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Sample records for colliery spoil heaps

  1. The copper spoil heap Knappenberg, Austria, as a model for metal habitats - Vegetation, substrate and contamination.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Weiss, Yasmin S; Sassmann, Stefan; Steinhauser, Georg; Hofhansl, Florian; Baumann, Nils; Lichtscheidl, Irene K; Lang, Ingeborg

    2016-09-01

    Historic mining in the Eastern Alps has left us with a legacy of numerous spoil heaps hosting specific, metal tolerant vegetation. Such habitats are characterized by elevated concentrations of toxic elements but also by high irradiation, a poorly developed substrate or extreme pH of the soil. This study investigates the distribution of vascular plants, mosses and lichens on a copper spoil heap on the ore bearing Knappenberg formed by Prebichl Layers and Werfener Schist in Lower Austria. It serves as a model for discriminating between various ecological traits and their effects on vegetation. Five distinct clusters were distinguished: (1) The bare, metal rich Central Spoil Heap was only colonised by highly resistant specialists. (2) The Northern and (3) Southern Peripheries contained less copper; the contrasting vegetation was best explained by the different microclimate. (4) A forest over acidic bedrock hosted a vegetation overlapping with the periphery of the spoil heap. (5) A forest over calcareous bedrock was similar to the spoil heap with regard to pH and humus content but hosted a vegetation differing strongly to all other habitats. Among the multiple toxic elements at the spoil heap, only Cu seems to exert a crucial influence on the vegetation pattern. Besides metal concentrations, irradiation, humidity, humus, pH and grain size distribution are important for the establishment of a metal tolerant vegetation. The difference between the species poor Northern and the diverse Southern Periphery can be explained by the microclimate rather than by the substrate. All plant species penetrating from the forest into the periphery of the spoil heap originate from the acidic but not from the calcareous bedrock.

  2. Remediation of Acid Generating Colliery Spoil Using Steel Slag - Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghataora, Gurmel S.; Ghazireh, Nizar; Hall, Nigel

    2015-06-01

    One of the legacies of the coal mining industry is the existence of numerous colliery spoil mounds. Run-off waters from some of these mounds result in oxidation of sulphur compounds causing pH to drop to perhaps as low as 2.5. At this pH, mobility for metals increases and it results in destruction of both flora and fauna. In order to reduce acidity, a number of solutions have been investigated with varying degree of success. A recent study to reduce acidity in spoil run-off water included the use of Basic Oxygen Steel slag. Its slow release of lime resulted in longer term remediation compared with other techniques. In addition to this, steel slag contains elements which are essential for plant growth and can be regarded as a weak fertiliser. This was substantiated in two field trials, which had the aim of not only remediating acidity from two different types of colliery spoils, but also to develop a composition that supports grass growth. The objectives were achieved at both sites and some of the results of over 5000 chemical tests conducted during these studies are reported in this paper.

  3. Vegetation and soil condition development on spoil heaps in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District

    SciTech Connect

    Stalmachova, B.; Matysek, D.

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses both soil and vegetation development on mine spoil heaps of different age, as well as some environmental factors that are involved. The course of natural plant succession fired and unfired mine spoil heaps and the dominant species of several developmental stages (plant communities) are examined. Mainly, the exposure of slopes and the surface temperature are considered in studying the vegetation of spoil heaps. Anemochoral terophytes and hemicryptophytes dominate on south to west slopes in the first stages of development; development of vegetation on north and east slopes is different. Anemochoral phanerophytes dominate in the first developmental stages. Later, the plant cover includes high herbs and grasses, and the tree layer exhibits zoochoral tree species. The final stage on the spoil heaps in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District is probably the Betulo-Quercetum Tx. 1937 community with complete stratification. The study area, an underground mining area in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District, lies in the south part of the Silesian Basin. From a phytogeographical point of view, this area is identified as the Ostrava basin--the 83rd district of the Mesophyticum capraticum--phytogeographical province, with the flora of the upper hill country belt (gradus supracollinus).

  4. Development of Soil Characteristics and Plant Communities On Reclaimed and Unreclaimed Spoil Heaps After Coal Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudlín, Ondřej; Řehák, Zdeněk; Cudlín, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare soil characteristics, plant communities and the rate of selected ecosystem function performance on reclaimed and unreclaimed plots (left for spontaneous succession) of different age on spoil heaps. Twelve spoil heaps (three circle plots of radius 12.5 m) near the town Kladno in north-west direction from Prague, created after deep coal mining, were compared. Five mixed soil samples from organo-mineral horizons in each plot were analysed for total content of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, active soil pH (pHH2O) was determined. Plant diversity was determined by vegetation releves. The biodiversity value of the habitat according to the Habitat Valuation Method was assessed and the rate of evapotranspiration function by the Method of Valuation Functions and Services of Ecosystems in the Czech Republic were determined. The higher organo-mineral layers and higher amount of total nitrogen content were found on the older reclaimed and unreclaimed plots than in younger plots. The number of plant species and the total contents of carbon and nitrogen were significantly higher at the unreclaimed plots compared to reclaimed plots. The biodiversity values and evapotranspiration function rate were also higher on unreclaimed plots. From this perspective, it is possible to recommend using of spontaneous succession, together with routine reclamation methods to restore habitats after coal mining. Despite the relatively high age of vegetation in some of selected plots (90 years), both the reclaimed and unreclaimed plots have not reached the stage of potential vegetation near to natural climax. Slow development of vegetation was probably due to unsuitable substrate of spoil heaps and a lack of plant and tree species of natural forest habitats in this area. However, it is probable that vegetation communities on observed spoil heaps in both type of management (reclaimed and unreclaimed) will achieve the stage of natural climax and they

  5. Breeding habitat of sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus on spoil heaps after coal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šálek, Miroslav; Hendrychová, Markéta; Řehoř, Michal

    2010-03-01

    Natural succession of spoil heaps after brown coal mining leads to the development of rich plant and invertebrate communities and therefore has been considered a proper alternative to conventional reclamation practice. Little is known, however, about the effects of these alternative approaches on vertebrate predators. This study analyses nest-site choice of the sparrowhawk, Accipiter nisus on afforested spoil heaps in the brown coal basin of north-west Bohemia, Czech Republic. Nest places of sparrowhawks, numbers of their main prey (small birds) and habitat attributes were investigated in 2007 and 2008 on 28 individual spoil heaps that were either reclaimed by silviculture or spontaneously afforested. Our results revealed preferences of breeding sparrowhawks for spontaneously developed birch growths with diverse mosaics of tree clumps, open patches and edge structures, all providing for opportunities to hunt. In addition, the proximity of large forests positively influenced nest-site choice of sparrowhawks. Although small birds were more abundant on Successions than Reclamations, our results did not suggest that numbers of this main prey were of higher importance for the sparrowhawks than habitat components of prey availability. These results highlight the importance of spontaneous succession as a rehabilitation alternative in post-mining landscapes.

  6. Slope aspect affects geomorphic dynamics of coal mining spoil heaps in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, Jan; Vermeersch, Dominiek

    2010-11-01

    After the abandonment of coal mining in Belgium in the 1960s-1980s, many coal tips have been left to themselves. Increasingly, these coal tips are regarded as socio-cultural heritage and protected for their environmental value. This research analyses the spatial distribution of the main geomorphic processes (sheet and rill erosion, landsliding, rock fragment movement and root throw) occurring on coal tips in Belgium, through mapping of the processes and their causal factors. Five spoil heaps spread over the major coal basins were studied in detail. The spoil heaps were subdivided in homogeneous land units, especially with regard to slope gradient, vegetation cover and slope aspect. Qualitative and quantitative observations were done on processes and potential causal factors. Regressions showed that generally, the expression of slope processes on the studied coal tips is (1) strongly dependent on westerly aspect of the slopes, (2) independent of slope gradient (which presents a narrow range), (3) impeded by grass cover, and (4) not fully predictable due to variability in type and age of dumped mine spoil.

  7. Potential of woody plants from a Tonglushan ancient copper spoil heap for phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil(1).

    PubMed

    Kang, Wei; Bao, Jianguo; Zheng, Jin; Xu, Fen; Wang, Liuming

    2016-03-25

    Fast-growing metal-accumulating woody plants are considered potential candidates for phytoremediation of metals. Tonglushan mining, one of the biggest Cu production bases in China, presents an important source of the pollution of environment. The sample was collected at Tonglushan ancient copper spoil heap. The aims were to measure the content of heavy metal in the soil and woody plants and to elucidate the phytoremediation potential of the plants. The result showed the soil Cu, Cd and Pb were the main contamination, the mean contents of which were 3166.73 mg/kg, 3.66 mg/kg and 137.06 mg/kg, respectively, belonged to severe contamination. 14 species from 14 genera of 13 families were collected and investigated, except for Ligutrums lucidum, the other 13 woody plants species were newly recorded in this area. In addition, to assess the ability of metal accumulation of these trees, we proposed enrichment index. Data suggested that Platanus × acerilolia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ligutrums lucidum, Viburnum awabuk, Firminan simplex, Robina pseudoacacial, Melia azedarach and Osmanthus fragrans exhibited high accumulated capacity and strong tolerance to heavy metals. Therefore, Platanus × acerilolia and Broussonetia papyrifera can be planted in Pb contaminated areas; Viburnum awabuki, Firminan simplex, Robina pseudoacacial and Melia azedarach are the suitable trees for Cd contaminated areas; Viburnum awabuki, Melia azedarach, Ligutrums lucidum, Firminan simplex, Osmanthus fragrans and Robina pseudoacacial are appropriate to Cu, Pb and Cd multi-metal contaminated areas.

  8. Assessment of Robinia pseudoacacia cultivations as a restoration strategy for reclaimed mine spoil heaps.

    PubMed

    Vlachodimos, Kostas; Papatheodorou, Efimia M; Diamantopoulos, John; Monokrousos, Nikolaos

    2013-08-01

    Reforestation with black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is considered a successful technique that is often used for the reclamation of open-cast mine areas. An alternative reclamation technique could be the natural regeneration of vegetation with spontaneous grass species. In this study, we compared the concentrations of chemical and biochemical variables in soil samples taken under black locust canopy to those from sites covered by spontaneous grass vegetation (control samples) in a time sequence of spoil deposition (0-10 years), in order to assess which of the two reclamation techniques yields higher soil quality. Soil quality refers here to the ability of soils to function ecologically. This has a special interest since the main question for the restored soils is their capacity to perform a range of ecological functions under stress or disturbance. Furthermore, we aimed at identifying the effect of vegetation type on soil ecological succession. The effect of vegetation type on primary succession becomes apparent after 2 years of reclamation. R. pseudoacacia as a nitrogen-fixing plant enriched soil with organic and inorganic nitrogen and organic matter to a greater extent than the natural grasses. It also increased the amount of soil microbial biomass and the activity of alkaline phosphatase. However, the fact that black locust failed to enhance dehydrogenase activity and actually decreased the activity of urease, activities that represent specialized niche functions and therefore, are more vulnerable to stress or disturbance, suggests that the development of an indigenous grass community in combination with organic supplements might often be more appropriate for the reclamation of similar kinds of mine areas.

  9. Relaxed heaps

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, J.R. ); Gabow, H.N.; Shrairman, R. ); Tarjan, R.E. )

    1988-11-01

    The relaxed heap is a priority queue data structure that achieves the same amortized time bounds as the Fibonacci heap - a sequence of m decrease key and n delete min operations takes time O(m + n log n). A variant of relaxed heaps achieves similar bounds in the worst case - O(1) time for decrease key and O(log n) for delete min. Relaxed heaps give a processor-efficient parallel implementation of Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm, and hence other algorithms in network optimization. A relaxed heap is a type of binomial queue that allows heap order to be violated.

  10. Persistent heap Management library

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-17

    PERM is a C library for persistent heap management and is intended for use with a dynamic-memory allocator (e.g. malloc, free). The PERM memory allocator replaces the standard C dynamic memory allocation functions with compatible versions that provide persistent memory to application programs. Memory allocated with the PERM allocatory will persist between program invocations after a call to a checkpoint function. This function essentially saves the state of the heap and registered global variables to a file which may reside in flash memory or other node local storage. A few other functions are also provided by the library to manage checkpoint files. Global variables in an application can be marked persistent and be included in a checkpoint by using a compiler attribute defined as PERM. The PERM checkpoint methof is not dependent on the programming model ans works with distributed memory or shared memory programs.

  11. Seasonal comparison of trace metal residues in white-footed mice and soil from colliery stripmines

    SciTech Connect

    Hausbeck, J.S.; Husby, M.P.; McBee, K.

    1994-12-31

    Mine tailings of abandoned coal stripmines in Oklahoma and other regions of the US have been shown to contain slightly elevated levels of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). Metalliferous stripmine spoil has been found to contain much higher levels of Cu and Zn than colliery stripmines, and many other trace metals including cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) among others. Although levels of trace metal contamination were lower for coal stripmines, research has shown small mammals exposed to low levels of trace metals may bioaccumulate trace metals. This study intended to determine the levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in liver, kidney, and bone tissues of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and examine the variance of these levels among sites and seasons. Preliminary results of soil analysis have indicated that mice collected from stripmine sites were exposed to slightly elevated levels of Zn and Cd in stripmine spoil collected from Okmulgee Co., OK. Kidney and liver tissues from mice collected at stripmine sites within this county have shown significantly greater levels of Cd and Zn than tissues collected from reference mice. Significant seasonal variation in renal and hepatic Zn concentrations was observed and possibly was related to a change in diet or reproductive activity.

  12. Safe and Efficient Persistent Heaps.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    Safe and Efficient Persistent Heaps Scott M. Nettles December 1995 CMU-CS-95-225 KSS© 1 «S’S SO- 1 -""-«« -’ i , School of Computer...under grant F33615-93- 1 -1330. The US Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Government purposes, notwithstanding any...Contents I Design and Implementation 1 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Safety 4 1.1.1 Transactions 5 1.1.2 Garbage Collection 6 1.1.3 Orthogonal

  13. Interaction of plant and earthworm during primary succession in heaps after coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roubíčková, Alena; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    These results of field manipulation experiment show that earthworms can remarkably influence vegetation succession on spoil heaps, namely promoting grasses and late succession species. This is in agreement with concurrent appearance of earthworms and some plant species typical for late-succession communities of meadows and forests aren't purely coincidental. On the other hand, facilitation of soil conditions by plant communities during succession is an important factor in earthworm distribution on the spoil heaps; earthworms showed a low survival on sites with sparse vegetation cover and thin litter layer, which means that their occurrence in certain stages of succession isn't determined only by migration abilities or passive dispersal. More field experiments are needed to test if earthworms could be used in directed succession management practices to speed up the natural rate of succession. Preliminary results from an experiment with introduction earthworms to a 20- year old, earthworm-free site indicate that colonization of this site from a single deposition of about 100 specimen of epigeic and 100 endogeic earthworms is slow and not very efficient. Results show that interaction between earthworm and vegetation are important in ecosystem development in post mining sites.

  14. Phytoremediation of spoil coal dumps in Western Donbass (Ukraine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimkina, Iryna; Kharytonov, Mykola; Wiche, Oliver; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2017-04-01

    At the moment, in Ukraine about 150 thousand hectares of fertile land are occupied by spoil dumps. Moreover, this figure increases every year. According to the technology used about 1500 m3 of adjacent stratum is dumped at the surface per every 1000 tons of coal mined. Apart from land amortization, waste dumps drastically change the natural landscape and pollute air, soil and water sources as the result of water and wind erosion, as well as self-ignition processes. A serious concern exists with respect to the Western Donbass coal mining region in Ukraine, where the coal extraction is made by the subsurface way and solid wastes are represented by both spoil dumps and wastes after coal processing. Sulphides, mostly pyrite (up to 4% of waste material), are widely distributed in the waste heaps freshly removed due to coal mining in Western Donbass.The oxidation of pyrite with the presence of oxygen and water is accompanied by a sharp drop in the pH from the surface layer to the spoil dumps(from 5.2-6.2 to 3.9-4.2 in soil substrates with chernozen and from 8.3-8.4 to 6.7-7.2 in soil substrates with red-brown clay, stabilizing in dump material in both cases at 2.9-3.2). Low pH generates the transformation of a number of toxic metals and other elementspresent in waste rock (e.g. Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Mo, Co, As, Cd, Bi, Pb, U) into mobile forms. To stabilize and reduce metal mobility the most resistant plants that occur naturally in specified ecosystems can be used. On coal spoil dumpsin Western Donbas the dominant species are Bromopsis inermis, subdominant Artemisia austriaca; widespread are also Festucas pp., Lathyrus tuberosus, Inula sp., Calamagrostis epigeios, Lotus ucrainicus, and Vicias pp. Identification of plants tolerant to target metals is a key issue in phytotechnology for soil restoration. It is hypothesized that naturally occurring plants growing on coal spoil dumps can be candidates for phytostabilization, phytoextraction (phytoaccumulation) and phytomining

  15. Optimized Live Heap Bound Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Optimized Live Heap Bound Analysis Leena Unnikrishnan ∗ Scott D. Stoller∗ Yanhong A. Liu∗ Abstract This paper describes a general approach for...insertion sort selection sort merge sort n S B Bopt n S B Bopt n S B Bopt n S B Bopt 101 1.0 m 0 1.0 m 101 1.0 m 1.0 M 9.0 m 101 0 37.3 s 10.0 m 101 2.0 m 0.9...s 0.7 s 102 0.1 s 0.3 s 0.1 s 102 0.1 s 5.1 s 102 0.2 s 5.0 s 102 40.0 m 103 10.7 s 3.5 M 11.9 s 103 12.8 s 1.5 H 103 27.3 s 1.5 H 103 0.7 s binomial

  16. A cluster of cases of lymphoma in an underground colliery.

    PubMed

    Corbett, S; O'Neill, B J

    1988-08-15

    An apparent occupational outbreak of cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among the employees of an underground colliery on the NSW south coast has been investigated. The employment register of the mine recorded that 1004 men had worked at the colliery from its opening in 1946 until December 31, 1986. In this period, this cohort of men had amassed 18,818 person-years. A person-years analysis of the mortality and morbidity of cancer showed a standardized incidence ratio for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of 3.27 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-6.74) and for Hodgkin's disease of 7.27 (95% CI, 1.98-18.59). All of the cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were diagnosed after 1978. An excess of cases of cancer of the salivary gland also was present (standardized incidence ratio, 10.00; 95% CI, 1.21-36.10). The method of coal extraction, the geology and chemistry of the coal-seams that were mined and the general characteristics of the work-force at the colliery are similar to those at other collieries in the region. Furthermore, an exhaustive work-place environmental study at the colliery has failed to identify any plausible carcinogenic agent to which the findings of this study can be attributed. Coal-miners previously have not been shown to be at a greater risk of developing lymphoma or related malignancies, and the region in which the mine is located has lower prevalence rates of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease than does New South Wales as a whole.

  17. The role of topographic structure and soil macrofauna presence at spoil heaps during spontaneous succession.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walmsley, Alena; Vachová, Pavla; Vach, Marek

    2016-04-01

    This research was investigating whether topographic features, which determine soil nutrient and moisture distribution, in combination with soil fauna (wireworm and earthworm) presence, affect plant community composition at a spontaneously revegetated post mining area with an undulating surface. Two sites of different age with 3 types of topographic features were selected, soil moisture and nutrient content were measured, plant community composition and soil macrofauna community was sampled at each position. Wireworms were present at all positions and were most abundant at bottoms of waves at the younger site; their presence was correlated with several plant species, but the direction of the interaction isn't clear. Earthworms were only present at the older site and had highest abundance at flat sections. Earthworm presence affected the amount of nitrogen in soil - the most nitrogen content was at the site with highest earthworm density and was followed by higher diversity of plant community. The plant community composition was generally correlated with plant available nutrient content - especially P and N. We infer that topographic features affect nutrient and soil fauna distribution, which consequently influences plant community composition.

  18. Development of bacterial community during spontaneous succession on spoil heaps after brown coal mining.

    PubMed

    Urbanová, Michaela; Kopecký, Jan; Valášková, Vendula; Ságová-Marečková, Markéta; Elhottová, Dana; Kyselková, Martina; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Baldrian, Petr

    2011-10-01

    Changes in the abundance of bacteria and fungi and in the composition of bacterial communities during primary succession were investigated in a brown coal mine deposit area near Sokolov, the Czech Republic, using phospholipid fatty acids analysis, microarray and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The study considered a chronosequence of sites undergoing spontaneous succession: 6-, 12-, 21- and 45-year-old and a 21-year-old site revegetated with Alnus glutinosa. During succession, organic carbon and the total nitrogen content increased while the pH and the C/N ratio decreased. Microbial biomass and bacterial diversity increased until 21 years and decreased later; bacteria dominated over fungi in the initial and late phases of succession. Bacterial community composition of the 6-year-old site with no vegetation cover largely differed from the older sites, especially by a higher content of Gammaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and some Alphaproteobacteria. Bacteria belonging to the genera Acidithiobacillus, Thiobacillus and related taxa, the CO(2) and N(2) fixers, dominated the community at this site. In the later phases, bacterial community development seemed to reflect more the changes in soil nutrient content and pH than vegetation with a decrease of Actinobacteria and an increase of Acidobacteria. The site revegetated with A. glutinosa resembled the 45-year-old primary succession site and exhibited an even lower pH and C/N ratio, indicating that recultivation is able to accelerate soil development.

  19. Norman Stuart heaps 1928”1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, David E.

    Dr. Norman Heaps died on June 26, 1986, in a hospital near his native town of Prescot, U.K., a suburb of Liverpool, after a long illness punctuated by bouts of painful medical treatment for lung cancer. He was the pioneer in Britain of the numerical modeling of tides and storm surges in shelf seas.He graduated at the University of Liverpool in 1949 with honors in mathematics with subsidiary physics and oceanography. Many years later the same university awarded him a doctorate on the basis of his published work. Norman's first 10 postgraduate years were spent as mathematician in the aircraft industry, but he never felt at home in the industrial world and sought a more academic career. While lecturing at the Royal College of Advanced Technology at Salford, Manchester (now the University of Salford), he struck a lasting friendship with Clifford Mortimer, FRS, then director of the Freshwater Biological Association laboratory at Lake Windermere, who first interested Heaps in the problem of computing the natural seiche oscillations of that lake. The use of electronic computers was still in its infancy, but Heaps saw that the equations of internal oscillations in such a lake could be solved numerically by methods that he had developed in the theory of wing structures. Heaps worked up a Master's thesis on this problem during his summer vacations, and he later worked with Mortimer at the University of Wisconsin on a more advanced scheme involving the coupled oscillations of Green Bay and Lake Michigan.

  20. Solid speciation and availability of nickel and chromium in Ni mining spoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raous, Sophie; Garnier, Jérémie; Sterckeman, Thibaul; Echevarria, Guillaume; Becquer, Thierry; Thomas, Fabien

    2010-05-01

    Nickel mining of ultramafic laterites generates different types of wastes, topsoils and ores that are too poor in Ni to be currently processed. These are mixed and stored on heaps which could be a potential source of Ni and Cr pollution. Chemical reactivity of the main metal bearing phases present in the mining spoils of Goiás (Brasil) was investigated. Principally a silicated 'saprolite' material and a Fe-oxide rich limonitic material were isolated from the wastes. Their total Ni and Cr content are high, respectively for Ni and Cr : 7,170 and 54,970 mg kg-1 in limonite and 12,200 and 12,650 mg kg-1 in saprolite. The main metal-bearing minerals, identified and localized using XRD, TEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy and Mossbaüer spectrometry are well-crystallized minerals: goethite (75%), hematite (13%) and chromite in limonite and ferruginous smectite, talc and chromite in saprolite. Single and sequential extractions showed that the amounts of 1M KCl exchangeable Ni and Cr reached respectively 7.1% and 0.03% of total contents in saprolite. Moreover, Cr(VI) extraction by KH2PO4 showed that more than 2% (980 mg kg-1) of total Cr was under this labile toxic form in limonite. This study allowed us to determine the main reactions controlling the Ni and Cr mobility in the spoils i.e. Ni2+ cationic exchange in saprolitic spoil and CrO32- surface complexation in limonitic spoil. This study allowed us to demonstrate the need of chemical rehabilitation of mining wastes in order to avoid the dispersion of the high contents of Ni and Cr available. It constitutes the system definition needed to predict the Cr and Ni mobility in ultramafic mining spoils.

  1. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.

    1990-09-01

    The objective of this part of the study is to investigate the oxidation-reduction (redox) environment that favor the release of selenium from coal mine spoils. It is anticipated that the study will help answer critical questions as to the form, solubility, and mobility of selenium from the spoil site to the surrounding environment. This investigation will evaluate the conditions which favor the speciation of selenium from coal mine spoils as affected by changes in the oxidation states of selenium.

  2. Effects of colliery waste on littoral communities in north-east England.

    PubMed

    Hyslop, B T; Davies, M S; Arthur, W; Gazey, N J; Holroyd, S

    1997-01-01

    Colliery waste input has a detrimental effect on the species richness and alpha diversity of sandy and rocky shore communities in north-east England. On sandy shores at the shore levels Chart Datum (CD) + 1.2 to 1.5 m (low shore) and CD + 2.7 to 3.0 m (mid-shore), a maximum of two species of macroinvertebrates per shore level was found at sites heavily contaminated by colliery waste input. In contrast, typically about eight species were found at uncontaminated shores. At the shore level CD + 4.2 to 4.5 m (high shore), the species richness and diversity of fauna were not detectably affected by colliery waste input. On rocky shores that were uncontaminated, 12-15 species of macroalgae were found, whereas only five to eight species were found at contaminated shores. The absentees were usually ephemeral, early successional species. Macroalgal biomass, although less at contaminated shores, showed no significant relationship with colliery waste input. However, the alpha diversity of animal communities on rocky shores was, on occasions, significantly increased where colliery waste inputs occurred. The physical properties of colliery waste are likely to be the reason for the effects observed on both sandy and rocky shores, since many of the leachable chemicals in colliery waste are leached during the period that it spends on the sea bed before accumulating in the intertidal zone.

  3. Microbial diversity in uranium mine waste heaps.

    PubMed

    Schippers, A; Hallmann, R; Wentzien, S; Sand, W

    1995-08-01

    Two different uranium mine waste heaps near Ronneburg, Thuringia, Germany, which contain the remains of the activity of the former uranium-mining Soviet-East German company Wismut AG, were analyzed for the occurrence of lithotrophic and chemoorganotropic leach bacteria. A total of 162 ore samples were taken up to a depth of 5 m. Cell counts of ferrous iron-, sulfur-, sulfur compound-, ammonia-, and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were determined quantitatively by the most-probable-number technique. Sulfate-, nitrate-, ferric iron-, and manganese-reducing bacteria were also detected. In addition, the metabolic activity of sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria was measured by microcalorimetry. Generally, all microorganisms mentioned above were detectable in the heaps. Aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms thrived up to a depth of 1.5 to 2 m. Up to 99% of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans cells, the dominant leaching bacteria, occurred to this depth. Their numbers correlated with the microbial activity measurements. Samples below 1.5 to 2 m exhibited reduced oxygen concentrations and reduced cell counts for all microorganisms.

  4. Hydroseeding on anthracite coal-mine spoils

    Treesearch

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj; Ross Writer

    1970-01-01

    A study was made of the performance of selected species of legumes, grasses, and trees hydroseeded on anthracite coal-mine spoils in a slurry of lime, fertilizer, and mulch. Hydroseeding failed on coal-breaker refuse, but was partially successful on strip-mine spoils.

  5. 8 CFR 338.13 - Spoiled certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spoiled certificate. 338.13 Section 338.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION § 338.13 Spoiled certificate. Whenever a certificate of naturalization is damaged, mutilated...

  6. Reclamation of surface-mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, E.A.

    1981-09-01

    Research being performed on land reclamation at the Corona and Kellerman mines in Alabama is reported. Information is presented under the following headings: effects of topsoiling and mulching treatment on plant growth and soil erosion; preliminary findings on the germination and growth of Southern red oak seedlings on calcareous shale surface mine spoil; some effects of vegetation type and fertilization on growth, survival, and tip moth damage in loblolly pine planted on alkaline shale surface mine spoil; some effects of competition and fertilizer on the growth and survival of selected Christmas tree stock and Virginia pine on alkaline shale spoil; growth and survival of Eastern red cedar on alkaline shale spoil; and, greenhouse studies. The appendixes are entitled: study of the effects of acidification of calcareous shale on the growth of weeping love grass; the effects of competition and spoil mixtures on the growth of perennial ryegrass and weeping lovegrass; and, the effects of delayed fertilization on the growth of weeping lovegrass. (JGB)

  7. Adequate drainage system design for heap leaching structures.

    PubMed

    Majdi, Abbas; Amini, Mehdi; Nasab, Saeed Karimi

    2007-08-17

    The paper describes an optimum design of a drainage system for a heap leaching structure which has positive impacts on both mine environment and mine economics. In order to properly design a drainage system the causes of an increase in the acid level of the heap which in turn produces severe problems in the hydrometallurgy processes must be evaluated. One of the most significant negative impacts induced by an increase in the acid level within a heap structure is the increase of pore acid pressure which in turn increases the potential of a heap-slide that may endanger the mine environment. In this paper, initially the thickness of gravelly drainage layer is determined via existing empirical equations. Then by assuming that the calculated thickness is constant throughout the heap structure, an approach has been proposed to calculate the required internal diameter of the slotted polyethylene pipes which are used for auxiliary drainage purposes. In order to adequately design this diameter, the pipe's cross-sectional deformation due to stepped heap structure overburden pressure is taken into account. Finally, a design of an adequate drainage system for the heap structure 2 at Sarcheshmeh copper mine is presented and the results are compared with those calculated by exiting equations.

  8. The effect of colliery waste on the feeding of the lugworm Arenicola marina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyslop, Brian T.; Davies, Mark S.

    1999-09-01

    Sandy shores in northeast England that are heavily contaminated by colliery waste (essentially coal particles) have lower species richnesses and diversities than less contaminated shores. Analyses of the sediment utilised putatively as food, the gut contents, and the faecal casts of lugworms Arenicola marina (L.) (Annelida: Polychaeta) from a heavily contaminated site (Newbiggin) and a site lightly contaminated (Seahouses) were performed to determine the effect of colliery waste on the feeding of this deposit-feeder, which has been reported to decline in abundance at contaminated sites. Colliery-waste content of sediment was 10 to 18 times greater at Newbiggin than at Seahouses. At Newbiggin the sediment contained significantly higher levels of colliery waste than did the gut contents or faeces, which were not significantly different from each other. At Seahouses the colliery-waste contents of sediment, gut, and faeces were not significantly different. Particle-size distributions in sediment, gut, and faeces from lugworms at Seahouses were similar, while at Newbiggin the sediment contained a greater proportion of larger particles (>250 μm) than did the gut contents or the faeces. These results suggest that lugworms at heavily contaminated sites are selective feeders, rejecting coal particles perhaps on the basis of particle size. We did not detect selectivity in animals at the less contaminated site. Lugworms from Seahouses, however, avoided burrowing into sediment containing colliery waste both when the waste was on the surface and buried. Lugworms from Newbiggin avoided burrowing into colliery waste only when it was buried. These data suggest a chemosensory response to colliery waste.

  9. Interplay of air and sand: Faraday heaping unravelled.

    PubMed

    van Gerner, Henk Jan; van der Hoef, Martin A; van der Meer, Devaraj; van der Weele, Ko

    2007-11-01

    We report on numerical simulations of a vibrated granular bed including the effect of the ambient air, generating the famous Faraday heaps known from experiment. A detailed analysis of the forces shows that the heaps are formed and stabilized by the airflow through the bed while the gap between bed and vibrating bottom is growing, confirming the pressure gradient mechanism found experimentally by Thomas and Squires [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 574 (1998)], with the addition that the airflow is partly generated by isobars running parallel to the surface of the granular bed. Importantly, the simulations also explain the heaping instability of the initially flat surface and the experimentally observed coarsening of a number of small heaps into a larger one.

  10. Efficient Merge and Insert Operations for Binary Heaps and Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuszmaul, Christopher Lee; Woo, Alex C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Binary heaps and binary search trees merge efficiently. We introduce a new amortized analysis that allows us to prove the cost of merging either binary heaps or balanced binary trees is O(l), in the amortized sense. The standard set of other operations (create, insert, delete, extract minimum, in the case of binary heaps, and balanced binary trees, as well as a search operation for balanced binary trees) remain with a cost of O(log n). For binary heaps implemented as arrays, we show a new merge algorithm that has a single operation cost for merging two heaps, a and b, of O(absolute value of a + min(log absolute value of b log log absolute value of b. log absolute value of a log absolute value of b). This is an improvement over O(absolute value of a + log absolute value of a log absolute value of b). The cost of the new merge is so low that it can be used in a new structure which we call shadow heaps. to implement the insert operation to a tunable efficiency. Shadow heaps support the insert operation for simple priority queues in an amortized time of O(f(n)) and other operations in time O((log n log log n)/f (n)), where 1 less than or equal to f (n) less than or equal to log log n. More generally, the results here show that any data structure with operations that change its size by at most one, with the exception of a merge (aka meld) operation, can efficiently amortize the cost of the merge under conditions that are true for most implementations of binary heaps and search trees.

  11. Geotechnical characteristics of shallow ocean dredge spoil disposal mounds

    SciTech Connect

    Demars, K.R.; Dowling, J.J.; Long, R.P.; Morton, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    This paper summarizes the data obtained from site surveying and sediment sampling of dredge spoil disposal mounds at the Central Long Island Sound site. Emphasis is placed on the geotechnical and geological features of the mound and natural seabed. Since some of the spoil is contaminated, cappings of clean spoil have been used to isolate the spoil mounds from fauna and flora in the water column. Because of the contaminated spoil, improvements in the disposal techniques are needed and methodologies must be developed for evaluating short-term and long-term stability of these shallow ocean deposits which are subjected to loadings from waves, spoil disposal and capping operations.

  12. Granular dynamics simulations of two-dimensional heap formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, J.; Tüautzüautn, U.; Burnell, J.; Heyes, D. M.

    1997-03-01

    Granular dynamics simulations have been carried out of vertical feed two-dimensional heap formation by a freefall method using a more realistic granule interaction law than has been employed in previous studies to permit prolonged contacts between adjacent granules. Stable heaps are found to form only on a geometrically rough base comprised of discrete particles, and heap formation is only weakly sensitive to the value of the contact friction coefficient. The appearance of avalanches, the pressure distribution on the base, and the voidage distribution are sensitive to the analytic form of the elastic component of the normal interaction, with a soft-sphere r-36 potential giving more realistic behavior than an equivalent Hooke law interaction with the same apparent spring constant. The r-36 interaction gives more realistic assembly dynamics as it introduces medium range collective motion caused by particle roughness and shape found in typical granular materials, without having to model anisotropic particles.

  13. Deviations in the Zipf and Heaps laws in natural languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkarev, Vladimir V.; Lerner, Eduard Yu; Shevlyakova, Anna V.

    2014-03-01

    This paper is devoted to verifying of the empirical Zipf and Hips laws in natural languages using Google Books Ngram corpus data. The connection between the Zipf and Heaps law which predicts the power dependence of the vocabulary size on the text size is discussed. In fact, the Heaps exponent in this dependence varies with the increasing of the text corpus. To explain it, the obtained results are compared with the probability model of text generation. Quasi-periodic variations with characteristic time periods of 60-100 years were also found.

  14. Initial soil formation and humus accumulation on the spoil heaps of sandy quarry, Russian-North-West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, E.

    2009-04-01

    The accumulation and transformation of organic matter were studied in chronoseries of different aged (3-, 10-, 20-, 30-, 43-, and 60-year-old) soils and a reference (mature) plot. The ecogenetic succession of plants on sand quarry dumps was started from grass plant community and finished on the Scotch Pine forest on the 60-years old plot. The pedogenesis rate was closely related to the rate of phytocenosis development, and the thicknesses of organic and mineral horizons increased synchronously. The profile distribution of organic matter in young soils was estimated as an ectomorphic distribution, and the humus stocks in the mineral horizons of the same soils were comparable with the reserves of organic matter in the litters. The illuvial (Bs) horizons of the soils under study played a significant role in the accumulation of organic carbon; the resistance of organic matter to mineralization increased with age. In the soil chronoseries, the caloricity of litter organic matter increased, as well as the content of energy accumulated in the litters. The composition of humus differed strongly between the eluvial and illuvial horizons; in the chronosequence, the relative content of humic acids increased in the E horizon, and that of fulvic acids increased in the B horizon. On the base of C-13 NMR study of humic substances the humic and fulvic acid are different in organic, eluvial and illuvial horizons in terms of different structural components content. The effect of the phytocenosis on the soil was increasingly mediated with time. The accumulation and transformation of organic matter were the leading pedogenic processes at all stages. The main conclusion of investigation is that the 60 years is enough for formation of embrio-profile of podzol soil on the dumps of quaternary sands of former sandy quarry in the south taiga, North-West of Russia.

  15. The biological costs of not reclaiming bentonite mine spoils

    Treesearch

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Daniel W. Uresk; Richard M. Hansen

    1982-01-01

    Bentonite clay has been mined in the northern Great Plains for more than 80 years. Until the late 1960's, mine spoil materials were left in steep piles and no effort was made to restore biological productivity to these disturbed sites. As a result, unreclaimed spoils are barren and eroded. The biological costs of not reclaiming these spoils are examined in this...

  16. Support for Faraday's View of Circulation in a Fine-Powder Chladni Heap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Benku; Squires, Arthur M.

    1998-07-01

    Faraday, like Chladni, saw fine powder collect in a circular heap at an antinode of a vibrating plate. In each vibration cycle, the heap experiences a free-flight interval during which pressure gradients in the heap's interior drive powder centerward, as Faraday proposed. When heap-floor collision terminates flight, pressure gradients reverse direction; but passage of a compaction front has locked particles against further movement. Before a next flight interval, an increase in porosity will reverse the compaction that accompanied heap-floor collision.

  17. Vertical Object Layout and Compression for Fixed Heaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titzer, Ben L.; Palsberg, Jens

    Research into embedded sensor networks has placed increased focus on the problem of developing reliable and flexible software for microcontroller-class devices. Languages such as nesC [10] and Virgil [20] have brought higher-level programming idioms to this lowest layer of software, thereby adding expressiveness. Both languages are marked by the absence of dynamic memory allocation, which removes the need for a runtime system to manage memory. While nesC offers code modules with statically allocated fields, arrays and structs, Virgil allows the application to allocate and initialize arbitrary objects during compilation, producing a fixed object heap for runtime. This paper explores techniques for compressing fixed object heaps with the goal of reducing the RAM footprint of a program. We explore table-based compression and introduce a novel form of object layout called vertical object layout. We provide experimental results that measure the impact on RAM size, code size, and execution time for a set of Virgil programs. Our results show that compressed vertical layout has better execution time and code size than table-based compression while achieving more than 20% heap reduction on 6 of 12 benchmark programs and 2-17% heap reduction on the remaining 6. We also present a formalization of vertical object layout and prove tight relationships between three styles of object layout.

  18. Estimated water requirements for gold heap-leach operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a perspective on the amount of water necessary for conventional gold heap-leach operations. Water is required for drilling and dust suppression during mining, for agglomeration and as leachate during ore processing, to support the workforce (requires water in potable form and for sanitation), for minesite reclamation, and to compensate for water lost to evaporation and leakage. Maintaining an adequate water balance is especially critical in areas where surface and groundwater are difficult to acquire because of unfavorable climatic conditions [arid conditions and (or) a high evaporation rate]; where there is competition with other uses, such as for agriculture, industry, and use by municipalities; and where compliance with regulatory requirements may restrict water usage. Estimating the water consumption of heap-leach operations requires an understanding of the heap-leach process itself. The task is fairly complex because, although they all share some common features, each gold heap-leach operation is unique. Also, estimating the water consumption requires a synthesis of several fields of science, including chemistry, ecology, geology, hydrology, and meteorology, as well as consideration of economic factors.

  19. An Experimental Ecological Study of a Garden Compost Heap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curds, Tracy

    1985-01-01

    A quantitative study of the fauna of a garden compost heap shows it to be similar to that of organisms found in soil and leaf litter. Materials, methods, and results are discussed and extensive tables of fauna lists, wet/dry masses, and statistical analyses are presented. (Author/DH)

  20. An Experimental Ecological Study of a Garden Compost Heap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curds, Tracy

    1985-01-01

    A quantitative study of the fauna of a garden compost heap shows it to be similar to that of organisms found in soil and leaf litter. Materials, methods, and results are discussed and extensive tables of fauna lists, wet/dry masses, and statistical analyses are presented. (Author/DH)

  1. Spoil sodicity standards: Reconciling science and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Munk, L.P.; Romig, D.E.; Coats, M.D.

    1999-07-01

    Sodicity is an important determinant of soil and spoil suitability for mined land reclamation. High levels of exchangeable sodium may cause soil physical degradation and a reduction in the rate of water and air transmission. Productivity losses associated with sodic surface soils re well documented in agricultural soils. State and Federal Spoil suitability guidelines for sodicity were originally developed in the late-1970's from agricultural standards (i.e., Handbook 60; SAR=13) and modified for the purposes of SMCRA. More recent agricultural standards (late-1980's) recognize that relatively high levels of sodicity (e.g., SAR-40) are tolerable in the lower root zone. The new agricultural standards are conditional, and incorporate the full range of factors that affect the severity of the structural standards are conditional, and incorporate the full range of factors that affect the severity of the structural degradation process in determining tolerable sodicity levels. Specifically, prudent sodicity hazard assessments must consider soil texture, salinity, mineralogy, pH, soil-water content, precipitation regime, and plant selection. In general, sodicity hazards are reduced in materials with low pH's, high salinity, non-expanding clay minerals, coarse textures, readily weatherable minerals, low water application rates, and unsaturated flow regimes. These conditions characterize the spoils from many western coal-producing regions suggesting that higher levels of sodicity may be tolerable. The divergence among the modern agricultural and mine reclamation standards suggest that a reevaluation of the sodicity standards is justified, especially in light of the economic burdens associated with sodic spoil mitigation. The authors will present a comprehensive method for the assessment of spoil sodicity hazards that includes both short- and long-term considerations.

  2. Important deficits of lung function in three modern colliery populations. Relations with dust exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Soutar, C.; Campbell, S.; Gurr, D.; Lloyd, M.; Love, R.; Cowie, H.; Cowie, A.; Seaton, A. )

    1993-04-01

    To determine whether dust-related clinically important deficits of lung function still occur in British coal miners we have analyzed the relationship between lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable dust and risk of defined functional deficits in a population of miners who were examined between 1981 and 1986. The study group consisted of a sample of men who had worked at any one of three collieries (South Wales, Yorkshire, and North East England) between 1970, when new dust standards were introduced, and date of medical survey. There were 1,671 men studied, including men who had left the collieries. Clinically important deficits of FEV1 from predicted values derived in this population were defined by comparisons with questionnaire data on exercise tolerance limited by breathlessness. The mean FEV1 of men in the South Wales colliery, for example, who said they had to stop for breath when walking at their own pace on level ground was 942 ml less than the predicted value for nonsmokers after taking age and stature into account. Individual cumulative exposures to respirable dust were calculated from a long-term program of measurements of dust concentrations and occupational records commencing in 1953. In the three colliery populations, 24, 24, and 12% in South Wales, Yorkshire, and the North East, respectively, had FEV1 deficits that were at least as severe as the average deficit associated with the severe grade of exertional dyspnea described above. In all collieries deficits were more common in smokers than in nonsmokers, and more common in men who had left the industry than in men still within it.

  3. Hexagonal gradient scheme with RF spoiling improves spoiling performance for high‐flip‐angle fast gradient echo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To present a framework in which time‐varying gradients are applied with RF spoiling to reduce unwanted signal, particularly at high flip angles. Methods A time‐varying gradient spoiler scheme compatible with RF spoiling is defined, in which spoiler gradients cycle through the vertices of a hexagon, which we call hexagonal spoiling. The method is compared with a traditional constant spoiling gradient both in the transition to and in the steady state. Extended phase graph (EPG) simulations, phantom acquisitions, and in vivo images were used to assess the method. Results Simulations, phantom and in vivo experiments showed that unwanted signal was markedly reduced by employing hexagonal spoiling, both in the transition to and in the steady state. For adipose tissue at 1.5 Tesla, the unwanted signal in the steady state with a 60 ° flip angle was reduced from 22% with constant spoiling to 2% with hexagonal spoiling. Conclusions A time‐varying gradient spoiler scheme that works with RF spoiling, called “hexagonal spoiling,” has been presented and found to offer improved spoiling over the traditional constant spoiling gradient. Magn Reson Med 77:1231–1237, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:27037941

  4. FORTH implementation of the heap data structure for memory management

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.

    1985-01-01

    The use of the heap for memory management provides the FORTH programmer with a versatile tool. Its use speeds program development at the conceptual level by allowing the program designer to consider dynamic arrays, garbage collection, and overlays; and at the implementation stage by providing a framework for easy manipulation of such data structures. An examination of the high-level codes leads naturally to examples of these and other techniques of dynamic data management.

  5. Flow modulation based control of granular stratification in heaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Fan, Yi; McDonald, David; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2013-11-01

    Gravity driven flows of initially mixed granular media composed of non-monodisperse particles spontaneously segregate for a wide range of particle and flow parameters. For heaps of size-bidisperse particles formed in the quasi-two-dimensional geometry of a vertical Hele-Shaw cell, segregation is in the form of stratified layers of large and small particle-rich bands that are nominally parallel to the free surface of the heap. Stratification occurs at low fill rates where flow down the heap manifests as a series of intermittent and irregularly sized avalanches. This non-steady flow causes variation in stratum thickness and streamwise extent. In this talk we describe how temporal modulation of the fill rate can generate ordered strata at high fill rates. In particular, we show how, for a duty cycle variation of the flow rate, the modulation parameters determine the wavelength and streamwise extent of the layers. We explain our results in terms of the dependence of the dynamic repose angle on flow rate. Finally we describe how the upstream extent of the strata increases with decreasing gap width and is related to the jamming probability of the large particles. Y.F. was funded by The Dow Chemical Company.

  6. An investigation into the cytotoxicity of respirable dusts from British collieries.

    PubMed Central

    Gormley, I. P.; Collings, P.; Davis, J. M.; Ottery, J.

    1979-01-01

    A series of respirable dusts from British collieries was collected and analysed for mineral content and physical characteristics. Where possible 2 samples of dust were collected from the same site at 8-month intervals. All dusts were tested for their cytotoxic potential using a permanent line of macrophage-like cells (P388D1). In addition, for some dusts, a haemolytic technique was used. With both techniques a positive overall correlation was found between cytotoxicity and the total ash content of the dusts. When the results from collieries producing high- and low-rank coals were considered separately, however, it was found that the ash content of high-rank dusts (r=0.75) showed a much closer correlation with cytotoxicity than low-rank dusts (r=0.40). With the cell test system the ash components, kaolin and mica (r=0.58) and to a lesser extent quartz (r=0.48) showed significant positive correlations with cytotoxicity for high-rank coal dusts but not for low. Using the haemolytic system, however, only the quartz content of the high-rank dusts showed a significant relationship (r=0.69) to levels of haemoglobin release. Both the results of mineralogical analysis of dust samples and cytotoxicity tests showed that the mineral content and cytotoxic potential of dusts collected from the same colliery, and even from the same underground site, at different times, varied considerably. A poor correlation was found between cytotoxicity and various measurements of pneumoconiosis risk but this may well be partly due to this great variation of dust composition with time. In general, the overall results of this study were in good agreement with those of previous work on coal dust toxicity in that both the rank and composition of colliery dusts were found to be of importance, whereas the role of quartz remained enigmatic. PMID:518822

  7. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.

    1990-09-01

    The objective of this part of the study is to investigate the oxidation-reduction (redox) environment that favor the release of selenium from coal mine spoils. It is anticipated that the study will help answer critical questions as to the form, solubility, and mobility of selenium from the spoil site to the surrounding environment. This investigation will evaluate the conditions which favor the speciation of selenium from coal mine spoils as affected by changes in the oxidation states of selenium.

  8. Results for the structural properties of random heaps of hard disks

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnier, B. )

    1995-01-01

    The average angle of repose and the packing density of random planar heaps of hard disks falling ballistically onto a sticky base line, where the first layer of disks is quenched in random positions, are computed for heaps with a small fixed number of gaps in the base layer. The results we find appear to be almost independent of the size of the heap and they agree with those obtained from computer simulations of large systems.

  9. Hydrologic modeling of reclaimed strip mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, K.B.; Stoertz, M.W.; Turney, D.C.

    1998-12-31

    A numerical groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) of a surface coal mine in southeast Ohio was calibrated under steady state conditions to match measured heads by varying hydraulic conductivity (K) and recharge (R). Sensitivity studies indicated that K was not largely dependent on the poorly quantified underclay elevation or on the lake boundary condition. The baseflow recharge was determined to be between 8 and 60 mm/yr (1 to 6% of annual rainfall) and K between 0.004 and 0.01 cm/s for the spoil aquifer.

  10. Promising native forbs for seeding on mine spoils

    Treesearch

    Ardell J. Bjugstad; Warren C. Whitman

    1989-01-01

    Twenty nine species of perennial forbs and 2 biennial forbs were directly seeded into coal mine spoil materials at Dickinson, North Dakota to determine which species would be most successful for direct seeding into coal mine spoil. Those which showed exceptionally good emergence and vigorous growth of seedlings in a two year study were: white prairie clover (...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are made...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are made...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are made...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are made...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are made...

  16. Microbiota on spoiled vegetables and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Beom; Kim, Mihyun; Roh, Eunjung; Jung, Kyusuk; Choi, Minseon; Oh, Changsik; Choi, Jaehyuk; Yun, Jongchul; Heu, Sunggi

    2013-08-01

    Spoilage causes vegetables to deteriorate and develop unpleasant characteristics. Approximately 30 % of fresh vegetables are lost to spoilage, mainly due to colonization by bacteria. In the present study, a total of 44 bacterial isolates were obtained from a number of spoiled vegetables. The isolates were identified and classified into 20 different species of 14 genera based on fatty acid composition, biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA sequence analyses. Pseudomonas spp. were the species most frequently isolated from the spoiled vegetables. To evaluate the spoilage ability of each species, a variety of fresh vegetables were treated with each isolate and their degree of maceration was observed. In addition, the production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), such as cellulase, xylanase, pectate lyase, and polygalacturonase, was compared among isolates to investigate their potential associations with spoilage. Strains that produce more PCWDEs cause spoilage on more diverse plants, and pectinase may be the most important enzyme among PCWDEs for vegetable spoilage. Most gram-negative spoilage bacteria produced acylated homoserine lactone, a quorum-sensing signal molecule, suggesting that it may be possible to use this compound effectively to prevent or slow down the spoilage of vegetables contaminated with diverse bacteria.

  17. Power-law connections: From Zipf to Heaps and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we explore the asymptotic statistics of a general model of rank distributions in the large-ensemble limit; the construction of the general model is motivated by recent empirical studies of rank distributions. Applying Lorenzian, oligarchic, and Heapsian asymptotic analyses we establish a comprehensive set of closed-form results linking together rank distributions, probability distributions, oligarchy sizes, and innovation rates. In particular, the general results reveal the fundamental underlying connections between Zipf's law, Pareto's law, and Heaps' law—three elemental empirical power-laws that are ubiquitously observed in the sciences.

  18. Zipf's law leads to Heaps' law: analyzing their relation in finite-size systems.

    PubMed

    Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2010-12-02

    Zipf's law and Heaps' law are observed in disparate complex systems. Of particular interests, these two laws often appear together. Many theoretical models and analyses are performed to understand their co-occurrence in real systems, but it still lacks a clear picture about their relation. We show that the Heaps' law can be considered as a derivative phenomenon if the system obeys the Zipf's law. Furthermore, we refine the known approximate solution of the Heaps' exponent provided the Zipf's exponent. We show that the approximate solution is indeed an asymptotic solution for infinite systems, while in the finite-size system the Heaps' exponent is sensitive to the system size. Extensive empirical analysis on tens of disparate systems demonstrates that our refined results can better capture the relation between the Zipf's and Heaps' exponents. The present analysis provides a clear picture about the relation between the Zipf's law and Heaps' law without the help of any specific stochastic model, namely the Heaps' law is indeed a derivative phenomenon from the Zipf's law. The presented numerical method gives considerably better estimation of the Heaps' exponent given the Zipf's exponent and the system size. Our analysis provides some insights and implications of real complex systems. For example, one can naturally obtained a better explanation of the accelerated growth of scale-free networks.

  19. Zipf's Law Leads to Heaps' Law: Analyzing Their Relation in Finite-Size Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Background Zipf's law and Heaps' law are observed in disparate complex systems. Of particular interests, these two laws often appear together. Many theoretical models and analyses are performed to understand their co-occurrence in real systems, but it still lacks a clear picture about their relation. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that the Heaps' law can be considered as a derivative phenomenon if the system obeys the Zipf's law. Furthermore, we refine the known approximate solution of the Heaps' exponent provided the Zipf's exponent. We show that the approximate solution is indeed an asymptotic solution for infinite systems, while in the finite-size system the Heaps' exponent is sensitive to the system size. Extensive empirical analysis on tens of disparate systems demonstrates that our refined results can better capture the relation between the Zipf's and Heaps' exponents. Conclusions/Significance The present analysis provides a clear picture about the relation between the Zipf's law and Heaps' law without the help of any specific stochastic model, namely the Heaps' law is indeed a derivative phenomenon from the Zipf's law. The presented numerical method gives considerably better estimation of the Heaps' exponent given the Zipf's exponent and the system size. Our analysis provides some insights and implications of real complex systems. For example, one can naturally obtained a better explanation of the accelerated growth of scale-free networks. PMID:21152034

  20. 77 FR 17104 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Ecstatic Alphabets/Heaps...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Ecstatic Alphabets/Heaps of Language... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Ecstatic Alphabets/Heaps of Language...

  1. Detecting Heap-Spraying Code Injection Attacks in Malicious Web Pages Using Runtime Execution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Younghan; Kim, Hyoungchun; Lee, Donghoon

    The growing use of web services is increasing web browser attacks exponentially. Most attacks use a technique called heap spraying because of its high success rate. Heap spraying executes a malicious code without indicating the exact address of the code by copying it into many heap objects. For this reason, the attack has a high potential to succeed if only the vulnerability is exploited. Thus, attackers have recently begun using this technique because it is easy to use JavaScript to allocate the heap memory area. This paper proposes a novel technique that detects heap spraying attacks by executing a heap object in a real environment, irrespective of the version and patch status of the web browser. This runtime execution is used to detect various forms of heap spraying attacks, such as encoding and polymorphism. Heap objects are executed after being filtered on the basis of patterns of heap spraying attacks in order to reduce the overhead of the runtime execution. Patterns of heap spraying attacks are based on analysis of how an web browser accesses benign web sites. The heap objects are executed forcibly by changing the instruction register into the address of them after being loaded into memory. Thus, we can execute the malicious code without having to consider the version and patch status of the browser. An object is considered to contain a malicious code if the execution reaches a call instruction and then the instruction accesses the API of system libraries, such as kernel32.dll and ws_32.dll. To change registers and monitor execution flow, we used a debugger engine. A prototype, named HERAD(HEap spRAying Detector), is implemented and evaluated. In experiments, HERAD detects various forms of exploit code that an emulation cannot detect, and some heap spraying attacks that NOZZLE cannot detect. Although it has an execution overhead, HERAD produces a low number of false alarms. The processing time of several minutes is negligible because our research focuses on

  2. Using Heaps in Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation of Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    2006-01-01

    A modification to increase processing speed has been made in the algorithm and implementing software reported in Modified Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation of Data (GSC-14681-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 6 (June 2006), page 51. That software performs recursive hierarchical segmentation of data having spatial characteristics (e.g., spectral-image data). The segmentation process includes an iterative subprocess, in each iteration of which it is necessary to determine a best pair of regions to merge [merges being justified by one or more measure(s) similarity of pixels in the regions]. In the previously reported version of the algorithm and software, the choice of a best pair of regions to merge involved the use of a fully sorted list of regions. That version was computationally inefficient because a fully sorted list is not needed: what is needed is only the identity of the pair of regions characterized by the smallest measure of dissimilarity. The present modification replaces the use of a fully sorted list with the use of data heaps, which are computationally more efficient for performing the required comparisons among dissimilarity measures. The modification includes the incorporation of standard and modified functions for creating and updating data heaps

  3. [Analysis of colliery migrant workers quality of life and its influential factors].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaodeng; Tuo, Anxie; Peng, Anhui; Liao, Weifang; He, Wanjing; Zhu, Peijia; Yan, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    To study colliery migrant workers' quality of life and related influential factors. By multi-stage random sampling, 1161 colliery migrant workers were collected and assessed with the SF-36 and the self-made questionnaires. Multiple covariance and optimal scaling regression statistical methods were used to analyze the data. Physiological and mental health filed of colliery migrant workers, the physical functioning (PF), role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH) and vitality (VT) score of those colliery migrant workers whose working age was less than 5 years higher than those over 10 years. The PF, RP, BP, GH, mental health (MH), VT and SF based within the health group, resulted in a higher score, compared to those who suffer from chronic diseases. The RP, GH and social functioning (SF) based within the mild labor intensity, resulted in a higher score, compared to those who severe labor intensity. The PF and RE based within the non-initial coal mine work, resulted in a higher score, compared to those who initial coal mine work. The PF, BP and VT based within the pre-employment physical examination, resulted in a higher score, compared to those who non pre-employment physical examination. The MH based within the smoking, resulted in a higher score, compared to those who no smoking. These differences were statistical significance (P < 0.05). Multiple factors analysis showed that working age (F = 19.26, P < 0.01), chronic diseases (F = 13.89, P < 0.01) and initial coal mine work (F = 8.48, P < 0.01) were the influential factors of physical component summary (PCS). Labor intensity (F = 5.90, P < 0.01), smoking (F = 10.45, P < 0.01) and chronic diseases (F = 7.91, P < 0.01) were the influential factors of mental component summary (MCS). There are some difference in individual characteristics (e. g. working age). Working age, chronic diseases, initial coal mine work, labor intensity, smoking are the influential factors for quality of life.

  4. Instrumentation of dredge spoil for landfill construction

    SciTech Connect

    Byle, M.J.; McCullough, M.L.; Alexander, R.; Vasuki, N.C.; Langer, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Delaware Solid Waste Authority's Northern Solid Waste Management Center is located outside of Wilmington Delaware at Cherry Island, a former dredge disposal site. Dredge spoils, of very low permeability, range in depths up to 30 m (100 feet) which form a natural liner and the foundation for the 140 ha (350-acre) municipal solid waste landfill. The soils beneath the landfill have been extensively instrumented to measure pore pressure, settlement and deflections, using inclinometer casings, standpipe piezometers, vibrating wire piezometers, pneumatic piezometers, settlement plates, liquid settlement gages, total pressure cells and thermistors. The nature of the existing waste and anticipated settlements (up to 6 m (19 feet)) have required some unique installation details. The instrumentation data has been integral in planning the landfilling sequence to maintain perimeter slope stability and has provided key geotechnical parameters needed for operation and construction of the landfill. The performance of the instrumentation and monitoring results are discussed.

  5. Recognizing critical mine spoil health characteristics to design ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Biochar can be used as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated mine spoils for improved site phytostabilization. For successful phytostabilization to occur, biochar amendments must improve mine spoil health with respect to plant rooting plus uptake of water and nutrients. An inappropriate biochar may negatively impact plant growth conditions resulting in poor plant establishment and growth. Matching the appropriate biochar for each mine site requires reconnaissance of spoil chemical and physical conditions and then identifying which properties need rectified to promote plant growth. A rectification hierarchy needs to be established with the primary limiting factor being addressed first, then successive limitations addressed simultaneously or thereafter. We posit that spoils at each site will have a unique chemical, physical, and biological signature that will affect plant growth. For example, some spoils may be extremely acidic, possess phytotoxic concentrations of heavy metals, or have physical conditions that limits water storage and root penetration. Quantifying these and other conditions beforehand allows for the production of designer biochar with specific characteristics tailored for specific plant growth deficiencies within each spoil. Additionally, we recommend the use of proximally located, undisturbed soils to establish spoil remediation targets. In our work, we have developed a decision-tree flow-chart that identifies salient chemical,

  6. An investigation on mechanism of acid drain in heap leaching structures.

    PubMed

    Majdi, Abbas; Amini, Mehdi; Chermahini, Abotaleb Amini

    2009-06-15

    Gravelly drainage layer and semi-slotted polyethylene pipes are two main components of drainage system of heap leaching structures. Fluid is locally drained and directed to semi-slotted polyethylene pipes by gravelly drainage layer. Then, it is sent to a pregnant leach solution (PLS) pond by the semi-slotted polyethylene pipes gravitationally. In this paper, initially the existing relations, suggested for the design of drainage system of heap leaching structures, are analyzed. Then, the main differences between fluid drain in landfills and heap leaching structures are presented, and consequently, two new correction factors, named "replacement" and "delay" factors are suggested. The replacement factor illustrates the ratio of mean value of heap layers area to the acid-washed area and the delay factor represents the reduction of heap layers area. The new correction factors are added to Giroud equation and the modified format of the equation is suggested for computing gravelly drainage layer thickness of heap leaching structures. Also, these two correction factors are added to Majdi et al. equation and two new relations are suggested for determination of main and auxiliary drainage semi-slotted polyethylene pipes diameters in these structures. Finally, based on the new relations, adequate drainage systems are designed for two case studies ("Tarom" and "Sarcheshmeh 2" heap leaching structures) and the results are compared with those calculated by the exiting equations.

  7. Observations on the Occupational Life History of the Coal Face Worker at Two Collieries

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, O. P.; Kerr, D. S.

    1960-01-01

    Coal-face work is well known to be arduous and dangerous; it is performed in an unnatural environment even where conditions are good. Few men can continue this work until the age of retirement. They usually seek alternative employment either outside the industry or within the other major occupational groups at a colliery. The latter comprise the surface workers and those employed underground other than at the coal-face. This paper is concerned with those who stay within the industry. From a study of 73 workers who left the coal-face at two collieries, it indicates (1) the extent to which migration to alternative employment occurs each year, and (2) the resultant distribution of ex coal-face workers among these other occupational groups. The length of effective working life of the coal-miner on the coal-face, the reasons which precipitate his leaving it, and the type of work which he is able to do are also described. This information is of economic importance but it is mainly of value in assessing the effects of coal-face work upon the health of the coal-miner. PMID:13819356

  8. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vegetation, or increase the moisture retention of the soil. (4) Slope protection shall be provided to... shall be mixed with hard rock spoil in a controlled manner to limit on a unit basis concentrations of...

  9. 46 CFR 174.330 - Jettisoning of spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sufficiently to allow the dredged material to dump without bridging; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the... the waterline; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the spoil is impossible. (b) When doing...

  10. 46 CFR 174.330 - Jettisoning of spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sufficiently to allow the dredged material to dump without bridging; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the... the waterline; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the spoil is impossible. (b) When doing...

  11. 46 CFR 174.330 - Jettisoning of spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sufficiently to allow the dredged material to dump without bridging; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the... the waterline; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the spoil is impossible. (b) When doing...

  12. 46 CFR 174.330 - Jettisoning of spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sufficiently to allow the dredged material to dump without bridging; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the... the waterline; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the spoil is impossible. (b) When doing...

  13. Nonuniformities in the angle of repose and packing fraction of large heaps of particles.

    PubMed

    Topić, Nikola; Gallas, Jason A C; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2012-09-21

    We report a numerical investigation of the structural properties of very large three-dimensional heaps of particles produced by ballistic deposition from extended circular dropping areas. Very large heaps are found to contain three new geometrical characteristics not observed before: they may have two external angles of repose, an internal angle of repose, and four distinct packing fraction (density) regions. Such characteristics are shown to be directly correlated with the size of the dropping zone. In addition, we also describe how noise during the deposition affects the final heap structure.

  14. Life in heaps: a review of microbial responses to variable acidity in sulfide mineral bioleaching heaps for metal extraction.

    PubMed

    Shiers, D W; Collinson, D M; Watling, H R

    2016-09-01

    Industrial heap leaching of low grade mineral sulfide ores is catalysed by the use of acidophilic microorganisms. These microorganisms obtain energy for growth from the oxidation of reduced inorganic or organic compounds, including soluble ferrous ion, reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (RISC) and acid-stable organic compounds. By-products of these oxidative processes, such as soluble ferric ion and sulfuric acid create favourable chemical conditions for leaching. This review is focused on the behaviour of common bioleaching microorganisms, their responses to changing pH in an industrial setting, and how both changes and microbial responses can impact the micro and macro environment. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Event heap: a coordination infrastructure for dynamic heterogeneous application interactions in ubiquitous computing environments

    DOEpatents

    Johanson, Bradley E.; Fox, Armando; Winograd, Terry A.; Hanrahan, Patrick M.

    2010-04-20

    An efficient and adaptive middleware infrastructure called the Event Heap system dynamically coordinates application interactions and communications in a ubiquitous computing environment, e.g., an interactive workspace, having heterogeneous software applications running on various machines and devices across different platforms. Applications exchange events via the Event Heap. Each event is characterized by a set of unordered, named fields. Events are routed by matching certain attributes in the fields. The source and target versions of each field are automatically set when an event is posted or used as a template. The Event Heap system implements a unique combination of features, both intrinsic to tuplespaces and specific to the Event Heap, including content based addressing, support for routing patterns, standard routing fields, limited data persistence, query persistence/registration, transparent communication, self-description, flexible typing, logical/physical centralization, portable client API, at most once per source first-in-first-out ordering, and modular restartability.

  16. Groundwater hydrogeochemical characteristics in rehabilitated coalmine spoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomo, M.; Masemola, E.

    2016-04-01

    The investigation aims to identify and describe hydrogeochemical processes controlling the evolution of groundwater chemistry in rehabilitated coalmine spoils and their overall influence on groundwater quality at a study area located in the Karoo basin of South Africa. A good understanding of the processes that controls the evolution of the mine water quality is vital for the planning, application and management of post-mining remedial actions. The study utilises scatter plots, statistical analysis, PHREEQC hydrogeochemical modelling, stoichiometric reaction ratios analysis, and the expanded Durov diagram as complimentary tools to interpret the groundwater chemistry data collected from monitoring boreholes from 1995 to 2014. Measured pH ranging between 6-8 and arithmetic mean of 7.32 shows that the groundwater system is characterised by circumneutral hydrogeochemical conditions period. Comparison of measured groundwater ion concentrations to theoretical reaction stoichiometry identifies Dolomite-Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) neutralisation as the main hydrogeochemical process controlling the evolution of the groundwater chemistry. Hydrogeochemical modelling shows that, the groundwater has temporal variations of calcite and dolomite saturation indices characterised by alternating cycles of over-saturation and under-saturation that is driven by the release of sulphate, calcium and magnesium ions from the carbonate-AMD neutralization process. Arithmetic mean concentrations of sulphate, calcium and magnesium are in the order of 762 mg/L, 141 mg/L and 108 mg/L. Calcium and magnesium ions contribute to very hard groundwater quality conditions. Classification based on total dissolved solids (TDS), shows the circumneutral water is of poor to unacceptable quality for drinking purposes. Despite its ability to prevent AMD formation and leaching of metals, the dolomite-AMD neutralisation process can still lead to problems of elevated TDS and hardness which mines should be aware of

  17. Plant Communities Rather than Soil Properties Structure Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities along Primary Succession on a Mine Spoil

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Claudia; Kohout, Petr; Janoušková, Martina; Püschel, David; Frouz, Jan; Rydlová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community assembly during primary succession has so far received little attention. It remains therefore unclear, which of the factors, driving AMF community composition, are important during ecosystem development. We addressed this question on a large spoil heap, which provides a mosaic of sites in different successional stages under different managements. We selected 24 sites of c. 12, 20, 30, or 50 years in age, including sites with spontaneously developing vegetation and sites reclaimed by alder plantations. On each site, we sampled twice a year roots of the perennial rhizomatous grass Calamagrostis epigejos (Poaceae) to determine AMF root colonization and diversity (using 454-sequencing), determined the soil chemical properties and composition of plant communities. AMF taxa richness was unaffected by site age, but AMF composition variation increased along the chronosequences. AMF communities were unaffected by soil chemistry, but related to the composition of neighboring plant communities of the sampled C. epigejos plants. In contrast, the plant communities of the sites were more distinctively structured than the AMF communities along the four successional stages. We conclude that AMF and plant community successions respond to different factors. AMF communities seem to be influenced by biotic rather than by abiotic factors and to diverge with successional age. PMID:28473828

  18. Phytoremediation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach.

    PubMed

    Juwarkar, Asha A; Jambhulkar, Hemlata P

    2008-07-01

    Field experiment was conducted on mine spoil dump on an area of 10 ha, to restore the fertility and productivity of the coal mine spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. The approach involves use of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), as an organic amendment, biofertilizers and mycorrihzal fungi along with suitable plant species. The results of the study indicated that amendment with effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), @ 50 ton/ha improved the physico-chemical properties of coal mine spoil. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in mine spoil improved greatly. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of ETP sludge helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as chromium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese lead, nickel and cadmium, which were significantly reduced to 41%, 43%, 37%, 37%, 34%, 39%, 37% and 40%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the ETP sludge and its alkaline pH (8.10-8.28), at which the metals gets immobilized and translocation of metals is arrested. Thus, amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant on coal mine spoil dump.

  19. Yeast diversity of Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Heide-Marie; Vrancken, Gino; Takrama, Jemmy F; Camu, Nicholas; De Vos, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc

    2009-08-01

    The fermentation of the Theobroma cacao beans, involving yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and acetic acid bacteria, has a major influence on the quality of the resulting cocoa. An assessment of the microbial community of cocoa bean heap fermentations in Ghana resulted in 91 yeast isolates. These were grouped by PCR-fingerprinting with the primer M13. Representative isolates were identified using the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer sequences and partial actin gene sequences leading to the detection of 15 species. Properties of importance for cocoa bean fermentation, namely sucrose, glucose, and citrate assimilation capacity, pH-, ethanol-, and heat-tolerance, were examined for selected isolates. Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Hanseniaspora opuntiae formed the major components of the yeast community. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was identified conclusively for the first time from cocoa fermentations. Among the less frequently encountered species, Candida carpophila, Candida orthopsilosis, Kodamaea ohmeri, Meyerozyma (Pichia) caribbica, Pichia manshurica, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Yamadazyma (Pichia) mexicana were not yet documented from this substrate. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was preferably growing during the earlier phase of fermentation, reflecting its tolerance to low pH and its citrate-negative phenotype, while no specific temporal distribution was recognized for P. kudriavzevii and S. cerevisiae.

  20. Control Room operations: an investigation of the task of the operator in a Colliery Control Room. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, G.C.; Best, C.F.; Ferguson, C.A.; Graveling, R.A.; Nicholl, A.G.M.

    1982-09-01

    A detailed study of the ergonomics aspects of four representative Colliery Control Rooms was carried out. Numerous ergonomics limitations, many common to each of the control rooms studied, were identified particularly in relation to workspace dimensions, console layout and lighting. In order to overcome these limitations in future designs, a report detailing the Ergonomics Principles of Colliery Control Room design and Layout was prepared on the basis of the information obtained. Task analysis carried out during the studies revealed that control room operators could have a direct effect on production and that ergonomics aspects were involved in these situations. Indications of potential ergonomics problems in the wider sphere of job design were also identified particularly in relation to information handling.

  1. Operating parameters of water-only cyclone at washing of steam coal from the Cigel Colliery in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Hredzak, S.; Lovas, M.; Jakabsky, S.; Mockovciakova, A.; Lesko, M.

    1999-07-01

    The contribution gives attention to the determination of water-only (WO) cyclone operating parameters. The samples of steam coal and fines from the Cigel colliery have been washed in the laboratory type of WO cyclone. The products of washing were subjected to sink-float analyses. From the results of sink-float analyses the basic separation characteristics of the WO cyclone have been computed.

  2. Factors affecting the establishment of direct-seeded pine on surface-mine spoils

    Treesearch

    William T. Plass

    1974-01-01

    In a greenhouse study the emergence, survival, and growth of seven species of pine were related to chemical and textural characteristics of 12 Kentucky spoils. The results identify three factors that may affect the establishment of direct-seeded pine on surface-mine spoils. First, fine-textured spoil material may restrict seedling emergence. Coarse-textured sandstones...

  3. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  4. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  5. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  6. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  7. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  8. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  9. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  10. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  11. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  12. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  13. Extremophiles in Mineral Sulphide Heaps: Some Bacterial Responses to Variable Temperature, Acidity and Solution Composition

    PubMed Central

    Watling, Helen R.; Shiers, Denis W.; Collinson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    In heap bioleaching, acidophilic extremophiles contribute to enhanced metal extraction from mineral sulphides through the oxidation of Fe(II) and/or reduced inorganic sulphur compounds (RISC), such as elemental sulphur or mineral sulphides, or the degradation of organic compounds derived from the ore, biota or reagents used during mineral processing. The impacts of variable solution acidity and composition, as well as temperature on the three microbiological functions have been examined for up to four bacterial species found in mineral sulphide heaps. The results indicate that bacteria adapt to sufficiently high metal concentrations (Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, As) to allow them to function in mineral sulphide heaps and, by engaging alternative metabolic pathways, to extend the solution pH range over which growth is sustained. Fluctuating temperatures during start up in sulphide heaps pose the greatest threat to efficient bacterial colonisation. The large masses of ores in bioleaching heaps mean that high temperatures arising from sulphide oxidation are hard to control initially, when the sulphide content of the ore is greatest. During that period, mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacteria are markedly reduced in both numbers and activity. PMID:27682094

  14. Characteristics of large three-dimensional heaps of particles produced by ballistic deposition from extended sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topic, Nikola; Gallas, Jason A. C.; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports a detailed numerical investigation of the geometrical and structural properties of three-dimensional heaps of particles. Our goal is the characterization of very large heaps produced by ballistic deposition from extended circular dropping areas. First, we provide an in-depth study of the formation of monodisperse heaps of particles. We find very large heaps to contain three new geometrical characteristics: they may display two external angles of repose, one internal angle of repose, and four distinct packing fraction (density) regions. Such features are found to be directly connected with the size of the dropping zone. We derive a differential equation describing the boundary of an unexpected triangular packing fraction zone formed under the dropping area. We investigate the impact that noise during the deposition has on the final heap structure. In addition, we perform two complementary experiments designed to test the robustness of the novel features found. The first experiment considers changes due to polydispersity. The second checks what happens when letting the extended dropping zone to become a point-like source of particles, the more common type of source.

  15. Microbial leaching of toxic metals and arsenic from a heap consisting of heavily polluted soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groudev, Stoyan; Georgiev, Plamen; Spasova, Irena; Nicolova, Marina

    2014-05-01

    Soil heavily polluted with toxic heavy metals (mainly Cu, Zn, Cd) and arsenic was subjected to microbial cleanup in a heap specially constructed for this purpose. The heap was located on an impermeable geomembrane, had the shape of a truncated pyramid and contained about 240 tons of soil collected mainly from the horizon A. The soil was highly acidic (with an initial pH of about 3.2) and was preliminarily crushed to minus 2.5 cm particle size. The pollutants were present mainly as the relevant sulphide minerals and the soil was inhabited by different microorganisms, including some acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacteria able to oxidize sulphides and to solubilize the relevant toxic elements. The heap possessed systems for irrigation and aeration and was surrounded by ditches to collect the drainage heap effluents containing the dissolved pollutants. The treatment of the soil was carried out by means of interrupted irrigation with leach solutions containing diluted sulphuric acid (to maintain pH in the heap within the range of about 2.5 - 2.8) and ammonium and phosphate ions to maintain the microbial growth. The treatment was carried out for a period of about two years during different climatic seasons. After the end of leaching the soil was subjected to some conventional melioration procedures such as liming, grassing, moulching, addition of fertilizers and animal manure and periodic ploughing and irrigation to increase its quality to levels suitable for agricultural utilization.

  16. Tree survival and growth on fescue-covered spoil banks

    Treesearch

    William T. Plass

    1968-01-01

    In spoil-bank revegetation the emphasis today is on site protection. Quick cover crops overplanted to trees or shrubs are recommended on many sites. In this study we tried to determine how an established fescue cover affects tree survival and growth. We found the ground cover did not affect survival but did reduce the height growth of sycamore and sweetgum. It had...

  17. Performance of Ponderosa Pine on Bituminous Mine Spoils in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Walter H. Davidson

    1977-01-01

    Seedlings from 40 seed sources of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) were planted on a strip-mine spoil in central Pennsylvania in 1969. Survival of seedlings from different sources ranged from 23 to 90 percent after six growing seasons. The average height of the seedlings ranged from 67 to 140 cm for the same period. Eight sources produced...

  18. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) of this section. (3) Discussion of how you will address impacts to perennial and intermittent streams... excess spoil in a perennial or intermittent stream, the analysis must include an evaluation of impacts on... possible, taking into consideration applicable regulations concerning restoration of the...

  19. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) of this section. (3) Discussion of how you will address impacts to perennial and intermittent streams... excess spoil in a perennial or intermittent stream, the analysis must include an evaluation of impacts on... possible, taking into consideration applicable regulations concerning restoration of the...

  20. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engineer or other qualified professional specialist experienced in the construction of earth and rockfill... minesite. (11) Coal processing wastes shall not be disposed of in head-of-hollow or valley fills, and may... require a flatter slope. (c) Head-of-hollow fills. Disposal of spoil in the head-of-hollow fill shall meet...

  1. Enteric listeriosis in grazing steers supplemented with spoiled silage.

    PubMed

    García, Juan A; Micheloud, Juan F; Campero, Carlos M; Morrell, Eleonora L; Odriozola, Ernesto R; Moreira, Ana R

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of enteric listeriosis in steers that were fed spoiled silage is reported. The outbreak started 2 days after ~200 animals in a single paddock were given a supplement of spoiled silage. Forty animals (20%) were affected, and 13 (6.5%) died over a period of 10 days. Affected animals were recumbent, depressed, and had diarrhea with mucus and fibrin. Gross and microscopic findings in 3 animals that were subjected to autopsy included excess peritoneal fluid, congestion and edema of abomasum, suppurative enteritis and colitis, and suppurative mesenteric lymphadenitis. Two strains of Listeria monocytogenes were isolated, one of serotype 1/2c from the gallbladder and one of serotype 1/2b from the spoiled silage. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in the mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal wall of 1 animal by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Clinical history and signs, gross and microscopic findings, bacterial isolation, and IHC results confirmed a diagnosis of enteric listeriosis. The source of infection was likely the spoiled silage.

  2. Microbial succession and mineral leaching in an artificial coal spoil.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, A P

    1978-01-01

    An artificial pyritic coal spoil was prepared and examined over a period of 1.5 years for changes in the population of various physiological varieties of bacteria and also for mineral leaching. Heterotrophic bacteria were the first to dominate the spoil, acquiring a population of 10(7) cells per g within 2 weeks. Bacteria capable of utilizing choline sulfate as the sole source of energy comprised approximately 1% of the total heterotrophic bacteria. Sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic bacteria (Thiobacillus) and finally iron-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) increased in the population, the latter becoming the dominant species where acidity was greatest. Partition of species paralleled partition of acidity in the spoil. Maximum acidity (pH 2.6) and maximum population of T. ferrooxidans (greater than 10(7) cells per g) occurred at the summit. Molds (notably, Aspergillus), algae (Chlorococcales, Oscillatoria, Navicula), cilliated and flagellated protozoa, an arthropod (Podura aquatica), and a moss (aberrant Physcomitrium pyriforme) were observed. The mineral salts leached from the spoil, in decreasing order, were the sulfates of magnesium (predominantly hexahydrite), calcium (gypsum), sodium, aluminum (alunogenite), and iron. PMID:736542

  3. Vibrational and third-order nonlinear optical study on hydroxyethylammonium picrate (HEAP) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudharsana, N.; Nagalakshmi, R.; Krishnakumar, V.; Sharma, A.; Fausto, R.; Row, T. N. Guru; Pal, Rumpa

    2012-06-01

    Single crystals of hydroxyethylammonium picrate (C8 H10N4O8; HEAP) have been grown for the first time by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature, using ethanol as solvent. FT-IR and Raman spectra were recorded for HEAP at room temperature. The main vibrational bands related to NH3+ and CO- (picrate) groups, involved in charge transfer, are discussed. Second-order hyperpolarizability(γ) for the single crystal was evaluated theoretically to be 3.48×10-28 e.s.u. A Z-scan study of HEAP showed that the relative third-order nonlinear refractive index is -9.2×10-5cm2/W. The measured third-order nonlinear properties confirm the suitability of the crystal for optical limiting and switching applications.

  4. Fast heap transform-based QR-decomposition of real and complex matrices: algorithms and codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Artyom M.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we describe a new look on the application of Givens rotations to the QR-decomposition problem, which is similar to the method of Householder transformations. We apply the concept of the discrete heap transform, or signal-induced unitary transforms which had been introduced by Grigoryan (2006) and used in signal and image processing. Both cases of real and complex nonsingular matrices are considered and examples of performing QR-decomposition of square matrices are given. The proposed method of QR-decomposition for the complex matrix is novel and differs from the known method of complex Givens rotation and is based on analytical equations for the heap transforms. Many examples illustrated the proposed heap transform method of QR-decomposition are given, algorithms are described in detail, and MATLAB-based codes are included.

  5. Accounting for Heaping in Retrospectively Reported Event Data – A Mixture-Model Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Haim Y.; Lillard, Dean R.

    2012-01-01

    When event data are retrospectively reported, more temporally distal events tend to get “heaped” on even multiples of reporting units. Heaping may introduce a type of attenuation bias because it causes researchers to mismatch time-varying right-hand side variables. We develop a model-based approach to estimate the extent of heaping in the data, and how it affects regression parameter estimates. We use smoking cessation data as a motivating example, but our method is general. It facilitates the use of retrospective data from the multitude of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies worldwide that collect and potentially could collect event data. PMID:22733577

  6. Comparison of the Cumulative Incidence Rates of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis between 1970 and 2013 among Four State-Owned Colliery Groups in China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Han, Bing; Yuan, Juxiang; Suo, Xia; Qin, Tianbang; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the incidence characteristics of coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) based on data from four large state-owned colliery groups of China, by comparing the cumulative incidence rates of CWP. We investigated 87,904 coal workers from the Datong, Kailuan, Fuxin, and Tiefa Colliery Groups, who were exposed to dust for at least 1 year. The cumulative incidence rate of CWP was calculated with the life-table method and stratified analysis among coal workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. Our results showed the cumulative incidence rate of Datong was higher than that of any other colliery group among workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. For Datong workers who started their dust exposure in the 1970s, the cumulative incidence rates of CWP among tunneling, mining, combining, and helping workers were 34.77%, 10.20%, 34.59%, and 4.91% during the observed time of 34 years, respectively. For those in the 1980s, the cumulative incidence rates were 32.29%, 13.51%, 2.98%, and 0.47%, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. In conclusion, the Datong colliery has the highest cumulative incidence rate of CWP among the four studied collieries, followed by Kailuan. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. Additional dust-proofing measures for decreasing dust concentrations are still necessary. PMID:26133134

  7. Comparison of the Cumulative Incidence Rates of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis between 1970 and 2013 among Four State-Owned Colliery Groups in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Han, Bing; Yuan, Juxiang; Suo, Xia; Qin, Tianbang; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2015-06-30

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the incidence characteristics of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) based on data from four large state-owned colliery groups of China, by comparing the cumulative incidence rates of CWP. We investigated 87,904 coal workers from the Datong, Kailuan, Fuxin, and Tiefa Colliery Groups, who were exposed to dust for at least 1 year. The cumulative incidence rate of CWP was calculated with the life-table method and stratified analysis among coal workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. Our results showed the cumulative incidence rate of Datong was higher than that of any other colliery group among workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. For Datong workers who started their dust exposure in the 1970s, the cumulative incidence rates of CWP among tunneling, mining, combining, and helping workers were 34.77%, 10.20%, 34.59%, and 4.91% during the observed time of 34 years, respectively. For those in the 1980s, the cumulative incidence rates were 32.29%, 13.51%, 2.98%, and 0.47%, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. In conclusion, the Datong colliery has the highest cumulative incidence rate of CWP among the four studied collieries, followed by Kailuan. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. Additional dust-proofing measures for decreasing dust concentrations are still necessary.

  8. Coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield using vertical derivative technique of magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S. K.; Vaish, Jitendra; Kumar, Sahadev; Bharti, Abhay Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The present study deals with the coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield, India, using the magnetic method. It is based on the fact that rise in temperature would result significant changes in magnetic susceptibility and thermo-remanent magnetization (TRM) of the overlying rocks. Magnetism increases slowly with the rise of temperature until the Curie temperature. Generally, rock/ overburden loses magnetization and becomes paramagnetic due to heating to Curie temperature, which results with significant reduction in magnetic susceptibility. However, magnetism increases significantly after cooling below the Curie temperature. Several data processing methods such as diurnal correction, reduction to pole (RTP), first and second vertical derivatives have been used for analysis of magnetic data and their interpretation. It is observed that the total magnetic field intensity anomaly of the area varies approximately from 44850 to 47460 nT and the residual magnetic anomaly varies approximately from -1323 to 1253 nT. The range of the magnetic anomaly after RTP is approximately 1050-1450 nT. About 20 low magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with active coal fire regions and 11 high magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with non-coal fire regions using vertical derivative techniques.

  9. Role of arthropods in developing soils on mine spoils. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitford, W.G.; Elkins, N.Z.; Parker, L.W.

    1981-06-01

    In laboratory microcosms of coal mine spoil amended with bark and wood chips, the activity of termites increased organic matter and increased total nitrogen. Termite survival was reduced in microcosms with spoil and paper or straw amendments. Field studies evaluating the efficacy of organic amendments in developing a soil biota showed that decomposition rates of wood chip-bark amended spoil were the same as unmined soil and that decomposition rates were lower than all other mulch-spoil combinations. Wood and bark amended-spoil had the highest density and diversity of soil fauna. Top dressing spoils with borrow soil did not improve any of the soil biological parameters measured. Based on these data it was recommended that reclamation procedures be changed to eliminate borrow soil top-dressing and that wood removed from mined areas be returned to the contoured spoil as wood chip amendment in addition to straw mulch.

  10. Modeling of crushed ore agglomeration for heap leach operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhawan, Nikhil

    agglomeration, specifically crushed ore agglomeration. The experimental difficulties and how to overcome them are described. An empirical model that is readily useful for plant heap leach operations is shown in detail. The analysis of constituent particles within agglomerate size class is done with a partition model. The guest and host nature of particles, thus delineated, helps one to anticipate the nature of agglomerates that would be formed with a given ore size distribution. Thus, all aspects of batch agglomeration are addressed in this work.

  11. Heaping-Induced Bias in Regression-Discontinuity Designs. NBER Working Paper No. 17408

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreca, Alan I.; Lindo, Jason M.; Waddell, Glen R.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate that regression-discontinuity designs arrive at biased estimates when attributes related to outcomes predict heaping in the running variable. After showing that our usual diagnostics are poorly suited to identifying this type of problem, we provide alternatives. We also demonstrate how the…

  12. Heaping-Induced Bias in Regression-Discontinuity Designs. NBER Working Paper No. 17408

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreca, Alan I.; Lindo, Jason M.; Waddell, Glen R.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate that regression-discontinuity designs arrive at biased estimates when attributes related to outcomes predict heaping in the running variable. After showing that our usual diagnostics are poorly suited to identifying this type of problem, we provide alternatives. We also demonstrate how the…

  13. Heap leach cyanide irrigation and risk to wildlife: Ramifications for the international cyanide management code.

    PubMed

    Donato, D B; Madden-Hallett, D M; Smith, G B; Gursansky, W

    2017-06-01

    Exposed cyanide-bearing solutions associated with gold and silver recovery processes in the mining industry pose a risk to wildlife that interact with these solutions. This has been documented with cyanide-bearing tailings storage facilities, however risks associated with heap leach facilities are poorly documented, monitored and audited. Gold and silver leaching heap leach facilities use cyanide, pH-stabilised, at concentrations deemed toxic to wildlife. Their design and management are known to result in exposed cyanide-bearing solutions that are accessible to and present a risk to wildlife. Monitoring of the presence of exposed solutions, wildlife interaction, interpretation of risks and associated wildlife deaths are poorly documented. This paper provides a list of critical monitoring criteria and attempts to predict wildlife guilds most at risk. Understanding the significance of risks to wildlife from exposed cyanide solutions is complex, involving seasonality, relative position of ponding, temporal nature of ponding, solution palatability, environmental conditions, in situ wildlife species inventory and provision of alternative drinking sources for wildlife. Although a number of heap leach operations are certified as complaint with the International Cyanide Management Code (Cyanide Code), these criteria are not considered by auditors nor has systematic monitoring regime data been published. Without systematic monitoring and further knowledge, wildlife deaths on heap leach facilities are likely to remain largely unrecorded. This has ramifications for those operations certified as compliance with the Cyanide Code.

  14. Role of hydrogen ions in standard and activation heap leaching of gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubtsov, YuI

    2017-02-01

    The role of hydrogen ions in activation heap leaching of gold from rebellious ore has been studied, which has allowed enhancing gold recovery. The author puts forward a gold leaching circuit with the use of activated oxygen-saturated solutions acidified to pH = 6–9.

  15. Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.

    1990-10-01

    The development of environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impact of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun in order to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters and groundwaters likely to be disturbed by coal mining operation.

  16. Community of thermoacidophilic and arsenic resistant microorganisms isolated from a deep profile of mine heaps.

    PubMed

    Casas-Flores, S; Gómez-Rodríguez, E Y; García-Meza, J V

    2015-12-01

    Soluble arsenic (As) in acidic feed solution may inhibit the copper (Cu) bioleaching process within mine heaps. To clarify the effect of soluble arsenic on the live biomass and bioxidative activity in heaps, toxicological assays were performed using a synthetic feed solution given by a mine company. The microorganisms had previously been isolated from two heap samples at up to 66 m depth, and cultured using specific media for chemolithotrophic acidophiles (pH 1-2) and moderate thermophiles (48°C), for arsenic tolerance assay. The four media with the highest biomass were selected to assay As-resistance; one culture (Q63h) was chosen to assay biooxidative activity, using a heap sample that contained chalcopyrite and covellite. We found that 0.5 g/L of As does not affect living biomass or biooxidative activity on Cu sulfides, but it dissolves Cu, while As precipitates as arsenic acid (H3AsO4·½H2O). The arsenic tolerant community, as identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, was composed of three main metabolic groups: chemolithotrophs (Leptospirillum, Sulfobacillus); chemolithoheterotrophs and organoheterotrophs as Acidovorax temperans, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, P. mendocina and Sphingomonas spp. Leptospirillum spp. and S. thermosulfidooxidans were the dominant taxa in the Q63-66 cultures from the deepest sample of the oldest, highest-temperature heap. The results indicated arsenic resistance in the microbial community, therefore specific primers were used to amplify ars (arsenic resistance system), aio (arsenite oxidase), or arr (arsenate respiratory reduction) genes from total sample DNA. Presence of arsB genes in S. thermosulfidooxidans in the Q63-66 cultures permits H3AsO4-As(V) detoxification and strengthens the community's response to As.

  17. Depletion-Mode GaN HEMT Q-Spoil Switches for MRI Coils.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jonathan Y; Grafendorfer, Thomas; Zhang, Tao; Vasanawala, Shreyas; Robb, Fraser; Pauly, John M; Scott, Greig C

    2016-12-01

    Q-spoiling is the process of decoupling an MRI receive coil to protect the equipment and patient. Conventionally, Q-spoiling is performed using a PIN diode switch that draws significant current. In this work, a Q-spoiling technique using a depletion-mode Gallium Nitride HEMT device was developed for coil detuning at both 1.5 T and 3 T MRI. The circuits with conventional PIN diode Q-spoiling and the GaN HEMT device were implemented on surface coils. SNR was measured and compared for all surfaces coils. At both 1.5 T and 3 T, comparable SNR was achieved for all coils with the proposed technique and conventional Q-spoiling. The GaN HEMT device has significantly reduced the required power for Q-spoiling. The GaN HEMT device also provides useful safety features by detuning the coil when unpowered.

  18. Mycobacteria in water used for personal hygiene in heavy industry and collieries: a potential risk for employees.

    PubMed

    Ulmann, Vit; Kracalikova, Anna; Dziedzinska, Radka

    2015-03-04

    Environmental mycobacteria (EM) constitute a health risk, particularly for immunocompromised people. Workers in heavy industry and in collieries represent an at-risk group of people as their immunity is often weakened by long-term employment in dusty environments, frequent smoking and an increased occurrence of pulmonary diseases. This study was concerned with the presence of EM in non-drinking water used for the hygiene of employees in six large industrial companies and collieries. Over a period of ten years, 1096 samples of surface water treated for hygiene purposes (treated surface water) and treated surface water diluted with mining water were examined. EM were detected in 63.4 and 41.5% samples of treated surface water and treated surface water diluted with mining water, respectively. Mycobacterium gordonae, M. avium-intracellulare and M. kansasii were the most frequently detected species. Adoption of suitable precautions should be enforced to reduce the incidence of mycobacteria in shower water and to decrease the infectious pressure on employees belonging to an at-risk group of people.

  19. Mycobacteria in Water Used for Personal Hygiene in Heavy Industry and Collieries: A Potential Risk for Employees

    PubMed Central

    Ulmann, Vit; Kracalikova, Anna; Dziedzinska, Radka

    2015-01-01

    Environmental mycobacteria (EM) constitute a health risk, particularly for immunocompromised people. Workers in heavy industry and in collieries represent an at-risk group of people as their immunity is often weakened by long-term employment in dusty environments, frequent smoking and an increased occurrence of pulmonary diseases. This study was concerned with the presence of EM in non-drinking water used for the hygiene of employees in six large industrial companies and collieries. Over a period of ten years, 1096 samples of surface water treated for hygiene purposes (treated surface water) and treated surface water diluted with mining water were examined. EM were detected in 63.4 and 41.5% samples of treated surface water and treated surface water diluted with mining water, respectively. Mycobacterium gordonae, M. avium-intracellulare and M. kansasii were the most frequently detected species. Adoption of suitable precautions should be enforced to reduce the incidence of mycobacteria in shower water and to decrease the infectious pressure on employees belonging to an at-risk group of people. PMID:25749321

  20. Organizational change and marine environmental protection: The dredge spoil siting record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burroughs, R. H.

    1991-07-01

    Dredge spoil siting activities are reviewed over a decade to determine whether organizational changes within the Corps of Engineers produced changes in the environmental performance of the agency. Over the period neither the total amount of marine and estuarine dredging nor the incidence of siting spoil inside the baseline declined. Therefore, internal organizational changes do not appear to have affected the above measures of agency performance concerning protection of the marine environment. Furthermore, at least 3% of the spoil is estimated to be highly contaminated. In recent years this magnitude of contaminated spoils has been equivalent to ocean-dumped sewage sludge.

  1. Evaluation of Physical Coverings Used To Control Escherichia coli O157:H7 at the Compost Heap Surface ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Marion W.; Kim, Jinkyung; Jiang, Xiuping; Doyle, Michael P.; Erickson, Marilyn C.

    2011-01-01

    Throughout four field trials, compost heaps covered with finished compost maintained temperatures under the physical covering that were ca. 7 to 15.5°C higher, resulting in rapid Escherichia coli O157:H7 reduction, than those of the heaps covered with fresh straw or left uncovered. Our results validated recommendations made by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for covering fresh compost. PMID:21622780

  2. Vegetation dynamics in Bishrampur collieries of northern Chhattisgarh, India: eco-restoration and management perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Jhariya, M K; Yadav, D K; Banerjee, A

    2017-08-01

    Phytosociological study in and around reclaimed coal mine site is an essential requirement for judging restoration impact on a disturbed site. Various studies have been aimed towards assessing the impact of different restoration practices on coal mine wastelands. Plantation scheme in a scientific way is the most suitable approach in this context. During the present investigation, an effort have been made to assess the vegetation dynamics through structure, composition, diversity, and forest floor biomass analysis in and around Bishrampur collieries, Sarguja division, northern Chhattisgarh, India. We have tried to develop strategies for eco-restoration and habitat management of the concerned study sites. Four sites were randomly selected in different directions of the study area. We classified the vegetation community of the study sites into various strata on the basis of height. Two hundred forty quadrats were laid down in various directions of the study area to quantify vegetation under different strata. During our investigation, we found eight different tree species representing four families in the different study sites. The density of the various tree species ranged between 40 and 160 individuals ha(-1). The density of sapling, seedling, shrub, and herb ranged between 740 and 1620; 2000 and 6000; 1200 and 2000; and 484,000 and 612,000 individuals ha(-1), respectively, in different directions. The diversity indices of the tree reflected highest Shannon index value of 1.91. Simpsons index ranged between 0.28 and 0.50, species richness ranged between 0.27 and 0.61, equitability up to 1.44, and Beta diversity ranged between 2.00 and 4.00. Total forest floor biomass ranged between 4.20 and 5.65 t/ha among the study sites. Highest forest floor biomass occurred in the south direction and lowest at east direction. Total forest floor biomass declined by 6.19% in west, 13.10% in north, and 25.66% in east direction, respectively. The mining activities resulted

  3. Predicting ground-water movement in large mine spoil areas in the Appalachian Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wunsch, D.R.; Dinger, J.S.; Graham, C.D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Spoil created by surface mining can accumulate large quantities of ground-water, which can create geotechnical or regulatory problems, as well as flood active mine pits. A current study at a large (4.1 km2), thick, (up to 90 m) spoil body in eastern Kentucky reveals important factors that control the storage and movement of water. Ground-water recharge occurs along the periphery of the spoil body where surface-water drainage is blocked, as well as from infiltration along the spoil-bedrock contact, recharge from adjacent bedrock, and to a minor extent, through macropores at the spoil's surface. Based on an average saturated thickness of 6.4 m for all spoil wells, and assuming an estimated porosity of 20%, approximately 5.2 x 106 m3 of water is stored within the existing 4.1 km2 of reclaimed spoil. A conceptual model of ground-water flow, based on data from monitoring wells, dye-tracing data, discharge from springs and ponds, hydraulic gradients, chemical data, field reconnaissance, and aerial photographs indicate that three distinct but interconnected saturated zones have been established: one in the spoil's interior, and others in the valley fills that surround the main spoil body at lower elevations. Ground-water movement is sluggish in the spoil's interior, but moves quickly through the valley fills. The conceptual model shows that a prediction of ground-water occurrence, movement, and quality can be made for active or abandoned spoil areas if all or some of the following data are available: structural contour of the base of the lowest coal seam being mined, pre-mining topography, documentation of mining methods employed throughout the mine, overburden characteristics, and aerial photographs of mine progression.Spoil created by surface mining can accumulate large quantities of ground-water, which can create geotechnical or regulatory problems, as well as flood active mine pits. A current study at a large (4.1 km2), thick, (up to 90 m) spoil body in eastern

  4. Deviation of Zipf's and Heaps' Laws in Human Languages with Limited Dictionary Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Zipf's law on word frequency and Heaps' law on the growth of distinct words are observed in Indo-European language family, but it does not hold for languages like Chinese, Japanese and Korean. These languages consist of characters, and are of very limited dictionary sizes. Extensive experiments show that: (i) The character frequency distribution follows a power law with exponent close to one, at which the corresponding Zipf's exponent diverges. Indeed, the character frequency decays exponentially in the Zipf's plot. (ii) The number of distinct characters grows with the text length in three stages: It grows linearly in the beginning, then turns to a logarithmical form, and eventually saturates. A theoretical model for writing process is proposed, which embodies the rich-get-richer mechanism and the effects of limited dictionary size. Experiments, simulations and analytical solutions agree well with each other. This work refines the understanding about Zipf's and Heaps' laws in human language systems.

  5. Photochemical changes in cyanide speciation in drainage from a precious metal ore heap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.A.; Leinz, R.W.; Grimes, D.J.; Rye, R.O.

    2002-01-01

    In drainage from an inactive ore heap at a former gold mine, the speciation of cyanide and the concentrations of several metals were found to follow diurnal cycles. Concentrations of the hexacyanoferrate complex, iron, manganese, and ammonium were higher at night than during the day, whereas weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, silver, gold, copper, nitrite, and pH displayed the reverse behavior. The changes in cyanide speciation, iron, and trace metals can be explained by photodissociation of iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes as the solutions emerged from the heap into sunlight-exposed channels. At midday, environmentally significant concentrations of free cyanide were produced in a matter of minutes, causing trace copper, silver, and gold to be mobilized as cyanocomplexes from solids. Whether rapid photodissociation is a general phenomenon common to other sites will be important to determine in reaching a general understanding of the environmental risks posed by routine or accidental water discharges from precious metal mining facilities.

  6. Deviation of Zipf's and Heaps' Laws in Human Languages with Limited Dictionary Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Zipf's law on word frequency and Heaps' law on the growth of distinct words are observed in Indo-European language family, but it does not hold for languages like Chinese, Japanese and Korean. These languages consist of characters, and are of very limited dictionary sizes. Extensive experiments show that: (i) The character frequency distribution follows a power law with exponent close to one, at which the corresponding Zipf's exponent diverges. Indeed, the character frequency decays exponentially in the Zipf's plot. (ii) The number of distinct characters grows with the text length in three stages: It grows linearly in the beginning, then turns to a logarithmical form, and eventually saturates. A theoretical model for writing process is proposed, which embodies the rich-get-richer mechanism and the effects of limited dictionary size. Experiments, simulations and analytical solutions agree well with each other. This work refines the understanding about Zipf's and Heaps' laws in human language systems. PMID:23378896

  7. Development of a front end controller/heap manager for PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, M.N.; Allen, M.D.; Musrock, M.S.; Walker, J.W.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    A controller/heap manager has been designed for applicability to all detector subsystem types of PHENIX. the heap manager performs all functions associated with front end electronics control including ADC and analog memory control, data collection, command interpretation and execution, and data packet forming and communication. Interfaces to the unit consist of a timing and control bus, a serial bus, a parallel data bus, and a trigger interface. The topology developed is modular so that many functional blocks are identical for a number of subsystem types. Programmability is maximized through the use of flexible modular functions and implementation using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Details of unit design and functionality will be discussed with particular detail given to subsystems having analog memory-based front end electronics. In addition, mode control, serial functions, and FPGA implementation details will be presented.

  8. Deviation of Zipf's and Heaps' Laws in human languages with limited dictionary sizes.

    PubMed

    Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Zipf's law on word frequency and Heaps' law on the growth of distinct words are observed in Indo-European language family, but it does not hold for languages like Chinese, Japanese and Korean. These languages consist of characters, and are of very limited dictionary sizes. Extensive experiments show that: (i) The character frequency distribution follows a power law with exponent close to one, at which the corresponding Zipf's exponent diverges. Indeed, the character frequency decays exponentially in the Zipf's plot. (ii) The number of distinct characters grows with the text length in three stages: It grows linearly in the beginning, then turns to a logarithmical form, and eventually saturates. A theoretical model for writing process is proposed, which embodies the rich-get-richer mechanism and the effects of limited dictionary size. Experiments, simulations and analytical solutions agree well with each other. This work refines the understanding about Zipf's and Heaps' laws in human language systems.

  9. Comparative metagenomics reveals microbial community differentiation in a biological heap leaching system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qi; Guo, Xue; Liang, Yili; Hao, Xiaodong; Ma, Liyuan; Yin, Huaqun; Liu, Xueduan

    2015-01-01

    The microbial community in a biological heap leaching (BHL) system is crucial for the decomposition of ores. However, the microbial community structure and functional differentiation in different parts of a biological heap leaching system are still unknown. In this study, metagenomic sequencing was used to fully illuminate the microbial community differentiation in the pregnant leach solution (PLS) and leaching heap (LH) of a BHL system. Long-read sequences (1.3 million) were obtained for the two samples, and the MG_RAST server was used to perform further analysis. The taxa analysis results indicated that the dominant genera of PLS is autotrophic bacterium Acidithiobacillus, but heterotrophic bacterium Acidiphilium is predominant in LH. Furthermore, functional annotation and hierarchical comparison with different reference samples showed that the abundant presence of genes was involved in transposition, DNA repair and heavy metal transport. The sequences related to transposase, which is important for the survival of the organism in the hostile environment, were both mainly classified into Acidiphilium for PLS and LH. These results indicated that not only autotrophic bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus, but also heterotrophic bacteria such as Acidiphilium, were essential participants in the bioleaching process. This new meta-view research will further facilitate the effective application of bioleaching.

  10. Reestablishing natural succession on acidic mine spoils at high elevations: long-term ecological restoration

    Treesearch

    Ray W. Brown; Michael C. Amacher; Walter F. Mueggler; Janice Kotuby-Amacher

    2003-01-01

    Methods for restoring native plant communities on acidic mine spoils at high elevations were evaluated in a "demonstration area" in the New World Mining District of southern Montana. Research plots installed in 1976 were assessed for 22 years and compared with adjacent native reference plant communities. A 1.5-acre (0.61-ha) area of mine spoils was shaped and...

  11. Early growth tolerances of grasses, shrubs, and trees to boron in tunnel spoil

    Treesearch

    Parker F. Pratt; Eamor C. Nord; Francis L. Bair

    1971-01-01

    The effects of boron and salts in spoil material on survival and growth of 44 grass, shrub, and tree species were tested under greenhouse conditions. The spoil used was from the Angeles Tunnel of the California Aqueduct's West Branch now being built. Several species within each plant group apparently can tolerate boron, but field tests will be needed before most...

  12. Hybrid poplar on two anthracite coal-mine spoils: 10-year results

    Treesearch

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj

    1978-01-01

    Unrooted dormant cuttings of 28 hybrid poplar clones were planted on two graded anthracite coal-mine spoils derived from sandstone or from glacial till. Ten-year results show that the plantation survived very well (82 percent), but that growth was extremely varied. Spoil Characteristics and performance of individual clones are presented.

  13. Effects of spoil texture on growth of K-31 tall fescue

    Treesearch

    David H. Van Lear

    1971-01-01

    Growth of K-31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) was significantly affected by the particle-size distribution, or texture, of four spoils from eastern Kentucky. Growth on spoils having no toxic chemical properties generally was greatest where texture consisted of about equal quantities of soil-size material and a coarser fraction (2 mm. to 6.4 mm.),...

  14. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... channels. (a) All submerged spoil banks, or artificial islands resulting from the dredging of private... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. 67.15-10 Section 67.15-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  15. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... channels. (a) All submerged spoil banks, or artificial islands resulting from the dredging of private... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. 67.15-10 Section 67.15-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  16. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... channels. (a) All submerged spoil banks, or artificial islands resulting from the dredging of private... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. 67.15-10 Section 67.15-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  17. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... channels. (a) All submerged spoil banks, or artificial islands resulting from the dredging of private... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. 67.15-10 Section 67.15-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  18. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... channels. (a) All submerged spoil banks, or artificial islands resulting from the dredging of private... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. 67.15-10 Section 67.15-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  19. Multiple Genome Sequences of Important Beer-Spoiling Lactic Acid Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-10-06

    Seven strains of important beer-spoiling lactic acid bacteria were sequenced using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Complete genomes were obtained for strains of Lactobacillus paracollinoides, Lactobacillus lindneri, and Pediococcus claussenii The analysis of these genomes emphasizes the role of plasmids as the genomic foundation of beer-spoiling ability. Copyright © 2016 Geissler et al.

  20. Multiple Genome Sequences of Important Beer-Spoiling Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Andreas J.; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2016-01-01

    Seven strains of important beer-spoiling lactic acid bacteria were sequenced using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Complete genomes were obtained for strains of Lactobacillus paracollinoides, Lactobacillus lindneri, and Pediococcus claussenii. The analysis of these genomes emphasizes the role of plasmids as the genomic foundation of beer-spoiling ability. PMID:27795248

  1. 46 CFR 170.300 - Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration for free surface of spoil in... Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers. The calculations required by this subchapter for each self-propelled hopper dredge must include— (a) The free surface effect...

  2. Neural Correlates of the Perception of Spoiled Food Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Christoph A.; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta; Schupp, Harald T.

    2016-01-01

    The elicitation of disgust by the view of spoiled and rotten foods is considered as an adaptation preventing the ingestion of harmful microorganisms and pathogens. To provide an effective behavioral defense, inedible food items need to be detected automatically, i.e., in the absence of explicit processing goals, early in the processing stream, and triggering an alarm response, i.e., increased attentional capture. To examine these hypotheses, a set of stimulus material consisting of images of perishable foods (i.e., dairies, meats, fruits, and vegetables) at various stages of natural decay ranging from appetitive to disgusting was developed. In separate sessions, functional imaging and dense sensor event related potential (ERP) data were collected while participants (N = 24) viewed the stimulus materials. Functional imaging data indicated larger activations in the extrastriate visual cortex during the processing of inedible as compared to edible food items. Furthermore, ERP recordings indicated that the processing of inedible food stimuli was associated with a relative positivity over inferior occipital sensor sites already at early stages of processing (<200 ms), and subsequently, an increased late positive potential (LPP) over parieto-occipital sensor regions. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the brain’s sensitivity to visual cues of foods that are spoiled or rotten. PMID:27445746

  3. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W W; Mitchell, G A; McKendrick, J D

    1980-05-23

    Activities initiated after the start of the revegetation project on Alaskan coal mine spoils on September 1, 1979 have consisted mainly of some fall plantings (dormant seedings) and soil and coal spoil samplings and analyses. Because of the late summer start for the project, only a limited amount of field work could be initiated in plant material studies. This consisted of a fall planting at the Usibelli mine site at Healy in interior Alaska. The planting was intended to test the efficacy of seeding in the frost period following the growing season, requiring the seed to remain dormant over winter and to germinate when conditions become favorable in late spring. It also was intended as a comparison of a number of different grasses. Thirty entries were seeded in three replications. Fifteen species of grasses and a clover were included in the trial. The site provided for the trial was on overburden material along a streambed. Among the entries were eight cultivars of introduced grasses, five cultivars of native Alaskan germplasm, one introduced clover cultivar, and sixteen experimental grasses mainly of Alaskan origin.

  4. A geostatistical and sampling analysis of regraded spoil materials

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.C.; Brown, T.H.

    1990-12-31

    Characterization of the pH and acid-base account levels in regraded spoil materials from mining operations is a difficult task due to mixing and the directional nature of product extraction. Geostatistical analysis of regraded spoil materials is currently being studied as the eventual methodology for determining sample grid size and sub-sample number for minesoil monitoring programs in the State of Texas. It is anticipated that geostatistics will soon be utilized for similar reasons at mine sites in other regions. In view of this, it is necessary to develop a position on geostatistics as a method for determining sample intensity necessary to statistically characterize Acid Forming Material (AFM) conditions existing in post-mined soils. A group of six Texas lignite mines has been analyzed using geostatistical methods. Acid-base account and pH values were mapped at four levels in each site. Determinations as to the confidence of the sampling programs were performed for all sites. Recommendations and strategies were developed for future sampling programs. Additional techniques to minimize sub-sample spacing were also developed.

  5. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report for research

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W.W.; Mitchell, G.A.; McKendrick, J.D.

    1981-10-28

    Research on revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils and related topics was conducted at three mine locations in 1980 and 1981. One of the locations was at an active commercial mine, another at an abandoned mine, and the third at a test pit in a coal field that appears on the verge of development. The research included a number of plantings to test the adaptability of plant materials at various sites, time-of-planting and planting method trials, tests to determine fertilizer needs and plant responses to specific elements, numerous soil samplings to characterize minesoil materials and relate soil conditions to apparent performance of reclamation plantings that have been conducted at one mine over a period of nine years, base studies assessing faunal populations and their representation on replanted mine spoils, and studies of nutrient quality of native vegetation and reclamation plantings. This report will be presented in three sections. The first section will deal with the fertility and minesoil characterization studies, the second with the plant material studies, and the third with the faunal and plant quality studies.

  6. Preliminary study of the refaunation of alkaline shale coal surface mine spoil by soil arthropods

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, E.A.; Wilman, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    Soil sampling stations were laid out on (largely) untopsoiled shale surface mine spoil in 1979. Stations were located on spoil graded in 1978-1979, in ungraded spoil cast in 1972 and aerially seeded in 1973, and in adjacent off-mine woods and an old field. Additional stations were added in 1982 on spoil graded only 3.5 weeks - 3 months prior to sampling. Stations were located to include important variables typical of the mine. Of 17 classes-orders of arthropods recovered from all sites, only Acari (78-99% of total individuals) and Collembola (2-12%) were consistently widespread and numerous, and only Acari were important in the youngest spoils. A total of 69 mite families - superfamilies - were identified during the course of the study. Low-moderate mite populations were found in bare shale spoil graded only 3.5 weeks - 3 months prior to sampling, these distributed among 4 families. Samples from 1978-79 spoil contained 13 families 3-7 months after grading and 2 years later were comparable to off-mine sites both in numbers of individuals and number of families. Spoil from 1973 was comparable to off-mine sites in these 2 respects when first sampled. Earliest pioneer species were 3 (presumably) microherbivores, these remaining dominant for several years. Predatory mites appeared early and were well established less than a year after grading. Saprovores were absent or relatively scarce in the 2 youngest spoils, but well established in the 1973 spoil at first sampling.

  7. SEX, LIES AND SELF-REPORTED COUNTS: BAYESIAN MIXTURE MODELS FOR HEAPING IN LONGITUDINAL COUNT DATA VIA BIRTH-DEATH PROCESSES

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Forrest W.; Weiss, Robert E.; Suchard, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Surveys often ask respondents to report non-negative counts, but respondents may misremember or round to a nearby multiple of 5 or 10. This phenomenon is called heaping, and the error inherent in heaped self-reported numbers can bias estimation. Heaped data may be collected cross-sectionally or longitudinally and there may be covariates that complicate the inferential task. Heaping is a well-known issue in many survey settings, and inference for heaped data is an important statistical problem. We propose a novel reporting distribution whose underlying parameters are readily interpretable as rates of misremembering and rounding. The process accommodates a variety of heaping grids and allows for quasi-heaping to values nearly but not equal to heaping multiples. We present a Bayesian hierarchical model for longitudinal samples with covariates to infer both the unobserved true distribution of counts and the parameters that control the heaping process. Finally, we apply our methods to longitudinal self-reported counts of sex partners in a study of high-risk behavior in HIV-positive youth. PMID:26500711

  8. Waste heaps left by historical Zn-Pb ore mining are hotspots of species diversity of beech forest understory vegetation.

    PubMed

    Woch, Marcin W; Stefanowicz, Anna M; Stanek, Małgorzata

    2017-12-01

    Metalliferous mining and smelting industries are associated with very high levels of heavy metal(loid) contamination of the environment. Heavy metals have been proved to significantly influence the species diversity and composition of grassland communities, but little is known on their effects on forest understory vegetation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the presence of small heaps of waste rock left by historical Zn-Pb ore mining on understory vegetation. The heaps are scattered over vast areas of beech forests in southern Poland. Three types of study plots were established: (1) on waste heaps themselves, (2) in their vicinity (5-10m from the foot of the heaps, with no waste rock but potentially influenced by the heaps through drainage water), and (3) at least 100m from the foot of the heaps (pseudo-control). In all plots vegetation parameters, i.e., plant species number, cover and community composition, life forms and strategies, as well as basic soil properties were assessed. Although the heaps contained high concentrations of metals, namely Cd, Pb and Zn, they were characterised by higher cover and diversity of understory vegetation, including ancient forest and endangered species, in comparison to their surroundings. They were also characterised by the distinct species composition of their plant communities. This might have resulted from the beneficial influence of high pH and Ca content originating from waste rock composed of dolomite and calcite, as well as from increased habitat heterogeneity, e.g. soil skeleton and steeper slopes. Another important factor influencing the richness and composition of understory was tree cover, which relates to the light transmissibility of the canopy. Our study proved that the disturbance brought about by the former mining and processing of metal ores led to the formation of species-rich understory with high frequency and cover of naturally-valuable species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  9. Preparation of Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite with Novel In situ Ceramic Composite Particulates, Developed from Waste Colliery Shale Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkata Siva, S. B.; Sahoo, K. L.; Ganguly, R. I.; Dash, R. R.; Singh, S. K.; Satpathy, B. K.; Srinivasarao, G.

    2013-08-01

    A novel method is adapted to prepare an in situ ceramic composite from waste colliery shale (CS) material. Heat treatment of the shale material, in a plasma reactor and/or in a high temperature furnace at 1673 K (1400 °C) under high vacuum (10-6 Torr), has enabled in situ conversion of SiO2 to SiC in the vicinity of carbon and Al2O3 present in the shale material. The composite has the chemical constituents, SiC-Al2O3-C, as established by XRD/EDX analysis. Particle sizes of the composite range between 50 nm and 200 μm. The shape of the particles vary, presumably rod to spherical shape, distributed preferably in the region of grain boundaries. The CS composite so produced is added to aluminum melt to produce Al-CS composite (12 vol. pct). For comparison of properties, the aluminum metal matrix composite (AMCs) is made with Al2O3 particulates (15 vol. pct) with size <200 μm. The heat-treated Al-CS composite has shown better mechanical properties compared to the Al-Al2O3 composite. The ductility and toughness of the Al-CS composite are greater than that of the Al-Al2O3 composite. Fractographs revealed fine sheared dimples in the Al-CS composite, whereas the same of the Al-Al2O3 composite showed an appearance of cleavage-type facets. Abrasion and frictional behavior of both the composites have been compared. The findings lead to the conclusion that the in situ composite developed from the colliery shale waste material has a good future for its use in AMCs.

  10. Adaptation of Biscutella laevigata L, a metal hyperaccumulator, to growth on a zinc-lead waste heap in southern Poland. I: Differences between waste-heap and mountain populations.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicka, M; Pielichowska, M

    2004-03-01

    Biscutella laevigata is an herbal member of the Brasicacae family and a typical mountain species. It has recently been identified as a hyperaccumulator of lead, cadmium and thallium. Its northern reach runs through Poland, where it is found only in the west Tatra Mountains and on calamine waste heaps in the vicinity of Olkusz (Cracow--Silesian Highland). The peculiar distribution of this species in Poland prompted us to undertake studies to identify the traits that allow this typically mountain species to grow so robustly on industrial waste heaps near zinc and lead smelters in the vicinity of Olkusz. Populations of B. laevigata from waste heaps and the Tatra Mountains were compared both under field (natural) conditions and during cultivation of successive generations under laboratory conditions. It was found that the mountain and waste-heap populations of B. laevigata differed significantly. The plants in the mountain population had thicker leaves covered with cutin and a small number of hairs, whereas the plants from the waste-heap population had thin leaves covered with numerous hairs. The difference in leaf thickness between the two populations (0.15 mm on average) was due to increased dimensions of palisade mesophyl cells whereas the number of cells in their leaves remained similar. These traits were hereditary. This indicates that two geographically distant populations of plants followed two different evolutionary paths to adapt to xerothermic conditions. Moreover, it was shown that the waste-heap population of B. laevigata is more tolerant to heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium). In the presence of both zinc and lead, growth of the waste-heap plants was stimulated, while under the same conditions, growth of the mountain population was inhibited lower than 50%. This adaptation facilitates the growth of this population on industrial waste heaps. Our studies show that B. laevigata is a valuable species very well-suited for use in the recultivation of areas

  11. Heap: a highly sensitive and accurate SNP detection tool for low-coverage high-throughput sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaaki; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Takanashi, Hideki; Asano, Satomi; Kudo, Toru; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Nagano, Atsushi J; Tainaka, Hitoshi; Tokunaga, Tsuyoshi; Sazuka, Takashi; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Yano, Kentaro

    2017-08-01

    Recent availability of large-scale genomic resources enables us to conduct so called genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic prediction (GP) studies, particularly with next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. The effectiveness of GWAS and GP depends on not only their mathematical models, but the quality and quantity of variants employed in the analysis. In NGS single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling, conventional tools ideally require more reads for higher SNP sensitivity and accuracy. In this study, we aimed to develop a tool, Heap, that enables robustly sensitive and accurate calling of SNPs, particularly with a low coverage NGS data, which must be aligned to the reference genome sequences in advance. To reduce false positive SNPs, Heap determines genotypes and calls SNPs at each site except for sites at the both ends of reads or containing a minor allele supported by only one read. Performance comparison with existing tools showed that Heap achieved the highest F-scores with low coverage (7X) restriction-site associated DNA sequencing reads of sorghum and rice individuals. This will facilitate cost-effective GWAS and GP studies in this NGS era. Code and documentation of Heap are freely available from https://github.com/meiji-bioinf/heap (29 March 2017, date last accessed) and our web site (http://bioinf.mind.meiji.ac.jp/lab/en/tools.html (29 March 2017, date last accessed)). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  12. Biochars ability to sequester metals in contaminated mine spoils: A greenhouse study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Jeff; Johnson, Mark G.; Ippolito, Jim; Spokas, Kurt; Trippe, Kristin; Ducey, Tom; Sigua, Gilbert

    2017-04-01

    Biochars are under consideration as an amendment to remediate contaminated mine spoils and improving plant growth cover. Scientists from the USDA-ARS, US EPA, and Colorado State University have conducted a greenhouse experiment using Miscanthous (Miscanthus giganteus) biochar produced at 700⁰C to reclaim mine spoils obtained from the Formosa mine site (near Riddle, Oregon, USA). Spoil at this site is acidic and has elevated total and plant available copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations. Blue Wildrye (Elymus glaucus) was planted in mine spoil that was treated with Miscanthus biochar at 0, 1, 2.5 and 5% (w/w), lime, and N-P-K fertilizer. Mine spoil treated with biochar alone (no lime) along with samples (no lime or biochar) were also included. After almost 60 days of incubation, above ground and below ground wildrye samples were collected. Remaining spoils were then extracted with Mehlich 3 reagent and plant available Cu and Zn concentrations measured. Mehlich 3 extractable Cu and Zn concentrations decreased significantly only in the lime treated samples—their concentrations were not influenced by biochar. Our preliminary findings are that lime is an important amendment to reduce metal concentrations in mine spoils and that choice of biochar type must be carefully considered beforehand.

  13. Occurrence and activity of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms in alkaline coal strip mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Olson, G J; McFeters, G A; Temple, K L

    1981-03-01

    Spoils samples collected from a coal strip mine in southeastern Montana were examined for populations and activities of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Spoils examined were of three types: (a) acidic pyrite-rich waste coal, (b) oxidation halo material, and (c) alkaline material, which was the most widespread type. Bacterial numbers, sulfur oxidation, and(14)CO2 uptake activity declined to low levels in the summer when spoils were dry. Even in wetter spring months pyritic spoils contained relatively low numbers of acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, probably indicative of water stress since the same spoils incubated with excess water or dilute mineral salts showed considerably greater bacterial numbers and activity. Certain wells in coal and spoils aquifers contained substantial populations of iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria. However, these wells were always of alkaline or neutral pH, indicating that bacterial pyrite oxidation occurred where groundwaters contacted either replaced spoils or coal that contained pyrite or other metal sulfides. Bacterial activity may contribute to trace metal and sulfate leaching in the area.

  14. A column evaluation of Appalachian coal mine spoils' temporal leaching behavior.

    PubMed

    Orndorff, Zenah W; Daniels, W Lee; Zipper, Carl E; Eick, Matt; Beck, Mike

    2015-09-01

    Appalachian surface coal mine overburden affects water quality as drainage percolates through spoil disposal fills. This study evaluated leaching potentials of 15 spoils from south-central Appalachia. Most bulk samples were non acid-forming, all were low in total-S, (≤0.34%), and initial saturated paste specific conductance (SC) ranged from 264 to 3560 μS cm(-1). Samples were leached unsaturated (40 cycles) and leachates analyzed for pH, SC, and ion composition. Overall, leachates from unweathered spoils were higher in pH and SC than leachates from weathered spoils. Fine-textured spoils generally produced higher SCs than more coarsely textured spoils. Mean SC for all spoils decreased rapidly from an initial peak of 1468 μS cm(-1) (±150) to 247 μS cm(-1) (±23). Release patterns for most major ions reflected declining SC. Bicarbonate typically increased with successive leaches, replacing sulfate as the dominant anion. Column SC values were comparable to relevant published field data.

  15. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  16. Settlement of mine spoil fill from water infiltration: Case study in eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Karem, W.A.; Kalinski, M.E.; Hancher, D.E.

    2007-09-15

    Mine spoil valley fills are a by-product of mountaintop removal mining in the Appalachian coal mining region of the United States. These fills often result in large expanses of relatively flat land covering thousands of acres, which can be used for commercial or industrial development. However, this material is susceptible to damaging settlement, and highly publicized failures of structures built on mine spoil fills have led to reluctance on the part of investors to develop these areas. A key settlement mechanism in mine spoil is water infiltration. Percolating water slakes the shaly, angular spoil material at interparticle stress points, leading to excessive deformation and settlement. A lumber processing facility in Hazard, Ky., is an example of a structure that sustained serious damage as a result of settlement caused by water infiltration. A forensic site investigation of the facility revealed that excavation of existing surface mine spoil beneath the building footprint removed the low-permeability crust that forms on the top of mature mine spoil fill deposits. The removal of the crust allowed the infiltration of surface water. This, coupled with the unique configuration of the storm water drainage system at the facility and surface water drainage toward the building, led to differential settlement up to 1:120 (vertical: horizontal) and angular distortion up to 1: 150 over a period of several months. Foundation underpinning was performed to remedy the situation. For future development on mine spoil sites, recommended mitigating measures include presaturation of the mine spoil, design of drainage systems to adequately convey surface water away from the building, and use of geosynthetic barrier layers to prevent infiltration of surface water into the mine spoil beneath the structure.

  17. Fundamental Study of Three-dimensional Fast Spin-echo Imaging with Spoiled Equilibrium Pulse.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Masashi; Kaji, Naoto; Tsuchihashi, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional fast spin-echo (3D FSE) imaging with variable refocusing flip angle has been recently applied to pre- or post-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. To reduce the acquisition time, this sequence requires higher echo train length (ETL), which potentially causes decreased T1 contrast. Spoiled equilibrium (SpE) pulse consists of a resonant +90° radiofrequency (RF) pulse and is applied at the end of the echo train. This +90° RF pulse brings residual transverse magnetization to the negative longitudinal axis, which makes it possible to increase T1 contrast. The purpose of our present study was to examine factors that influence the effect of spoiled equilibrium pulse and the relationship between T1 contrast improvement and imaging parameters and to understand the characteristics of spoiled equilibrium pulse. Phantom studies were conducted using an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phantom made of polyvinyl alcohol gel. To evaluate the effect of spoiled equilibrium pulse with changes in repetition time (TR), ETL, and refocusing flip angle, we measured the signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The effect of spoiled equilibrium pulse was evaluated by calculating the enhancement rate of CNR. The factors that influence the effect of spoiled equilibrium pulse are TR, ETL, and relaxation time of tissues. Spoiled equilibrium pulse is effective with increasing TR and decreasing ETL. The shorter the T1 value, the better the spoiled equilibrium pulse functions. However, for tissues in which the T1 value is long (>600 ms), at a TR of 600 ms, improvement in T1 contrast by applying spoiled equilibrium pulse cannot be expected.

  18. Heap leaching of lead contaminated soil using biodegradable chelator [S,S]-ethylenediamine disuccinate.

    PubMed

    Finzgar, N; Kos, B; Lestan, D

    2005-05-01

    The feasibility of heap leaching Pb contaminated soil using biodegradable chelator [S,S]-ethylenediamine disuccinate ([S,S]-EDDS) in concentrations ranging from 10 to 40 mmol kg(-1) was assessed in a laboratory study. Treatment with 40 mmol kg(-1) [S,S]-EDDS was the most efficient, removing 31.3% of soil Pb and producing a waste washing solution with a peak Pb concentration slightly exceeding 10 mM. The removal of Pb from simulated washing solution containing 10 mM Pb by biodegradation of the Pb-[S,S]-EDDS complex and sorption of the released Pb on a vermiculite/soya meal/Slovakite based permeable bed was completed in 7.5 days. Lead recovery from washing solutions with higher molarity was significantly slower. Lead fractionation and bioavailability were assessed 6-months after soil treatment. Heap leaching removed Pb proportionally from carbonates (approx. 25% Pb) and organic matter (> 50% Pb), the two main Pb-bearing soil fractions,and increased the small pool of Pb soluble in the soil solution. The latter had no effect on Pb phytoavailability. Accumulation of Pb in leaves of the reported hyperaccumulator species Thlaspi goesingense was < 20 mg kg(-1) in all treatments, comparable to the Pb concentration in lettuce (Latuca sativa). Soil treatment with 40 mmol kg(-1) [S,S]-EDDS reduced concentrations of Pb orally-accessible in the stomach and intestine phase from initial 234.0 and 52.5 mg kg(-1) to 157.8 and 29.7 mg kg(-1), respectively, according to Ruby's test. Our results indicate that heap leaching of Pb with [S,S]-EDDS is not a viable remediation option for the tested soil and conditions used.

  19. Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane from cattle manure heaps: effect of compaction and covering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, D. R.

    The effect of compaction and covering during storage of beef cattle ( Bos taurus) farmyard manure (FYM) on ammonia (NH 3), nitrous oxide (N 2O) and methane (CH 4) emissions was determined. Gaseous emission measurements were made over three separate storage periods of between 90 and 109 days. The effect of the different storage treatments on manure chemical composition was also determined. Compaction was carried out as the manure was put into store and the compacted manures covered with plastic sheeting. Compaction and covering significantly reduced NH 3 emissions from manure by over 90% during the first summer storage period (P<0.05). Over the subsequent storage periods NH 3 emissions from the FYM were small and unaffected by storage treatment. However, during the second storage period heavy and persistent rainfall during heap establishment and the following week appeared to reduce NH 3 emissions markedly. The low ammonium-N content of the FYM in the third storage period may have reduced the risk of NH 3 emission and reduced the relative effect of the compaction/covering treatment. Compaction and covering also significantly reduced N 2O emissions from cattle FYM (P<0.05) by ca. 30% during the first storage period. Subsequent N 2O emissions were unaffected by treatment. Methane emissions from cattle FYM were unaffected by treatment over the first storage period and were decreased by compaction in the second storage period yet was increased by compaction during the third storage period. It would appear that compacting and covering manure heaps does have the potential to reduce emissions of both NH 3 and N 2O when the manure contains relatively high ammonium-N contents. Additional benefits are that N and K are retained in the manure heap for agronomic benefit.

  20. Method of operating a heap leach for recovering uranium and vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, S.; Skiles, D.O.; Hansen, D.J.

    1987-10-20

    A method is described of operating a heap leach for leaching uranium and vanadium from a uranium-vanadium bearing ore formed into a relatively tall heap from a mixture of coarsely crushed ore and concentrated sulfuric acid. It consists of leaching the heap in sections in multiple cycles in accordance with a leaching operation comprising the steps o: (a) applying a dilute solution of between 1 to 5% sulfuric acid to the first section at a predetermined average flow rate over a predetermined time; (b) directing the leach liquor output into a product liquor sump for direct delivery to a processing plant for extracting uranium values; (c) applying a stronger acid solution of between 10 to 20% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to the first section upon completion of step (a); (d) directing the leach liquor output into a high grade recycle pond; (e) recycling the leach liquor through the first section a predetermined multiple number of times; (f) directing the output leach liquor into the product liquor sump for direct delivery to the processing plant; (g) applying a fresh dilute acid solution as defined in step (a) to each section in a timed sequence upon substantial completion of the dilute acid application to the preceding section; (h) directing the leach liquor output of each section from step (g) to the product liquor jumps; (i) applying acid solution to each section in succession following the completion of step (g) in each corresponding section respectively; (j) directing the output leach liquor (i) into the high grade recycle pond; and (k) recycling the leach liquor (j) through each section a predetermined multiple number of times with the last cycle passed through the next section in succession before being sent to the product liquor sump in accordance with step (f).

  1. Effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities: A literature review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Paul M.; Garza, Eric L.; Butcher, Jason T.; Simon, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    Contaminated dredge spoil is a national concern due to its scope and effects on biota, water quality, and the physical environment. This literature review discusses the effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities. Plant communities naturally shift over time with changing environmental conditions. Addition of toxins and nutrients and changes in hydrology may influence plant community structure. The storage and disposal of nutrient and metal contaminated dredge spoils may cause shifts in nearby plant communities. Shifts in species composition and diversity may not be observed for decades after nutrient enrichment, causing any disturbance to remain undetected. Plant community shifts often have great amounts of inertia and are difficult to reverse.

  2. Influence of Blasted Uranium Ore Heap on Radon Concentration in Confined Workspaces of Shrinkage Mining Stope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Y. J.; Liang, T.; Ding, D. X.; Lei, B.; Su, H.; Zhang, Y. F.

    2017-07-01

    A calculation model for radon concentration in shrinkage mining stopes under various ventilation conditions was established in this study. The model accounts for the influence of permeability and area of the blasted ore heap, ventilation air quantity, and airflow direction on radon concentration in a confined workspace; these factors work together to allow the engineer to optimize the ventilation design. The feasibility and effectiveness of the model was verified by applying it to mines with elevated radon radiation exposure. The model was found to accurately changes in radon concentration according to the array of influence factors in underground uranium mines.

  3. How did women count? A note on gender-specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries.

    PubMed

    Földvári, Peter; Van Leeuwen, Bas; Van Leeuwen-Li, Jieli

    2012-01-01

    The role of human capital in economic growth is now largely uncontested. One indicator of human capital frequently used for the pre-1900 period is age heaping, which has been increasingly used to measure gender-specific differences. In this note, we find that in some historical samples, married women heap significantly less than unmarried women. This is still true after correcting for possible selection effects. A possible explanation is that a percentage of women adapted their ages to that of their husbands, hence biasing the Whipple index. We find the same effect to a lesser extent for men. Since this bias differs over time and across countries, a consistent comparison of female age heaping should be made by focusing on unmarried women.

  4. Success of trees and shrubs in an 18-year-old planting on mine spoil

    Treesearch

    Gary L. Wade; Ralph L. Thompson; Willis G. Vogel; Willis G. Vogel

    1985-01-01

    Reports the status of l&year-old plantings of 25 tree and 25 shrub species on surface-mine spoil. The value of the species for wood products, wildlife habitat, site stabilizers, and soil builders is discussed

  5. Sludge-Treated Coal Mine Spoils Increase Heavy metals in Cover Crops

    Treesearch

    F. C. McBride; C. Chavengsaksongkram; D. H. Urie

    1977-01-01

    Four species of forage were grown in a greenhouse on acid strip mine spoil treated with municipal sewage sludge. Foliar levels of heavy metals exceeded those recommended for animal consumption. No plant toxicity symptoms were evident.

  6. Microbial properties of mine spoil materials in the initial stages of soil development

    SciTech Connect

    Machulla, G.; Bruns, M.A.; Scow, K.M.

    2005-08-01

    The early years of soil genesis during mine spoil reclamation are critical for vegetative establishment and may help predict reclamation success. Mine spoils in the Halle-Leipzig region of Germany were analyzed for microbial changes following a hay mulch-seeding treatment without topsoil or fertilizer application. Microbial biomass carbon (C{sub mic}) and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) of spoils were measured each year in the first 3 yr after treatment. In the third year, bacterial community DNA fingerprints were compared with those from a reference soil. Microbial indicators were measured at three depths in the upper 10 cm of spoils at three sites with contrasting parent materials: glacial till (sandy loam), limnic tertiary sediments (high-lignite sandy clay loam), and quaternary sand and gravel (loamy sand). Before reclamation, C{sub mic} means and standard deviations of surface spoils (0-1 cm) were 9{+-}6, 39{+-}11, and 38{+-}16 mg kg{sup -1} for the loamy sand, high-lignite sandy clay loam, and sandy loam spoils, respectively. Within one year, mean C{sub mic} at the surface increased to 148{+-}70, 229{+-}64, and 497{+-}167 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively, and was significantly higher at 0 to 1 cm than at lower depths. Highest DHA and DNA yields were obtained in the 0- to 1-cm depth of the sandy loam spoils. Microbial biomass C values exhibited significant correlations with DHA, DNA yield, and extractable C for all three mine spoils. Soil microbial indices were more responsive than plant measurements to differences in parent materials.

  7. Interactions between properties of amended strip mine spoils and microbial activities

    SciTech Connect

    Utsalo, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Properties of strip mine spoils before and after amendment with varying levels of carbon and nitrogen sources are characterized and compared with properties of similarly amended garden soil samples. Changes in spoils as reflected in the stimulation of microbial populations, rate of nitrate formation, the turnover of microbial biomass and the growth yields of white clover and rye grass are evaluated. Limed spoils and garden soils were fertilized and incubated at 25/sup 0/C following amendments with organic substrates. Changes in parameters related to soil fertility status were analyzed on a weekly basis. The possible identity and the toxic effects on white clover and a Rhizobium of acidity factors present in strip mine spoils were evaluated using soil experiments and pure culture studies in artificial culture media. The results indicate that acid spoils contain low numbers of viable microorganisms which readily respond to soil amendment with substrates. No nitrification occurs in acid spoils but liming and inoculation with compost infusion stimulate active nitrification. Aluminum, manganese and acidity appear to be important factors which inhibit the survival of plants and microbes in spoils. Adequate liming improves rhizobial survival and growth and nodulation of white clover in spoils. Acidity factors have greater impact on Rhizobium than on the white clover host under nutritionally independent conditions. Increase in inoculum size enhances nodulation and growth of clover at low aluminum levels. Reducing the time of exposure of rhizobia to acidity factors outside the symbiotic host does not appear to enhance the growth yield of clover under symbiotic conditions. Molds appear to contribute more to the increased aggregate stability observed in amended soils than bacteria and actinomycetes.

  8. Viability of seed produced on highly sodic coal-mine spoils. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, B.Z.; McDonough, W.T.; Farmer, E.E.

    1984-10-01

    An adapted plant species must not only grow on a particular site, but also produce viable seeds capable of germination and establishment on the site. Ten species of rangeland grasses had been successfully used to revegetate sodic mine spoils at the Decker Coal Mine in southeastern Montana. However, the effect of the sodic spoils on seed viability, and hence the potential for regeneration, was unknown. Seeds produced by these plants were tested for viability and germination.

  9. Salt Content Determination for Bentonite Mine Spoil: Saturation Extracts Versus 1:5 Extracts

    Treesearch

    Marguerite E. Voorhees; Daniel W. Uresk

    2004-01-01

    The reliability of estimating salt content in saturated extracts from 1:5 (1spoil:5water) extract levels for bentonite mine spoil was examined by regression analyses. Nine chemical variables were examined that included pH, EC, Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, HCO3-, SO4-, and Cl-. Ion concentrations from 1:5 extracts were estimated with high predictability for Ca++, Mg++, Na+, SO4...

  10. Oxygen transport and pyrite oxidation in unsaturated coal-mine spoil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Weixing; Cravotta, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms of oxygen (02) transport in unsaturated mine spoil is necessary to design and implement effective measures to exclude 02 from pyritic materials and to control the formation of acidic mine drainage. Partial pressure of oxygen (Po2) in pore gas, chemistry of pore water, and temperature were measured at different depths in unsaturated spoil at two reclaimed surface coal mines in Pennsylvania. At mine 1, where spoil was loose, blocky sandstone, Po2 changed little with depth, decreasing from 21 volume percent (vol%) at the ground surface to a minimum of about 18 vol% at 10 m depth. At mine 2, where spoil was compacted, friable shale, Po2 decreased to less than 2 vol% at depth of about 10 m. Although pore-water chemistry and temperature data indicate that acid-forming reactions were active at both mines, the pore-gas data indicate that mechanisms for 0 2 transport were different at each mine. A numerical model was developed to simulate 02 transport and pyrite oxidation in unsaturated mine spoil. The results of the numerical simulations indicate that differences in 02 transport at the two mines can be explained by differences in the air permeability of spoil. Po2 changes little with depth if advective transport of 02 dominates as at mine 1, but decreases greatly with depth if diffusive transport of 02 dominates, as in mine 2. Model results also indicate that advective transport becomes significant if the air permeability of spoil is greater than 10-9 m2, which is expected for blocky sandstone spoil. In the advective-dominant system, thermally-induced convective air flow, as a consequence of the exothermic oxidation of pyrite, supplies the 02 to maintain high Po2 within the deep unsaturated zone.

  11. Identification of ecotype-specific marker genes for categorization of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Preissler, Patrick; Ehrenreich, Armin; Angelov, Angel; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-10-01

    The tolerance to hop compounds, which is mainly associated with inhibition of bacterial growth in beer, is a multi-factorial trait. Any approaches to predict the physiological differences between beer-spoiling and non-spoiling strains on the basis of a single marker gene are limited. We identified ecotype-specific genes related to the ability to grow in Pilsner beer via comparative genome sequencing. The genome sequences of four different strains of Lactobacillus brevis were compared, including newly established genomes of two highly hop tolerant beer isolates, one strain isolated from faeces and one published genome of a silage isolate. Gene fragments exclusively occurring in beer-spoiling strains as well as sequences only occurring in non-spoiling strains were identified. Comparative genomic arrays were established and hybridized with a set of L. brevis strains, which are characterized by their ability to spoil beer. As result, a set of 33 and 4 oligonucleotide probes could be established specifically detecting beer-spoilers and non-spoilers, respectively. The detection of more than one of these marker sequences according to a genetic barcode enables scoring of L. brevis for their beer-spoiling potential and can thus assist in risk evaluation in brewing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spoil handling and reclamation costs at a contour surface mine in steep slope Appalachian topography

    SciTech Connect

    Zipper, C.E.; Hall, A.T.; Daniels, W.L.

    1985-12-09

    Accurate overburden handling cost estimation methods are essential to effective pre-mining planning for post-mining landforms and land uses. With the aim of developing such methods, the authors have been monitoring costs at a contour surface mine in Wise County, Virginia since January 1, 1984. Early in the monitoring period, the land was being returned to its Approximate Original Contour (AOC) in a manner common to the Appalachian region since implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA). More recently, mining has been conducted under an experimental variance from the AOC provisions of SMCRA which allowed a near-level bench to be constructed across the upper surface of two mined points and an intervening filled hollow. All mining operations are being recorded by location. The cost of spoil movement is calculated for each block of coal mined between January 1, 1984, and August 1, 1985. Per cubic yard spoil handling and reclamation costs are compared by mining block. The average cost of spoil handling was $1.90 per bank cubic yard; however, these costs varied widely between blocks. The reasons for those variations included the landscape positions of the mining blocks and spoil handling practices. The average reclamation cost was $0.08 per bank cubic yard of spoil placed in the near level bench on the mined point to $0.20 for spoil placed in the hollow fill. 2 references, 4 figures.

  13. Succession on regraded placer mine spoil in Alaska, USA, in relation to initial site characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the rate and pattern of natural succession on regraded placer mine spoil in relation to initial substrate characteristics. The study site was the Glen Creek watershed of the Kantishna mining area of Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. After regrading, twelve 0.01-ha plots were established and substrate characteristics were measured. Natural plant succession was evaluated after five growing seasons. Three successional patterns were identified on the basis of plant community characteristics using cluster analysis, and were related to substrate characteristics. First, a riparian plant community with vigorous Salix alaxensis and Alnus crispa grew rapidly on topsoil that had been spread over the regraded spoil. Second, a similar plant community with less vigorous S. alaxensis developed more slowly on unprocessed spoil and spoil amended with a small amount of topsoil. Third, processed spoil remained almost bare of vegetation, although S. alaxensis was able to establish and persist in a stunted growth form. In contrast, Alnus crispa had difficulty establishing on processed spoil, but the few established seedlings grew well. Several substrate variables, including the proportion of silt and clay vs. sand, total nitrogen, and water retention capacity, were good predictors of the rate and pattern of succession. Total nitrogen was the best single predictor for the number of vigorous S. alaxensis.

  14. Succession on regraded placer mine spoil in Alaska, USA, in relation to initial site characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the rate and pattern of natural succession on regraded placer mine spoil in relation to initial substrate characteristics. The study site was the Glen Creek watershed of the Kantishna mining area of Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. After regrading, twelve 0.01-ha plots were established and substrate characteristics were measured. Natural plant succession was evaluated after five growing seasons. Three successional patterns were identified on the basis of plant community characteristics using cluster analysis, and were related to substrate characteristics. First, a riparian plant community with vigorous Salix alaxensis and Alnus crispa grew rapidly on topsoil that had been spread over the regraded spoil. Second, a similar plant community with less vigorous S. alaxensis developed more slowly on unprocessed spoil and spoil amended with a small amount of topsoil. Third, processed spoil remained almost bare of vegetation, although S. alaxensis was able to establish and persist in a stunted growth form. In contrast, Alnus crispa had difficulty establishing on processed spoil, but the few established seedlings grew well. Several substrate variables, including the proportion of silt and clay vs. sand, total nitrogen, and water retention capacity, were good predictors of the rate and pattern of succession. Total nitrogen was the best single predictor for the number of vigorous S. alaxensis.

  15. Water quality characteristics of discharge from reforested loose-dumped mine spoil in eastern Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Agouridis, Carmen T; Angel, Patrick N; Taylor, Timothy J; Barton, Christopher D; Warner, Richard C; Yu, Xia; Wood, Constance

    2012-01-01

    Surface mining is a common method for extracting coal in the coal fields of eastern Kentucky. Using the Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA), which emphasizes the use of minimally compacted or loose-dumped spoil as a growth medium for trees, reclamation practitioners are successfully reestablishing forests. Yet, questions remain regarding the effects FRA has on the quality of waters discharged to receiving streams. To examine the effect of FRA on water quality, this study compared waters that were discharged from three types of spoils: predominantly brown, weathered sandstone (BROWN); predominantly gray, unweathered sandstone (GRAY); and an equal mixture of both aforementioned sandstones and shale (MIXED). The water quality parameters pH, EC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, NO-N, NH-N, SO, Cl, TC, suspended sediment concentration (SSC), settleable solids (SS), and turbidity were monitored over a 2-yr period on six 0.4-ha plots (two replications per spoil type). Generally, levels of Cl, SO, Ca, NO-N, NH-N, SS, SSC, and turbidity decreased over time. The pH for all spoils increased from about 7.5 to 8.5. The EC remained relatively level in the BROWN spoil, whereas the GRAY and MIXED spoils had downward trajectories that were approaching 500 μS cm. The value of 500 μS cm has been reported as the apparent threshold at which certain taxa such as Ephemeroptera (e.g., Mayfly) recolonize disturbed headwater streams of eastern Kentucky and adjacent coal-producing Appalachian states.

  16. Merits of partial shielding in dumping sediment spoils.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jacob Hjelmager; Saremi, Sina; Jimenez, Carlos; Hadjioannou, Louis

    2015-12-15

    The commonly adopted method of dumping dredge spoil at sea using split-hull barges leads to considerable sediment loss to the water column and a subsequent dispersion of fine material that can pose a risk to sensitive "downstream" habitats such as coral reefs. Containing sediment loads using stitched closed geotextile bags is practiced for minimizing loss of contaminated sediment, but is expensive in terms of operational efficiency. Following promising observations from initial laboratory trials, the plunging of partially shielded sediment loads, released on open sea, was studied. The partial shielding was achieved with rigid, open containers as well as flexible, open bags. The loss of sediment from these modes of shielding was measured, and it was observed that even limited and unstitched shielding can be effective in debilitating the entrainment of water into the descending load. In particular, long-sleeved flexible bags practically self-eliminated the exposure of the load and thus losses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phytoextraction from mine spoils: insights from New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Losfeld, Guillaume; Mathieu, Romain; L'Huillier, Laurent; Fogliani, Bruno; Jaffré, Tanguy; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Increasing pressure on mineral resources has drawn research efforts into innovative supply and recycling. Metal-rich biomass produced in phytoextraction recently proved an interesting starting material for green chemistry. It allows the production of new catalysts, referred to as ecocatalysts. Ecocatalysts provide increased yields in chemical production and increased regio- and chemo-selectivity, which result in high added value. This new approach to using metal-rich biomass could spur the development of phytoextraction, a technique considered promising for long, yet without credible economic outlets. In this regard, metallophyte biodiversity hotspots, such as New Caledonia, are of particular interest for biomass supply. Potential phytoextraction from mine spoils using two species endemic to New Caledonia is discussed here. Geissois pruinosa, a hypernickelophore, and Grevillea exul, a Mn accumulator, were selected for these original experiments. The results presented here 20 months after plantation of young trees from a nursery show the interest of the approach. Mean Ni concentrations of up to 1513 mg kg(-1) are reported in G. pruinosa, as well as 2000 mg kg(-1) Mn in G. exul. Concentrations of Ni and Mn in the leaves of each species appear to be correlated with leaf age. Plantation of these species may also ensure mine reclamation, and experiments were conducted with the principles of ecological restoration in mind adding a further dimension to the approach.

  18. The accumulation of elements in plants growing spontaneously on small heaps left by the historical Zn-Pb ore mining.

    PubMed

    Stefanowicz, Anna M; Stanek, Małgorzata; Woch, Marcin W; Kapusta, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    The study evaluated the levels of nine metals, namely Ca, Cd, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Pb, Tl, and Zn, in soils and tissues of ten plant species growing spontaneously on heaps left by historical mining for Zn-Pb ores. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Tl, and Zn in heap soils were much higher than in control soils. Plants growing on heaps accumulated excessive amounts of these elements in tissues, on average 1.3-52 mg Cd kg(-1), 9.4-254 mg Pb kg(-1), 0.06-23 mg Tl kg(-1) and 134-1479 mg Zn kg(-1) in comparison to 0.5-1.1 mg Cd kg(-1), 2.1-11 mg Pb kg(-1), 0.02-0.06 mg Tl kg(-1), and 23-124 mg Zn kg(-1) in control plants. The highest concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn were found in the roots of Euphorbia cyparissias, Fragaria vesca, and Potentilla arenaria, and Tl in Plantago lanceolata. Many species growing on heaps were enriched in K and Mg, and depleted in Ca, Fe, and Mn. The concentrations of all elements in plant tissues were dependent on species, organ (root vs. shoot), and species-organ interactions. Average concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg were generally higher in shoots than in roots or similar in the two organs, whereas Cd, Fe, Pb, Tl, and Zn were accumulated predominantly in the roots. Our results imply that heaps left by historical mining for Zn-Pb ores may pose a potential threat to the environment and human health.

  19. Mine spoil acts as a sink of carbon dioxide in Indian dry tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Nimisha; Singh, Raj Shekhar; Nathanail, C Paul

    2014-01-15

    Economically important mining operations have adverse environmental impacts: top soil, subsoil and overburden are relocated; resulting mine spoils constitute an unaesthetic landscape and biologically sterile or compromised habitat, and act as source of pollutants with respect to air dust, heavy metal contamination to soil and water bodies. Where such spoils are revegetated, however, they can act as a significant sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through combined plant succession and soil formation. Revegetation, drainage, reprofiling and proper long term management practices help recapture carbon, improve soil quality and restore the soil organic matter content. A survey along an age gradient of revegetated mine spoils of 19 years in Singrauli, India by the authors showed an accumulation of total C in total plant biomass, mine soil and soil microbial biomass by 44.5, 22.9 and 1.8 t/ha, respectively. There was an increase in total sequestered C by 712% in revegetated mine spoils after 19 years, which can be translated into annual C sequestration potential of 3.64 t Cha(-1) yr(-1). Carbon sequestered in revegetated mine spoil is equivalent to 253.96 tonnes/ha capture of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). This indicates that mine spoil can act as a significant sink for atmospheric CO2. Annual C budget indicated 8.40 t Cha(-1) yr(-1) accumulation in which 2.14 t/ha was allocated to above ground biomass, 0.31 t/ha in belowground biomass, 2.88 t/ha in litter mass and 1.35 t/ha in mine soil. This shows that litter mass allocation is much important in the revegetated site. Decomposition of root and litter mass contributes C storage in the mine soil. Therefore, revegetation of mine soils is an important management option for mitigation of the negative impacts of mining and enhancing carbon sequestration in mine spoils. © 2013.

  20. Hydraulic properties of surface mine spoils of the northern Appalachian Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, J.W.

    1998-12-31

    Aquifer tests were conducted on over 125 mine spoil wells from 18 surface mines located in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky. These tests (primarily slug tests) were used to determine the range, variability, and predictability of surface mine spoil hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity). Test results show that hydraulic properties of mine spoil aquifers are highly variable and relatively unpredictable. Hydraulic conductivity ranged over 7 orders of magnitude from a very low permeability of 4.45 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} m/s to a highly transmissive 7.58 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} m/s. The hydraulic conductivity measured at mines with 5 or more wells frequently ranged over 3 orders of magnitude and none ranged less than one. A few statistical relationships between geologic and mining conditions and the hydraulic properties were observed. Spoil aquifers that were under 30 months old and those over 100 months old exhibited significantly lower (95% confidence level) hydraulic conductivities than those between 30 and 100 months old. The influence of spoil lithology on the hydraulic conductivity does not appear to be strong, probably because of masking by other factors introduced during reclamation. No significant trends were observed between spoil thickness and hydraulic conductivity. A comparison of hydraulic conductivity derived from slug and constant-discharge tests performed on the same wells indicate that slug tests tend to yield lower values. A few spoil wells exhibited an oscillatory water-level response during slug testing, similar to that observed during testing of some karst and glacial aquifers.

  1. Heaps of Shapes: Flow-Stabilized Solids with Non-Spherical Colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindauer, Scott; Shields, C. Wyatt, IV; Lopez, Gabriel P.; Daniels, Karen E.; Riehn, Robert

    Flow-stabilized solids are a class of fragile matter that are formed when a dense suspension of hard colloids is accumulated against a semipermeable barrier. We build a microfluidic device to confine Brownian particles in a quasi-2D channel; a controlled flow rate above a critical value forms flow-stabilized solids against the barrier. We extend prior work on submicron spherical particles, to particles of size 2-5 microns, and of various shapes: circular, rectangular, hexagonal, and triangular prisms. We perform experiments on these flow-stabilized solids to observe the angle of repose, packing fraction, and orientational order as a function of flow rate. We vary the flow rate quasi-statically in order to conduct the experiment at steady state. We find a critical flow rate below which no pile forms. In general, particles with less-circular shape form more stable heaps.

  2. Soil quality index for evaluation of reclaimed coal mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Masto, R E; Yadav, A; George, J; Ram, L C; Shukla, S P

    2016-01-15

    Success in the remediation of mine spoil depends largely on the selection of appropriate tree species. The impacts of remediation on mine soil quality cannot be sufficiently assessed by individual soil properties. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more holistic status of reclamation potentials of tree species. Remediation potentials of four tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo, and Leucaena leucocephala) were studied on reclaimed coal mine overburden dumps of Jharia coalfield, Dhanbad, India. Soil samples were collected under the canopies of the tree species. Comparative studies on the properties of soils in the reclaimed and the reference sites showed improvements in soil quality parameters of the reclaimed site: coarse fraction (-20.4%), bulk density (-12.8%), water holding capacity (+0.92%), pH (+25.4%), EC (+2.9%), cation exchange capacity (+46.6%), organic carbon (+91.5%), N (+60.6%), P (+113%), K (+19.9%), Ca (+49.6%), Mg (+12.2%), Na (+19.6%), S (+46.7%), total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (-71.4%), dehydrogenase activity (+197%), and microbial biomass carbon (+115%). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Selected indicators include: coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity. The indicator values were converted into a unitless score (0-1.00) and integrated into SQI. The calculated SQI was significantly (P<0.001) correlated with tree biomass and canopy cover. Reclaimed site has 52-93% higher SQI compared to the reference site. Higher SQI values were obtained for sites reclaimed with D.sissoo (+93.1%) and C.siamea (+86.4%).

  3. Characterization of Clostridium spp. isolated from spoiled processed cheese products.

    PubMed

    Lycken, Lena; Borch, Elisabeth

    2006-08-01

    Of 42 spoiled cheese spread products, 35 were found to harbor Clostridium spp. Typical signs of spoilage were gas production and off-odor. The identity was determined for about half of the isolates (n = 124) by Analytab Products (API), Biolog, the RiboPrinter System, 16S rDNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid analysis, or some combination of these. The majority of isolates were identified as Clostridium sporogenes (in 33% of products), but Clostridium cochlearium (in 12% of products) and Clostridium tyrobutyricum (in 2% of products) were also retrieved. Similarity analysis of the riboprint patterns for 21 isolates resulted in the identification of 10 ribogroups. A high degree of relatedness was observed between isolates of C. sporogenes originating from products produced 3 years apart, indicating a common and, over time, persistent source of infection. The spoilage potential of 11 well-characterized isolates and two culture collection strains was analyzed by inoculating shrimp cheese spread with single cultures and then storing them at 37 degrees C. Tubes inoculated with C. tyrobutyricum did not show any visible signs of growth (e.g., coagulation, discoloration, gas formation) in the cheese spread. After 2 weeks of incubation, tubes inoculated with C. cochlearium or C. sporogenes showed gas-holes, syneresis with separation of coagulated casein and liquid, and a change in color of the cheese. The amount of CO2 produced by C. cochlearium strains was approximately one-third that produced by the majority of C. sporogenes strains. To our knowledge, this is the first study to isolate and identify C. cochlearium as a spoilage organism in cheese spread.

  4. Lactobacillus cerevisiae sp. nov., isolated from a spoiled brewery sample.

    PubMed

    Koob, Jennifer; Jacob, Fritz; Wenning, Mareike; Hutzler, Mathias

    2017-09-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated TUM BP 140423000-2250T (=DSM 100836T=LMG 29073T), was isolated from spoiled beer. This bacterium did not form spores, and was catalase-negative and facultatively anaerobic. Its taxonomic position was determined in a polyphasic study. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity data showed that the strain belonged to the Lactobacillus genus with the nearest neighbours being Lactobacillus koreensis DCY50T (sequence similarity 99.5 %), Lactobacillus yonginensis THK-V8T (99.2 %) and Lactobacillus parabrevis LMG 11984T (98.7 %). Sequence comparisons of additional phylogenetic markers, pheS and rpoA, confirmed the 16S rRNA gene sequence tree topology. The maximum rpoA sequence similarity was 92.3 % with L. yonginensis THK-V8T. The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 50.0 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness showed that strain TUM BP 140423000-2250T could be clearly distinguished from L. koreensis DCY 50T (30.8±0.4 %) and L. yonginensis THK-V8T (23.6±5.9 %). The major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, summed feature 7 (comprised of C19 : 0 cyclo ω10c/C19 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0. Based on phenotypic and genotypic studies, the authors propose classifying the new isolate as a representative of a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus cerevisiae sp. nov. The type strain is deposited at the Research Centre Weihenstephan for Brewing and Food Quality as TUM BP 140423000-2250T (=DSM 100836T=LMG 29073T).

  5. Risk Identification and Prediction of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis in Kailuan Colliery Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Fuhai; Yuan, Juxiang; Sun, Zhiqian; Hua, Zhengbing; Qin, Tianbang; Yao, Sanqiao; Fan, Xueyun; Chen, Weihong; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior to 1970, coal mining technology and prevention measures in China were poor. Mechanized coal mining equipment and advanced protection measures were continuously installed in the mines after 1970. All these improvements may have resulted in a change in the incidence of coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP). Therefore, it is important to identify the characteristics of CWP today and trends for the incidence of CWP in the future. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 17,023 coal workers from the Kailuan Colliery Group were studied. A life-table method was used to calculate the cumulative incidence rate of CWP and predict the number of new CWP patients in the future. The probability of developing CWP was estimated by a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network for each coal worker without CWP. The results showed that the cumulative incidence rates of CWP for tunneling, mining, combining, and helping workers were 31.8%, 27.5%, 24.2%, and 2.6%, respectively, during the same observation period of 40 years. It was estimated that there would be 844 new CWP cases among 16,185 coal workers without CWP within their life expectancy. There would be 273.1, 273.1, 227.6, and 69.9 new CWP patients in the next <10, 10-, 20-, and 30- years respectively in the study cohort within their life expectancy. It was identified that coal workers whose risk probabilities were over 0.2 were at high risk for CWP, and whose risk probabilities were under 0.1 were at low risk. Conclusion/Significance The present and future incidence trends of CWP remain high among coal workers. We suggest that coal workers at high risk of CWP undergo a physical examination for pneumoconiosis every year, and the coal workers at low risk of CWP be examined every 5 years. PMID:24376519

  6. Identification of key odorants related to the typical aroma of oxidation-spoiled white wines.

    PubMed

    Silva Ferreira, Antonio César; Hogg, Timothy; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2003-02-26

    The oxidative degradation of white wines rapidly leads to a loss of their sensorial qualities. The identification of the most important descriptors related with oxidation-spoiled wine was performed by a trained sensory panel. The terms selected were "honey-like", "farm-feed", "hay", and "woody-like". By gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis three aromatic zones related to these descriptors in the oxidation-spoiled white wines could be determined. Comparison of the aroma extract dilution analysis aromagrams of oxidation-spoiled white wines and a nonspoiled wine showed the highest values of dilution factors were attributed to 3-(methylthio)propionaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN), and 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon). A "forced aging" experiment was implemented to simulate the typical oxidation-spoiled aroma. Samples rated with the highest score in the ranking test were also those that presented the highest concentration of these four molecules. To test the sensory impact of these substances, a normal wine (unspoiled) was spiked with these molecules (with the exception of TDN) singly and in combination, and the similarity value (SV) between samples and the oxidation-spoiled white wines was then determined. The highest value from the similarity tests was 5.4 when the three compounds were added simultaneously; 3-(methylthio)propionaldehyde alone was found to be responsible for 3.6, suggesting that, among the molecules studied, it is the most important contributor to the typical aroma of an oxidation-spoiled white wine.

  7. Recognizing critical mine spoil health characteristics to design biochars for site improvement to promote stabilizing plant growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biochar can be used as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated mine spoils for improved site phytostabilization. For successful phytostabilization to occur, biochar amendments must improve mine spoil health with respect to plant rooting plus uptake of water and nutrients. ...

  8. Evaluation of microbial populations, Rhizobium Trifolii, and endomycorrhizal associations in reclamation of surface mine spoils in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mott, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    The deficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus in mixed overburden mine spoils has resulted in interest in strategies to minimize fertilizer application. In this study, the abundance of microbial populations, with emphasis on those involved in nitrogen cycle transformations was estimated in variously aged spoils. Two beneficial plant-microbe associations, the clover-Rhizobium trifolii symbiosis and endomycorrhizal associations, were investigated in field and laboratory studies. While most groups of microorganisms regained pre-mining levels in revegetated spoils within 1.5 years after disturbance, algal populations were still reduced ten years after mining. Populations of nitrifying bacteria and asymbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria were as high in all spoils as in unmined soil. Indigenous populations of ineffective R. trifolii were present in spoil banks and older revegetated spoil. A laboratory study of survival of three commercial strains of R. trifolii for subterranean clover showed lethal effects of high temperature (45/sup 0/C) especially in moist spoil, and superior survival of strain 162X95. Endomycorrhizal associations, evaluated by assessment of root infection in bermudagrass, reached pre-mining levels by three to seven years after disturbance. Growth chamber studies to investigate the effects of the two symbiotic associations on subterranean clover in mine spoil at different fertility levels indicated that dual infection with Rhizobium and VAM fungi was most beneficial for plant growth, nitrogen fixation, and nitrogen and phosphorus contents.

  9. Recognizing critical mine spoil health characteristics to design biochars for site improvement to promote stabilizing plant growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biochar can be used as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated mine spoils for improved site phytostabilization. For successful phytostabilization to occur, biochar amendments must improve mine spoil health with respect to plant rooting plus uptake of water and nutrients. ...

  10. TEMPORAL COHERENCE AND FREQUENCY VS TIME CHARACTERISTICS OF A Q-SPOILED RUBY LASER,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    of change of the laser frequency during the Q-spoiled emission pulse is approximately twenty times the rate of change during a single spike of an...linear in the change in the number of excited states in the laser. Since the rate of change of population inversion during Q-spoiled emission is much...larger than for normal lasing it was expected, prior to this work, that a greater rate of change of frequency should be observed. This has now been confirmed. (Author)

  11. Current scenario of chalcopyrite bioleaching: a review on the recent advances to its heap-leach technology.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sandeep; Akcil, Ata; Pradhan, Nilotpala; Deveci, Haci

    2015-11-01

    Chalcopyrite is the primary copper mineral used for production of copper metal. Today, as a result of rapid industrialization, there has been enormous demand to profitably process the low grade chalcopyrite and "dirty" concentrates through bioleaching. In the current scenario, heap bioleaching is the most advanced and preferred eco-friendly technology for processing of low grade, uneconomic/difficult-to-enrich ores for copper extraction. This paper reviews the current status of chalcopyrite bioleaching. Advanced information with the attempts made for understanding the diversity of bioleaching microorganisms; role of OMICs based research for future applications to industrial sectors and chemical/microbial aspects of chalcopyrite bioleaching is discussed. Additionally, the current progress made to overcome the problems of passivation as seen in chalcopyrite bioleaching systems have been conversed. Furthermore, advances in the designing of heap bioleaching plant along with microbial and environmental factors of importance have been reviewed with conclusions into the future prospects of chalcopyrite bioleaching.

  12. Rhizosphere effect of colonizer plant species on the development of soil microbial community during primary succession on postmining sites

    SciTech Connect

    Elhottova, D.; Kristufek, V.; Maly, S.; Frouz, J.

    2009-07-01

    The impact of pioneer plant species Tussilago farfara on structural, functional, and growth characterization of microbial community colonizing the spoil colliery substrate was studied in a laboratory microcosm experiment. Microcosms consisting of spoil substrate (0.7 dm{sup 3} of tertiary alkaline clay sediment from Sokolov brown-coal mine area) from a pioneer site (without vegetation, 5 years after heaping) were cultivated in a greenhouse with one plant of this species. Plant roots substantially increased microbial diversity and biomass after one season (7 months) of cultivation. Roots influenced the microbial community and had nearly twice the size, higher growth, and metabolic potential in comparison to the control. The development of microbial specialists improves the plant nutrient status. Bacterial nitrogen (N{sub 2}) fixators (Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Rhizobium radiobacter) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were confirmed in the rhizosphere of Tussilago farfara.

  13. Microbiological and geochemical dynamics in simulated-heap leaching of a polymetallic sulfide ore.

    PubMed

    Wakeman, Kathryn; Auvinen, Hannele; Johnson, D Barrie

    2008-11-01

    The evolution of microbial populations involved in simulated-heap leaching of a polymetallic black schist sulfide ore (from the recently-commissioned Talvivaara mine, Finland) was monitored in aerated packed bed column reactors over a period of 40 weeks. The influence of ore particle size (2-6.5 mm and 6.5-12 mm) on changes in composition of the bioleaching microflora and mineral leaching dynamics in columns was investigated and compared to fine-grain (<2 microm) ore that was bioprocessed in shake flask cultures. Both column reactors and shake flasks were inoculated with 24 different species and strains of mineral-oxidizing and other acidophilic micro-organisms, and maintained at 37 degrees C. Mineral oxidation was most rapid in shake flask cultures, with about 80% of both manganese and nickel and 68% of zinc being leached within 6 weeks, though relatively little of the copper present in the ore was solubilised. The microbial consortium that emerged from the original inoculum was relatively simple in shake flasks, and was dominated by the iron-oxidizing autotroph Leptospirillum ferriphilum, with smaller numbers of Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus caldus and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans. Both metal recovery and (for the most part) total numbers of prokaryotes were greater in the column reactor containing the medium-grain than that containing the coarse-grain ore. The bioleaching communities in the columns displayed temporal changes in composition and differed radically from those in shake flask cultures. While iron-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria were always the most numerically dominant bacteria in the medium-grain column bioreactor, there were major shifts in the most abundant species present, with the type strain of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans dominating in the early phase of the experiment and other bacteria (At. ferrooxidans NO37 and L. ferriphilum) dominating from week 4 to week 40. With the coarse-grain column bioreactor, similar

  14. Changes in concentrations of fluoroquinolones and of ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in chicken feces and manure stored in a heap.

    PubMed

    Moraru, Ramona; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Jadas-Hecart, Alain; Kempf, Isabelle; Ziebal, Christine; Kervarrec, Magalie; Comunal, Pierre-Yves; Mares, Mihai; Dabert, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of storing chicken manure on the degradation of enrofloxacin (ENR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP), and on the survival of CIP-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. At 24 d of age, half of 8900 chickens received ENR for 5 d. After the animals departed, their manure was stored in two heaps for 63 d. Enterobacteriaceae were cultured on media containing 0 to 32 mg L⁻¹ of CIP. A total of 320 isolates were fingerprinted using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) to evaluate community structure. Initial concentrations of ENR and CIP in the heap were 22 and 1.8 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. Seventy-three percent of the two fluoroquinolones were eliminated during storage. The administration of ENR led to a 5.1 log₋₁₀ decrease in Enterobacteriaceae concentrations and emergence of CIP-resistant bacteria, which became dominant in the feces. concentrations decreased 1.2 to 2.3 log₋₁₀ 2 d after the heaps were made and continued to decline during storage. No resistant were found by Day 63. The highest CIP minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values observed among isolates of and of both and sp. were 128 and 4 mg L⁻¹, respectively. The dominant ERIC-PCR profiles changed over time. There was no relationship between genotype and resistance-isolated strains to CIP. Storing chicken manure in heaps appeared to be an effective way of limiting the entrance of CIP-resistant E. coli into the environment but did not prevent the dissemination of fluoroquinolones after land spreading. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. [Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the vegetation restoration of different types of coal mine spoil banks].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ren-Xin; Guo, Wei; Fu, Rui-Ying; Zhao, Wen-Jing; Guo, Jiang-Yuan; Bi, Na; Zhang, Jun

    2013-11-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus etunicatum (GE) and Glomus versiforme (GV) on the plant growth, nutrient uptake, C: N: P stoichiometric, uptake of heavy metals by maize (Zea mays L.) grown in three types of coal mine spoil banks. The aim was to provide a technical basis for the revegetation of coal mine spoil banks in grassland ecosystem. The results indicated that the symbiotic associations were successfully established between two isolates and maize grown in the three substrates, with an average mycorrhizal colonization rate ranging from 36% to 54%. The colonization of two AM fungi significantly increased the dry weight of maize grown in recent discharged and weathered coal mine spoils and GE increased those grown in weathered coal mine spoil. Inoculation with AM fungi promoted the uptake of N, P and K by maize to varying degrees. In addition, inoculation with GE and GV also decreased C: N: P ratios, supporting the growth rate hypothesis, and had significantly differences on concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in shoots and roots of maize. The results indicated that GE and GV had different mycorrhizal effects on maize in the three types of substrates. GV was more suitable for the revegetation of recent discharged coal mine spoil and weathered coal mine spoil, while GE was more suitable for the revegetation of spontaneous combusted coal mine spoil. The experiment demonstrates that AM fungi have a potential role for maize to enhance the ability to adapt the composite adversity of different types of coal mine spoil and play a positive role in the revegetation of different coal mine spoil banks. Further field experiments should be conducted to evaluate the practical effects of AM fungi on the vegetation restoration of different types of coal mine spoil under field conditions.

  16. Evaluation of fluorine release from air deposited coal spoil piles: A case study at Yangquan city, northern China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xubo; Hu, Yandi; Li, Chengcheng; Dai, Chong; Li, Liang; Ou, Xiong; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-03-01

    The fluorine content of coal has been well documented, while such data of coal spoil are limited. In the present paper, fluorine in coal spoils and its releasing behavior were studied via leaching and combustion tests, as well as field investigation. Fluoride pollution in groundwater and soil occurred in the air depositing areas of coal spoils. The average content of fluorine in coal spoils was 525 mg/kg with the highest value of 1885 mg/kg. The only XRD detectable inorganic fluorine phase was fluorphlogopite. The absence of major fluorine bearing minerals in coal spoils suggested that bulk fluorine, rather than trace phases, resided in the mineral matrix. The major extracted species were water soluble fluorine and exchangeable fluorine in the coal spoils. Batch leaching tests illustrated that the leachable fluoride in coal spoils was widely distributed, ranging from 2.0 to 108.4 mg/kg. Column leaching tests showed a clear pH-dependent leaching behavior of fluorine: lower pH situation led to fluorine release from the mineral matrix; the loosely bound or easily exchangeable fluorine was also flushed out of the column. The higher ion strength or alkaline bicarbonate/carbonate rich leaching solution tended to free more fluorine into the acidic aqueous solution. The leachable fluorine in coal spoils was estimated as ca. 6%, based on the results of leaching tests. Also, our research found that over 90% of fluorine in coal spoils could be released into the atmosphere as a result of spontaneous combustion, accounting for over 40% of the total atmospheric fluorine emissions in northern China. Our investigation suggests that it is urgent to conduct comprehensive studies to assist the management and control of fluorine pollution at coal spoil banks.

  17. Thin-layer heap bioleaching of copper flotation tailings containing high levels of fine grains and microbial community succession analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xiao-dong; Liang, Yi-li; Yin, Hua-qun; Liu, Hong-wei; Zeng, Wei-min; Liu, Xue-duan

    2017-04-01

    Thin-layer heap bioleaching of copper flotation tailings containing high levels of fine grains was carried out by mixed cultures on a small scale over a period of 210 d. Lump ores as a framework were loaded at the bottom of the ore heap. The overall copper leaching rates of tailings and lump ores were 57.10wt% and 65.52wt%, respectively. The dynamic shifts of microbial community structures about attached microorganisms were determined using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform based on 16S rRNA amplification strategy. The results indicated that chemolithotrophic genera Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum were always detected and dominated the microbial community in the initial and middle stages of the heap bioleaching process; both genera might be responsible for improving the copper extraction. However, Thermogymnomonas and Ferroplasma increased gradually in the final stage. Moreover, the effects of various physicochemical parameters and microbial community shifts on the leaching efficiency were further investigated and these associations provided some important clues for facilitating the effective application of bioleaching.

  18. Sprouting of thinned hybrid poplars on bituminous strip-mine spoils in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Walter H. Davidson; Grant Davis

    1972-01-01

    Various thinning techniques were applied to 5-year old hybrid poplar stands on bituminous strip-mine spoils. Basal and stump sprays of 2, 4, 5-T in diesel oil were effective for killing the trees. There was no evidence that chemical treatments affected adjacent trees. Where trees were cut and stumps were not chemically treated, all clones sprouted prolifically....

  19. Multiple Genome Sequences of the Important Beer-Spoiling Species Lactobacillus backii

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Andreas J.; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus backii is an important beer-spoiling species. Five strains isolated from four different breweries were sequenced using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Five complete genomes were generated, which will help to understand niche adaptation to beer and provide the basis for consecutive analyses. PMID:27563041

  20. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 816.74 Section 816.74 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.74 Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches. (a) The regulatory... this part. (c) The fill shall be designed and constructed using current, prudent engineering practices...

  1. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity transported...

  2. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity transported...

  3. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  4. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  5. Shrub and tree establishment on coal spoils in northern High Plains - USA

    Treesearch

    Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1984-01-01

    Trickle irrigation, during establishment, increased survival two fold for seven species of shrubs and trees planted on coal mine spoil in the semiarid area of northeastern Wyoming, USA. Increased survival of irrigated plants persisted for five years after initiation of this study, which included two growing and winter seasons after cessation of irrigation. Species...

  6. An evaluation of trees and shrubs for planting surface-mine spoils

    Treesearch

    William T. Plass

    1975-01-01

    Fifty-five tree and shrub species were evaluated on two surface-mine sites in eastern Kentucky. After 4 years' growth, comparison of survival and growth was used to identify the promising species for planting on acid surface-mine spoils. Three species of birch and three Eleagnus species survived and grew well on a range of sites. Noncommercial...

  7. Genome Sequence of Rapid Beer-Spoiling Isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464

    PubMed Central

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Pittet, Vanessa; Ewen, Emily; Baecker, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The genome of brewery-isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 was sequenced and assembly produced a chromosome and eight plasmids. This bacterium tolerates dissolved CO2/pressure and can rapidly spoil packaged beer. This genome is useful for analyzing the genetics associated with beer spoilage by lactic acid bacteria. PMID:26634759

  8. Genome Sequence of Rapid Beer-Spoiling Isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464.

    PubMed

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Pittet, Vanessa; Ewen, Emily; Baecker, Nina; Ziola, Barry

    2015-12-03

    The genome of brewery-isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 was sequenced and assembly produced a chromosome and eight plasmids. This bacterium tolerates dissolved CO2/pressure and can rapidly spoil packaged beer. This genome is useful for analyzing the genetics associated with beer spoilage by lactic acid bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Bergsveinson et al.

  9. Multiple Genome Sequences of the Important Beer-Spoiling Species Lactobacillus backii.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-08-25

    Lactobacillus backii is an important beer-spoiling species. Five strains isolated from four different breweries were sequenced using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Five complete genomes were generated, which will help to understand niche adaptation to beer and provide the basis for consecutive analyses. Copyright © 2016 Geissler et al.

  10. 30 CFR 77.1000 - Highwalls, pits and spoil banks; plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Highwalls, pits and spoil banks; plans. 77.1000 Section 77.1000 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... developed after June 30, 1971, which shall be consistent with prudent engineering design and will insure...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1000 - Highwalls, pits and spoil banks; plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Highwalls, pits and spoil banks; plans. 77.1000 Section 77.1000 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... developed after June 30, 1971, which shall be consistent with prudent engineering design and will insure...

  12. Comparison of Five Woody Species for Reclamation of an Upper Coastal Plain Spoil Bank

    Treesearch

    J.W. McMinn; R.R. Roth; C.R. Berry; W.H. McNab

    1980-01-01

    Third-year survival and height are compared for autumn olive. European black alder, flowering crab apple, sawtooth oak, and Virginia pine on a sandy clay loam spoil bank in South Carolina. Flowering crab apple and sawtooth oak exhibited the best survival, while autumn olive and European black alder had greater height growth. Only European black alder failed to become...

  13. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incorporated into the design and construction of the fill as follows. (1) The fill shall have, along the... spoil fill and from seeps and springs in the foundation of the disposal area. Rocks used in the rock... maintained at the head of the fill during and after construction, to intercept surface runoff and...

  14. Rabbits and Grasshoppers: Vectors of Endomycorrhizal Fungi on New Coal Mine Spoil

    Treesearch

    Felix Jr. Ponder

    1980-01-01

    Rabbit droppings and grasshoppers were collected on recently graded coal mine spoil to determine if they were vectors of endomycorrhizal fingi. After 6 weeks of growth, roots of rye grass and sudan grass grown in mixtures of sterilized sand containing either unsterilized rabbit droppings or grasshoppers were endomycorrhizal, while the roots of plants grown in...

  15. 46 CFR 170.300 - Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers. 170.300 Section 170.300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY STABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Free Surface §...

  16. Assessment of EDTA heap leaching of an agricultural soil highly contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengjie; Yang, Bingfan; Dong, Changxun; Chen, Like; Cao, Xueying; Zhao, Jie; Wu, Longhua; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The efficiency of heavy metal removal from soil by EDTA leaching was assessed in a column leaching experiment at the laboratory scale and field heap leaching at the pilot scale using a sandy loam sierozem agricultural soil contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Soil amendment and aging were conducted to recover leaching soils. The percentages of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn removed by column leaching were 90%, 88%, 90%, and 67%, respectively, when 3.9 bed volumes of 50mM EDTA were used. At the pilot scale, on-site metal removal efficiencies using the selected leaching procedure were 80%, 69%, 73% and 62% for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively. EDTA leaching decreased soil CEC, total P, total K and available K concentrations but increased organic matter and total Kjeldahl N concentrations. The subsequent amendment and soil aging further reduced the DTPA-extractable heavy metals in the leached soils. Growth of the first crop of pak choi in the leached soil was inhibited but the second crop grew well after the soil was aged for one year and the concentrations of Cd and Pb in the edible parts were below the Chinese statutory limits. The results demonstrate the potential feasibility of the field leaching technique using EDTA combined with subsequent amendment and soil aging for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated agricultural soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A scaling law beyond Zipf's law and its relation to Heaps' law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font-Clos, Francesc; Boleda, Gemma; Corral, Álvaro

    2013-09-01

    The dependence on text length of the statistical properties of word occurrences has long been considered a severe limitation on the usefulness of quantitative linguistics. We propose a simple scaling form for the distribution of absolute word frequencies that brings to light the robustness of this distribution as text grows. In this way, the shape of the distribution is always the same, and it is only a scale parameter that increases (linearly) with text length. By analyzing very long novels we show that this behavior holds both for raw, unlemmatized texts and for lemmatized texts. In the latter case, the distribution of frequencies is well approximated by a double power law, maintaining the Zipf's exponent value γ ≃ 2 for large frequencies but yielding a smaller exponent in the low-frequency regime. The growth of the distribution with text length allows us to estimate the size of the vocabulary at each step and to propose a generic alternative to Heaps' law, which turns out to be intimately connected to the distribution of frequencies, thanks to its scaling behavior.

  18. Bioremediation of a PAH-contaminated gasworks site with the Ebiox vacuum heap system

    SciTech Connect

    Eiermann, D.R.; Bolliger, R.

    1995-12-31

    A former gasworks site in the industrial city of Winterthur, Switzerland, was extremely contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX); phenols; ammonia; and mineral oils. Three vacuum heaps, with a total volume of 10,500 m{sup 3} of contaminated soil, were bioremediated during 1993/94. Separating excavated soil material into different soil qualities was of particular importance because of the pathway definition of the specific soil material. Excavation of contamination took longer than 10 months, delivering continuously different contaminated soil-type material for bioremediation. Conditioning and subsequent biostimulation of the large soil volumes were the prerequisites for most advanced milieu optimization. The degradation results demonstrated the potential for successful application of bioremediation on former industrial sites. PAH-concentration reductions ranged from 75 to 83% for the soil values and from 87 to 98% for the elution values. Soil and elution target qualities were met within 6 to 12 months, depending on initial PAH-concentration and soil structure. The achieved target quality for the bioremediated soil allowed subsequent reuse as high-value backfill material for the ongoing building project.

  19. Soil quality and carbon sequestration in a reclaimed coal mine spoil of Jharia coalfield, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Masto, Reginald; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Revegetation of coal mine spoil helps in carbon storage and the success of remediation depend on the selection of appropriate tree species. A study was conducted at the coalmine overburden dumps of Jharia Coalfield, Dhanbad, India to evaluate the impact of revegetation on the overall soil quality and carbon sequestration. Morphological parameters (tree height, diameter at breast height, tree biomass, wood specific gravity) of the dominant tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo and Leucaena leucocephala) growing on the mine spoil was recorded. Mine spoil samples were collected under the canopy cover of different tree species and analyzed for soil physical, chemical, and biological parameters. In general reclaimed sites had better soil quality than the reference site. For instance, D. sissoo and C. siamea improved soil pH (+28.5%, +27.9%), EC (+15.65%, +19%), cation exchange capacity (+58.7%, +52.3%), organic carbon (+67.5%, +79.5%), N (+97.2%, +75.7%), P (+98.2%, +76.9%), K (+31.8%, +37.4%), microbial biomass carbon (+143%, +164%) and dehydrogenase activity (+228%, +262%) as compared to the unreclaimed reference coal mine site. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) decreased significantly in the reclaimed site than the reference spoil, C. siamea was found to be more promising for PAH degradation. The overall impact of tree species on the quality of reclaimed mine spoil cannot be assessed by individual soil parameters, as most of the parameters are interlinked and difficult to interpret. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more meaningful assessment of reclamation potential of tree species. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity were the most critical properties controlling growth of tree

  20. Survival and growth of wildlife shrubs and trees on acid mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, D.K.; Adkisson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the survival and growth of selected wildlife plants over a wide range of acid mine spoil conditions and to identify species suitable for surface mine reclamation. A major criterion in selection of study sites was inclusion of a wide range of spoil acidity conditions. The Ollis Creek (Study Area A) and Farrell (Study Area B) coal surface mines located in Campbell and Scott Counties, Tennessee, were selected for study. Seven plant species, all of which had been used in past reclamation demonstrations, were introduced on the 22 plots during March 1972. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) was included as a control plant. Ten additional plant species were introduced during March 1973. With the exception of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum var.). European filbert (Corylus avellana), and red maple (Acer rubrum), these species had not been used in TVA reclamation demonstrations. To assess the effects of spoil pH on the plants, the plots were grouped into seven pH categories, and mean percent survival and growth for each species were calculated. Results indicate that autumn olive, elaeagnus cherry, arnot locust, sawtooth oak, red maple, and Toringo crabapple are suitable for quick improvement of surface mine habitat over a wide range of spoil acidity in the Appalachian coalfield. Bessey cherry and European filbert need further study before a decision can be made regarding their reclamation utility. Species that are not recommended for quick habitat improvement over a wide range of surface mine spoil pH conditions include bush honeysuckle, barberry, Siberian crabapple, Manchu cherry, American beautyberry, bear oak, blueberry, rem-red honeysuckle, and redcedar.

  1. Remediation of acid mine drainage within strip mine spoil by sulfate reduction using waste organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Stalker, J.; Rose, A.W.; Michaud, L.H.

    1996-12-31

    Many treatment options for AMD, like wetlands and anoxic limestone drains, are limited by acidity, metal loadings, flow rate or areal requirements so as to be inapplicable at many sites. In-situ bacterial sulfate reduction is proposed as a solution for certain settings. Requirements for successful in-situ bacterial sulfate reduction include dissolved sulfate, an organic substrate, permanent anaerobic conditions, a mixed culture of bacteria, appropriate nutrients, and a sufficient AMD contact time. These requirements can be provided within mine spoil by injection of waste organic matter into an extensive zone of saturated spoil. Laboratory experiments on cheese whey, lactate, non-degraded sawdust, partially degraded sawdust, pulped newspaper and mushroom compost have all yielded sulfate reduction, increased alkalinity and iron sulfide precipitate in AMD with pH < 4.0. The addition of a small amount of dolomite to the organic matter creates alkaline microenvironments that facilitate the initiation of sulfate reduction. The rates of sulfate reduction using cellulose materials are slow but the rate for milk products is much more rapid. A field test utilizing partially degraded sawdust is underway. A total of 11.3 tons of sawdust mixed with 5% dolomite, 5% sewage sludge and a mixed bacterial culture was successfully injected into 4 drill holes in mine spoil as 13% w/v suspension, The spoil had enough coarse porosity for injection into the saturated subsurface at about 300 L/min, Data on in-situ SO{sub 4} reduction rates and water quality are being collected in preparation for a full remediation program at the site, which has an extensive zone of saturated spoil 10-20 m thick.

  2. Improving surface stability of elevated spoil landforms using natural landform analogy and geological information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmerton, Bevan; Burgess, Jon; Esterle, Joan; Erskine, Peter; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale open cut mining in the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia has undergone an evolutionary process over the period of a few decades, transitioning from shallow mining depths, limited spoil elevation and pasture based rehabilitation to increased mining depths, escalating pre-stripping, elevated mesa-like landforms and native woody species rehabilitation. As a consequence of this development, the stabilisation of recent constructed landforms has to be assured through means other than the establishment of vegetative cover. Recent developments are the specific selection and partitioning of resilient fragmental spoil types for the construction of final landform surface. They can also be used as cladding resources for stabilizing steep erosive batters and this has been identified as a practical methodology that has the potential to significantly improve rehabilitation outcomes. Examples of improvements are an increase of the surface rock cover, roughness and infiltration and reducing inherent erodibility and runoff and velocity of surface flow. However, a thorough understanding of the properties and behavior of individual spoil materials disturbed during mining is required. Relevant information from published literature on the geological origins, lithology and weathering characteristics of individual strata within the Bowen Basin Coal Measures located in Queensland, Australia (and younger overlying weathered strata) has been studied, and related both to natural landforms and to the surface stability of major strata types when disturbed by mining. The resulting spoil classification developed from this study is based primarily on inherent geological characteristics and weathering behaviour of identifiable lithologic components, and as such describes the expected fragmental resilience likely within disturbed materials at Bowen Basin coal mines. The proposed classification system allows the allocation of spoil types to use categories which have application in pre

  3. Hardwood seedling growth on different mine spoil types with and without topsoil amendment.

    PubMed

    Showalter, Julia M; Burger, James A; Zipper, Carl E

    2010-01-01

    The goal of many owners of reclaimed mined land in the Appalachian region is to restore the diverse native hardwood forest for environmental, economic, and cultural reasons. However, native hardwoods often grow poorly on mined sites because they are planted in unsuitable spoils devoid of native topsoil. In a greenhouse experiment, we examined the suitability of four growth media available for use on many mined sites in the central Appalachians-forest topsoil (FT), weathered sandstone (WS), unweathered sandstone (US), and unweathered shale (UH)-as well as the effects of topsoil amendment (none vs. amended) on the growth of three native hardwood species: Fraxinus americana, Quercus rubra, and Liriodendron tulipifera. A 4 x 2 x 3 factorial greenhouse experiment was conducted with planted 1-yr-old seedlings. Tree growth, foliar nutrients, and soil properties were measured and characterized. The WS was the spoil most conducive to growth for F. americana and Q. rubra. Liriodendron tulipifera did not respond to any treatments. Tree growth was highly correlated with mineralizable soil nitrogen and extractable soil phosphorus. Topsoil amendment significantly increased growth on the UH but not on the US or WS. Topsoil amendment increased the number of native herbaceous plants growing in the pots and improved foliar nutrient content in F. americana and L. tulipifera. Many properties of the WS, such as pH, microbial activity, and water availability, more closely approximated the control soil than the US or UH. This study showed that trees are sensitive to spoil type and that certain spoil types that are conducive to good growth of native trees should be used during the reclamation process, particularly if forest topsoil is not applied. Forest topsoil amendment improved tree growth on some spoil materials, improved tree nutrition, and helped restore the native soil organisms and plants that were present before mining.

  4. Geochemical assessments and classification of coal mine spoils for better understanding of potential salinity issues at closure.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hee; Li, Xiaofang; Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas; Kirsch, Bernie

    2013-06-01

    Coal mining wastes in the form of spoils, rejects and tailings deposited on a mine lease can cause various environmental issues including contamination by toxic metals, acid mine drainage and salinity. Dissolution of salt from saline mine spoil, in particular, during rainfall events may result in local or regional dispersion of salts through leaching or in the accumulation of dissolved salts in soil pore water and inhibition of plant growth. The salinity in coal mine environments is from the geogenic salt accumulations and weathering of spoils upon surface exposure. The salts are mainly sulfates and chlorides of calcium, magnesium and sodium. The objective of the research is to investigate and assess the source and mobility of salts and trace elements in various spoil types, thereby predicting the leaching behavior of the salts and trace elements from spoils which have similar geochemical properties. X-ray diffraction analysis, total digestion, sequential extraction and column experiments were conducted to achieve the objectives. Sodium and chloride concentrations best represented salinity of the spoils, which might originate from halite. Electrical conductivity, sodium and chloride concentrations in the leachate decreased sharply with increasing leaching cycles. Leaching of trace elements was not significant in the studied area. Geochemical classification of spoil/waste defined for rehabilitation purposes was useful to predict potential salinity, which corresponded with the classification from cluster analysis based on leaching data of major elements. Certain spoil groups showed high potential salinity by releasing high sodium and chloride concentrations. Therefore, the leaching characteristics of sites having saline susceptible spoils require monitoring, and suitable remediation technologies have to be applied.

  5. Downward continuation and tilt derivative of magnetic data for delineation of concealed coal fire in East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coal field, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S. K.; Vaish, Jitendra; Kumar, Sahadev; Priyam, Piyush; Bharti, Abhay Kumar; Kumar, Rajwardhan

    2017-06-01

    The present study deals with the characterization of subsurface coal fires of East Basuria colliery in Jharia coal field, India using tilt derivative and downward continuation of magnetic data. Magnetic data processing methods such as diurnal correction, noise removal, reduction to pole, tilt derivative and downward continuation have been used to process the data and for the interpretation of results on the basis of magnetic properties of overlying materials which change with the temperature variation above or below the Curie temperature. Most of the magnetic anomalies are associated with coal fire and non-coal fire regions which are correlated with tilt-derivative anomaly and corresponding downward-continued anomaly at different depths. The subsequent surface and subsurface characteristics are explained with good agreement. Approximate source depth of principal anomaly inferred from tilt derivatives method are corroborated with multi-seam occurrences, mine working levels and surface manifestation which are also correlated well with 3D model of downward continued anomaly distribution.

  6. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality.

  7. Impacts of leachates from livestock carcass burial and manure heap sites on groundwater geochemistry and microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Man Jae; Yun, Seong-Taek; Ham, Baknoon; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Oh, Jun-Seop; Jheong, Weon-Wha

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the impacts of leachates from a swine carcass burial site and a cow manure heap on the geochemical and microbiological properties of agricultural water samples, including leachate, groundwater from monitoring wells and background wells, and stream water. The leachate from the livestock burial site showed extremely high electrical conductivity, turbidity, and major ion concentrations, but low redox potential and dissolved oxygen levels. The groundwater in the monitoring wells adjacent to both sites showed severe contamination from the leachate, as indicated by the increases in EC, turbidity, Cl-, and SO42-. Bacteria from the phylum Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes and Archaea from the phylum Euryarchaeota were the major phyla in both the leachates and manure heap. However, the class- or genus-level components of these phyla differed markedly between the leachate and manure heap samples. The relative abundance of Firmicutes decreased from 35% to 0.3~13.9% in the monitoring wells and background wells at both sites. The Firmicutes in these wells was unlikely to have originated from the transportation of leachate to the surrounding environment because Firmicutes genera differed drastically between the leachate and monitoring wells. Meanwhile, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from the livestock carcass burial site were detected in the monitoring wells close to the leachate. This was likely because the release of carcass decomposition products, such as organic acids, to adjacent areas improved the suitability of the local environments for SRB, which were not abundant in the leachate. This study highlights the need to better understand microbial community dynamics along groundwater flow paths to evaluate bacterial transport in subsurface environments and provides new insights into the effective management of groundwater quality at both farm and regional scales.

  8. Impacts of leachates from livestock carcass burial and manure heap sites on groundwater geochemistry and microbial community structure

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Seong-Taek; Ham, Baknoon; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Oh, Jun-Seop; Jheong, Weon-Wha

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the impacts of leachates from a swine carcass burial site and a cow manure heap on the geochemical and microbiological properties of agricultural water samples, including leachate, groundwater from monitoring wells and background wells, and stream water. The leachate from the livestock burial site showed extremely high electrical conductivity, turbidity, and major ion concentrations, but low redox potential and dissolved oxygen levels. The groundwater in the monitoring wells adjacent to both sites showed severe contamination from the leachate, as indicated by the increases in EC, turbidity, Cl-, and SO42-. Bacteria from the phylum Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes and Archaea from the phylum Euryarchaeota were the major phyla in both the leachates and manure heap. However, the class- or genus-level components of these phyla differed markedly between the leachate and manure heap samples. The relative abundance of Firmicutes decreased from 35% to 0.3~13.9% in the monitoring wells and background wells at both sites. The Firmicutes in these wells was unlikely to have originated from the transportation of leachate to the surrounding environment because Firmicutes genera differed drastically between the leachate and monitoring wells. Meanwhile, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from the livestock carcass burial site were detected in the monitoring wells close to the leachate. This was likely because the release of carcass decomposition products, such as organic acids, to adjacent areas improved the suitability of the local environments for SRB, which were not abundant in the leachate. This study highlights the need to better understand microbial community dynamics along groundwater flow paths to evaluate bacterial transport in subsurface environments and provides new insights into the effective management of groundwater quality at both farm and regional scales. PMID:28771598

  9. Population differentiation in Andropogon virginicus L. between abandoned coal strip mine spoil and old field habitats in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Nellessen, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Populations of Andropogon virginicus L. from abandoned coal mine spoils and old fields in southeastern Ohio were studied to determine whether ecotypic differentiation had occurred. Three mine spoil and three old field populations were paired for reciprocal transplant studies. A uniform garden was also established. Mine spoil and old field populations were compared for differences in demographic patterns, vegetative growth and phenology, reproductive output, and physiology. There were a greater number of seedlings and smaller individuals in the mine spoils, but seed production was similar between habitats. Seeds disperse farther in mine spoils and there was no or very little seedling establishment in 8 to 35 year old fields. Plants attained greater height in mine spoils. Population differentiation between one of the mine sites and one of the old fields was evident for seed weight, numbers of seeds per plant, and plant biomass. The three old field populations also differed from each other in reproductive characteristics. Mine spoil plants contained significantly more nitrogen within seeds despite the fact that mine soils had only half the available nitrogen as old field soils. Old field plants had a higher magnesium content in leaves. Chlorophyll content of leaves was higher for plants in old fields than for plants in mines. Undisturbed plants from both habitats had significantly higher photosynthetic rates than transplants. Old field plants had significantly greater photosynthetic rates than mine plants when grown in the uniform garden even though transpiration rates were similar. Differentiation between some coal mine spoil and old field populations of A. virginicus was evident for height growth, seed weight, photosynthesis, seed nitrogen content, magnesium content, and seed germination. Local population differentiation in plant height, seed weight, and in the timing of plant maturation was also observed.

  10. Chemical properties and particle-size distribution of 39 surface-mine spoils in southern West Virginia

    Treesearch

    William T. Plass; Willis G. Vogel

    1973-01-01

    A survey of 39 surface-mine sites in southern West Virginia showed that most of the spoils from current mining operations had a pH of 5.0 or higher. Soil-size material averaged 37 percent of the weight of the spoils sampled. A major problem for the establishment of vegetation was a deficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus. This can be corrected with additions of...

  11. Effect of dredge spoil deposition on fecal coliform counts in sediments at a disposal site.

    PubMed Central

    Babinchak, J A; Graikoski, J T; Dudley, S; Nitkowski, M F

    1977-01-01

    The most-probable-number of fecal coliforms in sediments was monitored at the New London dump site in Long Island Sound during the deposition of dredge spoil from the Thames River. Although the geometric mean for fecal coliforms at five stations in the river was 14,000/100 ml before dredging commenced, the deposition of this material did not increase the incidence of fecal coliforms at 17 spoil stations and 13 control stations in the disposal and surrounding areas. Fecal coliforms appear to occur only in the surface sediment material and are diluted by the subsurface material during the dredging operation. Fecal coliform analyses of bottom waters during high and low tides indicated that the flow of water from the Thames River played a major role in determining the most-probable-number of fecal coliforms in the sediments at the disposal site. PMID:329761

  12. Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.

    1990-10-01

    The development of environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impact of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun in order to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters and groundwaters likely to be disturbed by coal mining operation.

  13. Pine seedlings respond to liming of acid strip-mine spoil

    Treesearch

    William T. Plass

    1969-01-01

    A greenhouse trial was made to determine the effect of three rates of liming on the growth of five species of pine seedlings in an extremely acid strip-mine spoil. Liming at the rate of 5 tons per acre-foot significantly increased the growth of four of the species. Tissue analysis indicated the growth rate may be related to a reduction in the concentration of the...

  14. Inhibitory effect against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria of Pseudomonas strains isolated from spoiled and fresh fish.

    PubMed Central

    Gram, L

    1993-01-01

    The antibacterial effects of 209 Pseudomonas strains isolated from spoiled iced fish and newly caught fish were assessed by screening target organisms in agar diffusion assays. One-third (67 strains) inhibited the growth of one or several of six target organisms (Escherichia coli, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas sobria, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus), of which S. aureus and A. sobria were the most sensitive. The inhibitory action was most pronounced among the strains producing siderophores, and the presence of iron eliminated the antibacterial effect of two-thirds of the inhibitory strains. Siderophore-mediated competition for iron may explain the inhibitory activity of these strains. All but nine of the inhibiting strains were found to inhibit the growth of 38 psychrotrophic S. putrefaciens strains isolated from spoiling fish and fish products. Siderophore-containing Pseudomonas culture supernatants inhibited growth of S. putrefaciens, as did the addition of iron chelators (ethylenediamine dihydroxyphenylacetic acid [EDDHA]). In particular, Pseudomonas strains isolated from newly caught and spoiled Nile perch (Lates niloticus) inhibited S. putrefaciens. This suggests that microbial interaction (e.g., competition or antagonism) may influence the selection of a microflora for some chilled food products. PMID:8357253

  15. Mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry studies to evaluate oxide copper ores for heap leaching in Sarcheshmeh copper mine, Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Shayestehfar, M R; Nasab, S Karimi; Mohammadalizadeh, H

    2008-06-15

    In recent years, as a result of biological, environmental, and economic considerations, available copper in copper oxide ores that could not be recovered by pyrometallurgical methods was accumulated in so-called oxide dumps. Suitable material is treated with dilute sulfuric acid in a heap-leaching process, whereupon the copper content of the rock slowly dissolves in the acidic solution. The performed investigations show that one needs to consider the action of the acid on the copper oxide-containing rocks at the microscopic level. In this paper, we describe research carried out on oxide samples from the western dump of the Sarcheshmeh copper mine. Each sample was split into two parts and a portion of each was exposed to heap-leaching conditions in a column. Subsequently, polished sections, thin sections, and powdered samples were subjected to chemical analysis as well as petrographic and mineralogical considerations. Changes in the weight percentages of non-metal and metal minerals before and after acid treatment were measured. Microscopic studies have indicated that chemical analyses do not provide a complete picture of the effects of acid on the rock. Thus, microscopic studies on sections are shown to be a necessary requirement, neglection of which can have negative economic and environmental effects.

  16. Stabilization of metals in acidic mine spoil with amendments and red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) growth.

    PubMed

    Simon, László

    2005-12-01

    Stabilization of metals with amendments and red fescue (Festuca rubra, cv. Keszthelyi 2) growth was studied on an acidic and phytotoxic mine spoil (pH(KCl) 3.20-3.26; Cd 7.1 mg kg(-1), Cu 120 mg kg(-1), Pb 2154 mg kg(-1) and Zn 605 mg kg(-1)) from Gyöngyösoroszi, Hungary in a pot experiment. Raising the pH above 5.0 by lime (CaCO(3)), and supplementing with 40 mg kg(-1)nitrogen (NH(4)NO(3)) made this material suitable for plant growth. All cultures were limed with 0.5% (m/m) CaCO(3) (treatment 1), which was combined with 5% (m/m) municipal sewage sludge compost (treatment 2), 5% (m/m) peat (treatment 3), 7.5% (m/m) natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) (treatment 4), and 0.5 (m/m) KH(2)PO(4) (treatment 5). Treatments 1-5 were combined with each other (treatment 6). After 60 days of red fescue growth, pH of the limed mine spoil decreased in all cultures units. Application of peat caused the highest pH decrease (1.15), while decrease of pH was less than 0.23 in treatments 2, 5 or 6. Application of lime significantly reduced concentrations of metals in the 'plant available' fraction of mine spoil compared to non-limed mine spoil. Amendments added to limed mine spoil changed variously the ratio of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in exchangeable or 'plant available' fractions, differently influencing the phytoavailability of these metals. Most of the metals were captured in the roots of test plants. Treatment 2 caused the appearance of less Cd in shoots (<0.1 microg g(-1)) or roots (3.11 microg g(-1)), while treatment 5 resulted in the highest Cd concentration (2.13 microg g(-1)) in shoots. Treatments did not influence significantly the Cu accumulation in shoots. The Pb accumulation of roots (44.7 microg g(-1)) was most effectively inhibited by combined treatment, while the highest value (136 microg g(-1)) was found in the culture treated with potassium phosphate. Pb concentration in shoots was below the detection limit, except for treatments 5 and 6. Peat application resulted in higher

  17. Flexible control of femtosecond pulse duration and separation using an emittance-spoiling foil in x-ray free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.; Behrens, C.; Coffee, R.; Decker, F. -J.; Emma, P.; Field, C.; Helml, W.; Huang, Z.; Krejcik, P.; Krzywinski, J.; Loos, H.; Lutman, A.; Marinelli, A.; Maxwell, T. J.; Turner, J.

    2015-06-22

    We report experimental studies of generating and controlling femtosecond x-ray pulses in free-electron lasers (FELs) using an emittance spoiling foil. By selectivity spoiling the transverse emittance of the electron beam, the output pulse duration or double-pulse separation is adjusted with a variable size single or double slotted foil. Measurements were performed with an X-band transverse deflector located downstream of the FEL undulator, from which both the FEL lasing and emittance spoiling effects are observed directly.

  18. Dynamic of active microorganisms inhabiting a bioleaching industrial heap of low‐grade copper sulfide ore monitored by real‐time PCR and oligonucleotide prokaryotic acidophile microarray

    PubMed Central

    Remonsellez, Francisco; Galleguillos, Felipe; Moreno‐Paz, Mercedes; Parro, Víctor; Acosta, Mauricio; Demergasso, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Summary The bioleaching of metal sulfide has developed into a very important industrial process and understanding the microbial dynamic is key to advancing commercial bioleaching operations. Here we report the first quantitative description of the dynamic of active communities in an industrial bioleaching heap. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was the most abundant during the first part of the leaching cycle, while the abundance of Leptospirillum ferriphilum and Ferroplasma acidiphilum increased with age of the heap. Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans kept constant throughout the leaching cycle, and Firmicutes group showed a low and a patchy distribution in the heap. The Acidiphilium‐like bacteria reached their highest abundance corresponding to the amount of autotrophs. The active microorganisms in the leaching system were determined using two RNA‐based sensitive techniques. In most cases, the 16S rRNA copy numbers of At. ferrooxidans, L. ferriphilum, At. thiooxidans and F. acidiphilum, was concomitant with the DNA copy numbers, whereas Acidiphilium‐like bacteria and some Firmicutes members did not show a clear correlation between 16S rRNA accumulation and DNA copy numbers. However, the prokaryotic acidophile microarray (PAM) analysis showed active members of Alphaproteobacteria in all samples and of Sulfobacillus genus in older ones. Also, new active groups such as Actinobacteria and Acidobacterium genus were detected by PAM. The results suggest that changes during the leaching cycle in chemical and physical conditions, such as pH and Fe3+/Fe2+ ion rate, are primary factors shaping the microbial dynamic in the heap. PMID:21255296

  19. Management of mine spoil for crop productivity with lignite fly ash and biological amendments.

    PubMed

    Ram, L C; Srivastava, N K; Tripathi, R C; Jha, S K; Sinha, A K; Singh, G; Manoharan, V

    2006-04-01

    Long-term field trials using lignite fly ash (LFA) were carried out in rice crops during the period 1996-2000 at Mine I, Neyveli Lignite Corporation, Tamil Nadu. LFA, being alkaline and endowed with an excellent pozzolanic nature, silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve the texture, fertility, and crop productivity of mine spoil. The rice crops were the first, third, fifth, and sixth crops in rotation. The other crops, such as green gram (second) and sun hemp (fourth), were grown as green manure. For experimental trials, LFA was applied at various dosages (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 t/ha), with and without press mud (10 t/ha), before cultivation of the first crop. Repeat applications of LFA were made at the same dosages in treatments of up to 50 t/ha (with and without press mud) before cultivation of the third and fifth crops. Press mud, a lightweight organic waste product from the sugar industry, was used as an organic amendment and source of plant nutrients. Also, a recommended dosage of chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and biofertilizer as supplementing agents, was applied in all the treatments, including control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA, from 5 to 20 t/ha (with and without press mud), the crop yield (grain and straw) increased significantly (p < 0.05), in the range from 3.0 to 42.0% over the corresponding control. The maximum yield was obtained with repeat applications of 20 t/ha of LFA with press mud in the third crop. The press mud enhanced the yield in the range of 1.5-10.2% with various dosages of LFA. The optimum dosage of LFA was 20 t/ha for both one-time and repeat applications. Repeat applications of LFA at lower dosages of up to 20 t/ha were more effective in increasing the yield than the corresponding one-time applications of up to 20 t/ha and repeat applications at 50 t/ha. One-time and repeat applications of LFA of up to 20 t/ha (with and without press mud), apart from

  20. The radiochemical contamination (²¹⁰Po and ²³⁸U) of zone around phosphogypsum waste heap in Wiślinka (northern Poland).

    PubMed

    Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan; Olszewski, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was the determination of the impact of phosphogypsum waste heap in Wiślinka (northern Poland) for radiological protection of zone around waste heap. These studies are very important for the estimation of natural alpha radionuclides contents in the vicinity of phosphogypsum waste heap and for environmental pollution assessment of this area. The process of bioaccumulation of radionuclides in interior plants parts prove to examine their origin sources, too. The activity of (210)Po, (234)U, and (238)U were measured using an alpha spectrometer. The values of uranium and polonium concentration in water with immediate area of waste heap are considerably higher than in the waters of the Martwa Wisła river. The values of activity ratio (234)U/(238)U are approximately about one in the phosphogypsum (0.97 ± 0.05) and in the water of retention reservoir and pumping station (0.92 ± 0.01 and 0.99 ± 0.08), while in the water from the Martwa Wisła river they are slightly higher than one (1.03 ± 0.07 and 1.17 ± 0.06). In the analyzed plants species the highest amounts of polonium and uranium were found in ruderal plants samples (between 51 ± 1 and 89 ± 1 for (210)Po; between 36 ± 3 and 68 ± 3 for (238)U) as well as hygrophilous plant samples (18 ± 1 and 84 ± 3; 42 ± 2 and 130 ± 4, respectively for (210)Po and (238)U). The more amounts of (210)Po and (238)U radionuclides were accumulated mainly in the roots of plant species in comparison to green parts. The general conclusion of realized study is higher influence of phosphogypsum on radioactive contamination of environmental zone around heap waste in Wiślinka (northern Poland).

  1. Release and bioavailability of zinc and heavy metals in fly ash amended soil and mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Elmosly, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Heavy metals concentrations were estimated in an acid Zn deficient soil (Clymer) and a pyritic acid mine spoil (Lenox) treated with three fly ashes at rates of 0, 33, and 66% after incubation at field capacity, saturation, and cycles of wetting, leaching, and drying. Metals were extracted with DTPA, HCl, Mehlich 3, MgCl[sub 2], ammonium acetate, and H[sub 2]O. Incorporation of alkaline fly ashes into both soils significantly increased soil pH. Extractability of all metals depended on pH of the soil-ash mixtures, characteristics of soils and ashes, and nature of the extractant. Moisture only affected extractability of Cr, Fe, and Mn. Zinc levels were increased in the Clymer soil but decreased in the Lenox spoil. Water solubility of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn was determined on three alkaline fly ashes. A greenhouse study with two successive corn crops was conducted to determine yield, plant availability of Zn, and uptake of heavy metals in the plant tops grown on Clymer and Lenox soils treated with three fly ashes at rates of 0, 33, 66%. Fly ash addition usually caused: (a) corn tops yield depression, especially for the second crop, (b) increase in plant Zn concentration on Zn-deficient Clymer soil, (c) decrease in Mn toxicity on Lenox spoil, and (d) increase in Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb plants. The high concentrations of these metals in corn tissues may have been due to stunted growth. Quality of the soil environment by heavy fly ash additions has been shown to be improved with respect to plant nutrition of Zn and Mn, but may have deteriorated by increase in heavy metals.

  2. Spatial variation in spoil and vegetative characteristics of pastures on reclaimed surface mined land

    SciTech Connect

    Teutsch, C.D.; Collins, M.; Ditsch, D.C.

    1999-07-01

    Kentucky has large areas of reclaimed surface mined land that could provide grazing for livestock. Research is needed to determine optimal stocking densities and to evaluate the sustainability of such grazing systems for this region. A long-term grazing study was initiated in 1997 on 151 ha of reclaimed land near Chavies, KY to determine spatial and temporal variation with stocking densities of 0, 0.28, 0.42, or 0.83 beef cow-calf units/ha. Global Positioning System and GIS technologies were used to establish pasture boundaries, locate permanent sampling markers at a density of 1 per 0.4 ha, and interpolate maps of physical, spoil, and vegetable pasture characteristics. Herbage and spoil samples were collected around the permanent markers in May of 1997. Stepwise regression was used to determine factors affecting the vegetative characteristics of the sites. Biomass density ranged from 0 to 2500 kg/ha with a mean of 570 kg/ha. Factors affecting biomass included legume and weed proportions in the sward, grazing activity, soil potassium, elevation, and potential acidity, cumulatively accounting for 32% of the variation. Ground cover ranged from 10 to 100% with an average of 74%. Soil pH, potassium, and grass in the sward accounted for 14% of the variation in ground cover. Legumes made up 0 to 61% of the sward with a mean of 13% over the pasture area. Variables affecting the amount of legume in the sward included biomass density, slope, elevation, pH, and stocking density, together accounting for 21% of the variation. Spatial variation in the physical, spoil, and vegetative characteristics of the pastures was large. Overall, regression accounted for a limited amount of the variation in the vegetative characteristics of the site indicating that other important variables exist.

  3. Spoil banks: Effects on a coastal marsh water-level regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, Erick M.; Turner, R. E.

    1987-05-01

    Above- and below-ground water-level fluctuations were measured in the marshes south of New Orleans, Louisiana, between November 1982 and December 1983. The purpose of the program was to define the basic marsh water-level regime and to investigate how canal spoil banks may influence the water-level regime. Two study areas were used: (1) a control area, defined as a section of marsh with unrestricted hydrologic connection to an adjacent bayou; and, (2) a partially-impounded area, defined as an area with limited hydrologic connection to an adjacent bayou due to the presence of dredged canal spoil banks. Data sources included marsh water levels from gages deployed at three sites within the study areas and water levels from the adjacent bayous obtained from the tide gages of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Data from all marsh gage sites showed a similar pattern with a distinct surface and subsurface diurnal tidal signal superimposed upon other, larger scale events. These larger scale events correspond to the passage of weather fronts. The data also indicated that a significant amount of water-level fluctuation in the marshes occurs below ground. A comparison of the control area and the partially-impounded site indicated that the spoil banks changed the response of the marsh water levels to the forcing from the bayou, with the result that the partially-impounded area: (1) was flooded 141 hours more per month than the control area; (2) had fewer, but longer flooding events; (3) had fewer but longer drying events; and (4) reduced water exchange, both above and below ground.

  4. Evaluation of the toxicity of marine sediments and dredge spoils with the MicrotoxR bioassay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ankley, G.T.; Hoke, R.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Winger, P.V.

    1989-01-01

    The MicrotoxR bioassay was used to evaluate the toxicity of sediment and dredge spoil elutriates from several potentially-contaminated sites in Mobile and Pascagoula Bays. Elutriates were prepared using either local seawater or distilled deionized water (osmotically adjusted with NaCl prior to testing), and MicrotoxR assays were performed with the elutriates and three reference toxicants. There were marked differences in the toxicity of several elutriates and reference toxicants in the two different waters, with the seawater generally resulting in the same or lesser toxicity than the osmotically-adjusted distilled deionized water.

  5. Mine spoil prairies expand critical habitat for endangered and threatened amphibian and reptile species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lannoo, Michael J.; Kinney, Vanessa C.; Heemeyer, Jennifer L.; Engbrecht, Nathan J.; Gallant, Alisa L.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Coal extraction has been occurring in the Midwestern United States for over a century. Despite the pre-mining history of the landscape as woodlands, spent surface coalfields are often reclaimed to grasslands. We assessed amphibian and reptile species on a large tract of coal spoil prairie and found 13 species of amphibians (nine frog and four salamander species) and 19 species of reptiles (one lizard, five turtle, and 13 snake species). Two state-endangered and three state species of special concern were documented. The amphibian diversity at our study site was comparable to the diversity found at a large restored prairie situated 175 km north, within the historic prairie peninsula.

  6. Microbial communities from different subsystems in biological heap leaching system play different roles in iron and sulfur metabolisms.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yunhua; Liu, Xueduan; Ma, Liyuan; Liang, Yili; Niu, Jiaojiao; Gu, Yabing; Zhang, Xian; Hao, Xiaodong; Dong, Weiling; She, Siyuan; Yin, Huaqun

    2016-08-01

    The microbial communities are important for minerals decomposition in biological heap leaching system. However, the differentiation and relationship of composition and function of microbial communities between leaching heap (LH) and leaching solution (LS) are still unclear. In this study, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to assess the microbial communities from the two subsystems in ZiJinShan copper mine (Fujian province, China). Results of PCoA and dissimilarity test showed that microbial communities in LH samples were significantly different from those in LS samples. The dominant genera of LH was Acidithiobacillus (57.2 ∼ 87.9 %), while Leptospirillum (48.6 ∼ 73.7 %) was predominant in LS. Environmental parameters (especially pH) were the major factors to influence the composition and structure of microbial community by analysis of Mantel tests. Results of functional test showed that microbial communities in LH utilized sodium thiosulfate more quickly and utilized ferrous sulfate more slowly than those in LS, which further indicated that the most sulfur-oxidizing processes of bioleaching took place in LH and the most iron-oxidizing processes were in LS. Further study found that microbial communities in LH had stronger pyrite leaching ability, and iron extraction efficiency was significantly positively correlated with Acidithiobacillus (dominated in LH), which suggested that higher abundance ratio of sulfur-oxidizing microbes might in favor of minerals decomposition. Finally, a conceptual model was designed through the above results to better exhibit the sulfur and iron metabolism in bioleaching systems.

  7. Ecological study of revegetated coal mine spoil of an Indian dry tropical ecosystem along an age gradient.

    PubMed

    Singh, R S; Tripathi, N; Chaulya, S K

    2012-11-01

    Mineral nitrogen (MN), belowground (root) biomass (BGB), soil nitrogen (N) mineralization (NM), microbial biomass N (MBN) and mine dump stability of a revegetated mine spoil were studied after 2, 6, 10 and 12 years of re-vegetation on coal mine spoil site. MN in revegetated mine spoil ranged from 7.4 to 11.6 kg ha(-1), NM from 38.4 to 252 kg ha(-1) year(-1), MBN from 86 to 426 kg ha(-1), and BGB from 380 to 3,750 kg ha(-1). Mining caused decline of physico-chemical characteristics of soil like MN by 46 %, N-mineralization by 92 %, MBN values by 91 %, respectively compared to forest ecosystems and reduction of total plant biomass (above ground and below ground). Revegetation of mine spoil caused increase in MN values by 12, 36 and 76 %, BGB values by 380, 1770 and 3750 times, NM values by 0.6, 3.58 and 9.5 times and MBN values by 0.43, 2.77, and 6.07 times in 2, 6 and 12 years, respectively. BGB was highly correlated with MN and MBN. Clay content was positively correlated to MN, NM, and the age of revegetation (P < 0.01). Numerical modelling indicated that revegetation increased the dump slope stability with a factor of safety from 1.2 to 1.4, 1.7, 1.9 and 2.1 after 2, 6, 10 and 12 years, respectively. Thus, long-term revegetation was found to enhance the dump stability and the soil fertility status in mine spoil, where plant biomass and microbial biomass provide major contributions in ecological redevelopment of the mine spoil.

  8. Possible production of ceramic tiles from marine dredging spoils alone and mixed with other waste materials.

    PubMed

    Baruzzo, Daniela; Minichelli, Dino; Bruckner, Sergio; Fedrizzi, Lorenzo; Bachiorrini, Alessandro; Maschio, Stefano

    2006-06-30

    Dredging spoils, due to their composition could be considered a new potential source for the production of monolithic ceramics. Nevertheless, abundance of coloured oxides in these materials preclude the possibility of obtaining white products, but not that of producing ceramics with a good mechanical behaviour. As goal of the present research we have produced and studied samples using not only dredging spoils alone, but also mixtures with other waste materials such as bottom ashes from an incinerator of municipal solid waste, incinerated seawage sludge from a municipal seawage treatment plant and steelworks slag. Blending of different components was done by attrition milling. Powders were pressed into specimens which were air sintered in a muffle furnace and their shrinkage on firing was determined. Water absorption, density, strength, hardness, fracture toughness, thermal expansion coefficient of the fired bodies were measured; XRD and SEM images were also examined. The fired samples were finally tested in acidic environment in order to evaluate their elution behaviour and consequently their environmental compatibility. It is observed that, although the shrinkage on firing is too high for the production of tiles, in all the compositions studied the sintering procedure leads to fine microstructures, good mechanical properties and to a limitation of the release of many of the most hazardous metals contained in the starting powders.

  9. Reduction of Flow Artifacts by Using Partial Saturation in RF-Spoiled Gradient-Echo Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Han, Misung; Hargreaves, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF)-spoiled gradient-echo imaging provides a signal intensity close to pure T1 contrast by using spoiler gradients and RF phase cycling to eliminate net transverse magnetization. Generally, spins require many RF excitations to reach a steady-state magnetization level; therefore, when unsaturated flowing spins enter the imaging slab, they can cause undesirable signal enhancement and generate image artifacts. These artifacts can be reduced by partially saturating an outer slab upstream to drive the longitudinal magnetization close to the steady state, while the partially-saturated spins generate no signal until they enter the imaging slab. In this work, magnetization evolution of flowing spins in RF-spoiled gradient-echo sequences with and without partial saturation was simulated using the Bloch equations. Next, the simulations were validated by phantom and in vivo experiments. For phantom experiments, a pulsatile flow phantom was used to test partial saturation for a range of flip angles and relaxation times. For in vivo experiments, the technique was used to image the carotid arteries, abdominal aorta, and femoral arteries of normal volunteers. All experiments demonstrated that partial saturation can provide consistent T1 contrast across the slab while reducing inflow artifacts. PMID:21319219

  10. Reduction of flow artifacts by using partial saturation in RF-spoiled gradient-echo imaging.

    PubMed

    Han, Misung; Hargreaves, Brian A

    2011-05-01

    Radiofrequency (RF)-spoiled gradient-echo imaging provides a signal intensity close to pure T(1) contrast by using spoiler gradients and RF phase cycling to eliminate net transverse magnetization. Generally, spins require many RF excitations to reach a steady-state magnetization level; therefore, when unsaturated flowing spins enter the imaging slab, they can cause undesirable signal enhancement and generate image artifacts. These artifacts can be reduced by partially saturating an outer slab upstream to drive the longitudinal magnetization close to the steady state, while the partially saturated spins generate no signal until they enter the imaging slab. In this work, magnetization evolution of flowing spins in RF-spoiled gradient-echo sequences with and without partial saturation was simulated using the Bloch equations. Next, the simulations were validated by phantom and in vivo experiments. For phantom experiments, a pulsatile flow phantom was used to test partial saturation for a range of flip angles and relaxation times. For in vivo experiments, the technique was used to image the carotid arteries, abdominal aorta, and femoral arteries of normal volunteers. All experiments demonstrated that partial saturation can provide consistent T(1) contrast across the slab while reducing inflow artifacts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Sewage sludge as an amendment for calcareous bauxite mine spoils reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Brofas, G.; Michopoulos, P.; Alifragis, D.

    2000-06-01

    Dried aerobically digested sewage sludge applied at seven rates (0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 120 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}) in a field experiment on calcareous bauxite mine spoils significantly increased the available water capacity, concentrations of organic matter, total N, extractable P (Olsen), exchangeable Mg{sup 2+}, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cu, Mn, Zn, and Pb of mine spoils. Total N and extractable P concentrations decreased with time after sludge application. The DTPA-extractable Cu concentration was high 4 yr after application at sludge rates of 80 and 120 Mg Ha{sup {minus}1}. Extractable Cu and Zn concentrations correlated significantly and positively with Cu and Zn concentrations in burnet (Sanguisorba minor subsp. minor) and fiddleneck (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth) tissue. Sludge application depressed plant Mn uptake. Plant biomass, plant density, and foliar cover significantly increased with treatment rates in the first and fourth growing seasons but decreased with time. Fiddleneck and burnet were the species favored by the high rate of sludge application.

  12. Nutrient capital sequestration in pioneer plant communities on surface-mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Four pioneer plant communities on a surface-mine spoil were compared in terms of biomass production and nutrient capital sequestration. A chenopodium album-dominated community (Treatment 4) produced the greatest amount of biomass. Next were a community derived from a forest topsoil seed bank spread over mine spoil (Treatment 2), a seed bank community with common reclamation species seeded into it (Treatment 3), and a mix of grasses and Lespedeza commonly used in reclamation (Treatment 1). Amounts of nutrients sequestered in vegetation were not strictly proportional to biomass. Community nutrient contents were largely influenced by community biomass and the nutrient uptake characteristics of the species with most biomass. Significant changes in soil chemistry were found after one growing season. Addition of the reclamation mix of grasses and Lespedeza to the seed bank resulted in significantly fewer established native species. Native species lost their normal dominance and exhibited stunted growth and phenological delay in Treatment 3. Nutrient content niche, nutrient content niche share, and niche breadth (Levins; B) were calculated for important species in each community. Native species generally had reduced niche breadths and niche shares when reclamation species were added to the community. Community content niche, the sums of species content niches, varied between different types of pioneer communities.

  13. Erodibilities and eroded size distribution of western Kentucky mine spoil and reconstructed topsoil. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhisel, R.I.; Barfield, B.J.; Hirschi, M.C.; Moore, I.D.; Powell, J.L.

    1983-12-01

    Standard erosion plots (4.6m by 22.1m on 9% slope) were constructed on the Alston Surface Mine of Peabody Coal Co. in western Kentucky to evaluate the effects of placement technique and density on the erodibility and eroded size distribution from mine spoil and reconstructed topsoil. Plots were constructed with a dozer and scraper pan from shale spoil material, topsoil (A horizon) and subsoil (B and C horizon mixture) using soils stockpiled at the Alston Surface Mine. Plots were evaluated under fallow conditions with a tilled plot surface and two compacted conditions. One compacted condition was generated by tracking the surface with a dozer and rolling with a loaded scraper pan. The second was generated by tolling the surface with a solid wheel compactor. Rainfall was supplied with the KY Rainfall Simulator at a rate of 63.5 mm h-1 with the plots in 3 different soil moisture conditions; dry, field capacity, and very wet. Runoff was evaluated for flow rates, sediment concentrations, and aggregate and primary particle-size distributions. Sediment yields and the Universal Soil Loss Equation EI30 indexes were calculated from the data for each plot. The erodibility was calculated from the tilled plot data using a weighted soil loss and EI30 value from the dry, field capacity and wet runs, and a cover management factor calculated for every other condition.

  14. Application of hydrogeochemical modelling in simulating the transportation of elements in fly ash heap under different disposal systems in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbugua, J. M.; Ngila, J. C.; Kindness, A.; Demlie, M.

    Ash heap modelling of South African fly ash from Tutuka was carried out and the duration of transportation projected for 20 years based on two disposal scenarios, namely; irrigation of ash with rainwater, and irrigation with brines. The hydrogeochemical modeling code, PHREEQC, was applied in the study which gave insights into the speciation, release and transport of elements from the water and brines-fly ash long term interactions. Tutuka ash-water heap model showed a general sharp decrease of total elemental concentrations released during the first 2.5 years simulation as the pH value dropped from 12.6 to 8.7, after which it remained constant and their concentration remained constant up to 20 years. The elements showing this trend included Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Sr, Zn, Na, K, Li and C(4). Generally, brines caused sharp increase in released concentration of the elements Ca, Mg, S(6) and C(4) for the first 3 years of heap irrigation whereas with water irrigation an opposite trend was observed in which the elemental concentrations decreased. Much of the release chemistry of the elements was closely related to the phase dissolution/precipitation and formation as the major controlling factors. Generally therefore, the modelled leachate quality results revealed that many elements are mobile and move through the ash heap in a progressive leaching pathway. The model could therefore be used to provide reasonable leachate quality from the modelled Tutuka ash heap which may be reaching the ground water. Overall, the ash heap modelling enhanced the understanding of the environmental impacts of ash-water-brines interactions and demonstrated that leachate composition is determined by the following factors; (i) the mass flows from the pores of fly ash, (ii) the surface dissolution of the mineral phases, (iii) the various chemical reactions involved during the ash-brine and ash-water interactions, (iv) the interactions with a gas phase (atmospheric CO2), (v) the composition of the

  15. Efficacy of Designer Biochars with or without Lime Application for Remediating Heavy Metals in Mine Spoil Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigua, Gilbert C.; Novak, Jeffrey; Johnson, Mark; Ippolito, James; Spokas, Kurt; Ducey, Thomas; Trippe, Kristin

    2017-04-01

    A multitude of research investigations have confirmed that biochars can increase soil carbon sequestration, improve critical plant nutrient concentrations, and improve the fertility, chemical, and physical properties of degraded agricultural soils. Recently, biochars ability to sequester metals has caught the attention of the mine reclamation sector. It is proposed that biochar is a suitable amendment to remediate heavy metals in mine spoils, as well as improve chemical conditions for enhanced plant growth. Better plant growth will improve phytostabilization, increase containment of metal-laden sediment, while also reducing potential metal uptake by plants. As such, utilization of a biochar with appropriate chemical and physical characteristics is crucial for effective binding of heavy metals while also improving plant growth conditions in mine spoils. Using two different mine spoils, we conducted laboratory and greenhouse experiments to determine the ability of designer biochar with or without lime application to favorably improve soil pH, reduce heavy metal bioavailability, and improve grass (e.g., wild blue rye) plant nutrient uptake. Preliminary results showed that our designer biochars did increase pH of acid mine spoils significantly (p<0.001), improved uptake of critical plant nutrients (e.g., phosphorus, potassium and calcium), and significantly (p<0.001) reduced the concentrations of heavy metals (e.g. aluminum, chromium, zinc, nickel, zinc, manganese, copper and cadmium) in the soils.

  16. Long Range Spoil Disposal Study. Part III. Sub-Study 2. Nature, Source, and Cause of Shoal. Appendix A,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-12-01

    Delaware River ..................................... ....... 3 3 Location of bottom sediment samples in Delaware estuary and vicinity ........... 5 4 ...oil and grease, phosphate , and arsenic in bottom sediments. Delaware River .............. 20 3 Average texture and composition of historic spoil...D- 3 Chromatograph- Organic Methods .................................... D- 4 Oil and Grease:- and C.O.D. Methods ............................. D

  17. Comparison of fall and spring planting on strip-mine spoils in the bituminous region of Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Grant. Davis

    1973-01-01

    To evaluate fall versus spring planting of 10 coniferous tree species and 5 hardwood shrub species, experimental plantings were established over a 2-year period on 7 graded strip-mine spoils. In general, initial tree survival was better with spring planting than with fall planting, especially on the more acid sites. Shrubs survived well with both spring and fall...

  18. Second-year results of hybrid poplar test plantings on bituminous strip-mine spoils in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Grant Davis

    1964-01-01

    During the period 1946-49, The Pennsylvania State University established 22 experimental plantings of trees and shrubs on strip-mine spoil banks in the Bituminous Region of Pennsylvania to determine which species were best suited for revegetating such sites. When 10-year growth on the experimental plots was evaluated, a clone of hybrid poplar was found to have outgrown...

  19. Geochemistry of batch-extract waters derived from spoil material collected at the Cordero coal mine, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Batch-mixing experiments to evaluate postmining water quality at the Cordero Mine were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1984 to 1985. Contact of groundwater from the spoil aquifer with fresh spoil material caused only small changes in major-element concentrations and in pH, unless sulfide oxidation or contact with soluble salts, such as epsomite, occurred. In contrast, large changes in major-element concentration resulted when water from the coal aquifer contacted the spoil material. Only three of seven reaction models considered to explain the water quality changes during the batch-mixing experiments were consistent with the thermodynamic and mineralogical data. The three models used to account for the observed water quality changes derived potassium from potassium feldspar; magnesium from chlorite or epsomite or both; sodium from cation exchange and halite; chloride from halite; silica from potassium feldspar and chlorite; sulfate from gypsum, or epsomite or both, and carbon from carbon dioxide. In general, water quality samples obtained from the batch-mixing experiments using water from the coal aquifer had smaller major-ion concentrations than the actual water quality in the spoil aquifer. These differences can be explained by the limited amount of efflorescent salt dissolution and volume of water used in the experiments. Correction ratios calculated for these experiments may be applied to batch-mixing experiments at other mines in the area, to predict postmining water quality. (USGS)

  20. Influence of Turning and Environmental Contamination on the Dynamics of Populations of Lactic Acid and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Heap Fermentation in Ghana▿

    PubMed Central

    Camu, Nicholas; González, Ángel; De Winter, Tom; Van Schoor, Ann; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S.; Addo, Solomon K.; De Vuyst, Luc

    2008-01-01

    The influence of turning and environmental contamination on six spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentations performed in Ghana was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological (culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques) and metabolite target analyses. A sensory analysis of chocolate made from the fermented, dried beans was performed as well. Only four clusters were found among the isolates of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter ghanensis, Acetobacter senegalensis, and a potential new Acetobacter lovaniensis-like species. Two main clusters were identified among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated, namely, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. No differences in biodiversity of LAB and AAB were seen for fermentations carried out at the farm and factory sites, indicating the cocoa pod surfaces and not the general environment as the main inoculum for spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation. Turning of the heaps enhanced aeration and increased the relative population size of AAB and the production of acetic acid. This in turn gave a more sour taste to chocolate made from these beans. Bitterness was reduced through losses of polyphenols and alkaloids upon fermentation and cocoa bean processing. PMID:17993565

  1. Influence of turning and environmental contamination on the dynamics of populations of lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria involved in spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Camu, Nicholas; González, Angel; De Winter, Tom; Van Schoor, Ann; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S; Addo, Solomon K; De Vuyst, Luc

    2008-01-01

    The influence of turning and environmental contamination on six spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentations performed in Ghana was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological (culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques) and metabolite target analyses. A sensory analysis of chocolate made from the fermented, dried beans was performed as well. Only four clusters were found among the isolates of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter ghanensis, Acetobacter senegalensis, and a potential new Acetobacter lovaniensis-like species. Two main clusters were identified among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated, namely, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. No differences in biodiversity of LAB and AAB were seen for fermentations carried out at the farm and factory sites, indicating the cocoa pod surfaces and not the general environment as the main inoculum for spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation. Turning of the heaps enhanced aeration and increased the relative population size of AAB and the production of acetic acid. This in turn gave a more sour taste to chocolate made from these beans. Bitterness was reduced through losses of polyphenols and alkaloids upon fermentation and cocoa bean processing.

  2. Behavior of Psychrotrophic Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Spoiling Cooked Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Yoshikatsu; Ayaki, Mitsuko; Fuchu, Hidetaka; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Morita, Hidetoshi

    2003-01-01

    Three kinds of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from spoiling cooked meat products stored below 10°C. They were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and Leuconostoc citreum. All three strains grew well in MRS broth at 10°C. In particular, L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and L. citreum grew even at 4°C, and their doubling times were 23.6 and 51.5 h, respectively. On the other hand, although the bacteria were initially below the detection limit (<10 CFU/g) in model cooked meat products, the bacterial counts increased to 108 CFU/g at 10°C after 7 to 12 days. PMID:12788779

  3. Spoiling of radiation zeros at the one-loop level and infrared finiteness

    SciTech Connect

    Laursen, M.L.; Samuel, M.A.; Sen, A.

    1983-08-01

    We consider the amplitude for the radiative decay W/sup -/..-->..phi/sub 1/phi/sub 2/..gamma.. (scalar quarks) including one-loop gluon corrections. We study this process to see if the amplitude (radiation) zeros found in lowest order survive at the one-loop level. The subset of diagrams containing self-mass insertions preserves the zero. Seagull types are shown to have a violation which is similar to kappanot =1. Triangle and box diagrams spoil the zeros as they do in the case of a scalar W. However, the amplitude is completely free of any mass singularities in the classical null zone. We conjecture that this will remain true for spin-(1/2) quarks.

  4. Dielectrophoresis chips improve PCR detection of the food-spoiling yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in apple juice.

    PubMed

    del Carmen Jaramillo, Maria; Huttener, Mario; Alvarez, Juan Manuel; Homs-Corbera, Antoni; Samitier, Josep; Torrents, Eduard; Juárez, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Dielectrophoretic (DEP) manipulation of cells present in real samples is challenging. We show in this work that an interdigitated DEP chip can be used to trap and wash a population of the food-spoiling yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii that contaminates a sample of apple juice. By previously calibrating the chip, the yeast population loaded is efficiently trapped, washed, and recovered in a small-volume fraction that, in turn, can be used for efficient PCR detection of this yeast. DEP washing of yeast cells gets rid of PCR inhibitors present in apple juice and facilitates PCR analysis. This and previous works on the use of DEP chips to improve PCR analysis show that a potential use of DEP is to be used as a treatment of real samples prior to PCR. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Nonmechanical laser beam steering/beam spoiling methods for intersatellite cross links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleski, Paul J.; Dorrian, Kevin W.; Busch, Timothy E.

    1994-08-01

    In the area of free space optical communications a significant amount of attention has been given to the overall problems of the acquisition and tracking of satellites. Accomplishing these functions with minimal investment in hardware size, weight, and power is essential to the successful evolution of space laser communications (LASERCOM). This paper studies and compares two different types of nonmechanical laser beam steering/diverging devices. A nematic liquid crystal phased array has been tested and compared to an acousto-optic Bragg cell. Both electro-optic devices are capable of simultaneous laser beam spoiling and steering which will provide an alternative to the use of electromechanical hardware for acquisition, fine tracking and point ahead in LASERCOM terminals. Characteristics such as optical efficiency, response time, beam steer range and divergence and power consumption have been measured. Device design and performance parameters are described.

  6. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to the development of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in three types of coal mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Zhao, Renxin; Fu, Ruiying; Bi, Na; Wang, Lixin; Zhao, Wenjing; Guo, Jiangyuan; Zhang, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Coal mine spoils are usually unfavorable for plant growth and have different properties according to dumping years, weathering degree, and the occurrence of spontaneous combustion. The establishment of plant cover in mine spoils can be facilitated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the importance of AMF in plant adaptation to different mine spoils and the potential role of AMF for revegetation practices. We investigated the effects of Glomus aggregatum, Rhizophagus intraradices (syn. Glomus intraradices), and Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae) on the growth, nutritional status, and metal uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in recent discharged (S1), weathered (S2), and spontaneous combusted (S3) coal mine spoils. Symbiotic associations were successfully established between AMF and maize in three substrates. Mycorrhizal colonization effectively promoted plant growth by significantly increasing the uptake of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), adjusting C:N:P stoichiometry and alleviating toxic effects of heavy metals. G. aggregatum, R. intraradices, and F. mosseae exhibited different mycorrhizal effects in response to mine spoil types. F. mosseae was the most effective in the development of maize in S1 and may be the most appropriate for revegetation of this substrate, while R. intraradices played the most beneficial role in S2 and S3. Our results suggest that inoculation with AMF can enhance plant adaptation to different types of coal mine spoils and play a positive role in the revegetation of coal mine spoil banks.

  7. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  8. A simplified economic filter for open-pit mining and heap-leach recovery of copper in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Keith R.; Singer, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    Determining the economic viability of mineral deposits of various sizes and grades is a critical task in all phases of mineral supply, from land-use management to mine development. This study evaluates two simple tools for estimating the economic viability of porphyry copper deposits mined by open-pit, heap-leach methods when only limited information on these deposits is available. These two methods are useful for evaluating deposits that either (1) are undiscovered deposits predicted by a mineral resource assessment, or (2) have been discovered but for which little data has been collected or released. The first tool uses ordinary least-squared regression analysis of cost and operating data from selected deposits to estimate a predictive relationship between mining rate, itself estimated from deposit size, and capital and operating costs. The second method uses cost models developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (Camm, 1991) updated using appropriate cost indices. We find that the cost model method works best for estimating capital costs and the empirical model works best for estimating operating costs for mines to be developed in the United States.

  9. Armeria maritima from a calamine heap--initial studies on physiologic-metabolic adaptations to metal-enriched soil.

    PubMed

    Olko, A; Abratowska, A; Zyłkowska, J; Wierzbicka, M; Tukiendorf, A

    2008-02-01

    Plants of Armeria maritima are found both on unpolluted sites and on soils strongly polluted with heavy metals. Seedlings of A. maritima from a zinc-lead calamine heap in ore-mining region (Bolesław population) and from unpolluted area (Manasterz population) were tested to determine the zinc, cadmium and lead tolerance. In hydroponic experiments Bolesław population was more tolerant to zinc, cadmium and lead. Localization of heavy metals in roots was determined using the histochemical method for detecting metal-complexes with dithizone. Their accumulation was found in root hairs, rhizoderma and at the surface of the central cylinder. Glutathione level in plants increased after metal treatment of both populations. However, its high level was not correlated with phytochelatin production. These metal-binding complexes were not detected in plants exposed to zinc, cadmium or lead. Changes of organic acids concentrations in Armeria treated with metals may suggest their role in metal translocation from roots to shoots. The content of organic acids, especially malate, decreased in the roots and increased in the leaves. These changes may be important in Pb-tolerance of Manasterz population and in Zn-, Cd-tolerance of calamine population from Bolesław.

  10. Stratification of size-bidisperse granular mixtures in a quasi-2D bounded heap with periodic flow modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hongyi; Deng, Zhekai; Umbanhowar, Paul; Ottino, Julio; Lueptow, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Segregation of disperse granular materials in unsteady flows is ubiquitous in nature and industry, yet remains largely unexplored. In this study, unsteady flows are generated by feeding size-bidisperse granular mixtures onto a quasi-2D bounded heap using alternating feed rates, which results in stratified layers of large and small particles. The mechanism of stratification is investigated in detail using Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations of the flow. During the transition from the slow to the fast feed rate, a segregating wedge propagates downstream and forms a large particle layer extending upstream. During the opposite transition, upstream segregated small particles relax downstream and form a small particle layer extending downstream. The transient kinematics from DEM simulations are quantified and used to inform a time-dependent continuum model that captures the interplay of advection, diffusion, and segregation in the flowing layer. The continuum model reproduces the principle characteristics of the stratification patterns observed in experiments and simulations. Funded by NSF Grant CBET-1511450.

  11. Heap leach studies on the removal of uranium from soil. Report of laboratory-scale test results

    SciTech Connect

    Turney, W.R.J.R.; York, D.A.; Mason, C.F.V.; Chisholm-Brause, C.J.; Dander, D.C.; Longmire, P.A.; Morris, D.E.; Strait, R.K.; Brewer, J.S.

    1994-05-01

    This report details the initial results of laboratory-scale testing of heap leach that is being developed as a method for removing uranium from uranium-contaminated soil. The soil used was obtained from the site of the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) near the village of Fernald in Ohio. The testing is being conducted on a laboratory scale, but it is intended that this methodology will eventually be enlarged to field scale where, millions of cubic meters of uranium-contaminated soil can be remediated. The laboratory scale experiments show that, using carbonate/bicarbonate solutions, uranium can be effectively removed from the soil from initial values of around 600 ppM down to 100 ppM or less. The goal of this research is to selectively remove uranium from the contaminated soil, without causing serious changes in the characteristics of the soil. It is also hoped that the new technologies developed for soil remediation at FEMP will be transferred to other sites that also have uranium-contaminated soil.

  12. Generating femtosecond X-ray pulses using an emittance-spoiling foil in free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y. Coffee, R.; Decker, F.-J.; Emma, P.; Field, C.; Huang, Z.; Krejcik, P.; Krzywinski, J.; Loos, H.; Lutman, A.; Marinelli, A.; Maxwell, T. J.; Turner, J.; Behrens, C.; Helml, W.

    2015-11-09

    Generation of femtosecond to sub-femtosecond pulses is attracting much attention in X-ray free-electron laser user community. One method is to use a slotted, emittance-spoiling foil which was proposed before (P. Emma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 074801 (2004)) and has been widely used at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Direct experimental characterization of the slotted-foil performance was previously unfeasible due to a lack of appropriate diagnostics. With a recently installed X-band radio-frequency transverse deflector, we are able to characterize the electron bunch spoiling effect and X-ray pulse when using the slotted foil. We show that few-femtosecond X-ray pulses are generated with flexible control of the single-pulse duration or double-pulse separation with comparison to the theoretical model.

  13. Generating femtosecond X-ray pulses using an emittance-spoiling foil in free-electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Y.; Behrens, C.; Coffee, R.; Decker, F.-J.; Emma, P.; Field, C.; Helml, W.; Huang, Z.; Krejcik, P.; Krzywinski, J.; Loos, H.; Lutman, A.; Marinelli, A.; Maxwell, T. J.; Turner, J.

    2015-11-01

    Generation of femtosecond to sub-femtosecond pulses is attracting much attention in X-ray free-electron laser user community. One method is to use a slotted, emittance-spoiling foil which was proposed before (P. Emma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 074801 (2004)) and has been widely used at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Direct experimental characterization of the slotted-foil performance was previously unfeasible due to a lack of appropriate diagnostics. With a recently installed X-band radio-frequency transverse deflector, we are able to characterize the electron bunch spoiling effect and X-ray pulse when using the slotted foil. We show that few-femtosecond X-ray pulses are generated with flexible control of the single-pulse duration or double-pulse separation with comparison to the theoretical model.

  14. Predicting total dissolved solids release from central Appalachian coal mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Daniels, W L; Zipper, C E; Orndorff, Z W; Skousen, J; Barton, C D; McDonald, L M; Beck, M A

    2016-09-01

    Appalachian USA surface coal mines face public and regulatory pressure to reduce total dissolved solids (TDS) in discharge waters, primarily due to effects on sensitive macroinvertebrates. Specific conductance (SC) is an accurate surrogate for TDS and relatively low levels of SC (300-500 μS cm(-1)) have been proposed as regulatory benchmarks for instream water quality. Discharge levels of TDS from regional coal mines are frequently >1000 μS cm(-1). The primary objectives of this study were to (a) determine the effect of rock type and weathering status on SC leaching potentials for a wide range of regional mine spoils; (b) to relate leachate SC from laboratory columns to actual measured discharge SC from field sites; and (c) determine effective rapid lab analyses for SC prediction of overburden materials. We correlated laboratory unsaturated column leaching results for 39 overburden materials with a range of static lab parameters such as total-S, saturated paste SC, and neutralization potential. We also compared column data with available field leaching and valley fill discharge SC data. Leachate SC is strongly related to rock type and pre-disturbance weathering. Fine-textured and non-weathered strata generally produced higher SC and pose greater TDS risk. High-S black shales produced the highest leachate SC. Lab columns generated similar range and overall SC decay response to field observations within 5-10 leaching cycles, while actual reduction in SC in the field occurs over years to decades. Initial peak SC can be reliably predicted (R(2) > 0.850; p < 0.001) by simple lab saturated paste or 1:2 spoil:water SC procedures, but predictions of longer-term SC levels are less reliable and deserve further study. Overall TDS release risk can be accurately predicted by a combination of rock type + S content, weathering extent, and simple rapid SC lab measurements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of β-glucan formation by Lactobacillus brevis TMW 1.2112 isolated from slimy spoiled beer.

    PubMed

    Fraunhofer, Marion E; Geissler, Andreas J; Wefers, Daniel; Bunzel, Mirko; Jakob, Frank; Vogel, Rudi F

    2017-09-20

    Despite several hurdles, which hinder bacterial growth in beer, certain bacteria are still able to spoil beer. One type of spoilage is characterized by an increased viscosity and slimy texture caused by exopolysaccharide (EPS) formation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we characterize for the first time EPS production in a beer-spoiling strain (TMW 1.2112) of Lactobacillus brevis, a species commonly involved in beer spoilage. The strain's growth dynamics were assessed and we found an increased viscosity or ropiness in liquid or on solid media, respectively. Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and released EPS from the cells or supernatant, respectively, were analyzed via NMR spectroscopy and methylation analysis. Both are identical β-(1→3)-glucans, which are ramified with β-glucose residues at position O2. Therefore, we assume that this EPS is mainly produced as CPS and partially released into the surrounding medium, causing viscosity of e.g. beer. CPS formation was confirmed via an agglutination test. A plasmid-located glycosyltransferase-2 was found as responsible for excess β-glucan formation, chromosomal glucanases were proposed for its degradation. The glycosyltransferase-2 gene could also be specifically identified in beer-spoiling, slime-producing Lactobacillus rossiae and Lactobacillus parabuchneri strains, suggesting it as promising marker gene for the early detection of β-glucan-producing Lactobacilli in breweries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Intensity correction with a pair of spoiled gradient recalled echo images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noterdaeme, Olivier; Anderson, Mark; Gleeson, Fergus; Brady, Michael, Sir

    2009-06-01

    Intensity inhomogeneities in magnetic resonance images (MRI) are a frequently occurring artefact, and result in the same tissue class to have vastly different intensities within an image. These inhomogeneities can be modelled by a slowly varying field, which is also called the bias field. Previous phantom-, image- or sequence based approaches suffer from long scan times, post-processing times or do not sufficiently remove the intensity variations. These intensity variations cause problems for quantitative image analysis algorithms (segmentation, registration) as well as clinicians (e.g. by complicating the visual assessment). This paper presents a novel technique (COIN, correction of intensity inhomogeneities) that uses two calibration images (fast spoiled gradient echo) to map a parameter containing the bias field, which is specific to the patient during a particular exam. This parametric map can then be used to correct any other images acquired during the same exam, regardless of the sequence employed. By using a short repetition time (less than 5 ms) for the calibration scans, the additional scan time is reduced to 60 s (max). The subsequent post-processing time is approximately 60 s per 20 slices. We successfully validate our approach on simulated brain MRI as well as real liver and spinal images. These images were acquired with a number of different coils, sequences and weightings. A comparison of our method with an existing, commercially available algorithm by radiologists shows that COIN is superior.

  17. A systematic investigation into the extraction of aluminum from coal spoil through kaolinite

    SciTech Connect

    X.C. Qiao; P. Si; J.G. Yu

    2008-11-15

    This research has applied kaolin and active carbon (AC) to the investigation of the recovery of aluminium from coal spoil (CS). The kaolin, AC-containing kaolin mixture, and CS have been calcined at 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900{degree}C for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. The transformation of kaolinite and aluminium extraction that occurred in each calcined sample have been characterized using XRD, TG, IR, and hydrochloric acid leaching methods. The dehydroxylation of kaolinite and the decomposition of metakaolin were influenced by thermal treatment temperature and time. The metakaolin had kept a portion of OH- in its structure until it was calcined at a temperature of 800{degree}C. Under 60 min treatment, new SiO{sub 2} phase was able to be formed at 500{degree}C, kaolinite was totally converted to metakaolin at 600{degree}C, and the SiO{sub 2} rejoined the reaction at 800{degree}C. The decompositions of CS were similar to those of kaolin mixture containing 20 wt % AC (MKC). The combustion of combustible matter accelerated the decomposition of kaolinite in the CS and MKC. Higher AC content led to lower aluminum extraction. The treatment at 600{degree}C was optimal for both CS and MKC. 28 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Identification of novel horA-harbouring bacteria capable of spoiling beer.

    PubMed

    Haakensen, Monique; Ziola, Barry

    2008-04-01

    An ATP-binding cassette (ABC) multi-drug resistance (MDR) gene was found in 4 Gram-positive bacterial isolates of environmental origin and found capable of spoiling beer. The bacteria isolated were Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Paenibacillus humicus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis; all of which were previously unappreciated as beer-spoilage bacteria. The MDR gene found in these bacteria has less than 37% similarity to known ABC MDR proteins described for Bacillus and Staphylococcus, and this is the first finding of an ABC MDR gene in the genus Paenibacillus. The sequenced region of the gene was translated and compared phylogenetically with the closest GenBank matches of the respective species and the closest GenBank matches overall. The ABC MDR proteins from these isolates were found to cluster among known sequences of HorA, sharing 99.5% identity within the sequenced region. In the beer-spoilage-associated genera Lactobacillus and Pediococcus, the presence of the MDR gene horA correlates with the ability to grow in beer. As the unique horA-harbouring isolates described here are capable of growing in beer, it is likely that the presence of the horA gene likewise confers hop resistance to these organisms.

  19. Spoilage potential characterization of Shewanella and Pseudomonas isolated from spoiled large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea).

    PubMed

    Ge, Y; Zhu, J; Ye, X; Yang, Y

    2017-01-01

    Ten strains were isolated from a spoiled large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea). All of them were able to grow aerobically from 4 to 30°C, and reduce trimethylamine-N-oxide to trimethylamine (TMA) and produce H2 S except SB01, PF05 and PF07. Biochemical characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that eight H2 S-producing isolates were closely related to Shewanella baltica, and two isolates PF05 and PF07 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas fragi respectively. However, of the eight Shewanella, seven isolates cluster with S. baltica and one with Shewanella glacialipiscicola based on the analysis of the gyrB gene. Shewanella baltica also had the ability to produce biogenic amines, while two Pseudomonas had high activities of proteinase and lipase, and failed to produce TMA and biogenic amines. In spoilage potential evaluation, the TVB-N value of S. baltica was significantly higher than that of Pseudomonas in sterile fish juice, although its growth was slower than Pseudomonas. Therefore, this work demonstrated that S. baltica was able to cause rapid and strong spoilage and was therefore identified as a specific spoilage organism in refrigerated P. crocea.

  20. In vivo quantitative NMR imaging of fruit tissues during growth using Spoiled Gradient Echo sequence.

    PubMed

    Kenouche, S; Perrier, M; Bertin, N; Larionova, J; Ayadi, A; Zanca, M; Long, J; Bezzi, N; Stein, P C; Guari, Y; Cieslak, M; Godin, C; Goze-Bac, C

    2014-12-01

    Nondestructive studies of physiological processes in agronomic products require increasingly higher spatial and temporal resolutions. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) imaging is a non-invasive technique providing physiological and morphological information on biological tissues. The aim of this study was to design a robust and accurate quantitative measurement method based on NMR imaging combined with contrast agent (CA) for mapping and quantifying water transport in growing cherry tomato fruits. A multiple flip-angle Spoiled Gradient Echo (SGE) imaging sequence was used to evaluate the intrinsic parameters maps M0 and T1 of the fruit tissues. Water transport and paths flow were monitored using Gd(3+)/[Fe(CN)6](3-)/D-mannitol nanoparticles as a tracer. This dynamic study was carried out using a compartmental modeling. The CA was preferentially accumulated in the surrounding tissues of columella and in the seed envelopes. The total quantities and the average volume flow of water estimated are: 198 mg, 1.76 mm(3)/h for the columella and 326 mg, 2.91 mm(3)/h for the seed envelopes. We demonstrate in this paper that the NMR imaging technique coupled with efficient and biocompatible CA in physiological medium has the potential to become a major tool in plant physiology research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lead Tolerance and Accumulation in Hirschfeldia incana, a Mediterranean Brassicaceae from Metalliferous Mine Spoils

    PubMed Central

    Auguy, Florence; Fahr, Mouna; Moulin, Patricia; Brugel, Anaïs; Laplaze, Laurent; Mzibri, Mohamed El; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Doumas, Patrick; Smouni, Abdelaziz

    2013-01-01

    Lead is a heavy metal of particular concern with respect to environmental quality and health. The lack of plant species that accumulate and tolerate Pb is a limiting factor to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in Pb tolerance. In this study we identified Hirschfeldia incana, a Brassicaceae collected from metalliferous mine spoils in Morocco, as a Pb accumulator plant. H. incana exhibited high Pb accumulation in mine soils and in hydroponic cultures. Major Pb accumulation occurred in the roots and a part of Pb translocated from the roots to the shoots, even to the siliques. These findings demonstrated that H. incana is a Pb accumulator species. The expression of several candidate genes after Pb-exposure was measured by quantitative PCR and two of them, HiHMA4 and HiMT2a, coding respectively for a P1B-type ATPase and a metallothionein, were particularly induced by Pb-exposure in both roots and leaves. The functional characterization of HiHMA4 and HiMT2a was achieved using Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional mutants. Pb content and primary root growth analysis confirmed the role of these two genes in Pb tolerance and accumulation. H. incana could be considered as a good experimental model to identify genes involved in lead tolerance and accumulation in plants. PMID:23667449

  2. A systematic investigation into the extraction of aluminum from coal spoil through kaolinite.

    PubMed

    Qiao, X C; Si, P; Yu, J G

    2008-11-15

    This research has applied kaolin and active carbon (AC) to the investigation of the recovery of aluminum from coal spoil (CS). The kaolin, AC-containing kaolin mixture, and CS have been calcined at 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900 degrees C for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. The transformation of kaolinite and aluminum extraction that occurred in each calcined sample have been characterized using XRD, TG, IR, and hydrochloric acid leaching methods. The dehydroxylation of kaolinite and the decomposition of metakaolin were influenced by thermal treatment temperature and time. The metakaolin had kept a portion of OH- in its structure until it was calcined at a temperature of 800 degrees C. Under 60 min treatment, new SiO2 phase was able to be formed at 500 degrees C, kaolinite was totally converted to metakaolin at 600 degrees C, and the SiO2 rejoined the reaction at 800 degrees C. The decompositions of CS were similar to those of kaolin mixture containing 20 wt % AC (MKC). The combustion of combustible matter accelerated the decomposition of kaolinite in the CS and MKC. Higher AC content led to lower aluminum extraction. The treatment at 600 degrees C was optimal for both CS and MKC.

  3. Dump stability and soil fertility of a coal mine spoil in Indian dry tropical environment: a long-term study.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Nimisha; Singh, Raj Shekhar; Chaulya, Swadesh K

    2012-10-01

    Plant available nitrogen, belowground (root) biomass, soil nitrogen (N) mineralization and microbial biomass N (MBN) were studied for 12 years at the interval of 2 years (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 years) and mine dump stability at the intervals of 6 years (0, 6 and 12 years) after re-vegetation on coal mine spoil site. Plant available nitrogen in revegetated mine spoil ranged from 4.51 to 6.59 μg g(-1), net N-mineralization from 1.87 to 13.85 μg g(-1) month(-1), MBN from 10 to 22.63 μg g(-1), and root biomass from 28 to 566 g(-2). Mining activity has caused a change in soil characteristics including plant available nutrients like nitrate-N, ammonium-N and phosphate-P by 70, 67, and 76 %, respectively, N-mineralization by 93 %, root biomass values by 97 % and MBN values by 91 % compared to forest ecosystems. Revegetation of mine spoil produced increase in root biomass values by 1.3, 7.6 and 17.2 times, mineral N values by 1.22, 1.43 and 1.79 times, N-mineralization values by 1.8, 5.2 and 12.6 times and MBN values by 1.6, 2.0, and 3.4 times in 2, 6 and 12 years, respectively. Below ground biomass was highly co-related with microbial biomass and plant available nutrients. N-mineralization, plant available nutrients and the clay content were positively correlated with age of revegetation (P < 0.01). From the numerical modelling it was analyzed that revegetation increased the dump slope stability with a factor of safety of 1.7 and 2.1 after 6 and 12 years of plantation on dump slope, respectively, while it was 1.2 before revegetation. Thus, long term revegetation was found to have direct impact on dump stability and indirect impact on soil fertility status in mine spoil, where plant biomass and microbial biomass provide major contributions in ecological redevelopment of the mine spoil.

  4. Fires in Operating or Abandoned Coal Mines or Heaps of Reactive Materials and the Governing Transport and Reaction Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Kessels, W.; Wessling, S.; Han, J.

    2007-05-01

    Spontaneous combustion is a world wide problem for technical operations in mining, waste disposal and power plant facilities. The principle driving the combustion is every where the same independent of the different reactive materials: Fresh air with the common oxygen content is getting in contact with the reactive material by human operations. The following reaction process produces heat at a usually low but constant rate. The reactive material in operating or abandoned coal mines, heaps of coal, waste or reactive minerals is most times strongly broken or fractured, such that the atmospheric oxygen can deeply penetrate into the porous or fractured media. Because the strongly broken or fractured medium with air filled pores and fractures is often combined with a low thermal conductivity of the bulk material the produced heat accumulates and the temperature increases with time. If the reactivity strongly increases with temperature, the temperature rise accelerates up to the "combustion temperature". Once the temperature is high enough the combustion process is determined by the oxygen transport to the combustion center rather than the chemical reactivity. Spontaneous combustion is thus a self- amplifying process where an initial small variation in the parameters and the starting conditions can create exploding combustion hot spots in an apparently homogenous material. The phenomenon will be discussed by various examples in the context of the German - Sino coal fire project. A temperature monitoring in hot fracture systems documents the strong influence of the weather conditions on the combustion process. Numerical calculations show the sensitivity of the combustion to the model geometries, the boundary conditions and mainly the permeability. The most used fire fighting operations like covering and water injection are discussed. A new method of using saltwater for fire fighting is presented and discussed. References: Kessels, W., Wessling, S., Li, X., and Wuttke, M

  5. Molecular identification and physiological characterization of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria isolated from heap and box cocoa bean fermentations in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Visintin, Simonetta; Alessandria, Valentina; Valente, Antonio; Dolci, Paola; Cocolin, Luca

    2016-01-04

    Yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) populations, isolated from cocoa bean heap and box fermentations in West Africa, have been investigated. The fermentation dynamicswere determined by viable counts, and 106 yeasts, 105 LAB and 82 AAB isolateswere identified by means of rep-PCR grouping and sequencing of the rRNA genes. During the box fermentations, the most abundant species were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ethanolica, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii, while S. cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia manshurica, C. ethanolica, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Lb. fermentum, Lb. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and Acetobacter lovaniensis were identified in the heap fermentations. Furthermore, the most abundant species were molecularly characterized by analyzing the rep-PCR profiles. Strains grouped according to the type of fermentations and their progression during the transformation process were also highlighted. The yeast, LAB and AAB isolates were physiologically characterized to determine their ability to grow at different temperatures, as well as at different pH, and ethanol concentrations, tolerance to osmotic stress, and lactic acid and acetic acid inhibition. Temperatures of 45 °C, a pH of 2.5 to 3.5, 12% (v/v) ethanol and high concentrations of lactic and acetic acid have a significant influence on the growth of yeasts, LAB and AAB. Finally, the yeastswere screened for enzymatic activity, and the S. cerevisiae, H. guilliermondii, H. uvarumand C. ethanolica species were shown to possess several enzymes that may impact the quality of the final product.

  6. Copper-Adapted Suillus luteus, a Symbiotic Solution for Pines Colonizing Cu Mine Spoils

    PubMed Central

    Adriaensen, K.; Vrålstad, T.; Noben, J.-P.; Vangronsveld, J.; Colpaert, J. V.

    2005-01-01

    Natural populations thriving in heavy-metal-contaminated ecosystems are often subjected to selective pressures for increased resistance to toxic metals. In the present study we describe a population of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus that colonized a toxic Cu mine spoil in Norway. We hypothesized that this population had developed adaptive Cu tolerance and was able to protect pine trees against Cu toxicity. We also tested for the existence of cotolerance to Cu and Zn in S. luteus. Isolates from Cu-polluted, Zn-polluted, and nonpolluted sites were grown in vitro on Cu- or Zn-supplemented medium. The Cu mine isolates exhibited high Cu tolerance, whereas the Zn-tolerant isolates were shown to be Cu sensitive, and vice versa. This indicates the evolution of metal-specific tolerance mechanisms is strongly triggered by the pollution in the local environment. Cotolerance does not occur in the S. luteus isolates studied. In a dose-response experiment, the Cu sensitivity of nonmycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings was compared to the sensitivity of mycorrhizal seedlings colonized either by a Cu-sensitive or Cu-tolerant S. luteus isolate. In nonmycorrhizal plants and plants colonized by the Cu-sensitive isolate, root growth and nutrient uptake were strongly inhibited under Cu stress conditions. In contrast, plants colonized by the Cu-tolerant isolate were hardly affected. The Cu-adapted S. luteus isolate provided excellent insurance against Cu toxicity in pine seedlings exposed to elevated Cu levels. Such a metal-adapted Suillus-Pinus combination might be suitable for large-scale land reclamation at phytotoxic metalliferous and industrial sites. PMID:16269769

  7. Copper-adapted Suillus luteus, a symbiotic solution for pines colonizing Cu mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Adriaensen, K; Vrålstad, T; Noben, J-P; Vangronsveld, J; Colpaert, J V

    2005-11-01

    Natural populations thriving in heavy-metal-contaminated ecosystems are often subjected to selective pressures for increased resistance to toxic metals. In the present study we describe a population of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus that colonized a toxic Cu mine spoil in Norway. We hypothesized that this population had developed adaptive Cu tolerance and was able to protect pine trees against Cu toxicity. We also tested for the existence of cotolerance to Cu and Zn in S. luteus. Isolates from Cu-polluted, Zn-polluted, and nonpolluted sites were grown in vitro on Cu- or Zn-supplemented medium. The Cu mine isolates exhibited high Cu tolerance, whereas the Zn-tolerant isolates were shown to be Cu sensitive, and vice versa. This indicates the evolution of metal-specific tolerance mechanisms is strongly triggered by the pollution in the local environment. Cotolerance does not occur in the S. luteus isolates studied. In a dose-response experiment, the Cu sensitivity of nonmycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings was compared to the sensitivity of mycorrhizal seedlings colonized either by a Cu-sensitive or Cu-tolerant S. luteus isolate. In nonmycorrhizal plants and plants colonized by the Cu-sensitive isolate, root growth and nutrient uptake were strongly inhibited under Cu stress conditions. In contrast, plants colonized by the Cu-tolerant isolate were hardly affected. The Cu-adapted S. luteus isolate provided excellent insurance against Cu toxicity in pine seedlings exposed to elevated Cu levels. Such a metal-adapted Suillus-Pinus combination might be suitable for large-scale land reclamation at phytotoxic metalliferous and industrial sites.

  8. Selenium Adsorption onto Iron Oxide Layers beneath Coal-Mine Overburden Spoil.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Joseph J; Ziemkiewicz, Paul F

    2013-09-01

    A field experimental study to determine the feasibility of sequestering dissolved selenium (Se) leached from coal-mine waste rock used an iron (Fe)-oxide amendment obtained from a mine-drainage treatment wetland. Thirty lysimeters (4.9 × 7.3 m), each containing 57.7 t (1.2-1.8 m thickness) of mine-run carbonaceous shale overburden, were installed at the Hobet mine in southeastern West Virginia. The fine-grained Fe-oxide was determined to be primarily metal oxides (91.5% ferric and 4.37% aluminous), with minor (<3%) SO and Ca, perhaps as gypsum. The mineralogy of the Fe was goethite, although residual ferrihydrite may have been present. Various thicknesses of this amendment (0.0064, 0.057, 0.229, and 0.457 m, plus a zero-amendment control) were used, ranging from 0 to 2.2% weight percent of the spoil. The control and each treatment were replicated six times to estimate uncertainty due to compositional and hydrological variation. Infiltration of rainfall created leachate that drained to individual batch-collection tanks that were sampled 46 times at approximately 2-wk intervals from 2010 to 2012. Basal Fe-oxide layers in the three highest amendment categories removed up to 76.1% selenium (in comparison to unamended piles) from leachate by adsorption. Only lysimeters with very thin Fe-oxide layers showed no significant reduction compared with unamended piles. Reproducibility of replicates was within acceptable limits for amended and unamended lysimeters. Results indicate that in situ amendment using Fe-oxide obtained from treatment of mine water can sequester Se by adsorption on surfaces of goethite and possibly also ferrihydrite. This process is demonstrated to substantially reduce dissolved Se in leachate and improve compliance with regulatory discharge limits. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Generalized equation for describing the magnetization in spoiled gradient-echo imaging.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kenya

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a generalized equation for describing the magnetization in spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) imaging in which the in-pulse relaxation and magnetization transfer (MT) effects are taken into account. First, the time-dependent Bloch equations for the two-pool exchange model with MT effect were reduced to an inhomogeneous linear differential equation, and then a simple equation was derived to solve it using a matrix operation. Second, the equations describing the magnetization before and after the radiofrequency (RF) pulse were derived based on the above solution for the RF-pulse excitation and evolution phases. Finally, a generalized equation describing the steady-state magnetization was derived. The validity of this equation was investigated by comparing with the transverse magnetization obtained by the regular Ernst equation and analytical solution in which the in-pulse transverse relaxation is considered. When the same assumption was made in our method, there were good agreements between them, indicating the validity of our method. The in-pulse transverse and longitudinal relaxations decreased the transverse magnetization compared to the case in which these effects were neglected, whereas MT increased it. In conclusion, we derived a generalized equation for describing the magnetization in SPGR imaging. This equation will provide a suitable basis for understanding the signal intensity in SPGR imaging and/or T1 measurement using an SPGR sequence in cases in which the effect of in-pulse relaxation and/or MT cannot be neglected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This report on the BCV OU 2 at the Y-12 Plant, was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Field activities included collection of subsurface soil samples, groundwater and surface water samples, and sediments and seep at the Rust Spoil Area (RSA), SY-200 Yard, and SA-1.

  11. Bioavailability and microbial adaptation to elevated levels of uranium in an acid, organic topsoil forming on an old mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Joner, Erik Jautris; Munier-Lamy, Colette; Gouget, Barbara

    2007-08-01

    An old mine spoil at a 19th-century mining site with considerable residues of uranium (400-800 mg U/kg) was investigated with respect to U concentrations in soil and plants and tolerance to U in the soil microbial community in order to describe the bioavailability of U. Measurements of soil fractions representing water-soluble U, easily exchangeable U, and U bound to humified organic matter showed that all fractions contained elevated concentrations of U. Plant U concentrations were only 10 times higher at the mine spoil site compared to the reference site (3 mg U/kg vs 0.3 mg U/kg), while the most easily available soil fractions contained 0.18 to 0.86 mg U/kg soil at the mine spoil. An ecotoxicity bioassay using incorporation of [3H]thymidine into the indigenous microbial communities of the two soils in the presence of increasing U concentrations showed that microorganisms at the mining site were sensitive to U but also that they had acquired a substantial tolerance toward U (EC50, the effective concentration reducing activity by 50% of UO2-citrate was approximately 120 microM as compared to 30 microM in the reference soil). In the assay, more than 40% of the microbial activity was maintained in the presence of 1 mM UO2-citrate versus 3% in the reference soil. We conclude that U-enriched mining waste can contain sufficiently elevated concentrations of bioavailable U to affect indigenous microorganisms and that bioavailable U imposes a selection pressure that favors the development of a highly uranium-tolerant microbial community, while plant uptake of U remains low.

  12. Shrinking the trash heap

    SciTech Connect

    Gillis, A.M.

    1992-02-01

    This article evaluates uses of composted solid wastes. Uses are described for agriculture, horticulture, silviculture, for soil amendments and for land reclamation projects. Researchers are exploring problems related to the availability and toxicity of metals in the compost and the effects of these metals in the food supply. Consumer acceptance has been the major drawback to successful marketing of the product.

  13. Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western USA. I. Chemical characteristics of spoil and replaced cover-soil.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1983-01-01

    A range of at least one order of magnitude was observed for DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn and organic matter content of samples of spoil and cover-soil from eleven western USA surface-coal mines. The observed pH of these samples ranged from 3.9 to 8.9; however, most samples were near-neutral to alkaline in reaction. Most constituent levels were found to be below proposed guidelines for maximum permissible levels in mine soil. -from Authors

  14. Long-term effects of aided phytostabilisation of trace elements on microbial biomass and activity, enzyme activities, and composition of microbial community in the Jales contaminated mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Renella, Giancarlo; Landi, Loretta; Ascher, Judith; Ceccherini, Maria Teresa; Pietramellara, Giacomo; Mench, Michel; Nannipieri, Paolo

    2008-04-01

    We studied the effectiveness of remediation on microbial endpoints, namely microbial biomass and activity, microbial and plant species richness, of an As-contaminated mine spoil, amended with compost (C) alone and in combination with beringite (B) or zerovalent iron grit (Z), to increase organic matter content and reduce trace elements mobility, and to allow Holcus lanatus and Pinus pinaster growth. Untreated spoil showed the lowest microbial biomass and activity and hydrolase activities, and H. lanatus as sole plant species, whereas the presented aided phytostabilisation option, especially CBZ treatment, significantly increased microbial biomass and activity and allowed colonisation by several plant species, comparable to those of an uncontaminated sandy soil. Microbial species richness was only increased in spoils amended with C alone. No clear correlation occurred between trace element mobility and microbial parameters and plant species richness. Our results indicate that the choice of indicators of soil remediation practices is a bottleneck.

  15. Characterization of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from spoiled black olives.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Svetoslav D; Dicks, Leon M T

    2005-01-01

    Bacteriocin-producing strains of Lactobacillus plantarum ST23LD and ST341LD, Enterococcus faecium ST311LD and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides ST33LD were isolated from the brine of spoiled black olives. The bacteriocins produced by all four strains inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria (E. faecalis, L. casei and Streptococcus pneumoniae), but also Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Strain ST23LD produced two bacteriocins (ST23LDa and ST23LDb of approximately 3.0 and 14.0 kDa, respectively), with a combined maximum level of activity of 25,600 AU/ml after 18 h of growth. The same level of activity was recorded for bacteriocin ST341LD (approximately 3.0 kDa), but after 16 h. Bacteriocins ST311LD (ca. 2.3 kDa) and ST33LD (ca. 2.7 kDa) were produced at much lower levels (6400 AU/ml), and only after 20 h of growth. Bacteriocin activity was destroyed after treatment with proteolytic enzymes and Triton X, but not when treated with alpha-amylase, SDS, Tween 20, Tween 80, urea and EDTA, or when heated for 20 min at 121 degrees C. Addition of bacteriocins ST23LD, ST341LD and ST311LD to cells of Lactobacillus casei LHS in logarithmic phase resulted in growth inhibition for one hour, followed by a slight increase in optical density over the next seven hours. Bacteriocin ST33LD also inhibited the growth of strain LHS, but to a lesser extent. Bacteriocins ST23LD, ST341LD and ST33LD remained at the same level of activity for 6 h at pH<4.0. However, the activity of bacteriocin ST311LD decreased by 50% within 2 h at pH 4.4. The possibility of the bacteriocin adsorbing to the producer cell and proteolytic degradation is unlikely. Copyright (c) 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Inactivation of spoiling microorganisms in apple juice by a combination of essential oils' constituents and physical treatments.

    PubMed

    Chueca, Beatriz; Ramírez, Nayeli; Arvizu-Medrano, Sofía M; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    A combination of different hurdles, such as mild heat (54 ℃ for 10 min) or pulsed electric field (25 pulses; 25 kV/cm; 3.35 kJ/cm per pulse) treatments and essential oils constituents (carvacrol, citral, and (+)-limonene), to reduce spoiling bacteria and yeasts in apple juice was evaluated. For this purpose, the heat and pulsed electric field resistances of five strains of Leuconostoc spp. and five Saccharomyces spp. strains were assayed, achieving different inactivation levels for each treatment and strain. For instance, Leuconostoc fallax 74, the most heat-resistant strain, was the second-most sensitive strain to pulsed electric field. The most resistant strains were exposed to combined processes of heat or pulsed electric field and 0.2 µl/ml essential oils constituents. The combination of heat and essential oils constituents proved to be synergistic against both microorganisms in apple juice. The most effective was the combination of mild heat and carvacrol, which caused the inactivation of 99% of L. fallax 74 and 99.99% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CECT 1172 cells. Therefore, this study shows the great potential of carvacrol, citral, and (+)-limonene in combined treatments with mild heat to achieve a higher degree of inactivation of spoiling microorganisms in apple juice, and thus, to extend its shelf life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Effects of hardwood bark, wood fiber and straw mulches on temperature and moisture content of mine spoils

    SciTech Connect

    Wittwer, R.F.; Carpenter, S.B.; Graves, D.H.

    1980-12-01

    Spoil temperatures at 7.5, 15, and 30 cm depths and spoil moisture content at 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 cm depths were measured under various mulching treatments on north- and south-slope sites during the growing season. Temperatures were measured with Soiltest Standard Soil Moisture-Temperature Cells and moisture was determined with a neutron probe. Mulching materials evaluated were: hardwood bark (5.0 cm depth), wood fiber mulch (1.7 mt/ha), wood fiber mulch with a latex binder (1.7 mt/ha) and straw (3.4 mt/ha) held in place by erosion netting. Temperatures near the surface (7.5 cm depth) under the various mulches generally ranked in the order: control > wood fiber = straw > bark. Temperatures on the south slope averaged about 1/sup 0/C higher. The maximum temperature observed (34/sup 0/C) was in an unmulched control plot on the south slope in June. Moisture content at 15 cm for the various mulches generally ranked in the order: bark > wood fiber = straw > control.

  18. Succession on subalpine placer mine spoil: Effects of revegetation with Alnus viridis, Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Roseann V.

    2005-01-01

    Alnus viridis seedlings were planted on placer mine spoil in an Alaskan subalpine watershed to bypass a seedling establishment bottleneck for A. viridis, and to evaluate the interaction between A. viridis and the dominant riparian woody plants, Salix alaxensis and Populus balsamifera. The study area was divided into 11 replicate blocks, each on a homogeneous recontoured spoil pile. Blocks were divided into two 0.01 ha plots, and treatments without (control) and with 84 planted A. viridis seedlings were randomly assigned to plots. After 10 years, the Alnus treatment had a dense stand of A. viridis 1–2 m tall, while the control had fewer, smaller seedlings. Compared to the control, planted A. viridis had a neutral effect on S. alaxensis and inhibited P. balsamifera at the seedling establishment stage, but facilitated the growth of established plants of both species, with many plants overtopping the A. viridis canopy. Compared to the control, S. alaxensis plants in the Alnus treatment had higher levels of foliar N and δ15N values closer to those of A. viridis, indicating the importance of N fixation by A. viridis. Planting A. viridis accelerated the rate of succession by stimulating growth of woody dominants.

  19. Environmental risk evaluation of the use of mine spoils and treated sewage sludge in the ecological restoration of limestone quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordán, M. M.; Pina, S.; García-Orenes, F.; Almendro-Candel, M. B.; García-Sánchez, E.

    2008-07-01

    The ecologic restoration criteria in areas degraded from extraction activities require making use of their mine spoils. These materials do not meet fertility conditions to guarantee restoration success and therefore, need the incorporation of organic amendments to obtain efficient substratum. Reducing the deficiencies in the organic material and restoration material nutrients with the contribution of treated sewage sludge is proposed in this work. This experiment was based on a controlled study using columns. The work was conducted with two mine spoils, both very rich in calcium carbonate. The first mineral, of poor quality, came from the formation of aggregates of crushed limestone ( Z). The other residual material examined originated in limestone extraction, formed by the levels of interspersed non-limestone materials and the remains of stripped soils ( D). Two treatments were undertaken (30,000 and 90,000 kg/ha of sewage sludge), in addition to a control treatment. The water contribution was carried out with a device that simulated either short-duration rain or a flooding irrigation system in order to cover the surface and then percolate through the soil. The collection of leached water took place 24 h after the applications. Different parameters of the leached water were determined, including pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate anions, ammonium, phosphates, sulphates and chlorides. The values obtained for each irrigation application are discussed, and the nitrate values obtained were very elevated.

  20. Molecular Detection and Identification of Brettanomyces/Dekkera bruxellensis and Brettanomyces/Dekkera anomalus in Spoiled Wines

    PubMed Central

    Cocolin, Luca; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Iacumin, Lucilla; Zironi, Roberto; Comi, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development of a PCR protocol to specifically detect Brettanomyces bruxellensis and B. anomalus. Primers DB90F and DB394R, targeting the D1-D2 loop of the 26S rRNA gene, were able to produce amplicons only when the DNA from these two species were used. No amplification product was obtained when DNA from other Brettanomyces spp. or wine yeasts were used as the templates. The 305-bp product was subjected to restriction enzyme analysis with DdeI to differentiate between B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus, and each species could be identified on the basis of the different restriction profiles. After optimization of the method by using strains from international collections, wine isolates were tested with the method proposed. Total agreement between traditional identification and molecular identification was observed. The protocol developed was also used for direct detection of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus in wines suspected to be spoiled by Brettanomyces spp. Application of culture-based and molecular methods led us to the conclusion that 8 of 12 samples were spoiled by B. bruxellensis. Results based on the application of molecular methods suggested that two of the eight positive samples had been infected more recently, since specific signals were obtained at both the DNA and RNA levels. PMID:15006752

  1. Molecular detection and identification of Brettanomyces/Dekkera bruxellensis and Brettanomyces/Dekkera anomalus in spoiled wines.

    PubMed

    Cocolin, Luca; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Iacumin, Lucilla; Zironi, Roberto; Comi, Giuseppe

    2004-03-01

    In this paper we describe the development of a PCR protocol to specifically detect Brettanomyces bruxellensis and B. anomalus. Primers DB90F and DB394R, targeting the D1-D2 loop of the 26S rRNA gene, were able to produce amplicons only when the DNA from these two species were used. No amplification product was obtained when DNA from other Brettanomyces spp. or wine yeasts were used as the templates. The 305-bp product was subjected to restriction enzyme analysis with DdeI to differentiate between B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus, and each species could be identified on the basis of the different restriction profiles. After optimization of the method by using strains from international collections, wine isolates were tested with the method proposed. Total agreement between traditional identification and molecular identification was observed. The protocol developed was also used for direct detection of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus in wines suspected to be spoiled by Brettanomyces spp. Application of culture-based and molecular methods led us to the conclusion that 8 of 12 samples were spoiled by B. bruxellensis. Results based on the application of molecular methods suggested that two of the eight positive samples had been infected more recently, since specific signals were obtained at both the DNA and RNA levels.

  2. Detection of acid and hop shock induced responses in beer spoiling Lactobacillus brevis by MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Schurr, Benjamin C; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-04-01

    Due to the harsh environment, microorganisms encounter in beer, spoilage bacteria must be able to customise their metabolism and physiology in an order to master various kinds of perturbations. Proteomic approaches have been used to examine differences between various beer spoilage bacteria and between different stress conditions, such as acid and hop (Humulus lupulus) stress. However, these investigations cannot detect changes in low molecular weight (lmw) proteins (<150 amino acids). Therefore, for the first time, we herein present data from a proteomic study of lmw proteins for two Lactobacillus (L.) brevis strains exposed to acid stress or, respectively, two different qualities of hop induced stress. We used MALDI-TOF MS as analytical tool for the detection of lmw stress response proteins due to its high sensitivity and low throughput times. Comparing a hop-sensitive and a hop-tolerant strain, detection of the fatty acid biosynthesis-associated acyl carrier protein varied between different stress conditions and incubation times. The findings coincide with previous studies of our group regarding the fatty acid cell membrane composition of beer spoiling L. brevis. It is demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS is a fast tool to detect and characterise stress situations in beer spoiling bacteria along the lmw sub-proteome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of the spoilage potential of bacteria isolated from spoiled raw salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under modified atmosphere packaging.

    PubMed

    Macé, Sabrina; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; Cardinal, Mireille; Malcheva, Mariya; Cornet, Josiane; Lalanne, Valérie; Chevalier, Frédérique; Sérot, Thierry; Pilet, Marie-France; Dousset, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The spoilage potential of eight bacterial groups/species (Serratia spp., Hafnia alvei, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Shewanella baltica, Lactococcus piscium, Photobacterium phosphoreum, "other Enterobacteriaceae" [containing one strain of Moellerella sp., Morganella sp. and Pectobacterium sp.]) isolated from spoiled raw salmon fillets stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was evaluated by inoculation into sterile raw salmon cubes followed by storage for 12days at 8°C. Microbial growth and sensory changes were monitored during the storage period. The dominant spoilage bacteria were C. maltaromaticum, H. alvei and P. phosphoreum. In order to further characterize their spoilage potential and to study the effect of their interactions, each of these 3 specific spoilage organisms (SSO) and two mixed-cultures, C. maltaromaticum/H. alvei and C. maltaromaticum/P. phosphoreum were tested in the sterile salmon model system using a combination of complementary methods: molecular (PCR-TTGE), sensory, chemical and conventional microbiological analyses. It was concluded that, in the mixed-culture inoculated samples, the dominant species determined the spoilage characteristics. The volatile fraction of P. phosphoreum inoculated samples was analyzed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the specific volatile compounds present on P. phosphoreum spoiled inoculated samples, acetic acid was correlated with sensory analysis and can be proposed as a raw salmon spoilage marker.

  4. Dynamics and Biodiversity of Populations of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Heap Fermentation of Cocoa Beans in Ghana▿

    PubMed Central

    Camu, Nicholas; De Winter, Tom; Verbrugghe, Kristof; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S.; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc

    2007-01-01

    The Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation process was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological and metabolite target analyses. A culture-dependent (plating and incubation, followed by repetitive-sequence-based PCR analyses of picked-up colonies) and culture-independent (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, PCR-DGGE) approach revealed a limited biodiversity and targeted population dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation. Four main clusters were identified among the LAB isolated: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, and Enterococcus casseliflavus. Other taxa encompassed, for instance, Weissella. Only four clusters were found among the AAB identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter syzygii-like bacteria, and two small clusters of Acetobacter tropicalis-like bacteria. Particular strains of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus, originating from the environment, were well adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing during Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation and apparently played a significant role in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Yeasts produced ethanol from sugars, and LAB produced lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol from sugars and/or citrate. Whereas L. plantarum strains were abundant in the beginning of the fermentation, L. fermentum strains converted fructose into mannitol upon prolonged fermentation. A. pasteurianus grew on ethanol, mannitol, and lactate and converted ethanol into acetic acid. A newly proposed Weissella sp., referred to as “Weissella ghanaensis,” was detected through PCR-DGGE analysis in some of the fermentations and was only occasionally picked up through culture-based isolation. Two new species of Acetobacter were found as well, namely, the species tentatively named “Acetobacter senegalensis” (A. tropicalis-like) and

  5. In situ production of human β defensin-3 in lager yeasts provides bactericidal activity against beer-spoiling bacteria under fermentation conditions.

    PubMed

    James, T C; Gallagher, L; Titze, J; Bourke, P; Kavanagh, J; Arendt, E; Bond, U

    2014-02-01

    To examine the use of a natural antimicrobial peptide, human β-defensin-3 (HBD3), as a means of preventing spoilage from bacterial contamination in brewery fermentations and in bottled beer. A chemically synthesised HBD3 peptide was tested for bactericidal activity against common Gram-positive and Gram-negative beer-spoiling bacteria, including species of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Pectinatus. The peptide was effective at the μmol l(-1) range in vitro, reducing bacterial counts by 95%. A gene construct encoding a secretable form of HBD3 was integrated into the genome of the lager yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus strain CMBS-33. The integrated gene was expressed under fermentation conditions and was secreted from the cell into the medium, but a significant amount remains associated with yeast cell surface. We demonstrate that under pilot-scale fermentation conditions, secreted HBD3 possesses bactericidal activity against beer-spoiling bacteria. Furthermore, when added to bottled beer, a synthetic form of HBD3 reduces the growth of beer-spoiling bacteria. Defensins provide prophylactic protection against beer-spoiling bacteria under brewing conditions and also in bottled beer. The results have direct application to the brewing industry where beer spoilage due to bacterial contamination continues to be a major problem in breweries around the world. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Antimicrobial Activities of Plant Defensin-Like and Ultrashort Peptides against Food-Spoiling Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kraszewska, Joanna; Beckett, Michael C.; James, Tharappel C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antimicrobial peptides offer potential as novel therapeutics to combat food spoilage and poisoning caused by pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. Our previous studies identified the peptide human beta-defensin 3 (HBD3) as a potent antimicrobial agent against a wide range of beer-spoiling bacteria. Thus, HBD3 is an excellent candidate for development as an additive to prevent food and beverage spoilage. To expand the repertoire of peptides with antimicrobial activity against bacteria associated with food spoilage and/or food poisoning, we carried out an in silico discovery pipeline to identify peptides with structure and activity similar to those of HBD3, focusing on peptides of plant origin. Using a standardized assay, we compared the antimicrobial activities of nine defensin-like plant peptides to the activity of HBD3. Only two of the peptides, fabatin-2 and Cp-thionin-2, displayed antimicrobial activity; however, the peptides differed from HBD3 in being sensitive to salt and were thermostable. We also compared the activities of several ultrashort peptides to that of HBD3. One of the peptides, the synthetic tetrapeptide O3TR, displayed biphasic antimicrobial activity but had a narrower host range than HBD3. Finally, to determine if the peptides might act in concert to improve antimicrobial activity, we compared the activities of the peptides in pairwise combinations. The plant defensin-like peptides fabatin-2 and Cp-thionin-2 displayed a synergistic effect with HBD3, while O3TR was antagonistic. Thus, some plant defensin-like peptides are effective antimicrobials and may act in concert with HBD3 to control bacteria associated with food spoilage and food poisoning. IMPORTANCE Food spoilage and food poisoning caused by bacteria can have major health and economic implications for human society. With the rise in resistance to conventional antibiotics, there is a need to identify new antimicrobials to combat these outbreaks in our food supply. Here we

  7. Long-term persistence of seeded grass species: an unwanted side effect of ecological restoration.

    PubMed

    Rydgren, Knut; Auestad, Inger; Hamre, Liv Norunn; Hagen, Dagmar; Rosef, Line; Skjerdal, Gudrun

    2016-07-01

    Spoil heaps are the visible footprint of hydropower production, particularly in vulnerable alpine environments. Speeding up vegetation development by seeding commercial grass species has been a common restoration practice for the last 50 years, but we lack information on whether seeded species decline and allow native plant cover to develop. We visually estimated cover of native vascular plants and five seeded grass species (Agrostis capillaris, Festuca ovina, Festuca rubra, Schedonorus pratensis and Phleum pratense) on eight spoil heaps at different elevations (boreal-alpine zone) in western Norway. Spoil heap vegetation was censused twice (9-20 and 24-36 years after spoil heap construction); the undisturbed surrounding vegetation was also censused on the second occasion. Total cover on the spoil heaps showed some increase, but remained far below that in surrounding areas. Cover of seeded grass species in the surroundings was low (but not negligible), indicating suboptimal establishment ability. Seeded species usually covered less than 20 % of the spoil heaps, and only F. rubra, F. ovina and A. capillaris contributed substantially. Proportional cover indicated better initial establishment by seeded species, but their cover decreased between the censuses on all but the highest located spoil heap. The persistence of seeded grass species is problematic, and despite the decrease in proportional cover, they are likely to persist for decades on spoil heaps, posing a risk of invasion of surrounding areas. We therefore recommend replacing the practice of seeding with more appropriate restoration measures.

  8. Plant-growth response to various combinations of mulches and spoil substrates on a Walker County, Alabama, surface coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, E.A.; Gabrielson, F.C.; Hughes, T.H.

    1982-05-01

    In 1978-1979, Walker County, Alabama, was the site of an experiment designed to assess plant growth and soil erosion. The experiment utilized 6 mulch treatments applied to each of 3 coal surface mine substrates. The mulches (wood fiber, hardwood bark, pine bark, waste compost, paper-slag, and no mulch application) were randomly combined with either A + B horizon soil, shale, or a mixture of the two. The resulting 18 plots were replicated on two slopes (N-S). A standard seed-fertilizer regimen was applied to all plots. Plots were read in June and October 1979 for species composition, density, and plane cover. Overall grass growth, as measured by plane cover, was best on mixed substrate, and growth was not significantly different between shale and topsoil plots. Density and cover provided by volunteer species varied according to slope, substrate, and mulch combinations. Overall, numbers of spoil arthropods did not show great differences according to slope or substrate.

  9. Spare the rod and spoil the child. Is this a sensible justification for the use of punishment in child rearing?

    PubMed

    Carey, T A

    1994-12-01

    This paper examines the validity of the well-used proverb Spare the rod and spoil the child. To do this, the original form of the proverb from the Bible is compared with the modern form, and some significant differences are highlighted. The definition of punishment is considered, and the differences between punishment and corporal punishment are examined. Punishment is explored in some detail with attention given to the criteria that need to be satisfied in order for punishment to be effective. Discrepancies in the literature concerning these criteria are pointed out, making punishment a complex issue. The negative effects of punishment are significant with links to social problems such as teenage delinquency and violence. Reference is made to cultures where corporal punishment has been banned and the effects of this action. Given the problems associated with punishment programs, especially those being used in families, alternatives to punishment are discussed. Finally, an alternative form of the proverb to the current adaptation is offered.

  10. Optimization of spoiled gradient-echo phase imaging for in vivo localization of a focused ultrasound beam.

    PubMed

    Chung, A H; Hynynen, K; Colucci, V; Oshio, K; Cline, H E; Jolesz, F A

    1996-11-01

    The parameters of a spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) pulse sequence have been optimized for in vivo localization of a focused ultrasound beam. Temperature elevation was measured by using the proton resonance frequency shift technique, and the phase difference signal-to-noise ratio (SNR delta phi) was estimated in skeletal muscle and kidney cortex in 10 rabbits. Optimized parameters included the echo time equivalent to T2* of the tissue, the longest repetition time possible with a 20-s sonication, and the flip angle equivalent to the Ernst angle. Optimal SPGR phase imaging can detect a sonication beam with a peak phase difference of 0.55 radian, which corresponds to a temperature elevation of 7.3 degrees C. The sonication beam can be localized within one voxel (0.6 x 0.6 x 5 mm3) at power levels that are below the threshold for thermal damage of the tissue.

  11. Influence of restoration on arbuscular mycorrhiza of Biscutella laevigata L. (Brassicaceae) and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae) from calamine spoil mounds.

    PubMed

    Orłowska, E; Zubek, Sz; Jurkiewicz, A; Szarek- Łukaszewska, G; Turnau, K

    2002-06-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal status of two plant species, Biscutella laevigata L. and Plantago lanceolata L., was investigated on calamine spoil mounds in Bolesław (southern Poland). Although B. laevigata is a member of the Brassicaceae, a family generally accepted as non-mycorrhizal, this species formed AM symbioses on both heavy metal-contaminated and non-contaminated sites. Besides vesicles and coils, arbuscules were also observed, especially in roots collected prior to seed maturity. Relative mycorrhizal root length and relative arbuscular richness were usually much higher in P. lanceolata than in B. laevigata but not absolute arbuscule richness. Roots of P. lanceolata showed higher colonisation than B. laevigata. Although roots were collected from plants in close proximity, no correlation in mycorrhizal parameters was found between the two species.

  12. Rehabilitation of semi-arid coal mine spoil bank soils with mine residues and farm organic by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M.; Bosch-Serra, A.; Estudillos, G.; Poch, R.M.

    2009-07-01

    A method of rehabilitating coal mine soils was studied under the conditions of a semi-arid climate, lack of topsoil but availability of farm by-products in NE Spain. The objectives of the research were to assess a new method in order to achieve a suitable substrate for the establishment of native vegetation, to evaluate environmental impacts associated with the reclamation process, and to determine the time necessary to integrate the treated area into the surrounding environment. Eight plots (10 x 35 m{sup 2}) were established in September 1997. Substrate combinations of two types of mine spoil (coal dust and coarse-sized material), two levels of pig slurry (39 and 94 Mg ha{sup -1}dry-wt), and cereal straw (0 and 15 Mg ha{sup -1}) were applied. Monitoring of select physical and chemical soil properties and vegetation characteristics was performed from 1997 until 2005. The bulk density and the saturated hydraulic conductivity measured did not limit plant development and water availability. Initial substrate salinity (1.37 S m{sup -1}) decreased with time and in the long term did not limit plant colonization to salinity-adapted species. Initial nitrate concentration was 298 mg kg{sup -1}, but was reduced significantly to acceptable values in 3 years (55 mg kg{sup -1}) and the measured pH (7.6) was maintained at the level of initial spoil values. Vegetation cover reached up to 90%. In the treated area, spontaneous vegetation cover (15 to 70%) colonized the nonsown areas widely. In the medium term, vegetation cover tended to be higher in plots with a thicker layer of coal dust material and the higher slurry rate. Soil rehabilitation and environmental reintegration, taking into account soil and vegetation indicators, was possible in the studied area with low cost inputs using residual materials from mining activities and animal husbandry by-products.

  13. Insights into functional genes and taxonomical/phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities in biological heap leaching system and their correlation with functions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yunhua; Liu, Xueduan; Liang, Yili; Niu, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Xian; Ma, Liyuan; Hao, Xiaodong; Gu, Yabin; Yin, Huaqun

    2016-11-01

    Although the taxonomical/phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities in biological heap leaching systems has been investigated, the diversity of functional genes was still unclear, and, especially, the differentiation and the relationships of diversity and functions of microbial communities in leaching heap (LH) and leaching solution (LS) were also still unclear. In our study, a functional gene array (GeoChip 5.0) was employed to investigate the functional gene diversity, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to explore the taxonomical/phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities in LH and LS subsystems of Dexing copper mine (Jiangxi, China). Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) showed that both functional gene structure and taxonomical/phylogenetic structure of microbial communities were significantly different between LH and LS. Signal intensities of genes, including genes for sulfur oxidation (e.g., soxB), metal homeostasis (e.g., arsm), carbon fixation (e.g., rubisco), polyphosphate degradation (e.g., ppk), and organic remediation (e.g., hydrocarbons) were significantly higher in LH, while signal intensities of genes for carbon degradation (e.g., amyA), polyphosphate synthesis (e.g., ppx), and sulfur reduction (e.g., dsrA) were significantly higher in LS. Further inspection revealed that microbial communities in LS and LH were dominated by Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum. However, rare species were relatively higher abundant in LH. Additionally, diversity index of functional genes was significantly different in LS (9.915 ± 0.074) and LH (9.781 ± 0.165), and the taxonomical/phylogenetic diversity index was also significantly different in LH (4.398 ± 0.508) and LS (3.014 ± 0.707). Functional tests, including sulfur-oxidizing ability, iron-oxidizing ability, and pyrite bioleaching ability, showed that all abilities of microbial communities were significantly stronger in LH than those in LS. Further studies found that most key genes (e

  14. Uranium ((234)U, (235)U and (238)U) contamination of the environment surrounding phosphogypsum waste heap in Wiślinka (northern Poland).

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the uranium concentration ((234)U, (235)U and (238)U) and values of the activity ratio (234)U/(238)U in soil samples collected near phosphogypsum waste heap in Wiślinka (northern Poland). On the basis of the studies it was found that the values of the (234)U/(238)U activity ratio in the analyzed soils collected in the vicinity of phosphogypsum dump in Wiślinka are in most cases close to one and indicate the phosphogypsum origin of the analyzed nuclides. The obtained results of uranium concentrations are however much lower than in previous years before closing of the phosphogypsum stockpile. After this process and covering the phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka with sewage sludge, phosphogypsum particles are successfully immobilized. In the light of the results the use of phosphate fertilizers seems to be a major problem. Prolonged and heavy rains can cause leaching accumulated uranium isotopes in the phosphogypsum stockpile, which will be washed into the Martwa Wisła and on the fields in the immediate vicinity of this storage.

  15. Sequence analysis of hypothetical lysine exporter genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii from calamine old waste heaps and their evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Oleńska, Ewa; Małek, Wanda

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify heavy metal detoxification system in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii isolated from Trifolium repens inhabiting old (70-100 years) Zn-Pb waste heaps in Poland by PCR reaction with czcD1 and czcD2 primers. By sequence analysis, four different genotypes of obtained amplicons were identified among eight examined isolates. Their sequence similarity ranged 91-99 %. They indicated the highest sequence identity to the hypothetical lysine exporter gene of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii WSM1325 (91-97 %) and 76-81 % sequence similarity to hypothetical lysine exporter genes of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii WSM2304 and R. etli CFN42 and CIAT652. On phylogenetic tree of obtained amplicons, all four studied R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii genotypes formed common monophyletic cluster with R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii WSM1325 at 100 % bootstrap support showing that all four amplicons obtained in PCR with czcD1 and czcD2 primers are fragments of hypothetical lysine exporter gene (lysE). We also suggest that Lys efflux exporter may participate in heavy metal transport out of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii cells.

  16. Can the collapse of a fly ash heap develop into an air-fluidized flow? - Reanalysis of the Jupille accident (1961)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stilmant, Frédéric; Pirotton, Michel; Archambeau, Pierre; Erpicum, Sébastien; Dewals, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A fly ash heap collapse occurred in Jupille (Liege, Belgium) in 1961. The subsequent flow of fly ash reached a surprisingly long runout and had catastrophic consequences. Its unprecedented degree of fluidization attracted scientific attention. As drillings and direct observations revealed no water-saturated zone at the base of the deposits, scientists assumed an air-fluidization mechanism, which appeared consistent with the properties of the material. In this paper, the air-fluidization assumption is tested based on two-dimensional numerical simulations. The numerical model has been developed so as to focus on the most prominent processes governing the flow, with parameters constrained by their physical interpretation. Results are compared to accurate field observations and are presented for different stages in the model enhancement, so as to provide a base for a discussion of the relative influence of pore pressure dissipation and pore pressure generation. These results show that the apparently high diffusion coefficient that characterizes the dissipation of air pore pressures is in fact sufficiently low for an important degree of fluidization to be maintained during a flow of hundreds of meters.

  17. The effects of dredge-spoil dumping on a shallow water soft-sediment community in the Solitary Islands Marine Park, NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, S D; Rule, M J

    2001-11-01

    In December 1999, 28,000 m3 of sediment was dredged from two sites within the harbour at Coffs Harbour, NSW. Dredging was carried out using a trailing suction hopper-dredge which transported the spoil to a shallow (6 m) site within the adjacent Solitary Islands Marine Park for disposal. Evaluation of the effects of the dredge-spoil dumping at the receiving site was conducted by taking replicated van Veen grab samples at the disposal site and at two control sites, before, immediately after, and three months after dumping. The results indicated that dredge-spoil dumping had no detectable effect on either the structure of the invertebrate community or the physical characteristics of sediment at the receiving site. Although there were some significant faunistic differences between samples from the disposal site and the control sites immediately following dumping, these were related to pre-existing differences between sites rather than to the effects of dredge-spoil disposal. Four principal factors are likely to have contributed to the lack of impact: (i) dredged material had similar sedimentary characteristics to those at the receiving site; (ii) dredged material was free from contaminants; (iii) the disposal method systematically distributed a number of shallow layers of sediment over the disposal site and thus motile macrofauna had the opportunity to migrate upwards between passes of the barge; and (iv) the disposal site was in a high energy environment where the resident biota are likely to be adapted to dynamic sedimentary conditions. The lack of detectable effects suggests that the disposal strategy was one which minimized impacts within an area which has high conservation value and should thus be adopted as a model for future works within the region.

  18. Development of ground vegetation under exotic tree plantations on restored coal mine spoil land in a dry tropical region of India.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Raman Kumar; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2005-10-01

    Restoration of mine spoil is a prime need for coal industry. The study of ground cover vegetation provides essential information about the species diversity and their successional trends during the restoration. The present study was conducted to analyze the structure and biomass accumulation of ground vegetation developing in different plantation stands of an opencast coal mine spoil in a dry tropical region. Different plantation stands showed variations in species diversities. Exotic herbs were more dominant in comparison to native herbs. Pennisetum pedicillatum, an exotic herb showed maximum Importance Value Index in most of the plantation stands. Total number of species varied between 12-18 in different plantation stands. Speces richness and evenness increased with increasing age of the plantations. Variations in total biomass accumulation of ground vegetation were also significant among different plantations. These results suggest that reforestation programme with exotic species on coal mine spoil has been successful in colonization of ground vegetation under different plantations. Gravellia pteridifolia plantations showed most successful ground cover among different plantation stands.

  19. Results of experiments related to contact of mine-spoils water with coal, West Decker and Big Sky Mines, southeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, R.E.; Dodge, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    Batch-mixing experiments using spoils water and coal from the West Decker and Big Sky Mines were conducted to determine possible chemical changes in water moving from coal-mine spoils through a coal aquifer. The spoils water was combined with air-dried and oven-dried chunks of coal and air-dried and oven-dried crushed coal at a 1:1 weight ratio, mixed for 2 hr, and separated after a total contact time of 24 hr. The dissolved-solids concentration in water used in the experiments decreased an average 210 mg/liter (5-10%). Other chemical changes included general decreases in the concentrations of magnesium, potassium, and bicarbonate, and general increases in the concentrations of barium and boron. The magnitude of the changes increased as the surface area of the coal increased. The quantity of extractable cations and exchangeable cations on the post-mixing coal was larger than on the pre-mixing coal. Equilibrium and mass-transfer relations indicate that adsorption reactions or ion-exchange and precipitation reactions, or both, probably are the major reactions responsible for the chemical changes observed in the experiments. (Authors ' abstract)

  20. CCR7 expressing mesenchymal stem cells potently inhibit graft-versus-host disease by spoiling the fourth supplemental Billingham's tenet.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Jiang, Yan-Ming; Sun, Yan-Feng; Li, Ping; Dang, Rui-Jie; Ning, Hong-Mei; Li, Yu-Hang; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Jiang, Xiao-Xia; Guo, Xi-Min; Wen, Ning; Han, Yan; Mao, Ning; Chen, Hu; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The clinical acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD)-therapy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is not as satisfactory as expected. Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are the major niches serve to initiate immune responses or induce tolerance. Our previous study showed that CCR7 guide murine MSC line C3H10T1/2 migrating to SLOs. In this study, CCR7 gene was engineered into murine MSCs by lentivirus transfection system (MSCs/CCR7). The immunomodulatory mechanism of MSCs/CCR7 was further investigated. Provoked by inflammatory cytokines, MSCs/CCR7 increased the secretion of nitric oxide and calmed down the T cell immune response in vitro. Immunofluorescent staining results showed that transfused MSCs/CCR7 can migrate to and relocate at the appropriate T cell-rich zones within SLOs in vivo. MSCs/CCR7 displayed enhanced effect in prolonging the survival and alleviating the clinical scores of the GvHD mice than normal MSCs. Owing to the critical relocation sites, MSCs/CCR7 co-infusion potently made the T cells in SLOs more naïve like, thus control T cells trafficking from SLOs to the target organs. Through spoiling the fourth supplemental Billingham's tenet, MSCs/CCR7 potently inhibited the development of GvHD. The study here provides a novel therapeutic strategy of MSCs/CCR7 infusion at a low dosage to give potent immunomodulatory effect for clinical immune disease therapy.

  1. Growth of halotolerant food spoiling yeast Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413 under the influence of pH and salt.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sawan; Lal, Pradeep; Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N

    2008-12-01

    Debaryomyces nepalensis, a halotolerant food-spoiling yeast could grow in complex (YEPD) medium at different pHs ranging between 3.0 and 11.0 in the absence of salt and at pH 3.0-9.0 in the presence of different concentrations of NaCl and KCl. The specific growth rate of D. nepalensis was not affected by the initial pH of the medium in the absence of salts, whereas it was affected in the presence of salts. At 2 M NaCl and KCl, the organism exhibited a synergistic effect on pH and salt stress, which was unique in the Debaryomyces species. Irrespective of the initial pH and salt, the intracellular pH of D. nepalensis was approximately 7.0. Significant organic acid was produced at neutral and alkaline pH and organic acid production increased with the increase in pH and salt. Very specific organic acids are produced in the presence of NaCl and KCl. Our observation would contribute to a better understanding of the physiological phenomenon of halotolerance in D. nepalensis.

  2. Richness, diversity and evenness of vegetation upon rehabilitation of gypsum mine spoiled lands in the Indian arid zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumar, S.; Sharma, K.D.; Sharma, U.K.; Gough, L.P.

    1998-01-01

    Richness, diversity and evenness of vegetation, after rehabilitation of gypsum mine spoils at Barmer were investigated in plots protected and planted one year and four years ago. There were four water harvesting treatments, viz., half-moon terraces, micro-catchments with 5% slope, ridge and furrow and control, wherein, indigenous and exotic trees and shrubs were planted at 5 ?? 5 m spacing. Sampling of the planted and natural vegetation, using quadrats and transacts, revealed much less species richness in unplanted control as compared to all treatments and in all the years. The species richness that increased initially (within one year) gradually declined over time (during four year), though the extent varied in different treatments. The water harvesting treatment showing maximum initial increase in richness also showed maximum decline over time, though decline was more in annual species. Two perennial species increased in richness with time. This was further proved from the trends in diversity and evenness indices. It was concluded that natural successional process was accelerated by rehabilitation providing stability to the habitat.

  3. Fluorescein Dye Penetration in Round Top Rhyolite (Hudspeth County, Texas, USA) to Reveal Micro-permeability and Optimize Grain Size for Heavy REE Heap Leach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negron, L. M.; Clague, J. W.; Gorski, D.; Amaya, M. A.; Pingitore, N. E.

    2013-12-01

    Millimeter- and micrometer-scale permeability of fine-grained igneous rocks has generated limited research interest. Nonetheless, the scale and distribution of such micro-permeability determines fluid penetration and pathways, parameters that define both the ability to heap leach a rock and the optimal grain size for such an operation. Texas Rare Earth Resources is evaluating the possibility of heap leaching of yttrium and heavy rare earth elements (YHREE) from the peraluminous rhyolite laccolith that forms one-mile-diameter Round Top Mountain. The YHREEs in this immense, surface-exposed deposit (minimum 1.6 billion tons, Texas Bureau Economic Geology) are dilute and diffuse, suggesting leaching as the best option for recovery. The REE grade is 0.05% and YHREEs comprise more than 70% of the total REE content. The YHREEs are hosted exclusively in micron-scale yttrofluorite grains, which proved soluble in dilute sulfuric acid. Laboratory experiments showed YHREE recoveries of up to 90%. Within limits, recoveries decrease with larger grain sizes, and increase with acid strength and exposure time. Our research question centers on dissolution effectiveness: Is YHREE recovery, relative to grain size, limited by (1) diffusion time of acid into, and dissolved solids, including YHREEs, out of the micro-permeability paths inherent in the rock particles; (2) the effective lengths of the natural micro-permeability paths in the rock; or (3) the putative role of the acid in dissolving new micro-paths into the grains? The maximum grain size should not exceed twice the typical path length (unless acid creates new paths), lest YHREEs in the core of a larger grain than that not be reached by acid. If instead diffusion time is limiting, longer leach time may prove effective. Rather than perform an extensive and expensive series of laboratory leaching experiments--some of which would be several months in duration--to determine optimal grain size, we developed a technique to

  4. Concentrations of selected heavy metals in bryophyte tissues at Cu-mine heap Podlipa in Ľubietová (Central Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Širka, Pavel; Midula, Pavol

    2017-04-01

    Mine heaps and wastes created by mining industry belong to one of the most extreme man-made habitat types. In addition to their specific microclimatic conditions mine heaps are also characterized by increased contents of heavy metals and toxic substances in the soil substrate. These substances are transported into plant bodies and create difficult conditions for their growth. However, there are some plants that can cope with extremely high metal contents and are capable of growing on metalliferous habitats. These plants develop unique adaptation mechanisms and basically represent modified ecotypes with specific tolerances to certain heavy metals adapted through microevolutionary processes. The toxic effects of heavy metals on vascular plants are known for quite a long time, however, bryophytes are also known to accumulate certain heavy metals without any visible signs of damage. Because of this ability they have been successfully used in biomonitoring. Chemical analysis of contaminants in samples of bryophytes can reflect the state of environmental pollution. The aim of this work was to analyze the concentrations of 6 heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd) in tissues of 16 bryophyte samples at an abandoned Cu deposit Podlipa in Ľubietová and to compare them with concentrations of these elemens in soil samples and 9 vascular plant species (belonging to different growth forms) in a research performed by Andráš et al. (2014) in the studied area. Bryophytes were collected at 10 sampling sites randomly chosen in the dump-field area and consist of 14 different moss species. Only above-ground parts of bryophyte thalli (separated from rhizoids, gravel, soil, needles etc.) were used for analysis. Samples were dried at room temperature and subjected to microwave mineralization (MWS - 2 Berghof). The detailed procedure is defined in the Application Report MWS - 2 / Food, Pharma, Cosmetics (Berghof). In order to determine the concentrations of studied elements, atomic

  5. Rough wave-like heaped overburden promotes establishment of woody vegetation while leveling promotes grasses during unassisted post mining site development.

    PubMed

    Frouz, Jan; Mudrák, Ondřej; Reitschmiedová, Erika; Walmsley, Alena; Vachová, Pavla; Šimáčková, Hana; Albrechtová, Jana; Moradi, Jabbar; Kučera, Jiří

    2017-09-28

    Geodiversity plays an important role in species establishment during spontaneous succession. At post-mining sites in the Czech Republic in 2003, we established plots in which the surface of the heaped overburden was either kept wave-like or leveled. Based on surveys conducted from 2006 to 2015, leveled plots were increasingly dominated by grasses and herbs (and especially by the grass Calamagrostis epigejos) while the wave-like plots were increasingly dominated by the trees Salix caprea and Betula pendula. In 2015, a detailed survey was conducted of the dominant species. Both S. caprea and B. pendula occurred more often in wave-like plots than in leveled plots; this was particularly true for trees taller than 1 m, which were absent in leveled plots. In wave-like plots, leaf and root biomasses of both woody species were higher on the wave slopes than on the wave depressions. Nitrogen content was higher but content stress indicating proline in leaves of S. caprea was lower in wave-like plots than in leveled plots. In wave-like plots, both woody species occurred mainly on wave slopes but C. epigejos occurred mainly in the depressions. We speculate that trees were more abundant in wave-like plots than in leveled plots because the waves trapped tree seeds and snow and because the soil porosity was greater in wave-like than in leveled plots. Grasses may have preferred the leveled plots because soil porosity was lower and clay content was higher in leveled than in wave-like plots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of cemented layers and hardpans on oxygen diffusivity in mining waste heaps: a field study of the Halsbrücke lead-zinc mine tailings (Germany).

    PubMed

    Kohfahl, Claus; Graupner, Torsten; Fetzer, Christian; Pekdeger, Asaf

    2010-11-01

    This article reports fibre-optic oxygen measurements on a reactive mine waste heap located in the polymetallic sulphide mine district of Freiberg in south-eastern Germany. The heaped material consists of sulphide-bearing tailings from a processing plant of a lead-zinc mine. Mine waste material was deposited in the water phase after separation of mining ores in a flotation process. The tailing impoundment is partly covered with coarse sand and topsoil. Oxygen profiles were monitored during one year at eleven locations showing different physical and mineralogical compositions. At each location a borehole was drilled where the optic sensors were installed at 2-5 different depths. After installation the oxygen profiles were monitored seven times during one year from 2006-2007 and three to five oxygen profiles at each location were obtained. Oxygen measurements were accompanied by physical, chemical and mineralogical data of the tailing material. Additionally, a detailed mineralogical profile was analysed at a location representative for the central part of the heap, where the cemented layers show lateral continuity. Results showed that cemented layers have a significant influence on natural attenuation of the toxic As and Pb species owing to their capacity of water retention. The measured oxygen profiles are controlled by the zone of active pyrite weathering as well as by the higher water content in the cemented layers which reduces gaseous atmospheric oxygen supply. In contrast, gypsum bearing hardpans detected at three other locations have no detectable influence on oxygen profiles. Furthermore, the grain size distribution was proved to have a major effect on oxygen diffusivity due to its control on the water saturation. Temporal changes of the oxygen profiles were only observed at locations with coarse sediment material indicating also an important advective part of gas flux. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rooting-depth of Atriplex canescens (fourwing saltbush) in mine spoils at the Navajo Mine, northwestern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Stutz, H.C.; Buchanan, B.A.

    1990-12-31

    The distribution of roots was determined for fourteen mature plants of Atriplex canescens (fourwing saltbush) growing on mine spoils at the Navajo Mine in northwestern New Mexico and for two plants growing in contiguous unmined native soil. In all instances the amount of roots, by length, was negatively correlated with depth and positively correlated with percent water-content of the soils. The majority of roots (59%) were in the upper 100 cm; 72% were in the upper 150 cm; and 84% were in the upper 200 cm. These percentages were higher for plants growing on backslopes (64%, 77% and 88%, respectively) and much higher for those growing in native soils (84%, 93% and 96%, respectively). Most of the roots (83%) were less than 0.1 mm in diameter, and 93% were less than 0.5 mm in diameter. Plants growing in topsoiled sites had more roots per unit volume of soil (1.3 cm per cc of soil) than those growing in non-topsoiled sites (1.1 cm per cc of soil). Those growing in backslopes had more roots (1.3 cm per cc of soil) than growing in swales (1.0 cm per cc of soil) and those growing in soils that contained no fly-ash had more (0.78 cm per cc) than those growing in soils that contain fly ash (0.12 cm per cc of soil). Plants growing in native soils had a greater proportion of their roots near the surface than plants growing in mined soils. Plants growing in swales had a greater proportion of their roots below two meters than plants growing on backslopes.

  8. Alicyclobacillus dauci sp. nov., a slightly thermophilic, acidophilic bacterium isolated from a spoiled mixed vegetable and fruit juice product.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Chisa; Takahashi, Naoto; Tanaka, Naoto; Okada, Sanae

    2015-02-01

    A novel, moderately thermophilic, acidophilic, Gram-variable, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium was isolated from a spoiled mixed vegetable and fruit juice product that had the off-flavour of guaiacol. The bacterium, strain 4F(T), grew aerobically at 20-50 °C (optimum 40 °C) and pH 3.0-6.0 (optimum pH 4.0) and produced acid from glycerol, d-galactose and d-glucose. It contained menaquinone-7 (MK-7) as the major isoprenoid quinone and the DNA G+C content was 49.6 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain 4F(T) were ω-alicyclic (ω-cyclohexane fatty acids), which are characteristic of the genus Alicyclobacillus. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belongs to the Alicyclobacillus cluster, and is related most closely to the type strains of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris (97.4 % similarity) and Alicyclobacillus fastidiosus (97.3 %). Strain 4F(T) produced guaiacol from vanillic acid. It can be distinguished from related species by its acid production type and guaiacol production. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness values, it can be concluded that the strain represents a novel species of the genus Alicyclobacillus, for which the name Alicyclobacillus dauci sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 4F(T) ( = DSM 28700(T) = NBRC 108949(T) = NRIC 0938(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  9. Inorganic carbon and fossil organic carbon are source of bias for quantification of sequestered carbon in mine spoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vindušková, Olga; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Carbon sequestration in mine soils has been studied as a possibility to mitigate the rising atmospheric CO2 levels and to improve mine soil quality (Vindu\\vsková and Frouz, 2013). Moreover, these soils offer an unique opportunity to study soil carbon dynamics using the chronosequence approach (using a set of sites of different age on similar parent material). However, quantification of sequestered carbon in mine soils is often complicated by fossil organic carbon (e.g., from coal or kerogen) or inorganic carbon present in the spoil. We present a methodology for quantification of both of these common constituents of mine soils. Our recommendations are based on experiments done on post-mining soils in Sokolov basin, Czech Republic. Here, fossil organic carbon is present mainly as kerogen Type I and II and represents 2-6 wt.% C in these soils. Inorganic carbon in these soils is present mainly as siderite (FeCO3), calcite (CaCO3), and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2). All of these carbonates are often found in the overburden of coal seams thus being a common constituent of post-mining soils in the world. Vindu\\vsková O, Frouz J, 2013. Soil carbon accumulation after open-cast coal and oil shale mining in Northern Hemisphere: a quantitative review. ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, 69: 1685-1698. Vindu\\vsková O, Dvořáček V, Prohasková A, Frouz J. 2014. Distinguishing recent and fossil organic matter - A critical step in evaluation of post-mining soil development - using near infrared spectroscopy. ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING. 73: 643-648. Vindu\\vsková O, Sebag D, Cailleau G, Brus J, Frouz J. 2015. Methodological comparison for quantitative analysis of fossil and recently derived carbon in mine soils with high content of aliphatic kerogen. ORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY, 89-90:14-22.

  10. Biosurfactant-producing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01 isolated from spoiled apples: physicochemical and structural characteristics of isolated biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Habib; Hamedi, Mir Manochehr; Lotfabad, Tayebe Bagheri; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ortiz, Antonio; Amanlou, Massoud; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2012-02-01

    An extensive investigation was conducted to isolate indigenous bacterial strains with outstanding performance for biosurfactant production from different types of spoiled fruits, food-related products and food processing industries. An isolate was selected from 800 by the highest biosurfactant yield in soybean oil medium and it was identified by 16S rRNA and the two most relevant hypervariable regions of this gene; V3 and V6 as Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01. The isolate was able to produce 12 g/l of a glycolipid-type biosurfactant and generally less efficient to emulsify vegetable oils compared to hydrocarbons and could emulsify corn and coconut oils more than 50%. However, emulsification index (E(24)) of different hydrocarbons including hexane, toluene, xylene, brake oil, kerosene and hexadecane was between 55.8% and 100%. The surface tension of pure water decreased gradually with increasing biosurfactant concentration to 32.5 mNm(-1) with critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 10.1mg/l. Among all carbon substrates examined, vegetable oils were the most effective on biosurfactant production. Two glycolipid fractions were purified from the biosurfactant crude extracts, and FTIR and ES-MS were used to determine the structure of these compounds. The analysis indicated the presence of three major monorhamnolipid species: R(1)C(10)C(10), R(1)C(10)C(12:1), and R(1)C(10)C(12); as well as another three major dirhamnolipid species: R(2)C(10)C(10), R(2)C(10)C(12:1), and R(2)C(10)C(12). The strain sweep experiment for measuring the linear viscoelastic of biosurfactant showed that typical behavior characteristics of a weak viscoelastic gel, with storage modulus greater than loss modulus at all frequencies examined, both showing some frequency dependence.

  11. Absolute Quantification of Human Liver Phosphorus-Containing Metabolites In Vivo Using an Inhomogeneous Spoiling Magnetic Field Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Adil; Gropler, Robert; Ackerman, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Absolute concentrations of high-energy phosphorus (31P) metabolites in liver provide more important insight into physiologic status of liver disease compared to resonance integral ratios. A simple method for measuring absolute concentrations of 31P metabolites in human liver is described. The approach uses surface spoiling inhomogeneous magnetic field gradient to select signal from liver tissue. The technique avoids issues caused by respiratory motion, chemical shift dispersion associated with linear magnetic field gradients, and increased tissue heat deposition due to radiofrequency absorption, especially at high field strength. Methods A method to localize signal from liver was demonstrated using superficial and highly non-uniform magnetic field gradients, which eliminate signal(s) from surface tissue(s) located between the liver and RF coil. A double standard method was implemented to determine absolute 31P metabolite concentrations in vivo. 8 healthy individuals were examined in a 3 T MR scanner. Results Concentrations of metabolites measured in eight healthy individuals are: γ-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) = 2.44 ± 0.21 (mean ± sd) mmol/l of wet tissue volume, α-ATP = 3.2 ± 0.63 mmol/l, β-ATP = 2.98 ± 0.45 mmol/l, inorganic phosphates (Pi) = 1.87 ± 0.25 mmol/l, phosphodiesters (PDE) = 10.62 ± 2.20 mmol/l and phosphomonoesters (PME) = 2.12 ± 0.51 mmol/l. All are in good agreement with literature values. Conclusions The technique offers robust and fast means to localize signal from liver tissue, allows absolute metabolite concentration determination, and avoids problems associated with constant field gradient (linear field variation) localization methods. PMID:26633549

  12. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen accumulation on coal mine spoils reclaimed with maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) in Agacli-Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Sever, Hakan; Makineci, Ender

    2009-08-01

    Mining operations on open coal mines in Agacli-Istanbul have resulted in the destruction of vast amounts of land. To rehabilitate these degraded lands, plantations on this area began in 1988. Twelve tree species were planted, however, the most planted tree species was maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). This study performed on 14 sample plots randomly selected in maritime pine plantations on coal mine soil/spoils in 2005. Soil samples were taken from eight different soil layers (0-1, 1-3, 3-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50 cm) into the soil profile. On soil samples; fine soil fraction (<2 mm), soil acidity (pH), organic carbon (C(org)) and total nitrogen (N(t)) contents were investigated, and results were compared statistically among soil layers. As a result, 17 years after plantations, total forest floor accumulation determined as 17,973.20 kg ha(-1). Total nitrogen and organic matter amounts of forest floor were 113.90 and 14,640.92 kg ha(-1) respectively. Among soil layers, the highest levels of organic carbon (1.77%) and total nitrogen (0.096%) and the lowest pH value (pH 5.38) were found in 0-1 cm soil layer, and the variation differs significantly among soil layers. Both organic carbon and total nitrogen content decreased, pH values increased from 0-1 to 5-10 cm layer. In conclusion, according to results obtained maritime pine plantations on coal mine spoils; slow accumulation and decomposition of forest floor undergo simultaneously. Depending on these changes organic carbon and total nitrogen contents increased in upper layer of soil/spoil.

  13. An experimental study on dredge spoil of estuarine sediments in the bay of seine (France): A morphosedimentary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmin, Stella; Lesueur, Patrick; Dauvin, Jean Claude; Samson, Sandrine; Tournier, Patrice; Gallicher Lavanne, Albert; Dubrulle-Brunaud, Carole; Thouroude, Coralie

    2016-03-01

    Studies on the consequences of dredging on estuarine morphology and its sedimentary dynamics are common, but the impacts of dumping dredge spoil in coastal open settings are rarely found in scientific literature. An experimental study was conducted over the period 2012-2013 to monitor the physical impacts of dredged material dumped at two adjacent sites (one million cubic metres at each) on the inner shelf of the Bay of Seine in France (eastern part of the English Channel, La Manche). As recently reinforced in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), knowledge on the location and intensity of human impacts (e.g. on marine ecosystems) is critical for effective marine management and conservation. So, two methods of disposition were tested to evaluate the impacts of dumping on the environment and thus propose recommendations for future dumping. The strategy is based on a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) approach, in which the spatio-temporal variability was studied by analysing the morphological and sedimentological characteristics over a period of 28 months, from November 2011 to April 2014, also including recovery of the seafloor after cessation of the dumping activities. The first experimental dumping operation (MASED) was carried out regularly for 8 months at a single point and generating a conical deposit of 5 m in height, while the second dumping (MABIO) lasted for 12 months involving four steps in the dumping process. In the second case, a wider area was covered, leading to the formation of a smaller deposit of 2 m in height. The dumped deposits consisted of muddy fine sand, whereas the inner shelf seafloor in this area is covered with fine to medium sand. As a result, muddy fine sand accumulated at or near the two dumping sites, with a maximum mud (i.e. particles<63 μm or>4 Φ) content of 50% compared to<5% before dumping operations. Videos obtained from a LVB200 Seabotix ROV, highlighted the heterogeneity of the sea floor around the dumping areas

  14. Characteristics of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones Produced by Hafnia alvei H4 Isolated from Spoiled Instant Sea Cucumber.

    PubMed

    Hou, Hong-Man; Zhu, Yao-Lei; Wang, Jia-Ying; Jiang, Feng; Qu, Wen-Yan; Zhang, Gong-Liang; Hao, Hong-Shun

    2017-04-05

    This study aimed to identify N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) produced by Hafnia alvei H4, which was isolated from spoiled instant sea cucumber, and to investigate the effect of AHLs on biofilm formation. Two biosensor strains, Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens KYC55, were used to detect the quorum sensing (QS) activity of H. alvei H4 and to confirm the existence of AHL-mediated QS system. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of the AHLs extracted from the culture supernatant of H. alvei H4 revealed the existence of at least three AHLs: N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-(3-oxo-octanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL), and N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL). This is the first report of the production of C4-HSL by H. alvei. In order to determine the relationship between the production of AHL by H. alvei H4 and bacterial growth, the β-galactosidase assay was employed to monitor AHL activity during a 48-h growth phase. AHLs production reached a maximum level of 134.6 Miller unites at late log phase (after 18 h) and then decreased to a stable level of about 100 Miller unites. AHL production and bacterial growth displayed a similar trend, suggesting that growth of H. alvei H4 might be regulated by QS. The effect of AHLs on biofilm formation of H. alvei H4 was investigated by adding exogenous AHLs (C4-HSL, C6-HSL and 3-oxo-C8-HSL) to H. alvei H4 culture. Biofilm formation was significantly promoted (p < 0.05) by 5 and 10 µM C6-HSL, inhibited (p < 0.05) by C4-HSL (5 and 10 µM) and 5 µM 3-oxo-C8-HSL, suggesting that QS may have a regulatory role in the biofilm formation of H. alvei H4.

  15. MRI of the abnormal cervical spinal cord using 2D spoiled gradient echo multiecho sequence (MEDIC) with magnetization transfer saturation pulse. A T2* weighted feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Held, P; Dorenbeck, U; Seitz, J; Fründ, R; Albrich, H

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of heavily T2* weighted 2D spoiled gradient echo multiecho sequence MEDIC (multi echo data image combination) with magnetization transfer saturation pulse (MTS) for detecting abnormality of the cervical spinal cord. 11 patients, 5 women and 6 men aged from 14 to 79 years (mean age 51.18 years), with traumatic, hemolytic-hemorrhagic or neoplastic diseases of the cervical spinal cord were examined with MRI. In cases with suspected myelopathy, the feasibility of the 2D spoiled gradient echo multiecho sequence MEDIC with MTS was evaluated in comparison with the results of spin echo T1W, spin echo T2W, multi echo (TSE in our case) and spin-echo multi-echo technique with magnetization preparation (turbo inversion recovery--TIR--in our case) sequences. Distortion of the "H" sign was found in all but one case. Hemorrhage was best shown by MEDIC, massive edema was very well visible using MEDIC, TIR and TSE T2W, whereas mild edema was visible with MEDIC only. Our preliminary experience in 11 patients shows that MEDIC can be used for the diagnosis of cervical spinal cord pathology.

  16. Acoustic seabed classification in a coastal environment (outer Weser Estuary, German Bight)—a new approach to monitor dredging and dredge spoil disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wienberg, Claudia; Bartholomä, Alexander

    2005-06-01

    Acoustic seabed classification provides a sophisticated technique to discriminate seabed characteristics and to map their distribution at high spatial and temporal resolution. In the present study, the seabed classification system QTC View/Impact was applied to investigate a 9- km2 area at water depths between 6 and 20 m in the outer Weser Estuary (German Bight, southeastern North Sea). The survey area comprises parts of a routinely dredged shipping channel as well as of a dredge spoil disposal site. The acoustic data, collected by means of a singlebeam 200-kHz echosounder combined with a QTC system, were classified into three acoustic classes. These classes are identified with (1) fine to medium sand, with a low content of shell fragments; (2) medium sand, with a moderate content of shell fragments; and (3) medium to coarse sand, with a high content of shell fragments. By comparing this point-related acoustic classification with sidescan sonographs, it can be convincingly demonstrated that the acoustic data obtained by the QTC system reflect more than simply sediment type distribution, but that rather the occurrence of bedforms also appears to be important. Furthermore, in a time series of three QTC surveys in a period of 14 months, it is apparent that dredging as well as the disposal of dredge spoil constitute a strong impact on the sediment distribution and seabed morphology of the study site.

  17. GOLD ACRES BIOLOGICAL HEAP DETOXIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, soluble...

  18. High Energy Astrophysics Program (HEAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, Lorella; Corcoran, Michael; Drake, Stephen; McGlynn, Thomas A.; Snowden, Stephen; Mukai, Koji; Cannizzo, John; Lochner, James; Rots, Arnold; Christian, Eric; hide

    1998-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by the members of the USRA contract team during the 6 months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming 6 months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in astrophysics. Supported missions include advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-Ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) and others.

  19. GOLD ACRES BIOLOGICAL HEAP DETOXIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, soluble...

  20. High Energy Astrophysics Program (HEAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, L.

    1998-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by members of the USRA contract team during the six months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming six months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in Astrophysics Missions supported include: Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), and others.

  1. Unspoiling the Spoiled Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partridge, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    The child raised in a too permissive atmosphere will become egocentric, demanding, and disruptive and must be dealt with firmly in early school years or such infantile behavior will continue into adult life. (JD)

  2. Environmental assessment of physical/chemical impacts related to the dredging and disposal of spoil from the proposed trench tube crossing of the Anacostia River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pine, F. W.; Yost, J. C.; Saul, S. W.; Wood, S. G.

    1981-03-01

    Environmental sampling and testing was conducted to identify specified chemical pollutants in river-bottom material to be dredged during construction of the Metro subway tube tunnel crossing of the Anacostia River. Constituent concentrations is sediments, elutriates, and surface waters at the site and defined and compared with federal, state, and District of Columbia criteria and guidelines to identify potential problem areas and to evaluate potential chemical and physical impacts of dredging and spoil disposal. The results indicate sediment-bound concentrations of chlordane, DDT and PCBs which fail to meet federal criteria. High surface water concentrations of iron and mercury were identified which would prevent regulatory compliances of dredging operations for these constituents. It was concluded that the dredging would be minimal. Potential impacts upon groundwater were identified, bur further analyses of hydrogeology at the proposed disposal sites would be needed to define the potential for problems.

  3. Growth, nutrient absorption, and moisture status of selected woody species in coal-mine spoil in response to an induced infection by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.F.; West, D.C.; McLaughlin, S.B.

    1982-09-01

    In this study, nursery grown loblolly and Virginia pine seedlings infected with Pisolithus and control seedlings were outplanted on a coal mine spoil in Tennessee which had been previously hydroseeded. Granular fertilizer was applied by broadcasting to one-half of the seedlings of each ectomycorrhizal treatment at the rate of 112 kg/ha NPK. After 3 years, the survival and growth of loblolly pine infected with Pisolithus were superior to that of the control seedlings, and chemical analyses of foliar samples revealed that the seedlings with Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae had a higher foliar concentration of NO/sub 3/ and a lower concentration of Zn than the control seedlings. The survival, growth, and nutrient absorption of Virginia pine were not significantly affected by the infection with Pisolithus after 2 years, but both loblolly and Virginia pine seedlings with Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae exhibited an enhanced ability to absorb water during periods of high moisture stress, as determined by the pressure chamber technique. Fertilization substantially reduced the survival of the seedlings of both species. Sweet birch and European alder were grown under high, intermediate, and low fertility regimes in sand culture containing a mycelial inoculum of Pisolithus tinctorius for 5 months and then transplanted to coal mine spoil containing an identical Pisolithus inoculum. Control seedlings of each species were similarly grown except that no inoculum was incorporated into the potting media. The nutrient treatments initiated in the sand culture were continued throughout the study. Examinations of the roots of the sweet birch seedlings revealed that high fertility significantly reduced the development of Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae, but Pisolithus formed abundant ectomycorrhizae on the roots of sweet birch grown under the intermediate and low fertility regimes and these seedlings were significantly larger than comparable control seedlings.

  4. Evaluation of dioxin mobility and spoils leaching in a surface coal mine reclaimed with bleached kraft pulp and paper mill biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, D.P.; Krouskop, D.J.; Ayers, K.C.; Proctor, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    A surface coal mine in southeastern Ohio has been reclaimed with approximately 15 to 25 cm thickness of biosolids from a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment plant. Soil, vegetation, rodents, earthworms, insects, fish, frogs, sediment, and algae samples were collected and analyzed for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran. Water samples from lakes receiving drainage from unreclaimed and biosolids reclaimed areas were collected and analyzed for various parameters, including pH and metals. The trace levels of dioxin and furan in the pulp and paper mill biosolids did not bioaccumulate in rodents, insects, or earthworms or translocate into plants living in the reclaimed area. The trace levels of dioxin and furan in biosolids did not sufficiently migrate to a drainage lake to result in significant concentrations in fish, frogs, algae, or vegetation. The biosolids reclamation resulted in dramatic decreases in spoils leaching of acid, aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, and zinc. This work supports the thesis that surface mine reclamation with pulp and paper mill biosolids is safe and effective. 4 refs., 6 tabs.

  5. Formulation of an organic carbon trajectory over a 10-year period on a restored spoil island in south-central Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, T.; Ellis, R.; Osborne, T.; Hicks Pries, C.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of restoration projects aims to determine long-term sustainability and stability of restored systems. In coastal wetlands, one indicator of restoration of ecosystem function can be seen with organic matter (specifically carbon) accretion. SL-15, a spoil island in Fort Pierce, Fl was restored in 2005, and has been monitored for return to natural condition over the last 10 years.. To assess sediment carbon accretion, sediment cores were collected in a set of eight plots, located on the SL-15 mangrove island and the surrounding seagrass recruitment area. These were analyzed for organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, extractable carbon, and total nitrogen. The biogeochemical data collected in the previous year was compared to data collected in 2005-2007. Vegetation surveys were also completed to show the build-up of organic material in accordance with vegetation shift over the 9-year period. From this information, a trajectory has been formulated on organic carbon accretion and vegetation shift from the time of orginal restoration activities. By comparison to control sites nearby, realistic estimates of time required to reach natural levels of carbon and vegetation community structure can be calculated..

  6. Staphylococcus aureus and Zygosaccharomyces bailii as primary microbial contaminants of a spoiled herbal food supplement and evaluation of their survival during shelf life.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Franca; Gaio, Elena; Torriani, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    This investigation was carried out to identify the microbiota in a spoiled commercial food supplement consisting of a syrup suspension of a mixture of dried herbs and herb extracts. The product did not contain alkyl-p-hydroxybenzoates (parabens) as preservatives, was kept at room temperature and showed abundant gas formation. Colonies of distinct morphology were recovered on bacteria- and yeast-specific media, and tested for their ability to grow in the product. Genetic differentiation and identification of the microbial contaminants were achieved by RAPD-PCR and rDNA sequence analysis. The bacteria Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Paenibacillus humicus, Paenibacillus glycanilyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and the yeasts Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii were detected. Of the two S. aureus strains isolated, one was enterotoxigenic, as indicated by the presence of five SE genes. Quantitative Real-Time PCR tests, specific for this pathogen and for Z. bailii, a microbial agent causing fermentation processes and consequent food spoilage, were carried out to quantify these microorganisms in the product and identify their source among the herbal ingredients and the fructose syrup used as sweetener. Most components appeared to be contaminated by both S. aureus and Z. bailii. These findings indicate the need to improve hygienic practices in the industrial manufacturing of the food supplement, starting with herbal ingredients, to ensure a high quality of the product.

  7. Evaluation of the spoilage potential of bacteria isolated from spoiled cooked whole tropical shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) stored under modified atmosphere packaging.

    PubMed

    Macé, Sabrina; Cardinal, Mireille; Jaffrès, Emmanuel; Cornet, Josiane; Lalanne, Valérie; Chevalier, Frédérique; Sérot, Thierry; Pilet, Marie-France; Dousset, Xavier; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques

    2014-06-01

    The spoilage potential of isolates belonging to five bacterial groups/species (Shewanella baltica, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Aeromonas salmonicida, Vibrio sp., "other Gamma-Proteobacteria" [containing one strain of Pseudoalteromonas sp. and one strain of Psychrobacter sp.]) isolated from spoiled cooked and whole tropical shrimp stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was evaluated by inoculation into ionized cooked and peeled tropical shrimp followed by storage for 32 days at 8 °C. Microbial growth and sensory changes were monitored during the storage period. The major spoilage bacterial isolate groups were C. maltaromaticum and S. baltica. In order to characterize their spoilage potential further and to study the effect of their interactions, each of these two specific spoilage organisms (SSO) and one mixed-culture, C. maltaromaticum/S. baltica, were tested using a combination of complementary methods: molecular (PCR-TTGE), sensory, chemical, and conventional microbiological analyses. It was concluded that, in the mixed-culture-inoculated samples, both species groups imposed their spoilage characteristics.

  8. The Use of a Unipore Diffusion Model to Describe the Kinetics of Methane Release from Coal Spoil in the Longwall Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbicki, Mirosław; Skoczylas, Norbert; Kudasik, Mateusz

    2017-06-01

    The unipore methane diffusion model based on the solution of the second Fick's law describes effectively the kinetics of methane release from coal grains. The knowledge of the model describing the kinetics of methane release from coal, the coalbed methane content, the sorption isotherm, the effective diffusion coefficient and the coal particle size distribution, enables the calculation of the volume of methane which is released from the coal spoil as a function of time. These assumptions became the basis for building the software that enables the analysis of methane emissions from coal during the longwall mining. Simulations were performed to determine the temporal and spatial methane inflow to the longwall. The share of methane emission from coal grains (taking into account both the emission kinetics and mass participation) of various classes has been analyzed. The results of the analysis showed that the methane from the small grains, in particular less than 0.1 mm in size, prevails. The mass fraction of these grains in the total weight does not exceed 5%. For the typical parameters determining the mining, geological and technological conditions of methane emissions at different moments of time and position of the longwall were determined.

  9. Cultivation of high-biomass crops on coal mine spoil banks: can microbial inoculation compensate for high doses of organic matter?

    PubMed

    Gryndler, Milan; Sudová, Radka; Püschel, David; Rydlová, Jana; Janousková, Martina; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2008-09-01

    Two greenhouse experiments were focused on the application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in planting of high-biomass crops on reclaimed spoil banks. In the first experiment, we tested the effects of different organic amendments on growth of alfalfa and on the introduced microorganisms. While growth of plants was supported in substrate with compost amendment, mycorrhizal colonization was suppressed. Lignocellulose papermill waste had no negative effects on AMF, but did not positively affect growth of plants. The mixture of these two amendments was found to be optimal in both respects, plant growth and mycorrhizal development. Decreasing doses of this mixture amendment were used in the second experiment, where the effects of microbial inoculation (assumed to compensate for reduced doses of organic matter) on growth of two high-biomass crops, hemp and reed canarygrass, were studied. Plant growth response to microbial inoculation was either positive or negative, depending on the dose of the applied amendment and plant species.

  10. Insects in relation to black locust culture on surface-mine spoil in Kentucky, with emphasis on the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zell. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Thoeny, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    This research evaluated the impacts of herbivorous insects, emphasizing the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zeller, on black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia L., coppice production on a coal surface-mine spoil site in southeastern Kentucky. The natural history of E. insiticiana was also studied. The locust twig borer was a persistent and damaging pest in first-year coppice, which provided suitable larval habitat throughout the growing season. The locust leafminer, Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg), fed minimally on first-year coppice foliage except during 1983, when trees were severely drought-stressed. Soil-applied granular carbofuran significantly reduced infestations. Lindane stem treatments were not effective, but entire-tree applications did reduce herbivory. Stump sprouts with reduced levels of herbivory grew significantly taller than controls at both spacings in 1983, but only at the more dense spacing in 1984. Blacklight trap collections revealed two generations/year, and adults were present from early May until late August. Four species of hymenopterous and two species of dipterous parasitoids were recovered from E. insiticiana larvae.

  11. The Identification of Novel Diagnostic Marker Genes for the Detection of Beer Spoiling Pediococcus damnosus Strains Using the BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Jonas; Zehe, Anja; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2016-01-01

    As the number of bacterial genomes increases dramatically, the demand for easy to use tools with transparent functionality and comprehensible output for applied comparative genomics grows as well. We present BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr (BADGE), a tool for the rapid prediction of diagnostic marker genes (DMGs) for the differentiation of bacterial groups (e.g. pathogenic / nonpathogenic). DMG identification settings can be modified easily and installing and running BADGE does not require specific bioinformatics skills. During the BADGE run the user is informed step by step about the DMG finding process, thus making it easy to evaluate the impact of chosen settings and options. On the basis of an example with relevance for beer brewing, being one of the oldest biotechnological processes known, we show a straightforward procedure, from phenotyping, genome sequencing, assembly and annotation, up to a discriminant marker gene PCR assay, making comparative genomics a means to an end. The value and the functionality of BADGE were thoroughly examined, resulting in the successful identification and validation of an outstanding novel DMG (fabZ) for the discrimination of harmless and harmful contaminations of Pediococcus damnosus, which can be applied for spoilage risk determination in breweries. Concomitantly, we present and compare five complete P. damnosus genomes sequenced in this study, finding that the ability to produce the unwanted, spoilage associated off-flavor diacetyl is a plasmid encoded trait in this important beer spoiling species. PMID:27028007

  12. Some soil properties on coal mine spoils reclaimed with black locust (Robinia pceudoacacia L.) and umbrella pine (Pinus pinea L.) in Agacli-Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Tahir; Makineci, Ender

    2009-12-01

    This study performed on randomly selected seven sample plots in leguminous black locust (Robinia pceudoacacia L.) plantations and five sample plots in umbrella pine (Pinus pinea L.) plantations on coal mine soil/spoils. Soil samples were taken from eight different soil depths (0-1, 1-3, 3-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-50 cm) into the soil profile. On soil samples, bulk density, fine soil fraction (Ø < 2 mm), sand, silt and clay rates, soil acidity (pH), organic carbon (C(org)), and total nitrogen (N(t)) contents were investigated. Also, some forest floor properties (unit mass, organic matter, and total nitrogen) were determined, and results were compared statistically between umbrella pine and black locust. As a result, 17 years after plantations, total forest floor accumulation determined as 6,107 kg ha(-1) under black locust compared to 13,700 kg ha(-1) under umbrella pine. The more rapid transformation of leguminous black locust forest floor creates organic carbon that migrates further into the mineral profile, and rapid accumulation of C and N in the soil profile was registered. Slower transformation processes of forest floor under umbrella pine result in lower soil N ratio and greater quantity of forest floor. Higher soil pH under leguminous black locust was determined significantly than umbrella pine. In conclusion, the composition of symbiotic nitrogen fixation of black locust appears to be a possible factor favoring carbon and nitrogen accumulation and, consequently, soil development. Clearly, both tree species have favorable impacts on initial soil formation. The umbrella pine generates the more forest floor layer; in contrast, black locust forest floor incorporates into the soil more rapidly and significantly increases soil nitrogen in upper soil layers.

  13. Geohydrology and water chemistry of abandoned uranium mines and radiochemistry of spoil-material leachate, Monument Valley and Cameron areas, Arizona and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longsworth, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium mines in the Monument Valley area were established predominately in channel-fill deposits within the Shinarump Member of the Chinle Formation. The Shinarump Member yields ground water to wells and may yield water to the Moonlight and Radium Hill mines. In the study area near Cameron, uranium was mined from channel-fill deposits within the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation. Units of the Petrified Forest Member do not yield ground water to wells in the area, but fractures in the lower part of the Petrified Forest Member are probable pathways for upward flow of water from the Shinarump Member. Most of the mines receive water from surface inflow of rainfall runoff, but ground water also may be transmitted to open pits and drill holes in the subsurface through fractures or along faults in the Petrified Forest Member. Uranium-238 activities in shallow ground water from mines ranged from 150 to 14,000 picocuries per liter. Radionuclide activities in well and spring water were less than in shallow ground water near mines; however, in some samples, radionuclide activities in wells and springs were greater than activities in pit water. Uranium concentrations in leachate samples ranged from 20 to 7,700 micrograms per liter. Batch tests were done with material that was 2.00 millimeters and smaller. The radiochemistry of leachate from coarser material was not determined, and the specific rate and magnitude of radionuclide leaching depends on site-specific conditions that include the amounts of oxygen and organic material present, temperature, spoil mineralogy, and local ground-water composition.

  14. Linear accelerator radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma: measuring tumor volume changes on serial three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Okunaga, Tomohiro; Matsuo, Takayuki; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Yukishige; Shabani, Hamisi K; Kaminogo, Makio; Ochi, Makoto; Nagata, Izumi

    2005-07-01

    The authors report on a series of 46 patients harboring vestibular schwannomas (VSs) treated using linear accelerator (LINAC) radiosurgery and an analysis of serial magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data, specifically the changes in tumor volume. Fifty-three consecutive patients underwent LINAC radiosurgery for VS between 1993 and 2002. Seven of these patients were lost to follow up. Three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) MR imaging was performed at 3- to 4-month intervals after radiosurgery. Tumor volume was measured on Gd-enhanced MR images of each slice. The median duration of follow-up MR imaging studies was 56.5 months (range 12-120 months). Follow-up imaging studies were conducted for longer than 1 year in 42 of 53 patients. Tumor volume changes were categorized into four types: enlargement (eight lesions [19%]), no change (two lesions [4.8%]), transient enlargement followed by shrinkage (19 lesions [45.2%]), and direct shrinkage (13 lesions [31%]). Two cases (4.8%) with twice the initial tumor volume required repeated radiosurgery. All cases of transient enlargement had subsequent shrinkage within 2 years after radiosurgery. Nine (21.4%) of 42 patients demonstrated ventricular enlargement on MR images obtained after radiosurgery. Three patients (7.1%) required placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt because of symptomatic hydrocephalus, and another four cases (9.5%) spontaneously resolved. Volume measurement on 3D-SPGR MR imaging was a suitable method to assess tumor changes. Volume changes beyond twofold or continuous enlargement for longer than 2 years after radiosurgery are key criteria in rating the effects of radiation. Some cases of hydrocephalus after radiosurgery resolved spontaneously and their rates of occurrence were similar to the typical incidence of hydrocephalus associated with VS.

  15. Long-term follow-up results of linear accelerator-based radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma using serial three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo MRI.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Takayuki; Okunaga, Tomohiro; Kamada, Kensaku; Izumo, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Nagata, Izumi

    2015-02-01

    We examined the characteristic changes in vestibular schwannoma (VS) volume after treatment with linear accelerator-based radiosurgery (LBRS) and the long-term therapeutic effects, by performing three-dimensional (3D) MRI evaluations of tumor volumes. We included 44 patients in whom tumor volume changes could be observed using 3D-spoiled gradient-echo MRI for at least 5 years. Examinations were performed every 3-4 months for the first 2 years after treatment and every 6-12 months thereafter. Enlargement or shrinkage was determined as a change of at least 20% from the volume at the time of treatment. The median observation period was 13.8 years (range, 5.5-19.5 years). The tumor control rates at 5 and 10 years after treatment and at the final MRI were 90.9%, 90.0%, and 88.6%, respectively. Tumor volume changes were categorized into the following four patterns: enlargement, five patients (11.4%); stable, three patients (6.8%); transient enlargement, 24 patients (54.5%); and direct shrinkage, 12 patients (27.3%). Bimodal peaks were observed in three of the 24 patients with transient enlargement. Tumor volume changes from 5 and 10 years post-LBRS to the final observation point were observed in 27 (64.2%) and 10 patients (33.3%), respectively. The long-term tumor volume changes observed after LBRS suggest that radiation exerts long-term effects on tumors. Furthermore, while transient enlargements in tumor volume were characteristic, true tumor enlargements should be characterized by increased volumes of more than two-fold and continued growth for at least 2 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of population structure and spatial distribution patterns of a restored forest during 17-year succession (1993-2010) in Pingshuo opencast mine spoil, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongqiu; Wang, Lianhua; Bai, Zhongke; Pan, Ziguan; Wang, Yun

    2015-07-01

    Afforestation of native tree species is often recommended for ecological restoration in mining areas, but the understanding of the ecological processes of restored vegetation is quite limited. In order to provide insight of the ecological processes of restored vegetation, in this study, we investigate the development of the population structure and spatial distribution patterns of restored Robinia pseudoacacia (ROPS) and Pinus tabuliformis (PITA) mixed forests during the 17 years of the mine spoil period of the Pingshuo opencast mine, Shanxi Province, China. After a 17-year succession, apart from the two planted species, Ulmus pumila (ULPU), as an invasive species, settled in the plot along with a large number of small diameter at breast height (DBH) size. In total, there are 10,062 living individual plants, much more than that at the plantation (5105), and ROPS had become the dominant species with a section area with a breast height of 9.40 m(2) hm(-2) and a mean DBH of 6.72 cm, much higher than both PITA and ULPU. The DBH size classes of all the total species showed inverted J-shaped distributions, which may have been a result of the large number of small regenerated ULPU trees. The DBH size classes of both ROPS and PITA showed peak-type structures with individuals mainly gathering in the moderate DBH size class, indicating a relatively healthy DBH size class structure. Meanwhile, invasive ULPU were distributed in a clear L shape, concentrating on the small DBH size class, indicating a relatively low survival rate for adult trees. Both ROPS and PITA species survival in the plantation showed uniform and aggregated distribution at small scales and random with scales increasing. ULPU showed a strong aggregation at small scales as well as random with scales increasing. Both the population structure and spatial distribution indicated that ROPS dominates and will continue to dominate the community in the future succession, which should be continuously monitored.

  17. Bad apples or spoiled barrels? Multilevel modelling analysis of variation in high-risk prescribing in Scotland between general practitioners and between the practices they work in.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Bruce; Donnan, Peter T; Murphy, Douglas J; Makubate, Boikanyo; Dreischulte, Tobias

    2015-11-06

    Primary care high-risk prescribing causes significant harm, but it is unclear if it is largely driven by individuals (a 'bad apple' problem) or by practices having higher or lower risk prescribing cultures (a 'spoiled barrel' problem). The study aimed to examine the extent of variation in high-risk prescribing between individual prescribers and between the practices they work in. Multilevel logistic regression modelling of routine cross-sectional data from 38 Scottish general practices for 181,010 encounters between 398 general practitioners (GPs) and 26,539 patients particularly vulnerable to adverse drug events (ADEs) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) due to age, comorbidity or co-prescribing. Initiation of a new NSAID prescription in an encounter between GPs and eligible patients. A new high-risk NSAID was initiated in 1953 encounters (1.1% of encounters, 7.4% of patients). Older patients, those with more vulnerabilities to NSAID ADEs and those with polypharmacy were less likely to have a high-risk NSAID initiated, consistent with GPs generally recognising the risk of NSAIDs in eligible patients. Male GPs were more likely to initiate a high-risk NSAID than female GPs (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.16). After accounting for patient characteristics, 4.2% (95% CI 2.1 to 8.3) of the variation in high-risk NSAID prescribing was attributable to variation between practices, and 14.2% (95% CI 11.4 to 17.3) to variation between GPs. Three practices had statistically higher than average high-risk prescribing, but only 15.7% of GPs with higher than average high-risk prescribing and 18.5% of patients receiving such a prescription were in these practices. There was much more variation in high-risk prescribing between GPs than between practices, and only targeting practices with higher than average rates will miss most high-risk NSAID prescribing. Primary care prescribing safety improvement should ideally target all practices, but encourage practices to consider

  18. An analysis of the uncertainty and bias in DCE-MRI measurements using the spoiled gradient-recalled echo pulse sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Subashi, Ergys; Choudhury, Kingshuk R.; Johnson, G. Allan

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The pharmacokinetic parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI have been used in more than 100 phase I trials and investigator led studies. A comparison of the absolute values of these quantities requires an estimation of their respective probability distribution function (PDF). The statistical variation of the DCE-MRI measurement is analyzed by considering the fundamental sources of error in the MR signal intensity acquired with the spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) pulse sequence. Methods: The variance in the SPGR signal intensity arises from quadrature detection and excitation flip angle inconsistency. The noise power was measured in 11 phantoms of contrast agent concentration in the range [0–1] mM (in steps of 0.1 mM) and in onein vivo acquisition of a tumor-bearing mouse. The distribution of the flip angle was determined in a uniform 10 mM CuSO{sub 4} phantom using the spin echo double angle method. The PDF of a wide range of T1 values measured with the varying flip angle (VFA) technique was estimated through numerical simulations of the SPGR equation. The resultant uncertainty in contrast agent concentration was incorporated in the most common model of tracer exchange kinetics and the PDF of the derived pharmacokinetic parameters was studied numerically. Results: The VFA method is an unbiased technique for measuringT1 only in the absence of bias in excitation flip angle. The time-dependent concentration of the contrast agent measured in vivo is within the theoretically predicted uncertainty. The uncertainty in measuring K{sup trans} with SPGR pulse sequences is of the same order, but always higher than, the uncertainty in measuring the pre-injection longitudinal relaxation time (T1{sub 0}). The lowest achievable bias/uncertainty in estimating this parameter is approximately 20%–70% higher than the bias/uncertainty in the measurement of the pre-injection T1 map. The fractional volume parameters derived from the extended Tofts model

  19. Bad apples or spoiled barrels? Multilevel modelling analysis of variation in high-risk prescribing in Scotland between general practitioners and between the practices they work in

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Bruce; Donnan, Peter T; Murphy, Douglas J; Makubate, Boikanyo; Dreischulte, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Primary care high-risk prescribing causes significant harm, but it is unclear if it is largely driven by individuals (a ‘bad apple’ problem) or by practices having higher or lower risk prescribing cultures (a ‘spoiled barrel’ problem). The study aimed to examine the extent of variation in high-risk prescribing between individual prescribers and between the practices they work in. Design, setting and participants Multilevel logistic regression modelling of routine cross-sectional data from 38 Scottish general practices for 181 010 encounters between 398 general practitioners (GPs) and 26 539 patients particularly vulnerable to adverse drug events (ADEs) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) due to age, comorbidity or co-prescribing. Outcome measure Initiation of a new NSAID prescription in an encounter between GPs and eligible patients. Results A new high-risk NSAID was initiated in 1953 encounters (1.1% of encounters, 7.4% of patients). Older patients, those with more vulnerabilities to NSAID ADEs and those with polypharmacy were less likely to have a high-risk NSAID initiated, consistent with GPs generally recognising the risk of NSAIDs in eligible patients. Male GPs were more likely to initiate a high-risk NSAID than female GPs (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.16). After accounting for patient characteristics, 4.2% (95% CI 2.1 to 8.3) of the variation in high-risk NSAID prescribing was attributable to variation between practices, and 14.2% (95% CI 11.4 to 17.3) to variation between GPs. Three practices had statistically higher than average high-risk prescribing, but only 15.7% of GPs with higher than average high-risk prescribing and 18.5% of patients receiving such a prescription were in these practices. Conclusions There was much more variation in high-risk prescribing between GPs than between practices, and only targeting practices with higher than average rates will miss most high-risk NSAID prescribing. Primary care prescribing

  20. Effective use of flow-spoiled FBI and time-SLIP methods in the diagnostic study of an aberrant vessel of the head and neck: "left jugular venous steal by the right jugular vein".

    PubMed

    Kogure, Taroh; Kogure, Kyuya; Iizuka, Mitsumasa; Ino, Azusa; Ishii, Masako

    2010-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight (TOF) is now commonly used in routine magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) studies of the head and neck. However, there are limits to its diagnostic abilities in the clinical field and, in some instances, a more invasive supplementary examination may be required. We incidentally discovered a patient with an aberrant vessel of the head and neck that ran alongside the left carotid artery and contained a constant, slowly pulsating efferent blood flow. 3D-TOF and carotid ultrasonography could not determine the nature and origin of this vessel. Additional studies using flow-spoiled fresh blood imaging (flow-spoiled FBI) and time spatial labeling inversion pulse (time-SLIP) methods were effective in determining that the vessel was the left jugular vein, and that the continuous venous reflux was a result of a venous steal by the right jugular vein. We show that by combining different MRA techniques we can effectively achieve diagnosis without resorting to more invasive examinations.

  1. To the Critics, the Spoils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Rick

    1995-01-01

    In a partnership between several tool companies and vocational high schools, students in construction technology classes give new products a fair and rigorous workout at a fraction of the cost of focus groups. The process allows companies to expose their products to students who, in turn, provide critical evaluation of the tools. (JOW)

  2. Inertization of hazardous dredging spoils.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Alberto Giulio; Bonsembiante, Enrico; Brusatin, Giovanna; Calzolari, Giacomo; Colombo, Paolo; Dall'Igna, Roberto; Hreglich, Sandro; Scarinci, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    Vitrification and production of ceramics materials starting from sediment excavated from Venice lagoon is described. This sediment is classified as toxic waste because contains several heavy metal ions and organic pollutants and was successfully vitrified at 1200-1350 degrees C. Twenty weight percentage of glass cullet, coming from a community glass recycling program, was added to the raw materials, previously calcined at 900 degrees C, as a way of adjusting the variations of composition of the individual sediment batches. Chemical durability (leaching) tests showed that the optimized glass compositions are inert, and thus not only volume reduction but also inertization of the waste was obtained by this process. Moreover, the economics of the entire process was analysed. The valorization of the waste was accomplished by the subsequent processing of the glass derived from the inertization. Glass ceramic materials were produced by viscous phase sintering of pressed glass powders which crystallized during the densification process. Sintered glass ceramic products had good mechanical characteristics (HV = 7.5 GPa, bending strength 150 +/- 8 MPa), making them suitable for applications in the building industry.

  3. To the Critics, the Spoils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Rick

    1995-01-01

    In a partnership between several tool companies and vocational high schools, students in construction technology classes give new products a fair and rigorous workout at a fraction of the cost of focus groups. The process allows companies to expose their products to students who, in turn, provide critical evaluation of the tools. (JOW)

  4. Quantifying the effect of water activity and storage temperature on single spore lag times of three moulds isolated from spoiled bakery products.

    PubMed

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Gougouli, Maria; Onno, Bernard; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2017-01-02

    The inhibitory effect of water activity (aw) and storage temperature on single spore lag times of Aspergillus niger, Eurotium repens (Aspergillus pseudoglaucus) and Penicillium corylophilum strains isolated from spoiled bakery products, was quantified. A full factorial design was set up for each strain. Data were collected at levels of aw varying from 0.80 to 0.98 and temperature from 15 to 35°C. Experiments were performed on malt agar, at pH5.5. When growth was observed, ca 20 individual growth kinetics per condition were recorded up to 35days. Radius of the colony vs time was then fitted with the Buchanan primary model. For each experimental condition, a lag time variability was observed, it was characterized by its mean, standard deviation (sd) and 5(th) percentile, after a Normal distribution fit. As the environmental conditions became stressful (e.g. storage temperature and aw lower), mean and sd of single spore lag time distribution increased, indicating longer lag times and higher variability. The relationship between mean and sd followed a monotonous but not linear pattern, identical whatever the species. Next, secondary models were deployed to estimate the cardinal values (minimal, optimal and maximal temperatures, minimal water activity where no growth is observed anymore) for the three species. That enabled to confirm the observation made based on raw data analysis: concerning the temperature effect, A. niger behaviour was significantly different from E. repens and P. corylophilum: Topt of 37.4°C (standard deviation 1.4°C) instead of 27.1°C (1.4°C) and 25.2°C (1.2°C), respectively. Concerning the aw effect, from the three mould species, E. repens was the species able to grow at the lowest aw (awmin estimated to 0.74 (0.02)). Finally, results obtained with single spores were compared to findings from a previous study carried out at the population level (Dagnas et al., 2014). For short lag times (≤5days), there was no difference between lag time

  5. CYANIDE HEAP BIOLOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in the closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, solu...

  6. CYANIDE HEAP BILOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, soluble...

  7. CYANIDE HEAP BILOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, soluble...

  8. CYANIDE HEAP BIOLOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in the closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, solu...

  9. Sunset Specialty Turf: Growing the heap

    SciTech Connect

    Heumann, J.M.

    1998-07-01

    Almost a quarter of the municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in the US is compostable. As composting as an industry is growing in the US, entrepreneurs are going where the markets are to expand their facilities and, hopefully, their revenues by making turf and groundcovers from recovered materials. In fact, over the past 20 years, the composting business has grown from a nascent backyard project to a full-fledged industry in the US. According to the US EPA`s recent waste characterization report, food and yard waste generated in the US in 1996 came to almost 53 million tons, or almost a quarter of the total 209 million tons of MSW generated in the US. Of the 28 million tons of yard waste generated in the US in 1996 alone, 38.6% was recycled. Yard trimmings made up about 13.4% of all the materials discarded as MSW. With its warm climate and abundance of foliage that create yard waste year round, the South is a region where composting facilities are thriving. And a Midwestern composting company is looking to reap the benefits of the current growing market for compostable materials in the Southeast while providing an environmentally beneficial end product. Sunset Turf Nursery, Inc. is a company that manufacturers turf products from compost materials. The company already runs a 51-acre facility in St. Louis, where it composts municipal materials and, using its patented process, grows turf grass to make a specialty groundcover which can be used for landscaping applications. Sunset officials plan to expand the company`s composting and turf manufacturing operations to more than 350 acres over the next three years, starting with the St. Louis facility. The company, specifically its division Sunset Specialty Turf, currently has a research and development testing site in Jacksonville, Florida, which it would like to use additional funding to expand to a full fledged manufacturing site similar to the St. Louis site.

  10. Effects of controlled overburden placement on mine-spoil properties, revegetation, and the growth of Pitch X loblolly pine hybrid seedlings as demonstrated on an abandoned strip bench. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, W.L.; Burger, J.; Roberts, J.; Moss, S.

    1986-08-15

    Surface coal-mine reclamation efforts depend on a knowledge of soil development and nutrient cycling. Gaining an understanding of soil genesis in various parent materials and in different cultural amendments will aid the success of revegetation and reclamation. Studies in soil genesis are needed to determine if rock-mine spoils are suitable as a topsoil substitute. A knowledge of mechanisms of nutrient cycling in these materials will aid the development of management strategies for successful reclamation. The report summarizes findings from Phase II of the Controlled Overburden Placement Experiment, funded by OSM. The data reported pertain primarily to the second and third growing seasons, 1983 and 1984. The experiment is composed of two parts, a rock-mix experiment and a surface-treatment experiment. Second-year results confirm topsoil substitutes can outperform topsoiled plots in these particular mine soils.

  11. An analytical model which determines the apparent T1 for Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery - Analysis of the longitudinal relaxation under the influence of discontinuous balanced (classical MOLLI) and spoiled gradient echo readouts.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Thomas; Reiter, Theresa; Bauer, Wolfgang Rudolf

    2017-08-09

    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shifts more and more into the focus of clinical research. Especially determination of relaxation times without/and with contrast agents becomes the foundation of tissue characterization, e.g. in cardiac MRI for myocardial fibrosis. Techniques which assess longitudinal relaxation times rely on repetitive application of readout modules, which are interrupted by free relaxation periods, e.g. the Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery = MOLLI sequence. These discontinuous sequences reveal an apparent relaxation time, and, by techniques extrapolated from continuous readout sequences, a putative real T1 is determined. What is missing is a rigorous analysis of the dependence of the apparent relaxation time on its real partner, readout sequence parameters and biological parameters as heart rate. This is provided in this paper for the discontinuous balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) and spoiled gradient echo readouts. It turns out that the apparent longitudinal relaxation rate is the time average of the relaxation rates during the readout module, and free relaxation period. Knowing the heart rate our results vice versa allow to determine the real T1 from its measured apparent partner. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Myocardial T1 Mapping at 3.0T Using an Inversion Recovery Spoiled Gradient Echo Readout and Bloch Equation Simulation with Slice Profile Correction (BLESSPC) T1 Estimation Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jiaxin; Rapacchi, Stanislas; Nguyen, Kim-Lien; Hu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop an accurate and precise myocardial T1 mapping technique using an inversion recovery spoiled gradient echo readout at 3.0T. Materials and Methods The modified Look-Locker inversion-recovery (MOLLI) sequence was modified to use fast low angle shot (FLASH) readout, incorporating a BLESSPC (Bloch Equation Simulation with Slice Profile Correction) T1 estimation algorithm, for accurate myocardial T1 mapping. The FLASH-MOLLI with BLESSPC fitting was compared to different approaches and sequences with regards to T1 estimation accuracy, precision and image artifact based on simulation, phantom studies, and in vivo studies of 10 healthy volunteers and 3 patients at 3.0T. Results The FLASH-MOLLI with BLESSPC fitting yields accurate T1 estimation (average error = −5.4±15.1 ms, percentage error = −0.5%±1.2%) for T1 from 236–1852 ms and heart rate from 40–100 bpm in phantom studies. The FLASH-MOLLI sequence prevented off-resonance artifacts in all 10 healthy volunteers at 3.0T. In vivo, there was no significant difference between FLASH-MOLLI-derived myocardial T1 values and “ShMOLLI+IE” derived values (1458.9±20.9 ms vs. 1464.1±6.8 ms, p=0.50); However, the average precision by FLASH-MOLLI was significantly better than that generated by “ShMOLLI+IE” (1.84±0.36% variance vs. 3.57±0.94%, p<0.001). Conclusion The FLASH-MOLLI with BLESSPC fitting yields accurate and precise T1 estimation, and eliminates banding artifacts associated with bSSFP at 3.0T. PMID:26214152

  13. Scots pine needles macronutrient (N, P, K, CA, MG, and S) supply at different reclaimed mine soil substrates--as an indicator of the stability of developed forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pietrzykowski, Marcin; Woś, Bartłomiej; Haus, Nicholas

    2013-09-01

    A main objective of restoration and afforestation at post-mining sites is establishing a long-term sustainable ecosystem which depends on adaptations of tree species and which in turn depends on the soil nutrient flux. The nutrient concentration (nitrogen (N), P, K, Ca, Mg, and sulfur (S)) of Scots pine needles was investigated in reclaimed mine soils (RMS) located at the following post-mining sites: a sand mine pit, spoil heap from a lignite mine, spoil heap from a S mine, and a carbonaceous spoil heap from an underground coal mine. The control plots were arranged on natural forest sites adjacent to the post-mining sites. A higher level of foliar nutrients was noted in the carbonaceous RMS, while lower levels were found in RMS on the spoil heap following lignite mining. The characteristics of the substrate were found to exert greater effect than mineral fertilization (performed at the onset of reclamation) on the tree stand characteristics, needle length and foliar nutrient concentration. While the soils and trees were most deficient in N, negative symptoms have not been noted to this date in tree stands at reclaimed mine sites. Trophic ratings were recommended based on statistical correlations and groupings between N and P contents in needles and needles length (mean length of 300 needles) while nutrient ratings were recommended from statistical differences and groupings of the RMS substrates.

  14. Untreated abandoned mercury mining works in a scenic area of Asturias (Spain).

    PubMed

    Loredo, Jorge; Pereira, Alberto; Ordóñez, Almudena

    2003-07-01

    Mercury mining was a large and thriving industry during the last century in Asturias (NW Spain). At Brañalamosa, mining activity introduced significant quantities of wastes in spoil heaps located close to the mining operations. In these mining wastes, in addition to mercury, high concentrations of other potentially dangerous elements like As have been found. As a consequence, pollution and dereliction of the local environment occurred. This paper focuses on the environmental impact of these old mining operations and describes a preliminary assessment of the extent of contamination. This includes analytical data from systematic sampling of soils, stream sediments, wastes from spoil heaps, water and herbaceous plants in areas affected by mining activities. The potential risk that spoil materials imply for human health and the environment is documented on the basis of the application of EPA Risk Assessment methodology.

  15. Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. Spoil Disposal Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    average annual discharge at the Pinopolis Hydroelectric Power Plant is 15,600 cubic feet per second. Maintenance dredging costs are estimated to average...Shoaling rates are related to the fresh-water inflow. A reduction of the average annual discharge at the Pinopolis Hydroelectric Power Plant to 3,000 cfs

  16. Screening for colorectal cancer: spoiled for choice?

    PubMed

    Sarfati, Diana; Shaw, Caroline; McLeod, Melissa; Blakely, Tony; Bissett, Ian

    2016-08-19

    There are many different potential screening strategies for colorectal cancer (CRC) that vary both in the likely magnitude of their benefits on CRC mortality and their impact on health services. Many approaches to CRC screening are cost-effective, but there is substantial uncertainty about the optimal approach. Decision models using Markov or microsimulation modelling that compare the cost-effectiveness of different screening strategies are useful in this regard. We have reviewed recent decision models that compare the cost-effectiveness of one-off flexible sigmoidoscopy screening with immunochemical faecal occult blood (FIT) based screening. Models consistently show that any population-based screening is cost-effective compared with no screening, and that FIT-based screening is more effective than one-off sigmoidoscopy screening. The combination of one-off sigmoidoscopy with FIT is more effective in saving lives than either modality alone, but has the greatest impact on health service resources. The recent decision to proceed with biennial FIT-based screening is consistent with current evidence.

  17. Cheating More when the Spoils Are Split

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltermuth, Scott S.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments demonstrated that people are more likely to cheat when the benefits of doing so are split with another person, even an anonymous stranger, than when the actor alone captures all of the benefits. In three of the studies, splitting the benefits of over-reporting one's performance on a task made such over-reporting seem less…

  18. Keep Legionnaire's Disease from Spoiling Your Vacation

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection, which is often linked to hotels, cruise ships To use the sharing features on this page, ... to contaminated water supplies in hotels and cruise ships," said Jerry Balentine. He is vice president for ...

  19. Ribotyping of lactobacilli isolated from spoiled beer.

    PubMed

    Yansanjav, Altanzaya; Svec, Pavel; Sedlácek, Ivo; Hollerová, Ida; Nemec, Miroslav

    2003-12-05

    Twenty-nine Lactobacillus strains contaminating beers in different Czech breweries as well as representative type strains obtained from the Czech Collection of Microorganisms were characterized using ribotyping with EcoRI and a probe made complementary to 16S and 23S rRNA genes. Biochemical test results assigned the 29 strains to the species L. brevis, L. plantarum, L. buchneri and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei. Ribotyping separated L. brevis, L. plantarum and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains into species-specific ribogroups in full correspondence with biotyping; L. buchneri strains were split into two ribogroups. Characteristic band patterns for each species and even typical bands of certain sizes were observed.

  20. Cheating More when the Spoils Are Split

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltermuth, Scott S.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments demonstrated that people are more likely to cheat when the benefits of doing so are split with another person, even an anonymous stranger, than when the actor alone captures all of the benefits. In three of the studies, splitting the benefits of over-reporting one's performance on a task made such over-reporting seem less…

  1. No Bit Left Behind: The Limits of Heap Data Compression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    languages, however, are not known for their memory efficiency, creating a tension between productiv - ity and performance. This paper examines the sources...bytes = 1000 ∗ 32 − (3/2 ∗ 10 ∗ (32 + 4) + 12). Clearly, there is a cross-over point where the savings become negative. If the computed savings is

  2. Exponential velocity profile of granular flows down a confined heap.

    PubMed

    Martínez, E; González-Lezcano, A; Batista-Leyva, A J; Altshuler, E

    2016-06-01

    Thick granular flows are essential to many natural and industrial phenomena. Experimentally, it has been well established that the grain velocity profile is linear from the free surface to a certain depth, after which it decreases exponentially in the so-called "creep region". In this paper we obtain an exponential velocity profile based on the force balance of a grain near a wall, where the Janssen effect and the non-locality of interactions between grains are considered. When experimental parameters such as flow angles and friction coefficients are introduced in our model, it is able to reproduce experimental creep velocity profiles previously reported in the literature.

  3. Leaching behaviour of a chromium smelter waste heap.

    PubMed

    Deakin, D; West, L J; Stewart, D I; Yardley, B W

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the results of geochemical sampling and modelling of leachates from a chromite ore processing residue (C.O.P.R.) pile under rainwater infiltration. The waste pile is located in the north of England and consists of 800,000 m3 of waste. The pH of fresh leachate is similar to that of a solution in equilibrium with portlandite Ca(OH)2, which is a major constituent of the waste. The in-gassing of CO2(g) causes the pH of the leachates to drop along the drainage ditch and calcite precipitation to occur. The extent of in-gassing is dependent upon the flow rate within the drainage ditch. The dissolution of solid solutions containing residual chromate is likely to control chromate concentrations within the leachate.

  4. Confined granular flows on a heap: from simulations to experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Patrick; Valance, Alexandre; Delannay, Renaud; Boltenhagen, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    Surface granular flows are studied by means of discrete element simulations. The investigation of their kinematic properties suggests the existence of two regimes: one close to the jamming, for which the shear rate increases with the angle of the flow, and another one, far from jamming, for which the shear remains constant while the flow rate increases. Although the simulations reproduce experimental results for a given gap between sidewalls, they fail to capture the effect of confinement on the flows' properties (shear rate, flow height…).

  5. Power-law connections: From Zipf to Heaps and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we explore the asymptotic statistics of a general model of rank distributions in the large-ensemble limit; the construction of the general model is motivated by recent empirical studies of rank distributions. Applying Lorenzian, oligarchic, and Heapsian asymptotic analyses we establish a comprehensive set of closed-form results linking together rank distributions, probability distributions, oligarchy sizes, and innovation rates. In particular, the general results reveal the fundamental underlying connections between Zipf’s law, Pareto’s law, and Heaps’ law—three elemental empirical power-laws that are ubiquitously observed in the sciences.

  6. Power-law connections: From Zipf to Heaps and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2013-05-15

    In this paper we explore the asymptotic statistics of a general model of rank distributions in the large-ensemble limit; the construction of the general model is motivated by recent empirical studies of rank distributions. Applying Lorenzian, oligarchic, and Heapsian asymptotic analyses we establish a comprehensive set of closed-form results linking together rank distributions, probability distributions, oligarchy sizes, and innovation rates. In particular, the general results reveal the fundamental underlying connections between Zipf’s law, Pareto’s law, and Heaps’ law—three elemental empirical power-laws that are ubiquitously observed in the sciences. -- Highlights: ► The large-ensemble asymptotic statistics of rank distributions are explored. ► Lorenzian, oligarchic, and Heapsian asymptotic analyses are applied. ► Associated oligarchy sizes and induced innovation rates are analyzed. ► General elemental statistical connections are established. ► The underlying connections between Zipf’s, Pareto’s and Heaps’ laws are unveiled.

  7. Heap/stack guard pages using a wakeup unit

    DOEpatents

    Gooding, Thomas M; Satterfield, David L; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2014-04-29

    A method and system for providing a memory access check on a processor including the steps of detecting accesses to a memory device including level-1 cache using a wakeup unit. The method includes invalidating level-1 cache ranges corresponding to a guard page, and configuring a plurality of wakeup address compare (WAC) registers to allow access to selected WAC registers. The method selects one of the plurality of WAC registers, and sets up a WAC register related to the guard page. The method configures the wakeup unit to interrupt on access of the selected WAC register. The method detects access of the memory device using the wakeup unit when a guard page is violated. The method generates an interrupt to the core using the wakeup unit, and determines the source of the interrupt. The method detects the activated WAC registers assigned to the violated guard page, and initiates a response.

  8. Photobiont diversity in lichens from metal-rich substrata based on ITS rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Backor, Martin; Peksa, Ondrej; Skaloud, Pavel; Backorová, Miriam

    2010-05-01

    The photobiont is considered as the more sensitive partner of lichen symbiosis in metal pollution. For this reason the presence of a metal tolerant photobiont in lichens may be a key factor of ecological success of lichens growing on metal polluted substrata. The photobiont inventory was examined for terricolous lichen community growing in Cu mine-spoil heaps derived by historical mining. Sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) were phylogenetically analyzed using maximum likelihood analyses. A total of 50 ITS algal sequences were obtained from 22 selected lichen taxa collected at three Cu mine-spoil heaps and two control localities. Algae associated with Cladonia and Stereocaulon were identified as members of several Asterochloris lineages, photobionts of cetrarioid lichens clustered with Trebouxia hypogymniae ined. We did not find close relationship between heavy metal content (in localities as well as lichen thalli) and photobiont diversity. Presence of multiple algal genotypes in single lichen thallus has been confirmed.

  9. Release of toxic metals and metalloids from Los Rueldos mercury mine (Asturias, Spain).

    PubMed

    Loredo, J; Alvarez, R; Ordóñez, A

    2005-03-20

    The abandoned mercury mining works of "Los Rueldos" are located 20 km from Oviedo, along the northwestern border of the Asturian Central Coal Basin, in an area with intense tectonization. Hg mainly appears as cinnabar, but occasionally metacinnabar and native Hg are present; associated with Hg ore appear As-rich minerals (arsenopyrite, As-rich pyrite, realgar and scorodite). In the spoil heap, Hg content ranges from 14 to 2224 mg kg(-1), and As from 4746 to 62,196 mg kg(-1). Mine drainage and spoil heap leachates show acidic conditions (pH: 2.43-2.50), 2900-4600 mg l(-1) sulphate, 1.4-9.2 mg l(-1) As, 0.03-0.48 mg l(-1) Pb, and 3.6-14 microg l(-1) Hg. According to the analytical data and characteristics of the site, the application of corrective measurements to avoid the dispersion of contaminants in the environment must be considered.

  10. The use of sustainable 'biochar compost' for remediation of contaminated land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Aoife; Street-Perrott, Alayne; Eastwood, Daniel; Brackenbury, Sion

    2014-05-01

    South Wales (UK) has a long industrial history which, since the collapse of the coal-mining industry, has left a large number of contaminated former colliery sites. Bio-remediation of these areas by re-vegetation with native grasses aims to prevent erosion and leaching of pollutants into drainage waters. However, acid pH, low organic-matter content and unsuitable soil structure have limited the success of re-vegetation and prompted research into the development of artificial soils. This study aims to assess the value of creating an artificial soil cover by adding "biochar compost" to the top 10cm of a large volume of contaminated colliery spoil (high in As and Cu) to be moved during construction of a flood-alleviation barrage in Cwm Dulais (Swansea). It is proposed to use biochar, manufactured from chipped biomass sourced from a local stand of invasive Rhododendron ponticum using a BiGchar 1000 fast pyrolysis-gasification unit, in combination with locally produced BSI PAS100-certified Pteridium aquilinum (bracken) compost, to remediate a large area (2.3ha) of landscaped colliery waste and re-establish a cover of native grasses suitable for sheep grazing. Pot and field trials are being used to determine the most appropriate biochar:compost mix. In a 90-day outdoor pot trial, a commercial acid-grassland seed mix was grown in screened (< 20mm) colliery spoil, to which 25%v/v bracken compost (with/without composted manure) was added as a source of organic matter. This application rate of compost (equivalent to 250m3ha-1) was based on a successful coal-tip remediation trial at Ffos-y-Frân (Jarvis & Walton, WRAP Report, 2011). Varying application rates of biochar (0%, 2%, 5%, 10% or 20%v/v) were employed. Additional benefits of adding mycorrhizal inoculant or Trifolium repens (white clover) seed were also tested. Six-fold replication was used, with appropriate controls. The performance of each treatment was assessed from its maximum sward height and final above

  11. Proceedings, 1982 symposium on surface mining hydrology, sedimentology and reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Papers are presented on aspects of hydrology and land reclamation after surface mining. The chemical characteristics and bacterial treatment of acid mine drainage are discussed, along with the subjects of water quality, water movement and hydraulic conductivity in soils and mine spoil heaps. Geochemistry of groundwater near surface mining activities is considered. The effects of revegetation and reforestation, and the significance of fertilizers in land reclamation are discussed.

  12. Director, OWCP v. Greenwich collieries: The end of the true doubt rule

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Because coal miners are exposed to coal dust over long periods of time, hundreds of thousands of miners have contracted pneumoconiosis (black lung), a serious, progressive and crippling illness. In response to the horrible effects of black lung disease, Congress enacted the Federal Black Lung Program through several statutory enactments, which are commonly referred to as the Black Lung Benefits Act (BLBA). The purpose of the BLBA is to compensate coal miners who have contracted black lung disease. It is a humanitarian, remedial statute. Although the BLBA scheme seems quite complicated, a benefits claimant need only prove that: {open_quotes}(a) he or she it totally disabled, (b) the disability was caused, at least in part, by pneumoconiosis, and (c) the disability arose out of coal mine employment. Also, several statutory presumptions aid the BLBA claimant is establishing his or her entitlement to BLBA benefits. The implementation of the BLBA is discussed.

  13. Mapping rehabilitated coal mine soils in South Africa using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, D. G.

    2000-04-01

    Open-cast mining, involving severe disturbance, of shallow coal deposits has taken place in Mpumalanga, South Africa for some time with little control until recently. Current legislation requires soil investigations. The soils are agriculturally productive and merit effective rehabilitation, but several problems in this process can occur, leading to drastically reduced agricultural productivity. GPR investigation of these mine soils can help with the mapping of the depth to spoil after rehabilitation, on a significantly more cost-effective basis than traditional point observations. A field trial was carried out as part of a research project at Kleinkopje Colliery where it was shown that, despite wet conditions due to irrigation, GPR was able to map spoil depth around six times faster than augering. There is substantial scope in South Africa for GPR to make a significant contribution in this field.

  14. Earthworm responses to different reclamation processes in post opencast mining lands during succession.

    PubMed

    Hlava, Jakub; Hlavová, Anna; Hakl, Josef; Fér, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    This study provides earthworm population data obtained from localities with a substantial anthropogenic impact spoils. The spoil heaps were reclaimed at the end of an opencast brown coal mining period. We studied spoils reclaimed by the two most commonly used reclamation processes: forestry and agricultural. The results show the significance of the locality age and the utilized reclamation process and treatment and their effect on earthworm communities. Our data indicate that apart from soil physical and chemical properties, the reclamation process itself may also induce viability and distribution of earthworm communities. Under standardized soil properties, the changes in earthworm populations during the succession were larger within the agricultural reclamation process as opposed to the forestry reclamation process for earthworm ecological groups and individual species.

  15. Heavy metal contamination of brown seaweed and sediments from the UK coastline between the Wear river and the Tees river.

    PubMed

    Giusti, L

    2001-04-01

    The concentration of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, and Ag were determined in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus and intertidal surface sediments from coastal locations of northeast England. Levels of heavy metals similar to those of polluted areas of the British coastline were detected. There is evidence of contamination (especially with Zn and Pb) in sediments from sites affected by colliery spoil and from the Wear estuary. The pelitic fraction ( < 63 microm) is usually more enriched in heavy metals, but it represents a very small percentage of the bulk samples. The fine-grained sand is a very important repository of contaminants especially where particles of colliery spoil, secondary mineral, and amorphous phases are present. Aqua regia-extracted Zn, Cu, and Pb in sediments are significantly correlated with those in seaweed. Despite the closure of all base metal and coal mines, and the cessation of many industrial activities in the region, sediments and brown algae are contaminated with heavy metals. The control site (Holy Island) and the Tees estuary appear to be the least affected.

  16. Beam spoiling a reflector antenna with conducting shim.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2012-12-01

    A horn-fed dish reflector antenna has characteristics including beam pattern that are a function of its mechanical form. The beam pattern can be altered by changing the mechanical configuration of the antenna. One way to do this is with a reflecting insert or shim added to the face of the original dish.

  17. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sandstone 16 8 Do Shale 16 16 (iv) Underdrains shall consist of nondegradable, non-acid or toxic forming... the fill to the head of the fill, and from the base of the fill to the surface of the fill. A system...

  18. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sandstone 16 8 Do Shale 16 16 (iv) Underdrains shall consist of nondegradable, non-acid or toxic forming... the fill to the head of the fill, and from the base of the fill to the surface of the fill. A system...

  19. Inhibition of spoiling yeasts of fruit juices through citrus extracts.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Speranza, Barbara; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2013-10-01

    This article reports on the bioactivities of citrus extracts (citrus extract, lemon extract, and neroli) toward Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum. The bioactivities of the extracts (from 10 to 100 ppm) were evaluated through a microdilution method; thereafter, citrus extracts (0 to 80 ppm) were tested in combination with either pH (3.0 to 5.0) or temperature (5 to 25°C). Finally, a confirmatory experiment was run in a commercial drink (referred to as red fruit juice) containing citrus extract (40 ppm) that was inoculated with either S. cerevisiae or Z. bailii (5 log CFU/ml) and stored at 4 and 25°C. Yeasts increased to 7 log CFU/ml (Z. bailii) or 8 log CFU/ml (S. cerevisiae) in the control at 25°C, but the citrus extract addition controlled yeast growth for at least 3 days; under refrigeration, the effect was significant for 10 days.

  20. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL... to ensure— (i) That leachate and surface runoff from the fill will not degrade surface or ground... minimize surface erosion at the site. Diversion design shall conform with the requirements of § 715.17(c...

  1. Don't Let Germs Spoil Your Holiday Getaway

    MedlinePlus

    ... and wheezing as they pass by. Clean shared surfaces. Use a disinfectant wipe to clean seat trays ... germs linger up to three days on plastic surfaces. Check your hotel room. When you arrive, make ...

  2. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... are likely to differ significantly in terms of impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental... alternative with the least overall adverse impact on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  3. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... are likely to differ significantly in terms of impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental... alternative with the least overall adverse impact on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  4. Spare the rods and spoil the retina: revisited.

    PubMed

    Sivaprasad, S; Arden, G

    2016-02-01

    Visual function improves with oxygen inhalation in people with diabetes even in the absence of visible retinopathy. Rods consume the most oxygen in the retina due to the high metabolic activity required to maintain the dark current. Therefore, Arden hypothesized that in diabetes where oxygen supply may also be affected due to the changes in retinal vasculature, prevention of dark adaptation may be a viable option to prevent or decrease the rate of progression of diabetic retinopathy. Animal experiments have proven that the absence of rods decreases the development of retinal neovascularisation. The same principle applies to panretinal photocoagulation, an established treatment for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Recently, a few clinical studies have also shown that preventing dark adaptation by suppressing rods with 500-nm light source at night decreases the rate of progression of early diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy in the short-term. We await the results of a large two-year multi-centre trial (CLEOPATRA trial) to evaluate the long-term effects of decreasing dark adaptation by applying a 500nm light source as a mask over eyes with non-central diabetic macular oedema.

  5. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... are likely to differ significantly in terms of impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental...)(ii) of this section on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values. The analysis must consider..., including seasonal variations in temperature and volume, changes in stream turbidity or sedimentation, the...

  6. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... are likely to differ significantly in terms of impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental...)(ii) of this section on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values. The analysis must consider..., including seasonal variations in temperature and volume, changes in stream turbidity or sedimentation, the...

  7. Determining pH of strip-mine spoils

    Treesearch

    W. A. Berg

    1969-01-01

    Results with the LaMotte-Morgan method for determining soil pH-or the solution modification of this method-usually agreed fairly well with the results from using a pH meter, the recognized standard. Results obtained with the Soiltex and Hellige-Truog methods often deviated somewhat from the pH meter readings; and the Hydrion papers and the Kelway pH tester often gave...

  8. Bad apples spoil the barrel: Addressing unprofessional behaviour.

    PubMed

    van Mook, Walther N K A; Gorter, Simone L; De Grave, Willem S; van Luijk, Scheltus J; Wass, Valerie; Zwaveling, Jan Harm; Schuwirth, Lambert W; Van Der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2010-01-01

    Given the changes in society we are experiencing, the increasing focus on patient-centred care and acknowledgement that medical education including professionalism issues needs to continue not only in the residency programmes but also throughout the doctors career, is not surprising. Although most of the literature on professionalism pertains to learning and teaching professionalism issues, addressing unprofessional behaviour and related patient safety issues forms an alternative or perhaps complementary approach. This article describes the possibility of selecting applicants for a medical school based on personality characteristics, the attention to professional lapses in contemporary undergraduate training, as well as the magnitude, aetiology, surveillance and methods of dealing with reports of unprofessional behaviour in postgraduate education and CME.

  9. Television Commercials and the Management of Spoiled Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper investigates visible stigmas which make people unacceptable in terms of societal values. Many of these values are presented in television commercials. A content analysis of commercials shows that about 26% of them are stigma-oriented but they are not especially directed toward minority audiences. (VM)

  10. Can environmental effects spoil precision gravitational-wave astrophysics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barausse, Enrico; Cardoso, Vitor; Pani, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    No, within a broad class of scenarios. Gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy will open a new window on compact objects such as neutron stars and black holes (BHs). It is often stated that large signal-to-noise detections of ringdown or inspiral waveforms can provide estimates of the masses and spins of compact objects to within fractions of a percent, as well as tests of general relativity. These expectations usually neglect the realistic astrophysical environments in which compact objects live. With the advent of GW astronomy, environmental effects on the GW signal will eventually have to be quantified. Here we present a wide survey of the corrections due to these effects in two situations of great interest for GW astronomy: the BH ringdown emission and the inspiral of two compact objects (especially BH binaries). We mainly focus on future space-based detectors such as eLISA, but many of our results are also valid for ground-based detectors such as aLIGO, aVirgo, and KAGRA. We take into account various effects such as electric charges, magnetic fields, cosmological evolution, possible deviations from general relativity, firewalls, and the effects related to various forms of matter such as accretion disks and dark matter halos. Our analysis predicts the existence of resonances dictated by the external mass distribution, which dominate the very late-time behavior of merger and ringdown waveforms. The mode structure can drastically differ from the vacuum case, yet the BH response to external perturbations is unchanged at the time scales relevant for detectors. This is because, although the vacuum Schwarzschild resonances are no longer quasinormal modes of the system, they still dominate the response at intermediate times. Our results strongly suggest that both parametrized and ringdown searches should use at least two-mode templates. Our analysis of compact binaries shows that environmental effects are typically negligible for most eLISA sources, with the exception of very few special extreme-mass-ratio inspirals. We show, in particular, that accretion and hydrodynamic drag generically dominate over self-force effects for geometrically thin disks, whereas they can be safely neglected for geometrically thick disk environments, which are the most relevant for eLISA. Finally, we discuss how our ignorance of the matter surrounding compact objects implies intrinsic limits on the ability to constrain strong-field deviations from general relativity.

  11. Intersatellite communication laser beam steering and spoiling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleski, Paul J.

    1994-09-01

    In the area of free space optical communications a significant amount of attention has been given to the overall problems of the acquisition and tracking of satellites and the accurate alignment and positioning of optical components on board a spacecraft. Accomplishing these functions with minimal investment in hardware size, weight, and power is essential to the successful evolution of space laser communications (Lasercom). This paper presents two types of nonmechanical laser beam control devices. A nematic liquid crystal (LC) lens and wedge have been fabricated and tested. These electro-optic devices can provide the capability of acquisition, fine tracking, point ahead and alignment of a laser beam in Lasercom terminals. Characteristics such as optical efficiency, switching speed, beam steer range and beam divergence have been measured. Device design and performance parameters are described.

  12. 46 CFR 174.330 - Jettisoning of spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... remain open if: (1) The bottom doors are designed so that they may be fully opened from: (i) The closed position within two minutes even if the main power source is lost or the bottom door actuating mechanism is... effected within two minutes even if the main power source is lost or the actuating means is damaged; and...

  13. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. (A) For every alternative that proposes placement of..., including adverse impacts on water quality and aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. (4) Location. Maps and...

  14. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. (A) For every alternative that proposes placement of..., including adverse impacts on water quality and aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. (4) Location. Maps and...

  15. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. (A) For every alternative that proposes placement of..., including adverse impacts on water quality and aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. (4) Location. Maps and...

  16. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. (A) For every alternative that proposes placement of..., including adverse impacts on water quality and aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. (4) Location. Maps and...

  17. Spontaneous combustion of shale spoils at a sanitary landfill.

    PubMed

    Hudak, Paul F

    2002-01-01

    Shale deposits excavated from the Upper Cretaceous, Eagle Ford Formation for a sanitary landfill near Dallas, Texas spontaneously combusted. The shale is dark gray in color, with 3-4% fractional organic carbon, and no lignite seams. Gradual sifting and segregation of fine particles, having high surface area per unit volume, along with moisture trapped in the pile as it accumulated led to spontaneous combustion. Hot summer temperatures compounded the problem by heating the pile and preventing heat from efficiently venting to the atmosphere. Maximum temperatures exceeded 960 degrees F (516 degrees C) at several hot spots located approximately 4 m beneath the pile surface. The ongoing combustion problem, which has lasted for approximately 1 year, eventually will be extinguished by spreading the deposits in thin layers, and compacting them to reduce air circulation and segregation of fines.

  18. Coal transformation under high-temperature catagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Melenevsky, V.N.; Sokol, E.V.; Fomin, A.N.

    2006-07-01

    In this paper we consider products of natural pyrolysis of lignite, which resulted from the high-temperature spontaneous combustion of spoil heaps of the Chelyabinsk coal basin. These products were studied by pyrolysis, element and petrographic analyses, chromatomass spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction method. We have established that under reducing conditions, the degree of pyrogenic coal transformation and the composition of pyrolysis products vary greatly, from graphite-like phases to bitumens, and depend on the temperature and degree of the system openness.

  19. Heap of stones: an unusual cause for biliary colic and elevated liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Wittenburg, Henning; Keim, Volker; Hoffmeister, Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    A 40-year old woman presented with symptomatic intrahepatic gallstones in one liver segment only four years after cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. Multiple small, yellow and round calculi were completely removed from the intrahepatic bile ducts via ERCP. The young age of the patient, recurrence of gallstones after cholecystectomy and intrahepatic gallstones suggested a subtype of the low-phospholipid associated cholelithiasis syndrome, a monogenic form of cholesterol cholelithiasis due to variations of the ABCB4 gene that encodes the canalicular phospholipid transporter MDR3.

  20. Programming with non-heap memory in the real time specification for Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollella, G.; Canham, T.; Carson, V.; Champlin, V.; Dvorak, D.; Giovannoni, B.; Indictor, M.; Meyer, K.; Reinholtz, A.; Murray, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) provides facilities for deterministic, real-time execution in a language that is otherwise subject to variable latencies in memory allocation and garbage collection.

  1. HEAP: Heat Energy Analysis Program, a computer model simulating solar receivers. [solving the heat transfer problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program which can distinguish between different receiver designs, and predict transient performance under variable solar flux, or ambient temperatures, etc. has a basic structure that fits a general heat transfer problem, but with specific features that are custom-made for solar receivers. The code is written in MBASIC computer language. The methodology followed in solving the heat transfer problem is explained. A program flow chart, an explanation of input and output tables, and an example of the simulation of a cavity-type solar receiver are included.

  2. The environmental and intrinsic yeast diversity of Cuban cocoa bean heap fermentations.

    PubMed

    Fernández Maura, Yurelkys; Balzarini, Tom; Clapé Borges, Pablo; Evrard, Pierre; De Vuyst, Luc; Daniel, H-M

    2016-09-16

    The environmental yeast diversity of spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations in east Cuba was investigated. Seven fermentations, 25 equipment- and handling-related samples, and 115 environmental samples, such as flowers, leaf and cocoa pod surfaces, as well as drosophilid insects, were analysed. The basic fermentation parameters temperature and pH were recorded during five fermentations for at least six days. A total of 435 yeast isolates were identified by a combination of PCR-fingerprinting of genomic DNA with the M13 primer and sequence analysis of DNA from representative isolates, using the internal transcribed spacer region, the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, and an actin gene-encoding fragment, as required. Among 65 yeast species detected, Pichia manshurica and Hanseniaspora opuntiae were the most frequently isolated species, obtained from five and four fermentations, followed in frequency by Pichia kudriavzevii from two fermentations. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated only occasionally. Cocoa fermentation yeast species were also present on processing equipment. The repeated isolation of a preliminarily as Yamadazyma sp. classified species, a group of strains similar to Saccharomycopsis crataegensis from fermentations and equipment, and the isolation of fifteen other potentially novel yeast species in low numbers provides material for further studies. Environmental samples showed higher yeast diversity compared to the fermentations, included the most frequent fermentation species, whereas the most frequently isolated environmental species were Candida carpophila, Candida conglobata, and Candida quercitrusa. Potential selective advantages of the most frequently isolated species were only partly explained by the physiological traits tested. For instance, tolerance to higher ethanol concentrations was more frequent in strains of Pichia spp. and S. cerevisiae compared to Hanseniaspora spp.; the ability to also assimilate ethanol might have conferred a selective advantage to Pichia spp. In contrast, high glucose tolerance was common among strains of Hanseniaspora spp., Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Candida tropicalis, among which only Hanseniaspora spp. were frequently isolated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Programming with non-heap memory in the real time specification for Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollella, G.; Canham, T.; Carson, V.; Champlin, V.; Dvorak, D.; Giovannoni, B.; Indictor, M.; Meyer, K.; Reinholtz, A.; Murray, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) provides facilities for deterministic, real-time execution in a language that is otherwise subject to variable latencies in memory allocation and garbage collection.

  4. Problem focused knowledge navigation: implementing the problem focused medical record and the O-HEAP note.

    PubMed

    Meyers, K C; Miller, H J; Naeymi-Rad, F

    1998-01-01

    The current organization of most Computerized Medical Records (CMR) is based on the Problem Oriented Medical Record (POMR) and the SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan) note. The organizational structure of the POMR and especially the SOAP note, does not allow for optimal use of computer capabilities in the follow up note. Since follow up visits are the most common office visit by far, this is a major flaw in the CMR. The authors propose a Problem Focused Medical Record and the OHEAP (Orientation, History, Exam, Assessment and Plan) note to resolve this problem. OHEAP starts with a powerful orientation structure that brings forward the timeline, last Assessment and Plan, and Plan Results for each problem along with the patient's historical tables as the starting point of every follow up visit. The Assessment and Plan portion brings problem specific differential diagnoses and their workups along with other relevant tables such as expert systems, treatments, instructions, medical literature or pathways. This leads to Problem Focused Knowledge Navigation that brings powerful efficiencies to the CMR. By recognizing the true workflow in the longitudinal diagnosis and management of any medical problem, the efficiency of the CMR is maximized. OHEAP allows for optimal use of both personal and external data elements in the medical record. Its powerful orientation attributes minimize the time spent in analyzing the current status of the problem while its connections to problem specific databases help resolve the problem.

  5. Heaps of health, metaphysical fitness: Ayurveda and the ontology of good health in medical anthropology.

    PubMed

    Alter, J S

    1999-02-01

    Because most scholars take it for granted that medicine is concerned with healing and problems of ill health, the way in which various medical systems define good health has not been adequately studied. Moreover, good health as such is usually regarded as a natural, normative state of being even by most medical anthropologists, who otherwise take a critical, relativist perspective on the subject of illness, pain, and disease. Using the case of Ayurvedic medicine, this article shows that there is a very different way of looking at the question of how health is embodied. This perspective is proactive and concerned with overall fitness rather than reactive and primarily concerned with either illness or disease. The argument presented here therefore seeks to go beyond the limiting--although extremely useful--orientation of remedial health care and suggest a radical challenge to some of the most basic ontological assumptions in the cross-cultural comparative study of medical systems.

  6. Atomic Incremental Garbage Collection and Recovery for a Large Stable Heap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    39, August 1986. [34] David Maier, Jacob Stein, Allen Otis, and Alan Purdy. Development of an Object- Oriented DBMS. In Proceedings of the Object...Alfred Z. Spector, J. J. Bioch , Dean S. Daniels, R. P. Draves, Daniel Duchamp, Jef- frey L. Eppinger, S. G. Menees, and D. S. Thompson. The Camelot

  7. Instrumentation Analysis: An Automated Method for Producing Numeric Abstractions of Heap-Manipulating Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-29

    Magill et al., 2006, Distefano et al., 2006, Chang et al., 2007, Calcagno et al., 2009, Yang et al., 2008] has firmly established separation logic as...branch x 6= nil⇒ x := x.next; goto L1, x = nil⇒ halt end A shape analysis such as those in [Berdine et al., 2007, Gotsman et al., 2007, Distefano ...abstract interpretation terms, see [ Distefano et al., 2006] and [Berdine et al., 2007]. We begin our discussion by describing the restricted form of

  8. Landscape monitoring of post-industrial areas using LiDAR and GIS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wężyk, Piotr; Szostak, Marta; Krzaklewski, Wojciech; Pająk, Marek; Pierzchalski, Marcin; Szwed, Piotr; Hawryło, Paweł; Ratajczak, Michał

    2015-06-01

    The quarrying industry is changing the local landscape, forming deep open pits and spoil heaps in close proximity to them, especially lignite mines. The impact can include toxic soil material (low pH, heavy metals, oxidations etc.) which is the basis for further reclamation and afforestation. Forests that stand on spoil heaps have very different growth conditions because of the relief (slope, aspect, wind and rainfall shadows, supply of solar energy, etc.) and type of soil that is deposited. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) technology deliver point clouds (XYZ) and derivatives as raster height models (DTM, DSM, nDSM=CHM) which allow the reception of selected 2D and 3D forest parameters (e.g. height, base of the crown, cover, density, volume, biomass, etc). The automation of ALS point cloud processing and integrating the results into GIS helps forest managers to take appropriate decisions on silvicultural treatments in areas with failed plantations (toxic soil, droughts on south-facing slopes; landslides, etc.) or as regular maintenance. The ISOK country-wide project ongoing in Poland will soon deliver ALS point cloud data which can be successfully used for the monitoring and management of many thousands of hectares of destroyed post-industrial areas which according to the law, have to be afforested and transferred back to the State Forest.

  9. The Solnhofen Limestone: A stony heritage of many uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kölbl-Ebert, Martina; Kramar, Sabina; Cooper, Barry J.

    2016-04-01

    High above the valley of the River Altmühl (Bavaria, Germany), between Solnhofen to the west and Kelheim to the east, numerous quarries give access to thinly plated limestone from the Upper Jurassic, some 150 million years before the present. The main quarry areas lie around the town of Eichstätt and between the villages of Solnhofen, Langenaltheim and Mörnsheim. Here limestone slabs have been quarried for several hundred years, some even in Roman times. Solnhofen Limestone is famous worldwide; not only because it is a beautiful building stone of high quality, but also because of the exceptionally well-preserved fossils it contains -among them the early bird Archaeopteryx. The quarry industry between Solnhofen and Eichstätt has shaped a cultural landscape, with old and new quarries sunk into the plain and numerous spoil heaps rising above it, for the rock is not all economically useful. But many of the spoil heaps and the old quarries are environmentally protected as they provide a habitat for some rare plants and animals. It is not necessary to cut the Solnhofen Limestone with a saw: it is split by hand into thin and even slabs or sheets which are used for flagstones and wall covers, which since centuries are sold world-wide. Locally it also serves as roof tiles for traditional houses. Thick slabs of especially fine quality may be found near Solnhofen and Mörnsheim and are used for lithography printing.

  10. Bottom of the heap: having heavier competitors accelerates early-life telomere loss in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Boner, Winnie; Gillespie, Robert; Bateson, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Early-life adversity is associated with poorer health and survival in adulthood in humans and other animals. One pathway by which early-life environmental stressors could affect the adult phenotype is via effects on telomere dynamics. Several studies have shown that early-life adversity is associated with relatively short telomeres, but these are often cross-sectional and usually correlational in design. Here, we present a novel experimental system for studying the relationship between early-life adversity and telomere dynamics using a wild bird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). We used cross-fostering to experimentally assign sibling chicks to either small or large broods for twelve days of the growth period. We measured telomere length in red blood cells using quantitative PCR near the beginning of the experimental manipulation (4 days old), at the end of the experimental manipulation (15 days old), and once the birds were independent (55 days old). Being in a larger brood slowed growth and retarded wing development and the timing of fledging. We found no evidence that overall brood size affected telomere dynamics. However, the greater the number of competitors above the focal bird in the within-brood size hierarchy, the greater was the telomere loss during the period of the experimental manipulation. The number of competitors below the focal in the hierarchy had no effect. The effect of heavier competitors was still evident when we controlled for the weight of the focal bird at the end of the manipulation, suggesting it was not due to retarded growth per se. Moreover, the impact of early competition on telomeres was still evident at independence, suggesting persistence beyond early life. Our study provides experimental support for the hypothesis that social stress, in this case induced by the presence of a greater number of dominant competitors, accelerates the rate of telomere loss.

  11. Bottom of the Heap: Having Heavier Competitors Accelerates Early-Life Telomere Loss in the European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Boner, Winnie; Gillespie, Robert; Bateson, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Early-life adversity is associated with poorer health and survival in adulthood in humans and other animals. One pathway by which early-life environmental stressors could affect the adult phenotype is via effects on telomere dynamics. Several studies have shown that early-life adversity is associated with relatively short telomeres, but these are often cross-sectional and usually correlational in design. Here, we present a novel experimental system for studying the relationship between early-life adversity and telomere dynamics using a wild bird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). We used cross-fostering to experimentally assign sibling chicks to either small or large broods for twelve days of the growth period. We measured telomere length in red blood cells using quantitative PCR near the beginning of the experimental manipulation (4 days old), at the end of the experimental manipulation (15 days old), and once the birds were independent (55 days old). Being in a larger brood slowed growth and retarded wing development and the timing of fledging. We found no evidence that overall brood size affected telomere dynamics. However, the greater the number of competitors above the focal bird in the within-brood size hierarchy, the greater was the telomere loss during the period of the experimental manipulation. The number of competitors below the focal in the hierarchy had no effect. The effect of heavier competitors was still evident when we controlled for the weight of the focal bird at the end of the manipulation, suggesting it was not due to retarded growth per se. Moreover, the impact of early competition on telomeres was still evident at independence, suggesting persistence beyond early life. Our study provides experimental support for the hypothesis that social stress, in this case induced by the presence of a greater number of dominant competitors, accelerates the rate of telomere loss. PMID:24386235

  12. Spectral two-dimensional inversion of frequency-domain induced polarization data from a mining slag heap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Thomas; Martin, Tina

    2016-12-01

    Abandoned mining waste dumps may become potential resources for mineral reuse. For evaluating such structures, their spatial extension, the mineral content and predominating grain size needs to be determined. Amongst geophysical prospection methods, induced polarization (IP) is particularly suited since ore minerals show significant polarization characteristics. From laboratory measurements it is known that there is a relation between mineral concentration and chargeability, whereas the frequency content is mainly dominated by grain size. Spectral IP (SIP) field data using a range of measuring frequencies can potentially map these quantities spatially. Instead of inverting the individual frequencies independently, we introduce a scheme where adjacent frequencies are constrained to each other. We test it using a synthetic model based on the Cole-Cole model with a body containing two parts of differing time constants. The inversion approach is able to reliably recover the Cole-Cole parameters. We apply the method to a field data set from a slag dump containing melting residuals from different minerals. The resulting models exhibit distinct zones of decreased conductivity and increased polarization that are not fully coincident. Furthermore, we observe a significant change in the spectral content. Taking into account recent laboratory investigations, the obtained chargeabilities hint to the occurrence of sufficient mineral concentration. In comparison with direct current resistivity, there is a clear benefit from using SIP field data in general and spectral analysis in particular.

  13. The impact of hardpans and cemented layers on oxygen diffusivity in mining waste heaps: diffusion experiments and modelling studies.

    PubMed

    Kohfahl, Claus; Graupner, Torsten; Fetzer, Christian; Holzbecher, Ekkehard; Pekdeger, Asaf

    2011-08-01

    This study reports column tests and modelling results to assess the impact of hardpans and cemented layers on oxygen supply in mine waste sediments. The analysed sediment samples were obtained from a low-sulphide and low-carbonate polymetallic mine waste tailings impoundment located in the Freiberg mining district in Germany. The three samples were characterised by different degrees and types of cementation. After physical and mineralogical properties of the samples had been determined, breakthrough curves of oxygen were measured in column studies at different degrees of water saturation, and the diffusivities were assessed using a numerical modelling approach. Results demonstrate that cemented layers and hardpans in undisturbed sediments associated with fine-grained material operate as preferential pathways for diffusive gas transport during rewetting, leading to higher oxygen diffusivities compared to disturbed sediments. Under air-dry conditions, the disturbed samples show higher diffusivities than the undisturbed sample, indicating clogging of the porosity by precipitation of secondary minerals such as trivalent Fe oxyhydroxides acting as a barrier and thereby decreasing the diffusivity of the undisturbed sample. In contrast to sediments without cementation, diffusion experiments of sediments with cemented layers used in this study yield similar tortuosities in spite of their different grain size distributions, pointing to the important role of these heterogeneities for gas diffusion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tolerance of Chrysantemum maximum to heavy metals: the potential for its use in the revegetation of tailings heaps.

    PubMed

    González-Chávez, M del Carmen A; Carrillo-González, Rogelio

    2013-02-01

    To find if ornamental plants are applicable to the remediation of metal-polluted areas, the tolerance of chrysanthemum plants (Chysanthemum maximum) var. Shasta to different metals under hydroponic conditions was studied. Their responses as influenced by the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd.) Gerdemann & Trappe BEG25 on substrates containing mine residues were also investigated. Our results showed that chrysanthemum is a metal-tolerant plant under hydroponic conditions, plants behaving as Pb-excluders, whereas Cd, Cu and Ni were accumulated in roots. Low accumulation in flowers was observed for Cd and Cu but it was concentration-dependent. Ni and Pb were not translocated to flowers. Shoot biomass was not significantly affected by the different rates of mine residue addition for both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal plants accumulated less Pb and Cu in both shoots and roots than non-mycorrhizal plants. Chysanthemum could be a prospective plant for revegetation of tailings and the use of inoculation may decrease plant metal accumulation in polluted soils.

  15. Violets of the section Melanium, their colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and their occurrence on heavy metal heaps.

    PubMed

    Słomka, A; Kuta, E; Szarek-Łukaszewska, G; Godzik, B; Kapusta, P; Tylko, G; Bothe, H

    2011-07-15

    Violets of the sections Melanium were examined for their colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Heartsease (Viola tricolor) from several heavy metal soils was AMF-positive at many sites but not at extreme biomes. The zinc violets Viola lutea ssp. westfalica (blue zinc violet) and ssp. calaminaria (yellow zinc violet) were always AMF-positive on heavy metal soils as their natural habitats. As shown for the blue form, zinc violets germinate independently of AMF and can be grown in non-polluted garden soils. Thus the zinc violets are obligatorily neither mycotrophs nor metalophytes. The alpine V. lutea, likely ancestor of the zinc violets, was at best poorly colonized by AMF. As determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, the contents of Zn and Pb were lower in AMF colonized plants than in the heavy metal soils from where the samples had been taken. AMF might prevent the uptake of toxic levels of heavy metals into the plant organs. Dithizone staining indicated a differential deposition of heavy metals in tissues of heartsease. Leaf hairs were particularly rich in heavy metals, indicating that part of the excess of heavy metals is sequestered into these cells.

  16. 30 CFR 77.1000 - Highwalls, pits and spoil banks; plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... developed after June 30, 1971, which shall be consistent with prudent engineering design and will insure safe working conditions. The mining methods employed by the operator shall be selected to insure...

  17. 'To the victor go the spoils': Infants expect resources to align with dominance structures.

    PubMed

    Enright, Elizabeth A; Gweon, Hyowon; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2017-03-24

    Previous research has found that within the first year of life infants possess rich knowledge about social structures (i.e., that some individuals are dominant over other individuals) as well as expectations about resource distributions (i.e., that resources are typically distributed equally to recipients). We investigated whether infants' expectations about resource distribution can be modulated by information about the dominance structure between the recipients. We first replicated the finding that infants attribute a stable dominance hierarchy to a pair of individuals when their goals conflicted and one individual yielded to the other (Expt. 1), and that this sensitivity is not driven by lower-level perceptual factors (Expt. 2). In Experiments 3-5, we tested our main hypothesis that infants' attention to equal and unequal distributions varies as a function of prior social dominance information. We first replicated and extended prior work by establishing that infants looked significantly longer to unequal than equal resource distributions when no prior information about dominance was provided about recipients (Expt. 3). Critically, following social dominance information, infants looked significantly longer to an equal distribution of resources than a distribution that favored the dominant individual (Expt. 4), and looked significantly longer when the submissive individual received more resources compared to when the dominant individual received more resources (Expts. 4 and 5). Together, these findings suggest that infants expect resources to align with social dominance structures.

  18. Characterization of butter spoiling yeasts and their inhibition by some spices.

    PubMed

    Sagdic, Osman; Ozturk, Ismet; Bayram, Okan; Kesmen, Zulal; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the yeasts in packaged and unpackaged butters and screen antiyeast activity of spices, including marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), and black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) against the most dominant yeast species in the packaged and unpackaged butters. Mean total yeast populations were 5.40 log CFU/g in unpackaged butter samples and 2.22 log CFU/g in packaged butter samples, indicating better hygienic quality of packaged samples. Forty-nine yeast species were isolated and identified from butter samples with the most prevalent isolates belonging to genera Candida-C. kefyr, C. zeylanoides, and C. lambica-and with moderate number of isolates belonging to genera Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces. Black cumin exhibited the highest antiyeast activity against C. zeylanoides and C. lambica species, even inhibited these species, while summer savory inhibited C. kefyr. The results of this study revealed clear antimicrobial potential of black cumin against the yeast species isolated from butters. Marjoram, summer savory, and black cumin could be used as natural antimicrobial agents against spoilage yeasts in food preservation, especially in butter.

  19. Soil health, crop productivity, microbial transport, and mine spoil response to biochars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biochar is being evaluated by scientists from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) for its potential to sequester soil C, to improve soil health, and to increase crop yields. ARS scientists from multiple locations such as Florence, SC, Kimberly, ID,...

  20. A good walk spoiled: on the disappearance of golf as an active sport in America.

    PubMed

    Puterbaugh, James S

    2011-07-01

    During the past 60 years, there has been a major transition in the way golf is played in America. Its potential as exercise largely has been negated by the increase in motorized golf cart usage to approximately two of every three rounds played in this country. Accidents in golf carts have increased rapidly, which, by making the sport more dangerous, will likely bring future regulations. Consequently, playing golf has gradually become more of a public health threat than a benefit. The motorized cart also has resulted in an almost doubling of the size of golf courses, which now occupy a large amount of the built environment designated for activity. These changes are a major loss to society, portend future problems, and call for the sport to reevaluate its current model.

  1. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 7th Grade - Spoil Island Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with secondary students in grade seven prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  2. Seedling growth and heavy metal accumulation of candidate woody species for revegetating Korean mine spoils

    Treesearch

    Kyung Won Seo; Yowhan Son; Charles C. Rhoades; Nam Jin Noh; Jin Woo Koo; Jeong-Gyu Kim

    2008-01-01

    Selecting plant species that can overcome harsh soil and microclimatic conditions and speed the recovery of degraded minelands remains a worldwide restoration challenge. This study evaluated the potential of three woody species and various organic and inorganic fertilization treatments for revegetating abandoned metalliferous mines in Korea. We compared survival,...

  3. Direct-seeding of commercial trees on surface-mine spoil. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, D.H.; Carpenter, S.B.; Wittwer, R.F.

    1980-04-01

    Two small-seeded species, Paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), and European alder (Alnus glutinosa) and three large seeded species, northern red oak (Quercus rubra), pin oak (Quercus palustris), and bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) were direct-seeded on three aspects on minesoil in eastern Kentucky. Treatments included four mulch applications--water-borne fiber mulch, hardwood bark, bark and manure, and composted municipal waste; and two fertilizer applications. Growth and survival were evaluated during two consecutive growing seasons.

  4. Vegetative responses under different soil amending mulches on western Kentucky strip mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Vail, J.A.; Koon, D.L.

    1980-12-01

    In May of 1979, eleven test plots were established to test the effectiveness of mulch and grass and legume mixtures. Test plots of hardwood bark, whole tree chips, straw, hay, five wood fiber products, one soil sealant and a control were established with five grass and legume seed mixtures. Bark and whole tree chips were applied at 45 ton/a, straw and hay at 1 1/2 ton/a, five wood fiber products at 1500 pound/a and the soil sealant at 5 gal/a. Seed mixtures were about 40 pounds/a. Bark and whole tree chips were found to promote the best total ground cover. Bark was also found to promote the best legume cover. Hay promoted the best grass cover. The best seed mixture consisted of 15 pounds/a KY-31 tall fescue, 8 pounds/a Gladiator Alfalfa, 6 pounds/a hulled Korean Lespedeza, 3 pounds/a Timfor Timothy and 6 pounds/a of Medium Red Clover. In general, the wood fiber products did not develop a better grass-legume stand than the control. The soil sealant was generally worse than the control.

  5. Application of bacteriophages in post-harvest control of human pathogenic and food spoiling bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas López, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    Bacteriophages have attracted great attention for application in food biopreservation. Lytic bacteriophages specific for human pathogenic bacteria can be isolated from natural sources such as animal feces or industrial wastes where the target bacteria inhabit. Lytic bacteriophages have been tested in different food systems for inactivation of main food-borne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni and Cronobacter sakazkii, and also for control of spoilage bacteria. Application of lytic bacteriophages could selectively control host populations of concern without interfering with the remaining food microbiota. Bacteriophages could also be applied for inactivation of bacteria attached to food contact surfaces or grown as biofilms. Bacteriophages may receive a generally recognized as safe status based on their lack of toxicity and other detrimental effects to human health. Phage preparations specific for L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica serotypes have been commercialized and approved for application in foods or as part of surface decontamination protocols. Phage endolysins have a broader host specificity compared to lytic bacteriophages. Cloned endolysins could be used as natural preservatives, singly or in combination with other antimicrobials such as bacteriocins.

  6. Molecular identification of species from the Penicillium roqueforti group associated with spoiled animal feed.

    PubMed

    Boysen, M E; Jacobsson, K G; Schnürer, J

    2000-04-01

    The Penicillium roqueforti group has recently been split into three species, P. roqueforti, Penicillium carneum, and Penicillium paneum, on the basis of differences in ribosomal DNA sequences and secondary metabolite profiles. We reevaluated the taxonomic identity of 52 livestock feed isolates from Sweden, previously identified by morphology as P. roqueforti, by comparing the sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. Identities were confirmed with random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and secondary metabolite profiles. Of these isolates, 48 were P. roqueforti, 2 were P. paneum, and 2 were Penicillium expansum. No P. carneum isolates were found. The three species produce different mycotoxins, but no obvious relationship between mold and animal disease was detected, based on medical records. P. roqueforti appears to dominate in silage, but the ecological and toxicological importance of P. carneum and P. paneum as feed spoilage fungi is not clear. This is the first report of P. expansum in silage.

  7. Q spoiling in deformed optical microdisks due to resonance-assisted tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullig, Julius; Wiersig, Jan

    2016-08-01

    A recent experiment by Kwak et al. [Sci. Rep. 5, 9010 (2015), 10.1038/srep09010] demonstrated the relevance of resonance-assisted tunneling for optical microcavities where resonance chains emerge in phase space due to boundary deformations. In this paper we adapt the perturbative description of resonance-assisted tunneling to calculate optical modes and the imaginary part of their complex wavenumber which determines the lifetime of the mode. We demonstrate our method at three example cavity shapes and compare our results to numerical data and perturbation theory for weakly deformed microdisk cavities.

  8. Sharing out NASA's spoils. [economic benefits of U.S. space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezdek, Roger H.; Wendling, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    The economic benefits of NASA programs are discussed. Emphasis is given to an analysis of indirect economic benefits which estimates the effect of NASA programs on employment, personal income, corporate sales and profits, and government tax revenues in the U.S. and in each state. Data are presented that show that NASA programs have widely varying multipliers by industry and that illustrate the distribution of jobs by industry as well as the distribution of sales.

  9. Jeopardizing Christmas: Why spoiled kids and a tight schedule could make Santa Claus fall?

    PubMed

    Donath, L; Roth, R; Lichtenstein, E; Elliot, C; Zahner, L; Faude, O

    2015-03-01

    Santa Claus' spatio-temporal gait characteristics, ground reaction forces during treadmill walking as well as postural sway during loaded, unloaded and cognitive interference tasks were examined in order to estimate his fall risk. Seventeen healthy males, disguised as researchers and students (age: 30±10 years; height: 179±6 years; weight: 76±7kg; BMI: 24±2kg/m(2); physical activity: 12±4h/week) and who still believe in Santa Claus randomly underwent balance and gait analyses with and without cognitive interference. The conditions were to be dressed as "Santa Claus" (wearing costume consisting of a beard, cap, robe, heavy sack with a load of 20kg) or dressed in "normal clothing" (no costume). Spatiotemporal gait parameters (walking velocity, gait variability and stride time, length and width), ground reaction forces (GRF) (left- and right-sided heel strike and push off) and postural sway (30s tandem stance on a force plate) were measured. "Santa-effects" (0.001

  10. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... controlled manner to— (1) Minimize the adverse effects of leachate and surface water runoff from the fill on... and ground water in accordance with § 816.41, to prevent sustained combustion, and to minimize adverse... area contains springs, natural or manmade water courses, or wet weather seeps, the fill design...

  11. Relocation of on-site spoils pile materials at the Linde Fusrap Site

    SciTech Connect

    Schwippert, M.T.; Boyle, J.D.; Bousquet, S.M.

    2007-07-01

    During the 1940's, the Linde Division of Union Carbide used portions of their property in Tonawanda, New York for processing uranium ores under Federal Manhattan Engineering District (MED) contracts. These activities resulted in radiological contamination on portions of the property. The radionuclides of concern at the site are Radium, Thorium, and Uranium. The site is currently owned and operated by Praxair Inc., an industrial gas company. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) issued a Record of Decision to remediate the radiologically-contaminated materials associated with MED activities in March 2000 under the authority of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The selected remedy is fully protective of human health and the environment and complies with Federal and State requirements that are legally applicable or relevant and appropriate and meets community commitments. The USACE - Buffalo District has been executing remedial activities at the site and has successfully addressed many challenges in a safe and cost effective manner through effective coordination, project management, and partnering with stakeholders. These efforts supported the successful relocation of approximately 29,000 cubic yards of stockpiled material (soils, concrete, steel, asphalt and miscellaneous non-soil) that had been generated by the property owner as a result of ongoing development of the facility. Relocation of the material was necessary to allow safe access to the surface and subsurface soils beneath the pile for sampling and analysis. During relocation operations, materials were evaluated for the presence of radiological contamination. The vast majority of material was relocated onsite and remained the property owner's responsibility. A small portion of the material required off-site disposal at a permitted disposal facility due to radiological contamination that exceeded site criteria. This paper presents details associated with the successful resolution of responsibility concerns associated with a large stockpile of materials accumulated over many years by the property owner. A cost effective approach and partnership was developed to allow for real time radiological characterization and material dispositions by the government and satisfying chemical concerns presented by State regulators. These actions resulted in onsite relocation and responsible transfer of the materials to the property owner for beneficial reuse resulting in significant project cost savings. (authors)

  12. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... technology currently available. (b) Static safety factor. The fill must be designed and constructed to attain a minimum long-term static safety factor of 1.5. The foundation and abutments of the fill must be... nondurable material. Perforated pipe underdrains shall be corrosion resistant and shall have...

  13. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. (b) Static safety factor. The fill must be designed and constructed to attain a minimum long-term static safety factor of 1.5. The foundation and abutments of the fill must be... nondurable material. Perforated pipe underdrains shall be corrosion resistant and shall have...

  14. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... technology currently available. (b) Static safety factor. The fill must be designed and constructed to attain a minimum long-term static safety factor of 1.5. The foundation and abutments of the fill must be... nondurable material. Perforated pipe underdrains shall be corrosion resistant and shall have...

  15. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... technology currently available. (b) Static safety factor. The fill must be designed and constructed to attain a minimum long-term static safety factor of 1.5. The foundation and abutments of the fill must be... nondurable material. Perforated pipe underdrains shall be corrosion resistant and shall have...

  16. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... technology currently available. (b) Static safety factor. The fill must be designed and constructed to attain a minimum long-term static safety factor of 1.5. The foundation and abutments of the fill must be... nondurable material. Perforated pipe underdrains shall be corrosion resistant and shall have...

  17. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... technology currently available. (b) Static safety factor. The fill must be designed and constructed to attain a minimum long-term static safety factor of 1.5. The foundation and abutments of the fill must be... nondurable material. Perforated pipe underdrains shall be corrosion resistant and shall have...

  18. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... technology currently available. (b) Static safety factor. The fill must be designed and constructed to attain a minimum long-term static safety factor of 1.5. The foundation and abutments of the fill must be... nondurable material. Perforated pipe underdrains shall be corrosion resistant and shall have...

  19. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... technology currently available. (b) Static safety factor. The fill must be designed and constructed to attain a minimum long-term static safety factor of 1.5. The foundation and abutments of the fill must be... nondurable material. Perforated pipe underdrains shall be corrosion resistant and shall have...

  20. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be backfilled and graded to— (1) Achieve the most moderate slope possible which does not exceed the... underdrains as necessary to control erosion, prevent water infiltration into the fill, and ensure stability..., concurrently compacted as necessary to ensure mass stability and to prevent mass movement, and graded to allow...

  1. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... such that the final slope after settlement will be toward properly designed drainage channels.... The maximum slope of the top of the fill shall be 33h:1v (3 percent). A drainage pocket may be... the runoff through or over the rock drain, if stability of the fill is not impaired. In no case shall...

  2. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be backfilled and graded to— (1) Achieve the most moderate slope possible which does not exceed the... underdrains as necessary to control erosion, prevent water infiltration into the fill, and ensure stability..., concurrently compacted as necessary to ensure mass stability and to prevent mass movement, and graded to allow...

  3. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... such that the final slope after settlement will be toward properly designed drainage channels... slope of the top of the fill shall be 33h:lv (3 percent). A drainage pocket may be maintained at the... through or over the rock drain, if stability of the fill is not impaired. In no case shall this pocket or...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1000 - Highwalls, pits and spoil banks; plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND... developed after June 30, 1971, which shall be consistent with prudent engineering design and will insure...

  5. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 817.74 Section 817.74 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... this part. (c) The fill shall be designed and constructed using current, prudent engineering practices... surface and subsurface drainage to be compatible with the natural surroundings and to ensure a minimum...

  6. How to spoil a good basis set for Rayleigh-Ritz calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Pupyshev, Vladimir I.; Montgomery, H. E. Jr.

    2013-08-15

    For model quantum mechanical systems such as the harmonic oscillator and a particle in an impenetrable box, we consider the set of exact discrete spectrum functions and define the modified basis set by subtraction of the ground state wavefunction from all the other wavefunctions with some real weights. It is demonstrated that the modified set of functions is complete in the space of square integrable functions if and only if the series of the squared weights diverges. A similar, but nonequivalent criterion is derived for convergence of Rayleigh-Ritz ground state energy calculations to the exact ground state energy value with the basis set extension. Some numerical illustrations are provided which demonstrate a wide variety of possible situations for model systems.

  7. Will nonlinear peculiar velocity and inhomogeneous reionization spoil 21 cm cosmology from the epoch of reionization?

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Paul R; Mao, Yi; Iliev, Ilian T; Mellema, Garrelt; Datta, Kanan K; Ahn, Kyungjin; Koda, Jun

    2013-04-12

    The 21 cm background from the epoch of reionization is a promising cosmological probe: line-of-sight velocity fluctuations distort redshift, so brightness fluctuations in Fourier space depend upon angle, which linear theory shows can separate cosmological from astrophysical information. Nonlinear fluctuations in ionization, density, and velocity change this, however. The validity and accuracy of the separation scheme are tested here for the first time, by detailed reionization simulations. The scheme works reasonably well early in reionization (≲40% ionized), but not late (≳80% ionized).

  8. Salt tracer experiments in wetland ponds: will density stratification spoil the outcome?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Bernhard H.; Hengl, Michael A.

    2017-04-01

    Wetland ponds are among the treatment options for peatland flows prior to their discharge into a receiving ambient water course or water body. The removal efficiency and effectiveness of wetland ponds (free water surface or FWS wetlands) is considered to be strongly related to the residence time or travel time distribution in the pond, with a narrow distribution (close to plug flow) being preferable to a wider one. This travel time distribution is, in turn, reflected by a breakthrough curve of an ideal tracer injected instantaneously into the flow (entering the wetland). As the term 'ideal tracer' suggests, such a substance, in real world cases, does not exist and can, at best, be approximated by a real tracer. Among the tracer groups in most widespread use, salt has the advantage of low cost, straightforward detection and analysis as well as low related environmental risk. In contrast, use of radioactive artificial tracers may meet with resistance from authorities and public, and fluorescent dyes are not necessarily devoid of problems, either (as recently discovered, there are two structural isomers of Rhodamin WT, the mixture of which may compromise the validity of breakthrough data analyses). From previous work by the authors it is known that density stratification may result from the injection of a salt tracer into a low Reynolds number free surface flow, which is a frequent characteristic of wetland ponds. As the formation of density layers in the course of a tracer experiment is highly undesirable, it may be useful to judge prior to beginning of the field work, if stratification is to be expected (and the experimental design should, consequently, be adapted suitably). The current work reported here employs an energy argument to extend existing criteria for density stratification in turbulent free surface flows. Vertical mixing is assumed to be sustained by a fraction of the frictional energy loss (expressed by Manning's law, but this can easily be adapted to other friction laws such as Darcy-Weisbach's). Experimental data obtained by the authors in the course of the PRIMROSE project (Contract no. EVK1-CT-2000-00065) were used to calibrate the criterion with respect to the actual percentage of the friction loss that fuels the vertical mixing. The distance x (m) needed for (full) vertical mixing of the salt tracer (NaCl or KBr) is finally derived as: C0 ṡ(0.802- 0.002ṡTw) ṡh R4h/3 x =----0.0694-ṡρw----ṡ(n-ṡu)2 (1) with C = -M0-- 0 Q ṡΔt0 (2) and M0 the tracer mass (g), Q the flow rate (m3/s), Δt0 the injection pulse duration (s), Rh (m) the hydraulic radius (= flow cross-sectional area divided by wetted perimeter), Tw the water temperature (˚ C), ρw water mass density (g/m3), Manning's n in SI-units (s/m1/3) and cross-sectionally averaged flow velocity u (m/s). Tracer concentration C0, as obtained from Eq.(2), is to be expressed in mg/l or g/m3 for use in Eq.(1).

  9. 'It's part of the job, but it spoils the job': a phenomenological study of physical restraint.

    PubMed

    Bigwood, Stuart; Crowe, Marie

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines mental health nurses' experiences of physical restraint in an acute inpatient psychiatric setting using Van Manen's descriptive hermeneutic phenomenological methodology. The aim was to understand the nurses' experiences of physical restraint. One overarching theme emerged from the analysis: It's part of the job. This theme had a subtheme of Control which was constituted by the Conflicted Nurse and the Scared Nurse. The findings suggest that mental health nurses are very uncomfortable with physical restraint despite it being taken-for-granted as integral to their role. The nurses experienced conflict and fear associated with the procedure and would prefer to utilize other de-escalation skills if it was possible. The main source of conflict related to the imperative to maintain control and the professional values of the therapeutic relationship. While the nurses could see no viable alternative in some situations, the paper concludes that while environmental issues impact on the practice of physical restraint mental health nurses need to practice it with as much care and humanity as possible.

  10. The Electronic "Scarlet Letter": Criminal Backgrounding and a Perpetual Spoiled Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Daniel S.; Fuleihan, Brian; Richards, Stephen C.; Jones, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Crimes are multifaceted events that are not adequately explained with basic descriptors, yet a considerable amount of significance is afforded to relatively few simplistic labels that make up the contemporary "scarlet letter." Today's criminal records create a lifetime of stigmatization for a person. These public records employ a limited range of…

  11. Black Walnut on Kansas Strip Mine Spoils: Some Observations 25 Years after Pruning

    Treesearch

    Alex L. Shigo; Nelson F. Rogers; E. Allen, Jr. McGinnes; David T. Funk

    1978-01-01

    Dissections of 14 slow-growing black walnut trees on a strip-mine site revealed that bands of discolored heartwood were associated with pruned and nonpruned branch stubs. Ring shakes were associated with a few pruned and nonpruned stubs, especially with groups of stubs at the same position on the stem. The advantage of early pruning was that even the defects that...

  12. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., natural or manmade water courses, or wet weather seeps, the fill design shall include diversions and... the backfill must be compatible with the natural drainage patterns and the surrounding area,...

  13. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., natural or manmade water courses, or wet weather seeps, the fill design shall include diversions and... the backfill must be compatible with the natural drainage patterns and the surrounding area,...

  14. Loving without Spoiling: And 100 Other Timeless Tips for Raising Terrific Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samalin, Nancy

    Noting that raising well-behaved, considerate children requires learning how to balance firm discipline with equal doses of love and humor, this book provides parents with effective and realistic solutions to countless parenting challenges. The strategies are organized into the following categories: (1) "Avoid Power Struggles"; (2) "Minimize Daily…

  15. Spoiled Group Identities and Backstage Work: A Theory of Stigma Management Rehearsals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, John

    2011-01-01

    How do persons with a stigmatized identity learn potential responses to discrimination and harassment? Drawing on three and a half years of ethnographic data, this paper demonstrates how members of a group of Muslim American youth are socialized in locally dominant stigma management strategies through stigma management rehearsals. Stigma…

  16. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consistent with the long-term life of the fill. (g) Surface area stabilization. Slope protection shall be... professional engineer or specialist shall be experienced in the construction of earth and rock fills. (1) Such...

  17. Hybrid poplar grows poorly on acid spoil banks at high elevations in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    George R., Jr. Trimble

    1963-01-01

    In the early 1950s, a region-wide series of hybrid poplar clonal tests was begun in the Northeast to evaluate the performance of 50 selected clones under a variety of site and climatic conditions. The basic test unit was a block of 50 randomized plots-1 plot for each of the 50 clones. In each plot, 16 cuttings were planted at 4-foot spacing.

  18. Developmental strategies for sustainable ecosystem on mine spoil dumps: a case of study.

    PubMed

    Juwarkar, Asha A; Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Thawale, P R; Kumar, P; Singh, S K; Chakrabarti, T

    2009-10-01

    An important goal of ecological rehabilitation is to accelerate natural successional processes to increase biological productivity, soil fertility and biotic control over biogeochemical fluxes within the recovering ecosystems. A new approach called Microbe Assisted Green Technology (MAGT) is an integrated biotechnological approach developed at National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) through exhaustive laboratory as well as field studies and serve as a model for land reclamation and development of lush green vegetation on mine overburdens. One year old seedlings of native tree species were planted on 6.3 ha area of manganese mine overburden at Gumgaon under Manganese Ore India Ltd., Maharashtra, India. Continuous efforts resulted in nutrient rich soil with high N, P, K and organic carbon; well developed biodiversity, including bacteria, fungi, higher plants (more than 350 species) and different classes of animals. Planted trees accumulated 698 t ha( - 1) above ground biomass and 143 t ha( - 1) below ground mass. This was achieved in 18 years by MAGT, which otherwise takes hundreds of years.

  19. Impact of biochar amendment on enzymatic resilience properties of mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shilpi; Mishra, Disha; Khare, Puja; Yadav, Vineet; Deshmukh, Y; Meena, Abha

    2016-02-15

    Soil enzymes are crucial for soil nutrient cycling function. Understanding of the factors that control their response to major disturbances such as dumping of environmentally toxic acidic waste remains limited. We evaluated the effect of dumping of overburden (OB) and their amendments using biochar, on the resistance and resilience of soil enzyme activities involved in phosphorus, nitrogen, sulphur and carbon cycling (acid & alkaline phosphatase, urease, arylsulphatase, dehydrogenase, phenol oxidases, cellulase and β-glucosidase). For investigation the soils treated with OB and with the mixture of OB and biochar were used for the cultivation of bacopa were used. We assessed 0 day, 45 day and 90 days activities of the target soil enzymes, available phosphorus, nitrogen, sulphur, soil organic carbon and microbial identification. The resilience and resistance index of all the treatments were calculated. We found that phyto-remediated OB-contaminated soil has its own resilience power. However, biochar addition enhanced the enzyme resistance and resilience of OB contaminated soil. In silico study indicates that biochar-Fe complex play a significant role in enzymatic activities. Overall, the results indicate a significant influence of phytoremediation and biochar addition on soil enzymatic activity that is extremely resistant to OB. This study provides insight on how biochar addition modulates soil biochemical and microbiological response to OB affected soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Q spoiling in deformed optical microdisks due to resonance-assisted tunneling.

    PubMed

    Kullig, Julius; Wiersig, Jan

    2016-08-01

    A recent experiment by Kwak et al. [Sci. Rep. 5, 9010 (2015)10.1038/srep09010] demonstrated the relevance of resonance-assisted tunneling for optical microcavities where resonance chains emerge in phase space due to boundary deformations. In this paper we adapt the perturbative description of resonance-assisted tunneling to calculate optical modes and the imaginary part of their complex wavenumber which determines the lifetime of the mode. We demonstrate our method at three example cavity shapes and compare our results to numerical data and perturbation theory for weakly deformed microdisk cavities.

  1. The Electronic "Scarlet Letter": Criminal Backgrounding and a Perpetual Spoiled Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Daniel S.; Fuleihan, Brian; Richards, Stephen C.; Jones, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Crimes are multifaceted events that are not adequately explained with basic descriptors, yet a considerable amount of significance is afforded to relatively few simplistic labels that make up the contemporary "scarlet letter." Today's criminal records create a lifetime of stigmatization for a person. These public records employ a limited range of…

  2. "Spare the Rod and Spoil the Child?" The Law and Corporal Punishment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of corporal punishment may be as old as society itself. However, the development of compulsory attendance laws has raised questions about its legality. Under compulsory attendance laws and subject to exceptions for home schooling and nonpublic schools, parents must send their children to public schools or be subject to sanctions. Conflicts…

  3. To the Victors Belong the Spoils? College Athletics and Alumni Giving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker, George W.; Klastorin, T. D.

    1981-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between athletic success and alumni contributions at 58 major U.S. universities. Football and basketball records over 10 years were correlated with the average contributions from each solicited alumnus and the per capita gifts to annual funds. Team successes in both sports correlated highly with alumni generosity. (AM)

  4. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Uncontrolled surface drainage may not be directed over the outslope of the fill. (2) Runoff from areas above the fill and runoff from the surface of the fill shall be diverted into stabilized diversion channels designed to meet the requirements of § 817.43 and to safely pass the runoff from a 100-year,...

  5. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Uncontrolled surface drainage may not be directed over the outslope of the fill. (2) Runoff from areas above the fill and runoff from the surface of the fill shall be diverted into stabilized diversion channels designed to meet the requirements of § 816.43 and, in addition, to safely pass the runoff from a...

  6. Spoiling and sustainability: technology, water insecurity, and visibility in Arctic Alaska.

    PubMed

    Eichelberger, Laura

    2014-01-01

    One third of households in Alaska Native villages lack running water and sewer services. Historically, this public health need drove policies to improve access to treated water and sanitation. However, despite public health being a stated priority of water infrastructure development, current policies require demonstrated economic sustainability in ways that render suffering from water insecurity invisible. In this article, I situate the introduction of water treatment technologies within the history of domination coproduced with vulnerability. These processes are reflected in local narratives describing the relationships between technology, tradition, and suffering. By drawing attention to the role of the state in creating vulnerability, village leaders are trying to historicize and insert their health concerns into the sustainability conversation using narratives that both fit within and challenge the ideology of sustainability. These narratives are thus central to Iñupiat struggles for visibility.

  7. Long Range Spoil Disposal Study. Part I. General Data for the Delaware River,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-01-01

    Horseshoe Range (west side) 40 400-500 Allegheny Ave., Phila. - W. Horseshoe Range (east side) 37 500-600 W. Horseshoe Range - Bombay Hook Pt. 40 800 Bombay...Authorized Anchorage 13,650 2,300 8 Thompson Point Tinicumlsland E side of Channel 3,400 700-1300 betw Crab Pt & Monds Island 9 Mantua Creek Mifflin Bar...Authorized Anchorage 11,500 2,300 10 Naval Base W Horseshoe W side of Channel 2,600 12-1500 (League Island) 11 Gloucester E Horseshoe Authorized

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Clostridium estertheticum DSM 8809, a Microbe Identified in Spoiled Vacuum Packed Beef

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhongyi; Gunn, Lynda; Brennan, Evan; Reid, Rachael; Wall, Patrick G.; Gaora, Peadar Ó.; Hurley, Daniel; Bolton, Declan; Fanning, Séamus

    2016-01-01

    Blown pack spoilage (BPS) is a major issue for the beef industry. Etiological agents of BPS involve members of a group of Clostridium species, including Clostridium estertheticum which has the ability to produce gas, mostly carbon dioxide, under anaerobic psychotrophic growth conditions. This spore-forming bacterium grows slowly under laboratory conditions, and it can take up to 3 months to produce a workable culture. These characteristics have limited the study of this commercially challenging bacterium. Consequently information on this bacterium is limited and no effective controls are currently available to confidently detect and manage this production risk. In this study the complete genome of C. estertheticum DSM 8809 was determined by SMRT® sequencing. The genome consists of a circular chromosome of 4.7 Mbp along with a single plasmid carrying a potential tellurite resistance gene tehB and a Tn3-like resolvase-encoding gene tnpR. The genome sequence was searched for central metabolic pathways that would support its biochemical profile and several enzymes contributing to this phenotype were identified. Several putative antibiotic/biocide/metal resistance-encoding genes and virulence factors were also identified in the genome, a feature that requires further research. The availability of the genome sequence will provide a basic blueprint from which to develop valuable biomarkers that could support and improve the detection and control of this bacterium along the beef production chain. PMID:27891116

  9. Spoiled Group Identities and Backstage Work: A Theory of Stigma Management Rehearsals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, John

    2011-01-01

    How do persons with a stigmatized identity learn potential responses to discrimination and harassment? Drawing on three and a half years of ethnographic data, this paper demonstrates how members of a group of Muslim American youth are socialized in locally dominant stigma management strategies through stigma management rehearsals. Stigma…

  10. Coal-mine spoil banks offer good potential for timber and wildlife production

    Treesearch

    Grant Davis; Walter H. Davidson

    1968-01-01

    More than 300,000 acres have been strip-mined for coal in the Anthracite and Bituminous Regions of Pennsylvania—most of this since World War II. And an additional 10,000 to 15,000 acres are strip-mined each year. Since 1945 coal operators have been required to revegetate the areas disturbed by mining. Although the primary purpose of revegetation is to provide permanent...

  11. Sharing out NASA's spoils. [economic benefits of U.S. space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezdek, Roger H.; Wendling, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    The economic benefits of NASA programs are discussed. Emphasis is given to an analysis of indirect economic benefits which estimates the effect of NASA programs on employment, personal income, corporate sales and profits, and government tax revenues in the U.S. and in each state. Data are presented that show that NASA programs have widely varying multipliers by industry and that illustrate the distribution of jobs by industry as well as the distribution of sales.

  12. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... precipitation event. (b) Rock-core chimney drains. A rock-core chimney drain may be used in a head-of-hollow... not located in an area containing intermittent or perennial streams. A rock-core chimney drain may be... is diverted around the fill. The alternative rock-core chimney drain system shall be incorporated...

  13. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... precipitation event. (b) Rock-core chimney drains. A rock-core chimney drain may be used in a head-of-hollow... not located in an area containing intermittent or perennial streams. A rock-core chimney drain may be... is diverted around the fill. The alternative rock-core chimney drain system shall be incorporated...

  14. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 6-hour precipitation event. (b) Rock-core chimney drains. A rock-core chimney drain may be used in a... as the fill is not located in an area containing intermittent or perennial streams. A rock-core... upstream drainage is diverted around the fill. The alternative rock-core chimney drain system shall be...

  15. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 6-hour precipitation event. (b) Rock-core chimney drains. A rock-core chimney drain may be used in a... as the fill is not located in an area containing intermittent or perennial streams. A rock-core... upstream drainage is diverted around the fill. The alternative rock-core chimney drain system shall be...

  16. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... into the design and construction of the fill as follows: (1) The fill shall have, along the vertical... and from seeps and springs in the foundation of the disposal area. Rocks used in the rock core and... head of the fill during and after construction, to intercept surface runoff and discharge the...

  17. Effects of mycorrhizae and other soil microbes on revegetation of heavy metal contaminated mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Shetty, K G; Hetrick, B A; Figge, D A; Schwab, A P

    1994-01-01

    The effects of mycorrhizal fungi and other soil microorganisms on growth of two grasses, Andropogon gerardii Vitm. and Festuca arundinacea Schreb., in heavy metal-contaminated soil and mine tailings were investigated. A. gerardii is highly dependent on mycorrhizal fungi in native prairie, while F. arundinacea is a facultative mycotroph and relies on mycorrhizal symbiosis only in extremely infertile soils. Regardless of microbial amendments, neither plant species was able to establish and grow in the mine tailings. Both plant species grew in the moderately contaminated or non-contaminated soils, although A. gerardii grew in these soils only when mycorrhizal. Other soil microbes significantly improved growth of A. gerardii only in uncontaminated soil, but to a lesser extent than mycorrhizae. Although F. arundinacea was more highly colonized by mycorrhizal fungi than A. gerardii, neither microbial amendment affected growth of fescue in any soil. In several treatments mycorrhizal fungi adapted to uncontaminated soil stimulated plant growth more than mycorrhizae adapted to the moderately contaminated soil. However, mycorrhizal fungi adapted to contaminated soil did not increase the productivity of plant growth in contaminated soil more than fungi adapted to uncontaminated soil. A. gerardii plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi retained more Zn in roots than in shoots, confirming earlier reports that mycorrhizal fungi alter the translocation pattern of heavy metals in host plants. In contrast, mycorrhizae did not affect translocation patterns in F. arundinaceae, suggesting that the mycorrhizal dependence of a plant species is correlated with the retention of metals in roots. The correlation between mycorrhizal dependence of a plant species and mycorrhizal alteration of translocation pattern may also explain the inconsistent reports of mycorrhizal effects on translocation of heavy metals in plants. Plant response to mycorrhizal symbiosis may therefore provide a useful criterion for the selection of the plant species to be used in revegetation of contaminated sites.

  18. Succession of insects on unreclaimed coal strip mine spoil banks in Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Selected sites at a western Indiana unreclaimed coal strip mine and adjacent undisturbed area sampled by Munsee in 1964 were restudied in 1981. Slope and exposure, soil pH and texture, vegetation and tree tallies, on-site rainfall and local weather records were used to characterize 18 spoilbanks and two unmined sites. Surface-active arthropods were sampled by replicated pitfall taps the summer of 1981 at the same locations and dates trapped by Munsee in 1964. Plant cover was sampled by a modified point-contact method. Trees over one inch dbh were tallied and measured for basal area. Clustering by similarity based on chi-square differences was performed for plants, trees, ants, springtails and ground beetles, using the undisturbed forest and a highly acid un-revegetated mined site as the extremes. Soil pH and texture changed rapidly on one moist spoilbank. Soil moisture levels generally decreased between 1964 and 1981 and depth of water penetration generally increased. Ant, springtail and carabid populations changed on revegetating sites. Myrmica spatulata and Smithistruma clypeata were major new ants on the sites in 1981. Iridomyrmex pruinosus analis and Pheidole bicarinata characteristic of barren spoilbanks in 1964 survived on only one remaining barren site in 1981. The collembolan Entomobrya quadrilineata decreased while Hypogastrura denticulata increased on the revegetating sites. Known habitat preference of some of these insects matched their occurrence on the spoilbanks.

  19. Legacy soil contamination at abandoned mine sites: making a case for guidance on soil protection.

    PubMed

    Kostarelos, Konstantinos; Gavriel, Ifigenia; Stylianou, Marinos; Zissimos, Andreas M; Morisseau, Eleni; Dermatas, Dimitris

    2015-03-01

    Within the European Union, guidance in the form of a uniform Soil Directive does not exist and member states are left to enact their own legislation governing historic soil contamination. Several historic or "legacy" sites exist in Cyprus - an EU member state with a long history of mining and a significant number of abandoned mining sites. The gold-silver enrichment plant of Mitsero village was abandoned 70 years ago, yet soil samples inside and outside the plant were extremely low in pH, exhibited high leachability of heavy metals and high cyanide levels. Water samples collected from an ephemeral stream located down-gradient of the site contained high levels of heavy metals. Two abandoned open-pit mines (Kokkinopezoula and Mathiatis) were investigated, where elevated metal content in soil samples from the surrounding streams and spoil heaps, and extremely low pH and high metal content in water samples from the mine crater were measured.

  20. Linking heavy metal bioavailability (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) in Scots pine needles to soil properties in reclaimed mine areas.

    PubMed

    Pietrzykowski, Marcin; Socha, Jarosław; van Doorn, Natalie S

    2014-02-01

    This work deals with bioaccumulation of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in foliage of Scots pine, grown on mine soils. Regression models were used to describe relationships between pine elements bioavailability and biological (dehydrogenase activity) and physico-chemical properties of mine soils developed at different parental rocks. Concentration of trace elements in post-mine ecosystems did not differ from data for Scots pine on natural sites. We conclude that, in this part of Europe in afforested areas affected by hard coal, sand, lignite and sulphur mining, there is no risk of trace element concentrations in mine soils. An exception was in the case of Cd in soils on sand quarry and hard coal spoil heap located in the Upper Silesia region, which was more due to industrial pressure and pollutant deposition than the original Cd concentration in parental rocks.