voltage. The LLRF system design has implications for the dynamics and stability of the closed-loop RF systems as well as for the particle beam, and is very sensitive to the operating range of accelerator currents and energies. Stability of the RF loop and the beam are necessary conditions for reliable machine operation. This dissertation describes theoretical formalisms and models that determine the longitudinal beam dynamics based on the LLRF implementation, time domain simulations that capture the dynamic behavior of the RF station-beam interaction, and measurements from the Positron-Electron Project (PEP-II) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that validate the models and simulations. These models and simulations are structured to capture the technical characteristics of the system (noise contributions, non-linear elements, and more). As such, they provide useful results and insight for the development and design of future LLRF feedback systems. They also provide the opportunity to study diverse longitudinal beam dynamics effects such as coupled-bunch impedance driven instabilities and single bunch longitudinal emittance growth. Coupled-bunch instabilities and RF station power were the performance limiting effects for PEP-II. The sensitivity of the instabilities to individual LLRF parameters, the effectiveness of alternative operational algorithms, and the possible tradeoffs between RF loop and beam stability were studied. New algorithms were implemented, with significant performance improvement leading to a world record current during the last PEP-II run of 3212 mA for the Low Energy Ring. Longitudinal beam emittance growth due to RF noise is a major concern for LHC

  18. ACCELERATOR PHYSICS ISSUES FOR FUTURE ELECTRON ION COLLIDERS.

    SciTech Connect

    PEGGS,S.; BEN-ZVI,I.; KEWISCH,J.; MURPHY,J.

    2001-06-18

    Interest continues to grow in the physics of collisions between electrons and heavy ions, and between polarized electrons and polarized protons [1,2,3]. Table 1 compares the parameters of some machines under discussion. DESY has begun to explore the possibility of upgrading the existing HERA-p ring to store heavy ions, in order to collide them with electrons (or positrons) in the HERA-e ring, or from TESLA [4]. An upgrade to store polarized protons in the HERA-p ring is also under discussion [1]. BNL is considering adding polarized electrons to the RHIC repertoire, which already includes heavy and light ions, and polarized protons. The authors of this paper have made a first pass analysis of this ''eRHIC'' possibility [5]. MIT-BATES is also considering electron ion collider designs [6].

  19. Theories of statistical equilibrium in electron-positron colliding-beam storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Schonfeld, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    In this lecture I introduce you to some recent theoretical work that represents a significant and long overdue departure from the mainstream of ideas on the physics of colliding- beam storage rings. The goal of the work in question is to understand analytically - without recourse to computer simulation - the role that dissipation and noise play in the observed colliding-beam behavior of electron-positron storage rings.

  20. Issues and experience with controlling beam loss at the Tevatron collider

    SciTech Connect

    Annala, Gerald; /Fermilab

    2007-07-01

    Controlling beam loss in the Tevatron collider is of great importance because of the delicate nature of the cryogenic magnet system and the collider detectors. Maximizing the physics potential requires optimized performance as well as protection of all equipment. The operating history of the Tevatron has significantly influenced the way losses are managed. The development of beam loss management in the Tevatron will be presented.

  1. High-efficiency acceleration of an electron beam in a plasma wakefield accelerator.

    PubMed

    Litos, M; Adli, E; An, W; Clarke, C I; Clayton, C E; Corde, S; Delahaye, J P; England, R J; Fisher, A S; Frederico, J; Gessner, S; Green, S Z; Hogan, M J; Joshi, C; Lu, W; Marsh, K A; Mori, W B; Muggli, P; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N; Walz, D; White, G; Wu, Z; Yakimenko, V; Yocky, G

    2014-11-01

    High-efficiency acceleration of charged particle beams at high gradients of energy gain per unit length is necessary to achieve an affordable and compact high-energy collider. The plasma wakefield accelerator is one concept being developed for this purpose. In plasma wakefield acceleration, a charge-density wake with high accelerating fields is driven by the passage of an ultra-relativistic bunch of charged particles (the drive bunch) through a plasma. If a second bunch of relativistic electrons (the trailing bunch) with sufficient charge follows in the wake of the drive bunch at an appropriate distance, it can be efficiently accelerated to high energy. Previous experiments using just a single 42-gigaelectronvolt drive bunch have accelerated electrons with a continuous energy spectrum and a maximum energy of up to 85 gigaelectronvolts from the tail of the same bunch in less than a metre of plasma. However, the total charge of these accelerated electrons was insufficient to extract a substantial amount of energy from the wake. Here we report high-efficiency acceleration of a discrete trailing bunch of electrons that contains sufficient charge to extract a substantial amount of energy from the high-gradient, nonlinear plasma wakefield accelerator. Specifically, we show the acceleration of about 74 picocoulombs of charge contained in the core of the trailing bunch in an accelerating gradient of about 4.4 gigavolts per metre. These core particles gain about 1.6 gigaelectronvolts of energy per particle, with a final energy spread as low as 0.7 per cent (2.0 per cent on average), and an energy-transfer efficiency from the wake to the bunch that can exceed 30 per cent (17.7 per cent on average). This acceleration of a distinct bunch of electrons containing a substantial charge and having a small energy spread with both a high accelerating gradient and a high energy-transfer efficiency represents a milestone in the development of plasma wakefield acceleration into a

  2. Design of the beam delivery system for the international linear collider.

    SciTech Connect

    Seryi, A.; Amann, J.; Arnold, R.; Asiri, F.; Bane, K.; Carwardine, J.; Saunders, C.; Accelerator Systems Division; SLAC; FNAL

    2008-01-01

    The beam delivery system for the linear collider focuses beams to nanometer sizes at its interaction point, collimates the beam halo to provide acceptable background in the detector and has a provision for state-of-the art beam instrumentation in order to reach the ILCs physics goals. This paper describes the design details and status of the baseline configuration considered for the reference design and also lists alternatives.

  3. Technical Challenges and Scientific Payoffs of Muon BeamAccelerators for Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2007-09-25

    Historically, progress in particle physics has largely beendetermined by development of more capable particle accelerators. Thistrend continues today with the recent advent of high-luminosityelectron-positron colliders at KEK and SLAC operating as "B factories,"the imminent commissioning of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and theworldwide development effort toward the International Linear Collider.Looking to the future, one of the most promising approaches is thedevelopment of muon-beam accelerators. Such machines have very highscientific potential, and would substantially advance thestate-of-the-art in accelerator design. A 20-50 GeV muon storage ringcould serve as a copious source of well-characterized electron neutrinosor antineutrinos (a Neutrino Factory), providing beams aimed at detectorslocated 3000-7500 km from the ring. Such long baseline experiments areexpected to be able to observe and characterize the phenomenon ofcharge-conjugation-parity (CP) violation in the lepton sector, and thusprovide an answer to one of the most fundamental questions in science,namely, why the matter-dominated universe in which we reside exists atall. By accelerating muons to even higher energies of several TeV, we canenvision a Muon Collider. In contrast with composite particles likeprotons, muons are point particles. This means that the full collisionenergy is available to create new particles. A Muon Collider has roughlyten times the energy reach of a proton collider at the same collisionenergy, and has a much smaller footprint. Indeed, an energy frontier MuonCollider could fit on the site of an existing laboratory, such asFermilab or BNL. The challenges of muon-beam accelerators are related tothe facts that i) muons are produced as a tertiary beam, with very large6D phase space, and ii) muons are unstable, with a lifetime at rest ofonly 2 microseconds. How these challenges are accommodated in theaccelerator design will be described. Both a Neutrino Factory and a MuonCollider

  4. Production of an Accelerated Oxygen-14 Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, James; O'Neil, James P.; Cerny, Joseph

    2002-05-03

    BEARS is an ongoing project to provide a light-ion radioactive-beam capability at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL. Light radioactive isotopes are produced at a 10 MeV proton medical cyclotron, transported 350 m via a high-speed gas transport capillary, cryogenically separated, and injected into the 88-Inch Cyclotron's ion source. The first radioactive beam successfully accelerated was Carbon-11 and beams of intensity more than 108 ions/sec have been utilized for experiments. Development of Oxygen-14 as the second BEARS beam presented considerable technical challenges, both due to its short half-life of 71 seconds and the radiation chemistry of oxygen in the target. The usual techniques developed for medical uses of Oxygen-15 involve the addition of significant amounts of carrier oxygen, something that would overload the ion source. As a solution, Oxygen-14 is produced as water in a carrier-free form, and is chemically converted in two steps to carbon dioxide, a form readily usable by the BEARS. This system has been built and is operational, and initial tests of accelerating an Oxygen-14 beam have been performed.

  5. Toward automatic control of particle accelerator beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, D.E.; Silbar, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    We describe a program aiming toward automatic control of particle accelerator beams. A hybrid approach is used, combining knowledge- based system programming techniques and traditional numerical simulations. We use an expert system shell for the symbolic processing and have incorporated the FORTRAN beam optics code TRANSPORT for numerical simulation. The paper discusses the symbolic model we built, the reasoning components, how the knowledge base accesses information from an operating beamline, and the experience gained in merging the two worlds of numeric and symbolic processing. We also discuss plans for a future real-time system. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  6. POLARIZED ION SOURCES FOR HIGH ENERGY ACCELERATORS AND COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    ZELENSKI,A.N.

    2000-10-16

    The recent progress in polarized ion source development is reviewed. In dc operation a 1.0 mA polarized H{sup -} ion current is now available from the Optically-Pumped Polarized Ion Source (OPPIS) . In pulsed operation a 10 mA polarized H{sup -} ion current was demonstrated at the TRIUMF pulsed OPPIS test bench and a 3.5 mA peak current was obtained from an Atomic Beam Source (ABS) at the INR Moscow test bench. The possibilities for future improvements with both techniques are discussed. A new OPPIS for RHIC spin physics is described. The OPPIS reliably delivered polarized beam for the polarized run at RHIC. The results obtained with a new pulsed ABS injector for the IUCF Cooler Ring are also discussed.

  7. POLARIZED ION SOURCES FOR HIGH ENERGY ACCELERATORS AND COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    ZELENSKI,A.N.

    2000-10-16

    The recent progress in polarized ion source development is reviewed. In dc operation a 1.0 mA polarized H{sup -} ion current is now available from the Optically-Pumped Polarized Ion Source (OPPIS). In pulsed operation a 10 mA polarized H{sup -} ion current was demonstrated at the TRIUMF pulsed OPPIS test bench and a 3.5 mA peak current was obtained from an Atomic Beam Source (ABS) at the INR Moscow test bench. The possibilities for future improvements with both techniques are discussed. A new OPPIS for RHIC spin physics is described. The OPPIS reliably delivered polarized beam for the polarized run at RHIC. The results obtained with a new pulsed ABS injector for the IUCF Cooler Ring are also discussed.

  8. Straw man 900-1000 GeV crystal extraction test beam for Fermilab collider operation

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    A design for a 900-1000 GeV, 100 khz parasitic test beam for use during collider operations has been developed. The beam makes use of two bent crystals, one for extraction and the other one for redirecting the beam in to the present Switchyard beam system. The beam requires only a few modifications in the A0 area and largely uses existing devices. It should be straight-forward to modify one or two beam lines in the fixed target experimental areas to work above 800 GeV. Possibilities for improvements to the design,to operate at higher fluxes are discussed.

  9. The beam business: Accelerators in industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, Robert W.; Hamm, Marianne E.

    2011-06-15

    Most physicists know that particle accelerators are widely used for treating cancer. But few are acquainted with the depth and breadth of their use in a myriad of applications outside of pure science and medicine. Society benefits from the use of particle beams in the areas of communications, transportation, the environment, security, health, and safety - in terms both of the global economy and quality of life. On the manufacturing level, the use of industrial accelerators has resulted in the faster and cheaper production of better parts for medical devices, automobiles, aircraft, and virtually all modern electronics. Consumers also benefit from the use of accelerators to explore for oil, gas, and minerals; sterilize food, wastewater, and medical supplies; and aid in the development of drugs and biomaterials.

  10. Nonparaxial accelerating Bessel-like beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chremmos, Ioannis D.; Efremidis, Nikolaos K.

    2013-12-01

    A class of nonparaxial accelerating optical waves is introduced. These are beams with a Bessel-like profile that are capable of shifting laterally along fairly arbitrary trajectories as the wave propagates in free space. The concept expands on our previous proposal of paraxial accelerating Bessel-like beams to include beams with subwavelength lobes and/or large trajectory angles. Such waves are produced when the phase at the input plane is engineered so that the interfering ray cones are made to focus along the prespecified path. When the angle of these cones is fixed, the beams possess a diffraction-free Bessel profile on planes that stay normal to their trajectory, which can be considered as a generalized definition of diffractionless propagation in the nonparaxial regime. The analytical procedure leading to these results is based on a ray-optics interpretation of Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction and is presented in detail. The evolution of the proposed waves is demonstrated through a series of numerical examples and a variety of trajectories.

  11. BEAM-BASED NON-LINEAR OPTICS CORRECTIONS IN COLLIDERS.

    SciTech Connect

    PILAT, R.; LUO, Y.; MALITSKY, N.; PTITSYN, V.

    2005-05-16

    A method has been developed to measure and correct operationally the non-linear effects of the final focusing magnets in colliders, that gives access to the effects of multi-pole errors by applying closed orbit bumps, and analyzing the resulting tune and orbit shifts. This technique has been tested and used during 4 years of RHIC (the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL) operations. I will discuss here the theoretical basis of the method, the experimental set-up, the correction results, the present understanding of the machine model, the potential and limitations of the method itself as compared with other non-linear correction techniques.

  12. The Computer Program LIAR for Beam Dynamics Calculations in Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Assmann, R.W.; Adolphsen, C.; Bane, K.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Siemann, R.H.; Thompson, K.; /SLAC

    2011-08-26

    Linear accelerators are the central components of the proposed next generation of linear colliders. They need to provide acceleration of up to 750 GeV per beam while maintaining very small normalized emittances. Standard simulation programs, mainly developed for storage rings, do not meet the specific requirements for high energy linear accelerators. We present a new program LIAR ('LInear Accelerator Research code') that includes wakefield effects, a 6D coupled beam description, specific optimization algorithms and other advanced features. Its modular structure allows to use and to extend it easily for different purposes. The program is available for UNIX workstations and Windows PC's. It can be applied to a broad range of accelerators. We present examples of simulations for SLC and NLC.

  13. Time evolution of the luminosity of colliding heavy-ion beams in BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, R.; Jowett, J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.

    2010-09-01

    We have studied the time evolution of the heavy-ion luminosity and bunch intensities in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, and in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. First, we present measurements from a large number of RHIC stores (from run-7), colliding 100GeV/nucleon Au79+197 beams without stochastic cooling. These are compared with two different calculation methods. The first is a simulation based on multiparticle tracking taking into account collisions, intrabeam scattering, radiation damping, and synchrotron and betatron motion. In the second, faster, method, a system of ordinary differential equations with terms describing the corresponding effects on emittances and bunch populations is solved numerically. Results of the tracking method agree very well with the RHIC data. With the faster method, significant discrepancies are found since the losses of particles diffusing out of the rf bucket due to intrabeam scattering are not modeled accurately enough. Finally, we use both methods to make predictions of the time evolution of the future Pb82+208 beams in the LHC at injection and collision energy. For this machine, the two methods agree well.

  14. Time evolution of the luminosity of colliding heavy-ion beams in BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, R.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Jowett, J.M.; Fischer, W.

    2010-09-07

    We have studied the time evolution of the heavy ion luminosity and bunch intensities in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), at BNL, and in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), at CERN. First, we present measurements from a large number of RHIC stores (from Run 7), colliding 100 GeV/nucleon {sup 197}Au{sup 79}+ beams without stochastic cooling. These are compared with two different calculation methods. The first is a simulation based on multi-particle tracking taking into account collisions, intrabeam scattering, radiation damping, and synchrotron and betatron motion. In the second, faster, method, a system of ordinary differential equations with terms describing the corresponding effects on emittances and bunch populations is solved numerically. Results of the tracking method agree very well with the RHIC data. With the faster method, significant discrepancies are found since the losses of particles diffusing out of the RF bucket due to intrabeam scattering are not modeled accurately enough. Finally, we use both methods to make predictions of the time evolution of the future {sup 208}Pb+{sup 82+} beams in the LHC at injection and collision energy. For this machine, the two methods agree well.

  15. Beam dynamics aspects of crab cavities in the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.; Calaga, R.; Assmann, R.; Barranco, J.; Tomas, R.; Weiler, T.; Zimmermann, F.; Morita, A.

    2009-10-14

    Modern colliders bring into collision a large number of bunches to achieve a high luminosity. The long-range beam-beam effects arising from parasitic encounters at such colliders are mitigated by introducing a crossing angle. Under these conditions, crab cavities (CC) can be used to restore effective head-on collisions and thereby to increase the geometric luminosity. Such crab cavities have been proposed for both linear and circular colliders. The crab cavities are rf cavities operated in a transverse dipole mode, which imparts on the beam particles a transverse kick that varies with the longitudinal position along the bunch. The use of crab cavities in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) may not only raise the luminosity, but it could also complicate the beam dynamics, e.g., crab cavities might not only cancel synchrobetatron resonances excited by the crossing angle but they could also excite new ones, they could reduce the dynamic aperture for off-momentum particles, they could influence the aperture and orbit, also degrade the collimation cleaning efficiency, and so on. In this paper, we explore the principal feasibility of LHC crab cavities from a beam dynamics point of view. The implications of the crab cavities for the LHC optics, analytical and numerical luminosity studies, dynamic aperture, aperture and beta beating, emittance growth, beam-beam tune shift, long-range collisions, and synchrobetatron resonances, crab dispersion, and collimation efficiency will be discussed.

  16. Colliding ionization injection in a plasma wakefield accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Y.; Zhang, C. J.; Li, F.; Wu, Y. P.; Hua, J. F.; Pai, C.-H.; Lu, W.; Gu, Y. Q.; Xu, X. L.; Joshi, C.; Mori, W. B.

    2016-03-01

    A new scheme of generating high quality electron bunches via ionization injection triggered by an counter propagating laser pulse inside a beam driven plasma wake is proposed and examined via two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. This scheme has two major advantages: first, the injection distance is easily tunable by varying the launching time or the focal position of the laser pulse; second, the electrons in each injected slice are released at nearly the same time. Both factors can significantly reduce the phase space mixing during the ionization injection process (Xu et al 2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 035003, Xu et al 2014 Phys. Rev. Spec. Top.: Accel. Beams 17 061301, Li et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 015003), leading to very small energy spreads (˜10 keV for slice,˜100 keV for the whole bunch) and very small normalized emittance (˜few nm). As an example, a 4.5 fs 0.4 pC electron bunch with normalized emittance of 3.3 nm, slice energy spread of 13 keV, absolute energy spread of 80 keV, and a brightness of 7.2× {{10}18} A m-2rad-2 is obtained under realistic conditions. This scheme may have potential applications for future compact coherent light sources.

  17. Studies of beam dynamics in relativistic klystron two-beam accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Lidia, Steven M.

    1999-11-01

    Two-beam accelerators (TBAs) based upon free-electron lasers (FELs) or relativistic klystrons (RK-TBAs) have been proposed as efficient power sources for next generation high-energy linear colliders. Studies have demonstrated the possibility of building TBAs from X-band ({approximately}8-12 GHz) through Ka band ({approximately} 30-35 GHz) frequency regions. Provided that further prototyping shows stable beam propagation with minimal current loss and production of good quality, high-power rf fields, this technology is compatible with current schemes for electron-positron colliders in the multi-TeV center-of-mass scale. A new method of simulating the beam dynamics in accelerators of this type has been developed in this dissertation. There are three main components to this simulation. The first is a tracking algorithm to generate nonlinear transfer maps for pushing noninteracting particles through the external fields. The second component is a 3D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) algorithm that solves a set of Helmholtz equations for the self-fields, including the conducting boundary condition, and generates impulses that are interleaved with the nonlinear maps by means of a split-operation algorithm. The Helmholtz equations are solved by a multi-grid algorithm. The third component is an equivalent circuit equation solver that advances the modal rf cavity fields in time due to excitation by the modulated beam. The RTA project is described, and the simulation code is used to design the latter portions of the experiment. Detailed calculations of the beam dynamics and of the rf cavity output are presented and discussed. A beamline design is presented that will generate nearly 1.2 GW of power from 40 input, gain, and output rv cavities over a 10 m distance. The simulations show that beam current losses are acceptable, and that longitudinal and transverse focusing techniques are sufficient capable of maintaining a high degree of beam quality along the entire beamline. Additional

  18. Beam Test of a High Pressure Cavity for a Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, M.; Jansson, A.; Moretti, A.; Tollestrup, A.; Yonehara, K.; Kurup, A.; /Imperial Coll., London

    2010-05-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of a high pressure RF cavity for use in the cooling channel of a muon collider, an experimental setup that utilizes 400-MeV Fermilab linac proton beam has been developed. In this paper, we describe the beam diagnostics and the collimator system for the experiment, and report the initial results of the beam commissioning. The transient response of the cavity to the beam is measured by the electric and magnetic pickup probes, and the beam-gas interaction is monitored by the optical diagnostic system composed of a spectrometer and two PMTs.

  19. Method and apparatus for varying accelerator beam output energy

    DOEpatents

    Young, Lloyd M.

    1998-01-01

    A coupled cavity accelerator (CCA) accelerates a charged particle beam with rf energy from a rf source. An input accelerating cavity receives the charged particle beam and an output accelerating cavity outputs the charged particle beam at an increased energy. Intermediate accelerating cavities connect the input and the output accelerating cavities to accelerate the charged particle beam. A plurality of tunable coupling cavities are arranged so that each one of the tunable coupling cavities respectively connect an adjacent pair of the input, output, and intermediate accelerating cavities to transfer the rf energy along the accelerating cavities. An output tunable coupling cavity can be detuned to variably change the phase of the rf energy reflected from the output coupling cavity so that regions of the accelerator can be selectively turned off when one of the intermediate tunable coupling cavities is also detuned.

  20. Numerical Verification of the Power Transfer and Wakefield Coupling in the Clic Two-Beam Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Candel, Arno; Li, Z.; Ng, C.; Rawat, V.; Schussman, G.; Ko, K.; Syratchev, I.; Grudiev, A.; Wuensch, W.; /CERN

    2011-08-19

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) provides a path to a multi-TeV accelerator to explore the energy frontier of High Energy Physics. Its two-beam accelerator (TBA) concept envisions complex 3D structures, which must be modeled to high accuracy so that simulation results can be directly used to prepare CAD drawings for machining. The required simulations include not only the fundamental mode properties of the accelerating structures but also the Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS), as well as the coupling between the two systems. Time-domain simulations will be performed to understand pulse formation, wakefield damping, fundamental power transfer and wakefield coupling in these structures. Applying SLAC's parallel finite element code suite, these large-scale problems will be solved on some of the largest supercomputers available. The results will help to identify potential issues and provide new insights on the design, leading to further improvements on the novel two-beam accelerator scheme.

  1. Linear collider development at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, J.

    1993-08-01

    Linear collider R&D at SLAC comprises work on the present Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) and work toward the next linear collider (NLC). Recent SLC developments are summarized. NLC studies are divided into hardware-based and theoretical. We report on the status of the NLC Test Accelerator (NLCTA) and the final focus test beam (FFTB), describe plans for ASSET, an installation to measure accelerator structure wakefields, and mention IR design developments. Finally we review recent NLC theoretical studies, ending with the author`s view of next linear collider parameter sets.

  2. Characterisation of electron beams from laser-driven particle accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Brunetti, E.; Manahan, G. G.; Shanks, R. P.; Islam, M. R.; Ersfeld, B.; Anania, M. P.; Cipiccia, S.; Issac, R. C.; Vieux, G.; Welsh, G. H.; Wiggins, S. M.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2012-12-21

    The development, understanding and application of laser-driven particle accelerators require accurate measurements of the beam properties, in particular emittance, energy spread and bunch length. Here we report measurements and simulations showing that laser wakefield accelerators can produce beams of quality comparable to conventional linear accelerators.

  3. Expanded studies of linear collider final focus systems at the Final Focus Test Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, P.G.

    1995-12-01

    In order to meet their luminosity goals, linear colliders operating in the center-of-mass energy range from 3,50 to 1,500 GeV will need to deliver beams which are as small as a few Manometers tall, with x:y aspect ratios as large as 100. The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a prototype for the final focus demanded by these colliders: its purpose is to provide demagnification equivalent to those in the future linear collider, which corresponds to a focused spot size in the FFTB of 1.7 microns (horizontal) by 60 manometers (vertical). In order to achieve the desired spot sizes, the FFTB beam optics must be tuned to eliminate aberrations and other errors, and to ensure that the optics conform to the desired final conditions and the measured initial conditions of the beam. Using a combination of incoming-beam diagnostics. beam-based local diagnostics, and global tuning algorithms, the FFTB beam size has been reduced to a stable final size of 1.7 microns by 70 manometers. In addition, the chromatic properties of the FFTB have been studied using two techniques and found to be acceptable. Descriptions of the hardware and techniques used in these studies are presented, along with results and suggestions for future research.

  4. High energy accelerator and colliding beam user group

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This report discusses the following topics: OPAL experiment at LEP; Deep inelastic muon interactions at TeV II; D{phi} experiment; Physics with the CLEO detector at CESR; CYGNUS experiment; {nu}{sub e}e elastic scattering experiment; Further results from JADE; Theory of polarization in electron storage rings; and Rare kaon decay experiments at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  5. First Beam and High-Gradient Cryomodule Commissioning Results of the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Darren; et al.

    2015-06-01

    The advanced superconducting test accelerator at Fermilab has accelerated electrons to 20 MeV and, separately, the International Linear Collider (ILC) style 8-cavity cryomodule has achieved the ILC performance milestone of 31.5 MV/m per cavity. When fully completed, the accelerator will consist of a photoinjector, one ILC-type cryomodule, multiple accelerator R&D beamlines, and a downstream beamline to inject 300 MeV electrons into the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA). We report on the results of first beam, the achievement of our cryomodule to ILC gradient specifications, and near-term future plans for the facility.

  6. Operational head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    DOE PAGES

    Fischer, W.; Gu, X.; Altinbas, Z.; Costanzo, M.; Hock, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Miller, T. A.; et al

    2015-12-23

    Head-on beam-beam compensation has been implemented in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in order to increase the luminosity delivered to the experiments. We discuss the principle of combining a lattice for resonance driving term compensation and an electron lens for tune spread compensation. We describe the electron lens technology and its operational use. As of this date the implemented compensation scheme approximately doubled the peak and average luminosities.

  7. Operational Head-on Beam-Beam Compensation with Electron Lenses in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

    PubMed

    Fischer, W; Gu, X; Altinbas, Z; Costanzo, M; Hock, J; Liu, C; Luo, Y; Marusic, A; Michnoff, R; Miller, T A; Pikin, A I; Schoefer, V; Thieberger, P; White, S M

    2015-12-31

    Head-on beam-beam compensation has been implemented in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider in order to increase the luminosity delivered to the experiments. We discuss the principle of combining a lattice for resonance driving term compensation and an electron lens for tune spread compensation. We describe the electron lens technology and its operational use. To date, the implemented compensation scheme approximately doubled the peak and average luminosities.

  8. BEAM DELIVERY LAYOUT FOR THE NEXT LINEAR COLLIDER

    SciTech Connect

    Seryi, A

    2004-07-13

    This paper presents the latest design and layout of the NLC Beam Delivery System (BDS) for the first and second interaction region (IR). This includes the beam switchyard, skew correction and emittance diagnostics section, the collimation system integrated with the final focus, the primary and post linac tune-up beam dumps, and the arcs of the second interaction region beamline. The layout and optics are optimized to deliver design luminosity in the entire energy range from 90 GeV to 1.3 TeV CM, with the first IR BDS also having the capability of being extended to multi-TeV.

  9. Numerical Simulations of Transverse Beam Diffusion Enhancement by the Use of Electron Lens in the Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Previtali, V.; Stancari, G.; Valishev, A.; Shatilov, D.N.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2012-05-01

    Transverse beam diffusion for the Tevatron machine has been calculated using the Lifetrac code. The following effects were included: random noise (representing residual gas scattering, voltage noise in the accelerating cavities) lattice nonlinearities and beam-beam interactions. The time evolution of particle distributions with different initial amplitudes in Hamiltonian action has been simulated for 6 million turns, corresponding to a time of about 2 minutes. For each particle distribution, several cases have been considered: a single beam in storage ring mode, the collider case and the effects of a hollow electron beam collimator. The diffusion coefficient for some representative points in the amplitude space has been calculated by fitting the time evolution of delta-like particle distributions using the diffusion equation, for different machine conditions. The results confirm a strong efficiency of the electron lens as an halo diffusive enhancer, leading to diffusion coefficients which are at least a factor 10K higher than the values obtained for the collision case. This result is confirmed by the Frequency Map Analysis, which shows a clear intensification of resonance lines for particle amplitudes larger than the electron lens inner radius. If compared with past experiments, the simulations successfully reproduce the diffusion coefficients for the beam core, but still present a large discrepancy for halo particles, still under investigation.

  10. Environmental radiation effects from muon and tau colliders and their impact on facility licensing.

    PubMed

    Bevelacqua, J J

    2012-11-01

    Although contemporary accelerators only affect their local radiation environment, muon and tau colliders produce radiation profiles that extend far beyond their site boundaries. These radiation profiles affect the licensing and siting of these planned accelerators. The analysis presented herein suggests that a linear collider concept with the lepton beams collided in air offers a means to limit the environmental radiation effects from these accelerators.

  11. Progress Towards Doubling the Beam Power at Fermilab's Accelerator Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kourbanis, Ioanis

    2014-07-01

    After a 16 month shutdown to reconfigure the Fermilab Accelerators for high power operations, the Fermilab Accelerator Complex is again providing beams for numerous Physics Experiments. By using the Recycler to slip stack protons while the Main Injector is ramping, the beam power at 120 GeV can reach 700 KW, a factor of 2 increase. The progress towards doubling the Fermilab's Accelerator complex beam power will be presented.

  12. Design study of longitudinal dynamics of the drive beam in 1 TeV relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Yu, S.S.; Sessler, A.M.

    1994-10-01

    In this paper the authors present a design study on the longitudinal dynamics of a relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA) scheme which has been proposed as a power source candidate for a 1 TeV next linear collider (NLC). They address the issue of maintaining stable power output at desired level for a 300-m long TBA with 150 extraction cavities and present their simulation results to demonstrate that it can be achieved by inductively detuning the extraction cavities to counter the space charge debunching effect on the drive beam. They then carry out simulation study to show that the beam bunches desired by the RK-TBA can be efficiently obtained by first chopping an initially uniform beam of low energy into a train of beam bunches with modest longitudinal dimension and then using the {open_quotes}adiabatic capture{close_quotes} scheme to bunch and accelerate these beam bunches into tight bunches at the operating energy of the drive beam. The authors have also examined the {open_quotes}after burner{close_quotes} scheme which is implemented in their RK-TBA design for efficiency enhancement.

  13. A 200 MHz 35 MW Multiple Beam Klystron for Accelerator Applications Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    R. Lawrence Ives; Michael Read; Patrick Ferguson; David Marsden

    2011-11-28

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. (CCR) performed initial development of a compact and reliable 35 MW, multiple beam klystron (MBK) at 200 MHz with a pulse length of 0.125 ms and a 30 Hz repetition rate. The device was targeted for acceleration and ionization cooling of a muon collider, but there are several other potential applications in this frequency range. The klystron uses multiple beams propagating in individual beam tunnels to reduce space charge and allow reduction in the accelerating voltage. This allows a significant reduction in length over a single beam source. More importantly this allows more efficient and less expensive power supplies. At 200 MHz, the interaction circuit for a single beam klystron would be more than six meters long to obtain 50% efficiency and 50 dB gain. This would require a beam voltage of approximately 400 kV and current of 251 A for a microperveance of 1.0. For an eight beam MBK with the same beam perveance, a three meter long interaction circuit achieves the same power and gain. Each beam operates at 142 kV and 70A. The Phase I demonstrated that this device could be fabricated with funding available in a Phase II program and could achieve the program specifications.

  14. Calculation of integrated luminosity for beams stored in the Tevatron collider

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, D.A.

    1989-03-20

    A model for calculating the integrated luminosity of beams stored in the Tevatron collider will be presented. The model determines the instantaneous luminosity by calculating the overlap integral of bunched beams passing through the interaction region. The calculation accounts for the variation in beam size due to the beta functions and also for effects due to finite longitudinal emittance and non-zero dispersion in the interaction region. The integrated luminosity is calculated for the beams as they evolve due to processes including collisions and intrabeam scattering. The model has been applied to both the extant and upgraded Tevatron collider, but is not limited to them. The original motivation for developing the computer model was to determine the reduction in luminosity due to beams with non-zero longitudinal emittances. There are two effects: the transverse beam size is increased where the dispersion is non-zero; the finite length of the beam bunch combined with an increasing /beta/ function results in an increased transverse beam size at the ends of the bunch. The derivation of a sufficiently useful analytic expression for the luminosity proved to be intractable. Instead, a numerical integration computer program was developed to calculate the luminosity in the presence of a finite longitudinal emittance. The program was then expanded into a model which allows the luminosity to vary due to changes in emittances and reduction in bunch intensities. At that point, it was not difficult to calculate the integrated luminosity. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Design of an accelerating cavity for the Superconducting Super Collider Low-Energy Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrichs, C.C.; Walling, L. ); Campbell, B.M. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the history and current status of the design of the accelerator cavity to be incorporated into the Low-Energy Booster (LEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The LEB is a proton synchrotron, 540 meters in circumference, and having 108 buckets around the ring. Acceleration programs, each 50 msec long, take place at a rate of 10 per second. The beta change of the particles from injection to extraction is from 0.8 to 0.997. Since the rf excitation frequency must track beta, the rf frequency must shift from 47.5 to 60 MHz over the 50-msec acceleration program. The cavity will use ferrite in a perpendicular control bias mode to effect the require tuning. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  16. The HEB at flat top: Arranging for the HEB to collider beam transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.J.

    1994-03-01

    The flat top for the High Energy Booster (HEB) is planned to last for only 6.5 seconds, yet during this time the beam must be made to: (1) have the correct central momentum; (2) have the correct bunch-to-bunch spacing; (3) have the correct central phase; and (4) have the correct momentum spread and longitudinal length. All of these attributes must match what the Collider expects or unwanted emittance growth will occur. This paper outlines the techniques necessary to achieve a proper HEB-to-Collider beam transfer within the 6.5 s time constraint. A novel means for cogging is proposed and evaluated. The hardware necessary to implement the beam manipulation and to achieve the four goals is specified, and tolerances on the hardware are evaluated.

  17. Orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in the NICA collider with solenoid Siberian snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, A. D.; Butenko, A. V.; Kekelidze, V. D.; Mikhaylov, V. A.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Filatov, Yu N.

    2016-02-01

    Two solenoid Siberian snakes are required to obtain ion polarization in the “spin transparency” mode of the NICA collider. The field integrals of the solenoid snakes for protons and deuterons at maximum momentum of 13.5 GeV/c are equal to 2×50 T·m and 2×160 T·m respectively. The snakes introduce strong betatron oscillation coupling. The calculations of orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in NICA collider with solenoid snakes are presented.

  18. Disentangling the unparticles with polarized beams at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Huitu, Katri; Rai, Santosh Kumar

    2008-02-01

    A recently proposed idea of unparticles arising due to a scale invariant sector in the theory can give rise to effective operators with different Lorentz structures. We show that, by using the different polarization options at the future linear e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders, the nature of these effective operators can be easily understood. The unique feature of a complex phase in the propagator of the unparticle can also be understood distinctively for the different spins by exploiting the initial beam polarizations at the International Linear Collider.

  19. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  20. Conceptual design of hollow electron lenses for beam halo control in the Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, Giulio; Previtali, Valentina; Valishev, Alexander; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Adriana; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen

    2014-06-26

    Collimation with hollow electron beams is a technique for halo control in high-power hadron beams. It is based on an electron beam (possibly pulsed or modulated in intensity) guided by strong axial magnetic fields which overlaps with the circulating beam in a short section of the ring. The concept was tested experimentally at the Fermilab Tevatron collider using a hollow electron gun installed in one of the Tevatron electron lenses. We are proposing a conceptual design for applying this technique to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A prototype hollow electron gun for the LHC was built and tested. The expected performance of the hollow electron beam collimator was based on Tevatron experiments and on numerical tracking simulations. Halo removal rates and enhancements of halo diffusivity were estimated as a function of beam and lattice parameters. Proton beam core lifetimes and emittance growth rates were checked to ensure that undesired effects were suppressed. Hardware specifications were based on the Tevatron devices and on preliminary engineering integration studies in the LHC machine. Required resources and a possible timeline were also outlined, together with a brief discussion of alternative halo-removal schemes and of other possible uses of electron lenses to improve the performance of the LHC.

  1. Target Material Irradiation Studies for High-Intensity Accelerator Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, N.; Kirk, H.; Ludewig, H.; Thieberger, P.; Weng, W.T.; McDonald, K.; Sheppard, J.; Evangelakis, G.; Yoshimura, K.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-08-16

    This paper presents results of recent experimental studies focusing on the behavior of special materials and composites under irradiation conditions and their potential use as accelerator targets. The paper also discusses the approach and goals of on-going investigations on an expanded material matrix geared toward the neutrino superbeam and muon collider initiatives.

  2. ACE3P Computations of Wakefield Coupling in the CLIC Two-Beam Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Candel, Arno; Li, Z.; Ng, C.; Rawat, V.; Schussman, G.; Ko, K.; Syratchev, I.; Grudiev, A.; Wuensch, W.; /CERN

    2010-10-27

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) provides a path to a multi-TeV accelerator to explore the energy frontier of High Energy Physics. Its novel two-beam accelerator concept envisions rf power transfer to the accelerating structures from a separate high-current decelerator beam line consisting of power extraction and transfer structures (PETS). It is critical to numerically verify the fundamental and higher-order mode properties in and between the two beam lines with high accuracy and confidence. To solve these large-scale problems, SLAC's parallel finite element electromagnetic code suite ACE3P is employed. Using curvilinear conformal meshes and higher-order finite element vector basis functions, unprecedented accuracy and computational efficiency are achieved, enabling high-fidelity modeling of complex detuned structures such as the CLIC TD24 accelerating structure. In this paper, time-domain simulations of wakefield coupling effects in the combined system of PETS and the TD24 structures are presented. The results will help to identify potential issues and provide new insights on the design, leading to further improvements on the novel CLIC two-beam accelerator scheme.

  3. Optimization and beam control in large-emittance accelerators: Neutrino factories;

    SciTech Connect

    Carol Johnstone

    2004-08-23

    Schemes for intense sources of high-energy muons require collection, rf capture, and transport of particle beams with unprecedented emittances, both longitudinally and transversely. These large emittances must be reduced or ''cooled'' both in size and in energy spread before the muons can be efficiently accelerated. Therefore, formation of muon beams sufficiently intense to drive a Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider requires multi-stage preparation. Further, because of the large beam phase space which must be successfully controlled, accelerated, and transported, the major stages that comprise such a facility: proton driver, production, capture, phase rotation, cooling, acceleration, and storage are complex and strongly interlinked. Each of the stages must be consecutively matched and simultaneously optimized with upstream and downstream systems, meeting challenges not only technically in the optics and component design, but also in the modeling of both new and extended components. One design for transverse cooling, for example, employs meter-diameter solenoids to maintain strong focusing--300-500 mr beam divergences--across ultra-large momentum ranges, {ge} {+-}20% {delta}p/p, defying conventional approximations to the dynamics and field representation. To now, the interplay of the different systems and staging strategies has not been formally addressed. This work discusses two basic, but different approaches to a Neutrino Factory and how the staging strategy depends on beam parameters and method of acceleration.

  4. Minimal interference beam size/profile measurement techniques applicable to the Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Nexsen, W.; Dutt, S.; Kauffmann, S.; Lebedev, V.; Maschke, A.; Mokhov, N.; Richardson, R.; Tsyganov, E.; Zinchenko, A.

    1993-05-01

    The imaging of synchrotron radiation (SR) has been suggested as a technique for providing a continuous, non-interfering monitor of the beam profile in the Collider rings at the Superconducting Super Collider. A closer examination has raised questions concerning the applicability of SR imaging in this case because of the diffraction broadening of the image, the requirements for axial space and location in the lattice, and the complexity of the system. We have surveyed the known, alternative, minimal interference techniques for measuring beam size and have evaluated them for possible Collider usage. We conclude that of the approaches that appear feasible, all require at least some development for our usage and that the development of an electron beam probe offers the best promise. We recommend that flying wires be used for cross-checking and calibrating the electron beam probe diagnostic and for luminosity measurements when the highest accuracy is required, but flying wires should not be used as the primary diagnostic because of their limited lifetime.

  5. Accelerating Airy beams in the presence of inhomogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besieris, Ioannis M.; Shaarawi, Amr M.; Zamboni-Rached, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Studies have already been made of accelerating Airy beams in the presence of deterministic inhomogeneities, illustrating, in particular, that the inherent self-healing properties of such beams are preserved. The cases of a range-dependent linear transverse potential and a converging GRIN structure (harmonic oscillator) have been examined thoroughly. Examples will be given in this article of novel accelerating Airy beams in the presence of five other types of potential functions. Three of the resulting exact analytical solutions have a common salient characteristic property: they are constructed using the free-space accelerating Airy beam solution as a seed.

  6. Advanced Accelerating Structures and Their Interaction with Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gai Wei

    2009-01-22

    In this paper, we give a brief description of several advanced accelerating structures, such as dielectric loaded waveguides, photonic band gap, metamaterials and improved iris-loaded cavities. We describe wakefields generated by passing high current electron beams through these structures, and applications of wakefields to advanced accelerator schemes. One of the keys to success for high gradient wakefield acceleration is to develop high current drive beam sources. As an example, the high current RF photo injector at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator, passed a {approx}80 nC electron beam through a high gradient dielectric loaded structure to achieve a 100 MV/m gradient. We will summarize recent related experiments on beam-structure interactions and also discuss high current electron beam generation and propagation and their applications to wakefield acceleration.

  7. Advanced accelerating structures and their interaction with electron beams.

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, W.; High Energy Physics

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we give a brief description of several advanced accelerating structures, such as dielectric loaded waveguides, photonic band gap, metamaterials and improved iris-loaded cavities. We describe wakefields generated by passing high current electron beams through these structures, and applications of wakefields to advanced accelerator schemes. One of the keys to success for high gradient wakefield acceleration is to develop high current drive beam sources. As an example, the high current RF photo injector at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator, passed a {approx}80 nC electron beam through a high gradient dielectric loaded structure to achieve a 100 MV/m gradient. We will summarize recent related experiments on beam-structure interactions and also discuss high current electron beam generation and propagation and their applications to wakefield acceleration.

  8. Design of inductively detuned RF extraction cavities for the Relativistic Klystron Two Beam Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.S.; Li, H.

    1995-04-01

    An inductively detuned traveling wave cavity for the Relativistic Klystron Two Beam Accelerator expected to extract high RF power at 11. 424 GHz for the 1 TeV Center of Mass Next Linear Collider has been designed. Longitudinal beam dynamics studies led to the following requirements on cavity design: (a) Extraction of 360 MW of RF power with RF component of the current being 1.15 kAmps at 11.424 GHz, (b) Inductively detuned traveling wave cavity with wave phase velocity equal to 4/3 the speed of light, (c) Output cavity with appropriate Q{sub ext} and eigenfrequency for proper matching. Furthermore, transverse beam dynamics require low shunt impedances to avoid the beam break-up instability. We describe the design effort to meet these criteria based on frequency-domain and time-domain computations using 2D- and 3D- electromagnetic codes.

  9. Unveiling the propagation dynamics of self-accelerating vector beams

    PubMed Central

    Bar-David, Jonathan; Voloch-Bloch, Noa; Mazurski, Noa; Levy, Uriel

    2016-01-01

    We study theoretically and experimentally the varying polarization states and intensity patterns of self-accelerating vector beams. It is shown that as these beams propagate, the main intensity lobe and the polarization singularity gradually drift apart. Furthermore, the propagation dynamics can be manipulated by controlling the beams’ acceleration coefficients. We also demonstrate the self-healing dynamics of these accelerating vector beams for which sections of the vector beam are being blocked by an opaque or polarizing obstacle. Our results indicate that the self-healing process is almost insensitive for the obstacles’ polarization direction. Moreover, the spatial polarization structure also shows self- healing properties, and it is reconstructed as the beam propagates further beyond the perturbation plane. These results open various possibilities for generating, shaping and manipulating the intensity patterns and space variant polarization states of accelerating vector beams. PMID:27671745

  10. Post-acceleration of laser-induced ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassisi, V.; Delle Side, D.

    2015-04-01

    A complete review of the essential and recent developments in the field of post-acceleration of laser-induced ion beams is presented. After a brief introduction to the physics of low-intensity nanosecond laser-matter interaction, the details of ions extraction and acceleration are critically analyzed and the key parameters to obtain good-quality ion beams are illustrated. A description of the most common ion beam diagnosis system is given, together with the associated analytical techniques.

  11. Characteristics of an electron-beam rocket pellet accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.C.; Foster, C.A.; Schechter, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    An electron-beam rocket pellet accelerator has been designed, built, assembled, and tested as a proof-of-principle (POP) apparatus. The main goal of accelerators based on this concept is to use intense electron-beam heating and ablation of a hydrogen propellant stick to accelerate deuterium and/or tritium pellets to ultrahigh speeds (10 to 20 km/s) for plasma fueling of next-generation fusion devices such as the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER). The POP apparatus is described and initial results of pellet acceleration experiments are presented. Conceptual ultrahigh-speed pellet accelerators are discussed. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Rf-driver linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.B.

    1987-05-01

    The next generation of linear collider after the SLC (Stanford Linear Collider) will probably have an energy in the range 300 GeV-1 TeV per linac. A number of exotic accelerating schemes, such as laser and plasma acceleration, have been proposed for linear colliders of the far future. However, the technology which is most mature and which could lead to a collider in the above energy range in the relatively near future is the rf-driven linac, in which externally produced rf is fed into a more or less conventional metallic accelerating structure. Two basic technologies have been proposed for producing the required high peak rf power: discrete microwave power sources, and various two-beam acceleration schemes in which the rf is produced by a high current driving beam running parallel to the main accelerator. The current status of experimental and analytic work on both the discrete source and the two-beam methods for producing rf is discussed. The implications of beam-beam related effects (luminosity, disruption and beamstrahlung) for the design of rf-driven colliders are also considered.

  13. Stochastic heating and acceleration of electrons in colliding laser fields in plasma.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Z-M; Mima, K; Sentoku, Y; Jovanović, M S; Taguchi, T; Zhang, J; Meyer-Ter-Vehn, J

    2002-02-01

    We propose a mechanism that leads to efficient acceleration of electrons in plasma by two counterpropagating laser pulses. It is triggered by stochastic motion of electrons when the laser fields exceed some threshold amplitudes, as found in single-electron dynamics. It is further confirmed in particle-in-cell simulations. In vacuum or tenuous plasma, electron acceleration in the case with two colliding laser pulses can be much more efficient than with one laser pulse only. In plasma at moderate densities, such as a few percent of the critical density, the amplitude of the Raman-backscattered wave is high enough to serve as the second counterpropagating pulse to trigger the electron stochastic motion. As a result, even with one intense laser pulse only, electrons can be heated up to a temperature much higher than the corresponding laser ponderomotive potential.

  14. Symmetric neutralized ion beams: Production, acceleration, propagation, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Nathaniel Kenneth

    This dissertation presents the first integrated experimental, computational, and theoretical research program on symmetric neutralized ion beams. A beam of this type is composed of positive and negative ions having equal charge-to-mass ratios, such that the beam has overall charge neutrality and its constituent ions respond symmetrically to electromagnetic forces. Under the right conditions, these beams may propagate undeflected across transverse magnetic fields due to beam polarization. Such propagation is studied here computationally, using a three-dimensional particle-in-cell code. Also, key theoretical differences between the propagation ability of these beams and that of beams consisting of positive ions and electrons are elucidated. An experimental method of producing a symmetric neutralized ion beam by merging together separate beams of positive and negative ions is demonstrated, and prototype collector hardware to diagnose the composition and energy distribution of the beam is developed. The ability of radio frequency quadrupole accelerators to simultaneously confine and accelerate the positive and negative ions of such a beam is demonstrated computationally and is confirmed experimentally, and a method to reestablish local charge neutrality in the beam after acceleration is conceived and simulated. The favorable scaling of such accelerators to small size and high frequency is illustrated. Finally, applications of the research to magnetic confinement fusion and topics for future study are presented.

  15. The production of accelerated radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.

    1993-11-01

    During the last few years, substantial work has been done and interest developed in the scientific opportunities available with accelerated radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for nuclear physics, astrophysics, and applied research. This interest has led to the construction, development, and proposed development of both first- and second-generation RIB facilities in Asia, North America, and Europe; international conferences on RIBs at Berkeley and Louvain-la-Neuve; and many workshops on specific aspects of RIB production and science. This paper provides a discussion of both the projectile fragmentation, PF, and isotope separator on-line, ISOL, approach to RIB production with particular emphasis on the latter approach, which employs a postaccelerator and is most suitable for nuclear structure physics. The existing, under construction, and proposed facilities worldwide are discussed. The paper draws heavily from the CERN ISOLDE work, the North American IsoSpin Laboratory (ISL) study, and the operating first-generation RIB facility at Louvain-la-Neuve, and the first-generation RIB project currently being constructed at ORNL.

  16. Progress on Optimization of the Nonlinear Beam Dynamics in the MEIC Collider Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, Vasiliy S.; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Lin, Fanglei; Pilat, Fulvia; Zhang, Yuhong; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y. M.; Sullivan, Michael; Wang, M.-H.; Wienands, Uli

    2015-09-01

    One of the key design features of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) proposed by Jefferson Lab is a small beta function at the interaction point (IP) allowing one to achieve a high luminosity of up to 1034 cm-2s-1. The required strong beam focusing unavoidably causes large chromatic effects such as chromatic tune spread and beam smear at the IP, which need to be compensated. This paper reports recent progress in our development of a chromaticity correction scheme for the ion ring including optimization of dynamic aperture and momentum acceptance.

  17. Progress on optimization of the nonlinear beam dynamics in the MEIC collider rings

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-07-13

    One of the key design features of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) proposed by Jefferson Lab is a small beta function at the interaction point (IP) allowing one to achieve a high luminosity of up to 1034 cm-2s-1. The required strong beam focusing unavoidably causes large chromatic effects such as chromatic tune spread and beam smear at the IP, which need to be compensated. This paper reports recent progress in our development of a chromaticity correction scheme for the ion ring including optimization of dynamic aperture and momentum acceptance.

  18. Energy compensation of slow extracted beams with RF acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Tetsuya; Souda, Hikaru; Torikoshi, Masami; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Yamada, Satoru; Noda, Koji

    2016-03-01

    In a conventional carbon-ion radiotherapy facility, a carbon-ion beam is typically accelerated up to an optimum energy, slowly extracted from a synchrotron ring by a resonant slow extraction method, and ultimately delivered to a patient through a beam-delivery system. At Japan's Gunma University, a method employing slow-beam extraction along with beam-acceleration has been adopted. This method slightly alters the extracted-beam's energy owing to the acceleration component of the process, which subsequently results in a residual-range variation of approximately 2 mm in water-equivalent length. However, this range variation does not disturb a distal dose distribution with broad-beam methods such as the single beam-wobbling method. With the pencil-beam 3D scanning method, however, such a range variation disturbs a distal dose distribution because the variation is comparable to slice thickness. Therefore, for pencil-beam 3D scanning, an energy compensation method for a slow extracted beam is proposed in this paper. This method can compensate for the aforementioned energy variances by controlling net energy losses through a rotatable energy absorber set fixed between the synchrotron exit channel and the isocenter. Experimental results demonstrate that beam energies can be maintained constant, as originally hypothesized. Moreover, energy-absorber positions were found to be significantly enhanced by optimizing beam optics for reducing beam-size growth by implementation of the multiple-scattering effect option.

  19. Characteristics of an electron-beam rocket pellet accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.C.; Foster, C.A.; Milora, S.L.; Schechter, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    A proof-of-principle (POP) electron-beam pellet accelerator has been developed and used for accelerating hydrogen and deuterium pellets. An intact hydrogen pellet was accelerated to a speed of 460 m/s by an electron beam of 13.5 keV. 0.3 A, and 2 ms. The maximum speed is limited by the acceleration path length (0.4 m) and pellet integrity. Experimental data have been collected for several hundred hydrogen pellets, which were accelerated by electron beams with parameters of voltage up to 16 kV, current up to 0.4 A, and pulse length up to 10 ms. Preliminary results reveal that the measured burn velocity increases roughly with the square of the beam voltage, as the theoretical model predicts. The final pellet velocity is proportional to the exhaust velocity, which increases with the beam power. To reach the high exhaust velocity needed for accelerating pellets to >1000 m/s, a new electron gun, with its cathode indirectly heated by a graphite heater and an electron beam, is being developed to increase beam current and power. A rocket casing or shell around the pellet has been designed and developed to increase pellet strength and improve the electron-rocket coupling efficiency. We present the characteristics of this pellet accelerator, including new improvements. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Beam collimation and machine detector interface at the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Kostin, M.A.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    Synchrotron radiation, beam-gas scattering and beam halo interactions with collimators and other components in the ILC beam delivery system (BDS) would create fluxes of muons and other secondaries which could exceed the tolerable levels at a detector by a few orders of magnitude. It is shown that with a multi-stage collimation system, magnetized iron spoilers which fill the tunnel and a set of masks in the detector, one can hopefully meet the design goals. Results of modeling with the STRUCT and MARS15 codes of beam loss and energy deposition effects are presented in this paper. We focus on the collimation system and mask performance optimization, short- and long-term survivability of the critical components (spoilers, absorbers and magnets), dynamic heat loads and radiation levels in magnets and other components, and machine-related backgrounds in collider detectors.

  1. Staging Laser Plasma Accelerators for Increased Beam Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Panasenko, D.; Shu, A. J.; Schroeder, C. B.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Nakamura, K.; Matlis, N. H.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Plateau, G.; Lin, C.; Toth, C.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2009-01-22

    Staging laser plasma accelerators is an efficient way of mitigating laser pump depletion in laser driven accelerators and necessary for reaching high energies with compact laser systems. The concept of staging includes coupling of additional laser energy and transporting the electron beam from one accelerating module to another. Due to laser damage threshold constraints, in-coupling laser energy with conventional optics requires distances between the accelerating modules of the order of 10 m, resulting in decreased average accelerating gradient and complicated e-beam transport. In this paper we use basic scaling laws to show that the total length of future laser plasma accelerators will be determined by staging technology. We also propose using a liquid jet plasma mirror for in-coupling the laser beam and show that it has the potential to reduce distance between stages to the cm-scale.

  2. Staging laser plasma accelerators for increased beam energy

    SciTech Connect

    Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shu, Anthony; Schroeder, Carl; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Matlis, Nicholas; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Plateau, Guillaume; Lin, Chen; Toth, Csaba; Geddes, Cameron; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2008-09-29

    Staging laser plasma accelerators is an efficient way of mitigating laser pump depletion in laser driven accelerators and necessary for reaching high energies with compact laser systems. The concept of staging includes coupling of additional laser energy and transporting the electron beam from one accelerating module to another. Due to laser damage threshold constraints, in-coupling laser energy with conventional optics requires distances between the accelerating modules of the order of 10m, resulting in decreased average accelerating gradient and complicated e-beam transport. In this paper we use basic scaling laws to show that the total length of future laser plasma accelerators will be determined by staging technology. We also propose using a liquid jet plasma mirror for in-coupling the laser beam and show that it has the potential to reduce distance between stages to the cm-scale.

  3. Long bunch trains measured using a prototype cavity beam position monitor for the Compact Linear Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullinan, F. J.; Boogert, S. T.; Farabolini, W.; Lefevre, T.; Lunin, A.; Lyapin, A.; Søby, L.; Towler, J.; Wendt, M.

    2015-11-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) requires beam position monitors (BPMs) with 50 nm spatial resolution for alignment of the beam line elements in the main linac and beam delivery system. Furthermore, the BPMs must be able to make multiple independent measurements within a single 156 ns long bunch train. A prototype cavity BPM for CLIC has been manufactured and tested on the probe beam line at the 3rd CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) at CERN. The transverse beam position is determined from the electromagnetic resonant modes excited by the beam in the two cavities of the pickup, the position cavity and the reference cavity. The mode that is measured in each cavity resonates at 15 GHz and has a loaded quality factor that is below 200. Analytical expressions for the amplitude, phase and total energy of signals from long trains of bunches have been derived and the main conclusions are discussed. The results of the beam tests are presented. The variable gain of the receiver electronics has been characterized using beam excited signals and the form of the signals for different beam pulse lengths with the 2 /3 ns bunch spacing has been observed. The sensitivity of the reference cavity signal to charge and the horizontal position signal to beam offset have been measured and are compared with theoretical predictions based on laboratory measurements of the BPM pickup and the form of the resonant cavity modes as determined by numerical simulation. Finally, the BPM was calibrated so that the beam position jitter at the BPM location could be measured. It is expected that the beam jitter scales linearly with the beam size and so the results are compared to predicted values for the latter.

  4. Investigation of Beam-RF Interactions in Twisted Waveguide Accelerating Structures Using Beam Tracking Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Jeffrey A; Zhang, Yan; Kang, Yoon W; Galambos, John D; Hassan, Mohamed H; Wilson, Joshua L

    2009-01-01

    Investigations of the RF properties of certain twisted waveguide structures show that they support favorable accelerating fields. This makes them potential candidates for accelerating cavities. Using the particle tracking code, ORBIT, We examine the beam - RF interaction in the twisted cavity structures to understand their beam transport and acceleration properties. The results will show the distinctive properties of these new structures for particle transport and acceleration, which have not been previously analyzed.

  5. Intense ion beams accelerated by relativistic laser plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Markus; Cowan, Thomas E.; Gauthier, Jean-Claude J.; Allen, Matthew; Audebert, Patrick; Blazevic, Abel; Fuchs, Julien; Geissel, Matthias; Hegelich, Manuel; Karsch, S.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, Jurgen; Pukhov, Alexander; Schlegel, Theodor

    2001-12-01

    We have studied the influence of the target properties on laser-accelerated proton and ion beams generated by the LULI multi-terawatt laser. A strong dependence of the ion emission on the surface conditions, conductivity, shape and material of the thin foil targets were observed. We have performed a full characterization of the ion beam using magnetic spectrometers, Thompson parabolas, radiochromic film and nuclear activation techniques. The strong dependence of the ion beam acceleration on the conditions on the target back surface was found in agreement with theoretical predictions based on the target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) mechanism. Proton kinetic energies up to 25 MeV have been observed.

  6. High-gradient two-beam electron accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2014-11-04

    The main goal for this project was to design, build, and evaluate a detuned-cavity, collinear, two-beam accelerator structure. Testing was to be at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory, under terms of a sub-grant from Omega-P to Yale. Facilities available at Yale for this project include a 6-MeV S-band RF gun and associated beam line for forming and transporting a ~1 A drive beam , a 300 kV beam source for use as a test beam, and a full panoply of laboratory infrastructure and test equipment. During the first year of this project, availability and functionality of the 6-MeV drive beam and 300 kV test beam were confirmed, and the beam line was restored to a layout to be used with the two-beam accelerator project. Major efforts during the first year were also focused on computational design and simulation of the accelerator structure itself, on beam dynamics, and on beam transport. Effort during the second year was focussed on building and preparing to test the structure, including extensive cold testing. Detailed results from work under this project have been published in twelve archival journal articles, listed in Section IV of the technical report.

  7. Design of a 1-MV induction injector for the Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.E.; Eylon, S.; Lidia, S.; Reginato, L.; Vanecek, D.; Yu, S.; Houck, T.; Westenskow, G.A.; Henestroza, E.

    1997-05-01

    A Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator (RK-TBA) is envisioned as a rf power source upgrade of the Next Linear Collider. Construction of a prototype, called the RTA, based on the RK-TBA concept has commenced at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This prototype will be used to study physics, engineering, and costing issues involved in the application of the RK-TBA concept to linear colliders. The first half of the injector, a 1 MeV, 1.2 kA, 300 ns induction electron gun, has been built and is presently being tested. The design of the injector cells and the pulsed power drive units are presented in this paper.

  8. SLAC linear collider conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The linear collider system is described in detail, including the transport system, the collider lattice, final focusing system, positron production, beam damping and compression, high current electron source, instrumentation and control, and the beam luminosity. The experimental facilities and the experimental uses are discussed along with the construction schedule and estimated costs. Appendices include a discussion of space charge effects in the linear accelerator, emittance growth in the collider, the final focus system, beam-beam instabilities and pinch effects, and detector backgrounds. (GHT)

  9. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  10. Accelerators (4/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  11. Accelerators (3/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  12. Accelerators (5/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  13. Accelerators (5/5)

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-09

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  14. Accelerators (4/5)

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-08

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  15. Accelerators (3/5)

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-07

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  16. Excitation of Accelerating Plasma Waves by Counter-Propagating Laser Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Shvets, Gennady; Fisch, Nathaniel J; Pukhov, Alexander

    2002-04-05

    The conventional approach to exciting high phase velocity waves in plasmas is to employ a laser pulse moving in the direction of the desired particle acceleration. Photon downshifting then causes momentum transfer to the plasma and wave excitation. Novel approaches to plasma wake excitation, colliding-beam accelerator (CBA), which involve photon exchange between the long and short counter-propagating laser beams, are described. Depending on the frequency detuning Dw between beams and duration tL of the short pulse, there are two approaches to CBA. The first approach assumes tL ª 2/wp. Photons exchanged between the beams deposit their recoil momentum in the plasma driving the plasma wake. Frequency detuning between the beams determines the direction of the photon exchange, thereby controlling the phase of the plasma wake. This phase control can be used for reversing the slippage of the accelerated particles with respect to the wake. A variation on the same theme, super-beatwave accelerator, is also described. In the second approach, a short pulse with tL >> 2/wp1 detuned by Dw ~ 2wp from the counter-propagating beam is employed. While parametric excitation of plasma waves by the electromagnetic beatwave at 2wp of two co-propagating lasers was first predicted by Rosenbluth and Liu [M.N. Rosenbluth, C.S. Liu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29 (1972) 701], it is demonstrated that the two excitation beams can be counter-propagating. The advantages of using this geometry (higher instability growth rate, insensitivity to plasma inhomogeneity) are explained, and supporting numerical simulations presented.

  17. Transient Beam Loading Effects in Gas-filled RF Cavities for a Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, M.; Tollestrup, A.; Yonehara, K.; Freemire, B.

    2013-06-01

    A gas-filled RF cavity can be an effective solution for the development of a compact muon ionization cooling channel. One possible problem expected in this type of cavity is the dissipation of significant RF power through the beam-induced plasmas accumulated inside the cavity (plasma loading). In addition, for the higher muon beam intensity, the effects of the beam itself on the cavity accelerating mode are non-negligible (beam loading). These beam- cavity interactions induce a transient phase which may be very harmful to the beam quality [1]. In this study, we estimate the transient voltage in a gas-filled RF cavity with both the plasma and conventional beam loading and discuss their compensation methods.

  18. Ion bunch length effects on the beam-beam interaction and its compensation in a high-luminosity ring-ring electron-ion collider

    SciTech Connect

    Montag C.; Oeftiger, A.; Fischer, W.

    2012-05-20

    One of the luminosity limits in a ring-ring electron-ion collider is the beam-beam effect on the electrons. In the limit of short ion bunches, simulation studies have shown that this limit can be significantly increased by head-on beam-beam compensation with an electron lens. However, with an ion bunch length comparable to the beta-function at the IP in conjunction with a large beam-beam parameter, the electrons perform a sizeable fraction of a betatron oscillation period inside the long ion bunches. We present recent simulation results on the compensation of this beam-beam interaction with multiple electron lenses.

  19. Progress Towards Doubling the Beam Power at Fermilab's Accelerator Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kourbanis, ioanis

    2014-06-01

    After a 14 month shutdown accelerator modifications and upgrades are in place to allow us doubling of the Main Injector beam power. We will discuss the past MI high power operation and the current progress towards doubling the power.

  20. Beam manipulation and acceleration with Dielectric-Lined Waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Lemery, Francois

    2015-06-01

    The development of next-generation TeV+ electron accelerators will require either immense footprints based on conventional acceleraton techniques or the development of new higher{gradient acceleration methods. One possible alternative is beam-driven acceleration in a high-impedance medium such as a dielectric-lined-waveguide (DLW), where a highcharge bunch passes through a DLW and can excite gradients on the order of GV/m. An important characteristic of this acceleration class is the transformer ratio which characterizes the energy transfer of the scheme. This dissertation discusses alternative methods to improve the transformer ratio for beam-driven acceleration and also considers the use of DLWs for beam manipulation at low energy.

  1. Multiple beam induction accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Peter A.; Barnard, John J.; Faltens, Andris; Friedman, Alex; Waldron, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Induction accelerators are appealing for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy (HIF) because of their high efficiency and their demonstrated capability to accelerate high beam current (≥10 kA in some applications). For the HIF application, accomplishments and challenges are summarized. HIF research and development has demonstrated the production of single ion beams with the required emittance, current, and energy suitable for injection into an induction linear accelerator. Driver scale beams have been transported in quadrupole channels of the order of 10% of the number of quadrupoles of a driver. We review the design and operation of induction accelerators and the relevant aspects of their use as drivers for HIF. We describe intermediate research steps that would provide the basis for a heavy-ion research facility capable of heating matter to fusion relevant temperatures and densities, and also to test and demonstrate an accelerator architecture that scales well to a fusion power plant.

  2. Beam dynamics in a long-pulse linear induction accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, Carl; Abeyta, Epifanio O; Aragon, Paul; Archuleta, Rita; Cook, Gerald; Dalmas, Dale; Esquibel, Kevin; Gallegos, Robert A; Garnett, Robert; Harrison, James F; Johnson, Jeffrey B; Jacquez, Edward B; Mc Cuistian, Brian T; Montoya, Nicholas A; Nath, Subrato; Nielsen, Kurt; Oro, David; Prichard, Benjamin; Rose, Chris R; Sanchez, Manolito; Schauer, Martin M; Seitz, Gerald; Schulze, Martin; Bender, Howard A; Broste, William B; Carlson, Carl A; Frayer, Daniel K; Johnson, Douglas E; Tom, C Y; Trainham, C; Williams, John; Scarpetti, Raymond; Genoni, Thomas; Hughes, Thomas; Toma, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    The second axis of the Dual Axis Radiography of Hydrodynamic Testing (DARHT) facility produces up to four radiographs within an interval of 1.6 microseconds. It accomplishes this by slicing four micro-pulses out of a long 1.8-kA, 16.5-MeV electron beam pulse and focusing them onto a bremsstrahlung converter target. The long beam pulse is created by a dispenser cathode diode and accelerated by the unique DARHT Axis-II linear induction accelerator (LIA). Beam motion in the accelerator would be a problem for radiography. High frequency motion, such as from beam breakup instability, would blur the individual spots. Low frequency motion, such as produced by pulsed power variation, would produce spot to spot differences. In this article, we describe these sources of beam motion, and the measures we have taken to minimize it.

  3. 600 kV modulator design for the SLAC Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, K.; de Lamare, J.; Nesterov, V.; Cassel, R.

    1992-07-01

    Preliminary design for the SLAC Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) requires a pulse power source to produce a 600 kV, 600 A, 1.4 {mu}s, 0.1% flat top pulse with rise and fall times of approximately 100 ns to power an X-Band klystron with a microperveance of 1.25 at {approx} 100 MW peak RF power. The design goals for the modulator, including those previously listed, are peak modulator pulse power of 340 MW operating at 120 Hz. A three-stage darlington pulse-forming network, which produces a >100 kV, 1.4 {mu}s pulse, is coupled to the klystron load through a 6:1 pulse transformer. Careful consideration of the transformer leakage inductance, klystron capacitance, system layout, and component choice is necessary to produce the very fast rise and fall times at 600 kV operating continuously at 120 Hz.

  4. Study of a microwave power source for a two-beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, T.L.

    1994-08-15

    A theoretical and experimental study of a microwave power source suitable for driving a linear e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider is reported. The power source is based on the Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator (RK-TBA) concept, is driven by a 5-MeV, 1-kA induction accelerator electron beam, and operates at X-band frequencies. The development of a computer code to simulate the transverse beam dynamics of an intense relativistic electron beam transiting a system of microwave resonant structures is presented. This code is time dependent with self-consistent beam-cavity interactions and uses realistic beam parameters. Simulations performed with this code are compared with analytical theory and experiments. The concept of spacing resonant structures at distances equal to the betatron wavelength of the focusing system to suppress the growth of transverse instabilities is discussed. Simulations include energy spread over the beam to demonstrate the effect of Landau damping and establish the sensitivity of the betatron wavelength spacing scheme to errors in the focusing system. The design of the Reacceleration Experiment is described in detail and includes essentially all the issues related to a full scale RK-TBA microwave source. A total combined power from three output structures in excess of 170 MW with an amplitude stability of {+-}4% over a 25 ns pulse was achieved. The results of the experiment are compared to simulations used during the design phase to validate the various codes and methods used. The primary issue for the RK-TBA concept is identified as transverse beam instability associated with the excitation of higher order modes in the resonant structures used for extracting microwave power from the modulated beam. This work represents the first successful experimental demonstration of repeated cycles of microwave energy extraction from and reacceleration of a modulated beam.

  5. Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source.

    PubMed

    Kondo, K; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Okamura, M

    2010-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented.

  6. Acceleration of ampere class H(-) ion beam by MeV accelerator.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, M; Inoue, T; Umeda, N; Kashiwagi, M; Watanabe, K; Tobari, H; Dairaku, M; Sakamoto, K

    2008-02-01

    The H(-) ion accelerator R&D to realize the international thermonuclear experimental reactor neutral beam is ongoing at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The required performance for the prototype MeV accelerator developed at JAEA is 1 MeV, 500 mA (current density of 200 A/m(2)) H(-) ion beam at the beamlet divergence angle of less than 7 mrad. Up to 2005, 836 keV, 146 A/m(2) H(-) ion beam was successfully accelerated as the highest record of the current density at MeV class energy beams. In the present work, high current negative ion beam acceleration test was performed by increasing the beam extraction apertures from 3 x 3 (9 apertures) to 3 x 5 (15 apertures). By fixing the air leak at the source chamber due to backstream ions as well as the improvement of voltage holding capability by a new fiber reinforced plastic insulator ring, the performance of the MeV accelerator was improved. So far, H(-) ion beam of 320 mA was successfully accelerated up to 796 keV with the beam divergence angle of 5.5 mrad. The accelerated drain current including the electron reaches close to the power supply limit for the MeV test facility. The heat flux by the backstream ion during the above beam acceleration was estimated to be 360 W/cm(2). The Cs leakage to the accelerator during the test campaign (Cs total input of 5.0 g) was 0.26 mg (7.0 microg/cm(2)). This is considered to be the allowable level from the viewpoint of voltage holding. PMID:18315236

  7. Electrostatic quadrupole focused particle accelerating assembly with laminar flow beam

    DOEpatents

    Maschke, Alfred W.

    1985-01-01

    A charged particle accelerating assembly provided with a predetermined ratio of parametric structural characteristics and with related operating voltages applied to each of its linearly spaced focusing and accelerating quadrupoles, thereby to maintain a particle beam traversing the electrostatic fields of the quadrupoles in the assembly in an essentially laminar flow throughout the assembly.

  8. Electrostatic quadrupole focused particle accelerating assembly with laminar flow beam

    DOEpatents

    Maschke, A.W.

    1984-04-16

    A charged particle accelerating assembly provided with a predetermined ratio of parametric structural characteristics and with related operating voltages applied to each of its linearly spaced focusing and accelerating quadrupoles, thereby to maintain a particle beam traversing the electrostatic fields of the quadrupoles in the assembly in an essentially laminar flow through the assembly.

  9. Beam-commissioning study of high-intensity accelerators using virtual accelerator model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, H.; Shigaki, K.; Irie, Y.; Noda, F.; Hotchi, H.; Saha, P. K.; Shobuda, Y.; Sako, H.; Furukawa, K.; Machida, S.

    2009-04-01

    In order to control large-scale accelerators efficiently, a control system with a virtual accelerator model was constructed. The virtual accelerator (VA) is an on-line beam simulator provided with a beam monitor scheme. The VA is based upon the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) and is configured under the EPICS input/output controller (IOC) in parallel with a real accelerator (RA). Thus, the machine operator can access the parameters of the RA through the channel access client and then feed them to the VA, and vice versa. Such a control scheme facilitates developments of the commissioning tools, feasibility study of the proposed accelerator parameters and examination of the measured accelerator data. This paper describes the beam commissioning results and activities by using the VA at the J-PARC 3-GeV rapid-cycling synchrotron (RCS).

  10. Beam trapping in the NRL modified betatron accelerator. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Kapetanakos, C.A.; Dialetis, D.; Marsh, S.J.; Len, K.L.; Smith, T.

    1991-05-15

    The experimental results on the trapping of the beam NRL modified betatron accelerator are in good agreement with a revised model of resistive trapping and thus it may be concluded that the wall resistivity is responsible for the inward spiral motion of the beam after injection.

  11. Induction Accelerator Technology Choices for the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX)

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, M.A.; Celata, C.M.; Lee, E.P.; Logan, B.G.; Sabbi, G.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2003-09-15

    Over the next three years the research program of the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL), a collaboration among LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL, is focused on separate scientific experiments in the injection, transport and focusing of intense heavy ion beams at currents from 100 mA to 1 A. As a next major step in the HIF-VNL program, we aim for a complete 'source-to-target' experiment, the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). By combining the experience gained in the current separate beam experiments IBX would allow the integrated scientific study of the evolution of a single heavy ion beam at high current ({approx}1 A) through all sections of a possible heavy ion fusion accelerator: the injection, acceleration, compression, and beam focusing.This paper describes the main parameters and technology choices of the planned IBX experiment. IBX will accelerate singly charged potassium or argon ion beams up to 10 MeV final energy and a longitudinal beam compression ratio of 10, resulting in a beam current at target of more than 10 Amperes. Different accelerator cell design options are described in detail: Induction cores incorporating either room temperature pulsed focusing-magnets or superconducting magnets.

  12. Beam losses and beam halos in accelerators for new energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Jameson, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    Large particle accelerators are proposed as drivers for new ways to produce electricity from nuclear fusion and fission reactions. The accelerators must be designed to deliver large particle beam currents to a target facility with very little beam spill along the accelerator itself, in order that accelerator maintenance can be accomplished without remote manipulators. Typically, particle loss is preceded by the formation of a tenuous halo of particles around the central beam core, caused by beam dynamics effects, often coupled with the slight imperfections inevitable in a practical design. If the halo becomes large enough, particles may be scraped off along the accelerator. The tolerance for beam spill in different applications is discussed, halo mechanisms and recent work to explore and understand their dynamics are reviewed, and possible directions for future investigation are outlined. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Beam Position Monitoring in the CSU Accelerator Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einstein, Joshua; Vankeuren, Max; Watras, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    A Beam Position Monitoring (BPM) system is an integral part of an accelerator beamline, and modern accelerators can take advantage of newer technologies and designs when creating a BPM system. The Colorado State University (CSU) Accelerator Facility will include four stripline detectors mounted around the beamline, a low-noise analog front-end, and digitization and interface circuitry. The design will support a sampling rate greater than 10 Hz and sub-100 μm accuracy.

  14. Tailored electron bunches with smooth current profiles for enhanced transformer ratios in beam-driven acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemery, F.; Piot, P.

    2015-08-01

    Collinear high-gradient O (GV /m ) beam-driven wakefield methods for charged-particle acceleration could be critical to the realization of compact, cost-efficient, accelerators, e.g., in support of TeV-scale lepton colliders or multiple-user free-electron laser facilities. To make these options viable, the high accelerating fields need to be complemented with large transformer ratios >2 , a parameter characterizing the efficiency of the energy transfer between a wakefield-exciting "drive" bunch to an accelerated "witness" bunch. While several potential current distributions have been discussed, their practical realization appears challenging due to their often discontinuous nature. In this paper we propose several alternative continuously differentiable (smooth) current profiles which support enhanced transformer ratios. We especially demonstrate that one of the devised shapes can be implemented in a photo-emission electron source by properly shaping the photocathode-laser pulse. We finally discuss a possible superconducting linear-accelerator concept that could produce shaped drive bunches at high-repetition rates to drive a dielectric-wakefield accelerator with accelerating fields on the order of ˜60 MV /m and a transformer ratio ˜5 consistent with a recently proposed multiuser free-electron laser facility.

  15. Turn-By Beam Extraction during Acceleration in a Synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Trbojevic, Dejan

    2014-02-01

    A synchrotron to accelerate protons or carbon ions for medical applications is being designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Single beam bunches with maximum beam energy of 1.18 GeV and 400 MeV/u for protons and carbon ions respectively will be extracted from the synchrotron at 15 Hz. For protons, the maximum required energy for irradiating a tumor is ˜206 MeV. A pencil-like proton beam containing ˜5.4×107 p/bunch delivers a therapeutic dose of 2.5 Gy in ˜1.5 minutes to treat a tumor of 1 liter volume. It will take ˜80 minutes with bunches containing 4.5×104 ions/bunch to deliver the same dose of 2.5 Gy with a 400 MeV/u pencil-like carbon beam. This extended treatment time when using carbon ions is not acceptable. In addition, the synchrotron cannot be controlled with a beam bunch containing such a low number of carbon ions. To overcome these two problems of the extended treatment time and the low bunch intensity required for the treatment when carbon ions are used, we have devised a method to “peel” the required 4.5×104 carbon-ions/bunch from the accelerating carbon beam bunch containing ˜108 ions/bunch and deliver them to the tumor on a “turn-by-turn” basis. Unlike other methods of beam extraction from a synchrotron, such as resonance extraction, this method does not allow for any beam losses during the extraction and the carbon beam can be peeled off in less than 15 ms during the acceleration or deceleration cycle of the synchrotron. Thus, this turn-by-turn beam extraction method provides beam with variable energy and precisely controlled beam current during the 30 ms acceleration or deceleration time.

  16. Experimental characterization of a coaxial plasma accelerator for a colliding plasma experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wiechula, J.; Hock, C.; Iberler, M.; Manegold, T.; Schönlein, A.; Jacoby, J.

    2015-04-15

    We report experimental results of a single coaxial plasma accelerator in preparation for a colliding plasma experiment. The utilized device consisted of a coaxial pair of electrodes, accelerating the plasma due to J×B forces. A pulse forming network, composed of three capacitors connected in parallel, with a total capacitance of 27 μF was set up. A thyratron allowed to switch the maximum applied voltage of 9 kV. Under these conditions, the pulsed currents reached peak values of about 103 kA. The measurements were performed in a small vacuum chamber with a neutral-gas prefill at gas pressures between 10 Pa and 14 000 Pa. A gas mixture of ArH{sub 2} with 2.8% H{sub 2} served as the discharge medium. H{sub 2} was chosen in order to observe the broadening of the H{sub β} emission line and thus estimate the electron density. The electron density for a single plasma accelerator reached peak values on the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3}. Electrical parameters, inter alia inductance and resistance, were determined for the LCR circuit during the plasma acceleration as well as in a short circuit case. Depending on the applied voltage, the inductance and resistance reached values ranging from 194 nH to 216 nH and 13 mΩ to 23 mΩ, respectively. Furthermore, the plasma velocity was measured using a fast CCD camera. Plasma velocities of 2 km/s up to 17 km/s were observed, the magnitude being highly correlated with gas pressure and applied voltage.

  17. Experimental characterization of a coaxial plasma accelerator for a colliding plasma experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiechula, J.; Hock, C.; Iberler, M.; Manegold, T.; Schönlein, A.; Jacoby, J.

    2015-04-01

    We report experimental results of a single coaxial plasma accelerator in preparation for a colliding plasma experiment. The utilized device consisted of a coaxial pair of electrodes, accelerating the plasma due to J ×B forces. A pulse forming network, composed of three capacitors connected in parallel, with a total capacitance of 27 μF was set up. A thyratron allowed to switch the maximum applied voltage of 9 kV. Under these conditions, the pulsed currents reached peak values of about 103 kA. The measurements were performed in a small vacuum chamber with a neutral-gas prefill at gas pressures between 10 Pa and 14 000 Pa. A gas mixture of ArH2 with 2.8% H2 served as the discharge medium. H2 was chosen in order to observe the broadening of the Hβ emission line and thus estimate the electron density. The electron density for a single plasma accelerator reached peak values on the order of 1016 cm-3 . Electrical parameters, inter alia inductance and resistance, were determined for the LCR circuit during the plasma acceleration as well as in a short circuit case. Depending on the applied voltage, the inductance and resistance reached values ranging from 194 nH to 216 nH and 13 mΩ to 23 mΩ, respectively. Furthermore, the plasma velocity was measured using a fast CCD camera. Plasma velocities of 2 km/s up to 17 km/s were observed, the magnitude being highly correlated with gas pressure and applied voltage.

  18. Mechanisms and control of beam halo formation in intense microwave sources and accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Pakter, R.

    2000-05-01

    Halo formation and control in space-charge-dominated electron and ion beams are investigated in parameter regimes relevant to the development of high-power microwave (HPM) sources and high-intensity electron and ion linear accelerators. In particular, a mechanism for electron beam halo formation is identified in high-power periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focusing klystron amplifiers. It is found in self-consistent simulations that large-amplitude current oscillations induce mismatched beam envelope oscillations and electron beam halo formation. Qualitative agreement is found between simulations and the 50 MW 11.4 GHz PPM focusing klystron experiment at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) (D. Sprehn, G. Caryotakis, E. Jongewaard, and R. M. Phillips, "Periodic permanent magnetic development for linear collider X-band klystrons," Proceedings of the XIXth International Linac Conference, Argonne National Laboratory Report ANL-98/28, 1998, p. 689). Moreover, a new class of cold-fluid corkscrewing elliptic beam equilibria is discovered for ultrahigh-brightness, space-charge dominated electron or ion beam propagation through a linear focusing channel consisting of uniform solenoidal magnetic focusing fields, periodic solenoidal magnetic focusing fields, and/or alternating-gradient quadrupole magnetic focusing fields in an arbitrary arrangement including field tapering. As an important application of such new cold-fluid corkscrewing elliptic beam equilibria, a technique is developed and demonstrated for controlling of halo formation and beam hollowing in a rms-matched ultrahigh-brightness ion beam as it is injected from an axisymmetric Pierce diode into an alternating-gradient magnetic quadrupole focusing channel.

  19. Efficient Optical Energy Harvesting in Self-Accelerating Beams

    PubMed Central

    Bongiovanni, Domenico; Hu, Yi; Wetzel, Benjamin; Robles, Raul A.; Mendoza González, Gregorio; Marti-Panameño, Erwin A.; Chen, Zhigang; Morandotti, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We report the experimental observation of energetically confined self-accelerating optical beams propagating along various convex trajectories. We show that, under an appropriate transverse compression of their spatial spectra, these self-accelerating beams can exhibit a dramatic enhancement of their peak intensity and a significant decrease of their transverse expansion, yet retaining both the expected acceleration profile and the intrinsic self-healing properties. We found our experimental results to be in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations. We expect further applications in such contexts where power budget and optimal spatial confinement can be important limiting factors. PMID:26299360

  20. High transformer ratio drive beams for wakefield accelerator studies

    SciTech Connect

    England, R. J.; Ng, C.-K.; Frederico, J.; Hogan, M. J.; Litos, M.; Muggli, P.; Joshi, C.; An, W.; Andonian, G.; Mori, W.; Lu, W.

    2012-12-21

    For wakefield based acceleration schemes, use of an asymmetric (or linearly ramped) drive bunch current profile has been predicted to enhance the transformer ratio and generate large accelerating wakes. We discuss plans and initial results for producing such bunches using the 20 to 23 GeV electron beam at the FACET facility at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and sending them through plasmas and dielectric tubes to generate transformer ratios greater than 2 (the limit for symmetric bunches). The scheme proposed utilizes the final FACET chicane compressor and transverse collimation to shape the longitudinal phase space of the beam.

  1. Beam Dynamics Design and Simulation in Ion Linear Accelerators (

    2006-08-01

    Orginally, the ray tracing code TRACK has been developed to fulfill the many special requirements for the Rare Isotope Accelerator Facility known as RIA. Since no available beam-dynamics code met all the necessary requirements, modifications to the code TRACK were introduced to allow end-to-end (from the ion souce to the production target) simulations of the RIA machine, TRACK is a general beam-dynamics code and can be applied for the design, commissioning and operation of modernmore » ion linear accelerators and beam transport systems.« less

  2. Beam Dynamics Design and Simulation in Ion Linear Accelerators (

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, Peter N.; Asseev, Vladislav N.; Mustapha, and Brahim

    2006-08-01

    Orginally, the ray tracing code TRACK has been developed to fulfill the many special requirements for the Rare Isotope Accelerator Facility known as RIA. Since no available beam-dynamics code met all the necessary requirements, modifications to the code TRACK were introduced to allow end-to-end (from the ion souce to the production target) simulations of the RIA machine, TRACK is a general beam-dynamics code and can be applied for the design, commissioning and operation of modern ion linear accelerators and beam transport systems.

  3. Cold- and Beam Test of the First Prototypes of the Superstructure for the TESLA Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Baboi, Nicoleta

    2003-08-08

    After three years of preparation, two superstructures, each made of two superconducting 7-cell weakly coupled subunits, have been installed in the TESLA Test Facility linac (TTF) for the cold- and beam-test. The energy stability, the HOMs damping, the frequency and the field adjustment methods were tested. The measured results confirmed expectation on the superstructure performance and proved that alternative layout for the 800 GeV upgrade of the TESLA collider, as it was proposed in TDR, is feasible. We report on the test and give here an overview of its results which are commented in more detail elsewhere in these Proceedings.

  4. Uncovering beam position monitor noise at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, X.; Lee, S. Y.; Bai, M.

    2015-01-01

    We apply the independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm to uncover intrinsic noise in the beam position monitor (BPM) system. Numerical simulations found that ICA is efficient in the BPM noise estimation. The ICA algorithm is applied to the turn-by-turn data at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We found the distribution of the BPM noise level, which is consistent with the Johnson-Nyquist thermal noise model. The ICA analysis of turn-by-turn data can be used in neuronetwork feasibility of monitoring a storage ring parasitically.

  5. The IFMIF-EVEDA accelerator beam dump design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, D.; Arranz, F.; Arroyo, J. M.; Barrera, G.; Brañas, B.; Casal, N.; García, M.; López, D.; Martínez, J. I.; Mayoral, A.; Ogando, F.; Parro, M.; Oliver, C.; Rapisarda, D.; Sanz, J.; Sauvan, P.; Ibarra, A.

    2011-10-01

    The IFMIF-EVEDA accelerator will be a 9 MeV, 125 mA cw deuteron accelerator prototype for verifying the validity of the 40 MeV accelerator design for IFMIF. A beam dump designed for maximum power of 1.12 MW will be used to stop the beam at the accelerator exit. The conceptual design for the IFMIF-EVEDA accelerator beam dump is based on a conical beam stop made of OFE copper. The cooling system uses an axial high velocity flow of water pressurized up to 3.4 × 10 5 Pa to avoid boiling. The design has been shown to be compliant with ASME mechanical design rules under nominal full power conditions. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to take into account the possible margin on the beam properties at the beam dump entrance. This analysis together with the study of the maintenance issues and the mounting and dismounting operations has led to the complete design definition.

  6. Polarized Electrons for Linear Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clendenin, J. E.; Brachmann, A.; Garwin, E. L.; Kirby, R. E.; Luh, D.-A.; Maruyama, T.; Prescott, C. Y.; Sheppard, J. C.; Turner, J.; Prepost, R.

    2005-08-01

    Future electron-positron linear colliders require a highly polarized electron beam with a pulse structure that depends primarily on whether the acceleration utilizes warm or superconducting RF structures. The International Linear Collider (ILC) will use cold structures for the main linac. It is shown that a DC-biased polarized photoelectron source such as successfully used for the SLC can meet the charge requirements for the ILC micropulse with a polarization approaching 90%.

  7. Polarized Electrons for Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Clendenin, J.

    2004-11-19

    Future electron-positron linear colliders require a highly polarized electron beam with a pulse structure that depends primarily on whether the acceleration utilizes warm or superconducting rf structures. The International Linear Collider (ILC) will use cold structures for the main linac. It is shown that a dc-biased polarized photoelectron source such as successfully used for the SLC can meet the charge requirements for the ILC micropulse with a polarization approaching 90%.

  8. Beam brilliance investigation of high current ion beams at GSI heavy ion accelerator facility

    SciTech Connect

    Adonin, A. A. Hollinger, R.

    2014-02-15

    In this work the emittance measurements of high current Ta-beam provided by VARIS (Vacuum Arc Ion Source) ion source are presented. Beam brilliance as a function of beam aperture at various extraction conditions is investigated. Influence of electrostatic ion beam compression in post acceleration gap on the beam quality is discussed. Use of different extraction systems (single aperture, 7 holes, and 13 holes) in order to achieve more peaked beam core is considered. The possible ways to increase the beam brilliance are discussed.

  9. Beam brilliance investigation of high current ion beams at GSI heavy ion accelerator facility.

    PubMed

    Adonin, A A; Hollinger, R

    2014-02-01

    In this work the emittance measurements of high current Ta-beam provided by VARIS (Vacuum Arc Ion Source) ion source are presented. Beam brilliance as a function of beam aperture at various extraction conditions is investigated. Influence of electrostatic ion beam compression in post acceleration gap on the beam quality is discussed. Use of different extraction systems (single aperture, 7 holes, and 13 holes) in order to achieve more peaked beam core is considered. The possible ways to increase the beam brilliance are discussed.

  10. Transformer ratio improvement for beam based plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shea, Brendan; Rosenzweig, James; Barber, Samuel; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Williams, Oliver; Muggli, Patric; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Kusche, Karl

    2012-12-21

    Increasing the transformer ratio of wakefield accelerating systems improves the viability of present novel accelerating schemes. The use of asymmetric bunches to improve the transformer ratio of beam based plasma systems has been proposed for some time[1, 2] but suffered from lack appropriate beam creation systems. Recently these impediments have been overcome [3, 4] and the ability now exists to create bunches with current profiles shaped to overcome the symmetric beam limit of R {<=} 2. We present here work towards experiments designed to measure the transformer ratio of such beams, including theoretical models and simulations using VORPAL (a 3D capable PIC code) [5]. Specifically we discuss projects to be carried out in the quasi-nonlinear regime [6] at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory and the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Lab.

  11. Coherent beam-beam effects observation and mitigation at the RHIC collider

    SciTech Connect

    White S.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.

    2012-05-20

    In polarized proton operation in RHIC coherent beam-beam modes are routinely observed with beam transfer function measurements in the vertical plane. With the existence of coherent modes a larger space is required in the tune diagram than without them and stable conditions can be compromised for operation with high intensity beams as foreseen for future luminosity upgrades. We report on experiments and simulations carried out to understand the existence of coherent modes in the vertical plane and their absence in the horizontal plane, and investigate possible mitigation strategies.

  12. High efficiency beam splitting for H/sup -/ accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S.L.; Stipp, V.; Krieger, C.; Madsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beam splitting for high energy accelerators has typically involved a significant loss of beam and radiation. This paper reports on a new method of splitting beams for H/sup -/ accelerators. This technique uses a high intensity flash of light to strip a fraction of the H/sup -/ beam to H/sup 0/ which are then easily separated by a small bending magnet. A system using a 900-watt (average electrical power) flashlamp and a highly efficient collector will provide 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -2/ splitting of a 50 MeV H/sup -/ beam. Results on the operation and comparisons with stripping cross sections are presented. Also discussed is the possibility for developing this system to yield a higher stripping fraction.

  13. CCD based beam loss monitor for ion accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousov, A.; Mustafin, E.; Ensinger, W.

    2014-04-01

    Beam loss monitoring is an important aspect of proper accelerator functioning. There is a variety of existing solutions, but each has its own disadvantages, e.g. unsuitable dynamic range or time resolution, high cost, or short lifetime. Therefore, new options are looked for. This paper shows a method of application of a charge-coupled device (CCD) video camera as a beam loss monitor (BLM) for ion beam accelerators. The system was tested with a 500 MeV/u N+7 ion beam interacting with an aluminum target. The algorithms of camera signal processing with LabView based code and beam loss measurement are explained. Limits of applicability of this monitor system are discussed.

  14. Controlled Electron Acceleration in a Plane Laser Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataronis, J. A.; Petržílka, V.; Krlín, L.

    2002-11-01

    Through numerical modeling of the relativistic test particle motion of an ensemble of electrons in a plane laser beam, we show in the present contribution that a significant electron acceleration arises if an additional perpendicularly propagagating transverse laser beam with a randomized phase is present. We also demonstrate that the acceleration rate can be controlled by the power flux intensity of the additional laser beam. The power flux intensity of the additional beam can be typically much lower than the power flux intensity of the main laser beam. In the main laser beam, the electrons perform also a forward oscillating motion because of the effects of the magnetic field intensity of the beam. The acceleration results from the accumulation of the forward electron motion due to phase changes provided by the additional laser beam. For parameters of the PALS^1 device (Prague Asterix Laser System), the attainable electron energy is about 40 MeV in 10^4 wave periods. [2pt] Acknowledgments: This work has been supported by Czech grant GACR 202/00/1217 and USDOE Grant DE-FG02-97ER54398. [2pt] ^1K.Jungwirth et al., Phys. Plasmas 8 (2001) 2495.

  15. Beam-induced Electron Loading Effects in High Pressure Cavities for a Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, M.; Tollestrup, A.; Jansson, A.; Yonehara, K.; Insepov, Z.; /Argonne

    2010-05-01

    Ionization cooling is a critical building block for the realization of a muon collider. To suppress breakdown in the presence of the external magnetic field, an idea of using an RF cavity filled with high pressure hydrogen gas is being considered for the cooling channel design. One possible problem expected in the high pressure RF cavity is, however, the dissipation of significant RF power through the beam-induced electrons accumulated inside the cavity. To characterize this detrimental loading effect, we develop a simplified model that relates the electron density evolution and the observed pickup voltage signal in the cavity, with consideration of several key molecular processes such as the formation of the polyatomic molecules, recombination and attachment. This model is expected to be compared with the actual beam test of the cavity in the MuCool Test Area (MTA) of Fermilab.

  16. Anomalous WWγ couplings with beam polarization at the Compact Linear Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arı, V.; Billur, A. A.; İnan, S. C.; Köksal, M.

    2016-05-01

    We study the anomalous WWγ couplings at the Compact Linear Collider through the processes e+e- →W+W-, e-e+ →e-γ*e+ →e+νeW- and e-e+ →e-γ*γ*e+ →e-W+W-e+ (γ* is the Weizsacker-Williams photon). We give the 95% confidence level limits for unpolarized and polarized electron (positron) beam on the anomalous couplings for various values of the integrated luminosities and center-of-mass energies. We show that the obtained limits on the anomalous couplings through these processes can highly improve the current experimental limits. In addition, our limits with beam polarization are approximately two times better than the unpolarized case.

  17. COMMISSIONING OF THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER.

    SciTech Connect

    TRBOJEVIC,D.; AHRENS,L.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRENNAN,M.; BAI,M.; CAMERON,P.; CARDONA,J.; CONNOLLY,R.; ET AL; TSOUPAS,N.; VAN ZEIJTS,J.

    2001-06-18

    This report describes in detail steps performed in bringing the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) from the commissioning into the operational stage when collisions between 60 bunches of fully striped gold ions, were routinely provided. Corrections of the few power supplies connections by the beam measurements are described. Beam lifetime improvements at injection, along the acceleration are shown. The beam diagnostic results; like Schottky detector, beam profile monitor, beam position monitors, tune meter and others, are shown [1].

  18. Long-pulse beam acceleration of MeV-class H(-) ion beams for ITER NB accelerator.

    PubMed

    Umeda, N; Kashiwagi, M; Taniguchi, M; Tobari, H; Watanabe, K; Dairaku, M; Yamanaka, H; Inoue, T; Kojima, A; Hanada, M

    2014-02-01

    In order to realize neutral beam systems in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor whose target is to produce a 1 MeV, 200 A/m(2) during 3600 s D(-) ion beam, the electrostatic five-stages negative ion accelerator so-called "MeV accelerator" has been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. To extend pulse length, heat load of the acceleration grids was reduced by controlling the ion beam trajectory. Namely, the beam deflection due to the residual magnetic field of filter magnet was suppressed with the newly developed extractor with a 0.5 mm off-set aperture displacement. The new extractor improved the deflection angle from 6 mrad to 1 mrad, resulting in the reduction of direct interception of negative ions from 23% to 15% of the total acceleration power, respectively. As a result, the pulse length of 130 A/m(2), 881 keV H(-) ion beam has been successfully extended from a previous value of 0.4 s to 8.7 s. This is the first long pulse negative ion beam acceleration over 100 MW/m(2).

  19. Muon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B. |; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV high luminosity {micro}{sup +}{micro}{sup {minus}}colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Problems of detector background are also discussed.

  20. Accelerator Based Neutron Beams for Neutron Capture Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2003-04-11

    The DOE-funded accelerator BNCT program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has resulted in the only operating accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam facility capable of generating significant dose rates in the world. With five separate beamlines and two different epithermal neutron beam assemblies installed, we are currently capable of treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis in less than 15 minutes (knee joints) or 4 minutes (finger joints) or irradiating patients with shallow brain tumors to a healthy tissue dose of 12.6 Gy in 3.6 hours. The accelerator, designed by Newton scientific Incorporated, is located in dedicated laboratory space that MIT renovated specifically for this project. The Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications consists of an accelerator room, a control room, a shielded radiation vault, and additional laboratory space nearby. In addition to the design, construction and characterization of the tandem electrostatic accelerator, this program also resulted in other significant accomplishments. Assemblies for generating epithermal neutron beams were designed, constructed and experimentally evaluated using mixed-field dosimetry techniques. Strategies for target construction and target cooling were implemented and tested. We demonstrated that the method of submerged jet impingement using water as the coolant is capable of handling power densities of up to 6 x 10(sup 7) W/m(sup 2) with heat transfer coefficients of 10(sup 6)W/m(sup 2)-K. Experiments with the liquid metal gallium demonstrated its superiority compared with water with little effect on the neutronic properties of the epithermal beam. Monoenergetic proton beams generated using the accelerator were used to evaluate proton RBE as a function of LET and demonstrated a maximum RBE at approximately 30-40 keV/um, a finding consistent with results published by other researchers. We also developed an experimental approach to biological intercomparison of epithermal beams and

  1. ALPI Setup as the SPES Accelerator of Exotic Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisoffi, G.; Bassato, G.; Battistella, A.; Bermudez, J.; Bortolato, D.; Canella, S.; Chalykh, B.; Comunian, M.; Facco, A.; Fagotti, E.; Galatà, A.; Giacchini, M.; Gramegna, F.; Lamy, T.; Modanese, P.; Palmieri, A.; Pengo, R.; Pisent, A.; Poggi, M.; Porcellato, A.; Roncolato, C.; Scarpa, D.

    2014-03-01

    The SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) project for a national exotic beam facility in Legnaro includes pivotal upgrades of the existing superconducting linac ALPI (Acceleratore Lineare Per Ioni), to make it appropriate as the RIB (Radioactive Ion Beam) accelerator. The new injector, consisting of an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR)-type charge breeder and a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), will be described. Upgrade measures in ALPI to improve beam transmission and final energy, and handle low-intensity RIB will be explained, with the aim of increasing transmission to T > 90%, Ef by ~ 20%, reaching 10 MeV/u for the reference beam 132Sn.

  2. Transverse Resistive Wall Instability in the Two-Beam Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, Andrew M.; Neil, V.K.

    1990-06-01

    The transverse resistive wall instability in the Two-Beam Accelerator (TBA) is investigated analytically and numerically. Without any damping mechanism, we find one to four e-folds in 100 m, depending on the design. It is found that Landau damping, due to energy spread within a beam slice, is not effective, due to rapid synchrotron oscillations in the FEL ponderomotive well. Damping due to an energy sweep along the beam is also considered and it is found that a small variation in energy along the beam, decreasing from head to tail, can significantly reduce growth. We conclude that the resistive wall instability is not a severe design constraint on a TBA.

  3. Electron Accelerators for Radioactive Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lia Merminga

    2007-10-10

    The summary of this paper is that to optimize the design of an electron drive, one must: (a) specify carefully the user requirements--beam energy, beam power, duty factor, and longitudinal and transverse emittance; (b) evaluate different machine options including capital cost, 10-year operating cost and delivery time. The author is convinced elegant solutions are available with existing technology. There are several design options and technology choices. Decisions will depend on system optimization, in-house infrastructure and expertise (e.g. cryogenics, SRF, lasers), synergy with other programs.

  4. Possibility for ultra-bright electron beam acceleration in dielectric wakefield accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Evgenya I.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Yu.

    2012-12-21

    We describe a conceptual proposal to combine the Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (DWA) with the Emittance Exchanger (EEX) to demonstrate a high-brightness DWA with a gradient of above 100 MV/m and less than 0.1% induced energy spread in the accelerated beam. We currently evaluate the DWA concept as a performance upgrade for the future LANL signature facility MaRIE with the goal of significantly reducing the electron beam energy spread. The preconceptual design for MaRIE is underway at LANL, with the design of the electron linear accelerator being one of the main research goals. Although generally the baseline design needs to be conservative and rely on existing technology, any future upgrade would immediately call for looking into the advanced accelerator concepts capable of boosting the electron beam energy up by a few GeV in a very short distance without degrading the beam's quality. Scoping studies have identified large induced energy spreads as the major cause of beam quality degradation in high-gradient advanced accelerators for free-electron lasers. We describe simulations demonstrating that trapezoidal bunch shapes can be used in a DWA to greatly reduce the induced beam energy spread, and, in doing so, also preserve the beam brightness at levels never previously achieved. This concept has the potential to advance DWA technology to a level that would make it suitable for the upgrades of the proposed Los Alamos MaRIE signature facility.

  5. Error-Induced Beam Degradation in Fermilab's Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sung-Young Phil

    2008-01-01

    In Part I, three independent models of Fermilab's Booster synchrotron are presented. All three models are constructed to investigate and explore the effects of unavoidable machine errors on a proton beam under the influence of space-charge effects. The first is a stochastic noise model. Electric current fluctuations arising from power supplies are ubiquitous and unavoidable and are a source of instabilities in accelerators of all types. A new noise module for generating the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U) stochastic noise is first created and incorporated into the existing Object-oriented Ring Beam Injection and Tracking (ORBIT-FNAL) package. After being convinced with a preliminary model that the noise, particularly non-white noise, does matter to beam quality, we proceeded to measure directly current ripples and common-mode voltages from all four Gradient Magnet Power Supplies (GMPS). Then, the current signals are Fourier-analyzed. Based upon the power spectra of current signals, we tune up the Ornstein-Uhlnbeck noise model. As a result, we are able to closely match the frequency spectra between current measurements and the modeled O-U stochastic noise. The stochastic noise modeled upon measurements is applied to the Booster beam in the presence of the full space-charge effects. This noise model, accompanied by a suite of beam diagnostic calculations, manifests that the stochastic noise, impinging upon the beam and coupled to the space-charge effects, can substantially enhance the beam degradation process throughout the injection period. The second model is a magnet misalignment model. It is the first time to utilize the latest beamline survey data for building a magnet-by-magnet misalignment model. Given as-found survey fiducial coordinates, we calculate all types of magnet alignment errors (station error, pitch, yaw, roll, twists, etc.) are implemented in the model. We then follow up with statistical analysis to understand how each type of alignment errors are

  6. Beam-driven acceleration in ultra-dense plasma media

    DOE PAGES

    Shin, Young-Min

    2014-09-15

    Accelerating parameters of beam-driven wakefield acceleration in an extremely dense plasma column has been analyzed with the dynamic framed particle-in-cell plasma simulator, and compared with analytic calculations. In the model, a witness beam undergoes a TeV/m scale alternating potential gradient excited by a micro-bunched drive beam in a 1025 m-3 and 1.6 x 1028 m-3 plasma column. The acceleration gradient, energy gain, and transformer ratio have been extensively studied in quasi-linear, linear-, and blowout-regimes. The simulation analysis indicated that in the beam-driven acceleration system a hollow plasma channel offers 20 % higher acceleration gradient by enlarging the channel radius (r)more » from 0.2 Ap to 0.6 .Ap in a blowout regime. This paper suggests a feasibility of TeV/m scale acceleration with a hollow crystalline structure (e.g. nanotubes) of high electron plasma density.« less

  7. Beam-driven acceleration in ultra-dense plasma media

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Young-Min

    2014-09-15

    Accelerating parameters of beam-driven wakefield acceleration in an extremely dense plasma column has been analyzed with the dynamic framed particle-in-cell plasma simulator, and compared with analytic calculations. In the model, a witness beam undergoes a TeV/m scale alternating potential gradient excited by a micro-bunched drive beam in a 1025 m-3 and 1.6 x 1028 m-3 plasma column. The acceleration gradient, energy gain, and transformer ratio have been extensively studied in quasi-linear, linear-, and blowout-regimes. The simulation analysis indicated that in the beam-driven acceleration system a hollow plasma channel offers 20 % higher acceleration gradient by enlarging the channel radius (r) from 0.2 Ap to 0.6 .Ap in a blowout regime. This paper suggests a feasibility of TeV/m scale acceleration with a hollow crystalline structure (e.g. nanotubes) of high electron plasma density.

  8. Beam-driven acceleration in ultra-dense plasma media

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Young-Min

    2014-09-15

    Accelerating parameters of beam-driven wakefield acceleration in an extremely dense plasma column has been analyzed with the dynamic framed particle-in-cell plasma simulator, and compared with analytic calculations. In the model, a witness beam undergoes a TeV/m scale alternating potential gradient excited by a micro-bunched drive beam in a 10{sup 25 }m{sup −3} and 1.6 × 10{sup 28 }m{sup −3} plasma column. The acceleration gradient, energy gain, and transformer ratio have been extensively studied in quasi-linear, linear-, and blowout-regimes. The simulation analysis indicated that in the beam-driven acceleration system a hollow plasma channel offers ∼20% higher acceleration gradient by enlarging the channel radius (r) from 0.2 λ{sub p} to 0.6 λ{sub p} in a blowout regime. This paper suggests a feasibility of TeV/m scale acceleration with a hollow crystalline structure (e.g., nanotubes) of high electron plasma density.

  9. Prototype microwave source for a relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, T.; Deadrick, F.; Westenskow, G.A.; Giordano, G.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Reginato, L.; Vanecek, D.; Yu, S.

    1996-06-01

    A test facility is established at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study RF power sources for linear colliders based on the Relativistic Klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA) concept. A 24-m long prototype source, the RTA, will be constructed in this facility to study physics, engineering, and cost issues related to RK-TBA`s. The RTA will generate 200-ns 180-MW RF (11.4-GHz) pulses from each of eight output ports. The major components of the RTA include a 2.8-MeV 1.2-kA induction injector, transverse beam modulator, adiabatic compressor, and RF extraction section. The beam energy is increased to 4 MeV and the RF bunch length is shortened from 240{degree} to 110{degree} in the adiabatic compressor. The 8-m long extraction section includes 40 induction accelerator cells to maintain beam energy at an average 4 MeV, eight equally spaced RF output structures, and a ppm quadrupole focusing system. In this paper, the authors describe the RTA and present results of component testing and computer simulations.

  10. Measured and simulated heavy-ion beam loss patterns at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermes, P. D.; Bruce, R.; Jowett, J. M.; Redaelli, S.; Salvachua Ferrando, B.; Valentino, G.; Wollmann, D.

    2016-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN pushes forward to new regimes in terms of beam energy and intensity. In view of the combination of very energetic and intense beams together with sensitive machine components, in particular the superconducting magnets, the LHC is equipped with a collimation system to provide protection and intercept uncontrolled beam losses. Beam losses could cause a superconducting magnet to quench, or in the worst case, damage the hardware. The collimation system, which is optimized to provide a good protection with proton beams, has shown a cleaning efficiency with heavy-ion beams which is worse by up to two orders of magnitude. The reason for this reduced cleaning efficiency is the fragmentation of heavy-ion beams into isotopes with a different mass to charge ratios because of the interaction with the collimator material. In order to ensure sufficient collimation performance in future ion runs, a detailed theoretical understanding of ion collimation is needed. The simulation of heavy-ion collimation must include processes in which 82+208Pb ions fragment into dozens of new isotopes. The ions and their fragments must be tracked inside the magnetic lattice of the LHC to determine their loss positions. This paper gives an overview of physical processes important for the description of heavy-ion loss patterns. Loss maps simulated by means of the two tools ICOSIM [1,2] and the newly developed STIER (SixTrack with Ion-Equivalent Rigidities) are compared with experimental data measured during LHC operation. The comparison shows that the tool STIER is in better agreement.

  11. Electron-beam rocket acceleration of hydrogen pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, C. C.; Foster, C. A.; Milora, S. L.; Schechter, D. E.; Whealton, J. H.

    A proof-of-principle device for characterizing electron-beam rocket pellet acceleration has been developed and operated during the last few years. Experimental data have been collected for thousands of accelerated hydrogen pellets under a variety of beam conditions. One intact hydrogen pellet was accelerated to a speed of 578 m/s by an electron beam of 10 kV, 0.8 A, and I ms. The collected data reveal the significant finding that the measured bum velocity of bare hydrogen pellets increases with the square of the beam voltage in a way that is qualitatively consistent with the theoretical prediction based on the neutral gas shielding (NGS) model. The measured bum velocity increases with the beam current or power and then saturates at values two to three times greater than that predicted by the NGS model. The discrepancy may result from low pellet strength and large beam-pellet interaction areas. Moreover, this feature may be the cause of the low measured exhaust velocity, which often exceeds the sonic velocity of the ablated gas. Consistent with the NGS model, the measured exhaust velocity increases in direct proportion to the beam current and in inverse proportion to the beam voltage. To alleviate the pellet strength problem, experiments have been performed with the hydrogen ice contained in a lightweight rocket casing or shell. Pellets in such sabots have the potential to withstand higher beam powers and achieve higher thrust-coupling efficiency. Some experimental results are reported and ways of accelerating pellets to higher velocity are discussed.

  12. Two-beam, Multi-mode Detuned Accelerating Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakov, S. Yu.; Kuzikov, S. V.; Yakovlev, V. P.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2009-01-22

    A two-beam accelerator structure is described having several novel features including all metal construction, no transfer structures required between the drive and accelerator channels, symmetric fields at the axes of each channel, RF micropulse widths on cavity irises that are less than half those for a conventional cavity at the same fundamental frequency by virtue of using several harmonically-related cavity modes, and a transformer ratio much greater than unity by the use of detuned cavities. Detuning is also shown to allow either parallel or anti-parallel directions for the drive and accelerated beams. A preliminary calculation for the dilution of emittance due to short-range wakes for drive beam parameters similar to those for CLIC shows this effect to be acceptably small.

  13. Beam breakup in an advanced linear induction accelerator

    DOE PAGES

    Ekdahl, Carl August; Coleman, Joshua Eugene; McCuistian, Brian Trent

    2016-07-01

    Two linear induction accelerators (LIAs) have been in operation for a number of years at the Los Alamos Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility. A new multipulse LIA is being developed. We have computationally investigated the beam breakup (BBU) instability in this advanced LIA. In particular, we have explored the consequences of the choice of beam injector energy and the grouping of LIA cells. We find that within the limited range of options presently under consideration for the LIA architecture, there is little adverse effect on the BBU growth. The computational tool that we used for this investigation wasmore » the beam dynamics code linear accelerator model for DARHT (LAMDA). In conclusion, to confirm that LAMDA was appropriate for this task, we first validated it through comparisons with the experimental BBU data acquired on the DARHT accelerators.« less

  14. Parametric study of transport beam lines for electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scisciò, M.; Lancia, L.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Antici, P.

    2016-03-01

    In the last decade, laser-plasma acceleration of high-energy electrons has attracted strong attention in different fields. Electrons with maximum energies in the GeV range can be laser-accelerated within a few cm using multi-hundreds terawatt (TW) lasers, yielding to very high beam currents at the source (electron bunches with up to tens-hundreds of pC in a few fs). While initially the challenge was to increase the maximum achievable electron energy, today strong effort is put in the control and usability of these laser-generated beams that still lack of some features in order to be used for applications where currently conventional, radio-frequency (RF) based, electron beam lines represent the most common and efficient solution. Several improvements have been suggested for this purpose, some of them acting directly on the plasma source, some using beam shaping tools located downstream. Concerning the latter, several studies have suggested the use of conventional accelerator magnetic devices (such as quadrupoles and solenoids) as an easy implementable solution when the laser-plasma accelerated beam requires optimization. In this paper, we report on a parametric study related to the transport of electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction, using conventional accelerator elements and tools. We focus on both, high energy electron beams in the GeV range, as produced on petawatt (PW) class laser systems, and on lower energy electron beams in the hundreds of MeV range, as nowadays routinely obtained on commercially available multi-hundred TW laser systems. For both scenarios, our study allows understanding what are the crucial parameters that enable laser-plasma accelerators to compete with conventional ones and allow for a beam transport. We show that suitable working points require a tradeoff-combination between low beam divergence and narrow energy spread.

  15. Performance Modeling and Optimization of a High Energy CollidingBeam Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, Hongzhang; Strohmaier, Erich; Qiang, Ji; Bailey, David H.; Yelick, Kathy

    2006-06-01

    An accurate modeling of the beam-beam interaction is essential to maximizing the luminosity in existing and future colliders. BeamBeam3D was the first parallel code that can be used to study this interaction fully self-consistently on high-performance computing platforms. Various all-to-all personalized communication (AAPC) algorithms dominate its communication patterns, for which we developed a sequence of performance models using a series of micro-benchmarks. We find that for SMP based systems the most important performance constraint is node-adapter contention, while for 3D-Torus topologies good performance models are not possible without considering link contention. The best average model prediction error is very low on SMP based systems with of 3% to 7%. On torus based systems errors of 29% are higher but optimized performance can again be predicted within 8% in some cases. These excellent results across five different systems indicate that this methodology for performance modeling can be applied to a large class of algorithms.

  16. Full quantum treatment of spin-dependent beam-beam processes at linear colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartin, Anthony

    2011-05-01

    Depolarisation processes at future linear colliders need to be understood as precisely as possible. To that end a theoretical consideration of the spin flip process and its radiative corrections is presented here. The spin flip process contains a divergence and it is useful to repeat the calculation of its transition rate using a coordinate system which makes the physical nature of the divergence apparent. It is argued that the radiative corrections to the spin flip process should be considered within the Furry Picture. The Electron Self Energy in the external field is being explicitly re-examined in order to establish the presence of UV divergences and the procedure required to remove them. A calculation of the Vertex Correction in an external field is being performed and results obtained so far for special kinematics are consistent with known results.

  17. Radiobiological effectiveness of laser accelerated electrons in comparison to electron beams from a conventional linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Laschinsky, Lydia; Baumann, Michael; Beyreuther, Elke; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Kaluza, Malte; Karsch, Leonhard; Lessmann, Elisabeth; Naumburger, Doreen; Nicolai, Maria; Richter, Christian; Sauerbrey, Roland; Schlenvoigt, Hans-Peter; Pawelke, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The notable progress in laser particle acceleration technology promises potential medical application in cancer therapy through compact and cost effective laser devices that are suitable for already existing clinics. Previously, consequences on the radiobiological response by laser driven particle beams characterised by an ultra high peak dose rate have to be investigated. Therefore, tumour and non-malignant cells were irradiated with pulsed laser accelerated electrons at the JETI facility for the comparison with continuous electrons of a conventional therapy LINAC. Dose response curves were measured for the biological endpoints clonogenic survival and residual DNA double strand breaks. The overall results show no significant differences in radiobiological response for in vitro cell experiments between laser accelerated pulsed and clinical used electron beams. These first systematic in vitro cell response studies with precise dosimetry to laser driven electron beams represent a first step toward the long term aim of the application of laser accelerated particles in radiotherapy.

  18. Iron beam acceleration using direct plasma injection scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Kanesue, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Fuwa, Y.

    2014-02-15

    A new set of vanes of radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator was commissioned using highly charged iron beam. To supply high intensity heavy ion beams to the RFQ, direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS) with a confinement solenoid was adopted. One of the difficulties to utilize the combination of DPIS and a solenoid field is a complexity of electro magnetic field at the beam extraction region, since biasing high static electric field for ion extraction, RFQ focusing field, and the solenoid magnetic field fill the same space simultaneously. To mitigate the complexity, a newly designed magnetic field clamps were used. The intense iron beam was observed with bunched structure and the total accelerated current reached 2.5 nC.

  19. Accelerators for E-beam and X-ray processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auslender, V. L.; Bryazgin, A. A.; Faktorovich, B. L.; Gorbunov, V. A.; Kokin, E. N.; Korobeinikov, M. V.; Krainov, G. S.; Lukin, A. N.; Maximov, S. A.; Nekhaev, V. E.; Panfilov, A. D.; Radchenko, V. N.; Tkachenko, V. O.; Tuvik, A. A.; Voronin, L. A.

    2002-03-01

    During last years the demand for pasteurization and desinsection of various food products (meat, chicken, sea products, vegetables, fruits, etc.) had increased. The treatment of these products in industrial scale requires the usage of powerful electron accelerators with energy 5-10 MeV and beam power at least 50 kW or more. The report describes the ILU accelerators with energy range up to 10 MeV and beam power up to 150 kW.The different irradiation schemes in electron beam and X-ray modes for various products are described. The design of the X-ray converter and 90° beam bending system are also given.

  20. An expert system for tuning particle-beam accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Lager, D.L.; Brand, H.R.; Maurer, W.J.; Searfus, R.M.; Hernandez, J.E.

    1989-01-12

    We have developed a proof-of-concept prototype of an expert system for tuning particle beam accelerators. It is designed to function as an intelligent assistant for an operator. In its present form it implements the strategies and reasoning followed by the operator for steering through the beam transport section of the Advanced Test Accelerator at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's Site 300. The system is implemented in the language LISP using the Artificial Intelligence concepts of frames, daemons, and a representation we developed called a Monitored Decision Script. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  1. An Expert System For Tuning Particle-Beam Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lager, Darrel L.; Brand, Hal R.; Maurer, William J.; Searfus, Robert M.; Hernandez, Jose E.

    1989-03-01

    We have developed a proof-of-concept prototype of an expert system for tuning particle beam accelerators. It is designed to function as an intelligent assistant for an operator. In its present form it implements the strategies and reasoning followed by the operator for steering through the beam transport section of the Advanced Test Accelerator at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's Site 300. The system is implemented in the language LISP using the Artificial Intelligence concepts of frames, daemons, and a representation we developed called a Monitored Decision Script.

  2. Gamma-ray generation using laser-accelerated electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seong Hee; Lee, Ho-Hyung; Lee, Kitae; Cha, Yong-Ho; Lee, Ji-Young; Kim, Kyung-Nam; Jeong, Young Uk

    2011-06-01

    A compact gamma-ray source using laser-accelerated electron beam is being under development at KAERI for nuclear applications, such as, radiography, nuclear activation, photonuclear reaction, and so on. One of two different schemes, Bremsstrahlung radiation and Compton backscattering, may be selected depending on the required specification of photons and/or the energy of electron beams. Compton backscattered gamma-ray source is tunable and quasimonochromatic and requires electron beams with its energy of higher than 100 MeV to produced MeV photons. Bremsstrahlung radiation can generate high energy photons with 20 - 30 MeV electron beams, but its spectrum is continuous. As we know, laser accelerators are good for compact size due to localized shielding at the expense of low average flux, while linear RF accelerators are good for high average flux. We present the design issues for a compact gamma-ray source at KAERI, via either Bremsstrahlung radiation or Compton backscattering, using laser accelerated electron beams for the potential nuclear applications.

  3. A microsecond-pulsewidth, intense, light-ion beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Bartsch, R.R.; Davis, H.A.; Greenly, J.B.; Waganaar, W.J.

    1993-07-01

    A relatively long-pulsewidth (0.1-1 {mu}s) intense ion beam accelerator has been built for materials processing applications. An applied-B{sub r}, magnetically-insulated extraction ion diode with dielectric flashover ion source is installed directly onto the output of a 1.2-MV, 300-kJ Marx generator. Initial operation of the accelerator at 0.4 MV indicates satisfactory performance without the need for additional pulse-shaping.

  4. Beam manipulation techniques, nonlinear beam dynamics, and space charge effect in high energy high power accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. Y.

    2014-04-07

    We had carried out a design of an ultimate storage ring with beam emittance less than 10 picometer for the feasibility of coherent light source at X-ray wavelength. The accelerator has an inherent small dynamic aperture. We study method to improve the dynamic aperture and collective instability for an ultimate storage ring. Beam measurement and accelerator modeling are an integral part of accelerator physics. We develop the independent component analysis (ICA) and the orbit response matrix method for improving accelerator reliability and performance. In collaboration with scientists in National Laboratories, we also carry out experimental and theoretical studies on beam dynamics. Our proposed research topics are relevant to nuclear and particle physics using high brightness particle and photon beams.

  5. Physics of beam self-modulation in plasma wakefield accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Lotov, K. V.

    2015-10-15

    The self-modulation instability is a key effect that makes possible the usage of nowadays proton beams as drivers for plasma wakefield acceleration. Development of the instability in uniform plasmas and in plasmas with a small density up-step is numerically studied with the focus at nonlinear stages of beam evolution. The step parameters providing the strongest established wakefield are found, and the mechanism of stable bunch train formation is identified.

  6. Intense ion beams accelerated by ultra-intense laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Markus; Cowan, T. E.; Gauthier, J. C.; Vehn, J. Meyer-Ter; Allen, M.; Audebert, P.; Blazevic, A.; Fuchs, J.; Geissel, M.; Hegelich, M.; Karsch, S.; Pukhov, A.; Schlegel, T.

    2002-04-01

    The discovery of intense ion beams off solid targets irradiated by ultra-intense laser pulses has become the subject of extensive international interest. These highly collimated, energetic beams of protons and heavy ions are strongly depending on the laser parameters as well as on the properties of the irradiated targets. Therefore we have studied the influence of the target conditions on laser-accelerated ion beams generated by multi-terawatt lasers. The experiments were performed using the 100 TW laser facility at Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Laser Intense (LULI). The targets were irradiated by pulses up to 5×1019 W/cm2 (~300 fs,λ=1.05 μm) at normal incidence. A strong dependence on the surface conditions, conductivity, shape and purity was observed. The plasma density on the front and rear surface was determined by laser interferometry. We characterized the ion beam by means of magnetic spectrometers, radiochromic film, nuclear activation and Thompson parabolas. The strong dependence of the ion beam acceleration on the conditions on the target back surface was confirmed in agreement with predictions based on the target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) mechanism. Finally shaping of the ion beam has been demonstrated by the appropriate tailoring of the target. .

  7. Investigation of accelerated neutral atom beams created from gas cluster ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, A.; Kirkpatrick, S.; Walsh, M.; Chau, S.; Mack, M.; Harrison, S.; Svrluga, R.; Khoury, J.

    2013-07-01

    A new concept for ultra-shallow processing of surfaces known as accelerated neutral atom beam (ANAB) technique employs conversion of energetic gas cluster ions produced by the gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) method into intense collimated beams of coincident neutral gas atoms having controllable average energies from less than 10 eV per atom to beyond 100 eV per atom. A beam of accelerated gas cluster ions is first produced as is usual in GCIB, but conditions within the source ionizer and extraction regions are adjusted such that immediately after ionization and acceleration the clusters undergo collisions with non-ionized gas atoms. Energy transfer during these collisions causes the energetic cluster ions to release many of their constituent atoms. An electrostatic deflector is then used to eliminate charged species, leaving the released neutral atoms to still travel collectively at the same velocities they had as bonded components of their parent clusters. Upon target impact, the accelerated neutral atom beams produce effects similar to those normally associated with GCIB, but to shallower depths, with less surface damage and with superior subsurface interfaces. The paper discusses generation and characterization of the accelerated neutral atom beams, describes interactions of the beams with target surfaces, and presents examples of ongoing work on applications for biomedical devices.

  8. New high-current Dynamitron accelerators for electron beam processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, M. R.; Thompson, C. C.; Saito, H.; Lisanti, T. F.; Burgess, R. G.; Malone, H. F.; Loby, R. J.; Galloway, R. A.

    1993-06-01

    The material throughput capabilities of RDI's new 550 keV and 800 keV Dynamitron R accelerators have been enhanced by increasing their beam current ratings from 100 mA to 160 mA. Future requirements up to 200 mA have been anticipated in the designs. The high-voltage power supply, beam scanner and beam window have all been modified to accommodate the higher current ratings. A new programmable control system has also been developed. The basic design concepts are described and performance data are presented in this paper.

  9. Auto-focusing accelerating hyper-geometric laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, A. A.; Kotlyar, V. V.; Porfirev, A. P.

    2016-02-01

    We derive a new solution to the paraxial wave equation that defines a two-parameter family of three-dimensional structurally stable vortex annular auto-focusing hyper-geometric (AH) beams, with their complex amplitude expressed via a degenerate hyper-geometric function. The AH beams are found to carry an orbital angular momentum and be auto-focusing, propagating on an accelerating path toward a focus, where the annular intensity pattern is ‘sharply’ reduced in diameter. An explicit expression for the complex amplitude of vortex annular auto-focusing hyper-geometric-Gaussian beams is derived. The experiment has been shown to be in good agreement with theory.

  10. Long ceramic beam tubes for accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Tilles, E.B.; Adderley, P.A.; Biallas, G.H.; Harrison, M.A.; May, M.P.

    1983-08-01

    The ceramic beam tubes for the fast and abort kickers and the bucker and pinger magnets used at Fermilab must meet a number of exacting requirements. The tubes must be long and sufficiently straight so as not to limit magnet design. They must have wall strength capable of withstanding the atmospheric and mechanical forces encountered during construction and operation. Vacuum tight ceramic to stainless steel transitions must be of reasonable cost; they must also withstand high temperature processing and remain vacuum tight to the 10/sup -9/ Torr range. To remove the possibility of static charge buildup each tube must have a surface coating of indium oxide applied to the inner wall. This thin coating is difficult to achieve and requires the most careful attention to detail. The methods used at Fermilab to achieve these goals are presented in this paper.

  11. Beam Head Erosion in Self-Ionized Plasma Wakefield Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, M.K.; Blumenfeld, I.; Decker, F.J.; Hogan, M.J.; Ischebeck, R.; Iverson, R.H.; Kirby, N.A.; Siemann, Robert H.; Walz, D.R.; Clayton, C.E.; Huang, C.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.B.; Zhou, M.; Katsouleas, T.C.; Muggli, P.; Oz, E.; /Southern California U.

    2008-01-28

    In the recent plasma wakefield accelerator experiments at SLAC, the energy of the particles in the tail of the 42 GeV electron beam were doubled in less than one meter [1]. Simulations suggest that the acceleration length was limited by a new phenomenon--beam head erosion in self-ionized plasmas. In vacuum, a particle beam expands transversely in a distance given by {beta}*. In the blowout regime of a plasma wakefield [2], the majority of the beam is focused by the ion channel, while the beam head slowly spreads since it takes a finite time for the ion channel to form. It is observed that in self-ionized plasmas, the head spreading is exacerbated compared to that in pre-ionized plasmas, causing the ionization front to move backward (erode). A simple theoretical model is used to estimate the upper limit of the erosion rate for a bi-gaussian beam by assuming free expansion of the beam head before the ionization front. Comparison with simulations suggests that half this maximum value can serve as an estimate for the erosion rate. Critical parameters to the erosion rate are discussed.

  12. Indirectly sensing accelerator beam currents for limiting maximum beam current magnitude

    DOEpatents

    Bogaty, John M.; Clifft, Benny E.; Bollinger, Lowell M.

    1995-01-01

    A beam current limiter for sensing and limiting the beam current in a particle accelerator, such as a cyclotron or linear accelerator, used in scientific research and medical treatment. A pair of independently operable capacitive electrodes sense the passage of charged particle bunches to develop an RF signal indicative of the beam current magnitude produced at the output of a bunched beam accelerator. The RF signal produced by each sensing electrode is converted to a variable DC voltage indicative of the beam current magnitude. The variable DC voltages thus developed are compared to each other to verify proper system function and are further compared to known references to detect beam currents in excess of pre-established limits. In the event of a system malfunction, or if the detected beam current exceeds pre-established limits, the beam current limiter automatically inhibits further accelerator operation. A high Q tank circuit associated with each sensing electrode provides a narrow system bandwidth to reduce noise and enhance dynamic range. System linearity is provided by injecting, into each sensing electrode, an RF signal that is offset from the bunching frequency by a pre-determined beat frequency to ensure that subsequent rectifying diodes operate in a linear response region. The system thus provides a large dynamic range in combination with good linearity.

  13. Indirectly sensing accelerator beam currents for limiting maximum beam current magnitude

    DOEpatents

    Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Bollinger, L.M.

    1995-08-08

    A beam current limiter is disclosed for sensing and limiting the beam current in a particle accelerator, such as a cyclotron or linear accelerator, used in scientific research and medical treatment. A pair of independently operable capacitive electrodes sense the passage of charged particle bunches to develop an RF signal indicative of the beam current magnitude produced at the output of a bunched beam accelerator. The RF signal produced by each sensing electrode is converted to a variable DC voltage indicative of the beam current magnitude. The variable DC voltages thus developed are compared to each other to verify proper system function and are further compared to known references to detect beam currents in excess of pre-established limits. In the event of a system malfunction, or if the detected beam current exceeds pre-established limits, the beam current limiter automatically inhibits further accelerator operation. A high Q tank circuit associated with each sensing electrode provides a narrow system bandwidth to reduce noise and enhance dynamic range. System linearity is provided by injecting, into each sensing electrode, an RF signal that is offset from the bunching frequency by a pre-determined beat frequency to ensure that subsequent rectifying diodes operate in a linear response region. The system thus provides a large dynamic range in combination with good linearity. 6 figs.

  14. Luminosity limitations for Electron-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Valeri Lebedev

    2000-09-01

    The major limitations on reaching the maximum luminosity for an electron ion collider are discussed in application to the ring-ring and linac-ring colliders. It is shown that with intensive electron cooling the luminosity of 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} is feasible for both schemes for the center-of-mass collider energy above approximately 15 GeV. Each scheme has its own pros and cons. The ring-ring collider is better supported by the current accelerator technology while the linac-ring collider suggests unique features for spin manipulations of the electron beam. The article addresses a general approach to a choice of collider scheme and parameters leaving details for other conference publications dedicated to particular aspects of the ring-ring and linac-ring colliders.

  15. Reliability of Beam Loss Monitors System for the Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Guaglio, G.; Dehning, B.; Santoni, C.

    2004-11-10

    The employment of superconducting magnets in high energy colliders opens challenging failure scenarios and brings new criticalities for the whole system protection. For the LHC beam loss protection system, the failure rate and the availability requirements have been evaluated using the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) approach. A downtime cost evaluation is used as input for the SIL approach. The most critical systems, which contribute to the final SIL value, are the dump system, the interlock system, the beam loss monitors system and the energy monitor system. The Beam Loss Monitors System (BLMS) is critical for short and intense particle losses, while at medium and higher loss time it is assisted by other systems, such as the quench protection system and the cryogenic system. For BLMS, hardware and software have been evaluated in detail. The reliability input figures have been collected using historical data from the SPS, using temperature and radiation damage experimental data as well as using standard databases. All the data have been processed by reliability software (Isograph). The analysis ranges from the components data to the system configuration.

  16. Effect of Field Errors in Muon Collider IR Magnets on Beam Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Kapin, V.V.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    In order to achieve peak luminosity of a Muon Collider (MC) in the 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} range very small values of beta-function at the interaction point (IP) are necessary ({beta}* {le} 1 cm) while the distance from IP to the first quadrupole can not be made shorter than {approx}6 m as dictated by the necessity of detector protection from backgrounds. In the result the beta-function at the final focus quadrupoles can reach 100 km making beam dynamics very sensitive to all kind of errors. In the present report we consider the effects on momentum acceptance and dynamic aperture of multipole field errors in the body of IR dipoles as well as of fringe-fields in both dipoles and quadrupoles in the ase of 1.5 TeV (c.o.m.) MC. Analysis shows these effects to be strong but correctable with dedicated multipole correctors.

  17. Fast-ion Characteristics in Colliding FRCs with Neutral Beam Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clary, Ryan; Smirnov, Artem; Korepanov, Sergey; Dettrick, Sean; TAE Team Team

    2011-10-01

    Tri Alpha Energy's C-2 device aims to explore confinement properties of colliding Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmas, augmented with neutral beam injection. Naturally, it is desirable to understand the general characteristics of the resulting fast- ion population. For this purpose, several 16 channel silicone-based Neutral Particle Bolometers (NPB) have been designed and installed on the C-2 device, measuring charge-exchanged fast-neutrals originating from the fast-ion population. We present results illustrating the effects on fast-ions from wall recycling and from the n = 2 rotation instability. In addition we find good agreement between NPB measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. The NPB diagnostics are a spatially resolved complement to the energy resolved Neutral Particle Analyzers installed on the C-2 device.

  18. Effective fermion-Higgs interactions at an e+e- collider with polarized beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huitu, Katri; Rao, Kumar; Rindani, Saurabh D.; Sharma, Pankaj

    2016-10-01

    We consider the possibility of new physics giving rise to effective interactions of the form e+e- Hf f bar , where f represents a charged lepton ℓ or a (light) quark q, and H the recently discovered Higgs boson. Such vertices would give contributions beyond the standard model to the Higgs production processes e+e- → Hℓ+ℓ- and e+e- → Hq q bar at a future e+e- collider. We write the most general form for these vertices allowed by Lorentz symmetry. Assuming that such interactions contribute in addition to the standard model production processes, where the final-state fermion pair comes from the decay of the Z boson, we obtain the differential cross section for the processes e+e- → Hℓ+ℓ- and e+e- → Hq q bar to linear order in the effective interactions. We propose several observables with differing CP and T properties which, if measured, can be used to constrain the couplings occurring in interaction vertices. We derive possible limits on these couplings that may be obtained at a collider with centre-of-mass energy of 500 GeV and an integrated luminosity of 500 fb-1. We also carry out the analysis assuming that both the electron and positron beams can be longitudinally polarized, and find that the sensitivity to the couplings can be improved by a factor of 2-4 by a specific choice of the signs of the polarizations of both the electron and positron beams for the same integrated luminosity.

  19. Reliability of Beam Loss Monitor Systems for the Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Guaglio, G.; Dehning, B.; Santoni, C.

    2005-06-08

    The increase of beam energy and beam intensity, together with the use of super conducting magnets, opens new failure scenarios and brings new criticalities for the whole accelerator protection system. For the LHC beam loss protection system, the failure rate and the availability requirements have been evaluated using the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) approach. A downtime cost evaluation is used as input for the SIL approach. The most critical systems, which contribute to the final SIL value, are the dump system, the interlock system, the beam loss monitors system, and the energy monitor system. The Beam Loss Monitors System (BLMS) is critical for short and intense particles losses at 7 TeV and assisted by the Fast Beam Current Decay Monitors at 450 GeV. At medium and higher loss time it is assisted by other systems, such as the quench protection system and the cryogenic system. For BLMS, hardware and software have been evaluated in detail. The reliability input figures have been collected using historical data from the SPS, using temperature and radiation damage experimental data as well as using standard databases. All the data has been processed by reliability software (Isograph). The analysis spaces from the components data to the system configuration.

  20. Observation of laser multiple filamentation process and multiple electron beams acceleration in a laser wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wentao; Liu, Jiansheng; Wang, Wentao; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Hui; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Zhijun; Qi, Rong; Wang, Cheng; Leng, Yuxin; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2013-11-15

    The multiple filaments formation process in the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) was observed by imaging the transmitted laser beam after propagating in the plasma of different density. During propagation, the laser first self-focused into a single filament. After that, it began to defocus with energy spreading in the transverse direction. Two filaments then formed from it and began to propagate independently, moving away from each other. We have also demonstrated that the laser multiple filamentation would lead to the multiple electron beams acceleration in the LWFA via ionization-induced injection scheme. Besides, its influences on the accelerated electron beams were also analyzed both in the single-stage LWFA and cascaded LWFA.

  1. Beam dynamics design for uranium drift tube linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Wei-Ping; He, Yuan; Lu, Yuan-Rong

    2014-07-01

    KONUS beam dynamics design of uranium DTL with LORASR code is presented. The 238U34+ beam, whose current is 5.0 emA, is accelerated from injection energy of 0.35 MeV/u to output energy of 1.30 MeV/u by IH-DTL operated at 81.25 MHz in HIAF project at IMP of CAS. It achieves a transmission efficiency of 94.95% with a cavity length of 267.8 cm. The optimization aims are the reduction of emittance growth, beam loss and project costs. Because of the requirements of CW mode operation, the designed average acceleration gradient is about 2.48 MV/m. The maximum axial field is 10.2 MV/m, meanwhile the Kilpatrick breakdown field is 10.56 MV/m at 81.25 MHz.

  2. Acceleration of electrons in strong beam-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, K.; Bernstein, W.; Kellogg, P. J.; Whalen, B. A.

    1984-12-01

    The effects of strong beam-plasma interactions on the electron population of the upper atmosphere have been investigated in an electron acceleration experiment performed with a sounding rocket. The rocket carried the Several Complex Experiments (SCEX) payload which included an electron accelerator, three disposable 'throwaway' detectors (TADs), and a stepped electron energy analyzer. The payload was launched in an auroral arc over the rocket at altitudes of 157 and 178 km, respectively. The performance characteristics of the instruments are discussed in detail. The data are combined with the results of laboratory measurements and show that electrons with energies of at least two and probably four times the injection energy of 2 keV were observed during strong beam-plasma interaction events. The interaction events occurred at pitch angles of 54 and 126 degrees. On the basis of the data it is proposed that the superenergization of the electrons is correlated with the length of the beam-plasma interaction region.

  3. Acceleration of electrons in strong beam-plasma interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, K.; Bernstein, W.; Kellogg, P. J.; Whalen, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of strong beam-plasma interactions on the electron population of the upper atmosphere have been investigated in an electron acceleration experiment performed with a sounding rocket. The rocket carried the Several Complex Experiments (SCEX) payload which included an electron accelerator, three disposable 'throwaway' detectors (TADs), and a stepped electron energy analyzer. The payload was launched in an auroral arc over the rocket at altitudes of 157 and 178 km, respectively. The performance characteristics of the instruments are discussed in detail. The data are combined with the results of laboratory measurements and show that electrons with energies of at least two and probably four times the injection energy of 2 keV were observed during strong beam-plasma interaction events. The interaction events occurred at pitch angles of 54 and 126 degrees. On the basis of the data it is proposed that the superenergization of the electrons is correlated with the length of the beam-plasma interaction region.

  4. Low-field permanent magnet quadrupoles in a new relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator design

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Sessler, A.

    1995-02-01

    Permanent magnets play a central role in the new relativistic klystron two-beam-accelerator design. The two key goals of this new design, low cost and the suppression of beam break-up instability are both intimately tied to the permanent magnet quadrupole focusing system. A recently completed systems study by a joint LBL-LLNL team concludes that a power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass Next Linear Collider based on the new TBA design can be as low as $1 billion, and the efficiency (wall plug to rf) is estimated to be 36%. End-to-end simulations of longitudinal and transverse beam dynamics show that the drive beam is stable over the entire TBA unit.

  5. PREVENTING POLLUTION USING ISO 14001 AT A PARTICLE ACCELERATOR THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER PROJECT.

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGGS,S.L.K.; MUSOLINO,S.V.

    2001-06-01

    In early 1997 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) discovered that the spent fuel pool of their High Flux Beam Reactor was leaking tritium into the groundwater. Community members, activist groups, politicians and regulators were outraged with the poor environmental management practices at BNL. The reactor was shut down and the Department of Energy (DOE) terminated the contract with the existing Management Company. At this same time, a major new scientific facility, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), was nearing the end of construction and readying for commissioning. Although environmental considerations had been incorporated into the design of the facility; some interested parties were skeptical that this new facility would not cause significant environmental impacts. RHIC management recognized that the future of its operation was dependent on preventing pollution and allaying concerns of its stakeholders. Although never done at a DOE National Laboratory before Brookhaven Science Associates, the new management firm, committed to implementing an Environmental Management System (EMS) and RHIC managers volunteered to deploy it within their facility on an extremely aggressive schedule. Several of these IS0 requirements contribute directly to preventing pollution, an area where particular emphasis was placed. This paper describes how Brookhaven used the following key IS0 14001 elements to institutionalize Pollution Prevention concepts: Environmental Policy, Aspects, Objectives and Targets, Environmental Management Program, Structure and Responsibility, Operational Controls, Training, and Management Review. In addition, examples of implementation at the RHIC Project illustrate how BNL's premiere facility was able to demonstrate to interested parties that care had been taken to implement technological and administrative controls to minimize environmental impacts, while at the same time reduce the applicability of regulatory requirements to their operations.

  6. Beam Dump Design for the Rare Isotope Accelerator Fragmentation Line

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, W; Ahle, L E; Reyes, S

    2006-05-02

    Beam dumps for the heavy ion beams of the fragmentation line of the Rare Isotope Accelerator have been designed. The most severe operational case involves a continuous U beam impacting the beam dump with a power of 295 kW and a nominal spot diameter size of 5 cm. The dump mechanically consists of two rotating barrels with a water cooled outer wall of 2 mm thick aluminum. The barrels are 70 cm in diameter and axially long enough to intercept a variety of other beams. The aluminum wall absorbs approximately 15% of the U beam power with the rest absorbed in the water downstream of the wall. The water acts as an absorber of the beam and as a coolant for the 2 mm aluminum wall. The barrel rotates at less than 400 RPM, maximum aluminum temperatures are less than 100 C and maximum thermal fatigue stresses are low at 3.5 x 10{sup 7} Pa (5 ksi). Rotation of the dump results in relatively low radiation damage levels with an operating lifetime of years for most beams.

  7. High fidelity 3-dimensional models of beam-electron cloud interactions in circular accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiz Zarrin Ghalam, Ali

    Electron cloud is a low-density electron profile created inside the vacuum chamber of circular machines with positively charged beams. Electron cloud limits the peak current of the beam and degrades the beams' quality through luminosity degradation, emittance growth and head to tail or bunch to bunch instability. The adverse effects of electron cloud on long-term beam dynamics becomes more and more important as the beams go to higher and higher energies. This problem has become a major concern in many future circular machines design like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Due to the importance of the problem several simulation models have been developed to model long-term beam-electron cloud interaction. These models are based on "single kick approximation" where the electron cloud is assumed to be concentrated at one thin slab around the ring. While this model is efficient in terms of computational costs, it does not reflect the real physical situation as the forces from electron cloud to the beam are non-linear contrary to this model's assumption. To address the existing codes limitation, in this thesis a new model is developed to continuously model the beam-electron cloud interaction. The code is derived from a 3-D parallel Particle-In-Cell (PIC) model (QuickPIC) originally used for plasma wakefield acceleration research. To make the original model fit into circular machines environment, betatron and synchrotron equations of motions have been added to the code, also the effect of chromaticity, lattice structure have been included. QuickPIC is then benchmarked against one of the codes developed based on single kick approximation (HEAD-TAIL) for the transverse spot size of the beam in CERN-LHC. The growth predicted by QuickPIC is less than the one predicted by HEAD-TAIL. The code is then used to investigate the effect of electron cloud image charges on the long-term beam dynamics, particularly on the

  8. A large distributed digital camera system for accelerator beam diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, L.; Cianchi, A.; Di Pirro, G.; Honkavaara, K.

    2005-07-01

    Optical diagnostics, providing images of accelerated particle beams using radiation emitted by particles impinging a radiator, typically a fluorescent screen, has been extensively used, especially on electron linacs, since the 1970's. Higher intensity beams available in the last decade allow extending the use of beam imaging techniques to perform precise measurements of important beam parameters such as emittance, energy, and energy spread using optical transition radiation (OTR). OTR-based diagnostics systems are extensively used on the superconducting TESLA Test Facility (TTF) linac driving the vacuum ultraviolet free electron laser (VUV-FEL) at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron facility. Up to 30 optical diagnostic stations have been installed at various positions along the 250-m-long linac, each equipped with a high-performance digital camera. This paper describes the new approach to the design of the hardware and software setups required by the complex topology of such a distributed camera system.

  9. UNDULATOR-BASED LASER WAKEFIELD ACCELERATOR ELECTRON BEAM DIAGNOSTIC

    SciTech Connect

    Bakeman, M.S.; Fawley, W.M.; Leemans, W. P.; Nakamura, K.; Robinson, K.E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Toth, C.

    2009-05-04

    to couple the THUNDER undulator to the LOASIS Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA). Currently the LWFA has achieved quasi-monoenergetic electron beams with energies up to 1 GeV. These ultra-short, high-peak-current, electron beams are ideal for driving a compact XUV free electron laser (FEL). Understanding the electron beam properties such as the energy spread and emittance is critical for achieving high quality light sources with high brightness. By using an insertion device such as an undulator and observing changes in the spontaneous emission spectrum, the electron beam energy spread and emittance can be measured with high precision. The initial experiments will use spontaneous emission from 1.5 m of undulator. Later experiments will use up to 5 m of undulator with a goal of a high gain, XUV FEL.

  10. Undulator radiation driven by laser-wakefield accelerator electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, S. M.; Anania, M. P.; Welsh, G. H.; Brunetti, E.; Cipiccia, S.; Grant, P. A.; Reboredo, D.; Manahan, G.; Grant, D. W.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2015-05-01

    The Advanced Laser-Plasma High-Energy Accelerators towards X-rays (ALPHA-X) programme is developing laserplasma accelerators for the production of ultra-short electron bunches with subsequent generation of coherent, bright, short-wavelength radiation pulses. The new Scottish Centre for the Application of Plasma-based Accelerators (SCAPA) will develop a wide range of applications utilising such light sources. Electron bunches can be propagated through a magnetic undulator with the aim of generating fully coherent free-electron laser (FEL) radiation in the ultra-violet and Xrays spectral ranges. Demonstration experiments producing spontaneous undulator radiation have been conducted at visible and extreme ultra-violet wavelengths but it is an on-going challenge to generate and maintain electron bunches of sufficient quality in order to stimulate FEL behaviour. In the ALPHA-X beam line experiments, a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser system with peak power 20 TW has been used to generate electron bunches of energy 80-150 MeV in a 2 mm gas jet laser-plasma wakefield accelerator and these bunches have been transported through a 100 period planar undulator. High peak brilliance, narrow band spontaneous radiation pulses in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength range have been generated. Analysis is provided with respect to the magnetic quadrupole beam transport system and subsequent effect on beam emittance and duration. Requirements for coherent spontaneous emission and FEL operation are presented.

  11. Fusion reactions initiated by laser-accelerated particle beams in a laser-produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labaune, C.; Baccou, C.; Depierreux, S.; Goyon, C.; Loisel, G.; Yahia, V.; Rafelski, J.

    2013-10-01

    The advent of high-intensity-pulsed laser technology enables the generation of extreme states of matter under conditions that are far from thermal equilibrium. This in turn could enable different approaches to generating energy from nuclear fusion. Relaxing the equilibrium requirement could widen the range of isotopes used in fusion fuels permitting cleaner and less hazardous reactions that do not produce high-energy neutrons. Here we propose and implement a means to drive fusion reactions between protons and boron-11 nuclei by colliding a laser-accelerated proton beam with a laser-generated boron plasma. We report proton-boron reaction rates that are orders of magnitude higher than those reported previously. Beyond fusion, our approach demonstrates a new means for exploring low-energy nuclear reactions such as those that occur in astrophysical plasmas and related environments.

  12. Fusion reactions initiated by laser-accelerated particle beams in a laser-produced plasma.

    PubMed

    Labaune, C; Baccou, C; Depierreux, S; Goyon, C; Loisel, G; Yahia, V; Rafelski, J

    2013-01-01

    The advent of high-intensity-pulsed laser technology enables the generation of extreme states of matter under conditions that are far from thermal equilibrium. This in turn could enable different approaches to generating energy from nuclear fusion. Relaxing the equilibrium requirement could widen the range of isotopes used in fusion fuels permitting cleaner and less hazardous reactions that do not produce high-energy neutrons. Here we propose and implement a means to drive fusion reactions between protons and boron-11 nuclei by colliding a laser-accelerated proton beam with a laser-generated boron plasma. We report proton-boron reaction rates that are orders of magnitude higher than those reported previously. Beyond fusion, our approach demonstrates a new means for exploring low-energy nuclear reactions such as those that occur in astrophysical plasmas and related environments. PMID:24104859

  13. ELIMED, future hadrontherapy applications of laser-accelerated beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrone, Giuseppe A. P.; Carpinelli, Massimo; Cuttone, Giacomo; Gammino, Santo; Bijan Jia, S.; Korn, Georg; Maggiore, Mario; Manti, Lorenzo; Margarone, Daniele; Prokupek, Jan; Renis, Marcella; Romano, Francesco; Schillaci, Francesco; Tomasello, Barbara; Torrisi, Lorenzo; Tramontana, Antonella; Velyhan, Andriy

    2013-12-01

    Laser-ion acceleration has recently gained a great interest as an alternative to conventional and more expensive acceleration techniques. These ion beams have desirable qualities such as small source size, high luminosity and small emittance to be used in different fields as Nuclear Physics, Medical Physics, etc. This is very promising specially for the future perspective of a new concept of hadrontherapy based on laser-based devices could be developed, replacing traditional accelerating machines. Before delivering laser-driven beams for treatments they have to be handled, cleaned from unwanted particles and characterized in order to have the clinical requirements. In fact ion energy spectra have exponential trend, almost 100% energy spread and a wide angular divergence which is the biggest issue in the beam transport and, hence, in a wider use of this technology. In order to demonstrate the clinical applicability of laser-driven beams new collaboration between ELI-Beamlines project researchers from Prague (Cz) and a INFN-LNS group from Catania (I) has been already launched and scientists from different countries have already express their will in joining the project. This cooperation has been named ELIMED (MEDical application at ELIBeamlines) and will take place inside the ELI-Beamlines infrastructure located in Prague. This work describes the schedule of the ELIMED project and the design of the energy selector which will be realized at INFN-LNS. The device is an important part of the whole transport beam line which will be realised in order to make the ion beams suitable for medical applications.

  14. Electron capture acceleration channel in a slit laser beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, P. X.; Scheid, W.; Ho, Y. K.

    2007-03-12

    Using numerical simulations, the authors find that the electrons can be captured and accelerated to high energies (GeV) in a slit laser beam with an intensity of I{lambda}{sup 2}{approx}10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2} {mu}m{sup 2}, where {lambda} is the laser wavelength in units of {mu}m. The range of the optimum incident energy is very wide, even up to GeV. These results are of interest for experiments because the relatively low intensity can be achieved with present chirped pulse amplification technique and a wide range of incident energies means that a multistage acceleration is possible.

  15. Electron Acceleration by a Tightly Focused Laser Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamin, Yousef I.; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2002-03-01

    State-of-the-art petawatt laser beams may be focused down to few-micron spot sizes and can produce violent electron acceleration as a result of the extremely intense and asymmetric fields. Classical fifth-order calculations in the diffraction angle show that electrons, injected sideways into the tightly focused laser beam, get captured and gain energy in the GeV regime. We point out the most favorable points of injection away from the focus, along with an efficient means of extracting the energetic electron with a static magnetic field.

  16. Transformer ratio saturation in a beam-driven wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J. P.; Martorelli, R.; Pukhov, A.

    2015-12-15

    We show that for beam-driven wakefield acceleration, the linearly ramped, equally spaced train of bunches typically considered to optimise the transformer ratio only works for flat-top bunches. Through theory and simulation, we explain that this behaviour is due to the unique properties of the plasma response to a flat-top density profile. Calculations of the optimal scaling for a train of Gaussian bunches show diminishing returns with increasing bunch number, tending towards saturation. For a periodic bunch train, a transformer ratio of 23 was achieved for 50 bunches, rising to 40 for a fully optimised beam.

  17. Study of a multi-beam accelerator driven thorium reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewig, H.; Aronson, A.

    2011-03-01

    The primary advantages that accelerator driven systems have over critical reactors are: (1) Greater flexibility regarding the composition and placement of fissile, fertile, or fission product waste within the blanket surrounding the target, and (2) Potentially enhanced safety brought about by operating at a sufficiently low value of the multiplication factor to preclude reactivity induced events. The control of the power production can be achieved by vary the accelerator beam current. Furthermore, once the beam is shut off the system shuts down. The primary difference between the operation of an accelerator driven system and a critical system is the issue of beam interruptions of the accelerator. These beam interruptions impose thermo-mechanical loads on the fuel and mechanical components not found in critical systems. Studies have been performed to estimate an acceptable number of trips, and the value is significantly less stringent than had been previously estimated. The number of acceptable beam interruptions is a function of the length of the interruption and the mission of the system. Thus, for demonstration type systems and interruption durations of 1sec < t < 5mins, and t > 5mins 2500/yr and 50/yr are deemed acceptable. However, for industrial scale power generation without energy storage type systems and interruption durations of t < 1sec., 1sec < t < 10secs., 10secs < t < 5mins, and t > 5mins, the acceptable number of interruptions are 25000, 2500, 250, and 3 respectively. However, it has also been concluded that further development is required to reduce the number of trips. It is with this in mind that the following study was undertaken. The primary focus of this study will be the merit of a multi-beam target system, which allows for multiple spallation sources within the target/blanket assembly. In this manner it is possible to ameliorate the effects of sudden accelerator beam interruption on the surrounding reactor, since the remaining beams will still

  18. Million revolution accelerator beam instrument for logging and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S.; Saltmarsh, C.; Talman, R.

    1988-03-01

    A data acquisition and analysis instrument for the processing of accelerator beam position monitor (BPM) signals has been assembled and used preliminarily for beam diagnosis of the Fermilab accelerators. Up to eight BPM (or other analogue) channels are digitized and transmitted to an acquisition Sun workstation and from there both to a monitor workstation and a workstation for off-line (but immediate) data analysis. A coherent data description format permits fast data object transfers to and from memory, disk and tape, across the Sun ethernet. This has helped the development of both general purpose and experiment-specific data analysis, presentation and control tools. Flexible software permits immediate graphical display in both time and frequency domains. The instrument acts simultaneously as a digital oscilloscope, as a network analyzer and as a correlating, noise-reducing spectrum analyzer. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Challenges in future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Swapan Chattopadhyay; Kaoru Yokoya

    2002-09-02

    For decades, electron-positron colliders have been complementing proton-proton colliders. But the circular LEP, the largest e-e+ collider, represented an energy limit beyond which energy losses to synchrotron radiation necessitate moving to e-e+ linear colliders (LCs), thereby raising new challenges for accelerator builders. Japanese-American, German, and European collaborations have presented options for the Future Linear Collider (FLC). Key accelerator issues for any FLC option are the achievement of high enough energy and luminosity. Damping rings, taking advantage of the phenomenon of synchrotron radiation, have been developed as the means for decreasing beam size, which is crucial for ensuring a sufficiently high rate of particle-particle collisions. Related challenges are alignment and stability in an environment where even minute ground motion can disrupt performance, and the ability to monitor beam size. The technical challenges exist within a wider context of socioeconomic and political challenges, likely necessitating continued development of international collaboration among parties involved in accelerator-based physics.

  20. Far Future Colliders and Required R&D Program

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2012-06-01

    Particle colliders for high energy physics have been in the forefront of scientific discoveries for more than half a century. The accelerator technology of the collider has progressed immensely, while the beam energy, luminosity, facility size and the cost have grown by several orders of magnitude. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but its pace of progress has greatly slowed down. In this paper we very briefly review the R&D toward near future colliders and make an attempt to look beyond the current horizon and outline the changes in the paradigm required for the next breakthroughs.

  1. Trends for Electron Beam Accelerator Applications in Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machi, Sueo

    2011-02-01

    Electron beam (EB) accelerators are major pieces of industrial equipment used for many commercial radiation processing applications. The industrial use of EB accelerators has a history of more than 50 years and is still growing in terms of both its economic scale and new applications. Major applications involve the modification of polymeric materials to create value-added products, such as heat-resistant wires, heat-shrinkable sheets, automobile tires, foamed plastics, battery separators and hydrogel wound dressing. The surface curing of coatings and printing inks is a growing application for low energy electron accelerators, resulting in an environmentally friendly and an energy-saving process. Recently there has been the acceptance of the use of EB accelerators in lieu of the radioactive isotope cobalt-60 as a source for sterilizing disposable medical products. Environmental protection by the use of EB accelerators is a new and important field of application. A commercial plant for the cleaning flue gases from a coal-burning power plant is in operation in Poland, employing high power EB accelerators. In Korea, a commercial plant uses EB to clean waste water from a dye factory.

  2. Beam losses from ultra-peripheral nuclear collisions between Pb ions in the Large Hadron Collider and their alleviation

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, R.; Bocian, D.; Gilardoni, S.; Jowett, J.M.; /CERN

    2009-08-01

    Electromagnetic interactions between colliding heavy ions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will give rise to localized beam losses that may quench superconducting magnets, apart from contributing significantly to the luminosity decay. To quantify their impact on the operation of the collider, we have used a three-step simulation approach, which consists of optical tracking, a Monte-Carlo shower simulation and a thermal network model of the heat flow inside a magnet. We present simulation results for the case of {sup 208}Pb{sup 82+} ion operation in the LHC, with focus on the alice interaction region, and show that the expected heat load during nominal {sup 208}Pb{sup 82+} operation is 40% above the quench level. This limits the maximum achievable luminosity. Furthermore, we discuss methods of monitoring the losses and possible ways to alleviate their effect.

  3. Electrostatic-accelerator free-electron lasers for power beaming

    SciTech Connect

    Pinhasi, Y.; Yakover, I.M.; Gover, A.

    1995-12-31

    Novel concepts of electrostatic-accelerator free-electron lasers (EA-FELs) for energy transfer through the atmosphere are presented. The high average power attained from an EA-FEL makes it an efficient source of mm-wave for power beaming from a ground stations. General aspects of operating the FEL as a high power oscillator (like acceleration voltage, e-beam. current, gain and efficiency) are studied and design considerations are described. The study takes into account requirements of power beaming application such as characteristic dips in the atmospheric absorption spectrum, sizes of transmitting and receiving antennas and meteorological conditions. We present a conceptual design of a moderate voltage (.5-3 MeV) high current (1-10 Amp) EA-FEL operating at mm-wavelength bands, where the atmospheric attenuation allows efficient power beaming to space. The FEL parameters were calculated, employing analytical and numerical models. The performance parameters of the FEL (power, energy conversion efficiency average power) will be discussed in connection to the proposed application.

  4. Electron Beam Focusing in the Linear Accelerator (linac)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauregui, Luis

    2015-10-01

    To produce consistent data with an electron accelerator, it is critical to have a well-focused beam. To keep the beam focused, quadrupoles (quads) are employed. Quads are magnets, which focus the beam in one direction (x or y) and defocus in the other. When two or more quads are used in series, a net focusing effect is achieved in both vertical and horizontal directions. At start up there is a 5% calibration error in the linac at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. This means that the momentum of particles passing through the quads isn't always what is expected, which affects the focusing of the beam. The objective is to find exactly how sensitive the focusing in the linac is to this 5% error. A linac was simulated, which contained 290 RF Cavities with random electric fields (to simulate the 5% calibration error), and a total momentum kick of 1090 MeV. National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, Jefferson Lab, Old Dominion University.

  5. Large Hadron Collider at CERN: Beams generating high-energy-density matter.

    PubMed

    Tahir, N A; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Hoffmann, D H H; Deutsch, C; Fortov, V E

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations that have been carried out to study the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic responses of a solid copper cylindrical target that is facially irradiated along the axis by one of the two Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 7 TeV/ c proton beams. The energy deposition by protons in solid copper has been calculated using an established particle interaction and Monte Carlo code, FLUKA, which is capable of simulating all components of the particle cascades in matter, up to multi-TeV energies. These data have been used as input to a sophisticated two-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code BIG2 that has been employed to study this problem. The prime purpose of these investigations was to assess the damage caused to the equipment if the entire LHC beam is lost at a single place. The FLUKA calculations show that the energy of protons will be deposited in solid copper within about 1 m assuming constant material parameters. Nevertheless, our hydrodynamic simulations have shown that the energy deposition region will extend to a length of about 35 m over the beam duration. This is due to the fact that first few tens of bunches deposit sufficient energy that leads to high pressure that generates an outgoing radial shock wave. Shock propagation leads to continuous reduction in the density at the target center that allows the protons delivered in subsequent bunches to penetrate deeper and deeper into the target. This phenomenon has also been seen in case of heavy-ion heated targets [N. A. Tahir, A. Kozyreva, P. Spiller, D. H. H. Hoffmann, and A. Shutov, Phys. Rev. E 63, 036407 (2001)]. This effect needs to be considered in the design of a sacrificial beam stopper. These simulations have also shown that the target is severely damaged and is converted into a huge sample of high-energy density (HED) matter. In fact, the inner part of the target is transformed into a strongly coupled plasma with fairly uniform physical conditions. This work, therefore, has

  6. Observation and Characterization of Coherent Optical Radiation and Microbunching Instability in the SLAC Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, S.; Dunning, M.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Xiang, D.; /SLAC

    2011-06-02

    The NLC Test Accelerator (NLCTA) at SLAC is currently configured for a proof-of-principle echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) experiment using an 120 MeV beam. During commissioning, unexpected coherent optical undulator radiation (CUR) and coherent optical transition radiation (COTR) was observed when beam is accelerated off-crest and compressed after the chicanes. The CUR and COTR is likely due to a microbunching instability where the initial small ripples in cathode drive laser is compressed and amplified. In this paper we present the observation and characterization of the CUR, COTR and microbunching instability at NLCTA.

  7. Editorial: Focus on Laser- and Beam-Driven Plasma Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Chan; Malka, Victor

    2010-04-01

    The ability of short but intense laser pulses to generate high-energy electrons and ions from gaseous and solid targets has been well known since the early days of the laser fusion program. However, during the past decade there has been an explosion of experimental and theoretical activity in this area of laser-matter interaction, driven by the prospect of realizing table-top plasma accelerators for research, medical and industrial uses, and also relatively small and inexpensive plasma accelerators for high-energy physics at the frontier of particle physics. In this focus issue on laser- and beam-driven plasma accelerators, the latest advances in this field are described. Focus on Laser- and Beam-Driven Plasma Accelerators Contents Slow wave plasma structures for direct electron acceleration B D Layer, J P Palastro, A G York, T M Antonsen and H M Milchberg Cold injection for electron wakefield acceleration X Davoine, A Beck, A Lifschitz, V Malka and E Lefebvre Enhanced proton flux in the MeV range by defocused laser irradiation J S Green, D C Carroll, C Brenner, B Dromey, P S Foster, S Kar, Y T Li, K Markey, P McKenna, D Neely, A P L Robinson, M J V Streeter, M Tolley, C-G Wahlström, M H Xu and M Zepf Dose-dependent biological damage of tumour cells by laser-accelerated proton beams S D Kraft, C Richter, K Zeil, M Baumann, E Beyreuther, S Bock, M Bussmann, T E Cowan, Y Dammene, W Enghardt, U Helbig, L Karsch, T Kluge, L Laschinsky, E Lessmann, J Metzkes, D Naumburger, R Sauerbrey, M. Scḧrer, M Sobiella, J Woithe, U Schramm and J Pawelke The optimum plasma density for plasma wakefield excitation in the blowout regime W Lu, W An, M Zhou, C Joshi, C Huang and W B Mori Plasma wakefield acceleration experiments at FACET M J Hogan, T O Raubenheimer, A Seryi, P Muggli, T Katsouleas, C Huang, W Lu, W An, K A Marsh, W B Mori, C E Clayton and C Joshi Electron trapping and acceleration on a downward density ramp: a two-stage approach R M G M Trines, R Bingham, Z Najmudin

  8. Cryogenic systems for the HEB accelerator of the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Abramovich, S.; Yuecel, A.

    1994-07-01

    This report discusses the following topics related to the Superconducting Super Collider: Cryogenic system -- general requirements; cryogenic system components; heat load budgets and refrigeration plant capacities; flow and thermal characteristics; process descriptions; cryogenic control instrumentation and value engineering trade-offs.

  9. New Fusion Concept Using Coaxial Passing Through Each Other Self-focusing Colliding Beams (Invention)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikvashvili, Ioseb

    2011-10-01

    In proposed Concept it is offered to use two ion beams directed coaxially at the same direction but with different velocities (center-of-mass collision energy should be sufficient for fusion), to direct oppositely the relativistic electron beam for only partial compensation of positive space charge and for allowing the combined beam's pinch capability, to apply the longitudinal electric field for compensation of alignment of velocities of reacting particles and also for compensation of energy losses of electrons via Bremsstrahlung. On base of Concept different types of reactor designs can be realized: Linear and Cyclic designs. In the simplest embodiment the Cyclic Reactor (design) may include: betatron type device (circular store of externally injected particles - induction accelerator), pulse high-current relativistic electron injector, pulse high-current slower ion injector, pulse high-current faster ion injector and reaction products extractor. Using present day technologies and materials (or a reasonable extrapolation of those) it is possible to reach: for induction linear injectors (ions&electrons) - currents of thousands A, repeatability - up to 10Hz, the same for high-current betatrons (FFAG, Stellatron, etc.). And it is possible to build the fusion reactor using the proposed Method just today.

  10. Commissioning measurements for photon beam data on three TrueBeam linear accelerators, and comparison with Trilogy and Clinac 2100 linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Gloria P

    2013-01-07

    This study presents the beam data measurement results from the commissioning of three TrueBeam linear accelerators. An additional evaluation of the measured beam data within the TrueBeam linear accelerators contrasted with two other linear accelerators from the same manufacturer (i.e., Clinac and Trilogy) was performed to identify and evaluate any differences in the beam characteristics between the machines and to evaluate the possibility of beam matching for standard photon energies. We performed a comparison of commissioned photon beam data for two standard photon energies (6 MV and 15 MV) and one flattening filter-free ("FFF") photon energy (10 FFF) between three different TrueBeam linear accelerators. An analysis of the beam data was then performed to evaluate the reproducibility of the results and the possibility of "beam matching" between the TrueBeam linear accelerators. Additionally, the data from the TrueBeam linear accelerator was compared with comparable data obtained from one Clinac and one Trilogy linear accelerator models produced by the same manufacturer to evaluate the possibility of "beam matching" between the TrueBeam linear accelerators and the previous models. The energies evaluated between the linear accelerator models are the 6 MV for low energy and the 15 MV for high energy. PDD and output factor data showed less than 1% variation and profile data showed variations within 1% or 2 mm between the three TrueBeam linear accelerators. PDD and profile data between the TrueBeam, the Clinac, and Trilogy linear accelerators were almost identical (less than 1% variation). Small variations were observed in the shape of the profile for 15 MV at shallow depths (< 5 cm) probably due to the differences in the flattening filter design. A difference in the penumbra shape was observed between the TrueBeam and the other linear accelerators; the TrueBeam data resulted in a slightly greater penumbra width. The diagonal scans demonstrated significant differences

  11. RHIC sextant test: Accelerator systems and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, F.; Trbojevic, D.; Ahrens, L.

    1997-08-01

    One sextant of the RHIC Collider was commissioned in early 1997 with beam. We describe here the performance of the accelerator systems, instrumentation subsystems and application software. We also describe a ramping test without beam that took place after the commissioning with beam. Finally, we analyze the implications of accelerator systems performance and their impact on the planning for RHIC installation and commissioning.

  12. Suppressing Electron Cloud in Future Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M; Kirby, R.E.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Le Pimpec, F.; /PSI, Villigen

    2005-05-27

    Any accelerator circulating positively charged beams can suffer from a build-up of an electron cloud (EC) in the beam pipe. The cloud develops through ionization of residual gases, synchrotron radiation and secondary electron emission and, when severe, can cause instability, emittance blow-up or loss of the circulating beam. The electron cloud is potentially a luminosity limiting effect for both the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the International Linear Collider (ILC). For the ILC positron damping ring, the development of the electron cloud must be suppressed. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art of the ongoing SLAC and international R&D program to study potential remedies.

  13. Preservation and control of the proton and deuteron polarizations in the proposed electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Kondratenko, Anatoliy; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Filatov, Yury; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy; Kondratenko, M. A.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-01-01

    We propose a scheme of preserving the proton and deuteron beam polarizations during acceleration and storage in the proposed electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab. This scheme allows one to provide both the longitudinal and transverse polarization orientations of the proton and deuteron beams at the interaction points of the figure-8 ion collider ring. We discuss questions of matching the polarization direction at all stages of the beam transport including the pre-booster, large booster and ion collider ring.

  14. Relativistic electron beam acceleration by Compton scattering of extraordinary waves

    SciTech Connect

    Sugaya, R.

    2006-05-15

    Relativistic transport equations, which demonstrate that relativistic and nonrelativistic particle acceleration along and across a magnetic field and the generation of an electric field transverse to the magnetic field, are induced by nonlinear wave-particle scattering (nonlinear Landau and cyclotron damping) of almost perpendicularly propagating electromagnetic waves in a relativistic magnetized plasma were derived from the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The relativistic transport equations show that electromagnetic waves can accelerate particles in the k{sup ''} direction (k{sup ''}=k-k{sup '}). Simultaneously, an intense cross-field electric field, E{sub 0}=B{sub 0}xv{sub d}/c, is generated via the dynamo effect owing to perpendicular particle drift to satisfy the generalized Ohm's law, which means that this cross-field particle drift is identical to the ExB drift. On the basis of these equations, acceleration and heating of a relativistic electron beam due to nonlinear wave-particle scattering of electromagnetic waves in a magnetized plasma were investigated theoretically and numerically. Two electromagnetic waves interact nonlinearly with the relativistic electron beam, satisfying the resonance condition of {omega}{sub k}-{omega}{sub k{sup '}}-(k{sub perpendicular}-k{sub perpendicula=} r{sup '})v{sub d}-(k{sub parallel}-k{sub parallel}{sup '})v{sub b}{approx_equal}m{omega}{sub ce}, where v{sub b} and v{sub d} are the parallel and perpendicular velocities of the relativistic electron beam, respectively, and {omega}{sub ce} is the relativistic electron cyclotron frequency. The relativistic transport equations using the relativistic drifted Maxwellian momentum distribution function of the relativistic electron beam were derived and analyzed. It was verified numerically that extraordinary waves can accelerate the highly relativistic electron beam efficiently with {beta}m{sub e}c{sup 2} < or approx. 1 GeV, where {beta}=(1-v{sub b}{sup 2}/c{sup 2}){sup -1/2}.

  15. The Stanford Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, J.R.

    1989-10-01

    April, 1989, the first Z zero particle was observed at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The SLC collides high-energy beams of electrons and positrons into each other. In break with tradition the SLC aims two linear beams at each other. Strong motives impelled the Stanford team to choose the route of innovation. One reason being that linear colliders promise to be less expensive to build and operate than storage ring colliders. An equally powerful motive was the desire to build an Z zero factory, a facility at which the Z zero particle can be studied in detail. More than 200 Z zero particles have been detected at the SLC and more continue to be churned out regularly. It is in measuring the properties of the Z zero that the SLC has a seminal contribution to make. One of the primary goals of the SLC experimental program is to determine the mass of the Z zero as precisely as possible.In the end, the SLC's greatest significance will be in having proved a new accelerator technology. 7 figs.

  16. Radiation Safety System for SPIDER Neutral Beam Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandri, S.; Coniglio, A.; D'Arienzo, M.; Poggi, C.

    2011-12-01

    SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF Plasma only) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advanced) are the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) testing facilities of the PRIMA (Padova Research Injector Megavolt Accelerated) Center. Both injectors accelerate negative deuterium ions with a maximum energy of 1 MeV for MITICA and 100 keV for SPIDER with a maximum beam current of 40 A for both experiments. The SPIDER facility is classified in Italy as a particle accelerator. At present, the design of the radiation safety system for the facility has been completed and the relevant reports have been presented to the Italian regulatory authorities. Before SPIDER can operate, approval must be obtained from the Italian Regulatory Authority Board (IRAB) following a detailed licensing process. In the present work, the main project information and criteria for the SPIDER injector source are reported together with the analysis of hypothetical accidental situations and safety issues considerations. Neutron and photon nuclear analysis is presented, along with special shielding solutions designed to meet Italian regulatory dose limits. The contribution of activated corrosion products (ACP) to external exposure of workers has also been assessed. Nuclear analysis indicates that the photon contribution to worker external exposure is negligible, and the neutron dose can be considered by far the main radiation protection issue. Our results confirm that the injector has no important radiological impact on the population living around the facility.

  17. Radiation Safety System for SPIDER Neutral Beam Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sandri, S.; Poggi, C.; Coniglio, A.; D'Arienzo, M.

    2011-12-13

    SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF Plasma only) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advanced) are the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) testing facilities of the PRIMA (Padova Research Injector Megavolt Accelerated) Center. Both injectors accelerate negative deuterium ions with a maximum energy of 1 MeV for MITICA and 100 keV for SPIDER with a maximum beam current of 40 A for both experiments. The SPIDER facility is classified in Italy as a particle accelerator. At present, the design of the radiation safety system for the facility has been completed and the relevant reports have been presented to the Italian regulatory authorities. Before SPIDER can operate, approval must be obtained from the Italian Regulatory Authority Board (IRAB) following a detailed licensing process. In the present work, the main project information and criteria for the SPIDER injector source are reported together with the analysis of hypothetical accidental situations and safety issues considerations. Neutron and photon nuclear analysis is presented, along with special shielding solutions designed to meet Italian regulatory dose limits. The contribution of activated corrosion products (ACP) to external exposure of workers has also been assessed. Nuclear analysis indicates that the photon contribution to worker external exposure is negligible, and the neutron dose can be considered by far the main radiation protection issue. Our results confirm that the injector has no important radiological impact on the population living around the facility.

  18. Laser-driven ion acceleration with hollow laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Brabetz, C. Kester, O.; Busold, S.; Bagnoud, V.; Cowan, T.; Deppert, O.; Jahn, D.; Roth, M.; Schumacher, D.

    2015-01-15

    The laser-driven acceleration of protons from thin foils irradiated by hollow high-intensity laser beams in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) is reported for the first time. The use of hollow beams aims at reducing the initial emission solid angle of the TNSA source, due to a flattening of the electron sheath at the target rear side. The experiments were conducted at the PHELIX laser facility at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH with laser intensities in the range from 10{sup 18} W cm{sup −2} to 10{sup 20} W cm{sup −2}. We observed an average reduction of the half opening angle by (3.07±0.42)° or (13.2±2.0)% when the targets have a thickness between 12 μm and 14 μm. In addition, the highest proton energies were achieved with the hollow laser beam in comparison to the typical Gaussian focal spot.

  19. Electron Beam Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Lin, Chen; Smith, Alan; Rodgers, David; Donahue, Rich; Byrne, Warren; Leemans, Wim

    2011-06-27

    A comprehensive study of charge diagnostics is conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). First, a scintillating screen (Lanex) was extensively studied using subnanosecond electron beams from the Advanced Light Source booster synchrotron, at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Lanex was cross calibrated with an integrating current transformer (ICT) for up to the electron energy of 1.5 GeV, and the linear response of the screen was confirmed for charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm{sup 2} and 0.4 pC/(ps mm{sup 2}), respectively. After the radio-frequency accelerator based cross calibration, a series of measurements was conducted using electron beams from an LPA. Cross calibrations were carried out using an activation-based measurement that is immune to electromagnetic pulse noise, ICT, and Lanex. The diagnostics agreed within {+-}8%, showing that they all can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs.

  20. Beam Polarization at the ILC: the Physics Impact and the Accelerator Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Aurand, B.; Bailey, I.; Bartels, C.; Brachmann, A.; Clarke, J.; Hartin, A.; Hauptman, J.; Helebrant, C.; Hesselbach, S.; Kafer, D.; List, J.; Lorenzon, W.; Marchesini, I.; Monig, Klaus; Moffeit, K.C.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Riemann, S.; Schalicke, A.; Schuler, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Ushakov, A.; /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Bonn U. /SLAC

    2011-11-23

    In this contribution accelerator solutions for polarized beams and their impact on physics measurements are discussed. Focus are physics requirements for precision polarimetry near the interaction point and their realization with polarized sources. Based on the ILC baseline programme as described in the Reference Design Report (RDR), recent developments are discussed and evaluated taking into account physics runs at beam energies between 100 GeV and 250 GeV, as well as calibration runs on the Z-pole and options as the 1TeV upgrade and GigaZ. The studies, talks and discussions presented at this conference demonstrated that beam polarization and its measurement are crucial for the physics success of any future linear collider. To achieve the required precision it is absolutely decisive to employ multiple devices for testing and controlling the systematic uncertainties of each polarimeter. The polarimetry methods for the ILC are complementary: with the upstream polarimeter the measurements are performed in a clean environment, they are fast and allow to monitor time-dependent variations of polarization. The polarimeter downstream the IP will measure the disrupted beam resulting in high background and much lower statistics, but it allows access to the depolarization at the IP. Cross checks between the polarimeter results give redundancy and inter-calibration which is essential for high precision measurements. Current plans and issues for polarimeters and also energy spectrometers in the Beam Delivery System of the ILC are summarized in reference [28]. The ILC baseline design allows already from the beginning the operation with polarized electrons and polarized positrons provided the spin rotation and the fast helicity reversal for positrons will be implemented. A reversal of the positron helicity significantly slower than that of electrons is not recommended to not compromise the precision and hence the success of the ILC. Recently to use calibration data at the Z

  1. Seismic studies for Fermilab future collider projects

    SciTech Connect

    Lauh, J.; Shiltsev, V.

    1997-11-01

    Ground motion can cause significant beam emittance growth and orbit oscillations in large hadron colliders due to a vibration of numerous focusing magnets. Larger accelerator ring circumference leads to smaller revolution frequency and, e.g. for the Fermilab Very Large Hadron Collider(VLHC) 50-150 Hz vibrations are of particular interest as they are resonant with the beam betatron frequency. Seismic measurements at an existing large accelerator under operation can help to estimate the vibrations generated by the technical systems in future machines. Comparison of noisy and quiet microseismic conditions might be useful for proper choice of technical solutions for future colliders. This article presents results of wide-band seismic measurements at the Fermilab site, namely, in the tunnel of the Tevatron and on the surface nearby, and in two deep tunnels in the Illinois dolomite which is though to be a possible geological environment of the future accelerators.

  2. The program in muon and neutrino physics: Superbeams, cold muon beams, neutrino factory and the muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    R. Raja et al.

    2001-08-08

    The concept of a Muon Collider was first proposed by Budker [10] and by Skrinsky [11] in the 60s and early 70s. However, there was little substance to the concept until the idea of ionization cooling was developed by Skrinsky and Parkhomchuk [12]. The ionization cooling approach was expanded by Neufer [13] and then by Palmer [14], whose work led to the formation of the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (MC) [3] in 1995. The concept of a neutrino source based on a pion storage ring was originally considered by Koshkarev [18]. However, the intensity of the muons created within the ring from pion decay was too low to provide a useful neutrino source. The Muon Collider concept provided a way to produce a very intense muon source. The physics potential of neutrino beams produced by muon storage rings was investigated by Geer in 1997 at a Fermilab workshop [19, 20] where it became evident that the neutrino beams produced by muon storage rings needed for the muon collider were exciting on their own merit. The neutrino factory concept quickly captured the imagination of the particle physics community, driven in large part by the exciting atmospheric neutrino deficit results from the SuperKamiokande experiment. As a result, the MC realized that a Neutrino Factory could be an important first step toward a Muon Collider and the physics that could be addressed by a Neutrino Factory was interesting in its own right. With this in mind, the MC has shifted its primary emphasis toward the issues relevant to a Neutrino Factory. There is also considerable international activity on Neutrino Factories, with international conferences held at Lyon in 1999, Monterey in 2000 [21], Tsukuba in 2001 [22], and another planned for London in 2002.

  3. Niobium resonator development for high-brightness ion beam acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.; Roche, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    Two niobium resonant cavities for high-brightness ion beam acceleration have been constructed and tested. The first was based on a coaxial quarter-wave geometry and was optimized for phase velocity {beta}{sub o} = 0.15. This cavity, which resonates at 400 MHz in the fundamental mode, operated at an average (wall-to-wall) accelerating gradient of 12.9 MV/m under continuous-wave (cw) fields. At this gradient, a cavity Q of 1.4 {times} 10{sup 8} was measured. The second was based on a coaxial half-wave geometry and was optimized for {beta}{sub o} = 0.12. This cavity, which resonates at 355 MHz in the fundamental mode, operated at an average accelerating gradient of 18.0 MV/m under cw fields. This is the highest average accelerating gradient achieved to date in low-velocity structures designed for cw operation. At this gradient, a cavity Q of 1.2 {times} 10{sup 8} was measured.

  4. Charge-state enhancement for radioactive beam post-acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Nolen, J.A.; Dooling, J.

    1995-08-01

    A critical question for an ISOL-type radioactive-beam facility, such as that being discussed by the North American Isospin Laboratory Committee, is the efficiency and q/m of the ion source for the radioactive species. ISOLDE at CERN demonstrated that high efficiency is obtained for a wide variety of species in the 1{sup +} charge state. These ion sources also generally have excellent transverse emittances and low energy spreads. One possibility is to use this proven technology plus an ionizer stage to increase the output of such sources to 2, 3, or 4{sup +} with high efficiency. We are currently investigating technical options for such charge-state enhancement. There is a proposal by a Heidelberg/ISOLDE collaboration to build a {open_quotes}charge-state breeder{close_quotes} as part of an experiment called REX-ISOLDE. This concept would deliver batches of radioactive ions with low duty cycle, optimized for relatively low-intensity secondary beams, on the order of 10{sup 6}/sec. We are independently doing simulations of an alternative approach, called the Electron-Beam Charge-State Amplifier (EBQA), which would yield DC beams with improved transverse emittance and would not have the intensity limitation of the batch transfer process. The cost and efficiency of the EBQA will have to be compared with those of a normally-conducting CW RFQ followed by ion stripping, as alternatives for the first stage of a secondary ion accelerator.

  5. Levy-Student distributions for halos in accelerator beams

    SciTech Connect

    Cufaro Petroni, Nicola; De Martino, Salvatore; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-12-15

    We describe the transverse beam distribution in particle accelerators within the controlled, stochastic dynamical scheme of stochastic mechanics (SM) which produces time reversal invariant diffusion processes. This leads to a linearized theory summarized in a Schroedinger-like (SL) equation. The space charge effects have been introduced in recent papers by coupling this S-L equation with the Maxwell equations. We analyze the space-charge effects to understand how the dynamics produces the actual beam distributions, and in particular we show how the stationary, self-consistent solutions are related to the (external and space-charge) potentials both when we suppose that the external field is harmonic (constant focusing), and when we a priori prescribe the shape of the stationary solution. We then proceed to discuss a few other ideas by introducing generalized Student distributions, namely, non-Gaussian, Levy infinitely divisible (but not stable) distributions. We will discuss this idea from two different standpoints: (a) first by supposing that the stationary distribution of our (Wiener powered) SM model is a Student distribution; (b) by supposing that our model is based on a (non-Gaussian) Levy process whose increments are Student distributed. We show that in the case (a) the longer tails of the power decay of the Student laws and in the case (b) the discontinuities of the Levy-Student process can well account for the rare escape of particles from the beam core, and hence for the formation of a halo in intense beams.

  6. Electron Beam Transport in Advanced Plasma Wave Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ronald L

    2013-01-31

    The primary goal of this grant was to develop a diagnostic for relativistic plasma wave accelerators based on injecting a low energy electron beam (5-50keV) perpendicular to the plasma wave and observing the distortion of the electron beam's cross section due to the plasma wave's electrostatic fields. The amount of distortion would be proportional to the plasma wave amplitude, and is the basis for the diagnostic. The beat-wave scheme for producing plasma waves, using two CO2 laser beam, was modeled using a leap-frog integration scheme to solve the equations of motion. Single electron trajectories and corresponding phase space diagrams were generated in order to study and understand the details of the interaction dynamics. The electron beam was simulated by combining thousands of single electrons, whose initial positions and momenta were selected by random number generators. The model was extended by including the interactions of the electrons with the CO2 laser fields of the beat wave, superimposed with the plasma wave fields. The results of the model were used to guide the design and construction of a small laboratory experiment that may be used to test the diagnostic idea.

  7. RF pulse compression for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.B.

    1995-05-01

    Future (nonsuperconducting) linear colliders will require very high values of peak rf power per meter of accelerating structure. The role of rf pulse compression in producing this power is examined within the context of overall rf system design for three future colliders at energies of 1.0--1.5 TeV, 5 TeV and 25 TeV. In order keep the average AC input power and the length of the accelerator within reasonable limits, a collider in the 1.0--1.5 TeV energy range will probably be built at an x-band rf frequency, and will require a peak power on the order of 150--200 MW per meter of accelerating structure. A 5 TeV collider at 34 GHz with a reasonable length (35 km) and AC input power (225 MW) would require about 550 MW per meter of structure. Two-beam accelerators can achieve peak powers of this order by applying dc pulse compression techniques (induction linac modules) to produce the drive beam. Klystron-driven colliders achieve high peak power by a combination of dc pulse compression (modulators) and rf pulse compression, with about the same overall rf system efficiency (30--40%) as a two-beam collider. A high gain (6.8) three-stage binary pulse compression system with high efficiency (80%) is described, which (compared to a SLED-11 system) can be used to reduce the klystron peak power by about a factor of two, or alternately, to cut the number of klystrons in half for a 1.0--1.5 TeV x-band collider. For a 5 TeV klystron-driven collider, a high gain, high efficiency rf pulse compression system is essential.

  8. RF pulse compression for future linear colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Perry B.

    1995-07-01

    Future (nonsuperconducting) linear colliders will require very high values of peak rf power per meter of accelerating structure. The role of rf pulse compression in producing this power is examined within the context of overall rf system design for three future colliders at energies of 1.0-1.5 TeV, 5 TeV, and 25 TeV. In order to keep the average AC input power and the length of the accelerator within reasonable limits, a collider in the 1.0-1.5 TeV energy range will probably be built at an x-band rf frequency, and will require a peak power on the order of 150-200 MW per meter of accelerating structure. A 5 TeV collider at 34 GHz with a reasonable length (35 km) and AC input power (225 MW) would require about 550 MW per meter of structure. Two-beam accelerators can achieve peak powers of this order by applying dc pulse compression techniques (induction linac modules) to produce the drive beam. Klystron-driven colliders achieve high peak power by a combination of dc pulse compression (modulators) and rf pulse compression, with about the same overall rf system efficiency (30-40%) as a two-beam collider. A high gain (6.8) three-stage binary pulse compression system with high efficiency (80%) is described, which (compared to a SLED-II system) can be used to reduce the klystron peak power by about a factor of two, or alternatively, to cut the number of klystrons in half for a 1.0-1.5 TeV x-band collider. For a 5 TeV klystron-driven collider, a high gain, high efficiency rf pulse compression system is essential.

  9. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, N. A.; Sancho, J. Blanco; Shutov, A.; Schmidt, R.; Piriz, A. R.

    2012-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of the target that leads to a reduction in the density. The modified density distribution is used in FLUKA to calculate new energy loss distribution and the two codes are thus run iteratively. A suitable iteration step is considered to be the time interval during which the target density along the axis decreases by 15%-20%. Our simulations suggest that the full LHC proton beam penetrates up to 25 m in solid carbon whereas the range of the shower from a single proton in solid carbon is just about 3 m (hydrodynamic tunneling effect). It is planned to perform experiments at the experimental facility HiRadMat (High Radiation Materials) at CERN using the proton beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), to compare experimental results with the theoretical predictions. Therefore simulations of the response of a solid copper cylindrical target hit by the SPS beam were performed. The particle energy in the SPS beam is 440

  10. On a theory of two-beam mechanisms of charged particle acceleration in electrodynamic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrovsky, A. O.

    1993-09-01

    This work is devoted to the theoretical studies of two-beam mechanisms of charged particle acceleration in electronic structures. The first section continues the outline of results of theoretical studies commenced in the intermediate report and considers the two-beam scheme of acceleration in the plasma waveguide. According to this scheme the strong current relativistic electron beam (REB) excites the intensive plasma waves accelerating the electrons of the second beam. The driving beam is assumed to be density modulated. The preliminary modulation of the driving REB is shown to enhance substantially the acceleration efficiency of relativistic electrons of the driven beam. The second section deals with the two-beam acceleration in the vacuum corrugated waveguide. According to this scheme the excitation of electromagnetic waves and acceleration of driven beam electrons by them is accomplished under different Cherenkov resonances between the particles of beams and the corrugated waveguide field. The electromagnetic field in the periodic structure is known to be the superposition of spatial harmonics. With the small depth of the periodic nonuniformity, the amplitudes of these harmonics decrease fast with their number increasing. Therefore, if the driving beam is in the Cherenkov resonance with the first spatial harmonic and the driven beam is in resonance with the zero space harmonic then the force accelerating the driven beam would be considerably bigger than the force decelerating the driving beam electrons.

  11. On a theory of two-beam mechanisms of charged particle acceleration in electrodynamic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrovsky, A.O.

    1993-09-01

    This work is devoted to the theoretical studies of two-beam mechanisms of charged particle acceleration in electronic structures. The first section continues the outline of results of theoretical studies commenced in the intermediate report and considers the two-beam scheme of acceleration in the plasma waveguide. According to this scheme the strong current relativistic electron beam (REB) excites the intensive plasma waves accelerating the electrons of the second beam. The driving beam is assumed to be density-modulated. The preliminary modulation of the driving REB is shown to enhance substantially the acceleration efficiency of relativistic electrons of the driven beam. The second section deals with the two-beam acceleration in the vacuum corrugated waveguide. According to this scheme the excitation of electromagnetic waves and acceleration of driven beam electrons by them is accomplished under different Cherenkov resonances between the particles of beams and the corrugated waveguide field. The electromagnetic field in the periodic structure is known to be the superposition of spatial harmonics. With the small depth of the periodic nonuniformity the amplitudes of these harmonics decrease fast with their number increasing. Therefore, if the driving beam is in the Cherenkov resonance with the first spatial harmonic and the driven beam is in resonance with the zero space harmonic then the force accelerating the driven beam would be considerably bigger than the force decelerating the driving beam electrons.

  12. The First Observation of Intra Beam Stripping of Negative Hydrogen in a Superconducting Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, Alexander V; Plum, Michael A; Shishlo, Andrei P; Galambos, John D

    2012-01-01

    We report on an experiment in which a negative hydrogen ions beam in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linear accelerator was replaced with a beam of protons with similar size and dynamics. Beam loss in the superconducting part of the SNS accelerator was at least an order of magnitude lower for the proton beam. Also beam loss has a stronger dependence on intensity with H- than with proton beams. These measurements verify a recent theoretical explanation of unexpected beam losses in the SNS superconducting linear accelerator based on an intra beam stripping mechanism for negative hydrogen ions. An identification of the new physics mechanism for beam loss is important for the design of new high current linear ion accelerators and the performance improvement of existing machines

  13. Design study of low energy beam transport line for ion beams of the post-accelerator at RAON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yumi; Kim, Eun-San

    2015-07-01

    Low-energy ions produced by the ion source pass through the focusing and acceleration sections. During this process, the ions accumulate energy and are finally transported to the apparatus that utilizes them for a specific purpose. Thus, in order to increase the transmission efficiency of the ion beams, the low energy beam transport (LEBT) system must minimize the beam loss and the emittance growth. The LEBT system is designed and optimized to transmit 132Sn16+ and 58Ni8+ beams of the post-accelerator at RAON that is the accelerator complex for the rare isotope science. The post-accelerator LEBT line comprises solenoids and electrostatic quadrupoles for transverse focusing and a multi-harmonic buncher for longitudinal focusing. This paper presents the results of the optical design and beam tracking for the post-accelerator LEBT obtained by using TraceWIN and TRACK codes.

  14. Linear analysis of active-medium two-beam accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voin, Miron; Schächter, Levi

    2015-07-01

    We present detailed development of the linear theory of wakefield amplification by active medium and its possible application to a two-beam accelerator (TBA) is discussed. A relativistic train of triggering microbunches traveling along a vacuum channel in an active medium confined by a cylindrical waveguide excites Cherenkov wake in the medium. The wake is a superposition of azimuthally symmetric transverse magnetic modes propagating along a confining waveguide, with a phase velocity equal to the velocity of the triggering bunches. The structure may be designed in such a way that the frequency of one of the modes is close to active-medium resonant frequency, resulting in amplification of the former and domination of a single mode far behind the trigger bunches. Another electron bunch placed in proper phase with the amplified wakefield may be accelerated by the latter. Importantly, the energy for acceleration is provided by the active medium and not the drive bunch as in a traditional TBA. Based on a simplified model, we analyze extensively the impact of various parameters on the wakefield amplification process.

  15. Automatic Beam Path Analysis of Laser Wakefield Particle Acceleration Data

    SciTech Connect

    Rubel, Oliver; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Wu, Kesheng; Prabhat,; Weber, Gunther H.; Ushizima, Daniela M.; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes

    2009-10-19

    Numerical simulations of laser wakefield particle accelerators play a key role in the understanding of the complex acceleration process and in the design of expensive experimental facilities. As the size and complexity of simulation output grows, an increasingly acute challenge is the practical need for computational techniques that aid in scientific knowledge discovery. To that end, we present a set of data-understanding algorithms that work in concert in a pipeline fashion to automatically locate and analyze high energy particle bunches undergoing acceleration in very large simulation datasets. These techniques work cooperatively by first identifying features of interest in individual timesteps, then integrating features across timesteps, and based on the information derived perform analysis of temporally dynamic features. This combination of techniques supports accurate detection of particle beams enabling a deeper level of scientific understanding of physical phenomena than hasbeen possible before. By combining efficient data analysis algorithms and state-of-the-art data management we enable high-performance analysis of extremely large particle datasets in 3D. We demonstrate the usefulness of our methods for a variety of 2D and 3D datasets and discuss the performance of our analysis pipeline.

  16. In vacuum diamond sensor scanner for beam halo measurements in the beam line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Bogard, F.; Cornebise, P.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Fuster-Martínez, N.; Griesmayer, E.; Guler, H.; Kubytskyi, V.; Sylvia, C.; Tauchi, T.; Terunuma, N.; Bambade, P.

    2016-10-01

    The investigation of beam halo transverse distributions is important for the understanding of beam losses and the control of backgrounds in Future Linear Colliders (FLC). A novel in vacuum diamond sensor (DSv) scanner with four strips has been designed and developed for the investigation of the beam halo transverse distributions and also for the diagnostics of Compton recoil electrons after the interaction point (IP) of ATF2, a low energy (1.3 GeV) prototype of the final focus system for the ILC and CLIC linear collider projects. Using the DSv, a dynamic range of ∼106 has been successfully demonstrated and confirmed for the first time in simultaneous beam core (∼109 electrons) and beam halo (∼103 electrons) measurements at ATF2. This report presents the characterization, performance studies and tests of diamond sensors using an α source, as well as using the electron beams at PHIL, a low energy < 5 MeV photo-injector at LAL, and at ATF2. First beam halo measurement results using the DSv at ATF2 with different beam intensities and vacuum levels are also presented. Such measurements not only allow one to evaluate the different sources of beam halo generation but also to define the requirements for a suitable collimation system to be installed at ATF2, as well as to optimize its performance during future operation.

  17. Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Fellow

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Gail G.; Snopak, Pavel; Bao, Yu

    2015-03-20

    Muons are fundamental particles like electrons but much more massive. Muon accelerators can provide physics opportunities similar to those of electron accelerators, but because of the larger mass muons lose less energy to radiation, allowing more compact facilities with lower operating costs. The way muon beams are produced makes them too large to fit into the vacuum chamber of a cost-effective accelerator, and the short muon lifetime means that the beams must be reduced in size rather quickly, without losing too many of the muons. This reduction in size is called "cooling." Ionization cooling is a new technique that can accomplish such cooling. Intense muon beams can then be accelerated and injected into a storage ring, where they can be used to produce neutrino beams through their decays or collided with muons of the opposite charge to produce a muon collider, similar to an electron-positron collider. We report on the research carried out at the University of California, Riverside, towards producing such muon accelerators, as part of the Muon Accelerator Program based at Fermilab. Since this research was carried out in a university environment, we were able to involve both undergraduate and graduate students.

  18. Reconstruction of lattice parameters and beam momentum distribution from turn-by-turn beam position monitor readings in circular accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, C. S.; Gratus, J.; Hock, K. M.; Machida, S.; Muratori, B. D.; Torromé, R. G.; Wolski, A.

    2014-05-01

    In high chromaticity circular accelerators, rapid decoherence of the betatron motion of a particle beam can make the measurement of lattice and bunch values, such as Courant-Snyder parameters and betatron amplitude, difficult. A method for reconstructing the momentum distribution of a beam from beam position measurements is presented. Further analysis of the same beam position monitor data allows estimates to be made of the Courant-Snyder parameters and the amplitude of coherent betatron oscillation of the beam. The methods are tested through application to data taken on the linear nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator, EMMA.

  19. Modification & alignment of beam line of 10 MeV RF electron beam accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnwal, R.; Ghodke, S. R.; Bhattacharjee, D.; Kumar, M.; Jayaprakash, D.; Chindarkar, A. R.; Mishra, R. L.; Dolas, S.; Kulkarni, S. Y.; Kumar, M.; P, Dixit K.; S, Acharya; Barje, S. R.; Lawangare, N. K.; C, Saroj P.; Nimje, V. T.; Chandan, S.; Tillu, A. R.; V, Sharma; Chavan, R. B.; V, Yadav; P, Roychowdhury; Mittal, K. C.; Chakravarthy, D. P.; Ray, A. K.

    2008-05-01

    A 10 MeV, 10 kW RF industrial Electron linac designed and developed at BARC is installed at the Electron Beam Center Kharghar, Navi Mumbai. The entire RF accelerator assembly consists of Electron gun, RF source, RF linac structure, Beam diagnostic chamber, Drift tube, Scanning magnet, Beam sensing aperture, Scan horn, and is spread over two floors at EBC. The paper discusses in detail about the alignment procedure adopted for the equipments of 10 MeV RF beamline. The complete electron beamline will be maintained under ultra high vacuum of the order of 10-7 torr. The paper discusses about the present problem of alignment, measurement technique of alignment, reason for misalignment, possible ways to solve the problem, equipment used for alignment, supports & arrestors, verification of alignment under vacuum

  20. Lévy-Student distributions for halos in accelerator beams.

    PubMed

    Cufaro Petroni, Nicola; De Martino, Salvatore; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-12-01

    We describe the transverse beam distribution in particle accelerators within the controlled, stochastic dynamical scheme of stochastic mechanics (SM) which produces time reversal invariant diffusion processes. This leads to a linearized theory summarized in a Schrödinger-like (SL) equation. The space charge effects have been introduced in recent papers by coupling this S-L equation with the Maxwell equations. We analyze the space-charge effects to understand how the dynamics produces the actual beam distributions, and in particular we show how the stationary, self-consistent solutions are related to the (external and space-charge) potentials both when we suppose that the external field is harmonic (constant focusing), and when we a priori prescribe the shape of the stationary solution. We then proceed to discuss a few other ideas by introducing generalized Student distributions, namely, non-Gaussian, Lévy infinitely divisible (but not stable) distributions. We will discuss this idea from two different standpoints: (a) first by supposing that the stationary distribution of our (Wiener powered) SM model is a Student distribution; (b) by supposing that our model is based on a (non-Gaussian) Lévy process whose increments are Student distributed. We show that in the case (a) the longer tails of the power decay of the Student laws and in the case (b) the discontinuities of the Lévy-Student process can well account for the rare escape of particles from the beam core, and hence for the formation of a halo in intense beams.

  1. Lévy-Student distributions for halos in accelerator beams.

    PubMed

    Cufaro Petroni, Nicola; De Martino, Salvatore; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-12-01

    We describe the transverse beam distribution in particle accelerators within the controlled, stochastic dynamical scheme of stochastic mechanics (SM) which produces time reversal invariant diffusion processes. This leads to a linearized theory summarized in a Schrödinger-like (SL) equation. The space charge effects have been introduced in recent papers by coupling this S-L equation with the Maxwell equations. We analyze the space-charge effects to understand how the dynamics produces the actual beam distributions, and in particular we show how the stationary, self-consistent solutions are related to the (external and space-charge) potentials both when we suppose that the external field is harmonic (constant focusing), and when we a priori prescribe the shape of the stationary solution. We then proceed to discuss a few other ideas by introducing generalized Student distributions, namely, non-Gaussian, Lévy infinitely divisible (but not stable) distributions. We will discuss this idea from two different standpoints: (a) first by supposing that the stationary distribution of our (Wiener powered) SM model is a Student distribution; (b) by supposing that our model is based on a (non-Gaussian) Lévy process whose increments are Student distributed. We show that in the case (a) the longer tails of the power decay of the Student laws and in the case (b) the discontinuities of the Lévy-Student process can well account for the rare escape of particles from the beam core, and hence for the formation of a halo in intense beams. PMID:16486070

  2. Electron beam manipulation, injection and acceleration in plasma wakefield accelerators by optically generated plasma density spikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittig, Georg; Karger, Oliver S.; Knetsch, Alexander; Xi, Yunfeng; Deng, Aihua; Rosenzweig, James B.; Bruhwiler, David L.; Smith, Jonathan; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Jaroszynski, Dino A.; Manahan, Grace G.; Hidding, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    We discuss considerations regarding a novel and robust scheme for optically triggered electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators [1]. In this technique, a transversely propagating focused laser pulse ignites a quasi-stationary plasma column before the arrival of the plasma wake. This localized plasma density enhancement or optical "plasma torch" distorts the blowout during the arrival of the electron drive bunch and modifies the electron trajectories, resulting in controlled injection. By changing the gas density, and the laser pulse parameters such as beam waist and intensity, and by moving the focal point of the laser pulse, the shape of the plasma torch, and therefore the generated trailing beam, can be tuned easily. The proposed method is much more flexible and faster in generating gas density transitions when compared to hydrodynamics-based methods, and it accommodates experimentalists needs as it is a purely optical process and straightforward to implement.

  3. 'Accelerators and Beams,' multimedia computer-based training in accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Silbar, R. R.; Browman, A. A.; Mead, W. C.; Williams, R. A.

    1999-06-10

    We are developing a set of computer-based tutorials on accelerators and charged-particle beams under an SBIR grant from the DOE. These self-paced, interactive tutorials, available for Macintosh and Windows platforms, use multimedia techniques to enhance the user's rate of learning and length of retention of the material. They integrate interactive 'On-Screen Laboratories,' hypertext, line drawings, photographs, two- and three-dimensional animations, video, and sound. They target a broad audience, from undergraduates or technicians to professionals. Presently, three modules have been published (Vectors, Forces, and Motion), a fourth (Dipole Magnets) has been submitted for review, and three more exist in prototype form (Quadrupoles, Matrix Transport, and Properties of Charged-Particle Beams). Participants in the poster session will have the opportunity to try out these modules on a laptop computer.

  4. Powerful high-voltage generators for FELTRON, the electrostatic-accelerator FEL amplifier for TeV colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscolo, I.; Giuliani, F.; Roche, M.

    1992-07-01

    One of the crucial issues of the new μ-wave source FELTRON is the high-voltage generator. FELTRON is a powerful electrostatic FEL providing μ-wave radiation at 20 GHz, with peak power of 200 MW, pulse length of 500 ns (derived in ten separate beams of 50 ns each) at a repetition rate of 1 kHz. This radiation power will feed the cavities of a high gradient linac for TeV colliders. The average power of the generator must be around 250 kW, at a voltage of 5 MV. A Cockroft-Walton having the "onion" configuration is presented. The features are compared with those of dynamitron and insulating core transformer generators. The operation principles and technological problems are discussed in view of pulsed FEL utilization.

  5. Investigation of electromagnetic interactions by means of electron--photon beams from proton accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Govorkov, B.B.

    1980-09-01

    The methods for obtaining electron and photon beams from high-energy proton accelerators are considered. The results of investigations of the electromagnetic interactions of elementary particles obtained by means of these beams are discussed.

  6. Transverse equilibrium and stability of the primary beam in the plasma wake-field accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Krall, J.; Joyce, G. )

    1995-04-01

    The primary electron beam in the plasma wake-field accelerator is studied, using multidimensional particle simulation, for cases in which a shaped electron beam is used, with length [ital L][gt][lambda][sub [ital p

  7. Beam envelope, injection, and acceleration in a compact, high-current, strong-focused recirculating accelerator scheme. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, A.

    1988-12-01

    In order to meet the criterion of compactness in developing high-current, high-energy electron accelerators, it is advantageous to recirculate the electron beam through an accelerating module. Various such recirculating-accelerator concepts that use strong-focusing magnetic fields may be conveniently referred to as SFRA (Strong Focused Recirculating Accelerators). The strong-focusing field can be produced by external current-carrying stellarator or torsatron windings. SLIA, Stellatron, RIA and rebatron are examples of SFRA. High current electron beam transport in externally applied stellarator and longitudinal magnetic fields is analyzed. It is shown that a constant of motion exists for a matched beam of rotating elliptical cross section, with self-fields included. A differential equation for the beam envelope is derived and is shown to reduce to the familiar beam envelope equation for a beam of circular cross section when the stellarator field is turned off. A summary description of beam dynamics of acceleration in one SFRA, the rebatron, is given. Although a rebatron with major radius 100 cm and minor radius 10 cm can accelerate electrons to gamma about 65 with a fixed vertical (bending) magnetic field, the insensitivity to energy mismatch poses a problem for beam-trapping and injection. It is shown that a beam trapping scheme, in which a rapidly varying vertical magnetic field is applied before activating the rebatron acceleration gap, would work for a 10-kA beam of 1-cm radius injected near the wall of a rebatron of minor radius 16 cm.

  8. R&D for Future Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Frank

    Research & development for future accelerators are reviewed. First, I discuss colliding hadron beams, in particular upgrades to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This is followed by an overview of new concepts and technologies for lepton ring colliders, with examples taken from VEPP-2000, DAFNE-2, and Super-KEKB. I then turn to recent progress and studies for the multi-TeV Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Some generic linear-collider research, centered at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility, is described next. Subsequently, I survey the neutrino factory R&D performed in the framework of the US feasibility study IIa, and I also comment on a novel scheme for producing monochromatic neutrinos from an electron-capture beta beam. Finally, I present innovative ideas for a high-energy muon collider and I consider recent experimental progress on laser and plasma acceleration.

  9. R&D for Future Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Research & development for future accelerators are reviewed. First, I discuss colliding hadron beams, in particular upgrades to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This is followed by an overview of new concepts and technologies for lepton ring colliders, with examples taken from VEPP-2000, DAFNE-2, and Super-KEKB. I then turn to recent progress and studies for the multi-TeV Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Some generic linear-collider research, centered at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility, is described next. Subsequently, I survey the neutrino factory R&D performed in the framework of the US feasibility study IIa, and I also comment on a novel scheme for producing monochromatic neutrinos from an electron-capture beta beam. Finally, I present innovative ideas for a high-energy muon collider and I consider recent experimental progress on laser and plasma acceleration.

  10. Voltage holding study of 1 MeV accelerator for ITER neutral beam injector.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, M; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Dairaku, M; Takemoto, J; Tobari, H; Tsuchida, K; Yamanaka, H; Watanabe, K; Kojima, A; Hanada, M; Sakamoto, K; Inoue, T

    2012-02-01

    Voltage holding test on MeV accelerator indicated that sustainable voltage was a half of that of ideal quasi-Rogowski electrode. It was suggested that the emission of the clumps is enhanced by a local electric field concentration, which leads to discharge initiation at lower voltage. To reduce the electric field concentration in the MeV accelerator, gaps between the grid supports were expanded and curvature radii at the support corners were increased. After the modifications, the accelerator succeeded in sustaining -1 MV in vacuum without beam acceleration. However, the beam energy was still limited at a level of 900 keV with a beam current density of 150 A∕m(2) (346 mA) where the 3 × 5 apertures were used. Measurement of the beam profile revealed that deflection of the H(-) ions was large and a part of the H(-) ions was intercepted at the acceleration grid. This causes high heat load on the grids and the breakdowns during beam acceleration. To suppress the direct interception, new grid system was designed with proper aperture displacement based on a 3D beam trajectory analysis. As the result, the beam deflection was compensated and the voltage holding during the beam acceleration was improved. Beam parameter of the MeV accelerator was increased to 980 keV, 185 A∕m(2) (427 mA), which is close to the requirement of ITER accelerator (1 MeV, 200 A∕m(2)).

  11. Design Considerations for Plasma Accelerators Driven by Lasers or Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Benedetti, C.; Toth, Cs.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Leemans, W.P.

    2010-06-01

    Plasma accelerators may be driven by the ponderomotive force of an intense laser or the space-charge force of a charged particle beam. The implications for accelerator design and the different physical mechanisms of laser-driven and beam-driven plasma acceleration are discussed. Driver propagation is examined, as well as the effects of the excited plasma wave phase velocity. The driver coupling to subsequent plasma accelerator stages for high-energy physics applications is addressed.

  12. Frequency multiplying oscillator with an electron beam accelerated in a drift space

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Kyu-Ha; Lee, Kitae; Hee Park, Seong; Uk Jeong, Young; Miginsky, S.

    2012-07-02

    In a uniform acceleration region, the behavior of a velocity-modulated electron beam has been analyzed using a particle-in-cell code. By making use of one of the accelerated harmonic components of the velocity-modulated electron beam, we demonstrate a frequency multiplying oscillator for a compact THz emitter, which employs multiple electron beams and a higher order mode resonator to modulate the electron beam without an additional driving source.

  13. Neutrino factory and beta beam: accelerator options for future neutrino experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2012-06-03

    Two accelerator options for producing intense neutrino beams a Neutrino Factory based on stored muon beams and a Beta Beam facility based on stored beams of beta unstable ions are described. Technical challenges for each are described and current R&D efforts aimed at mitigating these challenges are indicated. Progress is being made in the design of both types of facility, each of which would extend the state-of-the-art in accelerator science.

  14. Design of a synchrotron radiation detector for the test beam lines at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the particle- and momentum-tagging instrumentation required for the test beam lines of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), the synchrotron radiation detector (SRD) was designed to provide electron tagging at momentum above 75 GeV. In a parallel effort to the three test beam lines at the SSC, schedule demands required testing and calibration operations to be initiated at Fermilab. Synchrotron radiation detectors also were to be installed in the NM and MW beam lines at Femilab before the test beam lines at the SSC would become operational. The SRD is the last instrument in a series of three used in the SSC test beam fines. It follows a 20-m drift section of beam tube downstream of the last silicon strip detector. A bending dipole just in of the last silicon strip detector produces the synchrotron radiation that is detected in a 50-mm-square cross section NaI crystal. A secondary scintillator made of Bicron BC-400 plastic is used to discriminate whether it is synchrotron radiation or a stray particle that causes the triggering of the NaI crystal`s photo multiplier tube (PMT).

  15. METHOD OF PRODUCING AND ACCELERATING AN ION BEAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method of producing and accelerating an ion beam comprising the steps of providing a magnetic field with a cusp that opens in an outward direction along a centerline that passes through a vertex of the cusp: providing an ionizing gas that sprays outward through at least one capillary-like orifice in a plenum that is positioned such that the orifice is on the centerline in the cusp, outward of the vortex of the cusp; providing a cathode electron source, and positioning it outward of the orifice and off of the centerline; and positively charging the plenum relative to the cathode electron source such that the plenum functions as m anode. A hot filament may be used as the cathode electron source, and permanent magnets may be used to provide the magnetic field.

  16. Vaccine Biotechnology by Accelerated Electron Beam and Microwave Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciun, Gabriela D.; Togoe, Iulian I.; Tudor, Laurentiu M.; Martin, Diana I.; Manaila, Elena N.; Ighigeanu, Daniel I.; Iacob, Nicusor I.; Oproiu, Constantin V.

    2007-04-01

    A new biotechnology for obtaining a commercial vaccine that contains either Fusobacterium necrophorum (F.n.) exotoxins inactivated by accelerated electron beam (EB) and microwave (MW) irradiation, or exotoxins isolated from F.n. cultures irradiated with EB+MW, is presented. This vaccine is designed for prophylaxis of ruminant infectious pododermatitis (IP) produced by F.n. Also, the research results concerning the effects of combined chemical adjuvant and EB+MW irradiation on F.n. immune capacity are discussed. The vaccine's efficacy will be tested in ruminant farms in which IP evolves. It is expected that this new vaccine to offer a better protection, more than 60%, which is the best presently obtained result in ruminant farms.

  17. Observations and open questions in beam-beam interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    The first of the hadron colliders, ISR, started operation in 1970. In the following years, the hadron colliders to follow were the SPS (started 1980), the Tevatron (started 1987 first as a fixed target machine), RHIC (started 2000) and most recently the LHC, which started in 2008. HERA was a hybrid that collided electrons and protons. All of these accelerators had or have their performance limited by the effects of the beam-beam interactions. That has also been true for the electron-positron colliders such as LEP, CESR, KEKB and PEPII. In this article I will discuss how the beam-beam limitations arose in some of these machines. The discussion will be focused on common themes that span the different colliders. I will mostly discuss the hadron colliders but sometimes discuss the lepton colliders where relevant. Only a handful of common accelerator physics topics are chosen here, the list is not meant to be exhaustive. A comparative review of beam-beam performance in the ISR, SPS and Tevatron (ca 1989) can be found in reference. Table 1 shows the relevant parameters of colliders (excluding the LHC), which have accelerated protons.

  18. Electron-beam dynamics for an advanced flash-radiography accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr.

    2015-06-22

    Beam dynamics issues were assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator. Special attention was paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. Especially problematic would be high-frequency beam instabilities that could blur individual radiographic source spots, low-frequency beam motion that could cause pulse-to-pulse spot displacement, and emittance growth that could enlarge the source spots. Beam physics issues were examined through theoretical analysis and computer simulations, including particle-in cell (PIC) codes. Beam instabilities investigated included beam breakup (BBU), image displacement, diocotron, parametric envelope, ion hose, and the resistive wall instability. Beam corkscrew motion and emittance growth from beam mismatch were also studied. It was concluded that a beam with radiographic quality equivalent to the present accelerators at Los Alamos will result if the same engineering standards and construction details are upheld.

  19. Electron-Beam Dynamics for an Advanced Flash-Radiography Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2015-11-17

    Beam dynamics issues were assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for multipulse flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention was paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. Especially problematic would be high-frequency beam instabilities that could blur individual radiographic source spots, low-frequency beam motion that could cause pulse-to-pulse spot displacement, and emittance growth that could enlarge the source spots. Furthermore, beam physics issues were examined through theoretical analysis and computer simulations, including particle-in-cell codes. Beam instabilities investigated included beam breakup, image displacement, diocotron, parametric envelope, ion hose, and the resistive wall instability. The beam corkscrew motion and emittance growth from beam mismatch were also studied. It was concluded that a beam with radiographic quality equivalent to the present accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory will result if the same engineering standards and construction details are upheld.

  20. Electron-Beam Dynamics for an Advanced Flash-Radiography Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2015-12-01

    Beam dynamics issues were assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for multipulse flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention was paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. Especially problematic would be high-frequency beam instabilities that could blur individual radiographic source spots, low-frequency beam motion that could cause pulse-to-pulse spot displacement, and emittance growth that could enlarge the source spots. Furthermore, beam physics issues were examined through theoretical analysis and computer simulations, including particle-in-cell codes. Beam instabilities investigated included beam breakup, image displacement, diocotron, parametric envelope, ion hose, and the resistive wall instability. The beam corkscrew motion and emittance growth from beam mismatch were also studied. It was concluded that a beam with radiographic quality equivalent to the present accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory will result if the same engineering standards and construction details are upheld.

  1. Feasibility of Colliding-beam fast-fission reactor via 238U80++238 U80+ --> 4 FF + 5n + 430 MeV beam with suppressed plutonium and direct conversion of fission fragment (FF) energy into electricity and/or Rocket propellant with high specific impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maglich, Bogdan; Hester, Tim; Calsec Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Uranium-uranium colliding beam experiment1, used fully ionized 238U92+ at energy 100GeV --> <-- 100 GeV, has measured total σ = 487 b. Reaction rate of colliding beams is proportional to neutron flux-squared. First functional Auto-Collider3-6, a compact Migma IV, 1 m in diameter, had self-colliding deuterons, D+, of 725 KeV --> <-- 725 KeV, resulting in copious production of T and 3He. U +U Autocollider``EXYDER'' will use strong-focusing magnet7, which would increase reaction rate by 104. 80 times ionized U ions accelerated through 3 MV accelerator, will collide beam 240 MeV --> <-- 240 MeV. Reaction is: 238U80+ +238 U80+ --> 4 FF + 5n + 430 MeV. Using a simple model1 fission σf ~ 100 b. Suppression of Pu by a factor of 106 will be achieved because NO thermal neutron fission can take place; only fast, 1-3 MeV, where σabs is negligible. Direct conversion of 95% of 430 MeV produced is carried by electrically charged FFs which are magnetically funneled for direct conversion of energy of FFs via electrostatic decelerators4,11. 90% of 930 MeV is electrically recoverable. Depending on the assumptions, we project electric _ power density production of 20 to 200 MWe m-3, equivalent to Thermal 1.3 - 13 GWthm-3. If one-half of unburned U is used for propulsion while rest powers system, heavy FF ion mass provides specific impulse Isp = 106 sec., 103 times higher than current rocket engines.

  2. Muon Collider Task Force Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Alexahin, Y.; Balbekov, V.; Barzi, E.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bross, A.; Burov, A.; Drozhdin, A.; Finley, D.; Geer, S.; /Fermilab /Argonne /Brookhaven /Jefferson Lab /LBL, Berkeley /MUONS Inc., Batavia /UCLA /UC, Riverside /Mississippi U.

    2007-12-01

    Muon Colliders offer a possible long term path to lepton-lepton collisions at center-of-mass energies {radical}s {ge} 1 TeV. In October 2006 the Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) proposed a program of advanced accelerator R&D aimed at developing the Muon Collider concept. The proposed R&D program was motivated by progress on Muon Collider design in general, and in particular, by new ideas that have emerged on muon cooling channel design. The scope of the proposed MCTF R&D program includes muon collider design studies, helical cooling channel design and simulation, high temperature superconducting solenoid studies, an experimental program using beams to test cooling channel RF cavities and a 6D cooling demonstration channel. The first year of MCTF activities are summarized in this report together with a brief description of the anticipated FY08 R&D activities. In its first year the MCTF has made progress on (1) Muon Collider ring studies, (2) 6D cooling channel design and simulation studies with an emphasis on the HCC scheme, (3) beam preparations for the first HPRF cavity beam test, (4) preparations for an HCC four-coil test, (5) further development of the MANX experiment ideas and studies of the muon beam possibilities at Fermilab, (6) studies of how to integrate RF into an HCC in preparation for a component development program, and (7) HTS conductor and magnet studies to prepare for an evaluation of the prospects for of an HTS high-field solenoid build for a muon cooling channel.

  3. Generation of low-emittance electron beams in electrostatic accelerators for FEL applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Chen; Elias, Luis R.

    1995-02-01

    This paper reports results of transverse emittance studies and beam propagation in electrostatic accelerators for free electron laser applications. In particular, we discuss emittance growth analysis of a low current electron beam system consisting of a miniature thermoionic electron gun and a National Electrostatics Accelerator (NEC) tube. The emittance growth phenomenon is discussed in terms of thermal effects in the electron gun cathode and aberrations produced by field gradient changes occurring inside the electron gun and throughout the accelerator tube. A method of reducing aberrations using a magnetic solenoidal field is described. Analysis of electron beam emittance was done with the EGUN code. Beam propagation along the accelerator tube was studied using a cylindrically symmetric beam envelope equation that included beam self-fields and the external accelerator fields which were derived from POISSON simulations.

  4. H-mode accelerating structures with PMQ focusing for low-beta ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, Sergey S; O' Hara, James F; Olivas, Eric R; Rybarcyk, Lawrence J

    2010-01-01

    We are developing high-efficiency normal-conducting RF accelerating structures based on inter-digital H-mode (IH) cavities and the transverse beam focusing with permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQ), for beam velocities in the range of a few percent of the speed of light. Such IH-PMQ accelerating structures following a short RFQ can be used in the front end of ion linacs or in stand-alone applications, e.g. a compact deuteron-beam accelerator up to the energy of several MeV. Results of combined 3-D modeling for a full IH-PMQ accelerator tank - electromagnetic computations, beam-dynamics simulations with high currents, and thermal-stress analysis - are presented. The accelerating field profile in the tank is tuned to provide the best beam propagation using coupled iterations of electromagnetic and beam-dynamics modeling. A cold model of the IH-PMQ tank is being manufactured.

  5. Preferential acceleration and magnetic field enhancement in plasmas with e+/e- beam injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Cong Tuan; Ryu, Chang-Mo

    2016-03-01

    A theoretical model of current filaments predicting preferential acceleration/deceleration and magnetic field enhancement in a plasma with e+/e- beam injection is presented. When the e+/e- beams are injected into a plasma, current filaments are formed. The beam particles are accelerated or decelerated depending on the types of current filaments in which they are trapped. It is found that in the electron/ion ambient plasma, the e+ beam particles are preferentially accelerated, while the e- beam particles are preferentially decelerated. The preferential particle acceleration/deceleration is absent when the ambient plasma is the e+/e- plasma. We also find that the particle momentum decrease can explain the magnetic field increase during the development of Weibel/filamentation instability. Supporting simulation results of particle acceleration/deceleration and magnetic field enhancement are presented. Our findings can be applied to a wide range of astrophysical plasmas with the e+/e- beam injection.

  6. Fluence and dose measurements for an accelerator neutron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Byun, S. H.; McNeill, F. E.; Mothersill, C. E.; Seymour, C. B.; Prestwich, W. V.

    2007-10-01

    The 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator at McMaster University accelerator laboratory is extended to a neutron irradiation facility for low-dose bystander effects research. A long counter and an Anderson-Braun type neutron monitor have been used as monitors for the determination of the total fluence. Activation foils were used to determine the thermal neutron fluence rate (around 106 neutrons s-1). Meanwhile, the interactions of neutrons with the monitors have been simulated using a Monte Carlo N Particle (MCNP) code. Bystander effects, i.e. damage occurring in cells that were not traversed by radiation but were in the same radiation environment, have been well observed following both alpha and gamma irradiation of many cell lines. Since neutron radiation involves mixed field (including gamma and neutron radiations), we need to differentiate the doses for the bystander effects from the two radiations. A tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) filled with propane based tissue equivalent gas simulating a 2 μm diameter tissue sphere has been investigated to estimate the neutron and gamma absorbed doses. A photon dose contamination of the neutron beam is less than 3%. The axial dose distribution follows the inverse square law and lateral and vertical dose distributions are relatively uniform over the irradiation area required by the biological study.

  7. Alignment tolerance of accelerating structures and corrections for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, K.; Adolphsen, C.; Bane, K.L.F.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Thompson, K.A.

    1995-06-01

    The alignment tolerance of accelerating structures is estimated by tracking simulations. Both single-bunch and multi-bunch effects are taken into account. Correction schemes for controlling the single and multi-bunch emittance growth in the case of large misalignment are also tested by simulations.

  8. Ultrashort Electron Beam Pulses and Diagnosis by Advanced Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesaka, M.; Iijima, H.; Muroya, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Hosokai, T.

    2003-08-01

    240fs 18 MeV low emittance(6 pai mm.mrad) electron beam was generated and its pulse shape was diagnosed by the S-band laser photocathode RF gun and linac. The maximum charge per bunch was 7 nC. This electron pulse was synchronized with 100fs 0.3TW Ti:Sapphire laser with the timing jitter of 330fs(rms). Recently, the Cu cathode(QE10∧-4) was replaced by Mg cathode(QE10∧-3). This system is utilized for radiation chemistry analysis for supercritical water. We have adopted the four diagnostic methods(femtosecond streak camera, coherent transition radiation interferometer, far-infrared polychromator, fluctuation method) and checked their time-resolution precisely. Further, we are doing the experiment on laser plasma cathode by 12TW 50fs laser and He gas jet. Laser plasma wakefield acceleration and electron injection via wavebreaking are planned. We have developed a new theory of self-injection scheme to generate ˜10fs electron pulse. We have already succeeded in observing 40 MeV low emittance electron beam of 14 nC.

  9. Ion Beam Transport Simulations for the 1.7 MV Tandem Accelerator at the Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naab, F. U.; Toader, O. F.; Was, G. S.

    The Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory houses a 1.7 MV tandem accelerator. For many years this accelerator was configured to run with three ion sources: a TORoidal Volume Ion Source (TORVIS), a Duoplasmatron source and a Sputter source. In this article we describe an application we have created using the SIMION® code to simulate the trajectories of ion beams produced with these sources through the accelerator. The goal of this work is to have an analytical tool to understand the effect of each electromagnetic component on the ion trajectories. This effect is shown in detailed drawings. Each ion trajectory simulation starts at the aperture of the ion source and ends at the position of the target. Using these simulations, new accelerator operators or users quickly understand how the accelerator system works. Furthermore, these simulations allow analysis of modifications in the ion beam optics of the accelerator by adding, removing or replacing components or changing their relative positions.

  10. External-Beam Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Multiple Proton Beam Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiaochun; Amos, Richard A.; Zhang Xiaodong; Taddei, Phillip J.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Yu, Tse Kuan; Tereffe, Welela; Oh, Julia; Perkins, George H.; Salehpour, Mohammad; Zhang, Sean X.; Sun, Tzou Liang; Gillin, Michael; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Strom, Eric A.

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To explore multiple proton beam configurations for optimizing dosimetry and minimizing uncertainties for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) and to compare the dosimetry of proton with that of photon radiotherapy for treatment of the same clinical volumes. Methods and Materials: Proton treatment plans were created for 11 sequential patients treated with three-dimensional radiotherapy (3DCRT) photon APBI using passive scattering proton beams (PSPB) and were compared with clinically treated 3DCRT photon plans. Monte Carlo calculations were used to verify the accuracy of the proton dose calculation from the treatment planning system. The impact of range, motion, and setup uncertainty was evaluated with tangential vs. en face beams. Results: Compared with 3DCRT photons, the absolute reduction of the mean of V100 (the volume receiving 100% of prescription dose), V90, V75, V50, and V20 for normal breast using protons are 3.4%, 8.6%, 11.8%, 17.9%, and 23.6%, respectively. For breast skin, with the similar V90 as 3DCRT photons, the proton plan significantly reduced V75, V50, V30, and V10. The proton plan also significantly reduced the dose to the lung and heart. Dose distributions from Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated minimal deviation from the treatment planning system. The tangential beam configuration showed significantly less dose fluctuation in the chest wall region but was more vulnerable to respiratory motion than that for the en face beams. Worst-case analysis demonstrated the robustness of designed proton beams with range and patient setup uncertainties. Conclusions: APBI using multiple proton beams spares significantly more normal tissue, including nontarget breast and breast skin, than 3DCRT using photons. It is robust, considering the range and patient setup uncertainties.

  11. Muon muon collider: Feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-18

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10{sup 35} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice--the authors believe--to allow them to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring which has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design.

  12. Means and method for the focusing and acceleration of parallel beams of charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Maschke, Alfred W.

    1983-07-05

    A novel apparatus and method for focussing beams of charged particles comprising planar arrays of electrostatic quadrupoles. The quadrupole arrays may comprise electrodes which are shared by two or more quadrupoles. Such quadrupole arrays are particularly adapted to providing strong focussing forces for high current, high brightness, beams of charged particles, said beams further comprising a plurality of parallel beams, or beamlets, each such beamlet being focussed by one quadrupole of the array. Such arrays may be incorporated in various devices wherein beams of charged particles are accelerated or transported, such as linear accelerators, klystron tubes, beam transport lines, etc.

  13. Transverse emittance-preserving arc compressor for high-brightness electron beam-based light sources and colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mitri, S.; Cornacchia, M.

    2015-03-01

    Bunch length magnetic compression is used in high-brightness linacs driving free-electron lasers (FELs) and particle colliders to increase the peak current of the injected beam. To date, it is performed in dedicated insertions made of few degrees bending magnets and the compression factor is limited by the degradation of the beam transverse emittance owing to emission of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). We reformulate the known concept of CSR-driven optics balance for the general case of varying bunch length and demonstrate, through analytical and numerical results, that a 500 pC charge beam can be time-compressed in a periodic 180 deg arc at 2.4 GeV beam energy and lower, by a factor of up to 45, reaching peak currents of up to 2 kA and with a normalized emittance growth at the 0.1 μ \\text{m} rad level. The proposed solution offers new schemes of beam longitudinal gymnastics; an application to an energy recovery linac driving FEL is discussed.

  14. Design of post linac to driver linac transport beam line in rare isotope accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the design of a beam transport line connecting the post linac to the driver linac (P2DT) in the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RAON). P2DT beam line is designed by 180° bending scheme to send the radioactive isotope separation on-line (ISOL) beams accelerated in the Linac-3 to Linac-2. The beam line is designed as a 180° bend for the transport of a multi-charge state 132Sn+45,+46,+47 beam. We used the TRACE 3-D, TRACK, and ORBIT codes to design the optics system, which also includes two bunchers and ten sextupole magnets for chromaticity compensation. The transverse emittance growth is minimized by adopting mirror symmetric optics and by correcting second-order aberrations using sextupoles. We report on the multi-charge state beam transport performance of the designed beam line. The main characteristics of the P2DT line are to minimize beam loss and the growth of emittance, and for charge stripping. Beam optics for P2DT is optimized for reducing beam loss and charge stripping. As Linac-3 may accelerate the stable beam and radioactive beam simultaneously, P2DT line also transports the stable beam and radioactive beam simultaneously. Thus, we need a RF switchyard to send the stable beam to the ISOL target and the radioactive beam to the high-energy experimental area in Linac-2 end.

  15. Design of post linac to driver linac transport beam line in rare isotope accelerator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the design of a beam transport line connecting the post linac to the driver linac (P2DT) in the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RAON). P2DT beam line is designed by 180° bending scheme to send the radioactive isotope separation on-line (ISOL) beams accelerated in the Linac-3 to Linac-2. The beam line is designed as a 180° bend for the transport of a multi-charge state (132)Sn(+45,+46,+47) beam. We used the TRACE 3-D, TRACK, and ORBIT codes to design the optics system, which also includes two bunchers and ten sextupole magnets for chromaticity compensation. The transverse emittance growth is minimized by adopting mirror symmetric optics and by correcting second-order aberrations using sextupoles. We report on the multi-charge state beam transport performance of the designed beam line. The main characteristics of the P2DT line are to minimize beam loss and the growth of emittance, and for charge stripping. Beam optics for P2DT is optimized for reducing beam loss and charge stripping. As Linac-3 may accelerate the stable beam and radioactive beam simultaneously, P2DT line also transports the stable beam and radioactive beam simultaneously. Thus, we need a RF switchyard to send the stable beam to the ISOL target and the radioactive beam to the high-energy experimental area in Linac-2 end.

  16. Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.

    2009-10-19

    Parameters are given of muon colliders with center of mass energies of 1.5 and 3 TeV. Pion production is from protons on a mercury target. Capture, decay, and phase rotation yields bunch trains of both muon signs. Six dimensional cooling reduces the emittances until the trains are merged into single bunches, one of each sign. Further cooling in 6 dimensions is then applied, followed by final transverse cooling in 50 T solenoids. After acceleration the muons enter the collider ring. Ongoing R&D is discussed.

  17. Observation of Electron Cloud Stabilized 1 MeV Beam-Beam d+d Reactons in Self-Colliding Orbits and Feasibility of Electric Isotope Breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maglich, Bogdan; Druey, Christian; Iyengar, P. K.; Srinivasan, Mahadeva

    2012-03-01

    D-D Self-Collider ^1,2 is only system in which beam-beam nuclear reactions demonstrated MeV energies. 1.45 MeV DC beam of D2^+ was injected into center of a weak-focusing magnetic field (Ni Ti) B=3.12 Tesla, and dissociated into 2 d^+ stored in Self-Colliding Orbits^3. Energy confinement time T = 23 s (vacuum limited p=10-9 torr), stabilized by driven electron oscillations^4. A simulation^5 shows that 1 DD neutron is produced at an energy cost of 5.36 MeV/n i.e. 140 MWh/g= 8,360/g vs. 160,000/g from beam - target. Simultaneously produced He^3 and T are not only free, but bring 45 fold gain. 5 d's of 0.75 MeV generate 1He^3 +1T +1p+ 1n at cost 5.36 MeV. Hence, it will produce 2 He^3 nuclei (1 He-3, 1 T) plus energy gain of 161 MeV. This will be reduced by the energy gain thus reducing cost to 4.5 from 5.6 MeV. Assumed ion density 5x10 ^14 was achieved in plasmas. Beam injection 100 mA. 1. PRL 54, 796 (1985) NIM A 271 p,.1-167; 2. AIP CP 311, 292 (93); 3. PRL 70, 1818 (93); 4.Part. Acc.1, (70); 5. ``50 Years with Fission'' Symp.Nat. Ac Sci., p. 761 (89)

  18. Comparing the dosimetric characteristics of the electron beam from dedicated intraoperative and conventional radiotherapy accelerators.

    PubMed

    Baghani, Hamid Reza; Aghamiri, Seyed Mahmoud Reza; Mahdavi, Seyed Rabi; Akbari, Mohammad Esmail; Mirzaei, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    The specific design of the mobile dedicated intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) accelerators and different electron beam collimation system can change the dosimetric characteristics of electron beam with respect to the conventional accelerators. The aim of this study is to measure and compare the dosimetric characteristics of electron beam produced by intraoperative and conventional radiotherapy accelerators. To this end, percentage depth dose along clinical axis (PDD), transverse dose profile (TDP), and output factor of LIAC IORT and Varian 2100C/D conventional radiotherapy accelerators were measured and compared. TDPs were recorded at depth of maximum dose. The results of this work showed that depths of maximum dose, R90, R50, and RP for LIAC beam are lower than those of Varian beam. Furthermore, for all energies, surface doses related to the LIAC beam are substantially higher than those of Varian beam. The symmetry and flatness of LIAC beam profiles are more desirable compared to the Varian ones. Contrary to Varian accelerator, output factor of LIAC beam substantially increases with a decrease in the size of the applicator. Dosimetric characteristics of beveled IORT applicators along clinical axis were different from those of the flat ones. From these results, it can be concluded that dosimetric characteristics of intraoperative electron beam are substantially different from those of conventional clinical electron beam. The dosimetric characteristics of the LIAC electron beam make it a useful tool for intraoperative radiotherapy purposes.

  19. Fermilab Collider: Performance and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, D.A.

    1993-12-01

    The Fermilab collider program has completed its first physics run with two major detectors, CDF and DO. Recent performance of the Fermilab accelerator complex during Run Ia is presented, along with plans to improve the luminosity of the collider. The beam-beam tune shift limitations of previous runs have been avoided by the successful implementation of electrostatic separators in the Tevatron. The simultaneous operation of two high luminosity sections is provided by two matched low beta inserts. The Antiproton Source has increased its performance over the previous run as measured by stack size and stacking rate. The Linac will be upgraded from 200 MeV to 400 MeV in order to lessen the space charge tune shift upon injection into the Booster and provide proton beams with increased intensity with the same emittance. Higher luminosity requires more bunches in the Tevatron to again avoid the limitation due to the beam-beam interaction. Until it is replaced with the Main Injector, the Main Ring will remain as the most significant bottleneck on the performance of the collider.

  20. Physics considerations for laser-plasma linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Geddes, Cameron; Benedetti, Carlo; Leemans, Wim

    2010-06-11

    Physics considerations for a next-generation linear collider based on laser-plasma accelerators are discussed. The ultra-high accelerating gradient of a laser-plasma accelerator and short laser coupling distance between accelerator stages allows for a compact linac. Two regimes of laser-plasma acceleration are discussed. The highly nonlinear regime has the advantages of higher accelerating fields and uniform focusing forces, whereas the quasi-linear regime has the advantage of symmetric accelerating properties for electrons and positrons. Scaling of various accelerator and collider parameters with respect to plasma density and laser wavelength are derived. Reduction of beamstrahlung effects implies the use of ultra-short bunches of moderate charge. The total linac length scales inversely with the square root of the plasma density, whereas the total power scales proportional to the square root of the density. A 1 TeV center-of-mass collider based on stages using a plasma density of 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} requires tens of J of laser energy per stage (using 1 {micro}m wavelength lasers) with tens of kHz repetition rate. Coulomb scattering and synchrotron radiation are examined and found not to significantly degrade beam quality. A photon collider based on laser-plasma accelerated beams is also considered. The requirements for the scattering laser energy are comparable to those of a single laser-plasma accelerator stage.

  1. Demonstration of a positron beam-driven hollow channel plasma wakefield accelerator

    DOE PAGES

    Gessner, Spencer; Adli, Erik; Allen, James M.; An, Weiming; Clarke, Christine I.; Clayton, Chris E.; Corde, Sebastien; Delahaye, J. P.; Frederico, Joel; Green, Selina Z.; et al

    2016-06-02

    Plasma wakefield accelerators have been used to accelerate electron and positron particle beams with gradients that are orders of magnitude larger than those achieved in conventional accelerators. In addition to being accelerated by the plasma wakefield, the beam particles also experience strong transverse forces that may disrupt the beam quality. Hollow plasma channels have been proposed as a technique for generating accelerating fields without transverse forces. In this study, we demonstrate a method for creating an extended hollow plasma channel and measure the wakefields created by an ultrarelativistic positron beam as it propagates through the channel. The plasma channel ismore » created by directing a high-intensity laser pulse with a spatially modulated profile into lithium vapour, which results in an annular region of ionization. A peak decelerating field of 230 MeV m-1 is inferred from changes in the beam energy spectrum, in good agreement with theory and particle-in-cell simulations.« less

  2. Demonstration of a positron beam-driven hollow channel plasma wakefield accelerator

    PubMed Central

    Gessner, Spencer; Adli, Erik; Allen, James M.; An, Weiming; Clarke, Christine I.; Clayton, Chris E.; Corde, Sebastien; Delahaye, J. P.; Frederico, Joel; Green, Selina Z.; Hast, Carsten; Hogan, Mark J.; Joshi, Chan; Lindstrøm, Carl A.; Lipkowitz, Nate; Litos, Michael; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Mori, Warren B.; O'Shea, Brendan; Vafaei-Najafabadi, Navid; Walz, Dieter; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yocky, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Plasma wakefield accelerators have been used to accelerate electron and positron particle beams with gradients that are orders of magnitude larger than those achieved in conventional accelerators. In addition to being accelerated by the plasma wakefield, the beam particles also experience strong transverse forces that may disrupt the beam quality. Hollow plasma channels have been proposed as a technique for generating accelerating fields without transverse forces. Here we demonstrate a method for creating an extended hollow plasma channel and measure the wakefields created by an ultrarelativistic positron beam as it propagates through the channel. The plasma channel is created by directing a high-intensity laser pulse with a spatially modulated profile into lithium vapour, which results in an annular region of ionization. A peak decelerating field of 230 MeV m−1 is inferred from changes in the beam energy spectrum, in good agreement with theory and particle-in-cell simulations. PMID:27250570

  3. Demonstration of a positron beam-driven hollow channel plasma wakefield accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, Spencer; Adli, Erik; Allen, James M.; An, Weiming; Clarke, Christine I.; Clayton, Chris E.; Corde, Sebastien; Delahaye, J. P.; Frederico, Joel; Green, Selina Z.; Hast, Carsten; Hogan, Mark J.; Joshi, Chan; Lindstrøm, Carl A.; Lipkowitz, Nate; Litos, Michael; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Mori, Warren B.; O'Shea, Brendan; Vafaei-Najafabadi, Navid; Walz, Dieter; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yocky, Gerald

    2016-06-01

    Plasma wakefield accelerators have been used to accelerate electron and positron particle beams with gradients that are orders of magnitude larger than those achieved in conventional accelerators. In addition to being accelerated by the plasma wakefield, the beam particles also experience strong transverse forces that may disrupt the beam quality. Hollow plasma channels have been proposed as a technique for generating accelerating fields without transverse forces. Here we demonstrate a method for creating an extended hollow plasma channel and measure the wakefields created by an ultrarelativistic positron beam as it propagates through the channel. The plasma channel is created by directing a high-intensity laser pulse with a spatially modulated profile into lithium vapour, which results in an annular region of ionization. A peak decelerating field of 230 MeV m-1 is inferred from changes in the beam energy spectrum, in good agreement with theory and particle-in-cell simulations.

  4. Demonstration of a positron beam-driven hollow channel plasma wakefield accelerator.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Spencer; Adli, Erik; Allen, James M; An, Weiming; Clarke, Christine I; Clayton, Chris E; Corde, Sebastien; Delahaye, J P; Frederico, Joel; Green, Selina Z; Hast, Carsten; Hogan, Mark J; Joshi, Chan; Lindstrøm, Carl A; Lipkowitz, Nate; Litos, Michael; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Kenneth A; Mori, Warren B; O'Shea, Brendan; Vafaei-Najafabadi, Navid; Walz, Dieter; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yocky, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Plasma wakefield accelerators have been used to accelerate electron and positron particle beams with gradients that are orders of magnitude larger than those achieved in conventional accelerators. In addition to being accelerated by the plasma wakefield, the beam particles also experience strong transverse forces that may disrupt the beam quality. Hollow plasma channels have been proposed as a technique for generating accelerating fields without transverse forces. Here we demonstrate a method for creating an extended hollow plasma channel and measure the wakefields created by an ultrarelativistic positron beam as it propagates through the channel. The plasma channel is created by directing a high-intensity laser pulse with a spatially modulated profile into lithium vapour, which results in an annular region of ionization. A peak decelerating field of 230 MeV m(-1) is inferred from changes in the beam energy spectrum, in good agreement with theory and particle-in-cell simulations.

  5. Demonstration of a positron beam-driven hollow channel plasma wakefield accelerator.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Spencer; Adli, Erik; Allen, James M; An, Weiming; Clarke, Christine I; Clayton, Chris E; Corde, Sebastien; Delahaye, J P; Frederico, Joel; Green, Selina Z; Hast, Carsten; Hogan, Mark J; Joshi, Chan; Lindstrøm, Carl A; Lipkowitz, Nate; Litos, Michael; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Kenneth A; Mori, Warren B; O'Shea, Brendan; Vafaei-Najafabadi, Navid; Walz, Dieter; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yocky, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Plasma wakefield accelerators have been used to accelerate electron and positron particle beams with gradients that are orders of magnitude larger than those achieved in conventional accelerators. In addition to being accelerated by the plasma wakefield, the beam particles also experience strong transverse forces that may disrupt the beam quality. Hollow plasma channels have been proposed as a technique for generating accelerating fields without transverse forces. Here we demonstrate a method for creating an extended hollow plasma channel and measure the wakefields created by an ultrarelativistic positron beam as it propagates through the channel. The plasma channel is created by directing a high-intensity laser pulse with a spatially modulated profile into lithium vapour, which results in an annular region of ionization. A peak decelerating field of 230 MeV m(-1) is inferred from changes in the beam energy spectrum, in good agreement with theory and particle-in-cell simulations. PMID:27250570

  6. Reverse Emittance Exchange for Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    V. Ivanov, A. Afanasev, C.M. Ankenbrandt, R.P. Johnson, G.M. Wang, S.A. Bogacz, Y.S. Derbenev

    2009-05-01

    Muon collider luminosity depends on the number of muons in the storage ring and on the transverse size of the beams in collision. Ionization cooling as it is currently envisioned will not cool the beam sizes sufficiently well to provide adequate luminosity without large muon intensities. Six-dimensional cooling schemes will reduce the longitudinal emittance of a muon beam so that smaller high frequency RF cavities can be used for later stages of cooling and for acceleration. However, the bunch length at collision energy is then shorter than needed to match the interaction region beta function. New ideas to shrink transverse beam dimensions by lengthening each bunch will help achieve high luminosity in muon colliders. Analytic expressions for the reverse emittance exchange mechanism were derived, including a new resonant method of beam focusing.

  7. Proceedings of the international workshop on next-generation linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Riordan, M.

    1988-12-01

    This report contains papers on the next-generation of linear colliders. The particular areas of discussion are: parameters; beam dynamics and wakefields; damping rings and sources; rf power sources; accelerator structures; instrumentation; final focus; and review of beam-beam interaction.

  8. A theory of two-beam acceleration of charged particles in a plasma waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrovsky, A.O.

    1993-11-01

    The progress made in recent years in the field of high-current relativistic electron beam (REB) generation has aroused a considerable interest in studying REB potentialities for charged particle acceleration with a high acceleration rate T = 100MeV/m. It was proposed, in particular, to employ high-current REB in two-beam acceleration schemes (TBA). In these schemes high current REB (driving beam) excites intense electromagnetic waves in the electrodynamic structure which, in their turn, accelerate particles of the other beam (driven beam). The TBA schemes can be divided into two groups. The first group includes the schemes, where the two beams (driving and driven) propagate in different electrodynamic structures coupled with each other through the waveguides which ensure the microwave power transmission to accelerate driven beam particles. The second group includes the TBA schemes, where the driving and driven beams propagate in one electrodynamic structure. The main aim of this work is to demonstrate by theory the possibility of realizing effectively the TBA scheme in the plasma waveguide. The physical model of the TBA scheme under study is formulated. A set of equations describing the excitation of RF fields by a high-current REB and the acceleration of driven beam electrons is also derived. Results are presented on the the linear theory of plasma wave amplification by the driving beam. The range of system parameters, at which the plasma-beam instability develops, is defined. Results of numerical simulation of the TBA scheme under study are also presented. The same section gives the description of the dynamics of accelerated particle bunching in the high-current REB-excited field. Estimates are given for the accelerating field intensities in the plasma and electron acceleration rates.

  9. The Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator's RF Pulse Compression And Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Tantawi, S.G.; Adelphson, C.; Holmes, S.; Lavine, Theodore L.; Loewen, R.J.; Nantista, C.; Pearson, C.; Pope, R.; Rifkin, J.; Ruth, R.D.; Vlieks, A.E.; /SLAC

    2011-09-14

    The overmoded rf transmission and pulsed power compression system for SLAC's Next Linear Collider (NLC) program requires a high degree of transmission efficiency and mode purity to be economically feasible. To this end, a number of new, high power components and systems have been developed at X-band, which transmit rf power in the low loss, circular TE01 mode with negligible mode conversion. In addition, a highly efficient SLED-II* pulse compressor has been developed and successfully tested at high power. The system produced a 200 MW, 250 ns wide pulse with a near-perfect flat-top. In this paper we describe the design and test results of the high power pulse compression system using SLED-II. The NLC rf systems use low loss highly over-moded circular waveguides operating in the TE01 mode. The efficiency of the systems is sensitive to the mode purity of the mode excited inside these guides. We used the so called flower petal mode transducer [2] to excite the TE01 mode. This type of mode transducer is efficient, compact and capable of handling high levels of power. To make more efficient systems, we modified this device by adding several mode selective chokes to act as mode purifiers. To manipulate the rf signals we used these modified mode converters to convert back and forth between over-moded circular waveguides and single-moded WR90 rectangular waveguides. Then, we used the relatively simple rectangular waveguide components to do the actual manipulation of rf signals. For example, two mode transducers and a mitered rectangular waveguide bend comprise a 90 degree bend. Also, a magic tee and four mode transducers would comprise a four-port-hybrid, etc. We will discuss the efficiency of an rf transport system based on the above methodology. We also used this methodology in building the SLEDII pulse compression system. At SLAC we built 4 of these pulse systems. In this paper we describe the SLEDII system and compare the performance of these 4 systems at SLAC. We

  10. Three-dimensional simulation analysis of the standing-wave free- electron laser two beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.; Sessler, A.

    1993-01-01

    We have modified a two-dimensional relativistic klystron code, developed by Ryne and Yu, to simulate both the standing-wave free- electron laser two-beam accelerator and the relativistic klystron two- beam accelerator. In this paper, the code is used to study a standing-wave free-electron laser with three cavities. The effect of the radius of the electron beam on the RF output power; namely, a three-dimensional effect is examined.

  11. Review of Basic Physics of Laser-Accelerated Charged-Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Suk, H.; Hur, M. S.; Jang, H.; Kim, J.

    2007-07-11

    Laser-plasma wake wave can accelerate charged particles, especially electrons with an enormously large acceleration gradient. The electrons in the plasma wake wave have complicated motions in the longitudinal and transverse directions. In this paper, basic physics of the laser-accelerated electron beam is reviewed.

  12. Acceleration of positrons by a relativistic electron beam in the presence of quantum effects

    SciTech Connect

    Niknam, A. R.; Aki, H.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M.

    2013-09-15

    Using the quantum magnetohydrodynamic model and obtaining the dispersion relation of the Cherenkov and cyclotron waves, the acceleration of positrons by a relativistic electron beam is investigated. The Cherenkov and cyclotron acceleration mechanisms of positrons are compared together. It is shown that growth rate and, therefore, the acceleration of positrons can be increased in the presence of quantum effects.

  13. System for producing high-resolution polarized and unpolarized beams with a tandem accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Westerfeldt, C.R.; Bilpuch, E.G.; Bleck, M.E.; Outlaw, D.A.; Wells, W.K.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Clegg, T.B.

    1983-01-01

    A tandem accelerator beam energy stabilizer, which utilizes an optically coupled fast feedback loop to the accelerator terminal stripper, is described. Emphasis is placed on the components of the feedback system and on the application of this system to production of high energy-resolution beams. This system produces beam energy spreads ranging from 450 to 600 eV FWHM for 2 to 16 MeV unpolarized protons. Polarized beam energy spreads range from 550 to 700 eV FWHM, for the same beam energy range.

  14. A new beam loss detector for low-energy proton and heavy-ion accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengzheng; Crisp, Jenna; Russo, Tom; Webber, Robert; Zhang, Yan

    2014-12-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) to be constructed at Michigan State University shall deliver a continuous, 400 kW heavy ion beam to the isotope production target. This beam is capable of inflicting serious damage on accelerator components, e.g. superconducting RF accelerating cavities. A Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System is essential for detecting beam loss with sufficient sensitivity and promptness to inform the machine protection system (MPS) and operations personnel of impending dangerous losses. Radiation transport simulations reveal shortcomings in the use of ionization chambers for the detection of beam losses in low-energy, heavy-ion accelerators. Radiation cross-talk effects due to the folded geometry of the FRIB LINAC pose further complications to locating specific points of beam loss. We propose a newly developed device, named the Loss Monitor Ring (LMR1

  15. Crab Cavities for Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.; Carter, R.; Dexter, A.; Tahir, I.; Beard, C.; Dykes, M.; Goudket, P.; Kalinin, A.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Shulte, D.; Jones, Roger M.; Bellantoni, L.; Chase, B.; Church, M.; Khabouline, T.; Latina, A.; Adolphsen, C.; Li, Z.; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    Crab cavities have been proposed for a wide number of accelerators and interest in crab cavities has recently increased after the successful operation of a pair of crab cavities in KEK-B. In particular crab cavities are required for both the ILC and CLIC linear colliders for bunch alignment. Consideration of bunch structure and size constraints favour a 3.9 GHz superconducting, multi-cell cavity as the solution for ILC, whilst bunch structure and beam-loading considerations suggest an X-band copper travelling wave structure for CLIC. These two cavity solutions are very different in design but share complex design issues. Phase stabilisation, beam loading, wakefields and mode damping are fundamental issues for these crab cavities. Requirements and potential design solutions will be discussed for both colliders.

  16. Prototype of a test bench for applied research on Extracted beams of the nuclotron accelerator complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldin, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Bradnova, V.; Butenko, A. V.; Fedorov, A. N.; Kudashkin, I. V.

    2016-05-01

    The results of the development and testing of elements of a test bench for investigating the impact of accelerated particle beams on biological objects, electronics, and other targets are presented. The systems for beam monitoring and target positioning were tested on extracted argon beams in the framework of experiments on studying the radiation hardness of electronic components.

  17. PERFORMANCE LIMITATIONS IN HIGH-ENERGY ION COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER, W.

    2005-05-16

    High-energy ion colliders (hadron colliders operating with ions other than protons) are premier research tools for nuclear physics. The collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operations considerations. The experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, detector fields, and ion species, including asymmetric collisions. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams limits are set by space charge, charge exchange, and intrabeam scattering effects. The latter leads to luminosity lifetimes of only a few hours for intense heavy ions beams. Currently, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL is the only operating high-energy ion collider. Later this decade the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), under construction at CERN, will also run with heavy ions.

  18. Initial operation of the Tevatron collider

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.

    1987-03-01

    The Tevatron is now the highest energy proton synchrotron and the only accelerator made with superconducting magnets. Operating since 1983 as a fixed-target machine at energies up to 800 GeV, it has now been modified to operate as a 900 GeV antiproton-proton collider. This paper describes the initial operation of the machine in this mode. The new features of the Fermilab complex, including the antiproton source and the Main Ring injector with its two overpasses and new rf requirements, are discussed. Beam characteristics in the Tevatron (including lifetimes, emittances, luminosity, beam-beam tune shifts, backgrounds, and low beta complications), the coordination of the steps in the accelerator chain, and the commissioning history are also discussed. Finally, some plans for the improvement of the collider are presented.

  19. Simulation of Hollow Electron Beam Collimation in the Fermilab Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, I.A.; Stancari, G.; Valishev, A.; Shatilov, D.N.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2012-05-01

    The concept of augmenting the conventional collimation system of high-energy storage rings with a hollow electron beam was successfully demonstrated in experiments at the Tevatron. A reliable numerical model is required for understanding particle dynamics in the presence of a hollow beam collimator. Several models were developed to describe imperfections of the electron beam profile and alignment. The features of the imperfections are estimated from electron beam profile measurements. Numerical simulations of halo removal rates are compared with experimental data taken at the Tevatron.

  20. HIGH-ENERGY PARTICLE COLLIDERS: PAST 20 YEARS, NEXT 20 YEARS, AND BEYOND

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.

    2013-09-25

    Particle colliders for high-energy physics have been in the forefront of scientific discoveries for more than half a century. The accelerator technology of the colliders has progressed immensely, while the beam energy, luminosity, facility size, and cost have grown by several orders of magnitude. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but has slowed down considerably in its progress. This paper briefly reviews the colliding beam method and the history of colliders, discusses the development of the method over the last two decades in detail, and examines near-term collider projects that are currently under development. The paper concludes with an attempt to look beyond the current horizon and to find what paradigm changes are necessary

  1. Circuit and Scattering Matrix Analysis of the Wire Measurement Method of Beam Impedance in Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Roger M

    2003-05-23

    In order to measure the wakefield left behind multiple bunches of energetic electrons we have previously used the ASSET facility in the SLC [1]. However, in order to produce a more rapid and cost-effective determination of the wakefields we have designed a wire experimental method to measure the beam impedance and from the Fourier transform thereof, the wakefields. In this paper we present studies of the wire effect on the properties of X-band structures in study for the JLC/NLC (Japanese Linear Collider/Next Linear Collider) project. Simulations are made on infinite and finite periodical structures. The results are discussed.

  2. A Self-Consistent Beam Loaded Travelling Wave Accelerator Model for use in TRACE-3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampel, M. C.

    1997-05-01

    An optics model of a constant gradient traveling wave (CGTW) accelerator structure has been implemented for TRACE-3D. TRACE-3D is an envelope code including space charge that is used to model bunched beams in magnetic transport systems and radio frequency (rf) accelerators when the effects of beam current might be significant. The new matrix model has been developed to allow incorporation of particle beam loading (current) effects on the accelerator gradient and the accelerator structure's beam focusing properties in a self-consistent manner. The beam loaded electric field for a CGTW accelerator structure is constant for only a particular design current (e.g., 0 current), otherwise it can be written as a function of accelerator attenuation and axial position along the structure. The variation of the electric field through the structure has been taken into account in the new model. CGTW structures differ substantially in focusing properties and beam loading properties from standing wave structures. Examples will be presented using the new TW model, propagating electron beams with different currents through the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's 3 m structure. The results will be compared to the zero current TW structure model in TRANSPORT and the Tank model (a standing wave structure model) in TRACE-3D. A computer demonstration of the code with the new element will also be presented.

  3. Conceptual design of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider: RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Samios, Nicholas P.

    1986-05-01

    The complete Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility will be a complex set of accelerators and beam transfer equipment connecting them. A significant portion of the total facility either exists or is under construction. Two existing Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators will serve for the initial ion acceleration. Ions with a charge of -1 would be accelerated from ground to +15 MV potential, pass through a stripping foil, and accelerate back to ground potential, where they would pass through a second stripping foil. From there the ions will traverse a long transfer line to the AGS tunnel and be injected into the Booster accelerator. The Booster accelerates the ion bunch, and then the ions pass through one more stripper and then enter the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), where they are accelerated to the top AGS energy and transferred to the collider. Bending and focusing of ion beams is to be achieved by superconducting magnets. The physics goals behind the RHIC are enumerated, particularly as regards the study of quark matter and the characteristics of high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. The design of the collider and all its components is described, including the injector, the lattice, magnet system, cryogenic and vacuum systems, beam transfer, injection, and dump, rf system, and beam instrumentation and control system. Also given are cost estimates, construction schedules, and a management plan. (LEW)

  4. Muon Muon Collider: Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, J.C.; Palmer, R.B.; Tollestrup, A.V.; Sessler, A.M.; Skrinsky, A.N.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Geer, S.; Griffin, J.; Johnstone, C.; Lebrun, P.; McInturff, A.; Mills, Frederick E.; Mokhov, N.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Ng, K.Y.; Noble, R.; Novitski, I.; Popovic, M.; Qian, C.; Van Ginneken, A. /Fermilab /Brookhaven /Wisconsin U., Madison /Tel Aviv U. /Indiana U. /UCLA /LBL, Berkeley /SLAC /Argonne /Sobolev IM, Novosibirsk /UC, Davis /Munich, Tech. U. /Virginia U. /KEK, Tsukuba /DESY /Novosibirsk, IYF /Jefferson Lab /Mississippi U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /MIT /Columbia U. /Fairfield U. /UC, Berkeley

    2012-04-05

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice - we believe - to allow us to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring wich has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design. Muons because of their large mass compared to an electron, do not produce significant synchrotron radiation. As a result there is negligible beamstrahlung and high energy collisions are not limited by this phenomena. In addition, muons can be accelerated in circular devices which will be considerably smaller than two full-energy linacs as required in an e{sup +} - e{sup -} collider. A hadron collider would require a CM energy 5 to 10 times higher than 4 TeV to have an equivalent energy reach. Since the accelerator size is limited by the strength of bending magnets, the hadron collider for the same physics reach would have to be much larger than the muon collider. In addition, muon collisions should be cleaner than hadron collisions. There are many detailed particle

  5. Voltage holding study of 1 MeV accelerator for ITER neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Dairaku, M.; Takemoto, J.; Tobari, H.; Tsuchida, K.; Yamanaka, H.; Watanabe, K.; Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Sakamoto, K.; Inoue, T.

    2012-02-15

    Voltage holding test on MeV accelerator indicated that sustainable voltage was a half of that of ideal quasi-Rogowski electrode. It was suggested that the emission of the clumps is enhanced by a local electric field concentration, which leads to discharge initiation at lower voltage. To reduce the electric field concentration in the MeV accelerator, gaps between the grid supports were expanded and curvature radii at the support corners were increased. After the modifications, the accelerator succeeded in sustaining -1 MV in vacuum without beam acceleration. However, the beam energy was still limited at a level of 900 keV with a beam current density of 150 A/m{sup 2} (346 mA) where the 3 x 5 apertures were used. Measurement of the beam profile revealed that deflection of the H{sup -} ions was large and a part of the H{sup -} ions was intercepted at the acceleration grid. This causes high heat load on the grids and the breakdowns during beam acceleration. To suppress the direct interception, new grid system was designed with proper aperture displacement based on a 3D beam trajectory analysis. As the result, the beam deflection was compensated and the voltage holding during the beam acceleration was improved. Beam parameter of the MeV accelerator was increased to 980 keV, 185 A/m{sup 2} (427 mA), which is close to the requirement of ITER accelerator (1 MeV, 200 A/m{sup 2}).

  6. Beam loading in a laser-plasma accelerator using a near-hollow plasma channel

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2013-12-15

    Beam loading in laser-plasma accelerators using a near-hollow plasma channel is examined in the linear wake regime. It is shown that, by properly shaping and phasing the witness particle beam, high-gradient acceleration can be achieved with high-efficiency, and without induced energy spread or emittance growth. Both electron and positron beams can be accelerated in this plasma channel geometry. Matched propagation of electron beams can be achieved by the focusing force provided by the channel density. For positron beams, matched propagation can be achieved in a hollow plasma channel with external focusing. The efficiency of energy transfer from the wake to a witness beam is calculated for single ultra-short bunches and bunch trains.

  7. Beam position and energy monitoring in compact linear accelerators for radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ruf, Marcel; Müller, Sven; Setzer, Stefan; Schmidt, Lorenz-Peter

    2014-02-01

    The experimental verification of a novel sensor topology capable of measuring both the position and energy of an electron beam inside a compact electron linear accelerator for radiotherapy is presented. The method applies microwave sensing techniques and allows for the noninterceptive monitoring of the respective beam parameters within compact accelerators for medical or industrial purposes. A state space feedback approach is described with the help of which beam displacements, once detected, can be corrected within a few system macropulses. The proof-of-principle experiments have been conducted with a prototype accelerator and customized hardware. Additionally, closed-loop operation with high accuracy is demonstrated.

  8. Vacuum laser-driven acceleration by two slits-truncated Bessel beams

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Imasaki, K.

    2005-08-29

    An approach of vacuum acceleration by two laser Bessel beams is presented in this letter. With elaborate arrangement, the two Bessel beams are truncated by a set of special annular slits to form consecutive acceleration field in the electron traveling direction. Therefore, the electron of a certain initial energy can be accelerated in the whole interaction region without experiencing deceleration even though the phase-slippage occurs. Furthermore, the Bessel beam can provide a rather long distance for the effective interaction between the electron and the laser field due to its 'diffraction-free' property, resulting in improvement of the energy exchange.

  9. Beam shaping assembly optimization for (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be accelerator based BNCT.

    PubMed

    Minsky, D M; Kreiner, A J

    2014-06-01

    Within the framework of accelerator-based BNCT, a project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole accelerator is under way at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The proposed accelerator is conceived to deliver a proton beam of 30mA at about 2.5MeV. In this work we explore a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) design based on the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be neutron production reaction to obtain neutron beams to treat deep seated tumors.

  10. Beam shaping assembly optimization for (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be accelerator based BNCT.

    PubMed

    Minsky, D M; Kreiner, A J

    2014-06-01

    Within the framework of accelerator-based BNCT, a project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole accelerator is under way at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The proposed accelerator is conceived to deliver a proton beam of 30mA at about 2.5MeV. In this work we explore a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) design based on the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be neutron production reaction to obtain neutron beams to treat deep seated tumors. PMID:24345525

  11. Plasma Wakefield Acceleration and FACET - Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test Beams at SLAC

    ScienceCinema

    Andrei Seryi

    2016-07-12

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is one of the most promising approaches to advancing accelerator technology. This approach offers a potential 1,000-fold or more increase in acceleration over a given distance, compared to existing accelerators.  FACET, enabled by the Recovery Act funds, will study plasma acceleration, using short, intense pulses of electrons and positrons. In this lecture, the physics of plasma acceleration and features of FACET will be presented.  

  12. Design study of double-layer beam trajectory accelerator based on the Rhodotron structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbari, Iraj; Poursaleh, Ali Mohammad; Khalafi, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the conceptual design of a new structure of industrial electron accelerator based on the Rhodotron accelerator is presented and its properties are compared with those of Rhodotron-TT200 accelerator. The main goal of this study was to reduce the power of RF system of accelerator at the same output electron beam energy. The main difference between the new accelerator structure with the Rhodotron accelerator is the length of the coaxial cavity that is equal to the wavelength at the resonant frequency. Also two sets of bending magnets were used around the acceleration cavity in two layers. In the new structure, the beam crosses several times in the coaxial cavity by the bending magnets around the cavity at the first layer and then is transferred to the second layer using the central bending magnet. The acceleration process in the second layer is similar to the first layer. Hence, the energy of the electron beam will be doubled. The electrical power consumption of the RF system and magnet system were calculated and simulated for the new accelerator structure and TT200. Comparing the calculated and simulated results of the TT200 with those of experimental results revealed good agreement. The results showed that the overall electrical power consumption of the new accelerator structure was less than that of the TT200 at the same energy and power of the electron beam. As such, the electrical efficiency of the new structure was improved.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF ACCELERATOR DATA REPORTING SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATION TO TREND ANALYSIS OF BEAM CURRENT DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, M.J.; Blokland, W.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed ongoing information about the ion beam quality is crucial to the successful operation of the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In order to provide the highest possible neutron production time, ion beam quality is monitored to isolate possible problems or performance-related issues throughout the accelerator and accumulator ring. For example, beam current monitor (BCM) data is used to determine the quality of the beam transport through the accelerator. In this study, a reporting system infrastructure was implemented and used to generate a trend analysis report of the BCM data. The BCM data was analyzed to facilitate the identifi cation of monitor calibration issues, beam trends, beam abnormalities, beam deviations and overall beam quality. A comparison between transformed BCM report data and accelerator log entries shows promising results which represent correlations between the data and changes made within the accelerator. The BCM analysis report is one of many reports within a system that assist in providing overall beam quality information to facilitate successful beam operation. In future reports, additional data manipulation functions and analysis can be implemented and applied. Built-in and user-defi ned analytic functions are available throughout the reporting system and can be reused with new data.

  14. Differential acceleration in the final beam lines of a Heavy Ion Fusion driver

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Alex

    2013-10-19

    A long-standing challenge in the design of a Heavy Ion Fusion power plant is that the ion beams entering the target chamber, which number of order a hundred, all need to be routed from one or two multi-beam accelerators through a set of transport lines. The beams are divided into groups, which each have unique arrival times and may have unique kinetic energies. It is also necessary to arrange for each beam to enter the target chamber from a prescribed location on the periphery of that chamber. Furthermore, it has generally been assumed that additional constraints must be obeyed: that the path lengths of the beams in a group must be equal, and that any delay of \\main-pulse" beams relative to \\foot-pulse" beams must be provided by the insertion of large delay-arcs in the main beam transport lines. Here we introduce the notion of applying \\di erential acceleration" to individual beams or sets of beam at strategic stages of the transport lines. That is, by accelerating some beams \\sooner" and others \\later," it is possible to simplify the beam line con guration in a number of cases. For example, the time delay between the foot and main pulses can be generated without resorting to large arcs in the main-pulse beam lines. It is also possible to use di erential acceleration to e ect the simultaneous arrival on target of a set of beams ( e.g., for the foot-pulse) without requiring that their path lengths be precisely equal. We illustrate the technique for two model con gurations, one corresponding to a typical indirect-drive scenario requiring distinct foot and main energies, and the other to an ion-driven fast-ignition scenario wherein the foot and main beams share a common energy.

  15. Differential acceleration in the final beam lines of a Heavy Ion Fusion driver

    DOE PAGES

    Friedman, Alex

    2013-10-19

    A long-standing challenge in the design of a Heavy Ion Fusion power plant is that the ion beams entering the target chamber, which number of order a hundred, all need to be routed from one or two multi-beam accelerators through a set of transport lines. The beams are divided into groups, which each have unique arrival times and may have unique kinetic energies. It is also necessary to arrange for each beam to enter the target chamber from a prescribed location on the periphery of that chamber. Furthermore, it has generally been assumed that additional constraints must be obeyed: thatmore » the path lengths of the beams in a group must be equal, and that any delay of \\main-pulse" beams relative to \\foot-pulse" beams must be provided by the insertion of large delay-arcs in the main beam transport lines. Here we introduce the notion of applying \\di erential acceleration" to individual beams or sets of beam at strategic stages of the transport lines. That is, by accelerating some beams \\sooner" and others \\later," it is possible to simplify the beam line con guration in a number of cases. For example, the time delay between the foot and main pulses can be generated without resorting to large arcs in the main-pulse beam lines. It is also possible to use di erential acceleration to e ect the simultaneous arrival on target of a set of beams ( e.g., for the foot-pulse) without requiring that their path lengths be precisely equal. We illustrate the technique for two model con gurations, one corresponding to a typical indirect-drive scenario requiring distinct foot and main energies, and the other to an ion-driven fast-ignition scenario wherein the foot and main beams share a common energy.« less

  16. Design of the plasma chamber and beam extraction system for SC ECRIS of RAON accelerator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Choi, S; Hong, I S

    2014-02-01

    The RAON accelerator is the heavy ion accelerator being built in Korea. It contains a 3rd generation SC ECRIS which uses 28 GHz/18 GHz microwave power to extract 12 puA uranium ion beams. A plasma chamber for that ECRIS is made of aluminum machined from bulk Al. That chamber contains cooling channels to remove dumped power and another access port for microwave introduction and plasma diagnostics. Beam extraction electrodes were designed considering the engineering issues and preliminary beam extraction analysis was done. That plasma chamber will be assembled with a cryostat, and beam extraction experiment will be done.

  17. Gamma-gamma colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; Sessler, A.

    1996-06-01

    Gamma-gamma colliders make intense beams of gamma rays and have them collide so as to make elementary particles. The authors show, in this article, that constructing a gamma-gamma collider as an add-on to an electron-positron linear collider is possible with present technology and that it does not require much additional cost. Furthermore, they show that the resulting capability is very interesting from a particle physics point of view. An overview of a linear collider, with a second interaction region devoted to {gamma}{gamma} collisions is shown.

  18. Radiative damping and electron beam dynamics in plasma-based accelerators.

    PubMed

    Michel, P; Schroeder, C B; Shadwick, B A; Esarey, E; Leemans, W P

    2006-08-01

    The effects of radiation reaction on electron beam dynamics are studied in the context of plasma-based accelerators. Electrons accelerated in a plasma channel undergo transverse betatron oscillations due to strong focusing forces. These oscillations lead to emission by the electrons of synchrotron radiation, with a corresponding energy loss that affects the beam properties. An analytical model for the single particle orbits and beam moments including the classical radiation reaction force is derived and compared to the results of a particle transport code. Since the betatron amplitude depends on the initial transverse position of the electron, the resulting radiation can increase the relative energy spread of the beam to significant levels (e.g., several percent). This effect can be diminished by matching the beam into the channel, which could require micron sized beam radii for typical values of the beam emittance and plasma density.

  19. Radiative damping and electron beam dynamics in plasma-based accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.; Schroeder, C. B.; Shadwick, B. A.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2006-08-01

    The effects of radiation reaction on electron beam dynamics are studied in the context of plasma-based accelerators. Electrons accelerated in a plasma channel undergo transverse betatron oscillations due to strong focusing forces. These oscillations lead to emission by the electrons of synchrotron radiation, with a corresponding energy loss that affects the beam properties. An analytical model for the single particle orbits and beam moments including the classical radiation reaction force is derived and compared to the results of a particle transport code. Since the betatron amplitude depends on the initial transverse position of the electron, the resulting radiation can increase the relative energy spread of the beam to significant levels (e.g., several percent). This effect can be diminished by matching the beam into the channel, which could require micron sized beam radii for typical values of the beam emittance and plasma density.

  20. Vacuum system of the 3MeV industrial electron beam accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaprakash, D.; Mishra, R. L.; Ghodke, S. R.; kumar, M.; kumar, M.; Nanu, K.; Mittal, K. C., Dr

    2008-05-01

    One DC Accelerator, for electron beam of 3 MeV energy and 10 mA beam current, to derive 30 KW beam power for Industrial applications is nearing completion at Electron Beam Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai. Beam-line of the accelerator is six meters long, consists of electron gun at top, followed by the accelerating column and finally the scan horn. Electron gun and the accelerating column is exposed to SF6 gas at six atmospheres. Area exposed to the vacuum is 65,000 sq: cm, and includes a volume of 200 litres. Vacuum of the order of 1×10-7mbar is desired. To ensure a good vacuum gradient, distributive pumping is implemented. Electron beam is scanned to a size of 5cm × 120cm, to get a useful beam coverage, for industrial radiation applications. The beam is extracted through a window of Titanium foil of 50μm thickness. A safety interlock, to protect the electron gun, accelerating column and sputter ion pumps, in case of a foil rupture, is incorporated. Foil change can be done without disturbing the vacuum in the other zones. System will be integrated to a master control system to take care of the various safety aspects, and to make it operator friendly.

  1. Tevatron End-of-Run Beam Physics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Valishev, A.; Gu, X.; Miyamoto, R.; White, S.; Schmidt, F.; Qiang, J.; /LBNL

    2012-05-01

    Before the Tevatron Collider Run II ended in September of 2011, a number of specialized beam study periods were dedicated to the experiments on various accelerator physics concepts and effects during the last year of the machine operation. The study topics included collimation with bent crystals and hollow electron beams, diffusion measurements and various aspects of beam-beam interactions. In this report we concentrate on the subject of beam-beam interactions, summarizing the results of beam experiments. The covered topics include offset collisions, coherent beam stability, effect of the bunch-length-to-beta-function ratio, and operation of AC dipole with colliding beams.

  2. Synergy Between Experiments and Simulations in Laser and Beam-Driven Plasma Acceleration and Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Warren B.

    2015-11-01

    Computer simulations have been an integral part of plasma physics research since the early 1960s. Initially, they provided the ability to confirm and test linear and nonlinear theories in one-dimension. As simulation capabilities and computational power improved, then simulations were also used to test new ideas and applications of plasmas in multi-dimensions. As progress continued, simulations were also used to model experiments. Today computer simulations of plasmas are ubiquitously used to test new theories, understand complicated nonlinear phenomenon, model the full temporal and spatial scale of experiments, simulate parameters beyond the reach of current experiments, and test the performance of new devices before large capital expenditures are made to build them. In this talk I review the progress in simulations in a particular area of plasma physics: plasma based acceleration (PBA). In PBA a short laser pulse or particle beam propagates through long regions of plasma creating plasma wave wakefields on which electrons or positrons surf to high energies. In some cases the wakefields are highly nonlinear, involve three-dimensional effects, and the trajectories of plasma particles cross making it essential that fully kinetic and three-dimensional models are used. I will show how particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations were initially used to propose the basic idea of PBA in one dimension. I will review some of the dramatic progress in the experimental demonstration of PBA and show how this progress was dramatically helped by a synergy between experiments and full-scale multi-dimensional PIC simulations. This will include a review of how the capability of PIC simulation tools has improved. I will also touch on some recent progress on improvements to PIC simulations of PBA and discuss how these improvements may push the synergy further towards real time steering of experiments and start to end modeling of key components of a future linear collider or XFEL based on PBA

  3. High energy accelerator and colliding beam user group: Progress report, March 1, 1987-February 29, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    Progress is reported on the OPAL experiment at LEP, including construction and assembly of the hadron calorimeter and development of OPAL software. Progress on the JADE experiment, which examines e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions at PETRA, and of the PLUTO collaboration are also discussed. Experiments at Fermilab are reported, including deep inelastic muon scattering at TeV II, the D0 experiment at TeV I, and hadron jet physics. Neutrino-electron elastic scattering and a search for point-sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are reported. Other activities discussed include polarization in electron storage rings, participation in studies for the SSC and LEP 200, neutron-antineutron oscillations, and the work of the electronics support group. High energy physics computer experience is also discussed. 158 refs. (LEW)

  4. High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group. Progress report, May 1, 1980--March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, G.A.

    1980-12-01

    The major activities of the High Energy Physics Group at the University of Maryland during the current contract period have been: analysis of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} events from the PLUTO detector at PETRA, design and construction of modifications to PLUTO for 2{gamma} physics, analyses of {nu}{sub {mu}}D{sub 2} bubble chamber pictures from Fermilab, completion of the {nu}{sub {mu}}e elastic scattering experiment at Fermilab, development and demonstration of an ultra cold neutron source produced by Doppler shifting, testing of equipment for the hadron jet experiment at Fermilab that is about to begin, and planning for large projects in the future.

  5. Application of radiofrequency superconductivity to accelerators for high-current ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.; Kennedy, W.L.; Roche, C.T.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1992-01-01

    A development program is underway to apply rf superconductivity to the design of continuous-wave (cw) linear accelerators for high-current, high-brightness ion beam. During the last few years, considerable progress has been made both experimentally and theoretically toward this application. Recent tests of niobium resonators for ion acceleration have yielded average accelerating gradients as high as 18 MV/m. In an experiment with a radio-frequency quadrupole geometry, niobium was found to sustain cw peak surface electric fields as high as 128 MV/m over large (10 cm) surface areas. Theoretical studies of beam halo, cumulative beam breakup and alternating-phase focusing have also yielded important results. This paper su-summarizes the recent progress and identifies current and future work in the areas of superconducting accelerator technology for high-current ion beams.

  6. Application of radiofrequency superconductivity to accelerators for high-current ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.; Kennedy, W.L.; Roche, C.T.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1992-12-31

    A development program is underway to apply rf superconductivity to the design of continuous-wave (cw) linear accelerators for high-current, high-brightness ion beam. During the last few years, considerable progress has been made both experimentally and theoretically toward this application. Recent tests of niobium resonators for ion acceleration have yielded average accelerating gradients as high as 18 MV/m. In an experiment with a radio-frequency quadrupole geometry, niobium was found to sustain cw peak surface electric fields as high as 128 MV/m over large (10 cm) surface areas. Theoretical studies of beam halo, cumulative beam breakup and alternating-phase focusing have also yielded important results. This paper su-summarizes the recent progress and identifies current and future work in the areas of superconducting accelerator technology for high-current ion beams.

  7. Undulator-Based Laser Wakefield Accelerator Electron Beam Energy Spread and Emittance Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Bakeman, M.S.; Van Tilborg, J.; Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A.; Osterhoff, J.; Sokollik, T.; Lin, C.; Robinson, K.E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Toth, Cs.; Weingartner, R.; Gruner, F.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

    2010-06-01

    The design and current status of experiments to couple the Tapered Hybrid Undulator (THUNDER) to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) laser plasma accelerator (LPA) to measure electron beam energy spread and emittance are presented.

  8. HIGH POWER BEAM DUMP AND TARGET / ACCELERATOR INTERFACE PROCEDURES

    SciTech Connect

    Blokland, Willem; Plum, Michael A; Peters, Charles C; Brown, David L; Galambos, John D

    2013-01-01

    Satisfying operational procedures and limits for the beam target interface is a critical concern for high power operation at spallation neutron sources. At the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) a number of protective measures are instituted to ensure that the beam position, beam size and peak intensity are within acceptable limits at the target and high power Ring Injection Dump (RID). The high power beam dump typically handles up to 50 100 kW of beam power and its setup is complicated by the fact that there are two separate beam components simultaneously directed to the dump. The beam on target is typically in the 800-1000 kW average power level, delivered in sub- s 60 Hz pulses. Setup techniques using beam measurements to quantify the beam parameters at the target and dump will be described. However, not all the instrumentation used for the setup and initial qualification is available during high power operation. Additional techniques are used to monitor the beam during high power operation to ensure the setup conditions are maintained, and these are also described.

  9. Accelerator Technology Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1991, the Accelerator Technology (AT) division continued fulfilling its mission to pursue accelerator science and technology and to develop new accelerator concepts for application to research, defense, energy, industry, and other areas of national interest. This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; (Phi) Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  10. Testing general relativity with laser accelerated electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gergely, L. A.; Harko, T.

    2012-07-09

    Electron accelerations of the order of 10{sup 21} g obtained by laser fields open up the possibility of experimentally testing one of the cornerstones of general relativity, the weak equivalence principle, which states that the local effects of a gravitational field are indistinguishable from those sensed by a properly accelerated observer in flat space-time. We illustrate how this can be done by solving the Einstein equations in vacuum and integrating the geodesic equations of motion for a uniformly accelerated particle.

  11. Laser ion acceleration toward future ion beam cancer therapy - Numerical simulation study -

    PubMed Central

    Kawata, Shigeo; Izumiyama, Takeshi; Nagashima, Toshihiro; Takano, Masahiro; Barada, Daisuke; Kong, Qing; Gu, Yan Jun; Wang, Ping Xiao; Ma, Yan Yun; Wang, Wei Min

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ion beam has been used in cancer treatment, and has a unique preferable feature to deposit its main energy inside a human body so that cancer cell could be killed by the ion beam. However, conventional ion accelerator tends to be huge in its size and its cost. In this paper a future intense-laser ion accelerator is proposed to make the ion accelerator compact. Subjects and methods: An intense femtosecond pulsed laser was employed to accelerate ions. The issues in the laser ion accelerator include the energy efficiency from the laser to the ions, the ion beam collimation, the ion energy spectrum control, the ion beam bunching and the ion particle energy control. In the study particle computer simulations were performed to solve the issues, and each component was designed to control the ion beam quality. Results: When an intense laser illuminates a target, electrons in the target are accelerated and leave from the target; temporarily a strong electric field is formed between the high-energy electrons and the target ions, and the target ions are accelerated. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions was improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or by a near-critical density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation was realized by holes behind the solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching were successfully realized by a multi-stage laser-target interaction. Conclusions: The present study proposed a novel concept for a future compact laser ion accelerator, based on each component study required to control the ion beam quality and parameters. PMID:24155555

  12. Limiting electron beam current for cyclic induction acceleration in a constant guide field

    SciTech Connect

    Kanunnikov, V.N.

    1982-09-01

    Theoretical relations are derived for the limiting beam current in a cyclic induction accelerator (CIA) with a constant guide field. The calculations are in agreement with the available experimental data. It is shown that the limiting average beam current in a CIA is of the order of 100 microamperes, i.e., the level attained in microtrons and linear accelerators. The CIA may find industrial applications.

  13. Beam instrumentation for future high intense hadron accelerators at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, M.; Hu, M.; Tassotto, G.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Scarpine, V.; Shin, S.; Zagel, J.; /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    High intensity hadron beams of up to 2 MW beam power are a key element of new proposed experimental facilities at Fermilab. Project X, which includes a SCRF 8 GeV H{sup -} linac, will be the centerpiece of future HEP activities in the neutrino sector. After a short overview of this, and other proposed projects, we present the current status of the beam instrumentation activities at Fermilab with a few examples. With upgrades and improvements they can meet the requirements of the new beam facilities, however design and development of new instruments is needed, as shown by the prototype and conceptual examples in the last section.

  14. Acceleration of electrons by a tightly focused intense laser beam.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Xing; Zang, Wei-Ping; Li, Ya-Dong; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2009-07-01

    The recent proposal to use Weinger transformation field (WTF) [Opt. Express 17, 4959-4969 (2009)] for describing tightly focused laser beams is investigated here in detail. In order to validate the accuracy of WTF, we derive the numerical field (NF) from the plane wave spectrum method. WTF is compared with NF and Lax series field (LSF). Results show that LSF is accurate close to the beam axis and divergent far from the beam axis, and WTF is always accurate. Moreover, electron dynamics in a tightly focused intense laser beam are simulated by LSF, WTF and NF, respectively. The results obtained by WTF are shown to be accurate.

  15. Acceleration of electrons by a tightly focused intense laser beam.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Xing; Zang, Wei-Ping; Li, Ya-Dong; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2009-07-01

    The recent proposal to use Weinger transformation field (WTF) [Opt. Express 17, 4959-4969 (2009)] for describing tightly focused laser beams is investigated here in detail. In order to validate the accuracy of WTF, we derive the numerical field (NF) from the plane wave spectrum method. WTF is compared with NF and Lax series field (LSF). Results show that LSF is accurate close to the beam axis and divergent far from the beam axis, and WTF is always accurate. Moreover, electron dynamics in a tightly focused intense laser beam are simulated by LSF, WTF and NF, respectively. The results obtained by WTF are shown to be accurate. PMID:19582099

  16. Comparison of Discrete Klystron Produced RF to Two-Beam Produced RF for Large Accelerator Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pitthan, Rainer

    2000-08-22

    The authors compare here some technical aspects, and with it the cost, of constructing a 500 GeV center of mass Linear Collider with either Discrete Klystron or with Two-Beam (relativistic Klystron) technology using X-band for the main linac. A comparison concept is applied to CLIC and NLC technologies, but not to a particular CLIC or NLC design. The methodology created can be extended to higher c.m.s. energies, if the reader so desires.

  17. Comparison of Discrete Klystron produced RF to two-beam produced RF for large accelerator systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitthan, Rainer

    2001-05-01

    We compare here some technical aspects, and with it the cost, of constructing a 500 GeV center of mass Linear Collider with either Discrete Klystron or with Two-Beam (relativistic Klystron) technology using X-band for the main linac. A comparison concept is applied to CLIC and NLC technologies, but not to a particular CLIC or NLC design. The methodology created can be extended to higher c.m.s. energies, if the reader so desires.

  18. Flyer Acceleration by Pulsed Ion Beam Ablation and Application for Space Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Nobuhiro; Buttapeng, Chainarong; Yazawa, Masaru; Kashine, Kenji; Jiang Weihua; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    2004-02-04

    Flyer acceleration by ablation plasma pressure produced by irradiation of intense pulsed ion beam has been studied. Acceleration process including expansion of ablation plasma was simulated based on fluid model. And interaction between incident pulsed ion beam and a flyer target was considered as accounting stopping power of it. In experiments, we used ETIGO-II intense pulsed ion beam generator with two kinds of diodes; 1) Magnetically Insulated Diode (MID, power densities of <100 J/cm2) and 2) Spherical-focused Plasma Focus Diode (SPFD, power densities of up to 4.3 kJ/cm2). Numerical results of accelerated flyer velocity agreed well with measured one over wide range of incident ion beam energy density. Flyer velocity of 5.6 km/s and ablation plasma pressure of 15 GPa was demonstrated by the present experiments. Acceleration of double-layer target consists of gold/aluminum was studied. For adequate layer thickness, such a flyer target could be much more accelerated than a single layer. Effect of waveform of ion beam was also examined. Parabolic waveform could accelerate more efficiently than rectangular waveform. Applicability of ablation propulsion was discussed. Specific impulse of 7000{approx}8000 seconds and time averaged thrust of up to 5000{approx}6000N can be expected. Their values can be controllable by changing power density of incident ion beam and pulse duration.

  19. Electron beam dynamics and self-cooling up to PeV level due to betatron radiation in plasma-based accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Aihua; Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Liu, Jiansheng; Shen, Baifei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yu, Yahong; Li, Wentao; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2012-08-01

    In plasma-based accelerators, electrons are accelerated by ultrahigh gradient of 1-100GV/m and undergo the focusing force with the same order as the accelerating force. Heated electrons are injected in a plasma wake and exhibit the betatron oscillation that generates synchrotron radiation. Intense betatron radiation from laser-plasma accelerators is attractive x-ray/gamma-ray sources, while it produces radiation loss and significant effects on energy spread and transverse emittance via the radiation reaction force. In this article, electron beam dynamics on transverse emittance and energy spread with considering radiation reaction effects are studied numerically. It is found that the emittance growth and the energy spread damping initially dominate and balance with radiative damping due to the betatron radiation. Afterward the emittance turns to decrease at a constant rate and leads to the equilibrium at a nanometer radian level with growth due to Coulomb scattering at PeV-level energies. A constant radiation loss rate RT=2/3 is found without regard to the electron beam and plasma conditions. Self-cooling of electron beams due to betatron radiation may guarantee TeV-range linear colliders and give hints on astrophysical ultrahigh-energy phenomena.

  20. A prototype of a beam steering assistant tool for accelerator operations

    SciTech Connect

    M. Bickley; P. Chevtsov

    2006-10-24

    The CEBAF accelerator provides nuclear physics experiments at Jefferson Lab with high quality electron beams. Three experimental end stations can simultaneously receive the beams with different energies and intensities. For each operational mode, the accelerator setup procedures are complicated and require very careful checking of beam spot sizes and positions on multiple beam viewers. To simplify these procedures and make them reproducible, a beam steering assistant GUI tool has been created. The tool is implemented as a multi-window control screen. The screen has an interactive graphical object window, which is an overlay on top of a digitized live video image from a beam viewer. It allows a user to easily create and edit any graphical objects consisting of text, ellipses, and lines, right above the live beam viewer image and then save them in a file that is called a beam steering template. The template can show, for example, the area within which the beam must always be on the viewer. Later, this template can be loaded in the interactive graphical object window to help accelerator operators steer the beam to the specified area on the viewer.

  1. A NEW DIFFERENTIAL AND ERRANT BEAM CURRENT MONITOR FOR THE SNS* ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Blokland, Willem; Peters, Charles C

    2013-01-01

    A new Differential and errant Beam Current Monitor (DBCM) is being implemented for both the Spallation Neutron Source's Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) and the Super Conducting Linac (SCL) accelerator sections. These new current monitors will abort the beam when the difference between two toroidal pickups exceeds a threshold. The MEBT DBCM will protect the MEBT chopper target, while the SCL DBCM will abort beam to minimize fast beam losses in the SCL cavities. The new DBCM will also record instances of errant beam, such as beam dropouts, to assist in further optimization of the SNS Accelerator. A software Errant Beam Monitor was implemented on the regular BCM hardware to study errant beam pulses. The new system will take over this functionality and will also be able to abort beam on pulse-to-pulse variations. Because the system is based on the FlexRIO hardware and programmed in LabVIEW FPGA, it will be able to abort beam in about 5 us. This paper describes the development, implementation, and initial test results of the DBCM, as well as errant beam examples.

  2. Electrostatic design and beam transport for a folded tandem electrostatic quadrupole accelerator facility for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Vento, V Thatar; Bergueiro, J; Cartelli, D; Valda, A A; Kreiner, A J

    2011-12-01

    Within the frame of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT), we discuss here the electrostatic design of the machine, including the accelerator tubes with electrostatic quadrupoles and the simulations for the transport and acceleration of a high intensity beam.

  3. Beam transport in the crystal x-ray accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, T.; Newberger, B.S. ); Huson, F.R.; Mackay, W.W. ); Covington, B.C.; Payne, J. ); Mahale, N.K.; Ohnuma, S. )

    1989-01-01

    A Fokker-Planck model of charged particle transport in crystal channels which includes the effect of strong accelerating gradients has been developed for application to the crystal x-ray accelerator and other crystal accelerator schemes. We indicate the implications of the analytic solutions found for a harmonic channeling potential for the accelerating gradient and the multiple scattering which, because we consider only the acceleration of positive particles, is dominated by scattering from the valence electrons. In order to relax the constraints imposed by these, we have been exploring the application of novel materials to this problem. One candidate is porous Si and our investigation into this material which is as yet preliminary is discussed and other possible materials are indicated.

  4. The accelerator facility of the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Centre (HIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Andreas

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Beam parameters * General layout of the HIT facility * The accelerator chain in detail * Operational aspects of a particle therapy facility * 24/7 accelerator operation at 335 days per year * Safety and regulatory aspects * Status and perspectives * References

  5. CEBAF: The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility and its Physics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mougey, Jean

    1992-01-01

    With the 4 GeV Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility presently under construction in Newport News, Virginia, a new domain of nuclear and subnuclear phenomena can be investigated, mainly through coincidence experiments. An overview of the characteristic features of the accelerator and associated experimental equipment is given. Some examples of the physics programs are briefly described.

  6. Photoelectron linear accelerator for producing a low emittance polarized electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, David U.; Clendenin, James E.; Kirby, Robert E.

    2004-06-01

    A photoelectron linear accelerator for producing a low emittance polarized electric beam. The accelerator includes a tube having an inner wall, the inner tube wall being coated by a getter material. A portable, or demountable, cathode plug is mounted within said tube, the surface of said cathode having a semiconductor material formed thereon.

  7. Incompatibility of FRC `Self--Colliding Beams' with Classical Large Orbit Theory and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maglich, Bogdan

    2012-03-01

    Rosenbluth^1: ``One key physics issue is the behavior of very large gyro radius systems, for which the usual thermal physics is inadequate.''- Rostoker^2 posited (1) 0.42 KeV d^+ FRC can achieve confinement^ τ =30 s observed^3 in self-colliding orbits (SCO) of 725 KeV d^+,^ stabilized by magnet focusing^4 and electrons^5 ; (2) FRC result ^6τ=2 x10-3 s is ``record long lived plasma state for advanced, aneutronic fuels ''; (3) non-intersecting collision-less orbits produce nuclear reactions. (i) Bz(r) of FRC is defocusing, field index n>0. From single particle orbit theory^7,8 destructive instability must occur with τ^ <= 10-3 s. (ii) τ cannot be scaled up by ion energy increase. (iii) Luminosity in SCO^3: L˜10^31s-1 cm-2; in co-revolving FRC orbits: L=0 unless 2 species in same orbit, which requires v2/v1= z1m1/z2m2 and Nτ ˜ 10^17 by Lawson^ 9-11. See http://www.aneutronicfusion.org 1. NIM271, p.1 (88); 2. PRL 70, 1818 (93); 3.PRL 54, 796 (1985); 4.PRL 29, 1590 (72); 5.PRL 70, 299 (93); 6.PRL 105, 045003-1,(10); 7.Part. Acc.1, (70); 8. AIP CP 311, 292 (93); 9. J.App.Phys.46, 2915 (75); 10. NIM A346 322 (93); 11.NIM 144, 65 (77)

  8. High-Energy Laser-Accelerated Electron Beams for Long-Range Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Cummingham, N. J.; Banerjee, Sudeep; Ramanathan, Vidya; Powell, Nathan; Chandler-Smith, Nate; Vane, C Randy; Schultz, David Robert; Pozzi, Sara; Clarke, Shaun; Beene, James R; Umstadter, Donald

    2009-01-01

    We are studying the use of 0.1 1.0 GeV laser-accelerated electron beams as active interrogation probes for long-standoff radiography or nuclear activation of concealed special nuclear material. Use of beams in this energy range is largely unexplored, but such beams could provide notable advantages over lower-energy beams and x-rays. High-energy laser-accelerated electrons exhibit large penetration range through air and solids, and low beam divergence for both direct beams and secondary Bremsstrahlung x-rays. We present laboratory measurements of radiography and activation, using the high-power Diodes laser system at the University of Nebraska, as well as MCNP and GEANT Monte Carlo simulation results used to aid experiment design and interpretation.

  9. Analysis of secondary particle behavior in multiaperture, multigrid accelerator for the ITER neutral beam injector.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, T; Taniguchi, M; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Tobari, H; Watanabe, K; Dairaku, M; Sakamoto, K; Inoue, T

    2010-02-01

    Heat load on acceleration grids by secondary particles such as electrons, neutrals, and positive ions, is a key issue for long pulse acceleration of negative ion beams. Complicated behaviors of the secondary particles in multiaperture, multigrid (MAMuG) accelerator have been analyzed using electrostatic accelerator Monte Carlo code. The analytical result is compared to experimental one obtained in a long pulse operation of a MeV accelerator, of which second acceleration grid (A2G) was removed for simplification of structure. The analytical results show that relatively high heat load on the third acceleration grid (A3G) since stripped electrons were deposited mainly on A3G. This heat load on the A3G can be suppressed by installing the A2G. Thus, capability of MAMuG accelerator is demonstrated for suppression of heat load due to secondary particles by the intermediate grids.

  10. A large-area time-of-flight system for a colliding beam machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Cifarelli, L.; D'Ali, G.; Di Cesare, P.; Giusti, P.; Massam, T.; Palmonari, F.; Sartorelli, G.; Valenti, G.; Contin, A.; Favale, L.; Zichichi, A.; Esposito, B.

    1981-02-01

    We describe the performance of a large solid-angle (2 sr) time-of-flight system used in conjunction with the Split Field Magnet spectrometer of the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR). The system consists of a hodoscope of 67 scintillator counters, at a distance of about 5 m from the beam intersection. The ISR being a coasting beam machine, contrary to the tightly bunched e +e - machines, the event time is unknown and therefore a special analysis procedure for particle identification is required. We illustrate a powerful statistical method which allows the identification, with more than 90% efficiency, of pions up to about 1 GeV/c, kaons up to about 1.4 GeV/c, and protons up to about 2 GeV/c.

  11. Measurements of Transverse Beam Diffusion Rates in the Fermilab Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, G.; Annala, G.; Johnson, T.R.; Still, D.A.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01

    The transverse beam diffusion rate vs. particle oscillation amplitude was measured in the Tevatron using collimator scans. All collimator jaws except one were retracted. As the jaw of interest was moved in small steps, the local shower rates were recorded as a function of time. By using a diffusion model, the time evolution of losses could be related to the diffusion rate at the collimator position. Preliminary results of these measurements are presented.

  12. Accelerator systems and instrumentation for the NuMI neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Zwaska, Robert Miles

    2005-12-01

    The neutrinos at the main injector (NuMI) neutrino beam facility began operating at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in 2005. NuMI produces an intense, muon-neutrino beam to a number of experiments. Foremost of these experiments is MINOS-the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search-that uses two neutrino detectors in the beam, one at Fermilab and one in northern Minnesota, to investigate the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations.

  13. Generation of a rectangular beam distribution for irradiation of the accelerator production of tritium target

    SciTech Connect

    Blind, B.

    1990-01-01

    A scheme has been developed to produce a well-confined rectangular beam-intensity distribution of greatly enhanced uniformity from initially-peaked intensity distributions such as Gaussian or parabolic distributions without beam scraping. This scheme employs a system of linear and nonlinear transport-line elements. The linear elements prepare the beam for the nonlinear focusing and govern the beam size at the target. Uniformity is achieved with octupoles, and beam confinement is assured with duodecapoles. The scheme was applied to the target focus for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) system. An initially Gaussian-distributed beam of 1.6-GeV protons was shaped into a rectangular 4 m by 2 m beam spot of acceptably uniform intensity at the tritium-production target. The scheme eliminates the need for sweeping the beam in a raster pattern to produce uniform target illumination. Details of the scheme are discussed.

  14. SLAC linear collider: the machine, the physics, and the future

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, B.

    1981-11-01

    The SLAC linear collider, in which beams of electrons and positrons are accelerated simultaneously, is described. Specifications of the proposed system are given, with calculated preditions of performance. New areas of research made possible by energies in the TeV range are discussed. (GHT)

  15. NSAC Recommends a Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes the plan submitted by the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee to the Department of Energy and National Science Foundation urging construction of an ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collider designed to accelerate nucleon beams of ions as heavy as uranium. Discusses the process of selecting the type of facility as well as siting. (JM)

  16. Energy-angle correlation of electrons accelerated by laser beam in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Ho, Y.K.; Xie, Y.J.; Zhang, S.Y.; Yan, Z.; Xu, J.J.; Lin, Y.Z.; Hua, J.F.

    2004-09-27

    The correlation between the outgoing energy and the scattering angle of electrons accelerated by a laser beam in vacuum has been investigated. Essentially, the single-valued function of the correlation, derived from classical electrodynamics Compton scattering for a plane wave, is broadened to a band. It means electrons with the same outgoing energy will have an angular spread. An equation to describe this correlation has been derived. Dependence of the spread width of scattering angle on laser beam parameters is examined, and physical explanations of these features are given. The results are found to be consistent with the simulation results for a proposed vacuum laser acceleration scheme: the capture and acceleration scenario.

  17. Interaction of the ATA beam with the TM/sub 030/ mode of the accelerating cells

    SciTech Connect

    Neil, V.K.

    1985-02-14

    The interaction of the electron beam in the Advanced Test Accelerator with an azimuthally symmetric mode of the accelerating cells is investigated theoretically. The interaction possibly could cause modulation of the beam current at the resonant frequency of the mode. Values of the shunt impedance and Q value of the mode were obtained from previous measurement and analysis. Lagranian hydrodynamics is employed and a WKB solution to the equation of motion is obtained. Results indicate that the interaction will not be a problem in the accelerator.

  18. Routine production of a triton beam for an FN accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, J.W.; Ashbaugh, P.G.; Stark, J.W.

    1985-10-01

    The use of triton beams from tritiated titanium inserts in a sputter ion source has become a significant part of the McMaster Nuclear Physics programme. Tritium beams have been run on the McMaster University FN Tandem since 1978 on the basis of one scheduled running period per year accumulating a total of over 4000 hours of running time. Beams of up to one microamp are routinely put on target. Procedures for safe maintenance and operation of such a source have been developed, and techniques for handling up to 40 TBq (about 1000 Ci) of tritium have been approved by the Atomic Energy Control Board.

  19. Proton-beam writing channel based on an electrostatic accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapin, A. S.; Rebrov, V. A.; Kolin'ko, S. V.; Salivon, V. F.; Ponomarev, A. G.

    2016-09-01

    We have described the structure of the proton-beam writing channel as a continuation of a nuclear scanning microprobe channel. The problem of the accuracy of positioning a probe by constructing a new high-frequency electrostatic scanning system has been solved. Special attention has been paid to designing the probe-forming system and its various configurations have been considered. The probe-forming system that best corresponds to the conditions of the lithographic process has been found based on solving the problem of optimizing proton beam formation. A system for controlling beam scanning using multifunctional module of integrated programmable logic systems has been developed.

  20. System modeling for the longitudinal beam dynamics control problem in heavy ion induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, A.N.

    1993-05-17

    We address the problem of developing system models that are suitable for studying the control of the longitudinal beam dynamics in induction accelerators for heavy ions. In particular, we present the preliminary results of our efforts to devise a general framework for building detailed, integrated models of accelerator systems consisting of pulsed power modular circuits, induction cells, beam dynamics, and control system elements. Such a framework will permit us to analyze and design the pulsed power modulators and the control systems required to effect precise control over the longitudinal beam dynamics.

  1. Electron-Beam Dynamics for an Advanced Flash-Radiography Accelerator

    DOE PAGES

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2015-11-17

    Beam dynamics issues were assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for multipulse flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention was paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. Especially problematic would be high-frequency beam instabilities that could blur individual radiographic source spots, low-frequency beam motion that could cause pulse-to-pulse spot displacement, and emittance growth that could enlarge the source spots. Furthermore, beam physics issues were examined through theoretical analysis and computer simulations, including particle-in-cell codes. Beam instabilities investigated included beam breakup, image displacement, diocotron, parametric envelope, ion hose, and themore » resistive wall instability. The beam corkscrew motion and emittance growth from beam mismatch were also studied. It was concluded that a beam with radiographic quality equivalent to the present accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory will result if the same engineering standards and construction details are upheld.« less

  2. Measurements of beam halo diffusion and population density in the Tevatron and in the Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, Giulio

    2015-03-01

    Halo dynamics influences global accelerator performance: beam lifetimes, emittance growth, dynamic aperture, and collimation efficiency. Halo monitoring and control are also critical for the operation of high-power machines. For instance, in the high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC, the energy stored in the beam tails may reach several megajoules. Fast losses can result in superconducting magnet quenches, magnet damage, or even collimator deformation. The need arises to measure the beam halo and to remove it at controllable rates. In the Tevatron and in the LHC, halo population densities and diffusivities were measured with collimator scans by observing the time evolution of losses following small inward or outward collimator steps, under different experimental conditions: with single beams and in collision, and, in the case of the Tevatron, with a hollow electron lens acting on a subset of bunches. After the LHC resumes operations, it is planned to compare measured diffusivities with the known strength of transverse damper excitations. New proposals for nondestructive halo population density measurements are also briefly discussed.

  3. H-mode accelerating structures with permanent-magnet quadrupole beam focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurennoy, S. S.; Rybarcyk, L. J.; O'Hara, J. F.; Olivas, E. R.; Wangler, T. P.

    2012-09-01

    We have developed high-efficiency normal-conducting rf accelerating structures by combining H-mode resonator cavities and a transverse beam focusing by permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQ), for beam velocities in the range of a few percent of the speed of light. The shunt impedance of interdigital H-mode (IH-PMQ) structures is 10-20 times higher than that of a conventional drift-tube linac, while the transverse size is 4-5 times smaller. Results of the combined 3D modeling—electromagnetic computations, multiparticle beam-dynamics simulations with high currents, and thermal-stress analysis—for an IH-PMQ accelerator tank are presented. The accelerating-field profile in the tank is tuned to provide the best propagation of a 50-mA deuteron beam using coupled iterations of electromagnetic and beam-dynamics modeling. Measurements of a cold model of the IH-PMQ tank show a good agreement with the calculations. Examples of cross-bar H-mode structures with PMQ focusing for higher beam velocities are also presented. H-PMQ accelerating structures following a short radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator can be used both in the front end of ion linacs or in stand-alone applications.

  4. Instrumentation for diagnostics and control of laser-accelerated proton (ion) beams.

    PubMed

    Bolton, P R; Borghesi, M; Brenner, C; Carroll, D C; De Martinis, C; Fiorini, Francesca; Flacco, A; Floquet, V; Fuchs, J; Gallegos, P; Giove, D; Green, J S; Green, S; Jones, B; Kirby, D; McKenna, P; Neely, D; Nuesslin, F; Prasad, R; Reinhardt, S; Roth, M; Schramm, U; Scott, G G; Ter-Avetisyan, S; Tolley, M; Turchetti, G; Wilkens, J J

    2014-05-01

    Suitable instrumentation for laser-accelerated proton (ion) beams is critical for development of integrated, laser-driven ion accelerator systems. Instrumentation aimed at beam diagnostics and control must be applied to the driving laser pulse, the laser-plasma that forms at the target and the emergent proton (ion) bunch in a correlated way to develop these novel accelerators. This report is a brief overview of established diagnostic techniques and new developments based on material presented at the first workshop on 'Instrumentation for Diagnostics and Control of Laser-accelerated Proton (Ion) Beams' in Abingdon, UK. It includes radiochromic film (RCF), image plates (IP), micro-channel plates (MCP), Thomson spectrometers, prompt inline scintillators, time and space-resolved interferometry (TASRI) and nuclear activation schemes. Repetition-rated instrumentation requirements for target metrology are also addressed.

  5. Industrial application of e-beam accelerators in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, JinKyu; Kim, Yuri; Jeong, Kwang-Young

    2012-07-01

    Electron Accelerators are the most common means of radiation processing, and they are used in diverse industries to enhance the physical and the chemical properties of materials and to reduce undesirable contaminants, such as pathogens or toxic by-products of materials. Fifteen thousand [1,500] electron accelerators are commercially used in the world, and this number is eight or nine times greater than the number of Gamma irradiation facilities. Electron accelerators are reliable and durable electrically-sourced equipment that can produce ionizing radiation when it is needed for a particular commercial use. Electron accelerators were introduced in Korea during the 1970s, firstly for research and later for insulated wire and cable production. At present, over sixty electron accelerators are in commercial use, providing several billion USD annually in Korean industries, mainly for purposes such as, productions of wires, cables, thermo-shrinkable materials, foam sheets, and coating, curing of materials, sterilization of medical products, environmental protection, and others. With the increasing needs in the automobile and electronics industries, applicable areas for electron accelerator will be extended greatly in the future.

  6. DTL cavity design and beam dynamics for a TAC linear proton accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliskan, A.; Yılmaz, M.

    2012-02-01

    A 30 mA drift tube linac (DTL) accelerator has been designed using SUPERFISH code in the energy range of 3-55 MeV in the framework of the Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) project. Optimization criteria in cavity design are effective shunt impedance (ZTT), transit-time factor and electrical breakdown limit. In geometrical optimization we have aimed to increase the energy gain in each RF gap of the DTL cells by maximizing the effective shunt impedance (ZTT) and the transit-time factor. Beam dynamics studies of the DTL accelerator have been performed using beam dynamics simulation codes of PATH and PARMILA. The results of both codes have been compared. In the beam dynamical studies, the rms values of beam emittance have been taken into account and a low emittance growth in both x and y directions has been attempted.

  7. A linear accelerator in the space: The beam experiment aboard rocket

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shea, P.G.; Butler, T.A.; Lynch, M.T.; McKenna, K.F.; Pongratz, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    On July 13, 1989 the BEAM experiment Aboard Rocket (BEAR) linear accelerator was successfully launched and operated in space. The flight demonstrated that a neutral hydrogen beam could be successfully propagated in an exoatmospheric environment. The accelerator, which was the result of an extensive collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory and industrial partners, was designed to produce a 10 mA (equivalent), 1 MeV neutral hydrogen beam in 50 {mu}s pulses at 5 Hz. The major components were a 30 keV H{sup {minus}} injector a 1 MeV radio frequency quadrupole, two 425 Mhz RF amplifiers, a gas cell neutralizer, beam optics, vacuum system and controls. The design was strongly constrained by the need for a lightweight rugged system that would survive the rigors of launch and operate autonomously. Following the flight the accelerator was recovered and operated again on the laboratory. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Ultralow emittance, multi-MeV proton beams from a laser virtual-cathode plasma accelerator.

    PubMed

    Cowan, T E; Fuchs, J; Ruhl, H; Kemp, A; Audebert, P; Roth, M; Stephens, R; Barton, I; Blazevic, A; Brambrink, E; Cobble, J; Fernández, J; Gauthier, J-C; Geissel, M; Hegelich, M; Kaae, J; Karsch, S; Le Sage, G P; Letzring, S; Manclossi, M; Meyroneinc, S; Newkirk, A; Pépin, H; Renard-LeGalloudec, N

    2004-05-21

    The laminarity of high-current multi-MeV proton beams produced by irradiating thin metallic foils with ultraintense lasers has been measured. For proton energies >10 MeV, the transverse and longitudinal emittance are, respectively, <0.004 mm mrad and <10(-4) eV s, i.e., at least 100-fold and may be as much as 10(4)-fold better than conventional accelerator beams. The fast acceleration being electrostatic from an initially cold surface, only collisions with the accelerating fast electrons appear to limit the beam laminarity. The ion beam source size is measured to be <15 microm (FWHM) for proton energies >10 MeV.

  9. Optimization of Electron Beam Transport for a 3-MeV DC Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, S.; Bhattacharjee, D.; Tiwari, R.; Sahu, G. K.; Thakur, K. B.; Mittal, K. C.; Gantayet, L. M.

    2012-11-01

    Transport of a low-current-density electron beam is simulated for an electrostatic accelerator system. Representative charged particles are uniformly assigned for emission from a circular indirectly-heated cathode of an axial electron gun. The beam is accelerated stepwise up to energy of 1 MeV electrostatically in a length-span of ~3 m using multiple accelerating electrodes in a column of ten tubes. The simulation is done under relativistic condition and the effect of the magnetic field induced by the cathode-heating filament current is taken into account. The beam diameter is tracked at different axial locations for various settings of the electrode potentials. Attempts have been made to examine and explain data on beam transport efficiency obtained from experimental observations.

  10. Beam Test of Multi-Bunch Energy Compensation System in the Accelerator Test Facility at KEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwagi, Shigeru; Hayano, Hitoshi; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Korhonen, Timo; Nakamura, Shogo; Naito, Takashi; Oide, Katsunobu; Takeda, Seishi; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji

    2004-08-01

    A beam test of the multi-bunch energy compensation system (ECS) was performed using the Δ F method with the 2856± 4.327 MHz accelerating structures in the accelerator test facility (ATF) at KEK. The 1.54 GeV S-band linac of the ATF was designed to accelerate a multi-bunch beam that consists of 20 bunches with 2.8 ns spacing. The multi-bunch beam with 2.0× 1010 electrons/bunch has an energy deviation of about 8.5% at the end of the linac due to transient beam loading without ECS. The ATF linac is the injector of the ATF damping ring (DR), whose energy acceptance is ± 0.5%. The beam loading compensation system is necessary in the ATF linac for the successful injection of multi-bunch into DR. The rf system of the linac consists of 8 regular rf units with the SLED system and 2 ECS rf units without the SLED system. The accelerating structures of the regular units are driven at 2856 MHz and the 2 ECS structures are operated with slightly different rf frequencies of 2856± 4.327 MHz. In the beam test, we have succeeded in compressing the multi-bunch energy spread within the energy acceptance of the DR using Δ F ECS. The principle of the beam loading compensation system of KEK-ATF and the experimental results are described in this paper.

  11. Suppressing beam-centroid motion in a long-pulse linear induction accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekdahl, Carl; Abeyta, E. O.; Archuleta, R.; Bender, H.; Broste, W.; Carlson, C.; Cook, G.; Frayer, D.; Harrison, J.; Hughes, T.; Johnson, J.; Jacquez, E.; McCuistian, B. Trent; Montoya, N.; Nath, S.; Nielsen, K.; Rose, C.; Schulze, M.; Smith, H. V.; Thoma, C.; Tom, C. Y.

    2011-12-01

    The second axis of the dual-axis radiography of hydrodynamic testing (DARHT) facility produces up to four radiographs within an interval of 1.6μs. It does this by slicing four micropulses out of a 2-μs long electron beam pulse and focusing them onto a bremsstrahlung converter target. The 1.8-kA beam pulse is created by a dispenser cathode diode and accelerated to more than 16 MeV by the unique DARHT Axis-II linear induction accelerator (LIA). Beam motion in the accelerator would be a problem for multipulse flash radiography. High-frequency motion, such as from beam-breakup (BBU) instability, would blur the individual spots. Low-frequency motion, such as produced by pulsed-power variation, would produce spot-to-spot differences. In this article, we describe these sources of beam motion, and the measures we have taken to minimize it. Using the methods discussed, we have reduced beam motion at the accelerator exit to less than 2% of the beam envelope radius for the high-frequency BBU, and less than 1/3 of the envelope radius for the low-frequency sweep.

  12. An Electron-Ion Collider at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Kees de Jager; Lia Merminga; Ya. Derbenev

    2002-10-01

    Electron-ion colliders with a center of mass energy between 15 and 100 GeV, a luminosity of at least 10{sup 33}cm{sup -1}s{sup -1}, and a polarization of both beams at or above 80% have been proposed for future studies of hadronic structure. The scheme proposed here would accelerate the electron beam using the CEBAF recirculating linac with energy recovery. If all accelerating structures presently installed in the CEBAF tunnel are replaced by ones with a {approx}20 MV/m gradient, then a single recirculation results in an electron beam energy of about 5 GeV. After colliding with protons/light ions circulating in a figure-of-eight storage ring (for flexibility of spin manipulation) at an energy of up to 100 GeV, the electrons are re-injected into the CEBAF accelerator for deceleration and energy recovery. In this report several lay-out options and their respective feasibilities will be presented and discussed, together with parameters which would provide a luminosity of up to 1 x 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The feasibility of combining such a collider at a center-of-mass energy [sq rt] s of up to 43 GeV with a fixed target facility of 25 GeV is also explored.

  13. Generation of heavy ion beams using femtosecond laser pulses in the target normal sheath acceleration and radiation pressure acceleration regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, G. M.; McGuffey, C.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, K.; Beg, F. N.

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical study of heavy ion acceleration from sub-micron gold foils irradiated by a short pulse laser is presented. Using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, the time history of the laser pulse is examined in order to get insight into the laser energy deposition and ion acceleration process. For laser pulses with intensity 3 × 10 21 W / cm 2 , duration 32 fs, focal spot size 5 μm, and energy 27 J, the calculated reflection, transmission, and coupling coefficients from a 20 nm foil are 80%, 5%, and 15%, respectively. The conversion efficiency into gold ions is 8%. Two highly collimated counter-propagating ion beams have been identified. The forward accelerated gold ions have average and maximum charge-to-mass ratio of 0.25 and 0.3, respectively, maximum normalized energy 25 MeV/nucleon, and flux 2 × 10 11 ions / sr . An analytical model was used to determine a range of foil thicknesses suitable for acceleration of gold ions in the radiation pressure acceleration regime and the onset of the target normal sheath acceleration regime. The numerical simulations and analytical model point to at least four technical challenges hindering the heavy ion acceleration: low charge-to-mass ratio, limited number of ions amenable to acceleration, delayed acceleration, and high reflectivity of the plasma. Finally, a regime suitable for heavy ion acceleration has been identified in an alternative approach by analyzing the energy absorption and distribution among participating species and scaling of conversion efficiency, maximum energy, and flux with laser intensity.

  14. Accelerator systems and instrumentation for the NuMI neutrino beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwaska, Robert Miles

    The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) neutrino beam facility began operating at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in 2005. NuMI produces an intense, muon-neutrino beam to a number of experiments. Fore most of these experiments is MINOS---the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search---that uses two neutrino detectors in the beam, one at Fermilab and one in northern Minnesota, to investigate the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations. NuMI is a conventional, horn-focused neutrino beam. It is designed to accept a 400 kW, 120 GeV proton beam from the Fermilab Main Injector accelerator. The proton beam is steered onto a target, producing a secondary beam of mesons which are focused into a long evacuated volume where they decay to muons and neutrinos. Pulsed toroidal magnets (horns) focus an adjustable meson momentum range. Design of the beamline and its components is challenged by the 400 kW average proton beam power. To achieve such high proton power, the Fermilab Main Injector (MI) must store and accelerate ˜ 4x1013 protons per acceleration cycle. This requires the MI to be loaded with 6 or more batches of protons from the 8 GeV Booster accelerator. Such multiple-batch injection involves a synchronization of the two machines not previously required by the Fermilab accelerators. In this dissertation, we investigate timing errors that can arise between the two accelerators, and a feedback system which enables multiple Booster transfers into the Main Injector without significant loss of beam. Using this method of synchronous transfer, the Main Injector has delivered as many as 3x1013 protons per pulse to the NuMI beam. The instrumentation to assess the quality of the neutrino beam includes arrays of radiation-tolerant ionization chambers downstream of the decay volume. These arrays detect the remnant hadrons and tertiary muons produced with the neutrinos. This thesis discusses measurements using the arrays, including diagnostics of potential beam errors and

  15. Design, fabrication and first beam tests of the C-band RF acceleration unit at SINAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Wencheng; Gu, Qiang; Sheng, Xing; Wang, Chaopeng; Tong, Dechun; Chen, Lifang; Zhong, Shaopeng; Tan, Jianhao; Lin, Guoqiang; Chen, Zhihao; Zhao, Zhentang

    2016-07-01

    C-band RF acceleration is a crucial technology for the compact Free Electron Laser (FEL) facility at the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. A project focusing on C-band RF acceleration technology was launched in 2008, based on high-gradient accelerating structures powered by klystron and pulse compressor units. The target accelerating gradient is 40 MV/m or higher. Recently one prototype of C-band RF unit, consisting of a 1.8 m accelerating structure and a klystron with a TE0115 mode pulse compressor, has been tested with high-power and electron beam. Stable operation at 40 MV/m was demonstrated and, 50 MV/m approached by the end of the test. This paper introduces the C-band R&D program at SINAP and presents the experiment results of high-power and beam tests.

  16. Feedback Systems for Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-12

    Feedback systems are essential for stable operation of a linear collider, providing a cost-effective method for relaxing tight tolerances. In the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), feedback controls beam parameters such as trajectory, energy, and intensity throughout the accelerator. A novel dithering optimization system which adjusts final focus parameters to maximize luminosity contributed to achieving record performance in the 1997-98 run. Performance limitations of the steering feedback have been investigated, and improvements have been made. For the Next Linear Collider (NLC), extensive feedback systems are planned as an integral part of the design. Feedback requirements for JLC (the Japanese Linear Collider) are essentially identical to NLC; some of the TESLA requirements are similar but there are significant differences. For NLC, algorithms which incorporate improvements upon the SLC implementation are being prototyped. Specialized systems for the damping rings, rf and interaction point will operate at high bandwidth and fast response. To correct for the motion of individual bunches within a train, both feedforward and feedback systems are planned. SLC experience has shown that feedback systems are an invaluable operational tool for decoupling systems, allowing precision tuning, and providing pulse-to-pulse diagnostics. Feedback systems for the NLC will incorporate the key SLC features and the benefits of advancing technologies.

  17. The beat in laser-accelerated ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schnürer, M.; Abicht, F.; Bränzel, J.; Koschitzki, Ch.; Andreev, A. A.; Platonov, K. Yu.; Priebe, G.; Sandner, W.

    2013-10-15

    Regular modulation in the ion velocity distribution becomes detectable if intense femtosecond laser pulses with very high temporal contrast are used for target normal sheath acceleration of ions. Analytical and numerical analysis of the experimental observation associates the modulation with the half-cycle of the driving laser field period. In processes like ion acceleration, the collective and laser-frequency determined electron dynamics creates strong fields in plasma to accelerate the ions. Even the oscillatory motion of electrons and its influence on the acceleration field can dominate over smoothing effects in plasma if a high temporal contrast of the driving laser pulse is given. Acceleration parameters can be directly concluded out of the experimentally observed modulation period in ion velocity spectra. The appearance of the phenomenon at a temporal contrast of ten orders between the intensity of the pulse peak and the spontaneous amplified emission background as well as remaining intensity wings at picosecond time-scale might trigger further parameter studies with even higher contrast.

  18. Concepts for the magnetic design of the MITICA neutral beam test facility ion accelerator.

    PubMed

    Chitarin, G; Agostinetti, P; Marconato, N; Marcuzzi, D; Sartori, E; Serianni, G; Sonato, P

    2012-02-01

    The megavolt ITER injector concept advancement neutral injector test facility will be constituted by a RF-driven negative ion source and by an electrostatic Accelerator, designed to produce a negative Ion with a specific energy up to 1 MeV. The beam is then neutralized in order to obtain a focused 17 MW neutral beam. The magnetic configuration inside the accelerator is of crucial importance for the achievement of a good beam efficiency, with the early deflection of the co-extracted and stripped electrons, and also of the required beam optic quality, with the correction of undesired ion beamlet deflections. Several alternative magnetic design concepts have been considered, comparing in detail the magnetic and beam optics simulation results, evidencing the advantages and drawbacks of each solution both from the physics and engineering point of view.

  19. Concepts for the magnetic design of the MITICA neutral beam test facility ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Chitarin, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Marconato, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.

    2012-02-15

    The megavolt ITER injector concept advancement neutral injector test facility will be constituted by a RF-driven negative ion source and by an electrostatic Accelerator, designed to produce a negative Ion with a specific energy up to 1 MeV. The beam is then neutralized in order to obtain a focused 17 MW neutral beam. The magnetic configuration inside the accelerator is of crucial importance for the achievement of a good beam efficiency, with the early deflection of the co-extracted and stripped electrons, and also of the required beam optic quality, with the correction of undesired ion beamlet deflections. Several alternative magnetic design concepts have been considered, comparing in detail the magnetic and beam optics simulation results, evidencing the advantages and drawbacks of each solution both from the physics and engineering point of view.

  20. Betatron radiation based diagnostics for plasma wakefield accelerated electron beams at the SPARC_LAB test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpakov, V.; Anania, M. P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Curcio, A.; Dabagov, S.; Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F.; Marocchino, A.; Paroli, B.; Pompili, R.; Rossi, A. R.; Zigler, A.

    2016-09-01

    Recent progress with wake-field acceleration has shown a great potential in providing high gradient acceleration fields, while the quality of the beams remains relatively poor. Precise knowledge of the beam size at the exit from the plasma and matching conditions for the externally injected beams are the key for improvement of beam quality. Betatron radiation emitted by the beam during acceleration in the plasma is a powerful tool for the transverse beam size measurement, being also non-intercepting. In this work we report on the technical solutions chosen at SPARC_LAB for such diagnostics tool, along with expected parameters of betatron radiation.