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Sample records for colliery spoil heaps

  1. The copper spoil heap Knappenberg, Austria, as a model for metal habitats - Vegetation, substrate and contamination.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Weiss, Yasmin S; Sassmann, Stefan; Steinhauser, Georg; Hofhansl, Florian; Baumann, Nils; Lichtscheidl, Irene K; Lang, Ingeborg

    2016-09-01

    Historic mining in the Eastern Alps has left us with a legacy of numerous spoil heaps hosting specific, metal tolerant vegetation. Such habitats are characterized by elevated concentrations of toxic elements but also by high irradiation, a poorly developed substrate or extreme pH of the soil. This study investigates the distribution of vascular plants, mosses and lichens on a copper spoil heap on the ore bearing Knappenberg formed by Prebichl Layers and Werfener Schist in Lower Austria. It serves as a model for discriminating between various ecological traits and their effects on vegetation. Five distinct clusters were distinguished: (1) The bare, metal rich Central Spoil Heap was only colonised by highly resistant specialists. (2) The Northern and (3) Southern Peripheries contained less copper; the contrasting vegetation was best explained by the different microclimate. (4) A forest over acidic bedrock hosted a vegetation overlapping with the periphery of the spoil heap. (5) A forest over calcareous bedrock was similar to the spoil heap with regard to pH and humus content but hosted a vegetation differing strongly to all other habitats. Among the multiple toxic elements at the spoil heap, only Cu seems to exert a crucial influence on the vegetation pattern. Besides metal concentrations, irradiation, humidity, humus, pH and grain size distribution are important for the establishment of a metal tolerant vegetation. The difference between the species poor Northern and the diverse Southern Periphery can be explained by the microclimate rather than by the substrate. All plant species penetrating from the forest into the periphery of the spoil heap originate from the acidic but not from the calcareous bedrock.

  2. Remediation of Acid Generating Colliery Spoil Using Steel Slag - Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghataora, Gurmel S.; Ghazireh, Nizar; Hall, Nigel

    2015-06-01

    One of the legacies of the coal mining industry is the existence of numerous colliery spoil mounds. Run-off waters from some of these mounds result in oxidation of sulphur compounds causing pH to drop to perhaps as low as 2.5. At this pH, mobility for metals increases and it results in destruction of both flora and fauna. In order to reduce acidity, a number of solutions have been investigated with varying degree of success. A recent study to reduce acidity in spoil run-off water included the use of Basic Oxygen Steel slag. Its slow release of lime resulted in longer term remediation compared with other techniques. In addition to this, steel slag contains elements which are essential for plant growth and can be regarded as a weak fertiliser. This was substantiated in two field trials, which had the aim of not only remediating acidity from two different types of colliery spoils, but also to develop a composition that supports grass growth. The objectives were achieved at both sites and some of the results of over 5000 chemical tests conducted during these studies are reported in this paper.

  3. Vegetation and soil condition development on spoil heaps in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District

    SciTech Connect

    Stalmachova, B.; Matysek, D.

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses both soil and vegetation development on mine spoil heaps of different age, as well as some environmental factors that are involved. The course of natural plant succession fired and unfired mine spoil heaps and the dominant species of several developmental stages (plant communities) are examined. Mainly, the exposure of slopes and the surface temperature are considered in studying the vegetation of spoil heaps. Anemochoral terophytes and hemicryptophytes dominate on south to west slopes in the first stages of development; development of vegetation on north and east slopes is different. Anemochoral phanerophytes dominate in the first developmental stages. Later, the plant cover includes high herbs and grasses, and the tree layer exhibits zoochoral tree species. The final stage on the spoil heaps in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District is probably the Betulo-Quercetum Tx. 1937 community with complete stratification. The study area, an underground mining area in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District, lies in the south part of the Silesian Basin. From a phytogeographical point of view, this area is identified as the Ostrava basin--the 83rd district of the Mesophyticum capraticum--phytogeographical province, with the flora of the upper hill country belt (gradus supracollinus).

  4. Development of Soil Characteristics and Plant Communities On Reclaimed and Unreclaimed Spoil Heaps After Coal Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudlín, Ondřej; Řehák, Zdeněk; Cudlín, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare soil characteristics, plant communities and the rate of selected ecosystem function performance on reclaimed and unreclaimed plots (left for spontaneous succession) of different age on spoil heaps. Twelve spoil heaps (three circle plots of radius 12.5 m) near the town Kladno in north-west direction from Prague, created after deep coal mining, were compared. Five mixed soil samples from organo-mineral horizons in each plot were analysed for total content of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, active soil pH (pHH2O) was determined. Plant diversity was determined by vegetation releves. The biodiversity value of the habitat according to the Habitat Valuation Method was assessed and the rate of evapotranspiration function by the Method of Valuation Functions and Services of Ecosystems in the Czech Republic were determined. The higher organo-mineral layers and higher amount of total nitrogen content were found on the older reclaimed and unreclaimed plots than in younger plots. The number of plant species and the total contents of carbon and nitrogen were significantly higher at the unreclaimed plots compared to reclaimed plots. The biodiversity values and evapotranspiration function rate were also higher on unreclaimed plots. From this perspective, it is possible to recommend using of spontaneous succession, together with routine reclamation methods to restore habitats after coal mining. Despite the relatively high age of vegetation in some of selected plots (90 years), both the reclaimed and unreclaimed plots have not reached the stage of potential vegetation near to natural climax. Slow development of vegetation was probably due to unsuitable substrate of spoil heaps and a lack of plant and tree species of natural forest habitats in this area. However, it is probable that vegetation communities on observed spoil heaps in both type of management (reclaimed and unreclaimed) will achieve the stage of natural climax and they

  5. Breeding habitat of sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus on spoil heaps after coal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šálek, Miroslav; Hendrychová, Markéta; Řehoř, Michal

    2010-03-01

    Natural succession of spoil heaps after brown coal mining leads to the development of rich plant and invertebrate communities and therefore has been considered a proper alternative to conventional reclamation practice. Little is known, however, about the effects of these alternative approaches on vertebrate predators. This study analyses nest-site choice of the sparrowhawk, Accipiter nisus on afforested spoil heaps in the brown coal basin of north-west Bohemia, Czech Republic. Nest places of sparrowhawks, numbers of their main prey (small birds) and habitat attributes were investigated in 2007 and 2008 on 28 individual spoil heaps that were either reclaimed by silviculture or spontaneously afforested. Our results revealed preferences of breeding sparrowhawks for spontaneously developed birch growths with diverse mosaics of tree clumps, open patches and edge structures, all providing for opportunities to hunt. In addition, the proximity of large forests positively influenced nest-site choice of sparrowhawks. Although small birds were more abundant on Successions than Reclamations, our results did not suggest that numbers of this main prey were of higher importance for the sparrowhawks than habitat components of prey availability. These results highlight the importance of spontaneous succession as a rehabilitation alternative in post-mining landscapes.

  6. Slope aspect affects geomorphic dynamics of coal mining spoil heaps in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, Jan; Vermeersch, Dominiek

    2010-11-01

    After the abandonment of coal mining in Belgium in the 1960s-1980s, many coal tips have been left to themselves. Increasingly, these coal tips are regarded as socio-cultural heritage and protected for their environmental value. This research analyses the spatial distribution of the main geomorphic processes (sheet and rill erosion, landsliding, rock fragment movement and root throw) occurring on coal tips in Belgium, through mapping of the processes and their causal factors. Five spoil heaps spread over the major coal basins were studied in detail. The spoil heaps were subdivided in homogeneous land units, especially with regard to slope gradient, vegetation cover and slope aspect. Qualitative and quantitative observations were done on processes and potential causal factors. Regressions showed that generally, the expression of slope processes on the studied coal tips is (1) strongly dependent on westerly aspect of the slopes, (2) independent of slope gradient (which presents a narrow range), (3) impeded by grass cover, and (4) not fully predictable due to variability in type and age of dumped mine spoil.

  7. Potential of woody plants from a Tonglushan ancient copper spoil heap for phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil(1).

    PubMed

    Kang, Wei; Bao, Jianguo; Zheng, Jin; Xu, Fen; Wang, Liuming

    2016-03-25

    Fast-growing metal-accumulating woody plants are considered potential candidates for phytoremediation of metals. Tonglushan mining, one of the biggest Cu production bases in China, presents an important source of the pollution of environment. The sample was collected at Tonglushan ancient copper spoil heap. The aims were to measure the content of heavy metal in the soil and woody plants and to elucidate the phytoremediation potential of the plants. The result showed the soil Cu, Cd and Pb were the main contamination, the mean contents of which were 3166.73 mg/kg, 3.66 mg/kg and 137.06 mg/kg, respectively, belonged to severe contamination. 14 species from 14 genera of 13 families were collected and investigated, except for Ligutrums lucidum, the other 13 woody plants species were newly recorded in this area. In addition, to assess the ability of metal accumulation of these trees, we proposed enrichment index. Data suggested that Platanus × acerilolia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ligutrums lucidum, Viburnum awabuk, Firminan simplex, Robina pseudoacacial, Melia azedarach and Osmanthus fragrans exhibited high accumulated capacity and strong tolerance to heavy metals. Therefore, Platanus × acerilolia and Broussonetia papyrifera can be planted in Pb contaminated areas; Viburnum awabuki, Firminan simplex, Robina pseudoacacial and Melia azedarach are the suitable trees for Cd contaminated areas; Viburnum awabuki, Melia azedarach, Ligutrums lucidum, Firminan simplex, Osmanthus fragrans and Robina pseudoacacial are appropriate to Cu, Pb and Cd multi-metal contaminated areas.

  8. Relaxed heaps

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, J.R. ); Gabow, H.N.; Shrairman, R. ); Tarjan, R.E. )

    1988-11-01

    The relaxed heap is a priority queue data structure that achieves the same amortized time bounds as the Fibonacci heap - a sequence of m decrease key and n delete min operations takes time O(m + n log n). A variant of relaxed heaps achieves similar bounds in the worst case - O(1) time for decrease key and O(log n) for delete min. Relaxed heaps give a processor-efficient parallel implementation of Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm, and hence other algorithms in network optimization. A relaxed heap is a type of binomial queue that allows heap order to be violated.

  9. Persistent heap Management library

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-17

    PERM is a C library for persistent heap management and is intended for use with a dynamic-memory allocator (e.g. malloc, free). The PERM memory allocator replaces the standard C dynamic memory allocation functions with compatible versions that provide persistent memory to application programs. Memory allocated with the PERM allocatory will persist between program invocations after a call to a checkpoint function. This function essentially saves the state of the heap and registered global variables to a file which may reside in flash memory or other node local storage. A few other functions are also provided by the library to manage checkpoint files. Global variables in an application can be marked persistent and be included in a checkpoint by using a compiler attribute defined as PERM. The PERM checkpoint methof is not dependent on the programming model ans works with distributed memory or shared memory programs.

  10. Interaction of plant and earthworm during primary succession in heaps after coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roubíčková, Alena; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    These results of field manipulation experiment show that earthworms can remarkably influence vegetation succession on spoil heaps, namely promoting grasses and late succession species. This is in agreement with concurrent appearance of earthworms and some plant species typical for late-succession communities of meadows and forests aren't purely coincidental. On the other hand, facilitation of soil conditions by plant communities during succession is an important factor in earthworm distribution on the spoil heaps; earthworms showed a low survival on sites with sparse vegetation cover and thin litter layer, which means that their occurrence in certain stages of succession isn't determined only by migration abilities or passive dispersal. More field experiments are needed to test if earthworms could be used in directed succession management practices to speed up the natural rate of succession. Preliminary results from an experiment with introduction earthworms to a 20- year old, earthworm-free site indicate that colonization of this site from a single deposition of about 100 specimen of epigeic and 100 endogeic earthworms is slow and not very efficient. Results show that interaction between earthworm and vegetation are important in ecosystem development in post mining sites.

  11. Development of bacterial community during spontaneous succession on spoil heaps after brown coal mining.

    PubMed

    Urbanová, Michaela; Kopecký, Jan; Valášková, Vendula; Ságová-Marečková, Markéta; Elhottová, Dana; Kyselková, Martina; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Baldrian, Petr

    2011-10-01

    Changes in the abundance of bacteria and fungi and in the composition of bacterial communities during primary succession were investigated in a brown coal mine deposit area near Sokolov, the Czech Republic, using phospholipid fatty acids analysis, microarray and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The study considered a chronosequence of sites undergoing spontaneous succession: 6-, 12-, 21- and 45-year-old and a 21-year-old site revegetated with Alnus glutinosa. During succession, organic carbon and the total nitrogen content increased while the pH and the C/N ratio decreased. Microbial biomass and bacterial diversity increased until 21 years and decreased later; bacteria dominated over fungi in the initial and late phases of succession. Bacterial community composition of the 6-year-old site with no vegetation cover largely differed from the older sites, especially by a higher content of Gammaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and some Alphaproteobacteria. Bacteria belonging to the genera Acidithiobacillus, Thiobacillus and related taxa, the CO(2) and N(2) fixers, dominated the community at this site. In the later phases, bacterial community development seemed to reflect more the changes in soil nutrient content and pH than vegetation with a decrease of Actinobacteria and an increase of Acidobacteria. The site revegetated with A. glutinosa resembled the 45-year-old primary succession site and exhibited an even lower pH and C/N ratio, indicating that recultivation is able to accelerate soil development.

  12. The role of topographic structure and soil macrofauna presence at spoil heaps during spontaneous succession.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walmsley, Alena; Vachová, Pavla; Vach, Marek

    2016-04-01

    This research was investigating whether topographic features, which determine soil nutrient and moisture distribution, in combination with soil fauna (wireworm and earthworm) presence, affect plant community composition at a spontaneously revegetated post mining area with an undulating surface. Two sites of different age with 3 types of topographic features were selected, soil moisture and nutrient content were measured, plant community composition and soil macrofauna community was sampled at each position. Wireworms were present at all positions and were most abundant at bottoms of waves at the younger site; their presence was correlated with several plant species, but the direction of the interaction isn't clear. Earthworms were only present at the older site and had highest abundance at flat sections. Earthworm presence affected the amount of nitrogen in soil - the most nitrogen content was at the site with highest earthworm density and was followed by higher diversity of plant community. The plant community composition was generally correlated with plant available nutrient content - especially P and N. We infer that topographic features affect nutrient and soil fauna distribution, which consequently influences plant community composition.

  13. A cluster of cases of lymphoma in an underground colliery.

    PubMed

    Corbett, S; O'Neill, B J

    1988-08-15

    An apparent occupational outbreak of cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among the employees of an underground colliery on the NSW south coast has been investigated. The employment register of the mine recorded that 1004 men had worked at the colliery from its opening in 1946 until December 31, 1986. In this period, this cohort of men had amassed 18,818 person-years. A person-years analysis of the mortality and morbidity of cancer showed a standardized incidence ratio for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of 3.27 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-6.74) and for Hodgkin's disease of 7.27 (95% CI, 1.98-18.59). All of the cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were diagnosed after 1978. An excess of cases of cancer of the salivary gland also was present (standardized incidence ratio, 10.00; 95% CI, 1.21-36.10). The method of coal extraction, the geology and chemistry of the coal-seams that were mined and the general characteristics of the work-force at the colliery are similar to those at other collieries in the region. Furthermore, an exhaustive work-place environmental study at the colliery has failed to identify any plausible carcinogenic agent to which the findings of this study can be attributed. Coal-miners previously have not been shown to be at a greater risk of developing lymphoma or related malignancies, and the region in which the mine is located has lower prevalence rates of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease than does New South Wales as a whole.

  14. Solid speciation and availability of nickel and chromium in Ni mining spoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raous, Sophie; Garnier, Jérémie; Sterckeman, Thibaul; Echevarria, Guillaume; Becquer, Thierry; Thomas, Fabien

    2010-05-01

    Nickel mining of ultramafic laterites generates different types of wastes, topsoils and ores that are too poor in Ni to be currently processed. These are mixed and stored on heaps which could be a potential source of Ni and Cr pollution. Chemical reactivity of the main metal bearing phases present in the mining spoils of Goiás (Brasil) was investigated. Principally a silicated 'saprolite' material and a Fe-oxide rich limonitic material were isolated from the wastes. Their total Ni and Cr content are high, respectively for Ni and Cr : 7,170 and 54,970 mg kg-1 in limonite and 12,200 and 12,650 mg kg-1 in saprolite. The main metal-bearing minerals, identified and localized using XRD, TEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy and Mossbaüer spectrometry are well-crystallized minerals: goethite (75%), hematite (13%) and chromite in limonite and ferruginous smectite, talc and chromite in saprolite. Single and sequential extractions showed that the amounts of 1M KCl exchangeable Ni and Cr reached respectively 7.1% and 0.03% of total contents in saprolite. Moreover, Cr(VI) extraction by KH2PO4 showed that more than 2% (980 mg kg-1) of total Cr was under this labile toxic form in limonite. This study allowed us to determine the main reactions controlling the Ni and Cr mobility in the spoils i.e. Ni2+ cationic exchange in saprolitic spoil and CrO32- surface complexation in limonitic spoil. This study allowed us to demonstrate the need of chemical rehabilitation of mining wastes in order to avoid the dispersion of the high contents of Ni and Cr available. It constitutes the system definition needed to predict the Cr and Ni mobility in ultramafic mining spoils.

  15. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.

    1990-09-01

    The objective of this part of the study is to investigate the oxidation-reduction (redox) environment that favor the release of selenium from coal mine spoils. It is anticipated that the study will help answer critical questions as to the form, solubility, and mobility of selenium from the spoil site to the surrounding environment. This investigation will evaluate the conditions which favor the speciation of selenium from coal mine spoils as affected by changes in the oxidation states of selenium.

  16. Reclamation of surface-mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, E.A.

    1981-09-01

    Research being performed on land reclamation at the Corona and Kellerman mines in Alabama is reported. Information is presented under the following headings: effects of topsoiling and mulching treatment on plant growth and soil erosion; preliminary findings on the germination and growth of Southern red oak seedlings on calcareous shale surface mine spoil; some effects of vegetation type and fertilization on growth, survival, and tip moth damage in loblolly pine planted on alkaline shale surface mine spoil; some effects of competition and fertilizer on the growth and survival of selected Christmas tree stock and Virginia pine on alkaline shale spoil; growth and survival of Eastern red cedar on alkaline shale spoil; and, greenhouse studies. The appendixes are entitled: study of the effects of acidification of calcareous shale on the growth of weeping love grass; the effects of competition and spoil mixtures on the growth of perennial ryegrass and weeping lovegrass; and, the effects of delayed fertilization on the growth of weeping lovegrass. (JGB)

  17. Interplay of air and sand: Faraday heaping unravelled.

    PubMed

    van Gerner, Henk Jan; van der Hoef, Martin A; van der Meer, Devaraj; van der Weele, Ko

    2007-11-01

    We report on numerical simulations of a vibrated granular bed including the effect of the ambient air, generating the famous Faraday heaps known from experiment. A detailed analysis of the forces shows that the heaps are formed and stabilized by the airflow through the bed while the gap between bed and vibrating bottom is growing, confirming the pressure gradient mechanism found experimentally by Thomas and Squires [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 574 (1998)], with the addition that the airflow is partly generated by isobars running parallel to the surface of the granular bed. Importantly, the simulations also explain the heaping instability of the initially flat surface and the experimentally observed coarsening of a number of small heaps into a larger one.

  18. The effect of colliery waste on the feeding of the lugworm Arenicola marina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyslop, Brian T.; Davies, Mark S.

    1999-09-01

    Sandy shores in northeast England that are heavily contaminated by colliery waste (essentially coal particles) have lower species richnesses and diversities than less contaminated shores. Analyses of the sediment utilised putatively as food, the gut contents, and the faecal casts of lugworms Arenicola marina (L.) (Annelida: Polychaeta) from a heavily contaminated site (Newbiggin) and a site lightly contaminated (Seahouses) were performed to determine the effect of colliery waste on the feeding of this deposit-feeder, which has been reported to decline in abundance at contaminated sites. Colliery-waste content of sediment was 10 to 18 times greater at Newbiggin than at Seahouses. At Newbiggin the sediment contained significantly higher levels of colliery waste than did the gut contents or faeces, which were not significantly different from each other. At Seahouses the colliery-waste contents of sediment, gut, and faeces were not significantly different. Particle-size distributions in sediment, gut, and faeces from lugworms at Seahouses were similar, while at Newbiggin the sediment contained a greater proportion of larger particles (>250 μm) than did the gut contents or the faeces. These results suggest that lugworms at heavily contaminated sites are selective feeders, rejecting coal particles perhaps on the basis of particle size. We did not detect selectivity in animals at the less contaminated site. Lugworms from Seahouses, however, avoided burrowing into sediment containing colliery waste both when the waste was on the surface and buried. Lugworms from Newbiggin avoided burrowing into colliery waste only when it was buried. These data suggest a chemosensory response to colliery waste.

  19. Efficient Merge and Insert Operations for Binary Heaps and Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuszmaul, Christopher Lee; Woo, Alex C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Binary heaps and binary search trees merge efficiently. We introduce a new amortized analysis that allows us to prove the cost of merging either binary heaps or balanced binary trees is O(l), in the amortized sense. The standard set of other operations (create, insert, delete, extract minimum, in the case of binary heaps, and balanced binary trees, as well as a search operation for balanced binary trees) remain with a cost of O(log n). For binary heaps implemented as arrays, we show a new merge algorithm that has a single operation cost for merging two heaps, a and b, of O(absolute value of a + min(log absolute value of b log log absolute value of b. log absolute value of a log absolute value of b). This is an improvement over O(absolute value of a + log absolute value of a log absolute value of b). The cost of the new merge is so low that it can be used in a new structure which we call shadow heaps. to implement the insert operation to a tunable efficiency. Shadow heaps support the insert operation for simple priority queues in an amortized time of O(f(n)) and other operations in time O((log n log log n)/f (n)), where 1 less than or equal to f (n) less than or equal to log log n. More generally, the results here show that any data structure with operations that change its size by at most one, with the exception of a merge (aka meld) operation, can efficiently amortize the cost of the merge under conditions that are true for most implementations of binary heaps and search trees.

  20. Initial soil formation and humus accumulation on the spoil heaps of sandy quarry, Russian-North-West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, E.

    2009-04-01

    The accumulation and transformation of organic matter were studied in chronoseries of different aged (3-, 10-, 20-, 30-, 43-, and 60-year-old) soils and a reference (mature) plot. The ecogenetic succession of plants on sand quarry dumps was started from grass plant community and finished on the Scotch Pine forest on the 60-years old plot. The pedogenesis rate was closely related to the rate of phytocenosis development, and the thicknesses of organic and mineral horizons increased synchronously. The profile distribution of organic matter in young soils was estimated as an ectomorphic distribution, and the humus stocks in the mineral horizons of the same soils were comparable with the reserves of organic matter in the litters. The illuvial (Bs) horizons of the soils under study played a significant role in the accumulation of organic carbon; the resistance of organic matter to mineralization increased with age. In the soil chronoseries, the caloricity of litter organic matter increased, as well as the content of energy accumulated in the litters. The composition of humus differed strongly between the eluvial and illuvial horizons; in the chronosequence, the relative content of humic acids increased in the E horizon, and that of fulvic acids increased in the B horizon. On the base of C-13 NMR study of humic substances the humic and fulvic acid are different in organic, eluvial and illuvial horizons in terms of different structural components content. The effect of the phytocenosis on the soil was increasingly mediated with time. The accumulation and transformation of organic matter were the leading pedogenic processes at all stages. The main conclusion of investigation is that the 60 years is enough for formation of embrio-profile of podzol soil on the dumps of quaternary sands of former sandy quarry in the south taiga, North-West of Russia.

  1. Estimated water requirements for gold heap-leach operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a perspective on the amount of water necessary for conventional gold heap-leach operations. Water is required for drilling and dust suppression during mining, for agglomeration and as leachate during ore processing, to support the workforce (requires water in potable form and for sanitation), for minesite reclamation, and to compensate for water lost to evaporation and leakage. Maintaining an adequate water balance is especially critical in areas where surface and groundwater are difficult to acquire because of unfavorable climatic conditions [arid conditions and (or) a high evaporation rate]; where there is competition with other uses, such as for agriculture, industry, and use by municipalities; and where compliance with regulatory requirements may restrict water usage. Estimating the water consumption of heap-leach operations requires an understanding of the heap-leach process itself. The task is fairly complex because, although they all share some common features, each gold heap-leach operation is unique. Also, estimating the water consumption requires a synthesis of several fields of science, including chemistry, ecology, geology, hydrology, and meteorology, as well as consideration of economic factors.

  2. An Experimental Ecological Study of a Garden Compost Heap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curds, Tracy

    1985-01-01

    A quantitative study of the fauna of a garden compost heap shows it to be similar to that of organisms found in soil and leaf litter. Materials, methods, and results are discussed and extensive tables of fauna lists, wet/dry masses, and statistical analyses are presented. (Author/DH)

  3. Vertical Object Layout and Compression for Fixed Heaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titzer, Ben L.; Palsberg, Jens

    Research into embedded sensor networks has placed increased focus on the problem of developing reliable and flexible software for microcontroller-class devices. Languages such as nesC [10] and Virgil [20] have brought higher-level programming idioms to this lowest layer of software, thereby adding expressiveness. Both languages are marked by the absence of dynamic memory allocation, which removes the need for a runtime system to manage memory. While nesC offers code modules with statically allocated fields, arrays and structs, Virgil allows the application to allocate and initialize arbitrary objects during compilation, producing a fixed object heap for runtime. This paper explores techniques for compressing fixed object heaps with the goal of reducing the RAM footprint of a program. We explore table-based compression and introduce a novel form of object layout called vertical object layout. We provide experimental results that measure the impact on RAM size, code size, and execution time for a set of Virgil programs. Our results show that compressed vertical layout has better execution time and code size than table-based compression while achieving more than 20% heap reduction on 6 of 12 benchmark programs and 2-17% heap reduction on the remaining 6. We also present a formalization of vertical object layout and prove tight relationships between three styles of object layout.

  4. Hexagonal gradient scheme with RF spoiling improves spoiling performance for high‐flip‐angle fast gradient echo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To present a framework in which time‐varying gradients are applied with RF spoiling to reduce unwanted signal, particularly at high flip angles. Methods A time‐varying gradient spoiler scheme compatible with RF spoiling is defined, in which spoiler gradients cycle through the vertices of a hexagon, which we call hexagonal spoiling. The method is compared with a traditional constant spoiling gradient both in the transition to and in the steady state. Extended phase graph (EPG) simulations, phantom acquisitions, and in vivo images were used to assess the method. Results Simulations, phantom and in vivo experiments showed that unwanted signal was markedly reduced by employing hexagonal spoiling, both in the transition to and in the steady state. For adipose tissue at 1.5 Tesla, the unwanted signal in the steady state with a 60 ° flip angle was reduced from 22% with constant spoiling to 2% with hexagonal spoiling. Conclusions A time‐varying gradient spoiler scheme that works with RF spoiling, called “hexagonal spoiling,” has been presented and found to offer improved spoiling over the traditional constant spoiling gradient. Magn Reson Med 77:1231–1237, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:27037941

  5. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.

    1990-09-01

    The objective of this part of the study is to investigate the oxidation-reduction (redox) environment that favor the release of selenium from coal mine spoils. It is anticipated that the study will help answer critical questions as to the form, solubility, and mobility of selenium from the spoil site to the surrounding environment. This investigation will evaluate the conditions which favor the speciation of selenium from coal mine spoils as affected by changes in the oxidation states of selenium.

  6. FORTH implementation of the heap data structure for memory management

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.

    1985-01-01

    The use of the heap for memory management provides the FORTH programmer with a versatile tool. Its use speeds program development at the conceptual level by allowing the program designer to consider dynamic arrays, garbage collection, and overlays; and at the implementation stage by providing a framework for easy manipulation of such data structures. An examination of the high-level codes leads naturally to examples of these and other techniques of dynamic data management.

  7. Flow modulation based control of granular stratification in heaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Fan, Yi; McDonald, David; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2013-11-01

    Gravity driven flows of initially mixed granular media composed of non-monodisperse particles spontaneously segregate for a wide range of particle and flow parameters. For heaps of size-bidisperse particles formed in the quasi-two-dimensional geometry of a vertical Hele-Shaw cell, segregation is in the form of stratified layers of large and small particle-rich bands that are nominally parallel to the free surface of the heap. Stratification occurs at low fill rates where flow down the heap manifests as a series of intermittent and irregularly sized avalanches. This non-steady flow causes variation in stratum thickness and streamwise extent. In this talk we describe how temporal modulation of the fill rate can generate ordered strata at high fill rates. In particular, we show how, for a duty cycle variation of the flow rate, the modulation parameters determine the wavelength and streamwise extent of the layers. We explain our results in terms of the dependence of the dynamic repose angle on flow rate. Finally we describe how the upstream extent of the strata increases with decreasing gap width and is related to the jamming probability of the large particles. Y.F. was funded by The Dow Chemical Company.

  8. Results for the structural properties of random heaps of hard disks

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnier, B. )

    1995-01-01

    The average angle of repose and the packing density of random planar heaps of hard disks falling ballistically onto a sticky base line, where the first layer of disks is quenched in random positions, are computed for heaps with a small fixed number of gaps in the base layer. The results we find appear to be almost independent of the size of the heap and they agree with those obtained from computer simulations of large systems.

  9. Hydrologic modeling of reclaimed strip mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, K.B.; Stoertz, M.W.; Turney, D.C.

    1998-12-31

    A numerical groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) of a surface coal mine in southeast Ohio was calibrated under steady state conditions to match measured heads by varying hydraulic conductivity (K) and recharge (R). Sensitivity studies indicated that K was not largely dependent on the poorly quantified underclay elevation or on the lake boundary condition. The baseflow recharge was determined to be between 8 and 60 mm/yr (1 to 6% of annual rainfall) and K between 0.004 and 0.01 cm/s for the spoil aquifer.

  10. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are...

  12. An investigation into the cytotoxicity of respirable dusts from British collieries.

    PubMed Central

    Gormley, I. P.; Collings, P.; Davis, J. M.; Ottery, J.

    1979-01-01

    A series of respirable dusts from British collieries was collected and analysed for mineral content and physical characteristics. Where possible 2 samples of dust were collected from the same site at 8-month intervals. All dusts were tested for their cytotoxic potential using a permanent line of macrophage-like cells (P388D1). In addition, for some dusts, a haemolytic technique was used. With both techniques a positive overall correlation was found between cytotoxicity and the total ash content of the dusts. When the results from collieries producing high- and low-rank coals were considered separately, however, it was found that the ash content of high-rank dusts (r=0.75) showed a much closer correlation with cytotoxicity than low-rank dusts (r=0.40). With the cell test system the ash components, kaolin and mica (r=0.58) and to a lesser extent quartz (r=0.48) showed significant positive correlations with cytotoxicity for high-rank coal dusts but not for low. Using the haemolytic system, however, only the quartz content of the high-rank dusts showed a significant relationship (r=0.69) to levels of haemoglobin release. Both the results of mineralogical analysis of dust samples and cytotoxicity tests showed that the mineral content and cytotoxic potential of dusts collected from the same colliery, and even from the same underground site, at different times, varied considerably. A poor correlation was found between cytotoxicity and various measurements of pneumoconiosis risk but this may well be partly due to this great variation of dust composition with time. In general, the overall results of this study were in good agreement with those of previous work on coal dust toxicity in that both the rank and composition of colliery dusts were found to be of importance, whereas the role of quartz remained enigmatic. PMID:518822

  13. 77 FR 17104 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Ecstatic Alphabets/Heaps...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Ecstatic Alphabets/Heaps of Language... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Ecstatic Alphabets/Heaps of...

  14. Zipf's Law Leads to Heaps' Law: Analyzing Their Relation in Finite-Size Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Background Zipf's law and Heaps' law are observed in disparate complex systems. Of particular interests, these two laws often appear together. Many theoretical models and analyses are performed to understand their co-occurrence in real systems, but it still lacks a clear picture about their relation. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that the Heaps' law can be considered as a derivative phenomenon if the system obeys the Zipf's law. Furthermore, we refine the known approximate solution of the Heaps' exponent provided the Zipf's exponent. We show that the approximate solution is indeed an asymptotic solution for infinite systems, while in the finite-size system the Heaps' exponent is sensitive to the system size. Extensive empirical analysis on tens of disparate systems demonstrates that our refined results can better capture the relation between the Zipf's and Heaps' exponents. Conclusions/Significance The present analysis provides a clear picture about the relation between the Zipf's law and Heaps' law without the help of any specific stochastic model, namely the Heaps' law is indeed a derivative phenomenon from the Zipf's law. The presented numerical method gives considerably better estimation of the Heaps' exponent given the Zipf's exponent and the system size. Our analysis provides some insights and implications of real complex systems. For example, one can naturally obtained a better explanation of the accelerated growth of scale-free networks. PMID:21152034

  15. Instrumentation of dredge spoil for landfill construction

    SciTech Connect

    Byle, M.J.; McCullough, M.L.; Alexander, R.; Vasuki, N.C.; Langer, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Delaware Solid Waste Authority's Northern Solid Waste Management Center is located outside of Wilmington Delaware at Cherry Island, a former dredge disposal site. Dredge spoils, of very low permeability, range in depths up to 30 m (100 feet) which form a natural liner and the foundation for the 140 ha (350-acre) municipal solid waste landfill. The soils beneath the landfill have been extensively instrumented to measure pore pressure, settlement and deflections, using inclinometer casings, standpipe piezometers, vibrating wire piezometers, pneumatic piezometers, settlement plates, liquid settlement gages, total pressure cells and thermistors. The nature of the existing waste and anticipated settlements (up to 6 m (19 feet)) have required some unique installation details. The instrumentation data has been integral in planning the landfilling sequence to maintain perimeter slope stability and has provided key geotechnical parameters needed for operation and construction of the landfill. The performance of the instrumentation and monitoring results are discussed.

  16. Detecting Heap-Spraying Code Injection Attacks in Malicious Web Pages Using Runtime Execution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Younghan; Kim, Hyoungchun; Lee, Donghoon

    The growing use of web services is increasing web browser attacks exponentially. Most attacks use a technique called heap spraying because of its high success rate. Heap spraying executes a malicious code without indicating the exact address of the code by copying it into many heap objects. For this reason, the attack has a high potential to succeed if only the vulnerability is exploited. Thus, attackers have recently begun using this technique because it is easy to use JavaScript to allocate the heap memory area. This paper proposes a novel technique that detects heap spraying attacks by executing a heap object in a real environment, irrespective of the version and patch status of the web browser. This runtime execution is used to detect various forms of heap spraying attacks, such as encoding and polymorphism. Heap objects are executed after being filtered on the basis of patterns of heap spraying attacks in order to reduce the overhead of the runtime execution. Patterns of heap spraying attacks are based on analysis of how an web browser accesses benign web sites. The heap objects are executed forcibly by changing the instruction register into the address of them after being loaded into memory. Thus, we can execute the malicious code without having to consider the version and patch status of the browser. An object is considered to contain a malicious code if the execution reaches a call instruction and then the instruction accesses the API of system libraries, such as kernel32.dll and ws_32.dll. To change registers and monitor execution flow, we used a debugger engine. A prototype, named HERAD(HEap spRAying Detector), is implemented and evaluated. In experiments, HERAD detects various forms of exploit code that an emulation cannot detect, and some heap spraying attacks that NOZZLE cannot detect. Although it has an execution overhead, HERAD produces a low number of false alarms. The processing time of several minutes is negligible because our research focuses on

  17. Recognizing critical mine spoil health characteristics to design ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Biochar can be used as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated mine spoils for improved site phytostabilization. For successful phytostabilization to occur, biochar amendments must improve mine spoil health with respect to plant rooting plus uptake of water and nutrients. An inappropriate biochar may negatively impact plant growth conditions resulting in poor plant establishment and growth. Matching the appropriate biochar for each mine site requires reconnaissance of spoil chemical and physical conditions and then identifying which properties need rectified to promote plant growth. A rectification hierarchy needs to be established with the primary limiting factor being addressed first, then successive limitations addressed simultaneously or thereafter. We posit that spoils at each site will have a unique chemical, physical, and biological signature that will affect plant growth. For example, some spoils may be extremely acidic, possess phytotoxic concentrations of heavy metals, or have physical conditions that limits water storage and root penetration. Quantifying these and other conditions beforehand allows for the production of designer biochar with specific characteristics tailored for specific plant growth deficiencies within each spoil. Additionally, we recommend the use of proximally located, undisturbed soils to establish spoil remediation targets. In our work, we have developed a decision-tree flow-chart that identifies salient chemical,

  18. Using Heaps in Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation of Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    2006-01-01

    A modification to increase processing speed has been made in the algorithm and implementing software reported in Modified Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation of Data (GSC-14681-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 6 (June 2006), page 51. That software performs recursive hierarchical segmentation of data having spatial characteristics (e.g., spectral-image data). The segmentation process includes an iterative subprocess, in each iteration of which it is necessary to determine a best pair of regions to merge [merges being justified by one or more measure(s) similarity of pixels in the regions]. In the previously reported version of the algorithm and software, the choice of a best pair of regions to merge involved the use of a fully sorted list of regions. That version was computationally inefficient because a fully sorted list is not needed: what is needed is only the identity of the pair of regions characterized by the smallest measure of dissimilarity. The present modification replaces the use of a fully sorted list with the use of data heaps, which are computationally more efficient for performing the required comparisons among dissimilarity measures. The modification includes the incorporation of standard and modified functions for creating and updating data heaps

  19. 46 CFR 174.330 - Jettisoning of spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sufficiently to allow the dredged material to dump without bridging; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the... the waterline; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the spoil is impossible. (b) When doing...

  20. 46 CFR 174.330 - Jettisoning of spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sufficiently to allow the dredged material to dump without bridging; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the... the waterline; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the spoil is impossible. (b) When doing...

  1. 46 CFR 174.330 - Jettisoning of spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sufficiently to allow the dredged material to dump without bridging; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the... the waterline; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the spoil is impossible. (b) When doing...

  2. 46 CFR 174.330 - Jettisoning of spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sufficiently to allow the dredged material to dump without bridging; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the... the waterline; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the spoil is impossible. (b) When doing...

  3. 46 CFR 174.330 - Jettisoning of spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sufficiently to allow the dredged material to dump without bridging; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the... the waterline; and (3) Asymmetrical jettisoning of the spoil is impossible. (b) When doing...

  4. Nonuniformities in the angle of repose and packing fraction of large heaps of particles.

    PubMed

    Topić, Nikola; Gallas, Jason A C; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2012-09-21

    We report a numerical investigation of the structural properties of very large three-dimensional heaps of particles produced by ballistic deposition from extended circular dropping areas. Very large heaps are found to contain three new geometrical characteristics not observed before: they may have two external angles of repose, an internal angle of repose, and four distinct packing fraction (density) regions. Such characteristics are shown to be directly correlated with the size of the dropping zone. In addition, we also describe how noise during the deposition affects the final heap structure.

  5. Event heap: a coordination infrastructure for dynamic heterogeneous application interactions in ubiquitous computing environments

    DOEpatents

    Johanson, Bradley E.; Fox, Armando; Winograd, Terry A.; Hanrahan, Patrick M.

    2010-04-20

    An efficient and adaptive middleware infrastructure called the Event Heap system dynamically coordinates application interactions and communications in a ubiquitous computing environment, e.g., an interactive workspace, having heterogeneous software applications running on various machines and devices across different platforms. Applications exchange events via the Event Heap. Each event is characterized by a set of unordered, named fields. Events are routed by matching certain attributes in the fields. The source and target versions of each field are automatically set when an event is posted or used as a template. The Event Heap system implements a unique combination of features, both intrinsic to tuplespaces and specific to the Event Heap, including content based addressing, support for routing patterns, standard routing fields, limited data persistence, query persistence/registration, transparent communication, self-description, flexible typing, logical/physical centralization, portable client API, at most once per source first-in-first-out ordering, and modular restartability.

  6. Groundwater hydrogeochemical characteristics in rehabilitated coalmine spoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomo, M.; Masemola, E.

    2016-04-01

    The investigation aims to identify and describe hydrogeochemical processes controlling the evolution of groundwater chemistry in rehabilitated coalmine spoils and their overall influence on groundwater quality at a study area located in the Karoo basin of South Africa. A good understanding of the processes that controls the evolution of the mine water quality is vital for the planning, application and management of post-mining remedial actions. The study utilises scatter plots, statistical analysis, PHREEQC hydrogeochemical modelling, stoichiometric reaction ratios analysis, and the expanded Durov diagram as complimentary tools to interpret the groundwater chemistry data collected from monitoring boreholes from 1995 to 2014. Measured pH ranging between 6-8 and arithmetic mean of 7.32 shows that the groundwater system is characterised by circumneutral hydrogeochemical conditions period. Comparison of measured groundwater ion concentrations to theoretical reaction stoichiometry identifies Dolomite-Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) neutralisation as the main hydrogeochemical process controlling the evolution of the groundwater chemistry. Hydrogeochemical modelling shows that, the groundwater has temporal variations of calcite and dolomite saturation indices characterised by alternating cycles of over-saturation and under-saturation that is driven by the release of sulphate, calcium and magnesium ions from the carbonate-AMD neutralization process. Arithmetic mean concentrations of sulphate, calcium and magnesium are in the order of 762 mg/L, 141 mg/L and 108 mg/L. Calcium and magnesium ions contribute to very hard groundwater quality conditions. Classification based on total dissolved solids (TDS), shows the circumneutral water is of poor to unacceptable quality for drinking purposes. Despite its ability to prevent AMD formation and leaching of metals, the dolomite-AMD neutralisation process can still lead to problems of elevated TDS and hardness which mines should be aware of

  7. Yeast diversity of Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Heide-Marie; Vrancken, Gino; Takrama, Jemmy F; Camu, Nicholas; De Vos, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc

    2009-08-01

    The fermentation of the Theobroma cacao beans, involving yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and acetic acid bacteria, has a major influence on the quality of the resulting cocoa. An assessment of the microbial community of cocoa bean heap fermentations in Ghana resulted in 91 yeast isolates. These were grouped by PCR-fingerprinting with the primer M13. Representative isolates were identified using the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer sequences and partial actin gene sequences leading to the detection of 15 species. Properties of importance for cocoa bean fermentation, namely sucrose, glucose, and citrate assimilation capacity, pH-, ethanol-, and heat-tolerance, were examined for selected isolates. Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Hanseniaspora opuntiae formed the major components of the yeast community. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was identified conclusively for the first time from cocoa fermentations. Among the less frequently encountered species, Candida carpophila, Candida orthopsilosis, Kodamaea ohmeri, Meyerozyma (Pichia) caribbica, Pichia manshurica, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Yamadazyma (Pichia) mexicana were not yet documented from this substrate. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was preferably growing during the earlier phase of fermentation, reflecting its tolerance to low pH and its citrate-negative phenotype, while no specific temporal distribution was recognized for P. kudriavzevii and S. cerevisiae.

  8. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  9. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  10. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  11. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  12. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  13. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  14. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  15. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  16. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  17. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  18. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) of this section. (3) Discussion of how you will address impacts to perennial and intermittent streams... excess spoil in a perennial or intermittent stream, the analysis must include an evaluation of impacts on... possible, taking into consideration applicable regulations concerning restoration of the...

  19. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) of this section. (3) Discussion of how you will address impacts to perennial and intermittent streams... excess spoil in a perennial or intermittent stream, the analysis must include an evaluation of impacts on... possible, taking into consideration applicable regulations concerning restoration of the...

  20. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engineer or other qualified professional specialist experienced in the construction of earth and rockfill... the water into the spoil material. The underdrain system shall be protected by an adequate filter and.... Where there is insufficient material on the lower bench to construct a safety berm, only that amount...

  1. Characteristics of large three-dimensional heaps of particles produced by ballistic deposition from extended sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topic, Nikola; Gallas, Jason A. C.; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports a detailed numerical investigation of the geometrical and structural properties of three-dimensional heaps of particles. Our goal is the characterization of very large heaps produced by ballistic deposition from extended circular dropping areas. First, we provide an in-depth study of the formation of monodisperse heaps of particles. We find very large heaps to contain three new geometrical characteristics: they may display two external angles of repose, one internal angle of repose, and four distinct packing fraction (density) regions. Such features are found to be directly connected with the size of the dropping zone. We derive a differential equation describing the boundary of an unexpected triangular packing fraction zone formed under the dropping area. We investigate the impact that noise during the deposition has on the final heap structure. In addition, we perform two complementary experiments designed to test the robustness of the novel features found. The first experiment considers changes due to polydispersity. The second checks what happens when letting the extended dropping zone to become a point-like source of particles, the more common type of source.

  2. Extremophiles in Mineral Sulphide Heaps: Some Bacterial Responses to Variable Temperature, Acidity and Solution Composition

    PubMed Central

    Watling, Helen R.; Shiers, Denis W.; Collinson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    In heap bioleaching, acidophilic extremophiles contribute to enhanced metal extraction from mineral sulphides through the oxidation of Fe(II) and/or reduced inorganic sulphur compounds (RISC), such as elemental sulphur or mineral sulphides, or the degradation of organic compounds derived from the ore, biota or reagents used during mineral processing. The impacts of variable solution acidity and composition, as well as temperature on the three microbiological functions have been examined for up to four bacterial species found in mineral sulphide heaps. The results indicate that bacteria adapt to sufficiently high metal concentrations (Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, As) to allow them to function in mineral sulphide heaps and, by engaging alternative metabolic pathways, to extend the solution pH range over which growth is sustained. Fluctuating temperatures during start up in sulphide heaps pose the greatest threat to efficient bacterial colonisation. The large masses of ores in bioleaching heaps mean that high temperatures arising from sulphide oxidation are hard to control initially, when the sulphide content of the ore is greatest. During that period, mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacteria are markedly reduced in both numbers and activity. PMID:27682094

  3. Microbial leaching of toxic metals and arsenic from a heap consisting of heavily polluted soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groudev, Stoyan; Georgiev, Plamen; Spasova, Irena; Nicolova, Marina

    2014-05-01

    Soil heavily polluted with toxic heavy metals (mainly Cu, Zn, Cd) and arsenic was subjected to microbial cleanup in a heap specially constructed for this purpose. The heap was located on an impermeable geomembrane, had the shape of a truncated pyramid and contained about 240 tons of soil collected mainly from the horizon A. The soil was highly acidic (with an initial pH of about 3.2) and was preliminarily crushed to minus 2.5 cm particle size. The pollutants were present mainly as the relevant sulphide minerals and the soil was inhabited by different microorganisms, including some acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacteria able to oxidize sulphides and to solubilize the relevant toxic elements. The heap possessed systems for irrigation and aeration and was surrounded by ditches to collect the drainage heap effluents containing the dissolved pollutants. The treatment of the soil was carried out by means of interrupted irrigation with leach solutions containing diluted sulphuric acid (to maintain pH in the heap within the range of about 2.5 - 2.8) and ammonium and phosphate ions to maintain the microbial growth. The treatment was carried out for a period of about two years during different climatic seasons. After the end of leaching the soil was subjected to some conventional melioration procedures such as liming, grassing, moulching, addition of fertilizers and animal manure and periodic ploughing and irrigation to increase its quality to levels suitable for agricultural utilization.

  4. Control Room operations: an investigation of the task of the operator in a Colliery Control Room. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, G.C.; Best, C.F.; Ferguson, C.A.; Graveling, R.A.; Nicholl, A.G.M.

    1982-09-01

    A detailed study of the ergonomics aspects of four representative Colliery Control Rooms was carried out. Numerous ergonomics limitations, many common to each of the control rooms studied, were identified particularly in relation to workspace dimensions, console layout and lighting. In order to overcome these limitations in future designs, a report detailing the Ergonomics Principles of Colliery Control Room design and Layout was prepared on the basis of the information obtained. Task analysis carried out during the studies revealed that control room operators could have a direct effect on production and that ergonomics aspects were involved in these situations. Indications of potential ergonomics problems in the wider sphere of job design were also identified particularly in relation to information handling.

  5. Operating parameters of water-only cyclone at washing of steam coal from the Cigel Colliery in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Hredzak, S.; Lovas, M.; Jakabsky, S.; Mockovciakova, A.; Lesko, M.

    1999-07-01

    The contribution gives attention to the determination of water-only (WO) cyclone operating parameters. The samples of steam coal and fines from the Cigel colliery have been washed in the laboratory type of WO cyclone. The products of washing were subjected to sink-float analyses. From the results of sink-float analyses the basic separation characteristics of the WO cyclone have been computed.

  6. Role of arthropods in developing soils on mine spoils. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitford, W.G.; Elkins, N.Z.; Parker, L.W.

    1981-06-01

    In laboratory microcosms of coal mine spoil amended with bark and wood chips, the activity of termites increased organic matter and increased total nitrogen. Termite survival was reduced in microcosms with spoil and paper or straw amendments. Field studies evaluating the efficacy of organic amendments in developing a soil biota showed that decomposition rates of wood chip-bark amended spoil were the same as unmined soil and that decomposition rates were lower than all other mulch-spoil combinations. Wood and bark amended-spoil had the highest density and diversity of soil fauna. Top dressing spoils with borrow soil did not improve any of the soil biological parameters measured. Based on these data it was recommended that reclamation procedures be changed to eliminate borrow soil top-dressing and that wood removed from mined areas be returned to the contoured spoil as wood chip amendment in addition to straw mulch.

  7. Fast heap transform-based QR-decomposition of real and complex matrices: algorithms and codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Artyom M.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we describe a new look on the application of Givens rotations to the QR-decomposition problem, which is similar to the method of Householder transformations. We apply the concept of the discrete heap transform, or signal-induced unitary transforms which had been introduced by Grigoryan (2006) and used in signal and image processing. Both cases of real and complex nonsingular matrices are considered and examples of performing QR-decomposition of square matrices are given. The proposed method of QR-decomposition for the complex matrix is novel and differs from the known method of complex Givens rotation and is based on analytical equations for the heap transforms. Many examples illustrated the proposed heap transform method of QR-decomposition are given, algorithms are described in detail, and MATLAB-based codes are included.

  8. Accounting for Heaping in Retrospectively Reported Event Data – A Mixture-Model Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Haim Y.; Lillard, Dean R.

    2012-01-01

    When event data are retrospectively reported, more temporally distal events tend to get “heaped” on even multiples of reporting units. Heaping may introduce a type of attenuation bias because it causes researchers to mismatch time-varying right-hand side variables. We develop a model-based approach to estimate the extent of heaping in the data, and how it affects regression parameter estimates. We use smoking cessation data as a motivating example, but our method is general. It facilitates the use of retrospective data from the multitude of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies worldwide that collect and potentially could collect event data. PMID:22733577

  9. Modeling of crushed ore agglomeration for heap leach operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhawan, Nikhil

    agglomeration, specifically crushed ore agglomeration. The experimental difficulties and how to overcome them are described. An empirical model that is readily useful for plant heap leach operations is shown in detail. The analysis of constituent particles within agglomerate size class is done with a partition model. The guest and host nature of particles, thus delineated, helps one to anticipate the nature of agglomerates that would be formed with a given ore size distribution. Thus, all aspects of batch agglomeration are addressed in this work.

  10. Coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield using vertical derivative technique of magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S. K.; Vaish, Jitendra; Kumar, Sahadev; Bharti, Abhay Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The present study deals with the coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield, India, using the magnetic method. It is based on the fact that rise in temperature would result significant changes in magnetic susceptibility and thermo-remanent magnetization (TRM) of the overlying rocks. Magnetism increases slowly with the rise of temperature until the Curie temperature. Generally, rock/ overburden loses magnetization and becomes paramagnetic due to heating to Curie temperature, which results with significant reduction in magnetic susceptibility. However, magnetism increases significantly after cooling below the Curie temperature. Several data processing methods such as diurnal correction, reduction to pole (RTP), first and second vertical derivatives have been used for analysis of magnetic data and their interpretation. It is observed that the total magnetic field intensity anomaly of the area varies approximately from 44850 to 47460 nT and the residual magnetic anomaly varies approximately from -1323 to 1253 nT. The range of the magnetic anomaly after RTP is approximately 1050-1450 nT. About 20 low magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with active coal fire regions and 11 high magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with non-coal fire regions using vertical derivative techniques.

  11. Comparison of the Cumulative Incidence Rates of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis between 1970 and 2013 among Four State-Owned Colliery Groups in China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Han, Bing; Yuan, Juxiang; Suo, Xia; Qin, Tianbang; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the incidence characteristics of coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) based on data from four large state-owned colliery groups of China, by comparing the cumulative incidence rates of CWP. We investigated 87,904 coal workers from the Datong, Kailuan, Fuxin, and Tiefa Colliery Groups, who were exposed to dust for at least 1 year. The cumulative incidence rate of CWP was calculated with the life-table method and stratified analysis among coal workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. Our results showed the cumulative incidence rate of Datong was higher than that of any other colliery group among workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. For Datong workers who started their dust exposure in the 1970s, the cumulative incidence rates of CWP among tunneling, mining, combining, and helping workers were 34.77%, 10.20%, 34.59%, and 4.91% during the observed time of 34 years, respectively. For those in the 1980s, the cumulative incidence rates were 32.29%, 13.51%, 2.98%, and 0.47%, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. In conclusion, the Datong colliery has the highest cumulative incidence rate of CWP among the four studied collieries, followed by Kailuan. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. Additional dust-proofing measures for decreasing dust concentrations are still necessary. PMID:26133134

  12. Comparison of the Cumulative Incidence Rates of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis between 1970 and 2013 among Four State-Owned Colliery Groups in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Han, Bing; Yuan, Juxiang; Suo, Xia; Qin, Tianbang; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2015-06-30

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the incidence characteristics of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) based on data from four large state-owned colliery groups of China, by comparing the cumulative incidence rates of CWP. We investigated 87,904 coal workers from the Datong, Kailuan, Fuxin, and Tiefa Colliery Groups, who were exposed to dust for at least 1 year. The cumulative incidence rate of CWP was calculated with the life-table method and stratified analysis among coal workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. Our results showed the cumulative incidence rate of Datong was higher than that of any other colliery group among workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. For Datong workers who started their dust exposure in the 1970s, the cumulative incidence rates of CWP among tunneling, mining, combining, and helping workers were 34.77%, 10.20%, 34.59%, and 4.91% during the observed time of 34 years, respectively. For those in the 1980s, the cumulative incidence rates were 32.29%, 13.51%, 2.98%, and 0.47%, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. In conclusion, the Datong colliery has the highest cumulative incidence rate of CWP among the four studied collieries, followed by Kailuan. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. Additional dust-proofing measures for decreasing dust concentrations are still necessary.

  13. Heap leach cyanide irrigation and risk to wildlife: Ramifications for the international cyanide management code.

    PubMed

    Donato, D B; Madden-Hallett, D M; Smith, G B; Gursansky, W

    2017-06-01

    Exposed cyanide-bearing solutions associated with gold and silver recovery processes in the mining industry pose a risk to wildlife that interact with these solutions. This has been documented with cyanide-bearing tailings storage facilities, however risks associated with heap leach facilities are poorly documented, monitored and audited. Gold and silver leaching heap leach facilities use cyanide, pH-stabilised, at concentrations deemed toxic to wildlife. Their design and management are known to result in exposed cyanide-bearing solutions that are accessible to and present a risk to wildlife. Monitoring of the presence of exposed solutions, wildlife interaction, interpretation of risks and associated wildlife deaths are poorly documented. This paper provides a list of critical monitoring criteria and attempts to predict wildlife guilds most at risk. Understanding the significance of risks to wildlife from exposed cyanide solutions is complex, involving seasonality, relative position of ponding, temporal nature of ponding, solution palatability, environmental conditions, in situ wildlife species inventory and provision of alternative drinking sources for wildlife. Although a number of heap leach operations are certified as complaint with the International Cyanide Management Code (Cyanide Code), these criteria are not considered by auditors nor has systematic monitoring regime data been published. Without systematic monitoring and further knowledge, wildlife deaths on heap leach facilities are likely to remain largely unrecorded. This has ramifications for those operations certified as compliance with the Cyanide Code.

  14. Role of hydrogen ions in standard and activation heap leaching of gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubtsov, YuI

    2017-02-01

    The role of hydrogen ions in activation heap leaching of gold from rebellious ore has been studied, which has allowed enhancing gold recovery. The author puts forward a gold leaching circuit with the use of activated oxygen-saturated solutions acidified to pH = 6–9.

  15. Heaping-Induced Bias in Regression-Discontinuity Designs. NBER Working Paper No. 17408

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreca, Alan I.; Lindo, Jason M.; Waddell, Glen R.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate that regression-discontinuity designs arrive at biased estimates when attributes related to outcomes predict heaping in the running variable. After showing that our usual diagnostics are poorly suited to identifying this type of problem, we provide alternatives. We also demonstrate how the…

  16. Community of thermoacidophilic and arsenic resistant microorganisms isolated from a deep profile of mine heaps.

    PubMed

    Casas-Flores, S; Gómez-Rodríguez, E Y; García-Meza, J V

    2015-12-01

    Soluble arsenic (As) in acidic feed solution may inhibit the copper (Cu) bioleaching process within mine heaps. To clarify the effect of soluble arsenic on the live biomass and bioxidative activity in heaps, toxicological assays were performed using a synthetic feed solution given by a mine company. The microorganisms had previously been isolated from two heap samples at up to 66 m depth, and cultured using specific media for chemolithotrophic acidophiles (pH 1-2) and moderate thermophiles (48°C), for arsenic tolerance assay. The four media with the highest biomass were selected to assay As-resistance; one culture (Q63h) was chosen to assay biooxidative activity, using a heap sample that contained chalcopyrite and covellite. We found that 0.5 g/L of As does not affect living biomass or biooxidative activity on Cu sulfides, but it dissolves Cu, while As precipitates as arsenic acid (H3AsO4·½H2O). The arsenic tolerant community, as identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, was composed of three main metabolic groups: chemolithotrophs (Leptospirillum, Sulfobacillus); chemolithoheterotrophs and organoheterotrophs as Acidovorax temperans, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, P. mendocina and Sphingomonas spp. Leptospirillum spp. and S. thermosulfidooxidans were the dominant taxa in the Q63-66 cultures from the deepest sample of the oldest, highest-temperature heap. The results indicated arsenic resistance in the microbial community, therefore specific primers were used to amplify ars (arsenic resistance system), aio (arsenite oxidase), or arr (arsenate respiratory reduction) genes from total sample DNA. Presence of arsB genes in S. thermosulfidooxidans in the Q63-66 cultures permits H3AsO4-As(V) detoxification and strengthens the community's response to As.

  17. Organizational change and marine environmental protection: The dredge spoil siting record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burroughs, R. H.

    1991-07-01

    Dredge spoil siting activities are reviewed over a decade to determine whether organizational changes within the Corps of Engineers produced changes in the environmental performance of the agency. Over the period neither the total amount of marine and estuarine dredging nor the incidence of siting spoil inside the baseline declined. Therefore, internal organizational changes do not appear to have affected the above measures of agency performance concerning protection of the marine environment. Furthermore, at least 3% of the spoil is estimated to be highly contaminated. In recent years this magnitude of contaminated spoils has been equivalent to ocean-dumped sewage sludge.

  18. Predicting ground-water movement in large mine spoil areas in the Appalachian Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wunsch, D.R.; Dinger, J.S.; Graham, C.D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Spoil created by surface mining can accumulate large quantities of ground-water, which can create geotechnical or regulatory problems, as well as flood active mine pits. A current study at a large (4.1 km2), thick, (up to 90 m) spoil body in eastern Kentucky reveals important factors that control the storage and movement of water. Ground-water recharge occurs along the periphery of the spoil body where surface-water drainage is blocked, as well as from infiltration along the spoil-bedrock contact, recharge from adjacent bedrock, and to a minor extent, through macropores at the spoil's surface. Based on an average saturated thickness of 6.4 m for all spoil wells, and assuming an estimated porosity of 20%, approximately 5.2 x 106 m3 of water is stored within the existing 4.1 km2 of reclaimed spoil. A conceptual model of ground-water flow, based on data from monitoring wells, dye-tracing data, discharge from springs and ponds, hydraulic gradients, chemical data, field reconnaissance, and aerial photographs indicate that three distinct but interconnected saturated zones have been established: one in the spoil's interior, and others in the valley fills that surround the main spoil body at lower elevations. Ground-water movement is sluggish in the spoil's interior, but moves quickly through the valley fills. The conceptual model shows that a prediction of ground-water occurrence, movement, and quality can be made for active or abandoned spoil areas if all or some of the following data are available: structural contour of the base of the lowest coal seam being mined, pre-mining topography, documentation of mining methods employed throughout the mine, overburden characteristics, and aerial photographs of mine progression.Spoil created by surface mining can accumulate large quantities of ground-water, which can create geotechnical or regulatory problems, as well as flood active mine pits. A current study at a large (4.1 km2), thick, (up to 90 m) spoil body in eastern

  19. Deviation of Zipf's and Heaps' Laws in Human Languages with Limited Dictionary Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Zipf's law on word frequency and Heaps' law on the growth of distinct words are observed in Indo-European language family, but it does not hold for languages like Chinese, Japanese and Korean. These languages consist of characters, and are of very limited dictionary sizes. Extensive experiments show that: (i) The character frequency distribution follows a power law with exponent close to one, at which the corresponding Zipf's exponent diverges. Indeed, the character frequency decays exponentially in the Zipf's plot. (ii) The number of distinct characters grows with the text length in three stages: It grows linearly in the beginning, then turns to a logarithmical form, and eventually saturates. A theoretical model for writing process is proposed, which embodies the rich-get-richer mechanism and the effects of limited dictionary size. Experiments, simulations and analytical solutions agree well with each other. This work refines the understanding about Zipf's and Heaps' laws in human language systems. PMID:23378896

  20. Development of a front end controller/heap manager for PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, M.N.; Allen, M.D.; Musrock, M.S.; Walker, J.W.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    A controller/heap manager has been designed for applicability to all detector subsystem types of PHENIX. the heap manager performs all functions associated with front end electronics control including ADC and analog memory control, data collection, command interpretation and execution, and data packet forming and communication. Interfaces to the unit consist of a timing and control bus, a serial bus, a parallel data bus, and a trigger interface. The topology developed is modular so that many functional blocks are identical for a number of subsystem types. Programmability is maximized through the use of flexible modular functions and implementation using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Details of unit design and functionality will be discussed with particular detail given to subsystems having analog memory-based front end electronics. In addition, mode control, serial functions, and FPGA implementation details will be presented.

  1. Deviation of Zipf's and Heaps' Laws in Human Languages with Limited Dictionary Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Zipf's law on word frequency and Heaps' law on the growth of distinct words are observed in Indo-European language family, but it does not hold for languages like Chinese, Japanese and Korean. These languages consist of characters, and are of very limited dictionary sizes. Extensive experiments show that: (i) The character frequency distribution follows a power law with exponent close to one, at which the corresponding Zipf's exponent diverges. Indeed, the character frequency decays exponentially in the Zipf's plot. (ii) The number of distinct characters grows with the text length in three stages: It grows linearly in the beginning, then turns to a logarithmical form, and eventually saturates. A theoretical model for writing process is proposed, which embodies the rich-get-richer mechanism and the effects of limited dictionary size. Experiments, simulations and analytical solutions agree well with each other. This work refines the understanding about Zipf's and Heaps' laws in human language systems.

  2. Photochemical changes in cyanide speciation in drainage from a precious metal ore heap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.A.; Leinz, R.W.; Grimes, D.J.; Rye, R.O.

    2002-01-01

    In drainage from an inactive ore heap at a former gold mine, the speciation of cyanide and the concentrations of several metals were found to follow diurnal cycles. Concentrations of the hexacyanoferrate complex, iron, manganese, and ammonium were higher at night than during the day, whereas weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, silver, gold, copper, nitrite, and pH displayed the reverse behavior. The changes in cyanide speciation, iron, and trace metals can be explained by photodissociation of iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes as the solutions emerged from the heap into sunlight-exposed channels. At midday, environmentally significant concentrations of free cyanide were produced in a matter of minutes, causing trace copper, silver, and gold to be mobilized as cyanocomplexes from solids. Whether rapid photodissociation is a general phenomenon common to other sites will be important to determine in reaching a general understanding of the environmental risks posed by routine or accidental water discharges from precious metal mining facilities.

  3. Multiple Genome Sequences of Important Beer-Spoiling Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Andreas J.; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2016-01-01

    Seven strains of important beer-spoiling lactic acid bacteria were sequenced using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Complete genomes were obtained for strains of Lactobacillus paracollinoides, Lactobacillus lindneri, and Pediococcus claussenii. The analysis of these genomes emphasizes the role of plasmids as the genomic foundation of beer-spoiling ability. PMID:27795248

  4. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... channels. (a) All submerged spoil banks, or artificial islands resulting from the dredging of private... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. 67.15-10 Section 67.15-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  5. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... channels. (a) All submerged spoil banks, or artificial islands resulting from the dredging of private... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. 67.15-10 Section 67.15-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  6. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... channels. (a) All submerged spoil banks, or artificial islands resulting from the dredging of private... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. 67.15-10 Section 67.15-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  7. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... channels. (a) All submerged spoil banks, or artificial islands resulting from the dredging of private... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. 67.15-10 Section 67.15-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  8. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... channels. (a) All submerged spoil banks, or artificial islands resulting from the dredging of private... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels. 67.15-10 Section 67.15-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  9. 46 CFR 170.300 - Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration for free surface of spoil in... Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers. The calculations required by this subchapter for each self-propelled hopper dredge must include— (a) The free surface effect...

  10. Mycobacteria in water used for personal hygiene in heavy industry and collieries: a potential risk for employees.

    PubMed

    Ulmann, Vit; Kracalikova, Anna; Dziedzinska, Radka

    2015-03-04

    Environmental mycobacteria (EM) constitute a health risk, particularly for immunocompromised people. Workers in heavy industry and in collieries represent an at-risk group of people as their immunity is often weakened by long-term employment in dusty environments, frequent smoking and an increased occurrence of pulmonary diseases. This study was concerned with the presence of EM in non-drinking water used for the hygiene of employees in six large industrial companies and collieries. Over a period of ten years, 1096 samples of surface water treated for hygiene purposes (treated surface water) and treated surface water diluted with mining water were examined. EM were detected in 63.4 and 41.5% samples of treated surface water and treated surface water diluted with mining water, respectively. Mycobacterium gordonae, M. avium-intracellulare and M. kansasii were the most frequently detected species. Adoption of suitable precautions should be enforced to reduce the incidence of mycobacteria in shower water and to decrease the infectious pressure on employees belonging to an at-risk group of people.

  11. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report for research

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W.W.; Mitchell, G.A.; McKendrick, J.D.

    1981-10-28

    Research on revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils and related topics was conducted at three mine locations in 1980 and 1981. One of the locations was at an active commercial mine, another at an abandoned mine, and the third at a test pit in a coal field that appears on the verge of development. The research included a number of plantings to test the adaptability of plant materials at various sites, time-of-planting and planting method trials, tests to determine fertilizer needs and plant responses to specific elements, numerous soil samplings to characterize minesoil materials and relate soil conditions to apparent performance of reclamation plantings that have been conducted at one mine over a period of nine years, base studies assessing faunal populations and their representation on replanted mine spoils, and studies of nutrient quality of native vegetation and reclamation plantings. This report will be presented in three sections. The first section will deal with the fertility and minesoil characterization studies, the second with the plant material studies, and the third with the faunal and plant quality studies.

  12. A geostatistical and sampling analysis of regraded spoil materials

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.C.; Brown, T.H.

    1990-12-31

    Characterization of the pH and acid-base account levels in regraded spoil materials from mining operations is a difficult task due to mixing and the directional nature of product extraction. Geostatistical analysis of regraded spoil materials is currently being studied as the eventual methodology for determining sample grid size and sub-sample number for minesoil monitoring programs in the State of Texas. It is anticipated that geostatistics will soon be utilized for similar reasons at mine sites in other regions. In view of this, it is necessary to develop a position on geostatistics as a method for determining sample intensity necessary to statistically characterize Acid Forming Material (AFM) conditions existing in post-mined soils. A group of six Texas lignite mines has been analyzed using geostatistical methods. Acid-base account and pH values were mapped at four levels in each site. Determinations as to the confidence of the sampling programs were performed for all sites. Recommendations and strategies were developed for future sampling programs. Additional techniques to minimize sub-sample spacing were also developed.

  13. Neural Correlates of the Perception of Spoiled Food Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Christoph A.; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta; Schupp, Harald T.

    2016-01-01

    The elicitation of disgust by the view of spoiled and rotten foods is considered as an adaptation preventing the ingestion of harmful microorganisms and pathogens. To provide an effective behavioral defense, inedible food items need to be detected automatically, i.e., in the absence of explicit processing goals, early in the processing stream, and triggering an alarm response, i.e., increased attentional capture. To examine these hypotheses, a set of stimulus material consisting of images of perishable foods (i.e., dairies, meats, fruits, and vegetables) at various stages of natural decay ranging from appetitive to disgusting was developed. In separate sessions, functional imaging and dense sensor event related potential (ERP) data were collected while participants (N = 24) viewed the stimulus materials. Functional imaging data indicated larger activations in the extrastriate visual cortex during the processing of inedible as compared to edible food items. Furthermore, ERP recordings indicated that the processing of inedible food stimuli was associated with a relative positivity over inferior occipital sensor sites already at early stages of processing (<200 ms), and subsequently, an increased late positive potential (LPP) over parieto-occipital sensor regions. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the brain’s sensitivity to visual cues of foods that are spoiled or rotten. PMID:27445746

  14. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W W; Mitchell, G A; McKendrick, J D

    1980-05-23

    Activities initiated after the start of the revegetation project on Alaskan coal mine spoils on September 1, 1979 have consisted mainly of some fall plantings (dormant seedings) and soil and coal spoil samplings and analyses. Because of the late summer start for the project, only a limited amount of field work could be initiated in plant material studies. This consisted of a fall planting at the Usibelli mine site at Healy in interior Alaska. The planting was intended to test the efficacy of seeding in the frost period following the growing season, requiring the seed to remain dormant over winter and to germinate when conditions become favorable in late spring. It also was intended as a comparison of a number of different grasses. Thirty entries were seeded in three replications. Fifteen species of grasses and a clover were included in the trial. The site provided for the trial was on overburden material along a streambed. Among the entries were eight cultivars of introduced grasses, five cultivars of native Alaskan germplasm, one introduced clover cultivar, and sixteen experimental grasses mainly of Alaskan origin.

  15. Comparative metagenomics reveals microbial community differentiation in a biological heap leaching system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qi; Guo, Xue; Liang, Yili; Hao, Xiaodong; Ma, Liyuan; Yin, Huaqun; Liu, Xueduan

    2015-01-01

    The microbial community in a biological heap leaching (BHL) system is crucial for the decomposition of ores. However, the microbial community structure and functional differentiation in different parts of a biological heap leaching system are still unknown. In this study, metagenomic sequencing was used to fully illuminate the microbial community differentiation in the pregnant leach solution (PLS) and leaching heap (LH) of a BHL system. Long-read sequences (1.3 million) were obtained for the two samples, and the MG_RAST server was used to perform further analysis. The taxa analysis results indicated that the dominant genera of PLS is autotrophic bacterium Acidithiobacillus, but heterotrophic bacterium Acidiphilium is predominant in LH. Furthermore, functional annotation and hierarchical comparison with different reference samples showed that the abundant presence of genes was involved in transposition, DNA repair and heavy metal transport. The sequences related to transposase, which is important for the survival of the organism in the hostile environment, were both mainly classified into Acidiphilium for PLS and LH. These results indicated that not only autotrophic bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus, but also heterotrophic bacteria such as Acidiphilium, were essential participants in the bioleaching process. This new meta-view research will further facilitate the effective application of bioleaching.

  16. Preliminary study of the refaunation of alkaline shale coal surface mine spoil by soil arthropods

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, E.A.; Wilman, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    Soil sampling stations were laid out on (largely) untopsoiled shale surface mine spoil in 1979. Stations were located on spoil graded in 1978-1979, in ungraded spoil cast in 1972 and aerially seeded in 1973, and in adjacent off-mine woods and an old field. Additional stations were added in 1982 on spoil graded only 3.5 weeks - 3 months prior to sampling. Stations were located to include important variables typical of the mine. Of 17 classes-orders of arthropods recovered from all sites, only Acari (78-99% of total individuals) and Collembola (2-12%) were consistently widespread and numerous, and only Acari were important in the youngest spoils. A total of 69 mite families - superfamilies - were identified during the course of the study. Low-moderate mite populations were found in bare shale spoil graded only 3.5 weeks - 3 months prior to sampling, these distributed among 4 families. Samples from 1978-79 spoil contained 13 families 3-7 months after grading and 2 years later were comparable to off-mine sites both in numbers of individuals and number of families. Spoil from 1973 was comparable to off-mine sites in these 2 respects when first sampled. Earliest pioneer species were 3 (presumably) microherbivores, these remaining dominant for several years. Predatory mites appeared early and were well established less than a year after grading. Saprovores were absent or relatively scarce in the 2 youngest spoils, but well established in the 1973 spoil at first sampling.

  17. Merits of partial shielding in dumping sediment spoils.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jacob Hjelmager; Saremi, Sina; Jimenez, Carlos; Hadjioannou, Louis

    2015-12-15

    The commonly adopted method of dumping dredge spoil at sea using split-hull barges leads to considerable sediment loss to the water column and a subsequent dispersion of fine material that can pose a risk to sensitive "downstream" habitats such as coral reefs. Containing sediment loads using stitched closed geotextile bags is practiced for minimizing loss of contaminated sediment, but is expensive in terms of operational efficiency. Following promising observations from initial laboratory trials, the plunging of partially shielded sediment loads, released on open sea, was studied. The partial shielding was achieved with rigid, open containers as well as flexible, open bags. The loss of sediment from these modes of shielding was measured, and it was observed that even limited and unstitched shielding can be effective in debilitating the entrainment of water into the descending load. In particular, long-sleeved flexible bags practically self-eliminated the exposure of the load and thus losses.

  18. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  19. Occurrence and activity of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms in alkaline coal strip mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Olson, G J; McFeters, G A; Temple, K L

    1981-03-01

    Spoils samples collected from a coal strip mine in southeastern Montana were examined for populations and activities of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Spoils examined were of three types: (a) acidic pyrite-rich waste coal, (b) oxidation halo material, and (c) alkaline material, which was the most widespread type. Bacterial numbers, sulfur oxidation, and(14)CO2 uptake activity declined to low levels in the summer when spoils were dry. Even in wetter spring months pyritic spoils contained relatively low numbers of acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, probably indicative of water stress since the same spoils incubated with excess water or dilute mineral salts showed considerably greater bacterial numbers and activity. Certain wells in coal and spoils aquifers contained substantial populations of iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria. However, these wells were always of alkaline or neutral pH, indicating that bacterial pyrite oxidation occurred where groundwaters contacted either replaced spoils or coal that contained pyrite or other metal sulfides. Bacterial activity may contribute to trace metal and sulfate leaching in the area.

  20. A column evaluation of Appalachian coal mine spoils' temporal leaching behavior.

    PubMed

    Orndorff, Zenah W; Daniels, W Lee; Zipper, Carl E; Eick, Matt; Beck, Mike

    2015-09-01

    Appalachian surface coal mine overburden affects water quality as drainage percolates through spoil disposal fills. This study evaluated leaching potentials of 15 spoils from south-central Appalachia. Most bulk samples were non acid-forming, all were low in total-S, (≤0.34%), and initial saturated paste specific conductance (SC) ranged from 264 to 3560 μS cm(-1). Samples were leached unsaturated (40 cycles) and leachates analyzed for pH, SC, and ion composition. Overall, leachates from unweathered spoils were higher in pH and SC than leachates from weathered spoils. Fine-textured spoils generally produced higher SCs than more coarsely textured spoils. Mean SC for all spoils decreased rapidly from an initial peak of 1468 μS cm(-1) (±150) to 247 μS cm(-1) (±23). Release patterns for most major ions reflected declining SC. Bicarbonate typically increased with successive leaches, replacing sulfate as the dominant anion. Column SC values were comparable to relevant published field data.

  1. Settlement of mine spoil fill from water infiltration: Case study in eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Karem, W.A.; Kalinski, M.E.; Hancher, D.E.

    2007-09-15

    Mine spoil valley fills are a by-product of mountaintop removal mining in the Appalachian coal mining region of the United States. These fills often result in large expanses of relatively flat land covering thousands of acres, which can be used for commercial or industrial development. However, this material is susceptible to damaging settlement, and highly publicized failures of structures built on mine spoil fills have led to reluctance on the part of investors to develop these areas. A key settlement mechanism in mine spoil is water infiltration. Percolating water slakes the shaly, angular spoil material at interparticle stress points, leading to excessive deformation and settlement. A lumber processing facility in Hazard, Ky., is an example of a structure that sustained serious damage as a result of settlement caused by water infiltration. A forensic site investigation of the facility revealed that excavation of existing surface mine spoil beneath the building footprint removed the low-permeability crust that forms on the top of mature mine spoil fill deposits. The removal of the crust allowed the infiltration of surface water. This, coupled with the unique configuration of the storm water drainage system at the facility and surface water drainage toward the building, led to differential settlement up to 1:120 (vertical: horizontal) and angular distortion up to 1: 150 over a period of several months. Foundation underpinning was performed to remedy the situation. For future development on mine spoil sites, recommended mitigating measures include presaturation of the mine spoil, design of drainage systems to adequately convey surface water away from the building, and use of geosynthetic barrier layers to prevent infiltration of surface water into the mine spoil beneath the structure.

  2. Fundamental Study of Three-dimensional Fast Spin-echo Imaging with Spoiled Equilibrium Pulse.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Masashi; Kaji, Naoto; Tsuchihashi, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional fast spin-echo (3D FSE) imaging with variable refocusing flip angle has been recently applied to pre- or post-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. To reduce the acquisition time, this sequence requires higher echo train length (ETL), which potentially causes decreased T1 contrast. Spoiled equilibrium (SpE) pulse consists of a resonant +90° radiofrequency (RF) pulse and is applied at the end of the echo train. This +90° RF pulse brings residual transverse magnetization to the negative longitudinal axis, which makes it possible to increase T1 contrast. The purpose of our present study was to examine factors that influence the effect of spoiled equilibrium pulse and the relationship between T1 contrast improvement and imaging parameters and to understand the characteristics of spoiled equilibrium pulse. Phantom studies were conducted using an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phantom made of polyvinyl alcohol gel. To evaluate the effect of spoiled equilibrium pulse with changes in repetition time (TR), ETL, and refocusing flip angle, we measured the signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The effect of spoiled equilibrium pulse was evaluated by calculating the enhancement rate of CNR. The factors that influence the effect of spoiled equilibrium pulse are TR, ETL, and relaxation time of tissues. Spoiled equilibrium pulse is effective with increasing TR and decreasing ETL. The shorter the T1 value, the better the spoiled equilibrium pulse functions. However, for tissues in which the T1 value is long (>600 ms), at a TR of 600 ms, improvement in T1 contrast by applying spoiled equilibrium pulse cannot be expected.

  3. Effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities: A literature review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Paul M.; Garza, Eric L.; Butcher, Jason T.; Simon, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    Contaminated dredge spoil is a national concern due to its scope and effects on biota, water quality, and the physical environment. This literature review discusses the effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities. Plant communities naturally shift over time with changing environmental conditions. Addition of toxins and nutrients and changes in hydrology may influence plant community structure. The storage and disposal of nutrient and metal contaminated dredge spoils may cause shifts in nearby plant communities. Shifts in species composition and diversity may not be observed for decades after nutrient enrichment, causing any disturbance to remain undetected. Plant community shifts often have great amounts of inertia and are difficult to reverse.

  4. Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane from cattle manure heaps: effect of compaction and covering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, D. R.

    The effect of compaction and covering during storage of beef cattle ( Bos taurus) farmyard manure (FYM) on ammonia (NH 3), nitrous oxide (N 2O) and methane (CH 4) emissions was determined. Gaseous emission measurements were made over three separate storage periods of between 90 and 109 days. The effect of the different storage treatments on manure chemical composition was also determined. Compaction was carried out as the manure was put into store and the compacted manures covered with plastic sheeting. Compaction and covering significantly reduced NH 3 emissions from manure by over 90% during the first summer storage period (P<0.05). Over the subsequent storage periods NH 3 emissions from the FYM were small and unaffected by storage treatment. However, during the second storage period heavy and persistent rainfall during heap establishment and the following week appeared to reduce NH 3 emissions markedly. The low ammonium-N content of the FYM in the third storage period may have reduced the risk of NH 3 emission and reduced the relative effect of the compaction/covering treatment. Compaction and covering also significantly reduced N 2O emissions from cattle FYM (P<0.05) by ca. 30% during the first storage period. Subsequent N 2O emissions were unaffected by treatment. Methane emissions from cattle FYM were unaffected by treatment over the first storage period and were decreased by compaction in the second storage period yet was increased by compaction during the third storage period. It would appear that compacting and covering manure heaps does have the potential to reduce emissions of both NH 3 and N 2O when the manure contains relatively high ammonium-N contents. Additional benefits are that N and K are retained in the manure heap for agronomic benefit.

  5. Heap leaching of lead contaminated soil using biodegradable chelator [S,S]-ethylenediamine disuccinate.

    PubMed

    Finzgar, N; Kos, B; Lestan, D

    2005-05-01

    The feasibility of heap leaching Pb contaminated soil using biodegradable chelator [S,S]-ethylenediamine disuccinate ([S,S]-EDDS) in concentrations ranging from 10 to 40 mmol kg(-1) was assessed in a laboratory study. Treatment with 40 mmol kg(-1) [S,S]-EDDS was the most efficient, removing 31.3% of soil Pb and producing a waste washing solution with a peak Pb concentration slightly exceeding 10 mM. The removal of Pb from simulated washing solution containing 10 mM Pb by biodegradation of the Pb-[S,S]-EDDS complex and sorption of the released Pb on a vermiculite/soya meal/Slovakite based permeable bed was completed in 7.5 days. Lead recovery from washing solutions with higher molarity was significantly slower. Lead fractionation and bioavailability were assessed 6-months after soil treatment. Heap leaching removed Pb proportionally from carbonates (approx. 25% Pb) and organic matter (> 50% Pb), the two main Pb-bearing soil fractions,and increased the small pool of Pb soluble in the soil solution. The latter had no effect on Pb phytoavailability. Accumulation of Pb in leaves of the reported hyperaccumulator species Thlaspi goesingense was < 20 mg kg(-1) in all treatments, comparable to the Pb concentration in lettuce (Latuca sativa). Soil treatment with 40 mmol kg(-1) [S,S]-EDDS reduced concentrations of Pb orally-accessible in the stomach and intestine phase from initial 234.0 and 52.5 mg kg(-1) to 157.8 and 29.7 mg kg(-1), respectively, according to Ruby's test. Our results indicate that heap leaching of Pb with [S,S]-EDDS is not a viable remediation option for the tested soil and conditions used.

  6. Interactions between properties of amended strip mine spoils and microbial activities

    SciTech Connect

    Utsalo, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Properties of strip mine spoils before and after amendment with varying levels of carbon and nitrogen sources are characterized and compared with properties of similarly amended garden soil samples. Changes in spoils as reflected in the stimulation of microbial populations, rate of nitrate formation, the turnover of microbial biomass and the growth yields of white clover and rye grass are evaluated. Limed spoils and garden soils were fertilized and incubated at 25/sup 0/C following amendments with organic substrates. Changes in parameters related to soil fertility status were analyzed on a weekly basis. The possible identity and the toxic effects on white clover and a Rhizobium of acidity factors present in strip mine spoils were evaluated using soil experiments and pure culture studies in artificial culture media. The results indicate that acid spoils contain low numbers of viable microorganisms which readily respond to soil amendment with substrates. No nitrification occurs in acid spoils but liming and inoculation with compost infusion stimulate active nitrification. Aluminum, manganese and acidity appear to be important factors which inhibit the survival of plants and microbes in spoils. Adequate liming improves rhizobial survival and growth and nodulation of white clover in spoils. Acidity factors have greater impact on Rhizobium than on the white clover host under nutritionally independent conditions. Increase in inoculum size enhances nodulation and growth of clover at low aluminum levels. Reducing the time of exposure of rhizobia to acidity factors outside the symbiotic host does not appear to enhance the growth yield of clover under symbiotic conditions. Molds appear to contribute more to the increased aggregate stability observed in amended soils than bacteria and actinomycetes.

  7. Succession on regraded placer mine spoil in Alaska, USA, in relation to initial site characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the rate and pattern of natural succession on regraded placer mine spoil in relation to initial substrate characteristics. The study site was the Glen Creek watershed of the Kantishna mining area of Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. After regrading, twelve 0.01-ha plots were established and substrate characteristics were measured. Natural plant succession was evaluated after five growing seasons. Three successional patterns were identified on the basis of plant community characteristics using cluster analysis, and were related to substrate characteristics. First, a riparian plant community with vigorous Salix alaxensis and Alnus crispa grew rapidly on topsoil that had been spread over the regraded spoil. Second, a similar plant community with less vigorous S. alaxensis developed more slowly on unprocessed spoil and spoil amended with a small amount of topsoil. Third, processed spoil remained almost bare of vegetation, although S. alaxensis was able to establish and persist in a stunted growth form. In contrast, Alnus crispa had difficulty establishing on processed spoil, but the few established seedlings grew well. Several substrate variables, including the proportion of silt and clay vs. sand, total nitrogen, and water retention capacity, were good predictors of the rate and pattern of succession. Total nitrogen was the best single predictor for the number of vigorous S. alaxensis.

  8. Identification of ecotype-specific marker genes for categorization of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Preissler, Patrick; Ehrenreich, Armin; Angelov, Angel; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-10-01

    The tolerance to hop compounds, which is mainly associated with inhibition of bacterial growth in beer, is a multi-factorial trait. Any approaches to predict the physiological differences between beer-spoiling and non-spoiling strains on the basis of a single marker gene are limited. We identified ecotype-specific genes related to the ability to grow in Pilsner beer via comparative genome sequencing. The genome sequences of four different strains of Lactobacillus brevis were compared, including newly established genomes of two highly hop tolerant beer isolates, one strain isolated from faeces and one published genome of a silage isolate. Gene fragments exclusively occurring in beer-spoiling strains as well as sequences only occurring in non-spoiling strains were identified. Comparative genomic arrays were established and hybridized with a set of L. brevis strains, which are characterized by their ability to spoil beer. As result, a set of 33 and 4 oligonucleotide probes could be established specifically detecting beer-spoilers and non-spoilers, respectively. The detection of more than one of these marker sequences according to a genetic barcode enables scoring of L. brevis for their beer-spoiling potential and can thus assist in risk evaluation in brewing industry.

  9. Water quality characteristics of discharge from reforested loose-dumped mine spoil in eastern Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Agouridis, Carmen T; Angel, Patrick N; Taylor, Timothy J; Barton, Christopher D; Warner, Richard C; Yu, Xia; Wood, Constance

    2012-01-01

    Surface mining is a common method for extracting coal in the coal fields of eastern Kentucky. Using the Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA), which emphasizes the use of minimally compacted or loose-dumped spoil as a growth medium for trees, reclamation practitioners are successfully reestablishing forests. Yet, questions remain regarding the effects FRA has on the quality of waters discharged to receiving streams. To examine the effect of FRA on water quality, this study compared waters that were discharged from three types of spoils: predominantly brown, weathered sandstone (BROWN); predominantly gray, unweathered sandstone (GRAY); and an equal mixture of both aforementioned sandstones and shale (MIXED). The water quality parameters pH, EC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, NO-N, NH-N, SO, Cl, TC, suspended sediment concentration (SSC), settleable solids (SS), and turbidity were monitored over a 2-yr period on six 0.4-ha plots (two replications per spoil type). Generally, levels of Cl, SO, Ca, NO-N, NH-N, SS, SSC, and turbidity decreased over time. The pH for all spoils increased from about 7.5 to 8.5. The EC remained relatively level in the BROWN spoil, whereas the GRAY and MIXED spoils had downward trajectories that were approaching 500 μS cm. The value of 500 μS cm has been reported as the apparent threshold at which certain taxa such as Ephemeroptera (e.g., Mayfly) recolonize disturbed headwater streams of eastern Kentucky and adjacent coal-producing Appalachian states.

  10. Phytoextraction from mine spoils: insights from New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Losfeld, Guillaume; Mathieu, Romain; L'Huillier, Laurent; Fogliani, Bruno; Jaffré, Tanguy; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Increasing pressure on mineral resources has drawn research efforts into innovative supply and recycling. Metal-rich biomass produced in phytoextraction recently proved an interesting starting material for green chemistry. It allows the production of new catalysts, referred to as ecocatalysts. Ecocatalysts provide increased yields in chemical production and increased regio- and chemo-selectivity, which result in high added value. This new approach to using metal-rich biomass could spur the development of phytoextraction, a technique considered promising for long, yet without credible economic outlets. In this regard, metallophyte biodiversity hotspots, such as New Caledonia, are of particular interest for biomass supply. Potential phytoextraction from mine spoils using two species endemic to New Caledonia is discussed here. Geissois pruinosa, a hypernickelophore, and Grevillea exul, a Mn accumulator, were selected for these original experiments. The results presented here 20 months after plantation of young trees from a nursery show the interest of the approach. Mean Ni concentrations of up to 1513 mg kg(-1) are reported in G. pruinosa, as well as 2000 mg kg(-1) Mn in G. exul. Concentrations of Ni and Mn in the leaves of each species appear to be correlated with leaf age. Plantation of these species may also ensure mine reclamation, and experiments were conducted with the principles of ecological restoration in mind adding a further dimension to the approach.

  11. Mine spoil acts as a sink of carbon dioxide in Indian dry tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Nimisha; Singh, Raj Shekhar; Nathanail, C Paul

    2014-01-15

    Economically important mining operations have adverse environmental impacts: top soil, subsoil and overburden are relocated; resulting mine spoils constitute an unaesthetic landscape and biologically sterile or compromised habitat, and act as source of pollutants with respect to air dust, heavy metal contamination to soil and water bodies. Where such spoils are revegetated, however, they can act as a significant sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through combined plant succession and soil formation. Revegetation, drainage, reprofiling and proper long term management practices help recapture carbon, improve soil quality and restore the soil organic matter content. A survey along an age gradient of revegetated mine spoils of 19 years in Singrauli, India by the authors showed an accumulation of total C in total plant biomass, mine soil and soil microbial biomass by 44.5, 22.9 and 1.8 t/ha, respectively. There was an increase in total sequestered C by 712% in revegetated mine spoils after 19 years, which can be translated into annual C sequestration potential of 3.64 t Cha(-1) yr(-1). Carbon sequestered in revegetated mine spoil is equivalent to 253.96 tonnes/ha capture of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). This indicates that mine spoil can act as a significant sink for atmospheric CO2. Annual C budget indicated 8.40 t Cha(-1) yr(-1) accumulation in which 2.14 t/ha was allocated to above ground biomass, 0.31 t/ha in belowground biomass, 2.88 t/ha in litter mass and 1.35 t/ha in mine soil. This shows that litter mass allocation is much important in the revegetated site. Decomposition of root and litter mass contributes C storage in the mine soil. Therefore, revegetation of mine soils is an important management option for mitigation of the negative impacts of mining and enhancing carbon sequestration in mine spoils.

  12. Characterization of Clostridium spp. isolated from spoiled processed cheese products.

    PubMed

    Lycken, Lena; Borch, Elisabeth

    2006-08-01

    Of 42 spoiled cheese spread products, 35 were found to harbor Clostridium spp. Typical signs of spoilage were gas production and off-odor. The identity was determined for about half of the isolates (n = 124) by Analytab Products (API), Biolog, the RiboPrinter System, 16S rDNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid analysis, or some combination of these. The majority of isolates were identified as Clostridium sporogenes (in 33% of products), but Clostridium cochlearium (in 12% of products) and Clostridium tyrobutyricum (in 2% of products) were also retrieved. Similarity analysis of the riboprint patterns for 21 isolates resulted in the identification of 10 ribogroups. A high degree of relatedness was observed between isolates of C. sporogenes originating from products produced 3 years apart, indicating a common and, over time, persistent source of infection. The spoilage potential of 11 well-characterized isolates and two culture collection strains was analyzed by inoculating shrimp cheese spread with single cultures and then storing them at 37 degrees C. Tubes inoculated with C. tyrobutyricum did not show any visible signs of growth (e.g., coagulation, discoloration, gas formation) in the cheese spread. After 2 weeks of incubation, tubes inoculated with C. cochlearium or C. sporogenes showed gas-holes, syneresis with separation of coagulated casein and liquid, and a change in color of the cheese. The amount of CO2 produced by C. cochlearium strains was approximately one-third that produced by the majority of C. sporogenes strains. To our knowledge, this is the first study to isolate and identify C. cochlearium as a spoilage organism in cheese spread.

  13. Soil quality index for evaluation of reclaimed coal mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Masto, R E; Yadav, A; George, J; Ram, L C; Shukla, S P

    2016-01-15

    Success in the remediation of mine spoil depends largely on the selection of appropriate tree species. The impacts of remediation on mine soil quality cannot be sufficiently assessed by individual soil properties. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more holistic status of reclamation potentials of tree species. Remediation potentials of four tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo, and Leucaena leucocephala) were studied on reclaimed coal mine overburden dumps of Jharia coalfield, Dhanbad, India. Soil samples were collected under the canopies of the tree species. Comparative studies on the properties of soils in the reclaimed and the reference sites showed improvements in soil quality parameters of the reclaimed site: coarse fraction (-20.4%), bulk density (-12.8%), water holding capacity (+0.92%), pH (+25.4%), EC (+2.9%), cation exchange capacity (+46.6%), organic carbon (+91.5%), N (+60.6%), P (+113%), K (+19.9%), Ca (+49.6%), Mg (+12.2%), Na (+19.6%), S (+46.7%), total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (-71.4%), dehydrogenase activity (+197%), and microbial biomass carbon (+115%). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Selected indicators include: coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity. The indicator values were converted into a unitless score (0-1.00) and integrated into SQI. The calculated SQI was significantly (P<0.001) correlated with tree biomass and canopy cover. Reclaimed site has 52-93% higher SQI compared to the reference site. Higher SQI values were obtained for sites reclaimed with D.sissoo (+93.1%) and C.siamea (+86.4%).

  14. The accumulation of elements in plants growing spontaneously on small heaps left by the historical Zn-Pb ore mining.

    PubMed

    Stefanowicz, Anna M; Stanek, Małgorzata; Woch, Marcin W; Kapusta, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    The study evaluated the levels of nine metals, namely Ca, Cd, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Pb, Tl, and Zn, in soils and tissues of ten plant species growing spontaneously on heaps left by historical mining for Zn-Pb ores. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Tl, and Zn in heap soils were much higher than in control soils. Plants growing on heaps accumulated excessive amounts of these elements in tissues, on average 1.3-52 mg Cd kg(-1), 9.4-254 mg Pb kg(-1), 0.06-23 mg Tl kg(-1) and 134-1479 mg Zn kg(-1) in comparison to 0.5-1.1 mg Cd kg(-1), 2.1-11 mg Pb kg(-1), 0.02-0.06 mg Tl kg(-1), and 23-124 mg Zn kg(-1) in control plants. The highest concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn were found in the roots of Euphorbia cyparissias, Fragaria vesca, and Potentilla arenaria, and Tl in Plantago lanceolata. Many species growing on heaps were enriched in K and Mg, and depleted in Ca, Fe, and Mn. The concentrations of all elements in plant tissues were dependent on species, organ (root vs. shoot), and species-organ interactions. Average concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg were generally higher in shoots than in roots or similar in the two organs, whereas Cd, Fe, Pb, Tl, and Zn were accumulated predominantly in the roots. Our results imply that heaps left by historical mining for Zn-Pb ores may pose a potential threat to the environment and human health.

  15. Heaps of Shapes: Flow-Stabilized Solids with Non-Spherical Colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindauer, Scott; Shields, C. Wyatt, IV; Lopez, Gabriel P.; Daniels, Karen E.; Riehn, Robert

    Flow-stabilized solids are a class of fragile matter that are formed when a dense suspension of hard colloids is accumulated against a semipermeable barrier. We build a microfluidic device to confine Brownian particles in a quasi-2D channel; a controlled flow rate above a critical value forms flow-stabilized solids against the barrier. We extend prior work on submicron spherical particles, to particles of size 2-5 microns, and of various shapes: circular, rectangular, hexagonal, and triangular prisms. We perform experiments on these flow-stabilized solids to observe the angle of repose, packing fraction, and orientational order as a function of flow rate. We vary the flow rate quasi-statically in order to conduct the experiment at steady state. We find a critical flow rate below which no pile forms. In general, particles with less-circular shape form more stable heaps.

  16. Identification of key odorants related to the typical aroma of oxidation-spoiled white wines.

    PubMed

    Silva Ferreira, Antonio César; Hogg, Timothy; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2003-02-26

    The oxidative degradation of white wines rapidly leads to a loss of their sensorial qualities. The identification of the most important descriptors related with oxidation-spoiled wine was performed by a trained sensory panel. The terms selected were "honey-like", "farm-feed", "hay", and "woody-like". By gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis three aromatic zones related to these descriptors in the oxidation-spoiled white wines could be determined. Comparison of the aroma extract dilution analysis aromagrams of oxidation-spoiled white wines and a nonspoiled wine showed the highest values of dilution factors were attributed to 3-(methylthio)propionaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN), and 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon). A "forced aging" experiment was implemented to simulate the typical oxidation-spoiled aroma. Samples rated with the highest score in the ranking test were also those that presented the highest concentration of these four molecules. To test the sensory impact of these substances, a normal wine (unspoiled) was spiked with these molecules (with the exception of TDN) singly and in combination, and the similarity value (SV) between samples and the oxidation-spoiled white wines was then determined. The highest value from the similarity tests was 5.4 when the three compounds were added simultaneously; 3-(methylthio)propionaldehyde alone was found to be responsible for 3.6, suggesting that, among the molecules studied, it is the most important contributor to the typical aroma of an oxidation-spoiled white wine.

  17. Recognizing critical mine spoil health characteristics to design biochars for site improvement to promote stabilizing plant growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biochar can be used as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated mine spoils for improved site phytostabilization. For successful phytostabilization to occur, biochar amendments must improve mine spoil health with respect to plant rooting plus uptake of water and nutrients. ...

  18. TEMPORAL COHERENCE AND FREQUENCY VS TIME CHARACTERISTICS OF A Q-SPOILED RUBY LASER,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    of change of the laser frequency during the Q-spoiled emission pulse is approximately twenty times the rate of change during a single spike of an...linear in the change in the number of excited states in the laser. Since the rate of change of population inversion during Q-spoiled emission is much...larger than for normal lasing it was expected, prior to this work, that a greater rate of change of frequency should be observed. This has now been confirmed. (Author)

  19. Evaluation of fluorine release from air deposited coal spoil piles: A case study at Yangquan city, northern China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xubo; Hu, Yandi; Li, Chengcheng; Dai, Chong; Li, Liang; Ou, Xiong; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-03-01

    The fluorine content of coal has been well documented, while such data of coal spoil are limited. In the present paper, fluorine in coal spoils and its releasing behavior were studied via leaching and combustion tests, as well as field investigation. Fluoride pollution in groundwater and soil occurred in the air depositing areas of coal spoils. The average content of fluorine in coal spoils was 525 mg/kg with the highest value of 1885 mg/kg. The only XRD detectable inorganic fluorine phase was fluorphlogopite. The absence of major fluorine bearing minerals in coal spoils suggested that bulk fluorine, rather than trace phases, resided in the mineral matrix. The major extracted species were water soluble fluorine and exchangeable fluorine in the coal spoils. Batch leaching tests illustrated that the leachable fluoride in coal spoils was widely distributed, ranging from 2.0 to 108.4 mg/kg. Column leaching tests showed a clear pH-dependent leaching behavior of fluorine: lower pH situation led to fluorine release from the mineral matrix; the loosely bound or easily exchangeable fluorine was also flushed out of the column. The higher ion strength or alkaline bicarbonate/carbonate rich leaching solution tended to free more fluorine into the acidic aqueous solution. The leachable fluorine in coal spoils was estimated as ca. 6%, based on the results of leaching tests. Also, our research found that over 90% of fluorine in coal spoils could be released into the atmosphere as a result of spontaneous combustion, accounting for over 40% of the total atmospheric fluorine emissions in northern China. Our investigation suggests that it is urgent to conduct comprehensive studies to assist the management and control of fluorine pollution at coal spoil banks.

  20. [Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the vegetation restoration of different types of coal mine spoil banks].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ren-Xin; Guo, Wei; Fu, Rui-Ying; Zhao, Wen-Jing; Guo, Jiang-Yuan; Bi, Na; Zhang, Jun

    2013-11-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus etunicatum (GE) and Glomus versiforme (GV) on the plant growth, nutrient uptake, C: N: P stoichiometric, uptake of heavy metals by maize (Zea mays L.) grown in three types of coal mine spoil banks. The aim was to provide a technical basis for the revegetation of coal mine spoil banks in grassland ecosystem. The results indicated that the symbiotic associations were successfully established between two isolates and maize grown in the three substrates, with an average mycorrhizal colonization rate ranging from 36% to 54%. The colonization of two AM fungi significantly increased the dry weight of maize grown in recent discharged and weathered coal mine spoils and GE increased those grown in weathered coal mine spoil. Inoculation with AM fungi promoted the uptake of N, P and K by maize to varying degrees. In addition, inoculation with GE and GV also decreased C: N: P ratios, supporting the growth rate hypothesis, and had significantly differences on concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in shoots and roots of maize. The results indicated that GE and GV had different mycorrhizal effects on maize in the three types of substrates. GV was more suitable for the revegetation of recent discharged coal mine spoil and weathered coal mine spoil, while GE was more suitable for the revegetation of spontaneous combusted coal mine spoil. The experiment demonstrates that AM fungi have a potential role for maize to enhance the ability to adapt the composite adversity of different types of coal mine spoil and play a positive role in the revegetation of different coal mine spoil banks. Further field experiments should be conducted to evaluate the practical effects of AM fungi on the vegetation restoration of different types of coal mine spoil under field conditions.

  1. Current scenario of chalcopyrite bioleaching: a review on the recent advances to its heap-leach technology.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sandeep; Akcil, Ata; Pradhan, Nilotpala; Deveci, Haci

    2015-11-01

    Chalcopyrite is the primary copper mineral used for production of copper metal. Today, as a result of rapid industrialization, there has been enormous demand to profitably process the low grade chalcopyrite and "dirty" concentrates through bioleaching. In the current scenario, heap bioleaching is the most advanced and preferred eco-friendly technology for processing of low grade, uneconomic/difficult-to-enrich ores for copper extraction. This paper reviews the current status of chalcopyrite bioleaching. Advanced information with the attempts made for understanding the diversity of bioleaching microorganisms; role of OMICs based research for future applications to industrial sectors and chemical/microbial aspects of chalcopyrite bioleaching is discussed. Additionally, the current progress made to overcome the problems of passivation as seen in chalcopyrite bioleaching systems have been conversed. Furthermore, advances in the designing of heap bioleaching plant along with microbial and environmental factors of importance have been reviewed with conclusions into the future prospects of chalcopyrite bioleaching.

  2. Microbiological and geochemical dynamics in simulated-heap leaching of a polymetallic sulfide ore.

    PubMed

    Wakeman, Kathryn; Auvinen, Hannele; Johnson, D Barrie

    2008-11-01

    The evolution of microbial populations involved in simulated-heap leaching of a polymetallic black schist sulfide ore (from the recently-commissioned Talvivaara mine, Finland) was monitored in aerated packed bed column reactors over a period of 40 weeks. The influence of ore particle size (2-6.5 mm and 6.5-12 mm) on changes in composition of the bioleaching microflora and mineral leaching dynamics in columns was investigated and compared to fine-grain (<2 microm) ore that was bioprocessed in shake flask cultures. Both column reactors and shake flasks were inoculated with 24 different species and strains of mineral-oxidizing and other acidophilic micro-organisms, and maintained at 37 degrees C. Mineral oxidation was most rapid in shake flask cultures, with about 80% of both manganese and nickel and 68% of zinc being leached within 6 weeks, though relatively little of the copper present in the ore was solubilised. The microbial consortium that emerged from the original inoculum was relatively simple in shake flasks, and was dominated by the iron-oxidizing autotroph Leptospirillum ferriphilum, with smaller numbers of Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus caldus and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans. Both metal recovery and (for the most part) total numbers of prokaryotes were greater in the column reactor containing the medium-grain than that containing the coarse-grain ore. The bioleaching communities in the columns displayed temporal changes in composition and differed radically from those in shake flask cultures. While iron-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria were always the most numerically dominant bacteria in the medium-grain column bioreactor, there were major shifts in the most abundant species present, with the type strain of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans dominating in the early phase of the experiment and other bacteria (At. ferrooxidans NO37 and L. ferriphilum) dominating from week 4 to week 40. With the coarse-grain column bioreactor, similar

  3. 46 CFR 170.300 - Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special consideration for free surface of spoil in hopper dredge hoppers. 170.300 Section 170.300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY STABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Free Surface §...

  4. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  5. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  6. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  7. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  8. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  9. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  10. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  11. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  12. Genome Sequence of Rapid Beer-Spoiling Isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464

    PubMed Central

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Pittet, Vanessa; Ewen, Emily; Baecker, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The genome of brewery-isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 was sequenced and assembly produced a chromosome and eight plasmids. This bacterium tolerates dissolved CO2/pressure and can rapidly spoil packaged beer. This genome is useful for analyzing the genetics associated with beer spoilage by lactic acid bacteria. PMID:26634759

  13. Genome Sequence of Rapid Beer-Spoiling Isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464.

    PubMed

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Pittet, Vanessa; Ewen, Emily; Baecker, Nina; Ziola, Barry

    2015-12-03

    The genome of brewery-isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 was sequenced and assembly produced a chromosome and eight plasmids. This bacterium tolerates dissolved CO2/pressure and can rapidly spoil packaged beer. This genome is useful for analyzing the genetics associated with beer spoilage by lactic acid bacteria.

  14. Multiple Genome Sequences of the Important Beer-Spoiling Species Lactobacillus backii

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Andreas J.; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus backii is an important beer-spoiling species. Five strains isolated from four different breweries were sequenced using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Five complete genomes were generated, which will help to understand niche adaptation to beer and provide the basis for consecutive analyses. PMID:27563041

  15. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incorporated into the design and construction of the fill as follows. (1) The fill shall have, along the... spoil fill and from seeps and springs in the foundation of the disposal area. Rocks used in the rock... maintained at the head of the fill during and after construction, to intercept surface runoff and...

  16. Soil quality and carbon sequestration in a reclaimed coal mine spoil of Jharia coalfield, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Masto, Reginald; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Revegetation of coal mine spoil helps in carbon storage and the success of remediation depend on the selection of appropriate tree species. A study was conducted at the coalmine overburden dumps of Jharia Coalfield, Dhanbad, India to evaluate the impact of revegetation on the overall soil quality and carbon sequestration. Morphological parameters (tree height, diameter at breast height, tree biomass, wood specific gravity) of the dominant tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo and Leucaena leucocephala) growing on the mine spoil was recorded. Mine spoil samples were collected under the canopy cover of different tree species and analyzed for soil physical, chemical, and biological parameters. In general reclaimed sites had better soil quality than the reference site. For instance, D. sissoo and C. siamea improved soil pH (+28.5%, +27.9%), EC (+15.65%, +19%), cation exchange capacity (+58.7%, +52.3%), organic carbon (+67.5%, +79.5%), N (+97.2%, +75.7%), P (+98.2%, +76.9%), K (+31.8%, +37.4%), microbial biomass carbon (+143%, +164%) and dehydrogenase activity (+228%, +262%) as compared to the unreclaimed reference coal mine site. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) decreased significantly in the reclaimed site than the reference spoil, C. siamea was found to be more promising for PAH degradation. The overall impact of tree species on the quality of reclaimed mine spoil cannot be assessed by individual soil parameters, as most of the parameters are interlinked and difficult to interpret. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more meaningful assessment of reclamation potential of tree species. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity were the most critical properties controlling growth of tree

  17. Survival and growth of wildlife shrubs and trees on acid mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, D.K.; Adkisson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the survival and growth of selected wildlife plants over a wide range of acid mine spoil conditions and to identify species suitable for surface mine reclamation. A major criterion in selection of study sites was inclusion of a wide range of spoil acidity conditions. The Ollis Creek (Study Area A) and Farrell (Study Area B) coal surface mines located in Campbell and Scott Counties, Tennessee, were selected for study. Seven plant species, all of which had been used in past reclamation demonstrations, were introduced on the 22 plots during March 1972. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) was included as a control plant. Ten additional plant species were introduced during March 1973. With the exception of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum var.). European filbert (Corylus avellana), and red maple (Acer rubrum), these species had not been used in TVA reclamation demonstrations. To assess the effects of spoil pH on the plants, the plots were grouped into seven pH categories, and mean percent survival and growth for each species were calculated. Results indicate that autumn olive, elaeagnus cherry, arnot locust, sawtooth oak, red maple, and Toringo crabapple are suitable for quick improvement of surface mine habitat over a wide range of spoil acidity in the Appalachian coalfield. Bessey cherry and European filbert need further study before a decision can be made regarding their reclamation utility. Species that are not recommended for quick habitat improvement over a wide range of surface mine spoil pH conditions include bush honeysuckle, barberry, Siberian crabapple, Manchu cherry, American beautyberry, bear oak, blueberry, rem-red honeysuckle, and redcedar.

  18. Hardwood seedling growth on different mine spoil types with and without topsoil amendment.

    PubMed

    Showalter, Julia M; Burger, James A; Zipper, Carl E

    2010-01-01

    The goal of many owners of reclaimed mined land in the Appalachian region is to restore the diverse native hardwood forest for environmental, economic, and cultural reasons. However, native hardwoods often grow poorly on mined sites because they are planted in unsuitable spoils devoid of native topsoil. In a greenhouse experiment, we examined the suitability of four growth media available for use on many mined sites in the central Appalachians-forest topsoil (FT), weathered sandstone (WS), unweathered sandstone (US), and unweathered shale (UH)-as well as the effects of topsoil amendment (none vs. amended) on the growth of three native hardwood species: Fraxinus americana, Quercus rubra, and Liriodendron tulipifera. A 4 x 2 x 3 factorial greenhouse experiment was conducted with planted 1-yr-old seedlings. Tree growth, foliar nutrients, and soil properties were measured and characterized. The WS was the spoil most conducive to growth for F. americana and Q. rubra. Liriodendron tulipifera did not respond to any treatments. Tree growth was highly correlated with mineralizable soil nitrogen and extractable soil phosphorus. Topsoil amendment significantly increased growth on the UH but not on the US or WS. Topsoil amendment increased the number of native herbaceous plants growing in the pots and improved foliar nutrient content in F. americana and L. tulipifera. Many properties of the WS, such as pH, microbial activity, and water availability, more closely approximated the control soil than the US or UH. This study showed that trees are sensitive to spoil type and that certain spoil types that are conducive to good growth of native trees should be used during the reclamation process, particularly if forest topsoil is not applied. Forest topsoil amendment improved tree growth on some spoil materials, improved tree nutrition, and helped restore the native soil organisms and plants that were present before mining.

  19. Bioremediation of a PAH-contaminated gasworks site with the Ebiox vacuum heap system

    SciTech Connect

    Eiermann, D.R.; Bolliger, R.

    1995-12-31

    A former gasworks site in the industrial city of Winterthur, Switzerland, was extremely contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX); phenols; ammonia; and mineral oils. Three vacuum heaps, with a total volume of 10,500 m{sup 3} of contaminated soil, were bioremediated during 1993/94. Separating excavated soil material into different soil qualities was of particular importance because of the pathway definition of the specific soil material. Excavation of contamination took longer than 10 months, delivering continuously different contaminated soil-type material for bioremediation. Conditioning and subsequent biostimulation of the large soil volumes were the prerequisites for most advanced milieu optimization. The degradation results demonstrated the potential for successful application of bioremediation on former industrial sites. PAH-concentration reductions ranged from 75 to 83% for the soil values and from 87 to 98% for the elution values. Soil and elution target qualities were met within 6 to 12 months, depending on initial PAH-concentration and soil structure. The achieved target quality for the bioremediated soil allowed subsequent reuse as high-value backfill material for the ongoing building project.

  20. Geochemical assessments and classification of coal mine spoils for better understanding of potential salinity issues at closure.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hee; Li, Xiaofang; Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas; Kirsch, Bernie

    2013-06-01

    Coal mining wastes in the form of spoils, rejects and tailings deposited on a mine lease can cause various environmental issues including contamination by toxic metals, acid mine drainage and salinity. Dissolution of salt from saline mine spoil, in particular, during rainfall events may result in local or regional dispersion of salts through leaching or in the accumulation of dissolved salts in soil pore water and inhibition of plant growth. The salinity in coal mine environments is from the geogenic salt accumulations and weathering of spoils upon surface exposure. The salts are mainly sulfates and chlorides of calcium, magnesium and sodium. The objective of the research is to investigate and assess the source and mobility of salts and trace elements in various spoil types, thereby predicting the leaching behavior of the salts and trace elements from spoils which have similar geochemical properties. X-ray diffraction analysis, total digestion, sequential extraction and column experiments were conducted to achieve the objectives. Sodium and chloride concentrations best represented salinity of the spoils, which might originate from halite. Electrical conductivity, sodium and chloride concentrations in the leachate decreased sharply with increasing leaching cycles. Leaching of trace elements was not significant in the studied area. Geochemical classification of spoil/waste defined for rehabilitation purposes was useful to predict potential salinity, which corresponded with the classification from cluster analysis based on leaching data of major elements. Certain spoil groups showed high potential salinity by releasing high sodium and chloride concentrations. Therefore, the leaching characteristics of sites having saline susceptible spoils require monitoring, and suitable remediation technologies have to be applied.

  1. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality.

  2. Inhibitory effect against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria of Pseudomonas strains isolated from spoiled and fresh fish.

    PubMed Central

    Gram, L

    1993-01-01

    The antibacterial effects of 209 Pseudomonas strains isolated from spoiled iced fish and newly caught fish were assessed by screening target organisms in agar diffusion assays. One-third (67 strains) inhibited the growth of one or several of six target organisms (Escherichia coli, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas sobria, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus), of which S. aureus and A. sobria were the most sensitive. The inhibitory action was most pronounced among the strains producing siderophores, and the presence of iron eliminated the antibacterial effect of two-thirds of the inhibitory strains. Siderophore-mediated competition for iron may explain the inhibitory activity of these strains. All but nine of the inhibiting strains were found to inhibit the growth of 38 psychrotrophic S. putrefaciens strains isolated from spoiling fish and fish products. Siderophore-containing Pseudomonas culture supernatants inhibited growth of S. putrefaciens, as did the addition of iron chelators (ethylenediamine dihydroxyphenylacetic acid [EDDHA]). In particular, Pseudomonas strains isolated from newly caught and spoiled Nile perch (Lates niloticus) inhibited S. putrefaciens. This suggests that microbial interaction (e.g., competition or antagonism) may influence the selection of a microflora for some chilled food products. PMID:8357253

  3. Stabilization of metals in acidic mine spoil with amendments and red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) growth.

    PubMed

    Simon, László

    2005-12-01

    Stabilization of metals with amendments and red fescue (Festuca rubra, cv. Keszthelyi 2) growth was studied on an acidic and phytotoxic mine spoil (pH(KCl) 3.20-3.26; Cd 7.1 mg kg(-1), Cu 120 mg kg(-1), Pb 2154 mg kg(-1) and Zn 605 mg kg(-1)) from Gyöngyösoroszi, Hungary in a pot experiment. Raising the pH above 5.0 by lime (CaCO(3)), and supplementing with 40 mg kg(-1)nitrogen (NH(4)NO(3)) made this material suitable for plant growth. All cultures were limed with 0.5% (m/m) CaCO(3) (treatment 1), which was combined with 5% (m/m) municipal sewage sludge compost (treatment 2), 5% (m/m) peat (treatment 3), 7.5% (m/m) natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) (treatment 4), and 0.5 (m/m) KH(2)PO(4) (treatment 5). Treatments 1-5 were combined with each other (treatment 6). After 60 days of red fescue growth, pH of the limed mine spoil decreased in all cultures units. Application of peat caused the highest pH decrease (1.15), while decrease of pH was less than 0.23 in treatments 2, 5 or 6. Application of lime significantly reduced concentrations of metals in the 'plant available' fraction of mine spoil compared to non-limed mine spoil. Amendments added to limed mine spoil changed variously the ratio of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in exchangeable or 'plant available' fractions, differently influencing the phytoavailability of these metals. Most of the metals were captured in the roots of test plants. Treatment 2 caused the appearance of less Cd in shoots (<0.1 microg g(-1)) or roots (3.11 microg g(-1)), while treatment 5 resulted in the highest Cd concentration (2.13 microg g(-1)) in shoots. Treatments did not influence significantly the Cu accumulation in shoots. The Pb accumulation of roots (44.7 microg g(-1)) was most effectively inhibited by combined treatment, while the highest value (136 microg g(-1)) was found in the culture treated with potassium phosphate. Pb concentration in shoots was below the detection limit, except for treatments 5 and 6. Peat application resulted in higher

  4. Flexible control of femtosecond pulse duration and separation using an emittance-spoiling foil in x-ray free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.; Behrens, C.; Coffee, R.; Decker, F. -J.; Emma, P.; Field, C.; Helml, W.; Huang, Z.; Krejcik, P.; Krzywinski, J.; Loos, H.; Lutman, A.; Marinelli, A.; Maxwell, T. J.; Turner, J.

    2015-06-22

    We report experimental studies of generating and controlling femtosecond x-ray pulses in free-electron lasers (FELs) using an emittance spoiling foil. By selectivity spoiling the transverse emittance of the electron beam, the output pulse duration or double-pulse separation is adjusted with a variable size single or double slotted foil. Measurements were performed with an X-band transverse deflector located downstream of the FEL undulator, from which both the FEL lasing and emittance spoiling effects are observed directly.

  5. Mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry studies to evaluate oxide copper ores for heap leaching in Sarcheshmeh copper mine, Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Shayestehfar, M R; Nasab, S Karimi; Mohammadalizadeh, H

    2008-06-15

    In recent years, as a result of biological, environmental, and economic considerations, available copper in copper oxide ores that could not be recovered by pyrometallurgical methods was accumulated in so-called oxide dumps. Suitable material is treated with dilute sulfuric acid in a heap-leaching process, whereupon the copper content of the rock slowly dissolves in the acidic solution. The performed investigations show that one needs to consider the action of the acid on the copper oxide-containing rocks at the microscopic level. In this paper, we describe research carried out on oxide samples from the western dump of the Sarcheshmeh copper mine. Each sample was split into two parts and a portion of each was exposed to heap-leaching conditions in a column. Subsequently, polished sections, thin sections, and powdered samples were subjected to chemical analysis as well as petrographic and mineralogical considerations. Changes in the weight percentages of non-metal and metal minerals before and after acid treatment were measured. Microscopic studies have indicated that chemical analyses do not provide a complete picture of the effects of acid on the rock. Thus, microscopic studies on sections are shown to be a necessary requirement, neglection of which can have negative economic and environmental effects.

  6. Management of mine spoil for crop productivity with lignite fly ash and biological amendments.

    PubMed

    Ram, L C; Srivastava, N K; Tripathi, R C; Jha, S K; Sinha, A K; Singh, G; Manoharan, V

    2006-04-01

    Long-term field trials using lignite fly ash (LFA) were carried out in rice crops during the period 1996-2000 at Mine I, Neyveli Lignite Corporation, Tamil Nadu. LFA, being alkaline and endowed with an excellent pozzolanic nature, silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve the texture, fertility, and crop productivity of mine spoil. The rice crops were the first, third, fifth, and sixth crops in rotation. The other crops, such as green gram (second) and sun hemp (fourth), were grown as green manure. For experimental trials, LFA was applied at various dosages (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 t/ha), with and without press mud (10 t/ha), before cultivation of the first crop. Repeat applications of LFA were made at the same dosages in treatments of up to 50 t/ha (with and without press mud) before cultivation of the third and fifth crops. Press mud, a lightweight organic waste product from the sugar industry, was used as an organic amendment and source of plant nutrients. Also, a recommended dosage of chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and biofertilizer as supplementing agents, was applied in all the treatments, including control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA, from 5 to 20 t/ha (with and without press mud), the crop yield (grain and straw) increased significantly (p < 0.05), in the range from 3.0 to 42.0% over the corresponding control. The maximum yield was obtained with repeat applications of 20 t/ha of LFA with press mud in the third crop. The press mud enhanced the yield in the range of 1.5-10.2% with various dosages of LFA. The optimum dosage of LFA was 20 t/ha for both one-time and repeat applications. Repeat applications of LFA at lower dosages of up to 20 t/ha were more effective in increasing the yield than the corresponding one-time applications of up to 20 t/ha and repeat applications at 50 t/ha. One-time and repeat applications of LFA of up to 20 t/ha (with and without press mud), apart from

  7. Spatial variation in spoil and vegetative characteristics of pastures on reclaimed surface mined land

    SciTech Connect

    Teutsch, C.D.; Collins, M.; Ditsch, D.C.

    1999-07-01

    Kentucky has large areas of reclaimed surface mined land that could provide grazing for livestock. Research is needed to determine optimal stocking densities and to evaluate the sustainability of such grazing systems for this region. A long-term grazing study was initiated in 1997 on 151 ha of reclaimed land near Chavies, KY to determine spatial and temporal variation with stocking densities of 0, 0.28, 0.42, or 0.83 beef cow-calf units/ha. Global Positioning System and GIS technologies were used to establish pasture boundaries, locate permanent sampling markers at a density of 1 per 0.4 ha, and interpolate maps of physical, spoil, and vegetable pasture characteristics. Herbage and spoil samples were collected around the permanent markers in May of 1997. Stepwise regression was used to determine factors affecting the vegetative characteristics of the sites. Biomass density ranged from 0 to 2500 kg/ha with a mean of 570 kg/ha. Factors affecting biomass included legume and weed proportions in the sward, grazing activity, soil potassium, elevation, and potential acidity, cumulatively accounting for 32% of the variation. Ground cover ranged from 10 to 100% with an average of 74%. Soil pH, potassium, and grass in the sward accounted for 14% of the variation in ground cover. Legumes made up 0 to 61% of the sward with a mean of 13% over the pasture area. Variables affecting the amount of legume in the sward included biomass density, slope, elevation, pH, and stocking density, together accounting for 21% of the variation. Spatial variation in the physical, spoil, and vegetative characteristics of the pastures was large. Overall, regression accounted for a limited amount of the variation in the vegetative characteristics of the site indicating that other important variables exist.

  8. Spoil banks: Effects on a coastal marsh water-level regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, Erick M.; Turner, R. E.

    1987-05-01

    Above- and below-ground water-level fluctuations were measured in the marshes south of New Orleans, Louisiana, between November 1982 and December 1983. The purpose of the program was to define the basic marsh water-level regime and to investigate how canal spoil banks may influence the water-level regime. Two study areas were used: (1) a control area, defined as a section of marsh with unrestricted hydrologic connection to an adjacent bayou; and, (2) a partially-impounded area, defined as an area with limited hydrologic connection to an adjacent bayou due to the presence of dredged canal spoil banks. Data sources included marsh water levels from gages deployed at three sites within the study areas and water levels from the adjacent bayous obtained from the tide gages of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Data from all marsh gage sites showed a similar pattern with a distinct surface and subsurface diurnal tidal signal superimposed upon other, larger scale events. These larger scale events correspond to the passage of weather fronts. The data also indicated that a significant amount of water-level fluctuation in the marshes occurs below ground. A comparison of the control area and the partially-impounded site indicated that the spoil banks changed the response of the marsh water levels to the forcing from the bayou, with the result that the partially-impounded area: (1) was flooded 141 hours more per month than the control area; (2) had fewer, but longer flooding events; (3) had fewer but longer drying events; and (4) reduced water exchange, both above and below ground.

  9. Dynamic of active microorganisms inhabiting a bioleaching industrial heap of low‐grade copper sulfide ore monitored by real‐time PCR and oligonucleotide prokaryotic acidophile microarray

    PubMed Central

    Remonsellez, Francisco; Galleguillos, Felipe; Moreno‐Paz, Mercedes; Parro, Víctor; Acosta, Mauricio; Demergasso, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Summary The bioleaching of metal sulfide has developed into a very important industrial process and understanding the microbial dynamic is key to advancing commercial bioleaching operations. Here we report the first quantitative description of the dynamic of active communities in an industrial bioleaching heap. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was the most abundant during the first part of the leaching cycle, while the abundance of Leptospirillum ferriphilum and Ferroplasma acidiphilum increased with age of the heap. Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans kept constant throughout the leaching cycle, and Firmicutes group showed a low and a patchy distribution in the heap. The Acidiphilium‐like bacteria reached their highest abundance corresponding to the amount of autotrophs. The active microorganisms in the leaching system were determined using two RNA‐based sensitive techniques. In most cases, the 16S rRNA copy numbers of At. ferrooxidans, L. ferriphilum, At. thiooxidans and F. acidiphilum, was concomitant with the DNA copy numbers, whereas Acidiphilium‐like bacteria and some Firmicutes members did not show a clear correlation between 16S rRNA accumulation and DNA copy numbers. However, the prokaryotic acidophile microarray (PAM) analysis showed active members of Alphaproteobacteria in all samples and of Sulfobacillus genus in older ones. Also, new active groups such as Actinobacteria and Acidobacterium genus were detected by PAM. The results suggest that changes during the leaching cycle in chemical and physical conditions, such as pH and Fe3+/Fe2+ ion rate, are primary factors shaping the microbial dynamic in the heap. PMID:21255296

  10. Mine spoil prairies expand critical habitat for endangered and threatened amphibian and reptile species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lannoo, Michael J.; Kinney, Vanessa C.; Heemeyer, Jennifer L.; Engbrecht, Nathan J.; Gallant, Alisa L.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Coal extraction has been occurring in the Midwestern United States for over a century. Despite the pre-mining history of the landscape as woodlands, spent surface coalfields are often reclaimed to grasslands. We assessed amphibian and reptile species on a large tract of coal spoil prairie and found 13 species of amphibians (nine frog and four salamander species) and 19 species of reptiles (one lizard, five turtle, and 13 snake species). Two state-endangered and three state species of special concern were documented. The amphibian diversity at our study site was comparable to the diversity found at a large restored prairie situated 175 km north, within the historic prairie peninsula.

  11. Effect of Soil Ameliorators on Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities that Colonize Seedlings of Pinus densiflora in Abandoned Coal Mine Spoils.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Lee, Chang-Seok; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the effect of soil ameliorators on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities in coal mine spoils was investigated. Organic fertilizers and slaked lime were applied as soil ameliorators in 3 abandoned coal mine spoils. One year after the initial treatment, roots of Pinus densiflora seedlings were collected and the number of ECM species, colonization rate, and species diversity were assessed. The results showed that the soil ameliorators significantly increased ECM colonization on the roots of P. densiflora. The results suggest that soil ameliorators can have a positive effect on ECM fungi in terms of growth of host plants and show the potential use of soil ameliorator treatment for revegetation with ECM-colonized pine seedlings in the coal mine spoils.

  12. The radiochemical contamination (²¹⁰Po and ²³⁸U) of zone around phosphogypsum waste heap in Wiślinka (northern Poland).

    PubMed

    Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan; Olszewski, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was the determination of the impact of phosphogypsum waste heap in Wiślinka (northern Poland) for radiological protection of zone around waste heap. These studies are very important for the estimation of natural alpha radionuclides contents in the vicinity of phosphogypsum waste heap and for environmental pollution assessment of this area. The process of bioaccumulation of radionuclides in interior plants parts prove to examine their origin sources, too. The activity of (210)Po, (234)U, and (238)U were measured using an alpha spectrometer. The values of uranium and polonium concentration in water with immediate area of waste heap are considerably higher than in the waters of the Martwa Wisła river. The values of activity ratio (234)U/(238)U are approximately about one in the phosphogypsum (0.97 ± 0.05) and in the water of retention reservoir and pumping station (0.92 ± 0.01 and 0.99 ± 0.08), while in the water from the Martwa Wisła river they are slightly higher than one (1.03 ± 0.07 and 1.17 ± 0.06). In the analyzed plants species the highest amounts of polonium and uranium were found in ruderal plants samples (between 51 ± 1 and 89 ± 1 for (210)Po; between 36 ± 3 and 68 ± 3 for (238)U) as well as hygrophilous plant samples (18 ± 1 and 84 ± 3; 42 ± 2 and 130 ± 4, respectively for (210)Po and (238)U). The more amounts of (210)Po and (238)U radionuclides were accumulated mainly in the roots of plant species in comparison to green parts. The general conclusion of realized study is higher influence of phosphogypsum on radioactive contamination of environmental zone around heap waste in Wiślinka (northern Poland).

  13. Ecological study of revegetated coal mine spoil of an Indian dry tropical ecosystem along an age gradient.

    PubMed

    Singh, R S; Tripathi, N; Chaulya, S K

    2012-11-01

    Mineral nitrogen (MN), belowground (root) biomass (BGB), soil nitrogen (N) mineralization (NM), microbial biomass N (MBN) and mine dump stability of a revegetated mine spoil were studied after 2, 6, 10 and 12 years of re-vegetation on coal mine spoil site. MN in revegetated mine spoil ranged from 7.4 to 11.6 kg ha(-1), NM from 38.4 to 252 kg ha(-1) year(-1), MBN from 86 to 426 kg ha(-1), and BGB from 380 to 3,750 kg ha(-1). Mining caused decline of physico-chemical characteristics of soil like MN by 46 %, N-mineralization by 92 %, MBN values by 91 %, respectively compared to forest ecosystems and reduction of total plant biomass (above ground and below ground). Revegetation of mine spoil caused increase in MN values by 12, 36 and 76 %, BGB values by 380, 1770 and 3750 times, NM values by 0.6, 3.58 and 9.5 times and MBN values by 0.43, 2.77, and 6.07 times in 2, 6 and 12 years, respectively. BGB was highly correlated with MN and MBN. Clay content was positively correlated to MN, NM, and the age of revegetation (P < 0.01). Numerical modelling indicated that revegetation increased the dump slope stability with a factor of safety from 1.2 to 1.4, 1.7, 1.9 and 2.1 after 2, 6, 10 and 12 years, respectively. Thus, long-term revegetation was found to enhance the dump stability and the soil fertility status in mine spoil, where plant biomass and microbial biomass provide major contributions in ecological redevelopment of the mine spoil.

  14. Sewage sludge as an amendment for calcareous bauxite mine spoils reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Brofas, G.; Michopoulos, P.; Alifragis, D.

    2000-06-01

    Dried aerobically digested sewage sludge applied at seven rates (0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 120 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}) in a field experiment on calcareous bauxite mine spoils significantly increased the available water capacity, concentrations of organic matter, total N, extractable P (Olsen), exchangeable Mg{sup 2+}, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cu, Mn, Zn, and Pb of mine spoils. Total N and extractable P concentrations decreased with time after sludge application. The DTPA-extractable Cu concentration was high 4 yr after application at sludge rates of 80 and 120 Mg Ha{sup {minus}1}. Extractable Cu and Zn concentrations correlated significantly and positively with Cu and Zn concentrations in burnet (Sanguisorba minor subsp. minor) and fiddleneck (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth) tissue. Sludge application depressed plant Mn uptake. Plant biomass, plant density, and foliar cover significantly increased with treatment rates in the first and fourth growing seasons but decreased with time. Fiddleneck and burnet were the species favored by the high rate of sludge application.

  15. Possible production of ceramic tiles from marine dredging spoils alone and mixed with other waste materials.

    PubMed

    Baruzzo, Daniela; Minichelli, Dino; Bruckner, Sergio; Fedrizzi, Lorenzo; Bachiorrini, Alessandro; Maschio, Stefano

    2006-06-30

    Dredging spoils, due to their composition could be considered a new potential source for the production of monolithic ceramics. Nevertheless, abundance of coloured oxides in these materials preclude the possibility of obtaining white products, but not that of producing ceramics with a good mechanical behaviour. As goal of the present research we have produced and studied samples using not only dredging spoils alone, but also mixtures with other waste materials such as bottom ashes from an incinerator of municipal solid waste, incinerated seawage sludge from a municipal seawage treatment plant and steelworks slag. Blending of different components was done by attrition milling. Powders were pressed into specimens which were air sintered in a muffle furnace and their shrinkage on firing was determined. Water absorption, density, strength, hardness, fracture toughness, thermal expansion coefficient of the fired bodies were measured; XRD and SEM images were also examined. The fired samples were finally tested in acidic environment in order to evaluate their elution behaviour and consequently their environmental compatibility. It is observed that, although the shrinkage on firing is too high for the production of tiles, in all the compositions studied the sintering procedure leads to fine microstructures, good mechanical properties and to a limitation of the release of many of the most hazardous metals contained in the starting powders.

  16. Application of hydrogeochemical modelling in simulating the transportation of elements in fly ash heap under different disposal systems in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbugua, J. M.; Ngila, J. C.; Kindness, A.; Demlie, M.

    Ash heap modelling of South African fly ash from Tutuka was carried out and the duration of transportation projected for 20 years based on two disposal scenarios, namely; irrigation of ash with rainwater, and irrigation with brines. The hydrogeochemical modeling code, PHREEQC, was applied in the study which gave insights into the speciation, release and transport of elements from the water and brines-fly ash long term interactions. Tutuka ash-water heap model showed a general sharp decrease of total elemental concentrations released during the first 2.5 years simulation as the pH value dropped from 12.6 to 8.7, after which it remained constant and their concentration remained constant up to 20 years. The elements showing this trend included Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Sr, Zn, Na, K, Li and C(4). Generally, brines caused sharp increase in released concentration of the elements Ca, Mg, S(6) and C(4) for the first 3 years of heap irrigation whereas with water irrigation an opposite trend was observed in which the elemental concentrations decreased. Much of the release chemistry of the elements was closely related to the phase dissolution/precipitation and formation as the major controlling factors. Generally therefore, the modelled leachate quality results revealed that many elements are mobile and move through the ash heap in a progressive leaching pathway. The model could therefore be used to provide reasonable leachate quality from the modelled Tutuka ash heap which may be reaching the ground water. Overall, the ash heap modelling enhanced the understanding of the environmental impacts of ash-water-brines interactions and demonstrated that leachate composition is determined by the following factors; (i) the mass flows from the pores of fly ash, (ii) the surface dissolution of the mineral phases, (iii) the various chemical reactions involved during the ash-brine and ash-water interactions, (iv) the interactions with a gas phase (atmospheric CO2), (v) the composition of the

  17. Geochemistry of batch-extract waters derived from spoil material collected at the Cordero coal mine, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Batch-mixing experiments to evaluate postmining water quality at the Cordero Mine were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1984 to 1985. Contact of groundwater from the spoil aquifer with fresh spoil material caused only small changes in major-element concentrations and in pH, unless sulfide oxidation or contact with soluble salts, such as epsomite, occurred. In contrast, large changes in major-element concentration resulted when water from the coal aquifer contacted the spoil material. Only three of seven reaction models considered to explain the water quality changes during the batch-mixing experiments were consistent with the thermodynamic and mineralogical data. The three models used to account for the observed water quality changes derived potassium from potassium feldspar; magnesium from chlorite or epsomite or both; sodium from cation exchange and halite; chloride from halite; silica from potassium feldspar and chlorite; sulfate from gypsum, or epsomite or both, and carbon from carbon dioxide. In general, water quality samples obtained from the batch-mixing experiments using water from the coal aquifer had smaller major-ion concentrations than the actual water quality in the spoil aquifer. These differences can be explained by the limited amount of efflorescent salt dissolution and volume of water used in the experiments. Correction ratios calculated for these experiments may be applied to batch-mixing experiments at other mines in the area, to predict postmining water quality. (USGS)

  18. Long Range Spoil Disposal Study. Part III. Sub-Study 2. Nature, Source, and Cause of Shoal. Appendix A,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-12-01

    Delaware River ..................................... ....... 3 3 Location of bottom sediment samples in Delaware estuary and vicinity ........... 5 4 ...oil and grease, phosphate , and arsenic in bottom sediments. Delaware River .............. 20 3 Average texture and composition of historic spoil...D- 3 Chromatograph- Organic Methods .................................... D- 4 Oil and Grease:- and C.O.D. Methods ............................. D

  19. Behavior of Psychrotrophic Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Spoiling Cooked Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Yoshikatsu; Ayaki, Mitsuko; Fuchu, Hidetaka; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Morita, Hidetoshi

    2003-01-01

    Three kinds of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from spoiling cooked meat products stored below 10°C. They were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and Leuconostoc citreum. All three strains grew well in MRS broth at 10°C. In particular, L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and L. citreum grew even at 4°C, and their doubling times were 23.6 and 51.5 h, respectively. On the other hand, although the bacteria were initially below the detection limit (<10 CFU/g) in model cooked meat products, the bacterial counts increased to 108 CFU/g at 10°C after 7 to 12 days. PMID:12788779

  20. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  1. Predicting total dissolved solids release from central Appalachian coal mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Daniels, W L; Zipper, C E; Orndorff, Z W; Skousen, J; Barton, C D; McDonald, L M; Beck, M A

    2016-09-01

    Appalachian USA surface coal mines face public and regulatory pressure to reduce total dissolved solids (TDS) in discharge waters, primarily due to effects on sensitive macroinvertebrates. Specific conductance (SC) is an accurate surrogate for TDS and relatively low levels of SC (300-500 μS cm(-1)) have been proposed as regulatory benchmarks for instream water quality. Discharge levels of TDS from regional coal mines are frequently >1000 μS cm(-1). The primary objectives of this study were to (a) determine the effect of rock type and weathering status on SC leaching potentials for a wide range of regional mine spoils; (b) to relate leachate SC from laboratory columns to actual measured discharge SC from field sites; and (c) determine effective rapid lab analyses for SC prediction of overburden materials. We correlated laboratory unsaturated column leaching results for 39 overburden materials with a range of static lab parameters such as total-S, saturated paste SC, and neutralization potential. We also compared column data with available field leaching and valley fill discharge SC data. Leachate SC is strongly related to rock type and pre-disturbance weathering. Fine-textured and non-weathered strata generally produced higher SC and pose greater TDS risk. High-S black shales produced the highest leachate SC. Lab columns generated similar range and overall SC decay response to field observations within 5-10 leaching cycles, while actual reduction in SC in the field occurs over years to decades. Initial peak SC can be reliably predicted (R(2) > 0.850; p < 0.001) by simple lab saturated paste or 1:2 spoil:water SC procedures, but predictions of longer-term SC levels are less reliable and deserve further study. Overall TDS release risk can be accurately predicted by a combination of rock type + S content, weathering extent, and simple rapid SC lab measurements.

  2. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to the development of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in three types of coal mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Zhao, Renxin; Fu, Ruiying; Bi, Na; Wang, Lixin; Zhao, Wenjing; Guo, Jiangyuan; Zhang, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Coal mine spoils are usually unfavorable for plant growth and have different properties according to dumping years, weathering degree, and the occurrence of spontaneous combustion. The establishment of plant cover in mine spoils can be facilitated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the importance of AMF in plant adaptation to different mine spoils and the potential role of AMF for revegetation practices. We investigated the effects of Glomus aggregatum, Rhizophagus intraradices (syn. Glomus intraradices), and Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae) on the growth, nutritional status, and metal uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in recent discharged (S1), weathered (S2), and spontaneous combusted (S3) coal mine spoils. Symbiotic associations were successfully established between AMF and maize in three substrates. Mycorrhizal colonization effectively promoted plant growth by significantly increasing the uptake of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), adjusting C:N:P stoichiometry and alleviating toxic effects of heavy metals. G. aggregatum, R. intraradices, and F. mosseae exhibited different mycorrhizal effects in response to mine spoil types. F. mosseae was the most effective in the development of maize in S1 and may be the most appropriate for revegetation of this substrate, while R. intraradices played the most beneficial role in S2 and S3. Our results suggest that inoculation with AMF can enhance plant adaptation to different types of coal mine spoils and play a positive role in the revegetation of coal mine spoil banks.

  3. Influence of Turning and Environmental Contamination on the Dynamics of Populations of Lactic Acid and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Heap Fermentation in Ghana▿

    PubMed Central

    Camu, Nicholas; González, Ángel; De Winter, Tom; Van Schoor, Ann; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S.; Addo, Solomon K.; De Vuyst, Luc

    2008-01-01

    The influence of turning and environmental contamination on six spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentations performed in Ghana was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological (culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques) and metabolite target analyses. A sensory analysis of chocolate made from the fermented, dried beans was performed as well. Only four clusters were found among the isolates of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter ghanensis, Acetobacter senegalensis, and a potential new Acetobacter lovaniensis-like species. Two main clusters were identified among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated, namely, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. No differences in biodiversity of LAB and AAB were seen for fermentations carried out at the farm and factory sites, indicating the cocoa pod surfaces and not the general environment as the main inoculum for spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation. Turning of the heaps enhanced aeration and increased the relative population size of AAB and the production of acetic acid. This in turn gave a more sour taste to chocolate made from these beans. Bitterness was reduced through losses of polyphenols and alkaloids upon fermentation and cocoa bean processing. PMID:17993565

  4. A simplified economic filter for open-pit mining and heap-leach recovery of copper in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Keith R.; Singer, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    Determining the economic viability of mineral deposits of various sizes and grades is a critical task in all phases of mineral supply, from land-use management to mine development. This study evaluates two simple tools for estimating the economic viability of porphyry copper deposits mined by open-pit, heap-leach methods when only limited information on these deposits is available. These two methods are useful for evaluating deposits that either (1) are undiscovered deposits predicted by a mineral resource assessment, or (2) have been discovered but for which little data has been collected or released. The first tool uses ordinary least-squared regression analysis of cost and operating data from selected deposits to estimate a predictive relationship between mining rate, itself estimated from deposit size, and capital and operating costs. The second method uses cost models developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (Camm, 1991) updated using appropriate cost indices. We find that the cost model method works best for estimating capital costs and the empirical model works best for estimating operating costs for mines to be developed in the United States.

  5. Stratification of size-bidisperse granular mixtures in a quasi-2D bounded heap with periodic flow modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hongyi; Deng, Zhekai; Umbanhowar, Paul; Ottino, Julio; Lueptow, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Segregation of disperse granular materials in unsteady flows is ubiquitous in nature and industry, yet remains largely unexplored. In this study, unsteady flows are generated by feeding size-bidisperse granular mixtures onto a quasi-2D bounded heap using alternating feed rates, which results in stratified layers of large and small particles. The mechanism of stratification is investigated in detail using Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations of the flow. During the transition from the slow to the fast feed rate, a segregating wedge propagates downstream and forms a large particle layer extending upstream. During the opposite transition, upstream segregated small particles relax downstream and form a small particle layer extending downstream. The transient kinematics from DEM simulations are quantified and used to inform a time-dependent continuum model that captures the interplay of advection, diffusion, and segregation in the flowing layer. The continuum model reproduces the principle characteristics of the stratification patterns observed in experiments and simulations. Funded by NSF Grant CBET-1511450.

  6. Heap leach studies on the removal of uranium from soil. Report of laboratory-scale test results

    SciTech Connect

    Turney, W.R.J.R.; York, D.A.; Mason, C.F.V.; Chisholm-Brause, C.J.; Dander, D.C.; Longmire, P.A.; Morris, D.E.; Strait, R.K.; Brewer, J.S.

    1994-05-01

    This report details the initial results of laboratory-scale testing of heap leach that is being developed as a method for removing uranium from uranium-contaminated soil. The soil used was obtained from the site of the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) near the village of Fernald in Ohio. The testing is being conducted on a laboratory scale, but it is intended that this methodology will eventually be enlarged to field scale where, millions of cubic meters of uranium-contaminated soil can be remediated. The laboratory scale experiments show that, using carbonate/bicarbonate solutions, uranium can be effectively removed from the soil from initial values of around 600 ppM down to 100 ppM or less. The goal of this research is to selectively remove uranium from the contaminated soil, without causing serious changes in the characteristics of the soil. It is also hoped that the new technologies developed for soil remediation at FEMP will be transferred to other sites that also have uranium-contaminated soil.

  7. Generating femtosecond X-ray pulses using an emittance-spoiling foil in free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y. Coffee, R.; Decker, F.-J.; Emma, P.; Field, C.; Huang, Z.; Krejcik, P.; Krzywinski, J.; Loos, H.; Lutman, A.; Marinelli, A.; Maxwell, T. J.; Turner, J.; Behrens, C.; Helml, W.

    2015-11-09

    Generation of femtosecond to sub-femtosecond pulses is attracting much attention in X-ray free-electron laser user community. One method is to use a slotted, emittance-spoiling foil which was proposed before (P. Emma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 074801 (2004)) and has been widely used at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Direct experimental characterization of the slotted-foil performance was previously unfeasible due to a lack of appropriate diagnostics. With a recently installed X-band radio-frequency transverse deflector, we are able to characterize the electron bunch spoiling effect and X-ray pulse when using the slotted foil. We show that few-femtosecond X-ray pulses are generated with flexible control of the single-pulse duration or double-pulse separation with comparison to the theoretical model.

  8. A systematic investigation into the extraction of aluminum from coal spoil through kaolinite

    SciTech Connect

    X.C. Qiao; P. Si; J.G. Yu

    2008-11-15

    This research has applied kaolin and active carbon (AC) to the investigation of the recovery of aluminium from coal spoil (CS). The kaolin, AC-containing kaolin mixture, and CS have been calcined at 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900{degree}C for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. The transformation of kaolinite and aluminium extraction that occurred in each calcined sample have been characterized using XRD, TG, IR, and hydrochloric acid leaching methods. The dehydroxylation of kaolinite and the decomposition of metakaolin were influenced by thermal treatment temperature and time. The metakaolin had kept a portion of OH- in its structure until it was calcined at a temperature of 800{degree}C. Under 60 min treatment, new SiO{sub 2} phase was able to be formed at 500{degree}C, kaolinite was totally converted to metakaolin at 600{degree}C, and the SiO{sub 2} rejoined the reaction at 800{degree}C. The decompositions of CS were similar to those of kaolin mixture containing 20 wt % AC (MKC). The combustion of combustible matter accelerated the decomposition of kaolinite in the CS and MKC. Higher AC content led to lower aluminum extraction. The treatment at 600{degree}C was optimal for both CS and MKC. 28 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Spoilage potential characterization of Shewanella and Pseudomonas isolated from spoiled large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea).

    PubMed

    Ge, Y; Zhu, J; Ye, X; Yang, Y

    2017-01-01

    Ten strains were isolated from a spoiled large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea). All of them were able to grow aerobically from 4 to 30°C, and reduce trimethylamine-N-oxide to trimethylamine (TMA) and produce H2 S except SB01, PF05 and PF07. Biochemical characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that eight H2 S-producing isolates were closely related to Shewanella baltica, and two isolates PF05 and PF07 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas fragi respectively. However, of the eight Shewanella, seven isolates cluster with S. baltica and one with Shewanella glacialipiscicola based on the analysis of the gyrB gene. Shewanella baltica also had the ability to produce biogenic amines, while two Pseudomonas had high activities of proteinase and lipase, and failed to produce TMA and biogenic amines. In spoilage potential evaluation, the TVB-N value of S. baltica was significantly higher than that of Pseudomonas in sterile fish juice, although its growth was slower than Pseudomonas. Therefore, this work demonstrated that S. baltica was able to cause rapid and strong spoilage and was therefore identified as a specific spoilage organism in refrigerated P. crocea.

  10. Identification of novel horA-harbouring bacteria capable of spoiling beer.

    PubMed

    Haakensen, Monique; Ziola, Barry

    2008-04-01

    An ATP-binding cassette (ABC) multi-drug resistance (MDR) gene was found in 4 Gram-positive bacterial isolates of environmental origin and found capable of spoiling beer. The bacteria isolated were Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Paenibacillus humicus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis; all of which were previously unappreciated as beer-spoilage bacteria. The MDR gene found in these bacteria has less than 37% similarity to known ABC MDR proteins described for Bacillus and Staphylococcus, and this is the first finding of an ABC MDR gene in the genus Paenibacillus. The sequenced region of the gene was translated and compared phylogenetically with the closest GenBank matches of the respective species and the closest GenBank matches overall. The ABC MDR proteins from these isolates were found to cluster among known sequences of HorA, sharing 99.5% identity within the sequenced region. In the beer-spoilage-associated genera Lactobacillus and Pediococcus, the presence of the MDR gene horA correlates with the ability to grow in beer. As the unique horA-harbouring isolates described here are capable of growing in beer, it is likely that the presence of the horA gene likewise confers hop resistance to these organisms.

  11. Lead Tolerance and Accumulation in Hirschfeldia incana, a Mediterranean Brassicaceae from Metalliferous Mine Spoils

    PubMed Central

    Auguy, Florence; Fahr, Mouna; Moulin, Patricia; Brugel, Anaïs; Laplaze, Laurent; Mzibri, Mohamed El; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Doumas, Patrick; Smouni, Abdelaziz

    2013-01-01

    Lead is a heavy metal of particular concern with respect to environmental quality and health. The lack of plant species that accumulate and tolerate Pb is a limiting factor to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in Pb tolerance. In this study we identified Hirschfeldia incana, a Brassicaceae collected from metalliferous mine spoils in Morocco, as a Pb accumulator plant. H. incana exhibited high Pb accumulation in mine soils and in hydroponic cultures. Major Pb accumulation occurred in the roots and a part of Pb translocated from the roots to the shoots, even to the siliques. These findings demonstrated that H. incana is a Pb accumulator species. The expression of several candidate genes after Pb-exposure was measured by quantitative PCR and two of them, HiHMA4 and HiMT2a, coding respectively for a P1B-type ATPase and a metallothionein, were particularly induced by Pb-exposure in both roots and leaves. The functional characterization of HiHMA4 and HiMT2a was achieved using Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional mutants. Pb content and primary root growth analysis confirmed the role of these two genes in Pb tolerance and accumulation. H. incana could be considered as a good experimental model to identify genes involved in lead tolerance and accumulation in plants. PMID:23667449

  12. A systematic investigation into the extraction of aluminum from coal spoil through kaolinite.

    PubMed

    Qiao, X C; Si, P; Yu, J G

    2008-11-15

    This research has applied kaolin and active carbon (AC) to the investigation of the recovery of aluminum from coal spoil (CS). The kaolin, AC-containing kaolin mixture, and CS have been calcined at 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900 degrees C for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. The transformation of kaolinite and aluminum extraction that occurred in each calcined sample have been characterized using XRD, TG, IR, and hydrochloric acid leaching methods. The dehydroxylation of kaolinite and the decomposition of metakaolin were influenced by thermal treatment temperature and time. The metakaolin had kept a portion of OH- in its structure until it was calcined at a temperature of 800 degrees C. Under 60 min treatment, new SiO2 phase was able to be formed at 500 degrees C, kaolinite was totally converted to metakaolin at 600 degrees C, and the SiO2 rejoined the reaction at 800 degrees C. The decompositions of CS were similar to those of kaolin mixture containing 20 wt % AC (MKC). The combustion of combustible matter accelerated the decomposition of kaolinite in the CS and MKC. Higher AC content led to lower aluminum extraction. The treatment at 600 degrees C was optimal for both CS and MKC.

  13. Dump stability and soil fertility of a coal mine spoil in Indian dry tropical environment: a long-term study.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Nimisha; Singh, Raj Shekhar; Chaulya, Swadesh K

    2012-10-01

    Plant available nitrogen, belowground (root) biomass, soil nitrogen (N) mineralization and microbial biomass N (MBN) were studied for 12 years at the interval of 2 years (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 years) and mine dump stability at the intervals of 6 years (0, 6 and 12 years) after re-vegetation on coal mine spoil site. Plant available nitrogen in revegetated mine spoil ranged from 4.51 to 6.59 μg g(-1), net N-mineralization from 1.87 to 13.85 μg g(-1) month(-1), MBN from 10 to 22.63 μg g(-1), and root biomass from 28 to 566 g(-2). Mining activity has caused a change in soil characteristics including plant available nutrients like nitrate-N, ammonium-N and phosphate-P by 70, 67, and 76 %, respectively, N-mineralization by 93 %, root biomass values by 97 % and MBN values by 91 % compared to forest ecosystems. Revegetation of mine spoil produced increase in root biomass values by 1.3, 7.6 and 17.2 times, mineral N values by 1.22, 1.43 and 1.79 times, N-mineralization values by 1.8, 5.2 and 12.6 times and MBN values by 1.6, 2.0, and 3.4 times in 2, 6 and 12 years, respectively. Below ground biomass was highly co-related with microbial biomass and plant available nutrients. N-mineralization, plant available nutrients and the clay content were positively correlated with age of revegetation (P < 0.01). From the numerical modelling it was analyzed that revegetation increased the dump slope stability with a factor of safety of 1.7 and 2.1 after 6 and 12 years of plantation on dump slope, respectively, while it was 1.2 before revegetation. Thus, long term revegetation was found to have direct impact on dump stability and indirect impact on soil fertility status in mine spoil, where plant biomass and microbial biomass provide major contributions in ecological redevelopment of the mine spoil.

  14. Copper-Adapted Suillus luteus, a Symbiotic Solution for Pines Colonizing Cu Mine Spoils

    PubMed Central

    Adriaensen, K.; Vrålstad, T.; Noben, J.-P.; Vangronsveld, J.; Colpaert, J. V.

    2005-01-01

    Natural populations thriving in heavy-metal-contaminated ecosystems are often subjected to selective pressures for increased resistance to toxic metals. In the present study we describe a population of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus that colonized a toxic Cu mine spoil in Norway. We hypothesized that this population had developed adaptive Cu tolerance and was able to protect pine trees against Cu toxicity. We also tested for the existence of cotolerance to Cu and Zn in S. luteus. Isolates from Cu-polluted, Zn-polluted, and nonpolluted sites were grown in vitro on Cu- or Zn-supplemented medium. The Cu mine isolates exhibited high Cu tolerance, whereas the Zn-tolerant isolates were shown to be Cu sensitive, and vice versa. This indicates the evolution of metal-specific tolerance mechanisms is strongly triggered by the pollution in the local environment. Cotolerance does not occur in the S. luteus isolates studied. In a dose-response experiment, the Cu sensitivity of nonmycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings was compared to the sensitivity of mycorrhizal seedlings colonized either by a Cu-sensitive or Cu-tolerant S. luteus isolate. In nonmycorrhizal plants and plants colonized by the Cu-sensitive isolate, root growth and nutrient uptake were strongly inhibited under Cu stress conditions. In contrast, plants colonized by the Cu-tolerant isolate were hardly affected. The Cu-adapted S. luteus isolate provided excellent insurance against Cu toxicity in pine seedlings exposed to elevated Cu levels. Such a metal-adapted Suillus-Pinus combination might be suitable for large-scale land reclamation at phytotoxic metalliferous and industrial sites. PMID:16269769

  15. Copper-adapted Suillus luteus, a symbiotic solution for pines colonizing Cu mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Adriaensen, K; Vrålstad, T; Noben, J-P; Vangronsveld, J; Colpaert, J V

    2005-11-01

    Natural populations thriving in heavy-metal-contaminated ecosystems are often subjected to selective pressures for increased resistance to toxic metals. In the present study we describe a population of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus that colonized a toxic Cu mine spoil in Norway. We hypothesized that this population had developed adaptive Cu tolerance and was able to protect pine trees against Cu toxicity. We also tested for the existence of cotolerance to Cu and Zn in S. luteus. Isolates from Cu-polluted, Zn-polluted, and nonpolluted sites were grown in vitro on Cu- or Zn-supplemented medium. The Cu mine isolates exhibited high Cu tolerance, whereas the Zn-tolerant isolates were shown to be Cu sensitive, and vice versa. This indicates the evolution of metal-specific tolerance mechanisms is strongly triggered by the pollution in the local environment. Cotolerance does not occur in the S. luteus isolates studied. In a dose-response experiment, the Cu sensitivity of nonmycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings was compared to the sensitivity of mycorrhizal seedlings colonized either by a Cu-sensitive or Cu-tolerant S. luteus isolate. In nonmycorrhizal plants and plants colonized by the Cu-sensitive isolate, root growth and nutrient uptake were strongly inhibited under Cu stress conditions. In contrast, plants colonized by the Cu-tolerant isolate were hardly affected. The Cu-adapted S. luteus isolate provided excellent insurance against Cu toxicity in pine seedlings exposed to elevated Cu levels. Such a metal-adapted Suillus-Pinus combination might be suitable for large-scale land reclamation at phytotoxic metalliferous and industrial sites.

  16. Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This report on the BCV OU 2 at the Y-12 Plant, was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Field activities included collection of subsurface soil samples, groundwater and surface water samples, and sediments and seep at the Rust Spoil Area (RSA), SY-200 Yard, and SA-1.

  17. Molecular identification and physiological characterization of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria isolated from heap and box cocoa bean fermentations in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Visintin, Simonetta; Alessandria, Valentina; Valente, Antonio; Dolci, Paola; Cocolin, Luca

    2016-01-04

    Yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) populations, isolated from cocoa bean heap and box fermentations in West Africa, have been investigated. The fermentation dynamicswere determined by viable counts, and 106 yeasts, 105 LAB and 82 AAB isolateswere identified by means of rep-PCR grouping and sequencing of the rRNA genes. During the box fermentations, the most abundant species were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ethanolica, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii, while S. cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia manshurica, C. ethanolica, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Lb. fermentum, Lb. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and Acetobacter lovaniensis were identified in the heap fermentations. Furthermore, the most abundant species were molecularly characterized by analyzing the rep-PCR profiles. Strains grouped according to the type of fermentations and their progression during the transformation process were also highlighted. The yeast, LAB and AAB isolates were physiologically characterized to determine their ability to grow at different temperatures, as well as at different pH, and ethanol concentrations, tolerance to osmotic stress, and lactic acid and acetic acid inhibition. Temperatures of 45 °C, a pH of 2.5 to 3.5, 12% (v/v) ethanol and high concentrations of lactic and acetic acid have a significant influence on the growth of yeasts, LAB and AAB. Finally, the yeastswere screened for enzymatic activity, and the S. cerevisiae, H. guilliermondii, H. uvarumand C. ethanolica species were shown to possess several enzymes that may impact the quality of the final product.

  18. Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western USA. I. Chemical characteristics of spoil and replaced cover-soil.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1983-01-01

    A range of at least one order of magnitude was observed for DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn and organic matter content of samples of spoil and cover-soil from eleven western USA surface-coal mines. The observed pH of these samples ranged from 3.9 to 8.9; however, most samples were near-neutral to alkaline in reaction. Most constituent levels were found to be below proposed guidelines for maximum permissible levels in mine soil. -from Authors

  19. Molecular Detection and Identification of Brettanomyces/Dekkera bruxellensis and Brettanomyces/Dekkera anomalus in Spoiled Wines

    PubMed Central

    Cocolin, Luca; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Iacumin, Lucilla; Zironi, Roberto; Comi, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development of a PCR protocol to specifically detect Brettanomyces bruxellensis and B. anomalus. Primers DB90F and DB394R, targeting the D1-D2 loop of the 26S rRNA gene, were able to produce amplicons only when the DNA from these two species were used. No amplification product was obtained when DNA from other Brettanomyces spp. or wine yeasts were used as the templates. The 305-bp product was subjected to restriction enzyme analysis with DdeI to differentiate between B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus, and each species could be identified on the basis of the different restriction profiles. After optimization of the method by using strains from international collections, wine isolates were tested with the method proposed. Total agreement between traditional identification and molecular identification was observed. The protocol developed was also used for direct detection of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus in wines suspected to be spoiled by Brettanomyces spp. Application of culture-based and molecular methods led us to the conclusion that 8 of 12 samples were spoiled by B. bruxellensis. Results based on the application of molecular methods suggested that two of the eight positive samples had been infected more recently, since specific signals were obtained at both the DNA and RNA levels. PMID:15006752

  20. Evaluation of the spoilage potential of bacteria isolated from spoiled raw salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under modified atmosphere packaging.

    PubMed

    Macé, Sabrina; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; Cardinal, Mireille; Malcheva, Mariya; Cornet, Josiane; Lalanne, Valérie; Chevalier, Frédérique; Sérot, Thierry; Pilet, Marie-France; Dousset, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The spoilage potential of eight bacterial groups/species (Serratia spp., Hafnia alvei, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Shewanella baltica, Lactococcus piscium, Photobacterium phosphoreum, "other Enterobacteriaceae" [containing one strain of Moellerella sp., Morganella sp. and Pectobacterium sp.]) isolated from spoiled raw salmon fillets stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was evaluated by inoculation into sterile raw salmon cubes followed by storage for 12days at 8°C. Microbial growth and sensory changes were monitored during the storage period. The dominant spoilage bacteria were C. maltaromaticum, H. alvei and P. phosphoreum. In order to further characterize their spoilage potential and to study the effect of their interactions, each of these 3 specific spoilage organisms (SSO) and two mixed-cultures, C. maltaromaticum/H. alvei and C. maltaromaticum/P. phosphoreum were tested in the sterile salmon model system using a combination of complementary methods: molecular (PCR-TTGE), sensory, chemical and conventional microbiological analyses. It was concluded that, in the mixed-culture inoculated samples, the dominant species determined the spoilage characteristics. The volatile fraction of P. phosphoreum inoculated samples was analyzed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the specific volatile compounds present on P. phosphoreum spoiled inoculated samples, acetic acid was correlated with sensory analysis and can be proposed as a raw salmon spoilage marker.

  1. Succession on subalpine placer mine spoil: Effects of revegetation with Alnus viridis, Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, R.V.

    2005-01-01

    Alnus viridis seedlings were planted on placer mine spoil in an Alaskan subalpine watershed to bypass a seedling establishment bottleneck for A. viridis, and to evaluate the interaction between A. viridis and the dominant riparian woody plants, Salix alaxensis and Populus balsamifera. The study area was divided into 11 replicate blocks, each on a homogeneous recontoured spoil pile. Blocks were divided into two 0.01 ha plots, and treatments without (control) and with 84 planted A. viridis seedlings were randomly assigned to plots. After 10 years, the Alnus treatment had a dense stand of A. viridis 1–2 m tall, while the control had fewer, smaller seedlings. Compared to the control, planted A. viridis had a neutral effect on S. alaxensis and inhibited P. balsamifera at the seedling establishment stage, but facilitated the growth of established plants of both species, with many plants overtopping the A. viridis canopy. Compared to the control, S. alaxensis plants in the Alnus treatment had higher levels of foliar N and δ15N values closer to those of A. viridis, indicating the importance of N fixation by A. viridis. Planting A. viridis accelerated the rate of succession by stimulating growth of woody dominants.

  2. Detection of acid and hop shock induced responses in beer spoiling Lactobacillus brevis by MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Schurr, Benjamin C; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-04-01

    Due to the harsh environment, microorganisms encounter in beer, spoilage bacteria must be able to customise their metabolism and physiology in an order to master various kinds of perturbations. Proteomic approaches have been used to examine differences between various beer spoilage bacteria and between different stress conditions, such as acid and hop (Humulus lupulus) stress. However, these investigations cannot detect changes in low molecular weight (lmw) proteins (<150 amino acids). Therefore, for the first time, we herein present data from a proteomic study of lmw proteins for two Lactobacillus (L.) brevis strains exposed to acid stress or, respectively, two different qualities of hop induced stress. We used MALDI-TOF MS as analytical tool for the detection of lmw stress response proteins due to its high sensitivity and low throughput times. Comparing a hop-sensitive and a hop-tolerant strain, detection of the fatty acid biosynthesis-associated acyl carrier protein varied between different stress conditions and incubation times. The findings coincide with previous studies of our group regarding the fatty acid cell membrane composition of beer spoiling L. brevis. It is demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS is a fast tool to detect and characterise stress situations in beer spoiling bacteria along the lmw sub-proteome.

  3. Environmental risk evaluation of the use of mine spoils and treated sewage sludge in the ecological restoration of limestone quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordán, M. M.; Pina, S.; García-Orenes, F.; Almendro-Candel, M. B.; García-Sánchez, E.

    2008-07-01

    The ecologic restoration criteria in areas degraded from extraction activities require making use of their mine spoils. These materials do not meet fertility conditions to guarantee restoration success and therefore, need the incorporation of organic amendments to obtain efficient substratum. Reducing the deficiencies in the organic material and restoration material nutrients with the contribution of treated sewage sludge is proposed in this work. This experiment was based on a controlled study using columns. The work was conducted with two mine spoils, both very rich in calcium carbonate. The first mineral, of poor quality, came from the formation of aggregates of crushed limestone ( Z). The other residual material examined originated in limestone extraction, formed by the levels of interspersed non-limestone materials and the remains of stripped soils ( D). Two treatments were undertaken (30,000 and 90,000 kg/ha of sewage sludge), in addition to a control treatment. The water contribution was carried out with a device that simulated either short-duration rain or a flooding irrigation system in order to cover the surface and then percolate through the soil. The collection of leached water took place 24 h after the applications. Different parameters of the leached water were determined, including pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate anions, ammonium, phosphates, sulphates and chlorides. The values obtained for each irrigation application are discussed, and the nitrate values obtained were very elevated.

  4. Inactivation of spoiling microorganisms in apple juice by a combination of essential oils' constituents and physical treatments.

    PubMed

    Chueca, Beatriz; Ramírez, Nayeli; Arvizu-Medrano, Sofía M; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    A combination of different hurdles, such as mild heat (54 ℃ for 10 min) or pulsed electric field (25 pulses; 25 kV/cm; 3.35 kJ/cm per pulse) treatments and essential oils constituents (carvacrol, citral, and (+)-limonene), to reduce spoiling bacteria and yeasts in apple juice was evaluated. For this purpose, the heat and pulsed electric field resistances of five strains of Leuconostoc spp. and five Saccharomyces spp. strains were assayed, achieving different inactivation levels for each treatment and strain. For instance, Leuconostoc fallax 74, the most heat-resistant strain, was the second-most sensitive strain to pulsed electric field. The most resistant strains were exposed to combined processes of heat or pulsed electric field and 0.2 µl/ml essential oils constituents. The combination of heat and essential oils constituents proved to be synergistic against both microorganisms in apple juice. The most effective was the combination of mild heat and carvacrol, which caused the inactivation of 99% of L. fallax 74 and 99.99% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CECT 1172 cells. Therefore, this study shows the great potential of carvacrol, citral, and (+)-limonene in combined treatments with mild heat to achieve a higher degree of inactivation of spoiling microorganisms in apple juice, and thus, to extend its shelf life.

  5. Comparative Analysis of the Antimicrobial Activities of Plant Defensin-Like and Ultrashort Peptides against Food-Spoiling Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kraszewska, Joanna; Beckett, Michael C.; James, Tharappel C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antimicrobial peptides offer potential as novel therapeutics to combat food spoilage and poisoning caused by pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. Our previous studies identified the peptide human beta-defensin 3 (HBD3) as a potent antimicrobial agent against a wide range of beer-spoiling bacteria. Thus, HBD3 is an excellent candidate for development as an additive to prevent food and beverage spoilage. To expand the repertoire of peptides with antimicrobial activity against bacteria associated with food spoilage and/or food poisoning, we carried out an in silico discovery pipeline to identify peptides with structure and activity similar to those of HBD3, focusing on peptides of plant origin. Using a standardized assay, we compared the antimicrobial activities of nine defensin-like plant peptides to the activity of HBD3. Only two of the peptides, fabatin-2 and Cp-thionin-2, displayed antimicrobial activity; however, the peptides differed from HBD3 in being sensitive to salt and were thermostable. We also compared the activities of several ultrashort peptides to that of HBD3. One of the peptides, the synthetic tetrapeptide O3TR, displayed biphasic antimicrobial activity but had a narrower host range than HBD3. Finally, to determine if the peptides might act in concert to improve antimicrobial activity, we compared the activities of the peptides in pairwise combinations. The plant defensin-like peptides fabatin-2 and Cp-thionin-2 displayed a synergistic effect with HBD3, while O3TR was antagonistic. Thus, some plant defensin-like peptides are effective antimicrobials and may act in concert with HBD3 to control bacteria associated with food spoilage and food poisoning. IMPORTANCE Food spoilage and food poisoning caused by bacteria can have major health and economic implications for human society. With the rise in resistance to conventional antibiotics, there is a need to identify new antimicrobials to combat these outbreaks in our food supply. Here we

  6. Spare the rod and spoil the child. Is this a sensible justification for the use of punishment in child rearing?

    PubMed

    Carey, T A

    1994-12-01

    This paper examines the validity of the well-used proverb Spare the rod and spoil the child. To do this, the original form of the proverb from the Bible is compared with the modern form, and some significant differences are highlighted. The definition of punishment is considered, and the differences between punishment and corporal punishment are examined. Punishment is explored in some detail with attention given to the criteria that need to be satisfied in order for punishment to be effective. Discrepancies in the literature concerning these criteria are pointed out, making punishment a complex issue. The negative effects of punishment are significant with links to social problems such as teenage delinquency and violence. Reference is made to cultures where corporal punishment has been banned and the effects of this action. Given the problems associated with punishment programs, especially those being used in families, alternatives to punishment are discussed. Finally, an alternative form of the proverb to the current adaptation is offered.

  7. Influence of restoration on arbuscular mycorrhiza of Biscutella laevigata L. (Brassicaceae) and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae) from calamine spoil mounds.

    PubMed

    Orłowska, E; Zubek, Sz; Jurkiewicz, A; Szarek- Łukaszewska, G; Turnau, K

    2002-06-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal status of two plant species, Biscutella laevigata L. and Plantago lanceolata L., was investigated on calamine spoil mounds in Bolesław (southern Poland). Although B. laevigata is a member of the Brassicaceae, a family generally accepted as non-mycorrhizal, this species formed AM symbioses on both heavy metal-contaminated and non-contaminated sites. Besides vesicles and coils, arbuscules were also observed, especially in roots collected prior to seed maturity. Relative mycorrhizal root length and relative arbuscular richness were usually much higher in P. lanceolata than in B. laevigata but not absolute arbuscule richness. Roots of P. lanceolata showed higher colonisation than B. laevigata. Although roots were collected from plants in close proximity, no correlation in mycorrhizal parameters was found between the two species.

  8. Rehabilitation of semi-arid coal mine spoil bank soils with mine residues and farm organic by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M.; Bosch-Serra, A.; Estudillos, G.; Poch, R.M.

    2009-07-01

    A method of rehabilitating coal mine soils was studied under the conditions of a semi-arid climate, lack of topsoil but availability of farm by-products in NE Spain. The objectives of the research were to assess a new method in order to achieve a suitable substrate for the establishment of native vegetation, to evaluate environmental impacts associated with the reclamation process, and to determine the time necessary to integrate the treated area into the surrounding environment. Eight plots (10 x 35 m{sup 2}) were established in September 1997. Substrate combinations of two types of mine spoil (coal dust and coarse-sized material), two levels of pig slurry (39 and 94 Mg ha{sup -1}dry-wt), and cereal straw (0 and 15 Mg ha{sup -1}) were applied. Monitoring of select physical and chemical soil properties and vegetation characteristics was performed from 1997 until 2005. The bulk density and the saturated hydraulic conductivity measured did not limit plant development and water availability. Initial substrate salinity (1.37 S m{sup -1}) decreased with time and in the long term did not limit plant colonization to salinity-adapted species. Initial nitrate concentration was 298 mg kg{sup -1}, but was reduced significantly to acceptable values in 3 years (55 mg kg{sup -1}) and the measured pH (7.6) was maintained at the level of initial spoil values. Vegetation cover reached up to 90%. In the treated area, spontaneous vegetation cover (15 to 70%) colonized the nonsown areas widely. In the medium term, vegetation cover tended to be higher in plots with a thicker layer of coal dust material and the higher slurry rate. Soil rehabilitation and environmental reintegration, taking into account soil and vegetation indicators, was possible in the studied area with low cost inputs using residual materials from mining activities and animal husbandry by-products.

  9. Long-term persistence of seeded grass species: an unwanted side effect of ecological restoration.

    PubMed

    Rydgren, Knut; Auestad, Inger; Hamre, Liv Norunn; Hagen, Dagmar; Rosef, Line; Skjerdal, Gudrun

    2016-07-01

    Spoil heaps are the visible footprint of hydropower production, particularly in vulnerable alpine environments. Speeding up vegetation development by seeding commercial grass species has been a common restoration practice for the last 50 years, but we lack information on whether seeded species decline and allow native plant cover to develop. We visually estimated cover of native vascular plants and five seeded grass species (Agrostis capillaris, Festuca ovina, Festuca rubra, Schedonorus pratensis and Phleum pratense) on eight spoil heaps at different elevations (boreal-alpine zone) in western Norway. Spoil heap vegetation was censused twice (9-20 and 24-36 years after spoil heap construction); the undisturbed surrounding vegetation was also censused on the second occasion. Total cover on the spoil heaps showed some increase, but remained far below that in surrounding areas. Cover of seeded grass species in the surroundings was low (but not negligible), indicating suboptimal establishment ability. Seeded species usually covered less than 20 % of the spoil heaps, and only F. rubra, F. ovina and A. capillaris contributed substantially. Proportional cover indicated better initial establishment by seeded species, but their cover decreased between the censuses on all but the highest located spoil heap. The persistence of seeded grass species is problematic, and despite the decrease in proportional cover, they are likely to persist for decades on spoil heaps, posing a risk of invasion of surrounding areas. We therefore recommend replacing the practice of seeding with more appropriate restoration measures.

  10. Insights into functional genes and taxonomical/phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities in biological heap leaching system and their correlation with functions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yunhua; Liu, Xueduan; Liang, Yili; Niu, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Xian; Ma, Liyuan; Hao, Xiaodong; Gu, Yabin; Yin, Huaqun

    2016-11-01

    Although the taxonomical/phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities in biological heap leaching systems has been investigated, the diversity of functional genes was still unclear, and, especially, the differentiation and the relationships of diversity and functions of microbial communities in leaching heap (LH) and leaching solution (LS) were also still unclear. In our study, a functional gene array (GeoChip 5.0) was employed to investigate the functional gene diversity, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to explore the taxonomical/phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities in LH and LS subsystems of Dexing copper mine (Jiangxi, China). Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) showed that both functional gene structure and taxonomical/phylogenetic structure of microbial communities were significantly different between LH and LS. Signal intensities of genes, including genes for sulfur oxidation (e.g., soxB), metal homeostasis (e.g., arsm), carbon fixation (e.g., rubisco), polyphosphate degradation (e.g., ppk), and organic remediation (e.g., hydrocarbons) were significantly higher in LH, while signal intensities of genes for carbon degradation (e.g., amyA), polyphosphate synthesis (e.g., ppx), and sulfur reduction (e.g., dsrA) were significantly higher in LS. Further inspection revealed that microbial communities in LS and LH were dominated by Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum. However, rare species were relatively higher abundant in LH. Additionally, diversity index of functional genes was significantly different in LS (9.915 ± 0.074) and LH (9.781 ± 0.165), and the taxonomical/phylogenetic diversity index was also significantly different in LH (4.398 ± 0.508) and LS (3.014 ± 0.707). Functional tests, including sulfur-oxidizing ability, iron-oxidizing ability, and pyrite bioleaching ability, showed that all abilities of microbial communities were significantly stronger in LH than those in LS. Further studies found that most key genes (e

  11. The effects of dredge-spoil dumping on a shallow water soft-sediment community in the Solitary Islands Marine Park, NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, S D; Rule, M J

    2001-11-01

    In December 1999, 28,000 m3 of sediment was dredged from two sites within the harbour at Coffs Harbour, NSW. Dredging was carried out using a trailing suction hopper-dredge which transported the spoil to a shallow (6 m) site within the adjacent Solitary Islands Marine Park for disposal. Evaluation of the effects of the dredge-spoil dumping at the receiving site was conducted by taking replicated van Veen grab samples at the disposal site and at two control sites, before, immediately after, and three months after dumping. The results indicated that dredge-spoil dumping had no detectable effect on either the structure of the invertebrate community or the physical characteristics of sediment at the receiving site. Although there were some significant faunistic differences between samples from the disposal site and the control sites immediately following dumping, these were related to pre-existing differences between sites rather than to the effects of dredge-spoil disposal. Four principal factors are likely to have contributed to the lack of impact: (i) dredged material had similar sedimentary characteristics to those at the receiving site; (ii) dredged material was free from contaminants; (iii) the disposal method systematically distributed a number of shallow layers of sediment over the disposal site and thus motile macrofauna had the opportunity to migrate upwards between passes of the barge; and (iv) the disposal site was in a high energy environment where the resident biota are likely to be adapted to dynamic sedimentary conditions. The lack of detectable effects suggests that the disposal strategy was one which minimized impacts within an area which has high conservation value and should thus be adopted as a model for future works within the region.

  12. Uranium ((234)U, (235)U and (238)U) contamination of the environment surrounding phosphogypsum waste heap in Wiślinka (northern Poland).

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the uranium concentration ((234)U, (235)U and (238)U) and values of the activity ratio (234)U/(238)U in soil samples collected near phosphogypsum waste heap in Wiślinka (northern Poland). On the basis of the studies it was found that the values of the (234)U/(238)U activity ratio in the analyzed soils collected in the vicinity of phosphogypsum dump in Wiślinka are in most cases close to one and indicate the phosphogypsum origin of the analyzed nuclides. The obtained results of uranium concentrations are however much lower than in previous years before closing of the phosphogypsum stockpile. After this process and covering the phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka with sewage sludge, phosphogypsum particles are successfully immobilized. In the light of the results the use of phosphate fertilizers seems to be a major problem. Prolonged and heavy rains can cause leaching accumulated uranium isotopes in the phosphogypsum stockpile, which will be washed into the Martwa Wisła and on the fields in the immediate vicinity of this storage.

  13. Can the collapse of a fly ash heap develop into an air-fluidized flow? - Reanalysis of the Jupille accident (1961)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stilmant, Frédéric; Pirotton, Michel; Archambeau, Pierre; Erpicum, Sébastien; Dewals, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A fly ash heap collapse occurred in Jupille (Liege, Belgium) in 1961. The subsequent flow of fly ash reached a surprisingly long runout and had catastrophic consequences. Its unprecedented degree of fluidization attracted scientific attention. As drillings and direct observations revealed no water-saturated zone at the base of the deposits, scientists assumed an air-fluidization mechanism, which appeared consistent with the properties of the material. In this paper, the air-fluidization assumption is tested based on two-dimensional numerical simulations. The numerical model has been developed so as to focus on the most prominent processes governing the flow, with parameters constrained by their physical interpretation. Results are compared to accurate field observations and are presented for different stages in the model enhancement, so as to provide a base for a discussion of the relative influence of pore pressure dissipation and pore pressure generation. These results show that the apparently high diffusion coefficient that characterizes the dissipation of air pore pressures is in fact sufficiently low for an important degree of fluidization to be maintained during a flow of hundreds of meters.

  14. Results of experiments related to contact of mine-spoils water with coal, West Decker and Big Sky Mines, southeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, R.E.; Dodge, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    Batch-mixing experiments using spoils water and coal from the West Decker and Big Sky Mines were conducted to determine possible chemical changes in water moving from coal-mine spoils through a coal aquifer. The spoils water was combined with air-dried and oven-dried chunks of coal and air-dried and oven-dried crushed coal at a 1:1 weight ratio, mixed for 2 hr, and separated after a total contact time of 24 hr. The dissolved-solids concentration in water used in the experiments decreased an average 210 mg/liter (5-10%). Other chemical changes included general decreases in the concentrations of magnesium, potassium, and bicarbonate, and general increases in the concentrations of barium and boron. The magnitude of the changes increased as the surface area of the coal increased. The quantity of extractable cations and exchangeable cations on the post-mixing coal was larger than on the pre-mixing coal. Equilibrium and mass-transfer relations indicate that adsorption reactions or ion-exchange and precipitation reactions, or both, probably are the major reactions responsible for the chemical changes observed in the experiments. (Authors ' abstract)

  15. Richness, diversity and evenness of vegetation upon rehabilitation of gypsum mine spoiled lands in the Indian arid zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumar, S.; Sharma, K.D.; Sharma, U.K.; Gough, L.P.

    1998-01-01

    Richness, diversity and evenness of vegetation, after rehabilitation of gypsum mine spoils at Barmer were investigated in plots protected and planted one year and four years ago. There were four water harvesting treatments, viz., half-moon terraces, micro-catchments with 5% slope, ridge and furrow and control, wherein, indigenous and exotic trees and shrubs were planted at 5 ?? 5 m spacing. Sampling of the planted and natural vegetation, using quadrats and transacts, revealed much less species richness in unplanted control as compared to all treatments and in all the years. The species richness that increased initially (within one year) gradually declined over time (during four year), though the extent varied in different treatments. The water harvesting treatment showing maximum initial increase in richness also showed maximum decline over time, though decline was more in annual species. Two perennial species increased in richness with time. This was further proved from the trends in diversity and evenness indices. It was concluded that natural successional process was accelerated by rehabilitation providing stability to the habitat.

  16. Growth of halotolerant food spoiling yeast Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413 under the influence of pH and salt.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sawan; Lal, Pradeep; Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N

    2008-12-01

    Debaryomyces nepalensis, a halotolerant food-spoiling yeast could grow in complex (YEPD) medium at different pHs ranging between 3.0 and 11.0 in the absence of salt and at pH 3.0-9.0 in the presence of different concentrations of NaCl and KCl. The specific growth rate of D. nepalensis was not affected by the initial pH of the medium in the absence of salts, whereas it was affected in the presence of salts. At 2 M NaCl and KCl, the organism exhibited a synergistic effect on pH and salt stress, which was unique in the Debaryomyces species. Irrespective of the initial pH and salt, the intracellular pH of D. nepalensis was approximately 7.0. Significant organic acid was produced at neutral and alkaline pH and organic acid production increased with the increase in pH and salt. Very specific organic acids are produced in the presence of NaCl and KCl. Our observation would contribute to a better understanding of the physiological phenomenon of halotolerance in D. nepalensis.

  17. CCR7 expressing mesenchymal stem cells potently inhibit graft-versus-host disease by spoiling the fourth supplemental Billingham's tenet.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Jiang, Yan-Ming; Sun, Yan-Feng; Li, Ping; Dang, Rui-Jie; Ning, Hong-Mei; Li, Yu-Hang; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Jiang, Xiao-Xia; Guo, Xi-Min; Wen, Ning; Han, Yan; Mao, Ning; Chen, Hu; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The clinical acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD)-therapy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is not as satisfactory as expected. Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are the major niches serve to initiate immune responses or induce tolerance. Our previous study showed that CCR7 guide murine MSC line C3H10T1/2 migrating to SLOs. In this study, CCR7 gene was engineered into murine MSCs by lentivirus transfection system (MSCs/CCR7). The immunomodulatory mechanism of MSCs/CCR7 was further investigated. Provoked by inflammatory cytokines, MSCs/CCR7 increased the secretion of nitric oxide and calmed down the T cell immune response in vitro. Immunofluorescent staining results showed that transfused MSCs/CCR7 can migrate to and relocate at the appropriate T cell-rich zones within SLOs in vivo. MSCs/CCR7 displayed enhanced effect in prolonging the survival and alleviating the clinical scores of the GvHD mice than normal MSCs. Owing to the critical relocation sites, MSCs/CCR7 co-infusion potently made the T cells in SLOs more naïve like, thus control T cells trafficking from SLOs to the target organs. Through spoiling the fourth supplemental Billingham's tenet, MSCs/CCR7 potently inhibited the development of GvHD. The study here provides a novel therapeutic strategy of MSCs/CCR7 infusion at a low dosage to give potent immunomodulatory effect for clinical immune disease therapy.

  18. Fluorescein Dye Penetration in Round Top Rhyolite (Hudspeth County, Texas, USA) to Reveal Micro-permeability and Optimize Grain Size for Heavy REE Heap Leach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negron, L. M.; Clague, J. W.; Gorski, D.; Amaya, M. A.; Pingitore, N. E.

    2013-12-01

    Millimeter- and micrometer-scale permeability of fine-grained igneous rocks has generated limited research interest. Nonetheless, the scale and distribution of such micro-permeability determines fluid penetration and pathways, parameters that define both the ability to heap leach a rock and the optimal grain size for such an operation. Texas Rare Earth Resources is evaluating the possibility of heap leaching of yttrium and heavy rare earth elements (YHREE) from the peraluminous rhyolite laccolith that forms one-mile-diameter Round Top Mountain. The YHREEs in this immense, surface-exposed deposit (minimum 1.6 billion tons, Texas Bureau Economic Geology) are dilute and diffuse, suggesting leaching as the best option for recovery. The REE grade is 0.05% and YHREEs comprise more than 70% of the total REE content. The YHREEs are hosted exclusively in micron-scale yttrofluorite grains, which proved soluble in dilute sulfuric acid. Laboratory experiments showed YHREE recoveries of up to 90%. Within limits, recoveries decrease with larger grain sizes, and increase with acid strength and exposure time. Our research question centers on dissolution effectiveness: Is YHREE recovery, relative to grain size, limited by (1) diffusion time of acid into, and dissolved solids, including YHREEs, out of the micro-permeability paths inherent in the rock particles; (2) the effective lengths of the natural micro-permeability paths in the rock; or (3) the putative role of the acid in dissolving new micro-paths into the grains? The maximum grain size should not exceed twice the typical path length (unless acid creates new paths), lest YHREEs in the core of a larger grain than that not be reached by acid. If instead diffusion time is limiting, longer leach time may prove effective. Rather than perform an extensive and expensive series of laboratory leaching experiments--some of which would be several months in duration--to determine optimal grain size, we developed a technique to

  19. Inorganic carbon and fossil organic carbon are source of bias for quantification of sequestered carbon in mine spoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vindušková, Olga; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Carbon sequestration in mine soils has been studied as a possibility to mitigate the rising atmospheric CO2 levels and to improve mine soil quality (Vindu\\vsková and Frouz, 2013). Moreover, these soils offer an unique opportunity to study soil carbon dynamics using the chronosequence approach (using a set of sites of different age on similar parent material). However, quantification of sequestered carbon in mine soils is often complicated by fossil organic carbon (e.g., from coal or kerogen) or inorganic carbon present in the spoil. We present a methodology for quantification of both of these common constituents of mine soils. Our recommendations are based on experiments done on post-mining soils in Sokolov basin, Czech Republic. Here, fossil organic carbon is present mainly as kerogen Type I and II and represents 2-6 wt.% C in these soils. Inorganic carbon in these soils is present mainly as siderite (FeCO3), calcite (CaCO3), and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2). All of these carbonates are often found in the overburden of coal seams thus being a common constituent of post-mining soils in the world. Vindu\\vsková O, Frouz J, 2013. Soil carbon accumulation after open-cast coal and oil shale mining in Northern Hemisphere: a quantitative review. ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, 69: 1685-1698. Vindu\\vsková O, Dvořáček V, Prohasková A, Frouz J. 2014. Distinguishing recent and fossil organic matter - A critical step in evaluation of post-mining soil development - using near infrared spectroscopy. ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING. 73: 643-648. Vindu\\vsková O, Sebag D, Cailleau G, Brus J, Frouz J. 2015. Methodological comparison for quantitative analysis of fossil and recently derived carbon in mine soils with high content of aliphatic kerogen. ORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY, 89-90:14-22.

  20. Absolute Quantification of Human Liver Phosphorus-Containing Metabolites In Vivo Using an Inhomogeneous Spoiling Magnetic Field Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Adil; Gropler, Robert; Ackerman, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Absolute concentrations of high-energy phosphorus (31P) metabolites in liver provide more important insight into physiologic status of liver disease compared to resonance integral ratios. A simple method for measuring absolute concentrations of 31P metabolites in human liver is described. The approach uses surface spoiling inhomogeneous magnetic field gradient to select signal from liver tissue. The technique avoids issues caused by respiratory motion, chemical shift dispersion associated with linear magnetic field gradients, and increased tissue heat deposition due to radiofrequency absorption, especially at high field strength. Methods A method to localize signal from liver was demonstrated using superficial and highly non-uniform magnetic field gradients, which eliminate signal(s) from surface tissue(s) located between the liver and RF coil. A double standard method was implemented to determine absolute 31P metabolite concentrations in vivo. 8 healthy individuals were examined in a 3 T MR scanner. Results Concentrations of metabolites measured in eight healthy individuals are: γ-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) = 2.44 ± 0.21 (mean ± sd) mmol/l of wet tissue volume, α-ATP = 3.2 ± 0.63 mmol/l, β-ATP = 2.98 ± 0.45 mmol/l, inorganic phosphates (Pi) = 1.87 ± 0.25 mmol/l, phosphodiesters (PDE) = 10.62 ± 2.20 mmol/l and phosphomonoesters (PME) = 2.12 ± 0.51 mmol/l. All are in good agreement with literature values. Conclusions The technique offers robust and fast means to localize signal from liver tissue, allows absolute metabolite concentration determination, and avoids problems associated with constant field gradient (linear field variation) localization methods. PMID:26633549

  1. Biosurfactant-producing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01 isolated from spoiled apples: physicochemical and structural characteristics of isolated biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Habib; Hamedi, Mir Manochehr; Lotfabad, Tayebe Bagheri; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ortiz, Antonio; Amanlou, Massoud; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2012-02-01

    An extensive investigation was conducted to isolate indigenous bacterial strains with outstanding performance for biosurfactant production from different types of spoiled fruits, food-related products and food processing industries. An isolate was selected from 800 by the highest biosurfactant yield in soybean oil medium and it was identified by 16S rRNA and the two most relevant hypervariable regions of this gene; V3 and V6 as Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01. The isolate was able to produce 12 g/l of a glycolipid-type biosurfactant and generally less efficient to emulsify vegetable oils compared to hydrocarbons and could emulsify corn and coconut oils more than 50%. However, emulsification index (E(24)) of different hydrocarbons including hexane, toluene, xylene, brake oil, kerosene and hexadecane was between 55.8% and 100%. The surface tension of pure water decreased gradually with increasing biosurfactant concentration to 32.5 mNm(-1) with critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 10.1mg/l. Among all carbon substrates examined, vegetable oils were the most effective on biosurfactant production. Two glycolipid fractions were purified from the biosurfactant crude extracts, and FTIR and ES-MS were used to determine the structure of these compounds. The analysis indicated the presence of three major monorhamnolipid species: R(1)C(10)C(10), R(1)C(10)C(12:1), and R(1)C(10)C(12); as well as another three major dirhamnolipid species: R(2)C(10)C(10), R(2)C(10)C(12:1), and R(2)C(10)C(12). The strain sweep experiment for measuring the linear viscoelastic of biosurfactant showed that typical behavior characteristics of a weak viscoelastic gel, with storage modulus greater than loss modulus at all frequencies examined, both showing some frequency dependence.

  2. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen accumulation on coal mine spoils reclaimed with maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) in Agacli-Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Sever, Hakan; Makineci, Ender

    2009-08-01

    Mining operations on open coal mines in Agacli-Istanbul have resulted in the destruction of vast amounts of land. To rehabilitate these degraded lands, plantations on this area began in 1988. Twelve tree species were planted, however, the most planted tree species was maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). This study performed on 14 sample plots randomly selected in maritime pine plantations on coal mine soil/spoils in 2005. Soil samples were taken from eight different soil layers (0-1, 1-3, 3-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50 cm) into the soil profile. On soil samples; fine soil fraction (<2 mm), soil acidity (pH), organic carbon (C(org)) and total nitrogen (N(t)) contents were investigated, and results were compared statistically among soil layers. As a result, 17 years after plantations, total forest floor accumulation determined as 17,973.20 kg ha(-1). Total nitrogen and organic matter amounts of forest floor were 113.90 and 14,640.92 kg ha(-1) respectively. Among soil layers, the highest levels of organic carbon (1.77%) and total nitrogen (0.096%) and the lowest pH value (pH 5.38) were found in 0-1 cm soil layer, and the variation differs significantly among soil layers. Both organic carbon and total nitrogen content decreased, pH values increased from 0-1 to 5-10 cm layer. In conclusion, according to results obtained maritime pine plantations on coal mine spoils; slow accumulation and decomposition of forest floor undergo simultaneously. Depending on these changes organic carbon and total nitrogen contents increased in upper layer of soil/spoil.

  3. An experimental study on dredge spoil of estuarine sediments in the bay of seine (France): A morphosedimentary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmin, Stella; Lesueur, Patrick; Dauvin, Jean Claude; Samson, Sandrine; Tournier, Patrice; Gallicher Lavanne, Albert; Dubrulle-Brunaud, Carole; Thouroude, Coralie

    2016-03-01

    Studies on the consequences of dredging on estuarine morphology and its sedimentary dynamics are common, but the impacts of dumping dredge spoil in coastal open settings are rarely found in scientific literature. An experimental study was conducted over the period 2012-2013 to monitor the physical impacts of dredged material dumped at two adjacent sites (one million cubic metres at each) on the inner shelf of the Bay of Seine in France (eastern part of the English Channel, La Manche). As recently reinforced in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), knowledge on the location and intensity of human impacts (e.g. on marine ecosystems) is critical for effective marine management and conservation. So, two methods of disposition were tested to evaluate the impacts of dumping on the environment and thus propose recommendations for future dumping. The strategy is based on a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) approach, in which the spatio-temporal variability was studied by analysing the morphological and sedimentological characteristics over a period of 28 months, from November 2011 to April 2014, also including recovery of the seafloor after cessation of the dumping activities. The first experimental dumping operation (MASED) was carried out regularly for 8 months at a single point and generating a conical deposit of 5 m in height, while the second dumping (MABIO) lasted for 12 months involving four steps in the dumping process. In the second case, a wider area was covered, leading to the formation of a smaller deposit of 2 m in height. The dumped deposits consisted of muddy fine sand, whereas the inner shelf seafloor in this area is covered with fine to medium sand. As a result, muddy fine sand accumulated at or near the two dumping sites, with a maximum mud (i.e. particles<63 μm or>4 Φ) content of 50% compared to<5% before dumping operations. Videos obtained from a LVB200 Seabotix ROV, highlighted the heterogeneity of the sea floor around the dumping areas

  4. Characteristics of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones Produced by Hafnia alvei H4 Isolated from Spoiled Instant Sea Cucumber.

    PubMed

    Hou, Hong-Man; Zhu, Yao-Lei; Wang, Jia-Ying; Jiang, Feng; Qu, Wen-Yan; Zhang, Gong-Liang; Hao, Hong-Shun

    2017-04-05

    This study aimed to identify N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) produced by Hafnia alvei H4, which was isolated from spoiled instant sea cucumber, and to investigate the effect of AHLs on biofilm formation. Two biosensor strains, Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens KYC55, were used to detect the quorum sensing (QS) activity of H. alvei H4 and to confirm the existence of AHL-mediated QS system. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of the AHLs extracted from the culture supernatant of H. alvei H4 revealed the existence of at least three AHLs: N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-(3-oxo-octanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL), and N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL). This is the first report of the production of C4-HSL by H. alvei. In order to determine the relationship between the production of AHL by H. alvei H4 and bacterial growth, the β-galactosidase assay was employed to monitor AHL activity during a 48-h growth phase. AHLs production reached a maximum level of 134.6 Miller unites at late log phase (after 18 h) and then decreased to a stable level of about 100 Miller unites. AHL production and bacterial growth displayed a similar trend, suggesting that growth of H. alvei H4 might be regulated by QS. The effect of AHLs on biofilm formation of H. alvei H4 was investigated by adding exogenous AHLs (C4-HSL, C6-HSL and 3-oxo-C8-HSL) to H. alvei H4 culture. Biofilm formation was significantly promoted (p < 0.05) by 5 and 10 µM C6-HSL, inhibited (p < 0.05) by C4-HSL (5 and 10 µM) and 5 µM 3-oxo-C8-HSL, suggesting that QS may have a regulatory role in the biofilm formation of H. alvei H4.

  5. High Energy Astrophysics Program (HEAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, Lorella; Corcoran, Michael; Drake, Stephen; McGlynn, Thomas A.; Snowden, Stephen; Mukai, Koji; Cannizzo, John; Lochner, James; Rots, Arnold; Christian, Eric; Barthelmy, Scott; Palmer, David; Mitchell, John; Esposito, Joseph; Sreekumar, P.; Hua, Xin-Min; Mandzhavidze, Natalie; Chan, Kai-Wing; Soong, Yang; Barrett, Paul

    1998-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by the members of the USRA contract team during the 6 months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming 6 months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in astrophysics. Supported missions include advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-Ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) and others.

  6. High Energy Astrophysics Program (HEAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, L.

    1998-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by members of the USRA contract team during the six months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming six months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in Astrophysics Missions supported include: Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), and others.

  7. GOLD ACRES BIOLOGICAL HEAP DETOXIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, soluble...

  8. Environmental assessment of physical/chemical impacts related to the dredging and disposal of spoil from the proposed trench tube crossing of the Anacostia River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pine, F. W.; Yost, J. C.; Saul, S. W.; Wood, S. G.

    1981-03-01

    Environmental sampling and testing was conducted to identify specified chemical pollutants in river-bottom material to be dredged during construction of the Metro subway tube tunnel crossing of the Anacostia River. Constituent concentrations is sediments, elutriates, and surface waters at the site and defined and compared with federal, state, and District of Columbia criteria and guidelines to identify potential problem areas and to evaluate potential chemical and physical impacts of dredging and spoil disposal. The results indicate sediment-bound concentrations of chlordane, DDT and PCBs which fail to meet federal criteria. High surface water concentrations of iron and mercury were identified which would prevent regulatory compliances of dredging operations for these constituents. It was concluded that the dredging would be minimal. Potential impacts upon groundwater were identified, bur further analyses of hydrogeology at the proposed disposal sites would be needed to define the potential for problems.

  9. Growth, nutrient absorption, and moisture status of selected woody species in coal-mine spoil in response to an induced infection by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.F.; West, D.C.; McLaughlin, S.B.

    1982-09-01

    In this study, nursery grown loblolly and Virginia pine seedlings infected with Pisolithus and control seedlings were outplanted on a coal mine spoil in Tennessee which had been previously hydroseeded. Granular fertilizer was applied by broadcasting to one-half of the seedlings of each ectomycorrhizal treatment at the rate of 112 kg/ha NPK. After 3 years, the survival and growth of loblolly pine infected with Pisolithus were superior to that of the control seedlings, and chemical analyses of foliar samples revealed that the seedlings with Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae had a higher foliar concentration of NO/sub 3/ and a lower concentration of Zn than the control seedlings. The survival, growth, and nutrient absorption of Virginia pine were not significantly affected by the infection with Pisolithus after 2 years, but both loblolly and Virginia pine seedlings with Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae exhibited an enhanced ability to absorb water during periods of high moisture stress, as determined by the pressure chamber technique. Fertilization substantially reduced the survival of the seedlings of both species. Sweet birch and European alder were grown under high, intermediate, and low fertility regimes in sand culture containing a mycelial inoculum of Pisolithus tinctorius for 5 months and then transplanted to coal mine spoil containing an identical Pisolithus inoculum. Control seedlings of each species were similarly grown except that no inoculum was incorporated into the potting media. The nutrient treatments initiated in the sand culture were continued throughout the study. Examinations of the roots of the sweet birch seedlings revealed that high fertility significantly reduced the development of Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae, but Pisolithus formed abundant ectomycorrhizae on the roots of sweet birch grown under the intermediate and low fertility regimes and these seedlings were significantly larger than comparable control seedlings.

  10. Evaluation of the spoilage potential of bacteria isolated from spoiled cooked whole tropical shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) stored under modified atmosphere packaging.

    PubMed

    Macé, Sabrina; Cardinal, Mireille; Jaffrès, Emmanuel; Cornet, Josiane; Lalanne, Valérie; Chevalier, Frédérique; Sérot, Thierry; Pilet, Marie-France; Dousset, Xavier; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques

    2014-06-01

    The spoilage potential of isolates belonging to five bacterial groups/species (Shewanella baltica, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Aeromonas salmonicida, Vibrio sp., "other Gamma-Proteobacteria" [containing one strain of Pseudoalteromonas sp. and one strain of Psychrobacter sp.]) isolated from spoiled cooked and whole tropical shrimp stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was evaluated by inoculation into ionized cooked and peeled tropical shrimp followed by storage for 32 days at 8 °C. Microbial growth and sensory changes were monitored during the storage period. The major spoilage bacterial isolate groups were C. maltaromaticum and S. baltica. In order to characterize their spoilage potential further and to study the effect of their interactions, each of these two specific spoilage organisms (SSO) and one mixed-culture, C. maltaromaticum/S. baltica, were tested using a combination of complementary methods: molecular (PCR-TTGE), sensory, chemical, and conventional microbiological analyses. It was concluded that, in the mixed-culture-inoculated samples, both species groups imposed their spoilage characteristics.

  11. Formulation of an organic carbon trajectory over a 10-year period on a restored spoil island in south-central Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, T.; Ellis, R.; Osborne, T.; Hicks Pries, C.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of restoration projects aims to determine long-term sustainability and stability of restored systems. In coastal wetlands, one indicator of restoration of ecosystem function can be seen with organic matter (specifically carbon) accretion. SL-15, a spoil island in Fort Pierce, Fl was restored in 2005, and has been monitored for return to natural condition over the last 10 years.. To assess sediment carbon accretion, sediment cores were collected in a set of eight plots, located on the SL-15 mangrove island and the surrounding seagrass recruitment area. These were analyzed for organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, extractable carbon, and total nitrogen. The biogeochemical data collected in the previous year was compared to data collected in 2005-2007. Vegetation surveys were also completed to show the build-up of organic material in accordance with vegetation shift over the 9-year period. From this information, a trajectory has been formulated on organic carbon accretion and vegetation shift from the time of orginal restoration activities. By comparison to control sites nearby, realistic estimates of time required to reach natural levels of carbon and vegetation community structure can be calculated..

  12. Insects in relation to black locust culture on surface-mine spoil in Kentucky, with emphasis on the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zell. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Thoeny, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    This research evaluated the impacts of herbivorous insects, emphasizing the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zeller, on black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia L., coppice production on a coal surface-mine spoil site in southeastern Kentucky. The natural history of E. insiticiana was also studied. The locust twig borer was a persistent and damaging pest in first-year coppice, which provided suitable larval habitat throughout the growing season. The locust leafminer, Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg), fed minimally on first-year coppice foliage except during 1983, when trees were severely drought-stressed. Soil-applied granular carbofuran significantly reduced infestations. Lindane stem treatments were not effective, but entire-tree applications did reduce herbivory. Stump sprouts with reduced levels of herbivory grew significantly taller than controls at both spacings in 1983, but only at the more dense spacing in 1984. Blacklight trap collections revealed two generations/year, and adults were present from early May until late August. Four species of hymenopterous and two species of dipterous parasitoids were recovered from E. insiticiana larvae.

  13. Evaluation of dioxin mobility and spoils leaching in a surface coal mine reclaimed with bleached kraft pulp and paper mill biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, D.P.; Krouskop, D.J.; Ayers, K.C.; Proctor, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    A surface coal mine in southeastern Ohio has been reclaimed with approximately 15 to 25 cm thickness of biosolids from a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment plant. Soil, vegetation, rodents, earthworms, insects, fish, frogs, sediment, and algae samples were collected and analyzed for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran. Water samples from lakes receiving drainage from unreclaimed and biosolids reclaimed areas were collected and analyzed for various parameters, including pH and metals. The trace levels of dioxin and furan in the pulp and paper mill biosolids did not bioaccumulate in rodents, insects, or earthworms or translocate into plants living in the reclaimed area. The trace levels of dioxin and furan in biosolids did not sufficiently migrate to a drainage lake to result in significant concentrations in fish, frogs, algae, or vegetation. The biosolids reclamation resulted in dramatic decreases in spoils leaching of acid, aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, and zinc. This work supports the thesis that surface mine reclamation with pulp and paper mill biosolids is safe and effective. 4 refs., 6 tabs.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus and Zygosaccharomyces bailii as primary microbial contaminants of a spoiled herbal food supplement and evaluation of their survival during shelf life.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Franca; Gaio, Elena; Torriani, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    This investigation was carried out to identify the microbiota in a spoiled commercial food supplement consisting of a syrup suspension of a mixture of dried herbs and herb extracts. The product did not contain alkyl-p-hydroxybenzoates (parabens) as preservatives, was kept at room temperature and showed abundant gas formation. Colonies of distinct morphology were recovered on bacteria- and yeast-specific media, and tested for their ability to grow in the product. Genetic differentiation and identification of the microbial contaminants were achieved by RAPD-PCR and rDNA sequence analysis. The bacteria Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Paenibacillus humicus, Paenibacillus glycanilyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and the yeasts Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii were detected. Of the two S. aureus strains isolated, one was enterotoxigenic, as indicated by the presence of five SE genes. Quantitative Real-Time PCR tests, specific for this pathogen and for Z. bailii, a microbial agent causing fermentation processes and consequent food spoilage, were carried out to quantify these microorganisms in the product and identify their source among the herbal ingredients and the fructose syrup used as sweetener. Most components appeared to be contaminated by both S. aureus and Z. bailii. These findings indicate the need to improve hygienic practices in the industrial manufacturing of the food supplement, starting with herbal ingredients, to ensure a high quality of the product.

  15. The Identification of Novel Diagnostic Marker Genes for the Detection of Beer Spoiling Pediococcus damnosus Strains Using the BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Jonas; Zehe, Anja; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2016-01-01

    As the number of bacterial genomes increases dramatically, the demand for easy to use tools with transparent functionality and comprehensible output for applied comparative genomics grows as well. We present BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr (BADGE), a tool for the rapid prediction of diagnostic marker genes (DMGs) for the differentiation of bacterial groups (e.g. pathogenic / nonpathogenic). DMG identification settings can be modified easily and installing and running BADGE does not require specific bioinformatics skills. During the BADGE run the user is informed step by step about the DMG finding process, thus making it easy to evaluate the impact of chosen settings and options. On the basis of an example with relevance for beer brewing, being one of the oldest biotechnological processes known, we show a straightforward procedure, from phenotyping, genome sequencing, assembly and annotation, up to a discriminant marker gene PCR assay, making comparative genomics a means to an end. The value and the functionality of BADGE were thoroughly examined, resulting in the successful identification and validation of an outstanding novel DMG (fabZ) for the discrimination of harmless and harmful contaminations of Pediococcus damnosus, which can be applied for spoilage risk determination in breweries. Concomitantly, we present and compare five complete P. damnosus genomes sequenced in this study, finding that the ability to produce the unwanted, spoilage associated off-flavor diacetyl is a plasmid encoded trait in this important beer spoiling species. PMID:27028007

  16. Some soil properties on coal mine spoils reclaimed with black locust (Robinia pceudoacacia L.) and umbrella pine (Pinus pinea L.) in Agacli-Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Tahir; Makineci, Ender

    2009-12-01

    This study performed on randomly selected seven sample plots in leguminous black locust (Robinia pceudoacacia L.) plantations and five sample plots in umbrella pine (Pinus pinea L.) plantations on coal mine soil/spoils. Soil samples were taken from eight different soil depths (0-1, 1-3, 3-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-50 cm) into the soil profile. On soil samples, bulk density, fine soil fraction (Ø < 2 mm), sand, silt and clay rates, soil acidity (pH), organic carbon (C(org)), and total nitrogen (N(t)) contents were investigated. Also, some forest floor properties (unit mass, organic matter, and total nitrogen) were determined, and results were compared statistically between umbrella pine and black locust. As a result, 17 years after plantations, total forest floor accumulation determined as 6,107 kg ha(-1) under black locust compared to 13,700 kg ha(-1) under umbrella pine. The more rapid transformation of leguminous black locust forest floor creates organic carbon that migrates further into the mineral profile, and rapid accumulation of C and N in the soil profile was registered. Slower transformation processes of forest floor under umbrella pine result in lower soil N ratio and greater quantity of forest floor. Higher soil pH under leguminous black locust was determined significantly than umbrella pine. In conclusion, the composition of symbiotic nitrogen fixation of black locust appears to be a possible factor favoring carbon and nitrogen accumulation and, consequently, soil development. Clearly, both tree species have favorable impacts on initial soil formation. The umbrella pine generates the more forest floor layer; in contrast, black locust forest floor incorporates into the soil more rapidly and significantly increases soil nitrogen in upper soil layers.

  17. Development of population structure and spatial distribution patterns of a restored forest during 17-year succession (1993-2010) in Pingshuo opencast mine spoil, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongqiu; Wang, Lianhua; Bai, Zhongke; Pan, Ziguan; Wang, Yun

    2015-07-01

    Afforestation of native tree species is often recommended for ecological restoration in mining areas, but the understanding of the ecological processes of restored vegetation is quite limited. In order to provide insight of the ecological processes of restored vegetation, in this study, we investigate the development of the population structure and spatial distribution patterns of restored Robinia pseudoacacia (ROPS) and Pinus tabuliformis (PITA) mixed forests during the 17 years of the mine spoil period of the Pingshuo opencast mine, Shanxi Province, China. After a 17-year succession, apart from the two planted species, Ulmus pumila (ULPU), as an invasive species, settled in the plot along with a large number of small diameter at breast height (DBH) size. In total, there are 10,062 living individual plants, much more than that at the plantation (5105), and ROPS had become the dominant species with a section area with a breast height of 9.40 m(2) hm(-2) and a mean DBH of 6.72 cm, much higher than both PITA and ULPU. The DBH size classes of all the total species showed inverted J-shaped distributions, which may have been a result of the large number of small regenerated ULPU trees. The DBH size classes of both ROPS and PITA showed peak-type structures with individuals mainly gathering in the moderate DBH size class, indicating a relatively healthy DBH size class structure. Meanwhile, invasive ULPU were distributed in a clear L shape, concentrating on the small DBH size class, indicating a relatively low survival rate for adult trees. Both ROPS and PITA species survival in the plantation showed uniform and aggregated distribution at small scales and random with scales increasing. ULPU showed a strong aggregation at small scales as well as random with scales increasing. Both the population structure and spatial distribution indicated that ROPS dominates and will continue to dominate the community in the future succession, which should be continuously monitored.

  18. Geohydrology and water chemistry of abandoned uranium mines and radiochemistry of spoil-material leachate, Monument Valley and Cameron areas, Arizona and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longsworth, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium mines in the Monument Valley area were established predominately in channel-fill deposits within the Shinarump Member of the Chinle Formation. The Shinarump Member yields ground water to wells and may yield water to the Moonlight and Radium Hill mines. In the study area near Cameron, uranium was mined from channel-fill deposits within the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation. Units of the Petrified Forest Member do not yield ground water to wells in the area, but fractures in the lower part of the Petrified Forest Member are probable pathways for upward flow of water from the Shinarump Member. Most of the mines receive water from surface inflow of rainfall runoff, but ground water also may be transmitted to open pits and drill holes in the subsurface through fractures or along faults in the Petrified Forest Member. Uranium-238 activities in shallow ground water from mines ranged from 150 to 14,000 picocuries per liter. Radionuclide activities in well and spring water were less than in shallow ground water near mines; however, in some samples, radionuclide activities in wells and springs were greater than activities in pit water. Uranium concentrations in leachate samples ranged from 20 to 7,700 micrograms per liter. Batch tests were done with material that was 2.00 millimeters and smaller. The radiochemistry of leachate from coarser material was not determined, and the specific rate and magnitude of radionuclide leaching depends on site-specific conditions that include the amounts of oxygen and organic material present, temperature, spoil mineralogy, and local ground-water composition.

  19. Bad apples or spoiled barrels? Multilevel modelling analysis of variation in high-risk prescribing in Scotland between general practitioners and between the practices they work in

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Bruce; Donnan, Peter T; Murphy, Douglas J; Makubate, Boikanyo; Dreischulte, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Primary care high-risk prescribing causes significant harm, but it is unclear if it is largely driven by individuals (a ‘bad apple’ problem) or by practices having higher or lower risk prescribing cultures (a ‘spoiled barrel’ problem). The study aimed to examine the extent of variation in high-risk prescribing between individual prescribers and between the practices they work in. Design, setting and participants Multilevel logistic regression modelling of routine cross-sectional data from 38 Scottish general practices for 181 010 encounters between 398 general practitioners (GPs) and 26 539 patients particularly vulnerable to adverse drug events (ADEs) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) due to age, comorbidity or co-prescribing. Outcome measure Initiation of a new NSAID prescription in an encounter between GPs and eligible patients. Results A new high-risk NSAID was initiated in 1953 encounters (1.1% of encounters, 7.4% of patients). Older patients, those with more vulnerabilities to NSAID ADEs and those with polypharmacy were less likely to have a high-risk NSAID initiated, consistent with GPs generally recognising the risk of NSAIDs in eligible patients. Male GPs were more likely to initiate a high-risk NSAID than female GPs (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.16). After accounting for patient characteristics, 4.2% (95% CI 2.1 to 8.3) of the variation in high-risk NSAID prescribing was attributable to variation between practices, and 14.2% (95% CI 11.4 to 17.3) to variation between GPs. Three practices had statistically higher than average high-risk prescribing, but only 15.7% of GPs with higher than average high-risk prescribing and 18.5% of patients receiving such a prescription were in these practices. Conclusions There was much more variation in high-risk prescribing between GPs than between practices, and only targeting practices with higher than average rates will miss most high-risk NSAID prescribing. Primary care prescribing

  20. An analysis of the uncertainty and bias in DCE-MRI measurements using the spoiled gradient-recalled echo pulse sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Subashi, Ergys; Choudhury, Kingshuk R.; Johnson, G. Allan

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The pharmacokinetic parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI have been used in more than 100 phase I trials and investigator led studies. A comparison of the absolute values of these quantities requires an estimation of their respective probability distribution function (PDF). The statistical variation of the DCE-MRI measurement is analyzed by considering the fundamental sources of error in the MR signal intensity acquired with the spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) pulse sequence. Methods: The variance in the SPGR signal intensity arises from quadrature detection and excitation flip angle inconsistency. The noise power was measured in 11 phantoms of contrast agent concentration in the range [0–1] mM (in steps of 0.1 mM) and in onein vivo acquisition of a tumor-bearing mouse. The distribution of the flip angle was determined in a uniform 10 mM CuSO{sub 4} phantom using the spin echo double angle method. The PDF of a wide range of T1 values measured with the varying flip angle (VFA) technique was estimated through numerical simulations of the SPGR equation. The resultant uncertainty in contrast agent concentration was incorporated in the most common model of tracer exchange kinetics and the PDF of the derived pharmacokinetic parameters was studied numerically. Results: The VFA method is an unbiased technique for measuringT1 only in the absence of bias in excitation flip angle. The time-dependent concentration of the contrast agent measured in vivo is within the theoretically predicted uncertainty. The uncertainty in measuring K{sup trans} with SPGR pulse sequences is of the same order, but always higher than, the uncertainty in measuring the pre-injection longitudinal relaxation time (T1{sub 0}). The lowest achievable bias/uncertainty in estimating this parameter is approximately 20%–70% higher than the bias/uncertainty in the measurement of the pre-injection T1 map. The fractional volume parameters derived from the extended Tofts model

  1. Effective use of flow-spoiled FBI and time-SLIP methods in the diagnostic study of an aberrant vessel of the head and neck: "left jugular venous steal by the right jugular vein".

    PubMed

    Kogure, Taroh; Kogure, Kyuya; Iizuka, Mitsumasa; Ino, Azusa; Ishii, Masako

    2010-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight (TOF) is now commonly used in routine magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) studies of the head and neck. However, there are limits to its diagnostic abilities in the clinical field and, in some instances, a more invasive supplementary examination may be required. We incidentally discovered a patient with an aberrant vessel of the head and neck that ran alongside the left carotid artery and contained a constant, slowly pulsating efferent blood flow. 3D-TOF and carotid ultrasonography could not determine the nature and origin of this vessel. Additional studies using flow-spoiled fresh blood imaging (flow-spoiled FBI) and time spatial labeling inversion pulse (time-SLIP) methods were effective in determining that the vessel was the left jugular vein, and that the continuous venous reflux was a result of a venous steal by the right jugular vein. We show that by combining different MRA techniques we can effectively achieve diagnosis without resorting to more invasive examinations.

  2. To the Critics, the Spoils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Rick

    1995-01-01

    In a partnership between several tool companies and vocational high schools, students in construction technology classes give new products a fair and rigorous workout at a fraction of the cost of focus groups. The process allows companies to expose their products to students who, in turn, provide critical evaluation of the tools. (JOW)

  3. Quantifying the effect of water activity and storage temperature on single spore lag times of three moulds isolated from spoiled bakery products.

    PubMed

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Gougouli, Maria; Onno, Bernard; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2017-01-02

    The inhibitory effect of water activity (aw) and storage temperature on single spore lag times of Aspergillus niger, Eurotium repens (Aspergillus pseudoglaucus) and Penicillium corylophilum strains isolated from spoiled bakery products, was quantified. A full factorial design was set up for each strain. Data were collected at levels of aw varying from 0.80 to 0.98 and temperature from 15 to 35°C. Experiments were performed on malt agar, at pH5.5. When growth was observed, ca 20 individual growth kinetics per condition were recorded up to 35days. Radius of the colony vs time was then fitted with the Buchanan primary model. For each experimental condition, a lag time variability was observed, it was characterized by its mean, standard deviation (sd) and 5(th) percentile, after a Normal distribution fit. As the environmental conditions became stressful (e.g. storage temperature and aw lower), mean and sd of single spore lag time distribution increased, indicating longer lag times and higher variability. The relationship between mean and sd followed a monotonous but not linear pattern, identical whatever the species. Next, secondary models were deployed to estimate the cardinal values (minimal, optimal and maximal temperatures, minimal water activity where no growth is observed anymore) for the three species. That enabled to confirm the observation made based on raw data analysis: concerning the temperature effect, A. niger behaviour was significantly different from E. repens and P. corylophilum: Topt of 37.4°C (standard deviation 1.4°C) instead of 27.1°C (1.4°C) and 25.2°C (1.2°C), respectively. Concerning the aw effect, from the three mould species, E. repens was the species able to grow at the lowest aw (awmin estimated to 0.74 (0.02)). Finally, results obtained with single spores were compared to findings from a previous study carried out at the population level (Dagnas et al., 2014). For short lag times (≤5days), there was no difference between lag time

  4. Sunset Specialty Turf: Growing the heap

    SciTech Connect

    Heumann, J.M.

    1998-07-01

    Almost a quarter of the municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in the US is compostable. As composting as an industry is growing in the US, entrepreneurs are going where the markets are to expand their facilities and, hopefully, their revenues by making turf and groundcovers from recovered materials. In fact, over the past 20 years, the composting business has grown from a nascent backyard project to a full-fledged industry in the US. According to the US EPA`s recent waste characterization report, food and yard waste generated in the US in 1996 came to almost 53 million tons, or almost a quarter of the total 209 million tons of MSW generated in the US. Of the 28 million tons of yard waste generated in the US in 1996 alone, 38.6% was recycled. Yard trimmings made up about 13.4% of all the materials discarded as MSW. With its warm climate and abundance of foliage that create yard waste year round, the South is a region where composting facilities are thriving. And a Midwestern composting company is looking to reap the benefits of the current growing market for compostable materials in the Southeast while providing an environmentally beneficial end product. Sunset Turf Nursery, Inc. is a company that manufacturers turf products from compost materials. The company already runs a 51-acre facility in St. Louis, where it composts municipal materials and, using its patented process, grows turf grass to make a specialty groundcover which can be used for landscaping applications. Sunset officials plan to expand the company`s composting and turf manufacturing operations to more than 350 acres over the next three years, starting with the St. Louis facility. The company, specifically its division Sunset Specialty Turf, currently has a research and development testing site in Jacksonville, Florida, which it would like to use additional funding to expand to a full fledged manufacturing site similar to the St. Louis site.

  5. CYANIDE HEAP BIOLOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in the closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, solu...

  6. CYANIDE HEAP BILOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, soluble...

  7. Effects of controlled overburden placement on mine-spoil properties, revegetation, and the growth of Pitch X loblolly pine hybrid seedlings as demonstrated on an abandoned strip bench. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, W.L.; Burger, J.; Roberts, J.; Moss, S.

    1986-08-15

    Surface coal-mine reclamation efforts depend on a knowledge of soil development and nutrient cycling. Gaining an understanding of soil genesis in various parent materials and in different cultural amendments will aid the success of revegetation and reclamation. Studies in soil genesis are needed to determine if rock-mine spoils are suitable as a topsoil substitute. A knowledge of mechanisms of nutrient cycling in these materials will aid the development of management strategies for successful reclamation. The report summarizes findings from Phase II of the Controlled Overburden Placement Experiment, funded by OSM. The data reported pertain primarily to the second and third growing seasons, 1983 and 1984. The experiment is composed of two parts, a rock-mix experiment and a surface-treatment experiment. Second-year results confirm topsoil substitutes can outperform topsoiled plots in these particular mine soils.

  8. Untreated abandoned mercury mining works in a scenic area of Asturias (Spain).

    PubMed

    Loredo, Jorge; Pereira, Alberto; Ordóñez, Almudena

    2003-07-01

    Mercury mining was a large and thriving industry during the last century in Asturias (NW Spain). At Brañalamosa, mining activity introduced significant quantities of wastes in spoil heaps located close to the mining operations. In these mining wastes, in addition to mercury, high concentrations of other potentially dangerous elements like As have been found. As a consequence, pollution and dereliction of the local environment occurred. This paper focuses on the environmental impact of these old mining operations and describes a preliminary assessment of the extent of contamination. This includes analytical data from systematic sampling of soils, stream sediments, wastes from spoil heaps, water and herbaceous plants in areas affected by mining activities. The potential risk that spoil materials imply for human health and the environment is documented on the basis of the application of EPA Risk Assessment methodology.

  9. Cheating More when the Spoils Are Split

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltermuth, Scott S.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments demonstrated that people are more likely to cheat when the benefits of doing so are split with another person, even an anonymous stranger, than when the actor alone captures all of the benefits. In three of the studies, splitting the benefits of over-reporting one's performance on a task made such over-reporting seem less…

  10. Leaching behaviour of a chromium smelter waste heap.

    PubMed

    Deakin, D; West, L J; Stewart, D I; Yardley, B W

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the results of geochemical sampling and modelling of leachates from a chromite ore processing residue (C.O.P.R.) pile under rainwater infiltration. The waste pile is located in the north of England and consists of 800,000 m3 of waste. The pH of fresh leachate is similar to that of a solution in equilibrium with portlandite Ca(OH)2, which is a major constituent of the waste. The in-gassing of CO2(g) causes the pH of the leachates to drop along the drainage ditch and calcite precipitation to occur. The extent of in-gassing is dependent upon the flow rate within the drainage ditch. The dissolution of solid solutions containing residual chromate is likely to control chromate concentrations within the leachate.

  11. Heap/stack guard pages using a wakeup unit

    DOEpatents

    Gooding, Thomas M; Satterfield, David L; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2014-04-29

    A method and system for providing a memory access check on a processor including the steps of detecting accesses to a memory device including level-1 cache using a wakeup unit. The method includes invalidating level-1 cache ranges corresponding to a guard page, and configuring a plurality of wakeup address compare (WAC) registers to allow access to selected WAC registers. The method selects one of the plurality of WAC registers, and sets up a WAC register related to the guard page. The method configures the wakeup unit to interrupt on access of the selected WAC register. The method detects access of the memory device using the wakeup unit when a guard page is violated. The method generates an interrupt to the core using the wakeup unit, and determines the source of the interrupt. The method detects the activated WAC registers assigned to the violated guard page, and initiates a response.

  12. Release of toxic metals and metalloids from Los Rueldos mercury mine (Asturias, Spain).

    PubMed

    Loredo, J; Alvarez, R; Ordóñez, A

    2005-03-20

    The abandoned mercury mining works of "Los Rueldos" are located 20 km from Oviedo, along the northwestern border of the Asturian Central Coal Basin, in an area with intense tectonization. Hg mainly appears as cinnabar, but occasionally metacinnabar and native Hg are present; associated with Hg ore appear As-rich minerals (arsenopyrite, As-rich pyrite, realgar and scorodite). In the spoil heap, Hg content ranges from 14 to 2224 mg kg(-1), and As from 4746 to 62,196 mg kg(-1). Mine drainage and spoil heap leachates show acidic conditions (pH: 2.43-2.50), 2900-4600 mg l(-1) sulphate, 1.4-9.2 mg l(-1) As, 0.03-0.48 mg l(-1) Pb, and 3.6-14 microg l(-1) Hg. According to the analytical data and characteristics of the site, the application of corrective measurements to avoid the dispersion of contaminants in the environment must be considered.

  13. The use of sustainable 'biochar compost' for remediation of contaminated land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Aoife; Street-Perrott, Alayne; Eastwood, Daniel; Brackenbury, Sion

    2014-05-01

    South Wales (UK) has a long industrial history which, since the collapse of the coal-mining industry, has left a large number of contaminated former colliery sites. Bio-remediation of these areas by re-vegetation with native grasses aims to prevent erosion and leaching of pollutants into drainage waters. However, acid pH, low organic-matter content and unsuitable soil structure have limited the success of re-vegetation and prompted research into the development of artificial soils. This study aims to assess the value of creating an artificial soil cover by adding "biochar compost" to the top 10cm of a large volume of contaminated colliery spoil (high in As and Cu) to be moved during construction of a flood-alleviation barrage in Cwm Dulais (Swansea). It is proposed to use biochar, manufactured from chipped biomass sourced from a local stand of invasive Rhododendron ponticum using a BiGchar 1000 fast pyrolysis-gasification unit, in combination with locally produced BSI PAS100-certified Pteridium aquilinum (bracken) compost, to remediate a large area (2.3ha) of landscaped colliery waste and re-establish a cover of native grasses suitable for sheep grazing. Pot and field trials are being used to determine the most appropriate biochar:compost mix. In a 90-day outdoor pot trial, a commercial acid-grassland seed mix was grown in screened (< 20mm) colliery spoil, to which 25%v/v bracken compost (with/without composted manure) was added as a source of organic matter. This application rate of compost (equivalent to 250m3ha-1) was based on a successful coal-tip remediation trial at Ffos-y-Frân (Jarvis & Walton, WRAP Report, 2011). Varying application rates of biochar (0%, 2%, 5%, 10% or 20%v/v) were employed. Additional benefits of adding mycorrhizal inoculant or Trifolium repens (white clover) seed were also tested. Six-fold replication was used, with appropriate controls. The performance of each treatment was assessed from its maximum sward height and final above

  14. Director, OWCP v. Greenwich collieries: The end of the true doubt rule

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Because coal miners are exposed to coal dust over long periods of time, hundreds of thousands of miners have contracted pneumoconiosis (black lung), a serious, progressive and crippling illness. In response to the horrible effects of black lung disease, Congress enacted the Federal Black Lung Program through several statutory enactments, which are commonly referred to as the Black Lung Benefits Act (BLBA). The purpose of the BLBA is to compensate coal miners who have contracted black lung disease. It is a humanitarian, remedial statute. Although the BLBA scheme seems quite complicated, a benefits claimant need only prove that: {open_quotes}(a) he or she it totally disabled, (b) the disability was caused, at least in part, by pneumoconiosis, and (c) the disability arose out of coal mine employment. Also, several statutory presumptions aid the BLBA claimant is establishing his or her entitlement to BLBA benefits. The implementation of the BLBA is discussed.

  15. Earthworm responses to different reclamation processes in post opencast mining lands during succession.

    PubMed

    Hlava, Jakub; Hlavová, Anna; Hakl, Josef; Fér, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    This study provides earthworm population data obtained from localities with a substantial anthropogenic impact spoils. The spoil heaps were reclaimed at the end of an opencast brown coal mining period. We studied spoils reclaimed by the two most commonly used reclamation processes: forestry and agricultural. The results show the significance of the locality age and the utilized reclamation process and treatment and their effect on earthworm communities. Our data indicate that apart from soil physical and chemical properties, the reclamation process itself may also induce viability and distribution of earthworm communities. Under standardized soil properties, the changes in earthworm populations during the succession were larger within the agricultural reclamation process as opposed to the forestry reclamation process for earthworm ecological groups and individual species.

  16. Spare the rods and spoil the retina: revisited.

    PubMed

    Sivaprasad, S; Arden, G

    2016-02-01

    Visual function improves with oxygen inhalation in people with diabetes even in the absence of visible retinopathy. Rods consume the most oxygen in the retina due to the high metabolic activity required to maintain the dark current. Therefore, Arden hypothesized that in diabetes where oxygen supply may also be affected due to the changes in retinal vasculature, prevention of dark adaptation may be a viable option to prevent or decrease the rate of progression of diabetic retinopathy. Animal experiments have proven that the absence of rods decreases the development of retinal neovascularisation. The same principle applies to panretinal photocoagulation, an established treatment for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Recently, a few clinical studies have also shown that preventing dark adaptation by suppressing rods with 500-nm light source at night decreases the rate of progression of early diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy in the short-term. We await the results of a large two-year multi-centre trial (CLEOPATRA trial) to evaluate the long-term effects of decreasing dark adaptation by applying a 500nm light source as a mask over eyes with non-central diabetic macular oedema.

  17. Bad apples spoil the barrel: Addressing unprofessional behaviour.

    PubMed

    van Mook, Walther N K A; Gorter, Simone L; De Grave, Willem S; van Luijk, Scheltus J; Wass, Valerie; Zwaveling, Jan Harm; Schuwirth, Lambert W; Van Der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2010-01-01

    Given the changes in society we are experiencing, the increasing focus on patient-centred care and acknowledgement that medical education including professionalism issues needs to continue not only in the residency programmes but also throughout the doctors career, is not surprising. Although most of the literature on professionalism pertains to learning and teaching professionalism issues, addressing unprofessional behaviour and related patient safety issues forms an alternative or perhaps complementary approach. This article describes the possibility of selecting applicants for a medical school based on personality characteristics, the attention to professional lapses in contemporary undergraduate training, as well as the magnitude, aetiology, surveillance and methods of dealing with reports of unprofessional behaviour in postgraduate education and CME.

  18. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engineer or other qualified professional specialist experienced in the construction of earth and rockfill... the operator and approved by the regulatory authority to minimize hazards to health and safety and to... registered professional engineer experienced in the design and construction of earth and rockfill...

  19. Spontaneous combustion of shale spoils at a sanitary landfill.

    PubMed

    Hudak, Paul F

    2002-01-01

    Shale deposits excavated from the Upper Cretaceous, Eagle Ford Formation for a sanitary landfill near Dallas, Texas spontaneously combusted. The shale is dark gray in color, with 3-4% fractional organic carbon, and no lignite seams. Gradual sifting and segregation of fine particles, having high surface area per unit volume, along with moisture trapped in the pile as it accumulated led to spontaneous combustion. Hot summer temperatures compounded the problem by heating the pile and preventing heat from efficiently venting to the atmosphere. Maximum temperatures exceeded 960 degrees F (516 degrees C) at several hot spots located approximately 4 m beneath the pile surface. The ongoing combustion problem, which has lasted for approximately 1 year, eventually will be extinguished by spreading the deposits in thin layers, and compacting them to reduce air circulation and segregation of fines.

  20. Beam spoiling a reflector antenna with conducting shim.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2012-12-01

    A horn-fed dish reflector antenna has characteristics including beam pattern that are a function of its mechanical form. The beam pattern can be altered by changing the mechanical configuration of the antenna. One way to do this is with a reflecting insert or shim added to the face of the original dish.

  1. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vegetative and organic materials shall be removed from the disposal area and the topsoil shall be removed, segregated, and stored or replaced under § 715.16. If approved by the regulatory authority, organic material... additional stability and prevents mass movement, fill materials suitable for disposal shall be placed upon...

  2. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vegetative and organic materials shall be removed from the disposal area and the topsoil shall be removed, segregated, and stored or replaced under § 715.16. If approved by the regulatory authority, organic material... additional stability and prevents mass movement, fill materials suitable for disposal shall be placed upon...

  3. Don't Let Germs Spoil Your Holiday Getaway

    MedlinePlus

    ... and wheezing as they pass by. Clean shared surfaces. Use a disinfectant wipe to clean seat trays ... germs linger up to three days on plastic surfaces. Check your hotel room. When you arrive, make ...

  4. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... foundation investigations, as well as any necessary laboratory testing of foundation material, to determine... result of past and future mining operations. (iv) A technical description of the rock materials to be... drainage blanket. (v) A stability analysis including, but not limited to, strength parameters,...

  5. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... foundation investigations, as well as any necessary laboratory testing of foundation material, to determine... result of past and future mining operations. (iv) A technical description of the rock materials to be... drainage blanket. (v) A stability analysis including, but not limited to, strength parameters,...

  6. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... are likely to differ significantly in terms of impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental... alternative with the least overall adverse impact on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  7. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... are likely to differ significantly in terms of impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental... alternative with the least overall adverse impact on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  8. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... are likely to differ significantly in terms of impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental... alternative with the least overall adverse impact on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  9. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... are likely to differ significantly in terms of impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental... alternative with the least overall adverse impact on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  10. Inhibition of spoiling yeasts of fruit juices through citrus extracts.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Speranza, Barbara; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2013-10-01

    This article reports on the bioactivities of citrus extracts (citrus extract, lemon extract, and neroli) toward Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum. The bioactivities of the extracts (from 10 to 100 ppm) were evaluated through a microdilution method; thereafter, citrus extracts (0 to 80 ppm) were tested in combination with either pH (3.0 to 5.0) or temperature (5 to 25°C). Finally, a confirmatory experiment was run in a commercial drink (referred to as red fruit juice) containing citrus extract (40 ppm) that was inoculated with either S. cerevisiae or Z. bailii (5 log CFU/ml) and stored at 4 and 25°C. Yeasts increased to 7 log CFU/ml (Z. bailii) or 8 log CFU/ml (S. cerevisiae) in the control at 25°C, but the citrus extract addition controlled yeast growth for at least 3 days; under refrigeration, the effect was significant for 10 days.

  11. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section. (3) Discussion of how you will address impacts to perennial and intermittent streams... are likely to differ significantly in terms of impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental... technology. The fact that one alternative may cost somewhat more than a different alternative does...

  12. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section. (3) Discussion of how you will address impacts to perennial and intermittent streams... are likely to differ significantly in terms of impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental... technology. The fact that one alternative may cost somewhat more than a different alternative does...

  13. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vegetation, or increase the moisture retention of the soil. (4) Slope protection shall be provided to... consisting of durable rock shall be constructed from the wet areas in a manner that prevents infiltration...

  14. Coal transformation under high-temperature catagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Melenevsky, V.N.; Sokol, E.V.; Fomin, A.N.

    2006-07-01

    In this paper we consider products of natural pyrolysis of lignite, which resulted from the high-temperature spontaneous combustion of spoil heaps of the Chelyabinsk coal basin. These products were studied by pyrolysis, element and petrographic analyses, chromatomass spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction method. We have established that under reducing conditions, the degree of pyrogenic coal transformation and the composition of pyrolysis products vary greatly, from graphite-like phases to bitumens, and depend on the temperature and degree of the system openness.

  15. Heaps of health, metaphysical fitness: Ayurveda and the ontology of good health in medical anthropology.

    PubMed

    Alter, J S

    1999-02-01

    Because most scholars take it for granted that medicine is concerned with healing and problems of ill health, the way in which various medical systems define good health has not been adequately studied. Moreover, good health as such is usually regarded as a natural, normative state of being even by most medical anthropologists, who otherwise take a critical, relativist perspective on the subject of illness, pain, and disease. Using the case of Ayurvedic medicine, this article shows that there is a very different way of looking at the question of how health is embodied. This perspective is proactive and concerned with overall fitness rather than reactive and primarily concerned with either illness or disease. The argument presented here therefore seeks to go beyond the limiting--although extremely useful--orientation of remedial health care and suggest a radical challenge to some of the most basic ontological assumptions in the cross-cultural comparative study of medical systems.

  16. Problem focused knowledge navigation: implementing the problem focused medical record and the O-HEAP note.

    PubMed

    Meyers, K C; Miller, H J; Naeymi-Rad, F

    1998-01-01

    The current organization of most Computerized Medical Records (CMR) is based on the Problem Oriented Medical Record (POMR) and the SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan) note. The organizational structure of the POMR and especially the SOAP note, does not allow for optimal use of computer capabilities in the follow up note. Since follow up visits are the most common office visit by far, this is a major flaw in the CMR. The authors propose a Problem Focused Medical Record and the OHEAP (Orientation, History, Exam, Assessment and Plan) note to resolve this problem. OHEAP starts with a powerful orientation structure that brings forward the timeline, last Assessment and Plan, and Plan Results for each problem along with the patient's historical tables as the starting point of every follow up visit. The Assessment and Plan portion brings problem specific differential diagnoses and their workups along with other relevant tables such as expert systems, treatments, instructions, medical literature or pathways. This leads to Problem Focused Knowledge Navigation that brings powerful efficiencies to the CMR. By recognizing the true workflow in the longitudinal diagnosis and management of any medical problem, the efficiency of the CMR is maximized. OHEAP allows for optimal use of both personal and external data elements in the medical record. Its powerful orientation attributes minimize the time spent in analyzing the current status of the problem while its connections to problem specific databases help resolve the problem.

  17. HEAP: Heat Energy Analysis Program, a computer model simulating solar receivers. [solving the heat transfer problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program which can distinguish between different receiver designs, and predict transient performance under variable solar flux, or ambient temperatures, etc. has a basic structure that fits a general heat transfer problem, but with specific features that are custom-made for solar receivers. The code is written in MBASIC computer language. The methodology followed in solving the heat transfer problem is explained. A program flow chart, an explanation of input and output tables, and an example of the simulation of a cavity-type solar receiver are included.

  18. Programming with non-heap memory in the real time specification for Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollella, G.; Canham, T.; Carson, V.; Champlin, V.; Dvorak, D.; Giovannoni, B.; Indictor, M.; Meyer, K.; Reinholtz, A.; Murray, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) provides facilities for deterministic, real-time execution in a language that is otherwise subject to variable latencies in memory allocation and garbage collection.

  19. Heap of stones: an unusual cause for biliary colic and elevated liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Wittenburg, Henning; Keim, Volker; Hoffmeister, Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    A 40-year old woman presented with symptomatic intrahepatic gallstones in one liver segment only four years after cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. Multiple small, yellow and round calculi were completely removed from the intrahepatic bile ducts via ERCP. The young age of the patient, recurrence of gallstones after cholecystectomy and intrahepatic gallstones suggested a subtype of the low-phospholipid associated cholelithiasis syndrome, a monogenic form of cholesterol cholelithiasis due to variations of the ABCB4 gene that encodes the canalicular phospholipid transporter MDR3.

  20. Atomic Incremental Garbage Collection and Recovery for a Large Stable Heap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    39, August 1986. [34] David Maier, Jacob Stein, Allen Otis, and Alan Purdy. Development of an Object- Oriented DBMS. In Proceedings of the Object...Alfred Z. Spector, J. J. Bioch , Dean S. Daniels, R. P. Draves, Daniel Duchamp, Jef- frey L. Eppinger, S. G. Menees, and D. S. Thompson. The Camelot

  1. Instrumentation Analysis: An Automated Method for Producing Numeric Abstractions of Heap-Manipulating Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-29

    Magill et al., 2006, Distefano et al., 2006, Chang et al., 2007, Calcagno et al., 2009, Yang et al., 2008] has firmly established separation logic as...branch x 6= nil⇒ x := x.next; goto L1, x = nil⇒ halt end A shape analysis such as those in [Berdine et al., 2007, Gotsman et al., 2007, Distefano ...abstract interpretation terms, see [ Distefano et al., 2006] and [Berdine et al., 2007]. We begin our discussion by describing the restricted form of

  2. The Solnhofen Limestone: A stony heritage of many uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kölbl-Ebert, Martina; Kramar, Sabina; Cooper, Barry J.

    2016-04-01

    High above the valley of the River Altmühl (Bavaria, Germany), between Solnhofen to the west and Kelheim to the east, numerous quarries give access to thinly plated limestone from the Upper Jurassic, some 150 million years before the present. The main quarry areas lie around the town of Eichstätt and between the villages of Solnhofen, Langenaltheim and Mörnsheim. Here limestone slabs have been quarried for several hundred years, some even in Roman times. Solnhofen Limestone is famous worldwide; not only because it is a beautiful building stone of high quality, but also because of the exceptionally well-preserved fossils it contains -among them the early bird Archaeopteryx. The quarry industry between Solnhofen and Eichstätt has shaped a cultural landscape, with old and new quarries sunk into the plain and numerous spoil heaps rising above it, for the rock is not all economically useful. But many of the spoil heaps and the old quarries are environmentally protected as they provide a habitat for some rare plants and animals. It is not necessary to cut the Solnhofen Limestone with a saw: it is split by hand into thin and even slabs or sheets which are used for flagstones and wall covers, which since centuries are sold world-wide. Locally it also serves as roof tiles for traditional houses. Thick slabs of especially fine quality may be found near Solnhofen and Mörnsheim and are used for lithography printing.

  3. Landscape monitoring of post-industrial areas using LiDAR and GIS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wężyk, Piotr; Szostak, Marta; Krzaklewski, Wojciech; Pająk, Marek; Pierzchalski, Marcin; Szwed, Piotr; Hawryło, Paweł; Ratajczak, Michał

    2015-06-01

    The quarrying industry is changing the local landscape, forming deep open pits and spoil heaps in close proximity to them, especially lignite mines. The impact can include toxic soil material (low pH, heavy metals, oxidations etc.) which is the basis for further reclamation and afforestation. Forests that stand on spoil heaps have very different growth conditions because of the relief (slope, aspect, wind and rainfall shadows, supply of solar energy, etc.) and type of soil that is deposited. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) technology deliver point clouds (XYZ) and derivatives as raster height models (DTM, DSM, nDSM=CHM) which allow the reception of selected 2D and 3D forest parameters (e.g. height, base of the crown, cover, density, volume, biomass, etc). The automation of ALS point cloud processing and integrating the results into GIS helps forest managers to take appropriate decisions on silvicultural treatments in areas with failed plantations (toxic soil, droughts on south-facing slopes; landslides, etc.) or as regular maintenance. The ISOK country-wide project ongoing in Poland will soon deliver ALS point cloud data which can be successfully used for the monitoring and management of many thousands of hectares of destroyed post-industrial areas which according to the law, have to be afforested and transferred back to the State Forest.

  4. Characterization of butter spoiling yeasts and their inhibition by some spices.

    PubMed

    Sagdic, Osman; Ozturk, Ismet; Bayram, Okan; Kesmen, Zulal; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the yeasts in packaged and unpackaged butters and screen antiyeast activity of spices, including marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), and black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) against the most dominant yeast species in the packaged and unpackaged butters. Mean total yeast populations were 5.40 log CFU/g in unpackaged butter samples and 2.22 log CFU/g in packaged butter samples, indicating better hygienic quality of packaged samples. Forty-nine yeast species were isolated and identified from butter samples with the most prevalent isolates belonging to genera Candida-C. kefyr, C. zeylanoides, and C. lambica-and with moderate number of isolates belonging to genera Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces. Black cumin exhibited the highest antiyeast activity against C. zeylanoides and C. lambica species, even inhibited these species, while summer savory inhibited C. kefyr. The results of this study revealed clear antimicrobial potential of black cumin against the yeast species isolated from butters. Marjoram, summer savory, and black cumin could be used as natural antimicrobial agents against spoilage yeasts in food preservation, especially in butter.

  5. Q spoiling in deformed optical microdisks due to resonance-assisted tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullig, Julius; Wiersig, Jan

    2016-08-01

    A recent experiment by Kwak et al. [Sci. Rep. 5, 9010 (2015), 10.1038/srep09010] demonstrated the relevance of resonance-assisted tunneling for optical microcavities where resonance chains emerge in phase space due to boundary deformations. In this paper we adapt the perturbative description of resonance-assisted tunneling to calculate optical modes and the imaginary part of their complex wavenumber which determines the lifetime of the mode. We demonstrate our method at three example cavity shapes and compare our results to numerical data and perturbation theory for weakly deformed microdisk cavities.

  6. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 7th Grade - Spoil Island Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with secondary students in grade seven prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  7. 'To the victor go the spoils': Infants expect resources to align with dominance structures.

    PubMed

    Enright, Elizabeth A; Gweon, Hyowon; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2017-03-24

    Previous research has found that within the first year of life infants possess rich knowledge about social structures (i.e., that some individuals are dominant over other individuals) as well as expectations about resource distributions (i.e., that resources are typically distributed equally to recipients). We investigated whether infants' expectations about resource distribution can be modulated by information about the dominance structure between the recipients. We first replicated the finding that infants attribute a stable dominance hierarchy to a pair of individuals when their goals conflicted and one individual yielded to the other (Expt. 1), and that this sensitivity is not driven by lower-level perceptual factors (Expt. 2). In Experiments 3-5, we tested our main hypothesis that infants' attention to equal and unequal distributions varies as a function of prior social dominance information. We first replicated and extended prior work by establishing that infants looked significantly longer to unequal than equal resource distributions when no prior information about dominance was provided about recipients (Expt. 3). Critically, following social dominance information, infants looked significantly longer to an equal distribution of resources than a distribution that favored the dominant individual (Expt. 4), and looked significantly longer when the submissive individual received more resources compared to when the dominant individual received more resources (Expts. 4 and 5). Together, these findings suggest that infants expect resources to align with social dominance structures.

  8. Long Range Spoil Disposal Study. Part I. General Data for the Delaware River,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-01-01

    Horseshoe Range (west side) 40 400-500 Allegheny Ave., Phila. - W. Horseshoe Range (east side) 37 500-600 W. Horseshoe Range - Bombay Hook Pt. 40 800 Bombay...Authorized Anchorage 13,650 2,300 8 Thompson Point Tinicumlsland E side of Channel 3,400 700-1300 betw Crab Pt & Monds Island 9 Mantua Creek Mifflin Bar...Authorized Anchorage 11,500 2,300 10 Naval Base W Horseshoe W side of Channel 2,600 12-1500 (League Island) 11 Gloucester E Horseshoe Authorized

  9. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Uncontrolled surface drainage may not be directed over the outslope of the fill. (2) Runoff from areas above the fill and runoff from the surface of the fill shall be diverted into stabilized diversion channels designed to meet the requirements of § 817.43 and to safely pass the runoff from a 100-year,...

  10. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Uncontrolled surface drainage may not be directed over the outslope of the fill. (2) Runoff from areas above the fill and runoff from the surface of the fill shall be diverted into stabilized diversion channels designed to meet the requirements of § 816.43 and, in addition, to safely pass the runoff from a...

  11. Spoiling and sustainability: technology, water insecurity, and visibility in Arctic Alaska.

    PubMed

    Eichelberger, Laura

    2014-01-01

    One third of households in Alaska Native villages lack running water and sewer services. Historically, this public health need drove policies to improve access to treated water and sanitation. However, despite public health being a stated priority of water infrastructure development, current policies require demonstrated economic sustainability in ways that render suffering from water insecurity invisible. In this article, I situate the introduction of water treatment technologies within the history of domination coproduced with vulnerability. These processes are reflected in local narratives describing the relationships between technology, tradition, and suffering. By drawing attention to the role of the state in creating vulnerability, village leaders are trying to historicize and insert their health concerns into the sustainability conversation using narratives that both fit within and challenge the ideology of sustainability. These narratives are thus central to Iñupiat struggles for visibility.

  12. Spoiled Group Identities and Backstage Work: A Theory of Stigma Management Rehearsals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, John

    2011-01-01

    How do persons with a stigmatized identity learn potential responses to discrimination and harassment? Drawing on three and a half years of ethnographic data, this paper demonstrates how members of a group of Muslim American youth are socialized in locally dominant stigma management strategies through stigma management rehearsals. Stigma…

  13. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... such that the final slope after settlement will be toward properly designed drainage channels.... The maximum slope of the top of the fill shall be 33h:1v (3 percent). A drainage pocket may be.... Terraces on the fill shall be graded with a 3 to 5 percent grade toward the fill and a 1 percent...

  14. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... such that the final slope after settlement will be toward properly designed drainage channels... slope of the top of the fill shall be 33h:lv (3 percent). A drainage pocket may be maintained at the... fill shall be graded with a 3 to 5 percent grade toward the fill and a 1 percent slope toward the...

  15. Application of bacteriophages in post-harvest control of human pathogenic and food spoiling bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas López, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    Bacteriophages have attracted great attention for application in food biopreservation. Lytic bacteriophages specific for human pathogenic bacteria can be isolated from natural sources such as animal feces or industrial wastes where the target bacteria inhabit. Lytic bacteriophages have been tested in different food systems for inactivation of main food-borne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni and Cronobacter sakazkii, and also for control of spoilage bacteria. Application of lytic bacteriophages could selectively control host populations of concern without interfering with the remaining food microbiota. Bacteriophages could also be applied for inactivation of bacteria attached to food contact surfaces or grown as biofilms. Bacteriophages may receive a generally recognized as safe status based on their lack of toxicity and other detrimental effects to human health. Phage preparations specific for L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica serotypes have been commercialized and approved for application in foods or as part of surface decontamination protocols. Phage endolysins have a broader host specificity compared to lytic bacteriophages. Cloned endolysins could be used as natural preservatives, singly or in combination with other antimicrobials such as bacteriocins.

  16. The Electronic "Scarlet Letter": Criminal Backgrounding and a Perpetual Spoiled Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Daniel S.; Fuleihan, Brian; Richards, Stephen C.; Jones, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Crimes are multifaceted events that are not adequately explained with basic descriptors, yet a considerable amount of significance is afforded to relatively few simplistic labels that make up the contemporary "scarlet letter." Today's criminal records create a lifetime of stigmatization for a person. These public records employ a limited range of…

  17. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... included in the topsoil to control erosion, promote growth of vegetation or increase the moisture retention... outslope of the fill if required for stability, control of erosion, to conserve soil moisture, or to... depressions may be allowed by the regulatory authority if they are needed to retain moisture, minimize...

  18. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... included in the topsoil to control erosion, promote growth of vegetation or increase the moisture retention... outslope of the fill if required for stability, control of erosion, to conserve soil moisture, or to... depressions may be allowed by the regulatory authority if they are needed to retain moisture, minimize...

  19. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... included in the topsoil to control erosion, promote growth of vegetation or increase the moisture retention... outslope of the fill if required for stability, control of erosion, to conserve soil moisture, or to... depressions may be allowed by the regulatory authority if they are needed to retain moisture, minimize...

  20. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... included in the topsoil to control erosion, promote growth of vegetation or increase the moisture retention... outslope of the fill if required for stability, control of erosion, to conserve soil moisture, or to... depressions may be allowed by the regulatory authority if they are needed to retain moisture, minimize...

  1. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... included in the topsoil to control erosion, promote growth of vegetation or increase the moisture retention... outslope of the fill if required for stability, control of erosion, to conserve soil moisture, or to... depressions may be allowed by the regulatory authority if they are needed to retain moisture, minimize...

  2. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... included in the topsoil to control erosion, promote growth of vegetation or increase the moisture retention... outslope of the fill if required for stability, control of erosion, to conserve soil moisture, or to... depressions may be allowed by the regulatory authority if they are needed to retain moisture, minimize...

  3. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... included in the topsoil to control erosion, promote growth of vegetation or increase the moisture retention... outslope of the fill if required for stability, control of erosion, to conserve soil moisture, or to... depressions may be allowed by the regulatory authority if they are needed to retain moisture, minimize...

  4. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... included in the topsoil to control erosion, promote growth of vegetation or increase the moisture retention... outslope of the fill if required for stability, control of erosion, to conserve soil moisture, or to... depressions may be allowed by the regulatory authority if they are needed to retain moisture, minimize...

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Clostridium estertheticum DSM 8809, a Microbe Identified in Spoiled Vacuum Packed Beef

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhongyi; Gunn, Lynda; Brennan, Evan; Reid, Rachael; Wall, Patrick G.; Gaora, Peadar Ó.; Hurley, Daniel; Bolton, Declan; Fanning, Séamus

    2016-01-01

    Blown pack spoilage (BPS) is a major issue for the beef industry. Etiological agents of BPS involve members of a group of Clostridium species, including Clostridium estertheticum which has the ability to produce gas, mostly carbon dioxide, under anaerobic psychotrophic growth conditions. This spore-forming bacterium grows slowly under laboratory conditions, and it can take up to 3 months to produce a workable culture. These characteristics have limited the study of this commercially challenging bacterium. Consequently information on this bacterium is limited and no effective controls are currently available to confidently detect and manage this production risk. In this study the complete genome of C. estertheticum DSM 8809 was determined by SMRT® sequencing. The genome consists of a circular chromosome of 4.7 Mbp along with a single plasmid carrying a potential tellurite resistance gene tehB and a Tn3-like resolvase-encoding gene tnpR. The genome sequence was searched for central metabolic pathways that would support its biochemical profile and several enzymes contributing to this phenotype were identified. Several putative antibiotic/biocide/metal resistance-encoding genes and virulence factors were also identified in the genome, a feature that requires further research. The availability of the genome sequence will provide a basic blueprint from which to develop valuable biomarkers that could support and improve the detection and control of this bacterium along the beef production chain. PMID:27891116

  6. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... precipitation event. (b) Rock-core chimney drains. A rock-core chimney drain may be used in a head-of-hollow... not located in an area containing intermittent or perennial streams. A rock-core chimney drain may be... is diverted around the fill. The alternative rock-core chimney drain system shall be...

  7. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 6-hour precipitation event. (b) Rock-core chimney drains. A rock-core chimney drain may be used in a... as the fill is not located in an area containing intermittent or perennial streams. A rock-core... upstream drainage is diverted around the fill. The alternative rock-core chimney drain system shall...

  8. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... precipitation event. (b) Rock-core chimney drains. A rock-core chimney drain may be used in a head-of-hollow... not located in an area containing intermittent or perennial streams. A rock-core chimney drain may be... is diverted around the fill. The alternative rock-core chimney drain system shall be...

  9. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 6-hour precipitation event. (b) Rock-core chimney drains. A rock-core chimney drain may be used in a... as the fill is not located in an area containing intermittent or perennial streams. A rock-core... upstream drainage is diverted around the fill. The alternative rock-core chimney drain system shall...

  10. Relocation of on-site spoils pile materials at the Linde Fusrap Site

    SciTech Connect

    Schwippert, M.T.; Boyle, J.D.; Bousquet, S.M.

    2007-07-01

    During the 1940's, the Linde Division of Union Carbide used portions of their property in Tonawanda, New York for processing uranium ores under Federal Manhattan Engineering District (MED) contracts. These activities resulted in radiological contamination on portions of the property. The radionuclides of concern at the site are Radium, Thorium, and Uranium. The site is currently owned and operated by Praxair Inc., an industrial gas company. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) issued a Record of Decision to remediate the radiologically-contaminated materials associated with MED activities in March 2000 under the authority of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The selected remedy is fully protective of human health and the environment and complies with Federal and State requirements that are legally applicable or relevant and appropriate and meets community commitments. The USACE - Buffalo District has been executing remedial activities at the site and has successfully addressed many challenges in a safe and cost effective manner through effective coordination, project management, and partnering with stakeholders. These efforts supported the successful relocation of approximately 29,000 cubic yards of stockpiled material (soils, concrete, steel, asphalt and miscellaneous non-soil) that had been generated by the property owner as a result of ongoing development of the facility. Relocation of the material was necessary to allow safe access to the surface and subsurface soils beneath the pile for sampling and analysis. During relocation operations, materials were evaluated for the presence of radiological contamination. The vast majority of material was relocated onsite and remained the property owner's responsibility. A small portion of the material required off-site disposal at a permitted disposal facility due to radiological contamination that exceeded site criteria. This paper presents details associated with the successful resolution of responsibility concerns associated with a large stockpile of materials accumulated over many years by the property owner. A cost effective approach and partnership was developed to allow for real time radiological characterization and material dispositions by the government and satisfying chemical concerns presented by State regulators. These actions resulted in onsite relocation and responsible transfer of the materials to the property owner for beneficial reuse resulting in significant project cost savings. (authors)

  11. Will nonlinear peculiar velocity and inhomogeneous reionization spoil 21 cm cosmology from the epoch of reionization?

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Paul R; Mao, Yi; Iliev, Ilian T; Mellema, Garrelt; Datta, Kanan K; Ahn, Kyungjin; Koda, Jun

    2013-04-12

    The 21 cm background from the epoch of reionization is a promising cosmological probe: line-of-sight velocity fluctuations distort redshift, so brightness fluctuations in Fourier space depend upon angle, which linear theory shows can separate cosmological from astrophysical information. Nonlinear fluctuations in ionization, density, and velocity change this, however. The validity and accuracy of the separation scheme are tested here for the first time, by detailed reionization simulations. The scheme works reasonably well early in reionization (≲40% ionized), but not late (≳80% ionized).

  12. How to spoil a good basis set for Rayleigh-Ritz calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Pupyshev, Vladimir I.; Montgomery, H. E. Jr.

    2013-08-15

    For model quantum mechanical systems such as the harmonic oscillator and a particle in an impenetrable box, we consider the set of exact discrete spectrum functions and define the modified basis set by subtraction of the ground state wavefunction from all the other wavefunctions with some real weights. It is demonstrated that the modified set of functions is complete in the space of square integrable functions if and only if the series of the squared weights diverges. A similar, but nonequivalent criterion is derived for convergence of Rayleigh-Ritz ground state energy calculations to the exact ground state energy value with the basis set extension. Some numerical illustrations are provided which demonstrate a wide variety of possible situations for model systems.

  13. Jeopardizing Christmas: Why spoiled kids and a tight schedule could make Santa Claus fall?

    PubMed

    Donath, L; Roth, R; Lichtenstein, E; Elliot, C; Zahner, L; Faude, O

    2015-03-01

    Santa Claus' spatio-temporal gait characteristics, ground reaction forces during treadmill walking as well as postural sway during loaded, unloaded and cognitive interference tasks were examined in order to estimate his fall risk. Seventeen healthy males, disguised as researchers and students (age: 30±10 years; height: 179±6 years; weight: 76±7kg; BMI: 24±2kg/m(2); physical activity: 12±4h/week) and who still believe in Santa Claus randomly underwent balance and gait analyses with and without cognitive interference. The conditions were to be dressed as "Santa Claus" (wearing costume consisting of a beard, cap, robe, heavy sack with a load of 20kg) or dressed in "normal clothing" (no costume). Spatiotemporal gait parameters (walking velocity, gait variability and stride time, length and width), ground reaction forces (GRF) (left- and right-sided heel strike and push off) and postural sway (30s tandem stance on a force plate) were measured. "Santa-effects" (0.001

  14. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... technology currently available. (b) Static safety factor. The fill must be designed and constructed to attain a minimum long-term static safety factor of 1.5. The foundation and abutments of the fill must be... with enough terrain or other physical features of the site shown to provide a relative scale to...

  15. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... technology currently available. (b) Static safety factor. The fill must be designed and constructed to attain a minimum long-term static safety factor of 1.5. The foundation and abutments of the fill must be... physical features of the site shown to provide a relative scale to the photographs and to specifically...

  16. "Spare the Rod and Spoil the Child?" The Law and Corporal Punishment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of corporal punishment may be as old as society itself. However, the development of compulsory attendance laws has raised questions about its legality. Under compulsory attendance laws and subject to exceptions for home schooling and nonpublic schools, parents must send their children to public schools or be subject to sanctions. Conflicts…

  17. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., natural or manmade water courses, or wet weather seeps, the fill design shall include diversions and... the backfill must be compatible with the natural drainage patterns and the surrounding area,...

  18. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., natural or manmade water courses, or wet weather seeps, the fill design shall include diversions and... the backfill must be compatible with the natural drainage patterns and the surrounding area,...

  19. A good walk spoiled: on the disappearance of golf as an active sport in America.

    PubMed

    Puterbaugh, James S

    2011-07-01

    During the past 60 years, there has been a major transition in the way golf is played in America. Its potential as exercise largely has been negated by the increase in motorized golf cart usage to approximately two of every three rounds played in this country. Accidents in golf carts have increased rapidly, which, by making the sport more dangerous, will likely bring future regulations. Consequently, playing golf has gradually become more of a public health threat than a benefit. The motorized cart also has resulted in an almost doubling of the size of golf courses, which now occupy a large amount of the built environment designated for activity. These changes are a major loss to society, portend future problems, and call for the sport to reevaluate its current model.

  20. Soil health, crop productivity, microbial transport, and mine spoil response to biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar is being evaluated by scientists from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) for its potential to sequester soil C, to improve soil health, and to increase crop yields. ARS scientists from multiple locations such as Florence, SC, Kimberly, ID,...

  1. Molecular identification of species from the Penicillium roqueforti group associated with spoiled animal feed.

    PubMed

    Boysen, M E; Jacobsson, K G; Schnürer, J

    2000-04-01

    The Penicillium roqueforti group has recently been split into three species, P. roqueforti, Penicillium carneum, and Penicillium paneum, on the basis of differences in ribosomal DNA sequences and secondary metabolite profiles. We reevaluated the taxonomic identity of 52 livestock feed isolates from Sweden, previously identified by morphology as P. roqueforti, by comparing the sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. Identities were confirmed with random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and secondary metabolite profiles. Of these isolates, 48 were P. roqueforti, 2 were P. paneum, and 2 were Penicillium expansum. No P. carneum isolates were found. The three species produce different mycotoxins, but no obvious relationship between mold and animal disease was detected, based on medical records. P. roqueforti appears to dominate in silage, but the ecological and toxicological importance of P. carneum and P. paneum as feed spoilage fungi is not clear. This is the first report of P. expansum in silage.

  2. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... into the design and construction of the fill as follows: (1) The fill shall have, along the vertical... and from seeps and springs in the foundation of the disposal area. Rocks used in the rock core and... head of the fill during and after construction, to intercept surface runoff and discharge the...

  3. Sharing out NASA's spoils. [economic benefits of U.S. space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezdek, Roger H.; Wendling, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    The economic benefits of NASA programs are discussed. Emphasis is given to an analysis of indirect economic benefits which estimates the effect of NASA programs on employment, personal income, corporate sales and profits, and government tax revenues in the U.S. and in each state. Data are presented that show that NASA programs have widely varying multipliers by industry and that illustrate the distribution of jobs by industry as well as the distribution of sales.

  4. Effects of mycorrhizae and other soil microbes on revegetation of heavy metal contaminated mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Shetty, K G; Hetrick, B A; Figge, D A; Schwab, A P

    1994-01-01

    The effects of mycorrhizal fungi and other soil microorganisms on growth of two grasses, Andropogon gerardii Vitm. and Festuca arundinacea Schreb., in heavy metal-contaminated soil and mine tailings were investigated. A. gerardii is highly dependent on mycorrhizal fungi in native prairie, while F. arundinacea is a facultative mycotroph and relies on mycorrhizal symbiosis only in extremely infertile soils. Regardless of microbial amendments, neither plant species was able to establish and grow in the mine tailings. Both plant species grew in the moderately contaminated or non-contaminated soils, although A. gerardii grew in these soils only when mycorrhizal. Other soil microbes significantly improved growth of A. gerardii only in uncontaminated soil, but to a lesser extent than mycorrhizae. Although F. arundinacea was more highly colonized by mycorrhizal fungi than A. gerardii, neither microbial amendment affected growth of fescue in any soil. In several treatments mycorrhizal fungi adapted to uncontaminated soil stimulated plant growth more than mycorrhizae adapted to the moderately contaminated soil. However, mycorrhizal fungi adapted to contaminated soil did not increase the productivity of plant growth in contaminated soil more than fungi adapted to uncontaminated soil. A. gerardii plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi retained more Zn in roots than in shoots, confirming earlier reports that mycorrhizal fungi alter the translocation pattern of heavy metals in host plants. In contrast, mycorrhizae did not affect translocation patterns in F. arundinaceae, suggesting that the mycorrhizal dependence of a plant species is correlated with the retention of metals in roots. The correlation between mycorrhizal dependence of a plant species and mycorrhizal alteration of translocation pattern may also explain the inconsistent reports of mycorrhizal effects on translocation of heavy metals in plants. Plant response to mycorrhizal symbiosis may therefore provide a useful criterion for the selection of the plant species to be used in revegetation of contaminated sites.

  5. Succession of insects on unreclaimed coal strip mine spoil banks in Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Selected sites at a western Indiana unreclaimed coal strip mine and adjacent undisturbed area sampled by Munsee in 1964 were restudied in 1981. Slope and exposure, soil pH and texture, vegetation and tree tallies, on-site rainfall and local weather records were used to characterize 18 spoilbanks and two unmined sites. Surface-active arthropods were sampled by replicated pitfall taps the summer of 1981 at the same locations and dates trapped by Munsee in 1964. Plant cover was sampled by a modified point-contact method. Trees over one inch dbh were tallied and measured for basal area. Clustering by similarity based on chi-square differences was performed for plants, trees, ants, springtails and ground beetles, using the undisturbed forest and a highly acid un-revegetated mined site as the extremes. Soil pH and texture changed rapidly on one moist spoilbank. Soil moisture levels generally decreased between 1964 and 1981 and depth of water penetration generally increased. Ant, springtail and carabid populations changed on revegetating sites. Myrmica spatulata and Smithistruma clypeata were major new ants on the sites in 1981. Iridomyrmex pruinosus analis and Pheidole bicarinata characteristic of barren spoilbanks in 1964 survived on only one remaining barren site in 1981. The collembolan Entomobrya quadrilineata decreased while Hypogastrura denticulata increased on the revegetating sites. Known habitat preference of some of these insects matched their occurrence on the spoilbanks.

  6. Spectral two-dimensional inversion of frequency-domain induced polarization data from a mining slag heap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Thomas; Martin, Tina

    2016-12-01

    Abandoned mining waste dumps may become potential resources for mineral reuse. For evaluating such structures, their spatial extension, the mineral content and predominating grain size needs to be determined. Amongst geophysical prospection methods, induced polarization (IP) is particularly suited since ore minerals show significant polarization characteristics. From laboratory measurements it is known that there is a relation between mineral concentration and chargeability, whereas the frequency content is mainly dominated by grain size. Spectral IP (SIP) field data using a range of measuring frequencies can potentially map these quantities spatially. Instead of inverting the individual frequencies independently, we introduce a scheme where adjacent frequencies are constrained to each other. We test it using a synthetic model based on the Cole-Cole model with a body containing two parts of differing time constants. The inversion approach is able to reliably recover the Cole-Cole parameters. We apply the method to a field data set from a slag dump containing melting residuals from different minerals. The resulting models exhibit distinct zones of decreased conductivity and increased polarization that are not fully coincident. Furthermore, we observe a significant change in the spectral content. Taking into account recent laboratory investigations, the obtained chargeabilities hint to the occurrence of sufficient mineral concentration. In comparison with direct current resistivity, there is a clear benefit from using SIP field data in general and spectral analysis in particular.

  7. Tolerance of Chrysantemum maximum to heavy metals: the potential for its use in the revegetation of tailings heaps.

    PubMed

    González-Chávez, M del Carmen A; Carrillo-González, Rogelio

    2013-02-01

    To find if ornamental plants are applicable to the remediation of metal-polluted areas, the tolerance of chrysanthemum plants (Chysanthemum maximum) var. Shasta to different metals under hydroponic conditions was studied. Their responses as influenced by the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd.) Gerdemann & Trappe BEG25 on substrates containing mine residues were also investigated. Our results showed that chrysanthemum is a metal-tolerant plant under hydroponic conditions, plants behaving as Pb-excluders, whereas Cd, Cu and Ni were accumulated in roots. Low accumulation in flowers was observed for Cd and Cu but it was concentration-dependent. Ni and Pb were not translocated to flowers. Shoot biomass was not significantly affected by the different rates of mine residue addition for both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal plants accumulated less Pb and Cu in both shoots and roots than non-mycorrhizal plants. Chysanthemum could be a prospective plant for revegetation of tailings and the use of inoculation may decrease plant metal accumulation in polluted soils.

  8. Violets of the section Melanium, their colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and their occurrence on heavy metal heaps.

    PubMed

    Słomka, A; Kuta, E; Szarek-Łukaszewska, G; Godzik, B; Kapusta, P; Tylko, G; Bothe, H

    2011-07-15

    Violets of the sections Melanium were examined for their colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Heartsease (Viola tricolor) from several heavy metal soils was AMF-positive at many sites but not at extreme biomes. The zinc violets Viola lutea ssp. westfalica (blue zinc violet) and ssp. calaminaria (yellow zinc violet) were always AMF-positive on heavy metal soils as their natural habitats. As shown for the blue form, zinc violets germinate independently of AMF and can be grown in non-polluted garden soils. Thus the zinc violets are obligatorily neither mycotrophs nor metalophytes. The alpine V. lutea, likely ancestor of the zinc violets, was at best poorly colonized by AMF. As determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, the contents of Zn and Pb were lower in AMF colonized plants than in the heavy metal soils from where the samples had been taken. AMF might prevent the uptake of toxic levels of heavy metals into the plant organs. Dithizone staining indicated a differential deposition of heavy metals in tissues of heartsease. Leaf hairs were particularly rich in heavy metals, indicating that part of the excess of heavy metals is sequestered into these cells.

  9. Legacy soil contamination at abandoned mine sites: making a case for guidance on soil protection.

    PubMed

    Kostarelos, Konstantinos; Gavriel, Ifigenia; Stylianou, Marinos; Zissimos, Andreas M; Morisseau, Eleni; Dermatas, Dimitris

    2015-03-01

    Within the European Union, guidance in the form of a uniform Soil Directive does not exist and member states are left to enact their own legislation governing historic soil contamination. Several historic or "legacy" sites exist in Cyprus - an EU member state with a long history of mining and a significant number of abandoned mining sites. The gold-silver enrichment plant of Mitsero village was abandoned 70 years ago, yet soil samples inside and outside the plant were extremely low in pH, exhibited high leachability of heavy metals and high cyanide levels. Water samples collected from an ephemeral stream located down-gradient of the site contained high levels of heavy metals. Two abandoned open-pit mines (Kokkinopezoula and Mathiatis) were investigated, where elevated metal content in soil samples from the surrounding streams and spoil heaps, and extremely low pH and high metal content in water samples from the mine crater were measured.

  10. Linking heavy metal bioavailability (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) in Scots pine needles to soil properties in reclaimed mine areas.

    PubMed

    Pietrzykowski, Marcin; Socha, Jarosław; van Doorn, Natalie S

    2014-02-01

    This work deals with bioaccumulation of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in foliage of Scots pine, grown on mine soils. Regression models were used to describe relationships between pine elements bioavailability and biological (dehydrogenase activity) and physico-chemical properties of mine soils developed at different parental rocks. Concentration of trace elements in post-mine ecosystems did not differ from data for Scots pine on natural sites. We conclude that, in this part of Europe in afforested areas affected by hard coal, sand, lignite and sulphur mining, there is no risk of trace element concentrations in mine soils. An exception was in the case of Cd in soils on sand quarry and hard coal spoil heap located in the Upper Silesia region, which was more due to industrial pressure and pollutant deposition than the original Cd concentration in parental rocks.

  11. The impact of a disused mine on uranium transport in the River Fal, South West England.

    PubMed

    Moliner-Martinez, Yolanda; Campíns-Falcó, Pilar; Worsfold, Paul J; Keith-Roach, Miranda J

    2004-11-01

    Unfiltered and filtered (0.45 and 0.2 microm) water samples and sediment samples (sieved to <180 microm and 180-1000 microm) were collected along an approximately 15 km transect of the River Fal, Cornwall, UK, to examine the impact of the disused South Terras uranium mine on the uranium concentrations of the river water and underlying sediments. The uranium concentration of the water samples fluctuated along the river, with the 0.45 microm filtered water showing the largest, seven-fold, difference between minimum (0.19 microg L(-1)) and maximum (1.34 microg L(-1)) concentrations. The historical uranium mine and spoil heaps were not a significant source of uranium to the river water, as water concentrations were low next to the site, but a highly elevated uranium concentration (1000 mg kg(-1)) was found in sediment below an outflow pipe from this mine. Operationally defined "colloidal" (0.2-0.45 microm) and "dissolved" (<0.2 microm) uranium were the predominant forms of the element in the river water (35 and 45% respectively). The uranium concentration in the dissolved phase showed a correlation coefficient of 0.83 (n= 9) with the total cation concentration, suggesting that the uranium concentration in this fraction is directly linked to weathering of rocks and minerals. The observation that weathering is the dominant mechanism delivering uranium to the river water explains the low uranium concentrations in the river water close to South Terras mine, despite the proximity of the spoil heaps, and the maximum uranium concentrations close to a china clay mining area.

  12. Determination of the spatial structure of vegetation on the repository of the mine "Fryderyk" in Tarnowskie Góry, based on airborne laser scanning from the ISOK project and digital orthophotomaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, Marta; Wężyk, Piotr; Pająk, Marek; Haryło, Paweł; Lisańczuk, Marek

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the spatial structure of vegetation on the repository of the mine "Fryderyk" in Tarnowskie Góry. Tested area was located in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (a large industrial region in Poland). It was a unique refuge habitat - Natura2000; PLH240008. The main aspect of this elaboration was to investigate the possible use of geotechniques and generally available geodata for mapping LULC changes and determining the spatial structure of vegetation. The presented study focuses on the analysis of a spatial structure of vegetation in the research area. This exploration was based on aerial images and orthophotomaps from 1947, 1998, 2003, 2009, 2011 and airborne laser scanning data (2011, ISOK project). Forest succession changes which occurred between 1947 and 2011 were analysed. The selected features of vegetation overgrowing spoil heap "Fryderyk" was determined. The results demonstrated a gradual succession of greenery on soil heap. In 1947, 84% of this area was covered by low vegetation. Tree expansion was proceeding in the westerly and northwest direction. In 2011 this canopy layer covered almost 50% of the research area. Parameters such as height of vegetation, crowns length and cover density were calculated by an airborne laser scanning data. These analyses indicated significant diversity in vertical and horizontal structures of vegetation. The study presents some capacities to use airborne laser scanning for an impartial evaluation of the structure of vegetation.

  13. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, SY-200 Yard, Spoil Area 1) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures implementation process. Under CERCLA the actions follow the PA/SI/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA into an RI work plan for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2.

  14. Addendum to the remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Main text

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This addendum to the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. This addendum is a supplement to a document that was previously issued in January 1995 and that provided the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation performed at OU 2. The January 1995 D2 version of the RI Report on Bear Creek Valley OU 2 included information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Information provided in the document formed the basis for the development of the Feasibility Study Report. This addendum includes revisions to four chapters of information that were a part of the document issued in January 1995. Specifically, it includes revisions to Chaps. 2, 3, 4, and 9. Volume 1 of this document is not being reissued in its entirety as a D3 version because only the four chapters just mentioned have been affected by requested changes. Note also that Volume 2 of this RI Report on Bear Creek Valley OU 2 is not being reissued in conjunction with Volume 1 of this document because there have been no changes requested or made to the previously issued version of Volume 2 of this document.

  15. Spoiling Childhood: How Well-Meaning Parents Are Giving Children Too Much-But Not What They Need.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrensaft, Diane

    Parents today are tagged as a generation preoccupied with work and themselves but at the same time overly focused on their children. This book attempts to explain this paradox. It explores the ways in which social, cultural, and psychological changes have come together with a new definition of the child to create a situation in which parenthood…

  16. Potential contaminants at a dredged spoil placement site, Charles City County, Virginia, as revealed by sequential extraction

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jianwu; Whittecar, G Richard; Johannesson, Karen H; Daniels, W Lee

    2004-01-01

    Backfills of dredged sediments onto a former sand and gravel mine site in Charles City County, VA may have the potential to contaminate local groundwater. To evaluate the mobility of trace elements and to identify the potential contaminants from the dredged sediments, a sequential extraction scheme was used to partition trace elements associated with the sediments from the local aquifer and the dredged sediments into five fractions: exchangeable, acidic, reducible, oxidizable, and residual phases. Sequential extractions indicate that, for most of the trace elements examined, the residual phases account for the largest proportion of the total concentrations, and their total extractable fractions are mainly from reducible and oxidizable phases. Only Cd, Pb, and Zn have an appreciable extractable proportion from the acidic phase in the filled dredged sediments. Our groundwater monitoring data suggest that the dredged sediments are mainly subject to a decrease in pH and a series of oxidation reactions, when exposed to the atmosphere. Because the trace elements released by carbonate dissolution and the oxidation (e.g., organic matter degradation, iron sulfide and, ammonia oxidation) are subsequently immobilized by sorption to iron, manganese, and aluminum oxides, no potential contaminants to local groundwater are expected by addition of the dredged sediments to this site.

  17. Photocatalytic inactivation of bacteria from spoiled raw chicken carcasses in aqueous suspensions by TiO2 nanoparticles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial spoilage is a major cause of reduced shelf life of fresh poultry; therefore, decreasing contamination by spoilage bacteria could increase the shelf life of these products. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in the presence of UVA light possess antibacterial activities towards several ba...

  18. Cut-off net acid generation pH in predicting acid-forming potential in mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Liao, B; Huang, L N; Ye, Z H; Lan, C Y; Shu, W S

    2007-01-01

    Acidification of mine wastes can lead to a series of environmental problems, such as acid drainage, heavy metal mobilization, and ecosystem degradation. Prediction of acid-forming potential is one of the key steps in management of sulfide-bearing mine wastes. In this paper, the acid-forming potential of 180 mine waste samples collected from 17 mine sites in China were studied using a net acid generation (NAG) method. The samples contained different contents of total sulfur (ranging from 0.6 to 200 g kg(-1)), pyritic sulfur (ranging from 0 to 100 g kg(-1)), and acid neutralization capacity (ANC, ranging from -41 to 274 kg H2SO4 t(-1)). Samples with high acid-forming potential are generally due to their high sulfur content or low acid neutralization capacity. After the samples were oxidized by H2O2, the amounts of acid generation and the final NAG pH were measured. Results indicated that the final NAG pH gave a well-defined demarcation between acid-forming and non-acid-forming materials. Samples with final NAG pH >or= 5 could be classified as non-acid-forming materials, while those with NAG pH 2.5, but < 5, had low risk of being acid-forming. The confirmation of cut-off NAG pH will be used as a rapid and cost-effective operational monitoring tool for the in-pit prediction of acid-forming potential of mine wastes and classification of waste types.

  19. Evaluation of peracetic acid sanitizers efficiency against spores isolated from spoiled cans in suspension and on stainless steel surfaces.

    PubMed

    André, S; Hédin, S; Remize, F; Zuber, F

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the inactivation effect of industrial formulations of peracetic acid biocides on bacterial spores adhering to stainless steel surfaces. A standardized protocol was used to validate biocide activity against spores in suspension. To validate sporicidal activity under practical conditions, we developed an additional protocol to simulate industrial sanitization of stainless steel surfaces with a foam sanitizer. Spores of three spore-forming bacteria, Clostridium sporogenes PA3679, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, and Moorella thermoacetica/thermoautotrophica, were sprayed onto stainless steel as bioaerosols. Sporicidal activity was high against the C. sporogenes spore suspension, with more than 5 log CFU ml(-1) destroyed at all liquid biocide contact times. Sporicidal activity also was high against G. stearothermophilus and M. thermoacetica/thermoautotrophica spores after 30 min of contact, but we found no population reduction at the 5-min contact time for the highest sporicide concentration tested. The foam biocide effectively inactivated C. sporogenes spores adhered to stainless steel but had a reduced decontamination effect on other species. For G. stearothermophilus spores, sanitization with the foam sporicide was more efficient on horizontal steel than on vertical steel, but foam sanitization was ineffective against M. thermoacetica/thermoautotrophica whatever the position. These results highlight that decontamination efficiency may differ depending on whether spores are suspended in an aqueous solution or adhered to a stainless steel surface. Biocide efficiency must be validated using relevant protocols and bacteria representative of the microbiological challenges and issues affecting each food industry.

  20. Microbial quality of industrial liquid egg white: assumptions on spoiling issues in egg-based chilled desserts.

    PubMed

    Techer, Clarisse; Daoud, Amina; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Gautier, Michel; Jan, Sophie; Baron, Florence

    2015-02-01

    As a 1st step, this study aimed at investigating the microbial quality of liquid egg white in a French egg processing company. Thirty raw and 33 pasteurized liquid egg white samples were analyzed. Pasteurization was globally found efficient on mesophilic contaminants (1.7 ± 1.6 and 0.8 ± 0.9 log CFU/mL in raw and pasteurized samples, respectively), including for the control of Salmonella. However, Gram-positive enterococci were still detected in the pasteurized samples. As a 2nd step, a representative bacterial collection was built for exploring the spoilage issue in egg-based chilled desserts. Custard cream was chosen as growth medium since this food is widely used for the production of French chilled desserts. All of the 166 isolates of the bacterial collection were shown to be able to grow and to induce spoilage of the custard cream at refrigeration temperature (10 °C). Several spoilage types were highlighted in the custard cream, on the basis of changes regarding pH, consistency, production of holes or gas. As a 3rd step, bacterial enzymatic activities were explored on custard cream-based agar media. The bacterial collection was reduced to 43 isolates, based on further selection regarding the genera and the spoilage types previously highlighted. Albeit to different degrees, all these isolates were able to produce proteases. A large part of these isolates also expressed lipolytic and amylolytic activities. This study emphasizes the need to control egg white contamination and especially with Gram-positive heat-resistant Enterococi, in order to guarantee the shelf life of egg-based chilled desserts.

  1. Towards Using NMR to Screen for Spoiled Tomatoes Stored in 1,000 L, Aseptically Sealed, Metal-Lined Totes

    PubMed Central

    Pinter, Michael D.; Harter, Tod; McCarthy, Michael J.; Augustine, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is used to track factory relevant tomato paste spoilage. It was found that spoilage in tomato paste test samples leads to longer spin lattice relaxation times T1 using a conventional low magnetic field NMR system. The increase in T1 value for contaminated samples over a five day room temperature exposure period prompted the work to be extended to the study of industry standard, 1,000 L, non-ferrous, metal-lined totes. NMR signals and T1 values were recovered from a large format container with a single-sided NMR sensor. The results of this work suggest that a handheld NMR device can be used to study tomato paste spoilage in factory process environments. PMID:24594611

  2. Spoiled breast milk and bad water; local understandings of diarrhea causes and prevention in rural Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Globally, diarrhea remains a leading killer of young children. In Sierra Leone, one in seven children die before their fifth birthday and diarrhea is a leading cause. Studies that emphasize the demand-side of health interventions -- how caregivers understand causation and prevention of diarrhea -- have been neglected in research and programming. Methods We undertook applied qualitative research including 68 in-depth interviews and 36 focus group discussions with mothers, fathers and older female caretakers to examine the causes and prevention of childhood diarrhea in villages near and far from health facilities across four rural districts. Verbal consent was obtained. Results Respondents reported multiple, co-existing descriptions of causation including: contaminated water and difficulties accessing clean water; exposure to an unclean environment and poor food hygiene; contaminated breast milk due to sexual intercourse, overheated breast milk or bodily maternal conditions such as menstruation or pregnancy; and dietary imbalances and curses. Respondents rarely discussed the role of open defecation or the importance of handwashing with soap in preventing diarrhea. Conclusions Categorizing behaviors as beneficial, harmful, non-existent or benign enables tailored programmatic recommendations. For example, respondents recognized the value of clean water and we correspondingly recommend interventions that reinforce consumption of and access to clean water. Second, respondents report denying “contaminated” breast milk to breastfeeding children. This is a harmful practice that merits attention. Third, the role of open defecation and poor hygiene in causing diarrhea is less understood and warrants introduction or clarification. Finally, the role of exposed feet or curses in causing diarrhea is relatively benign and does not necessitate programmatic attention. Further research supportive of communication and social mobilization strategies building on these findings is required to ensure that improved understanding regarding diarrhea causation translates into improved diarrhea prevention. PMID:24330586

  3. Quantifying Effect of Lactic, Acetic, and Propionic Acids on Growth of Molds Isolated from Spoiled Bakery Products.

    PubMed

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Gauvry, Emilie; Onno, Bernard; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-09-01

    The combined effect of undissociated lactic acid (0 to 180 mmol/liter), acetic acid (0 to 60 mmol/liter), and propionic acid (0 to 12 mmol/liter) on growth of the molds Aspergillus niger, Penicillium corylophilum, and Eurotium repens was quantified at pH 3.8 and 25°C on malt extract agar acid medium. The impact of these acids on lag time for growth (λ) was quantified through a gamma model based on the MIC. The impact of these acids on radial growth rate (μ) was analyzed statistically through polynomial regression. Concerning λ, propionic acid exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect (MIC of 8 to 20 mmol/liter depending on the mold species) than did acetic acid (MIC of 23 to 72 mmol/liter). The lactic acid effect was null on E. repens and inhibitory on A. niger and P. corylophilum. These results were validated using independent sets of data for the three acids at pH 3.8 but for only acetic and propionic acids at pH 4.5. Concerning μ, the effect of acetic and propionic acids was slightly inhibitory for A. niger and P. corylophilum but was not significant for E. repens. In contrast, lactic acid promoted radial growth of all three molds. The gamma terms developed here for these acids will be incorporated in a predictive model for temperature, water activity, and acid. More generally, results for μ and λ will be used to identify and evaluate solutions for controlling bakery product spoilage.

  4. Transcriptome analysis of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 during growth in degassed and gassed beer.

    PubMed

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Friesen, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2016-10-17

    Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 (Lb464) is a beer-spoilage-related (BSR) isolate of interest given its unique physiological attributes; specifically, it is highly hop-tolerant and exhibits very rapid growth in pressurized/gassed beer. RNA sequencing was performed on Lb464 grown in pressurized and non-pressurized beer to determine important genetic mechanisms for growth in these environments. The data generated were compared against data in a previous transcriptional study of another lactic acid bacterium (LAB) during growth in beer, namely, Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) (Pc344). Results revealed that the most important genetic elements for Lb464 growth in beer are related to biogenic amine metabolism, membrane transport and fortification, nutrient scavenging, and efficient transcriptional regulation. Comparison with the previous transcriptional study of Pc344 indicated that the total coding capacity (plasmid profile and genome size) of a LAB isolate allows for beer-spoilage virulence and adaptation to different beer environments, i.e., the ability to grow in degassed beer (during production) or gassed beer (packaged product). Further, differences in gene expression of Lb464 and Pc344 during mid-exponential growth in beer may dictate how rapidly each isolate exhausts particular carbon sources during. The presence of headspace pressure/dissolved CO2 was found to drive Lb464 transcription during mid-exponential growth in beer towards increasing cell wall and membrane modification, transport, osmoregulation, and DNA metabolism and transposition events. This transcriptional activity resembles transcriptional patterns or signatures observed in a viable, but non-culturable state established by non-related organisms, suggesting that Lb464 overall uses complex cellular regulation to maintain cell division and growth in the stressful beer environment. Additionally, increased expression of several hypothetical proteins, the hop-tolerance gene horC, and DNA repair and recombination genes from plasmids pLb464-2, -4, and -8 were observed in the gassed beer environment. Thus, plasmids can harbor genes with specific (gassed) beer growth advantages, and confirm that plasmid transfer and acquisition as important activities for adaptation to the beer environment.

  5. Effect of copper tolerant Elsholtzia splendens on bacterial community associated with Commelina communis on a copper mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruyi; Guo, Fuyu; Li, Jing; Su, Nannan; Shao, Zongyuan; Zan, Shuting

    2016-08-01

    Facilitation, or positive plant-plant interaction, has received increasing concern from ecologists over the last two decades. Facilitation may occur through direct mitigation of severe environments or indirect mediation by a third participant from the same or different trophic levels. The copper (Cu) tolerant species Elsholtzia splendens facilitates the establishment and growth of co-occurring Commelina communis through indirect enrichment of microbial activity. However, whether and how E. splendens impacts the microbial community that is associated with C. communis is less known. We characterized the soil bacterial community in the rhizosphere of C. communis in the absence and presence of E. splendens using PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and sequencing. The result showed that the richness of the bacterial community increased, but diversity and evenness remained similar, in the presence of E. splendens. Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the most dominant bacteria. The relative abundance of dominant and minor bacterial groups showed distinctly different responses to E. splendens. Principal component analysis and redundancy analysis indicated that variation of the bacterial community was determined by multiple factors and might be driven by the tested soil parameters collectively, or alternatively changed through plant root exudates or other microorganisms. Our results enhance the understanding of how the bacterial community associated with a beneficiary plant responds to a benefactor plant and suggests that the changes of bacterial community composition may have far-reaching influence on plant-soil feedback and the aboveground plant community in the long run.

  6. Occurrence and attempted mitigation of carbon dioxide in a home constructed on reclaimed coal-mine spoil, Pike County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Bret A.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years carbon dioxide intrusion has become recognized as a potentially serious health threat where homes are constructed on or near reclaimed surface coal mines. When carbon dioxide invades the living space of a home, it can collect near the floor, displace the oxygen there, and produce an oxygen-deficient environment. In this investigation, several lines of inquiry were pursued to determine the environmental factors that most influence carbon dioxide intrusion at a Pike County, Ind., home where this phenomenon is known to occur. It was found that carbon dioxide intrusion events at the home are most closely tied to rapid drops in barometric pressure and rainfall. Other researchers have shown that windy conditions and periods of cold weather also can contribute to soil-gas intrusion to structures. From this, a conceptual model was developed to illustrate the influence of these four meteorological conditions. Additionally, three mitigation methods-block-wall depressurization, block-wall and sub-slab depressurization, and block-wall and sub-slab pressurization-were applied successively to the study-site home, and environmental data were collected to evaluate the effectiveness of each mitigation method. In each case, it was found that these methods did not ensure a safe environment when meteorological conditions were favorable for carbon dioxide intrusion.

  7. [When do bad apples not spoil the barrel? Negative relationships in teams, team performance, and buffering mechanisms].

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jeroen P; Curşeu, Petru L; Leenders, Roger Th A J

    2014-05-01

    The study of negative relationships in teams has primarily focused on the impact of negative relationships on individual team member attitudes and performance in teams. The mechanisms and contingencies that can buffer against the damaging effects of negative relationships on team performance have received limited attention. Building on social interdependence theory and the multilevel model of team motivation, we examine in a sample of 73 work teams the team-level attributes that foster the promotive social interaction that can neutralize the adverse effect of negative relationships on team cohesion and, consequently, on team performance. The results indicate that high levels of team-member exchange as well as high task-interdependence attenuate how team cohesion and team performance suffer from negative relationships. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  8. The influence of mycorrhizal symbiosis and fertilizer amendments on establishment of vegetation in heavy metal mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Hetrick, B A; Wilson, G W; Figge, D A

    1994-01-01

    Biomass production of Andropogon gerardii and Festuca arundinacea was assessed in mine tailings (chat), a material containing high levels of zinc. The effects of organic and inorganic fertilizer amendments, the addition of an expanded clay material, and mycorrhizal fungi on the revegetation of chat were assessed. Plant growth in chat was best with mycorrhizal inoculation combined with nitrogen (either organic or inorganic) and phosphorus fertilization. Plant growth was also achieved if the chat material was amended with expanded clay and N and P fertilizer. However, the biomass produced in contaminated soil did not equal that of similarly fertilized uncontaminated soil. Regression analysis and canonical discriminate analysis revealed significant differences in the responses of the two plant species to the various chat amendments. Although F. arundinacea generally produced greater biomass than A. gerardii, it tended to accumulate more zinc in the shoots than A. gerardii. Therefore, if plant cover is to be used as forage or if wind-blown plant dry matter is of concern, A. gerardii may be more appropriate than F. arundinacea for revegetation of these toxic sites. Alternatively, if maximum plant cover is of primary importance to reduce wind or water erosion from contaminated soils, F. arundinacea may be the species of choice.

  9. EFFECTS OF MYCORRHIZAE AND OTHER SOIL MICROBES ON REVEGETATION OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED MINE SPOIL. (R825549C033)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Principal determinants of species and functional diversity of carabid beetle assemblages during succession at post-industrial sites.

    PubMed

    Sipos, J; Hodecek, J; Kuras, T; Dolny, A

    2017-01-31

    Although ecological succession is one of the principal focuses of recent restoration ecology research, it is still unclear which factors drive this process and positively influence species richness and functional diversity. In this study we sought to elucidate how species traits and functional diversity change during forest succession, and to identify important factors that determine the species in the observed assemblages. We analyzed species richness and functional diversity of ground beetle assemblages in relation to succession on post-industrial localities after habitat deterioration caused by spoil deposition. We selected ground beetles as they are known to be sensitive to landscape changes (with a large range of responses), and their taxonomy and ecology are generally well-known. Ground beetles were sampled on the spoil heaps during the last 30 years when spontaneous succession occurred. To calculate functional diversity, we used traits related to habitat and trophic niche, i.e. food specialization, wing morphology, trophic level, and bio-indication value. Ground beetle species were found to be distributed non-randomly in the assemblages in the late phase of succession. Ordination analyses revealed that the ground beetle assemblage was significantly associated with the proportion of forested area. Environmental heterogeneity generated assemblages that contained over-dispersed species traits. Our findings indicated that environmental conditions at late successional stages supported less mobile carnivorous species. Overall, we conclude that the decline in species richness and functional diversity in the middle of the studied succession gradient indicated that the assemblages of open habitats had been replaced by species typical of forest ecosystems.

  11. 76 FR 76104 - Arkansas Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ...; Disposal of Excess Spoil: General Requirements; Contemporaneous Reclamation; Backfilling and Grading: Time... Operations; Disposal of Excess Spoil: General Requirements; Disposal of Excess Spoil: Valley Fills/Head-of Hollow Fills; Disposal of Excess Spoil: Durable Rock Fills; Disposal of Excess Spoil:...

  12. Legionella pneumophila in coal miners.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, D H; Hill, E C; Howells, C H; Ribeiro, C D

    1985-01-01

    Legionnaires' disease was diagnosed in three mineworkers at a colliery. Investigation of water samples from various sites at the colliery did not discover a source of the infection. Results of serological surveys undertaken on the workmates of the patients and other miners showed only one additional positive Legionella indirect fluorescent antibody test. There was, therefore, no justification for any alteration in the water supply or the ventilation at the colliery. Images PMID:3890934

  13. Are seed and dispersal characteristics of plants capable of predicting colonization of post-mining sites?

    PubMed

    Horáčková, Martina; Řehounková, Klára; Prach, Karel

    2016-07-01

    Seed characteristics play an important role in the colonization and subsequent persistence of species during succession in disturbed sites and thus may contribute to being able to predict restoration success. In the present study, we investigated how various seed characteristics participated in 11 spontaneous successional series running in different mining sites (spoil heaps, extracted sand and sand-gravel pits, extracted peatlands, and stone quarries) in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. Using 1864 samples from 1- to 100-years-old successional stages, we tested whether species optimum along the succession gradient could be predicted using 10 basic species traits connected with diaspores and dispersal. Seed longevity, diaspore mass, endozoochory, and autochory appeared to be the best predictors. The results indicate that seed characteristics can predict to a certain degree spontaneous vegetation succession, i.e., passive restoration, in the mining sites. A screening of species available in the given landscape (regional and local species pools) may help to identify those species which would potentially colonize the disturbed sites. Extensive databases of species traits, nowadays available for the Central European flora, enable such screening.

  14. Identification of oil residues in Roman amphorae (Monte Testaccio, Rome): a comparative FTIR spectroscopic study of archeological and artificially aged samples.

    PubMed

    Tarquini, Gabriele; Nunziante Cesaro, Stella; Campanella, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The application of Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy to the analysis of oil residues in fragments of archeological amphorae (3rd century A.D.) from Monte Testaccio (Rome, Italy) is reported. In order to check the possibility to reveal the presence of oil residues in archeological pottery using microinvasive and\\or not invasive techniques, different approaches have been followed: firstly, FTIR spectroscopy was used to study oil residues extracted from roman amphorae. Secondly, the presence of oil residues was ascertained analyzing microamounts of archeological fragments with the Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFT). Finally, the external reflection analysis of the ancient shards was performed without preliminary treatments evidencing the possibility to detect oil traces through the observation of the most intense features of its spectrum. Incidentally, the existence of carboxylate salts of fatty acids was also observed in DRIFT and Reflectance spectra of archeological samples supporting the roman habit of spreading lime over the spoil heaps. The data collected in all steps were always compared with results obtained on purposely made replicas.

  15. Surface water monitoring in the mercury mining district of Asturias (Spain).

    PubMed

    Loredo, Jorge; Petit-Domínguez, María Dolores; Ordóñez, Almudena; Galán, María Pilar; Fernández-Martínez, Rodolfo; Alvarez, Rodrigo; Rucandio, María Isabel

    2010-04-15

    Systematic monitoring of surface waters in the area of abandoned mine sites constitutes an essential step in the characterisation of pollution from historic mine sites. The analytical data collected throughout a hydrologic period can be used for hydrological modelling and also to select appropriate preventive and/or corrective measures in order to avoid pollution of watercourses. Caudal River drains the main abandoned Hg mine sites (located in Mieres and Pola de Lena districts) in Central Asturias (NW Spain). This paper describes a systematic monitoring of physical and chemical parameters in eighteen selected sampling points within the Caudal River catchment. At each sampling station, water flow, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature, redox potential and turbidity were controlled "in situ" and major and trace elements were analysed in the laboratory. In the Hg-mineralised areas, As is present in the form of As-rich pyrite, realgar and occasionally arsenopyrite. Mine drainage and leachates from spoil heaps exhibit in some cases acidic conditions and high As contents, and they are incorporated to Caudal River tributaries. Multivariate statistical analysis aids to the interpretation of the spatial and temporary variations found in the sampled areas, as part of a methodology applicable to different environmental and geological studies.

  16. Feasibility study on the use of soil washing to remediate the As-Hg contamination at an ancient mining and metallurgy area.

    PubMed

    Sierra, C; Menéndez-Aguado, J M; Afif, E; Carrero, M; Gallego, J R

    2011-11-30

    Soils in abandoned mining sites generally present high concentrations of trace elements, such as As and Hg. Here we assessed the feasibility of washing procedures to physically separate these toxic elements from soils affected by a considerable amount of mining and metallurgical waste ("La Soterraña", Asturias, NW Spain). After exhaustive soil sampling and subsequent particle-size separation via wet sieving, chemical and mineralogical analysis revealed that the finer fractions held very high concentrations of As (up to 32,500 ppm) and Hg (up to 1600 ppm). These elements were both associated mainly with Fe/Mn oxides and hydroxides. Textural and geochemical data were correlated with the geological substrate by means of a multivariate statistical analysis. In addition, the Hg liberation size (below 200 μm) was determined to be main factor conditioning the selection of suitable soil washing strategies. These studies were finally complemented with a specific-gravity study performed with a C800 Mozley separator together with a grindability test, both novel approaches in soil washing feasibility studies. The results highlighted the difficulties in treating "La Soterraña" soils. These difficulties are attributed to the presence of contaminants embedded in the soil and spoil heap aggregates, caused by the meteorization of gangue and ore minerals. As a result of these two characteristics, high concentrations of the contaminants accumulate in all grain-size fractions. Therefore, the soil washing approach proposed here includes the grinding of particles above 125 μm.

  17. The analysis of spatial and temporal changes of land cover and land use in the reclaimed areas with the application of airborne orthophotomaps and LANDSAT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, Marta; Wężyk, Piotr; Hawryło, Paweł; Pietrzykowski, Marcin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible use of geoinformatics tools and generally available geodata for mapping land cover/use on the reclaimed areas. The choice of subject was dictated by the growing number of such areas and the related problem of their restoration. Modern technology, including GIS, photogrammetry and remote sensing are relevant in assessing the reclamation effects and monitoring of changes taking place on such sites. The LULC classes mapping, supported with thorough knowledge of the operator, is useful tool for the proper reclamation process evaluation. The study was performed for two post-mine sites: reclaimed external spoil heap of the sulfur mine Machów and areas after exploitation of sulfur mine Jeziórko, which are located in the Tarnobrzeski district. The research materials consisted of aerial orthophotos, which were the basis of on-screen vectorization; LANDSAT satellite images, which were used in the pixel and object based classification; and the CORINE Land Cover database as a general reference to the global maps of land cover and land use.

  18. Characterization of Leuconostoc gasicomitatum sp. nov., Associated with Spoiled Raw Tomato-Marinated Broiler Meat Strips Packaged under Modified-Atmosphere Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Björkroth, K. Johanna; Geisen, Rolf; Schillinger, Ulrich; Weiss, Norbert; De Vos, Paul; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Korkeala, Hannu J.; Vandamme, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with gaseous spoilage of modified-atmosphere-packaged, raw, tomato-marinated broiler meat strips were identified on the basis of a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) (ribotyping) database containing DNAs coding for 16S and 23S rRNAs (rDNAs). A mixed LAB population dominated by a Leuconostoc species resembling Leuconostoc gelidum caused the spoilage of the product. Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus, and a gram-positive rod phenotypically similar to heterofermentative Lactobacillus species were the other main organisms detected. An increase in pH together with the extreme bulging of packages suggested a rare LAB spoilage type called “protein swell.” This spoilage is characterized by excessive production of gas due to amino acid decarboxylation, and the rise in pH is attributed to the subsequent deamination of amino acids. Protein swell has not previously been associated with any kind of meat product. A polyphasic approach, including classical phenotyping, whole-cell protein electrophoresis, 16 and 23S rDNA RFLP, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, and DNA-DNA reassociation analysis, was used for the identification of the dominant Leuconostoc species. In addition to the RFLP analysis, phenotyping, whole-cell protein analysis, and 16S rDNA sequence homology indicated that L. gelidum was most similar to the spoilage-associated species. The two spoilage strains studied possessed 98.8 and 99.0% 16S rDNA sequence homology with the L. gelidum type strain. DNA-DNA reassociation, however, clearly distinguished the two species. The same strains showed only 22 and 34% hybridization with the L. gelidum type strain. These results warrant a separate species status, and we propose the name Leuconostoc gasicomitatum sp. nov. for this spoilage-associated Leuconostoc species. PMID:10966388

  19. Memorandum of Understanding on Surface Coal Mining Operations Resulting in Placement of Excess Spoil Fills in the Waters of the United States

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    MOU on Surface Coal Mining Operations establishes a process for improving coordination in the review of permit applications required for surface coal mining and reclamation in waters of the United States

  20. Reclamation of acid, toxic coal spoils using wet flue gas desulfurization by-product, fly ash and sewage sludge. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    Establishment of vegetation on acid abandoned minelands requires modification of soil physical and chemical conditions. Covering the acid minesoil with topsoil or borrow soil is a common practice but this method may be restricted by availability of borrow soil and cause damage to the borrow site. An alternative approach is to use waste materials as soil amendments. There is a long history of using sewage sludge and fly ash as amendments for acid minesoils. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are newer materials that are also promising amendments. Most flue gas sludges are mixtures of Calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}), calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}), calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}], and fly ash. Some scrubbing processes produce almost pure gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O). The primary purpose of the project is to evaluate two wet FGD by-products for effects on vegetation establishment and surface and ground water quality on an acid minesoil. One by-product from the Conesville, OH power plant (American Electric Power Service Corporation) contains primarily calcium sulfite and fly ash. The other by-product (Mg-gypsum FGD) from an experimental scrubber at the Zimmer power plant (Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company) is primarily gypsum with 4% magnesium hydroxide. These materials were compared with borrow soil and sewage sludge as minesoil amendments. Combinations of each FGD sludge with sewage sludge were also tested. This report summarizes two years of measurements of chemical composition of runoff water, ground water at two depths in the subsoil, soil chemical properties, elemental composition and yield of herbaceous ground cover, and elemental composition, survival and height of trees planted on plots treated with the various amendments. The borrow soil is the control for comparison with the other treatments.

  1. Succession of Bacterial Community Structure and Diversity in Soil along a Chronosequence of Reclamation and Re-Vegetation on Coal Mine Spoils in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuanyuan; Wen, Hongyu; Chen, Longqian; Yin, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    The growing concern about the effectiveness of reclamation strategies has motivated the evaluation of soil properties following reclamation. Recovery of belowground microbial community is important for reclamation success, however, the response of soil bacterial communities to reclamation has not been well understood. In this study, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing was applied to compare bacterial communities in undisturbed soils with those in reclaimed soils using chronosequences ranging in time following reclamation from 1 to 20 year. Bacteria from the Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes were abundant in all soils, while the composition of predominant phyla differed greatly across all sites. Long-term reclamation strongly affected microbial community structure and diversity. Initial effects of reclamation resulted in significant declines in bacterial diversity indices in younger reclaimed sites (1, 8-year-old) compared to the undisturbed site. However, bacterial diversity indices tended to be higher in older reclaimed sites (15, 20-year-old) as recovery time increased, and were more similar to predisturbance levels nearly 20 years after reclamation. Bacterial communities are highly responsive to soil physicochemical properties (pH, soil organic matter, Total N and P), in terms of both their diversity and community composition. Our results suggest that the response of soil microorganisms to reclamation is likely governed by soil characteristics and, indirectly, by the effects of vegetation restoration. Mixture sowing of gramineae and leguminosae herbage largely promoted soil geochemical conditions and bacterial diversity that recovered to those of undisturbed soil, representing an adequate solution for soil remediation and sustainable utilization for agriculture. These results confirm the positive impacts of reclamation and vegetation restoration on soil microbial diversity and suggest that the most important phase of microbial community recovery occurs between 15 and 20 years after reclamation. PMID:25502754

  2. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of eugenol, limonene, and citrus extract against bacteria and yeasts, representative of the spoiling microflora of fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2010-05-01

    This article reports on the investigation on the bioactivity of eugenol, limonene, and citrus extract against three bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Bacillus coagulans) and three yeasts (Saccharomyces bayanus, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum), representing the spoilage microflora of fruit juices. The experiments were performed with laboratory media by using a microdilution method. Data were fitted using the Gompertz equation, and the kinetic parameters were used to evaluate the MIC and the dose-dependent effect (at suboptimal doses for each essential oil). Citrus extract was the most effective essential oil, and the results suggested the following susceptibility hierarchy, from the most sensitive microorganism to the most resistant one (values in parentheses represent MICs): S. bayanus (2 ppm) > R. bacarum (3 ppm) > P. membranifaciens (5 ppm) > B. coagulans (cells, 20 ppm) > L. brevis (40 ppm) > L. plantarum (>40 ppm).

  3. 19. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, 1922. Original photograph can be ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, 1922. Original photograph can be found in Marvine Colliery folder in the archives of the Lackawanna Historical Society, Scranton, Pennsylvania. INTERIOR VIEW OF BREAKER, SHOWING SIZED AND WASHED COAL IN COAL CARS, WITH MINING INSPECTORS - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  4. 11. Photocopy of photograph. Negative D & H 145. Bunnell, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of photograph. Negative D & H 145. Bunnell, date unknown Original photograph can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. VIEW OF BOILER AND GENERAL ELECTRIC MOTOR, MARVINE COLLIERY - Marvine Colliery, Boiler House No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  5. 10. Photocopy of photograph. Negative D & H 147. Bunnell, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph. Negative D & H 147. Bunnell, date unknown Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. VIEW OF BOILER EQUIPMENT, MARVINE COLLIERY - Marvine Colliery, Boiler House No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  6. Characterization of iron- and sulphide mineral-oxidizing moderately thermophilic acidophilic bacteria from an Indonesian auto-heating copper mine waste heap and a deep South African gold mine.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Päivi H-M; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2004-10-01

    Iron- and chalcopyrite-oxidizing enrichment cultures were obtained at 50 degrees C from acidic, high-temperature, copper/gold mine environments in Indonesia and South Africa. Over 90% copper yield was obtained from chalcopyrite concentrate with the Indonesian enrichment in 3 months with 2% solids concentration, when pH was maintained at around 2. Neither addition of silver cations nor an enhanced nutrient concentration influenced chalcopyrite leaching. Excision and sequencing of bands from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the amplified partial 16S rRNA gene showed that the enrichment cultures from different environments in South Africa and Indonesia were very simple, and similar. Chalcopyrite concentrate supported a simpler and different community than Fe2+. The members of the enrichment cultures were closely related to Sulfobacillus yellowstonensis and Sulfobacillus acidophilus.

  7. Mineralogical characterization of tailing dams: incidence of abandoned mining works on soil pollution (Linares, Jaén)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, M. J.; Hidalgo, C.; Rey, J.; Martínez, J.

    2012-04-01

    The metallogenic district of Linares-La Carolina (Jaén, Spain) consists of dyke mineralizations mainly of galena, accompanied by blende, chalcopyrite and barite. Associated to these abandoned mines, relatively extensive areas occupied by spoil heaps and tailing impoundments exist and constitute potential sources of soil pollution by metals and semimetals. In order to analyze the pollution potential of these mining wastes, we have carried out a mineralogical and geochemical study of seven tailing dams and surrounding soils in the area. The mineralogy of the samples was studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the total metal content of samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Samples were taken from the first 30 cm of the waste piles and soil deposits and white efflorescences were also obtained from the surface of the tailings. In all analyzed heaps, high to very high total contents in Pb (1220-22890 mg/kg), Zn (150-51280 mg/kg), Mn (2658-4160 mg/kg), Ba (1026-19610 mg/kg) and Fe (19400-138000 mg/kg) were observed. The concentrations for these same elements in the studied soils range from 527-9900 mg/kg for Pb, 27-1700 mg/kg for Zn, 506-2464 mg/kg for Mn, 2832-4306 for Ba and 8642-29753 mg/kg for Fe, and these figures indicate a contamination of the soils, according to the guidelines established by the Spanish law. The XRD and SEM results indicate that the tailings are primarily constituted by gangue of the exploited mineralization: quartz, calcite, ankerite, feldspars and phyllosilicates. They are inherited, primary mineral phases. Galena, also primary, appears in low proportion, as well as lepidocrocite, melanterite and cerussite, being these three last secondary minerals and indicating a certain remobilization of metal cations, especially lead and iron. On the other hand, quartz and phyllosilicates predominate in the soils, in which, in addition, is identified a

  8. Soil-restoration rate and initial soil formation trends on example of anthropogenically affected soils of opencast mine in Kursk region, Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigareva, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    The mining industry is one of the main factors which anthropogenically change the environment. Mining process results in removing of the rocks and mechanical changes of considerable amounts of ground. One of the main results of mining arising of antropic ecosystems as well as increasing of the new created soils total area is technosols. The main factor controlling the soil formation in postmining environment is the quality of spoiled materials. Initial soil formation has been investigated on spoils of the largest iron ore extraction complex in Russia - Mikhailovsky mining and concentration complex which is situated in Kursk region, Russia. Investigated soils are presented by monogenetic weak developed soils of different age (10-15-20 years). Young soils are formed on the loess parent materials (20 year-old soil), or on a mix of sand and clay overburdens (15 and 10-year-old soils). Anthropogenically affected soils are characterized by well-developed humus horizon which is gradually replaced by weakly changed soil-building rocks (profile type A-C for 10-, 15-years old soils, and A-AC-C for 20 years old soils). Gray-humus soils are characterized by presence of diagnostic humus horizon gradually replaced by soil-building rock. The maximum intensity of humus accumulation has been determined in a semi-hydromorphic 10-year-old soil developed on the mixed heaps which is connected with features of water-air conditions complicating mineralization of plant remnants. 20-year-old soil on loess is characterized by rather high rate of organic substances accumulation between all the automorphous soils. It was shown that one of the most effective restoration ways for anthropogenically affected soils is a biological reclamation. Since overburdens once appeared on a day surface are overgrown badly in the first years, they are subject to influence of water and wind erosion. Our researchers have found out that permanent grasses are able to grow quickly; they accumulate a considerable

  9. Arsenic input into the catchment of the River Caudal (Northwestern Spain) from abandoned Hg mining works: effect on water quality.

    PubMed

    Ordoñez, A; Silva, V; Galán, P; Loredo, J; Rucandio, I

    2014-04-01

    In Asturias (NW Spain) there are many abandoned mines, of which Hg mines are of particular significance from an environmental point of view, due to the presence of Hg and particularly As, which is found either in the form of specific (orpiment and realgar) or non-specific minerals (As-rich pyrite). The instability of these minerals leads to the presence of As-rich mine drainage and spoils heap leachates that enter surface waters or groundwaters. A study including the three most important Hg mines in the region (La Soterraña, Los Rueldos and El Terronal) has been conducted. Watercourses flowing through these mining areas are tributaries of the River Caudal, one of the most important rivers in the area. High concentrations of As were found in some of these waters, which were monitored over a period of three hydrological years and classified according to a water quality index. Those waters sampled close to the mines are generally of poor-to-bad quality, with low alkalinity and in some cases high metal content, but the quality of these waters improves with distance from the mines. The average mass load of As entering the River Caudal has been evaluated as: 200, 12 and 9,800 kg year(-1) from La Soterraña, Los Rueldos and El Terronal mine sites, respectively. Despite the constant input of about 10 tonnes of As per year, the total As concentration remains below analytical detection thresholds on account of the river's high water flow. Nevertheless, an important part of this As load is presumably retained in the river sediments, representing a potential risk of pollution of the aquatic ecosystems.

  10. 1. VIEW OF EAST FRONT OF BREAKER, WITH SCALE STICK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF EAST FRONT OF BREAKER, WITH SCALE STICK, SHOWING FOUNDATIONS OF RETAIL SCALES IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING WEST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  11. 2. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES WITH SCALE STICK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES WITH SCALE STICK, SHOWING BOILER HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Heavy Rail Scales Office, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  12. 1. VIEW OS SOUTH FRONT OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH SCALE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OS SOUTH FRONT OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH SCALE STICK, SHOWING HEAVY SCALES OFFICE TO LEFT, LOOKING NORTH - Marvine Colliery, Boiler House No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  13. 6. INTERIOR VIEW OF BREAKER, FIRST FLOOR, DEPICTING PIPING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR VIEW OF BREAKER, FIRST FLOOR, DEPICTING PIPING AND CHUTES IN FORMER CHANCE CONE AREA, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  14. INTERIOR VIEW OF SHED, SHOWING STRUCTURAL SYSTEM AND OVERHEAD DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF SHED, SHOWING STRUCTURAL SYSTEM AND OVERHEAD DOOR MOUNTING, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Shed, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  15. 3. VIEW OF OFFICE, LOOKING NORTH, DOWN OPENING TO UNDERGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF OFFICE, LOOKING NORTH, DOWN OPENING TO UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS - Marvine Colliery, Heavy Rail Scales Office, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  16. 4. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES OF BREAKER, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES OF BREAKER, WITH CHANCE CONE AT WEST, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  17. 1. VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH FACADES, WITH WASHERY WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH FACADES, WITH WASHERY WATER PIPE AT RIGHT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Marvine Colliery, Heavy Rail Scales Office, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  18. 2. VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH FACADES OF BREAKER, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH FACADES OF BREAKER, WITH BOILER HOUSE AT LEFT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  19. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BREAKER, FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BREAKER, FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING COAL CHUTES AND WATER PIPING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  20. 4. INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTH SECTION, SHOWING STEEL DOOR ANCHORS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTH SECTION, SHOWING STEEL DOOR ANCHORS, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Oil House, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  1. 1. VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH FACADES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH FACADES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Marvine Colliery, Dorr Thickener Plant No. 1, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  2. 6. DETAILED INTERIOR VIEW OF SOUTH SECTION, SHOWING ROOF STRUCTURAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAILED INTERIOR VIEW OF SOUTH SECTION, SHOWING ROOF STRUCTURAL SYSTEM, LOOKING NORTH AND UP - Marvine Colliery, Oil House, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  3. 3. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES, SHOWING CHUTES AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES, SHOWING CHUTES AND PORTION OF SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR OVERHEAD CONVEYOR, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Dorr Thickener Plant No. 1, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  4. Hybrid Exploration Agent Platform and Sensor Web System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoffel, A. William; VanSteenberg, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    A sensor web to collect the scientific data needed to further exploration is a major and efficient asset to any exploration effort. This is true not only for lunar and planetary environments, but also for interplanetary and liquid environments. Such a system would also have myriad direct commercial spin-off applications. The Hybrid Exploration Agent Platform and Sensor Web or HEAP-SW like the ANTS concept is a Sensor Web concept. The HEAP-SW is conceptually and practically a very different system. HEAP-SW is applicable to any environment and a huge range of exploration tasks. It is a very robust, low cost, high return, solution to a complex problem. All of the technology for initial development and implementation is currently available. The HEAP Sensor Web or HEAP-SW consists of three major parts, The Hybrid Exploration Agent Platforms or HEAP, the Sensor Web or SW and the immobile Data collection and Uplink units or DU. The HEAP-SW as a whole will refer to any group of mobile agents or robots where each robot is a mobile data collection unit that spends most of its time acting in concert with all other robots, DUs in the web, and the HEAP-SWs overall Command and Control (CC) system. Each DU and robot is, however, capable of acting independently. The three parts of the HEAP-SW system are discussed in this paper. The Goals of the HEAP-SW system are: 1) To maximize the amount of exploration enhancing science data collected; 2) To minimize data loss due to system malfunctions; 3) To minimize or, possibly, eliminate the risk of total system failure; 4) To minimize the size, weight, and power requirements of each HEAP robot; 5) To minimize HEAP-SW system costs. The rest of this paper discusses how these goals are attained.

  5. 46 CFR 44.340 - Operating restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... refuge; and (4) Specific gravity of the spoil carried is not more than the highest specific gravity of... paragraph (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section; and (2) The maximum specific gravity of the spoils...

  6. 46 CFR 44.340 - Operating restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... refuge; and (4) Specific gravity of the spoil carried is not more than the highest specific gravity of... paragraph (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section; and (2) The maximum specific gravity of the spoils...

  7. 46 CFR 44.340 - Operating restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... refuge; and (4) Specific gravity of the spoil carried is not more than the highest specific gravity of... paragraph (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section; and (2) The maximum specific gravity of the spoils...

  8. 46 CFR 44.340 - Operating restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... refuge; and (4) Specific gravity of the spoil carried is not more than the highest specific gravity of... paragraph (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section; and (2) The maximum specific gravity of the spoils...

  9. 77 FR 55430 - Arkansas Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...; Disposal of Excess Spoil; Road Systems; and Support Facilities. PART 782--UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT...: Records of Blasting Operations; Disposal of Excess Spoil: General Requirements; Contemporaneous... Explosives: Seismographic Measurements; Use of Explosives: Records of Blasting Operations; Disposal of...

  10. 46 CFR 44.340 - Operating restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... refuge; and (4) Specific gravity of the spoil carried is not more than the highest specific gravity of... paragraph (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section; and (2) The maximum specific gravity of the spoils...

  11. 75 FR 35079 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Arturo Mine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... heap leach facility, construction of new support facilities (office, substation and associated power transmission lines, water wells, water distribution and sewer systems, landfill, mined material...

  12. Dry Matter Losses and Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Outside Storage of Short Rotation Coppice Willow Chip.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Carly; Yates, Nicola E; Powers, Stephen J; Misselbrook, Tom; Shield, Ian

    This study examined the dry matter losses and the greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations within two short rotation coppice (SRC) willow wood chip storage heaps. One heap was built on a grassland area (East Midlands) and the other (Rothamsted) on a concrete hard standing. A series of 1- and 3-m probes were embedded in the heaps in order to retrieve gas samples for analysis, and pre-weighed net bags were positioned in the core of the heap to detect dry matter losses. The bagged samples showed dry matter losses of 18 and 19 % in the East Midlands and Rothamsted heaps after 210 and 97 days storage, respectively. The Rothamsted heap showed a whole-heap dry matter loss of 21 %. During this time, the wood chips dried from 54 to 39 % moisture content in the East Midlands heap and 50 to 43 % at Rothamsted. The results from analysing the whole Rothamsted heap indicated an overall loss of 1.5 GJ per tonne stored, although measurements from bagged samples in the core suggested that the chips dried sufficiently to have a minimal energy loss from storage. The process of mixing the heap, however, led to incorporation of wet outer layers and hence the average moisture content was higher in an average sample of chip. After establishment of the heaps, the temperature rose rapidly and this correlated with a peak in carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration within the heap. A peak in methane (CH4) concentration was also detected in both heaps, though more noticeably in the East Midlands heap after around 55 days. In both instances, the peak CH4 concentration occurred as CO2 concentrations dropped, suggesting that after an active period of aerobic decomposition in the first 2 months of storage, the conditions in the heap became anaerobic. The results from this study suggest that outside wood chip storage is not an efficient method of storing biomass, though this may be location-specific as there are some studies showing lower dry matter losses. It is necessary to explore other methods of

  13. Use of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Organic Amendments to Enhance Growth of Macaranga peltata (Roxb.) Müll. Arg. in Iron Ore Mine Wastelands.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Cassie R; Rodrigues, Bernard F

    2015-01-01

    Macaranga peltata (Roxb.) Mull. Arg. is a disturbance tolerant plant species with potential in mine wasteland reclamation. Our study aims at studying the phyto-extraction potential of M. peltata and determining plant-soil interaction factors effecting plant growth in iron ore mine spoils. Plants were grown in pure mine spoil and spoil amended with Farm Yard Manure (FYM) and Vermicompost (VC) along with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species Rhizophagus irregularis. Pure and amended mine spoils were evaluated for nutrient status. Plant growth parameters and foliar nutrient contents were determined at the end of one year. FYM amendment in spoil significantly increased plant biomass compared to pure mine spoil and VC amended spoil. Foliar Fe accumulation was recorded highest (594.67 μg/g) in pure spoil with no mortality but considerably affecting plant growth, thus proving to exhibit phyto-extraction potential. FYM and VC amendments reduced AM colonization (30.4% and 37% resp.) and plants showed a negative mycorrhizal dependency (-30.35 and -39.83 resp.). Soil pH and P levels and, foliar Fe accumulation are major factors determining plant growth in spoil. FYM amendment was found to be superior to VC as a spoil amendment for hastening plant growth and establishment in iron ore mine spoil.

  14. Cultural Heritage Documentation and Integrated Geomatics Techniques in AN Educational Context: Case Bois-Du (belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stal, C.; Goossens, R.; Carlier, L.; Debie, J.; Haoudy, K.; Nuttens, T.; De Wulf, A.

    2013-07-01

    The Walloon Region in Belgium played a leading role in the world economy and in the industrial sciences and engineering since the 19th century. Several relicts, such as important industrial buildings or sites, are spread over a large area and are still dominating the current landscape. Some of these remnants are preserved as monuments, representing the industrial, cultural and ecological transition of the region during the last two centuries. Since 2012, UNESCO recognized the importance of four of the best preserved 19th and 20th century coal mining sites and classified them as World Heritage ("Major Mining Sites of Wallonia", Le Grand-Hornu, Bois-du- Luc, Le Bois du Cazier and Blegny Mine). The four recognised mining sites together form a strip of about 170 km long, containing important examples of the so-called 'neo classical architecture' from the early periods of the industrial era in continental Europe. Motivated by this recognition and by the huge touristic and educational potential of the sites, a partnership between the Walloon government and Ghent University was organized. In this first stage, the collaboration focuses on the site of Bois-du-Luc in the municipality of La Louvière, containing a large series of dwellings, several equipments built between 1853 and 1923 by the Société des Charbonnages du Bois-du-Luc, workshops and heaps. Consisting of numerous buildings dating back to the period between 1838 and 1923, this site is one of Europe's oldest collieries. The collaboration between the Walloon government and Ghent University - Department of Geography fits in the hands-on training which students in land surveying and geomatics receive during their Bachelor studies. For the students it is very interesting that their practical exercises are not limited to the university campus, but that they are involved in a real measurement campaign. The project consists of a series of intensive land surveying campaigns, resulting in highly detailed and accurate

  15. ESS Smelting Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erasmus, L. J.; Fourie, L. J.

    2017-02-01

    The envirosteel smelter is a rectangular furnace with a large free board volume and multiple channel inductors mounted below the hearth. The raw materials are charged against the back wall forming an inclined heap sloping toward the front long wall. The feed blend is spread in thin layers over the surface of the heap and is heated by exposure to radiation from the free board. Reducing conditions in the top layer of the heap permit gas-solid reduction. Metal, in the hearth of the furnace, flows into the channel inductor where it is heated. The heated metal flows back against the front long wall to under the heap. The bottom of the heap is continuously melted by energy transferred from the metal layer. The two off-gas ducts are located in the short end walls. The combustion air is heated to around 800°C by a furnace gas in an external heat exchanger.

  16. A new type of rapid and simple coal and other bulk commodities inventory system based on two-dimensional laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qianqian; Xu, Wenhai; Ma, Qisheng; Yang, Deshan; Zhang, Wang; Fu, Ying

    2016-10-01

    The acceleration of large coal base construction needs the modern management technology of heap storage as a guarantee. And the inventory of coal and other bulk commodities is an important aspect in the modern management technology of heap storage. Therefore, a rapid, accurate and simple method to measure the volume and quality of coal heaps for scientific management, economic benefit evaluation and storage evaluation of heap storage is very important which has a significant application value. In this paper, we introduce the structural features, working principle and application status of a new type portable heap bulk inventory system. Actual measurements have been carried out in the coal base located in Huanghua port, Tianjin and Qinhuangdao. The measurement results indicate that the system can measure the volume of bulk commodities efficiently, quickly and accurately, and it has extensive application prospects.

  17. Benthic foraminifera (Protista) as indicators of metal pollution in areas of historic mining: examples from southwest England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Malcolm; Smart, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Southwest England has been, from Roman times, an important mining area supplying a range of important metals, including copper, tin, tungsten, arsenic, zinc, silver, etc. This mining activity virtually disappeared in the twentieth century, although one tungsten mine near Plymouth has recently re-opened. Large areas of Cornwall and West Devon are now inscribed as the 'Cornish Mining World Heritage Site' on the cultural list of UNESCO. Many of the old mines with their spoil heaps and tailings dams are now protected and, together with the mineral-rich local geology, provide many catchments with on-going metal pollution. In January 1992, after a period of prolonged, heavy rainfall Wheal Jane mine flooded and discharged heavily polluted, acidic, water into Restonguet Creek and the Fal Estuary. This event provided the setting for a detailed investigation of the immediate impact of the pollution and the resulting environmental improvements caused by engineering interventions and natural re-adjustment. Benthic foraminifera disappeared from Restronguet Creek for a number of years and while there is now an abundant, though low diversity, estuarine assemblage of foraminifera living in the creek there are still high levels (<15% in 2004) of test deformity recorded (Olugbode et al., 2005). In other parts of the Fal Estuary (a Special Area of Conservation under the EU Habitats Directive, 2000), deformed foraminifera are very rare and the measured levels of pollution can be used to compare with the test deformity data. In other estuarine systems in southwest England, such as the River Fowey and the River Tamar, levels of deformity are less, though still significant for areas no longer being actively mined. This demonstrates that polluted sediments in all these estuaries, which can be disturbed during floods or times of stormy weather, and the background levels of metal elements in the catchments that supply these estuaries, are sufficient to maintain these levels of deformity in

  18. Caves, mines and subterranean spaces: hazard and risk from exposure to radon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, R. G. M.; Gillmore, G. K.

    2009-04-01

    areas (via spoil heaps, settlement lagoons etc. containing uranium and radium). We here present an overview of the potential hazard presented by radon in subterranean spaces and by metalliferous mining activities. We also present some speculation as to evidence of (pre-) historic exposure to radon which might potentially exist in archaeological remains and oral traditions. Keywords: radon; caves; metalliferous mining; cave-dwellers; archaeologists.

  19. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-09-30

    Heap leaching is one of the methods being used to recover metal from low grade ore deposits. The main problem faced during heap leaching is the migration of fine grained particles through the heap, forming impermeable beds which result in poor solution flow. The poor solution flow leads to less contact between the leach solution and the ore, resulting in low recovery rates. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses prevents fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Currently, there is one facility in the United States which uses agglomeration. This operation agglomerates their ore using leach solution (raffinate), but is still experiencing undesirable metal recovery from the heaps due to agglomerate breakdown. The use of a binder, in addition to the leach solution, during agglomeration would help to produce stronger agglomerates that did not break down during processing. However, there are no known binders that will work satisfactorily in the acidic environment of a heap, at a reasonable cost. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. Increasing copper recovery in heap leaching by the use of binders and agglomeration would result in a significant decrease in the amount of energy consumed. Assuming that 70% of all the leaching heaps would convert to using agglomeration technology, as much as 1.64*10{sup 12} BTU per year would be able to be saved if a 25% increase in copper recovery was experienced, which is equivalent to saving approximately 18% of the energy currently being used in leaching heaps. For every week a leach cycle was decreased, a savings of as much as 1.23*10{sup 11} BTU per week would result. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures. These binders and experimental procedures will be able to be used for use in improving the energy efficiency of

  20. 33 CFR 148.725 - What are the design, construction and operational criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sound waste disposal, resource recovery, affected area reclamation, and enhanced use of spoil and waste... currents and wave patterns; (e) Avoid groundwater drawdown or saltwater intrusion, and minimizes...

  1. 33 CFR 148.725 - What are the design, construction and operational criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sound waste disposal, resource recovery, affected area reclamation, and enhanced use of spoil and waste... currents and wave patterns; (e) Avoid groundwater drawdown or saltwater intrusion, and minimizes...

  2. 30 CFR 784.11 - Operation plan: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Coal removal, handling, storage, cleaning, and transportation areas and structures; (4) Spoil, coal... disposal areas and structures; (5) Mine facilities; and (6) Water pollution control facilities....

  3. 30 CFR 784.11 - Operation plan: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Coal removal, handling, storage, cleaning, and transportation areas and structures; (4) Spoil, coal... disposal areas and structures; (5) Mine facilities; and (6) Water pollution control facilities....

  4. 30 CFR 784.11 - Operation plan: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Coal removal, handling, storage, cleaning, and transportation areas and structures; (4) Spoil, coal... disposal areas and structures; (5) Mine facilities; and (6) Water pollution control facilities....

  5. Using electrostatic modelling to study cone discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, W.

    2015-10-01

    Cone discharges, also known as bulking brush discharges, can arise when charged insulating powder accumulates in a heap in silos. They can be an effective ignition source to relatively ignition sensitive powders and therefore represent a possible electrostatic hazard. The current international guidance on control of electrostatic hazards (IEC/TS 60079-32-1 [1]), endorses the usage of electrostatic modelling to estimate the electric field above the powder heap. “Such model calculations should be based on the charge to mass ratio, bulk density and filling rate of the powder, the relative permittivity and resistivity of the bulked powder as well as the silo geometry.” This study shows a practical demonstration of this modelling technique. It also examines whether the shape of the heap affects the strength of the electric field above the powder heap, and thus the likelihood of cone discharges from occurring.

  6. Keeping Portions Under Control (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that we don't bat an eye when restaurants offer us things like neverending pasta bowls, bottomless ... you can decide how much of those heaping restaurant portions your family should actually eat! Visual Cues ...

  7. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    MedlinePlus

    ... For instance, a ½-cup serving of vanilla ice cream contains: 178 total calories 2 grams of protein ( ... choose a heaping bowl of cooked carrots over ice cream on a hot summer day? It all comes ...

  8. 22. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, November 22, 1920. Negative #D ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, November 22, 1920. Negative #D & H 20969 Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. DETAILED INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING TOP OF JIGS AT TIME OF BREAKER CONSTRUCTION - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  9. 8. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, May 1920. Negative # D ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, May 1920. Negative # D & H 20830 Original photograph can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. INTERIOR VIEW OF ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION AT NORTHEAST PORTION OF SITE. - Marvine Colliery, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  10. 20. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, February 7, 1921. Negative #D ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, February 7, 1921. Negative #D & H 21895 Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. INTERIOR VIEW OF BREAKER, TOP FLOORS, SHOWING DETAIL OF TOP SCREENS AND CRUSHERS AT TIME OF CONSTRUCTION - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  11. 14. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, 1922. Negative #D & H ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, 1922. Negative #D & H 22413 Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. VIEW SHOWING EAST FACADE OF BREAKER, WITH RETAIL SCALES OFFICE IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING WEST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  12. 9. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, August 2, 1920 Original negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, August 2, 1920 Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. VIEW OF WEST FACADE AND PORTION OF SOUTH FACADE OF BOILER HOUSE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Boiler House No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  13. 15. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan. 1920. Original negative can be ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan. 1920. Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. VIEW SHOWING BREAKER UNDER CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING EAST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  14. 17. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, September 7, 1920. Negative # ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, September 7, 1920. Negative # D & H 20907 Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF CONVEYOR TUNNEL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  15. 18. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, date unknown. Original negative can ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, date unknown. Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. DETAIL VIEW OF SLUSH TROUGH FROM BREAKER NO. 2 TO BOREHOLE UNDER NORTH END OF BOILER HOUSE NO. 2, LOOKING SOUTH - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  16. 23. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, December 28, 1920. Negative #D ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, December 28, 1920. Negative #D & H 21850 Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. DETAILED INTERIOR VIEW OF FIRST FLOOR LOADING CHUTES AT EAST END OF BREAKER - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  17. 16. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, December 6, 1920 Original negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, December 6, 1920 Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. VIEW SHOWING BREAKER UNDER CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 3, March 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and strip-mining collieries and oil fields (India) and also JPRS-UWE-88-007 17 June 1988 12 foundries in Algeria, Iran, Nigeria and Turkey, a...The developing countries had become firmly established on the world markets of textiles, ready-to-wear clothing, footwear and leather goods, jewelry

  19. 9. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST The brick and concrete construction of the engine room, airways, and chimney are evident. The shaft housing and flywheel of the Allis- Chalmers Corliss steam engine are visible through the window of the engine room. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  20. 17. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING EAST The direct-acting 1883 Pittston Engine and Machine Company steam engine was made by George A. Parrish and W. B. Culver of West Pittston, Pennsylvania. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  1. 23. INTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. INTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING EAST The flywheel, shaft, and coupling of the c. 1930 Buffalo Forge Corliss engine are shown. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  2. 9. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BREAKER, FIRST FLOOR, DEPICTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BREAKER, FIRST FLOOR, DEPICTING CHUTES AND ELECTRIC MOTOR, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST FROM ELEVATED PLATFORM AT NORTH END - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  3. 10. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BREAKER, SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BREAKER, SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING PUMP HOUSING FROM RUIN OF WALL AT EXTERIOR NORTH FACADE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  4. 4. VIEW OF WEST FACADE OF MIDDLE SILO WITH PORTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF WEST FACADE OF MIDDLE SILO WITH PORTION OF SUPPORT STRUCTURE OF OVERHEAD CONVEYOR, LOOKIN EAST FROM BENEATH OVERHEAD CONVEYOR - Marvine Colliery, Dorr Thickener Plant No. 1, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  5. Thread Migration in the Presence of Pointers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronk, David; Haines, Matthew; Mehrotra, Piyush

    1996-01-01

    Dynamic migration of lightweight threads supports both data locality and load balancing. However, migrating threads that contain pointers referencing data in both the stack and heap remains an open problem. In this paper we describe a technique by which threads with pointers referencing both stack and non-shared heap data can be migrated such that the pointers remain valid after migration. As a result, threads containing pointers can now be migrated between processors in a homogeneous distributed memory environment.

  6. Evaluation of concurrent priority queue algorithms. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Q.

    1991-02-01

    The priority queue is a fundamental data structure that is used in a large variety of parallel algorithms, such as multiprocessor scheduling and parallel best-first search of state-space graphs. This thesis addresses the design and experimental evaluation of two novel concurrent priority queues: a parallel Fibonacci heap and a concurrent priority pool, and compares them with the concurrent binary heap. The parallel Fibonacci heap is based on the sequential Fibonacci heap, which is theoretically the most efficient data structure for sequential priority queues. This scheme not only preserves the efficient operation time bounds of its sequential counterpart, but also has very low contention by distributing locks over the entire data structure. The experimental results show its linearly scalable throughput and speedup up to as many processors as tested (currently 18). A concurrent access scheme for a doubly linked list is described as part of the implementation of the parallel Fibonacci heap. The concurrent priority pool is based on the concurrent B-tree and the concurrent pool. The concurrent priority pool has the highest throughput among the priority queues studied. Like the parallel Fibonacci heap, the concurrent priority pool scales linearly up to as many processors as tested. The priority queues are evaluated in terms of throughput and speedup. Some applications of concurrent priority queues such as the vertex cover problem and the single source shortest path problem are tested.

  7. Cyanide hazards to plants and animals from gold mining and related water issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    2004-01-01

    Highly toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN) is used by the international mining community to extract gold and other precious metals through milling of high-grade ores and heap leaching of low-grade ores (Korte et al. 2000). The process to concentrate gold using cyanide was developed in Scotland in 1887 and was used almost immediately in the Witwatersrand gold fields of the Republic of South Africa. Heap leaching with cyanide was proposed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in 1969 as a means of extracting gold from low-grade ores. The gold industry adopted the technique in the 1970s, soon making heap leaching the dominant technology in gold extraction (Da Rosa and Lyon 1997). The heap leach and milling processes, which involve dewatering of gold-bearing ores, spraying of dilute cyanide solutions on extremely large heaps of ores containing low concentrations of gold, or the milling of ores with the use of cyanide and subsequent recovery of the gold-cyanide complex, have created a number of serious environmental problems affecting wildlife and water management. In this account, we review the history of cyanide use in gold mining with emphasis on heap leach gold mining, cyanide hazards to plants and animals, water management issues associated with gold mining, and proposed mitigation and research needs.

  8. 25 CFR 81.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is spoiled and cast. A spoiled cast ballot is to be counted in tabulating the total votes cast in... section who has attained the age of 18 years. (b) Amendment means any modification, change, or total... listed or eligible to be listed tribes who possesses at least one-half degree of Indian blood....

  9. 25 CFR 81.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is spoiled and cast. A spoiled cast ballot is to be counted in tabulating the total votes cast in... section who has attained the age of 18 years. (b) Amendment means any modification, change, or total... listed or eligible to be listed tribes who possesses at least one-half degree of Indian blood....

  10. 25 CFR 81.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is spoiled and cast. A spoiled cast ballot is to be counted in tabulating the total votes cast in... section who has attained the age of 18 years. (b) Amendment means any modification, change, or total... listed or eligible to be listed tribes who possesses at least one-half degree of Indian blood....

  11. 25 CFR 81.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is spoiled and cast. A spoiled cast ballot is to be counted in tabulating the total votes cast in... section who has attained the age of 18 years. (b) Amendment means any modification, change, or total... listed or eligible to be listed tribes who possesses at least one-half degree of Indian blood....

  12. 25 CFR 81.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... is spoiled and cast. A spoiled cast ballot is to be counted in tabulating the total votes cast in... section who has attained the age of 18 years. (b) Amendment means any modification, change, or total... listed or eligible to be listed tribes who possesses at least one-half degree of Indian blood....

  13. Structural Causes and Cyber Effects: A Response to Our Critics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    stable/25656440. 3. Dan Goodin, "Scientists Detect ’Spoiled Onions ’ Trying to Sabotage Tor Privacy Net- work," Ars Technica, 21 January 2014, http...arstechnica.com/security/2014/0llscientists -detect-spoiled- onions -trying-to-sabotage-tor-privacy-network!. Tor is a widely available soft- ware client

  14. 18 CFR 1304.207 - Channel excavation on TVA-owned residential access shoreland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... reservoir drawdown periods. (g) Channel excavations must be accomplished during the reservoir drawdown when the reservoir bottom is exposed and dry. (h) Spoil material from channel excavations must be placed in... Risk Profile elevation. For those reservoirs that have no flood control storage, dredge spoil must...

  15. 18 CFR 1304.207 - Channel excavation on TVA-owned residential access shoreland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... reservoir drawdown periods. (g) Channel excavations must be accomplished during the reservoir drawdown when the reservoir bottom is exposed and dry. (h) Spoil material from channel excavations must be placed in... Risk Profile elevation. For those reservoirs that have no flood control storage, dredge spoil must...

  16. 18 CFR 1304.207 - Channel excavation on TVA-owned residential access shoreland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... reservoir drawdown periods. (g) Channel excavations must be accomplished during the reservoir drawdown when the reservoir bottom is exposed and dry. (h) Spoil material from channel excavations must be placed in... Risk Profile elevation. For those reservoirs that have no flood control storage, dredge spoil must...

  17. Stigma: "What Is It and Why Does the Operational Commander Need To Be Concerned?"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-06

    An Achievable Vision, 5. 5 Stuart, Stigma and Work. 6 Goffman , Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. 7 Dovidio, Major, & Crocker...York: Guilford Press, 2000. Goffman , E. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1963

  18. Ecological bases of land reclamation in the mining regions of Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharytonov, Mykola; Gumentyk, Myhailo; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    The mining production is situated in the several provinces of Ukraine. Specification of the problem coal and mixed sulfide mining activities in Ukraine have resulted in the generation of hundreds of millions of tons of hazardous wastes consisting of rest of manganese and iron oxides, traces of rare elements, sulphur bearing minerals, such as pyrite. These wastes have been / are still deposited, throughout the years, in huge stockpiles and dams. Land restoration in the mining region takes several forms. One of the ways is land reclamation. This way includes forest, recreation and agricultural reclamation. Land reclamation in industrial regions is conducted in one technological cycle with the process of ore mining. The soil mass is taken off, piled up and heaped onto the land after the rock has been replaced. The ecohydrogeological background of reclaimed lands forming and exploration was worked out. It foresee an environment restoration of disturbed lands to manage flow down, atmospheric precipitations taking aside, the process of the reclaimed profile biogenetic horizons formation and promotion with total depth 1.0-1.2 m and involvement of more suitable rocks and artificial drainage building. The effectiveness of different models of land reclamation and heavy metals migration through the rock-soil-plant system was investigated. Field experiments were carried out to study the adaptive potential of plants having different requirements for substrate fertility, with the main task to assess the prospects of land management for the rocks of the Nikopol manganese basin. The rocks exposed to the surface after manganese ore mining, first technical stage of landscape restoration, and plant melioration stages pass into other geochemical conditions and change their physical-chemical properties. During long-term melioration crops have dramatically improved some processes as following: bioweathering of rocks, phytomeliorated rocks fertility growth, etc. Meantime some rocks

  19. Multidisciplinary studies on ancient sandstone quarries of Western Sardinia (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillo, Silvana Maria; Del Vais, Carla; Naitza, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The ancient coastal quarries of Mediterranean are increasingly considered geosites of multidisciplinary relevance. They are sites of historical-archaeological interest that show ancient techniques of stone extraction; they are significant for cultural heritage conservation and restoration, as sources of the stones used in ancient buildings and monuments; they are sites of geological relevance, as often retain important stratigraphic sections; they are also useful markers of secular changes in the sea level. A multisciplinary study is in progress on the ancient quarries of the Sinis region (western Sardinia island), integrating archaeological, geological, minero-petrographical data. In Sardinia, coastal quarries have been established from Punic and Roman times. Many of them exploited Quaternary sediments along the southern and western coasts of the island. They consist of middle-late Pleistocene marine conglomerates and carbonate sandstones, and of coastal (aeolian) carbonate sandstones. Sandstone blocks of different sizes have been widely used in ancient cities for buildings, defensive works, harbours, etc. Three main areas of stone extraction (San Giovanni di Sinis, Punta Maimoni, Is Arutas) have been so far recognized in the Sinis. GIS-supported mapping and documentation of the sites includes their geology and stratigraphy, the extension and layout of the quarries, and an evaluation of volumes of extracted rocks. Documented archaeological evidences include ancient extraction fronts, spoil heaps, working areas, working traces in the old fronts, transport routes of blocks, and traces of loading facilities. The study is aimed at reconstructing the relationships of the quarries with the urban areas of Sinis, as the ancient Punic-Roman city of Tharros. Consequently, a minero-petrographical characterization (optical microscopy, XRD) is performed on sandstones sampled in each quarry, and in historical buildings in Tharros and other centres of the region (Cabras

  20. Ground-water movement and effects of coal strip mining on water quality of high-wall lakes and aquifers in the Macon-Huntsville area, north- central Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, D.C.; Davis, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Glacial drift and Pennsylvanian bedrock were mixed together forming spoil during pre-reclamation strip mining for coal in north-central Missouri. This restructuring of the land increases the porosity of the material, and increases aqueous concentrations of many dissolved constituents. Median sodium and bicarbonate concentrations were slightly greater, calcium 5 times greater, magnesium 6 times greater, manganese 15 times greater, iron 19 times greater, and sulfate 24 times greater in water from spoil than in water from glacial drift. Median potassium concentrations were slightly greater, and chloride concentrations were two times greater in water from glacial drift than in water from spoil. Water types in glacial drift and bedrock were mostly sodium bicarbonate and calcium bicarbonate; in spoil and lakes in the spoil, the water types were mostly calcium sulfate. Median pH values in water from spoil were 6.6, as compared to 7.4 in water from glacial drift and 9.0 in water from bedrock. Neutralization of acid by carbonate rocks causes the moderate pH values in water from spoil; a carbonate system closed to the atmosphere may result in alkaline pH values in bedrock. Transmissivities generally are greatest for spoil, and decrease in the following order: alluvium, glacial drift, and bedrock. Recharge to spoil is from precipitation, lateral flow from glacial drift, and lateral and vertical flow from bedrock. The rate of recharge to the aquifers is unknown, but probably is small. Groundwater discharge from the glacial drift, bedrock, and spoil is to alluvium. The direction of flow generally was from high-wall lakes in the spoil toward East Fork Little Chariton River or South Fork Claybank Creek. Significant differences (95% confidence level) in values and concentrations of aqueous constituents between spoil areas mined at different times (1940, 1952, and 1968) were obtained for pH, calcium, magnesium, manganese, sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids, but not for iron

  1. Permian macro- and miofloral diversity, palynodating and palaeoclimate implications deduced from the coal-bearing sequences of Singrauli coalfield, Son-Mahanadi Basin, central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kamal Jeet; Murthy, Srikanta; Saxena, Anju; Shabbar, Husain

    2017-03-01

    The coal-bearing sequences of Barakar and Raniganj formations exposed in Bina and Jhingurdah open-cast collieries, respectively, are analysed for their macro- and miofloral content. The sediment successions primarily comprise of sandstones, shales, claystones and coal seams. In addition to the diverse glossopterid assemblage, four palynoassemblage zones, namely Zones I and II in Bina Colliery and Zones III and IV in Jhingurdah Colliery, have also been recorded in the present study. The megafossil assemblage from the Barakar strata of Bina Colliery comprises of three genera, namely Gangamopteris, Glossopteris and cf. Noeggerathiopsis. Palynoassemblage-I is characterised by the dominance of non-striate bisaccate pollen genus Scheuringipollenites and subdominance of striate bisaccate Faunipollenites and infers these strata to be of Early Permian (Artinskian) age (Lower Barakar Formation). The palynoassemblage has also yielded a large number of naked fossil spore tetrads, which is the first record of spore tetrads from any Artinskian strata in the world and has a significant bearing on the climatic conditions. The palynoassemblage-II is characterised with the dominance of Faunipollenites over Scheuringipollenites and is indicative of Kungurian age (Upper Barakar Formation). The megafossil assemblage from the Raniganj Formation of Jhingurdah Colliery comprises of five genera with 26 species representing four orders, viz., Equisetales, Cordaitales, Cycadales and Glossopteridales. The order Glossopteridales is highly diversified with 23 taxa and the genus Glossopteris, with 22 species, dominates the flora. The mioflora of this colliery is represented by two distinct palynoassemblages. The palynoassemblage-III is correlatable with the palynoflora of Early Permian (Artinskian) Lower Barakar Formation. The assemblage suggests the continuity of older biozones into the younger ones. The palynoassemblage-IV equates the beds with composition V: Striatopodocarpites

  2. The microbiology of biomining: development and optimization of mineral-oxidizing microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, Douglas E; Johnson, D Barrie

    2007-02-01

    Biomining, the use of micro-organisms to recover precious and base metals from mineral ores and concentrates, has developed into a successful and expanding area of biotechnology. While careful considerations are made in the design and engineering of biomining operations, microbiological aspects have been subjected to far less scrutiny and control. Biomining processes employ microbial consortia that are dominated by acidophilic, autotrophic iron- or sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes. Mineral biooxidation takes place in highly aerated, continuous-flow, stirred-tank reactors or in irrigated dump or heap reactors, both of which provide an open, non-sterile environment. Continuous-flow, stirred tanks are characterized by homogeneous and constant growth conditions where the selection is for rapid growth, and consequently tank consortia tend to be dominated by two or three species of micro-organisms. In contrast, heap reactors provide highly heterogeneous growth environments that change with the age of the heap, and these tend to be colonized by a much greater variety of micro-organisms. Heap micro-organisms grow as biofilms that are not subject to washout and the major challenge is to provide sufficient biodiversity for optimum performance throughout the life of a heap. This review discusses theoretical and pragmatic aspects of assembling microbial consortia to process different mineral ores and concentrates, and the challenges for using constructed consortia in non-sterile industrial-scale operations.

  3. 4. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST This ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST This view shows the concrete roof covering the airways and the engine room. The reinforced concrete roof is supported by metal beams. Note how the airshaft, in the foreground, widens to create an airway on either side for the double inlet fan. The brick fan housing is capped by a curved sheet metal roof whose segments are bolted together. The brick updraft chimney, capped with concrete, is to the rear (northeast). Also evident on the wall is the cover over the air velocity indicator. The Hollenback Cemetery, which adjoins the Dorrance Colliery property is in the background. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  4. A comparative study of removal of fluoride from contaminated water using shale collected from different coal mines in India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Gargi; Dutta, Manjari; Dutta, Susmita; Adhikari, Kalyan

    2016-05-01

    Low-cost water defluoridation technique is one of the most important issues throughout the world. In the present study, shale, a coal mine waste, is employed as novel and low-cost adsorbent to abate fluoride from simulated solution. Shale samples were collected from Mahabir colliery (MBS) and Sonepur Bazari colliery (SBS) of Raniganj coalfield in West Bengal, India, and used to remove fluoride. To increase the adsorption efficiency, shale samples were heat activated at a higher temperature and samples obtained at 550 °C are denoted as heat-activated Mahabir colliery shale (HAMBS550) and heat-activated Sonepur Bazari colliery shale (HASBS550), respectively. To prove the fluoride adsorption onto different shale samples and ascertain its mechanism, natural shale samples, heat-activated shale samples, and their fluoride-loaded forms were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction study, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effect of different parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, size of particles, and initial concentration of fluoride was investigated during fluoride removal in a batch contactor. Lower pH shows better adsorption in batch study, but it is acidic in nature and not suitable for direct consumption. However, increase of pH of the solution from 3.2 to 6.8 and 7.2 during fluoride removal process with HAMBS550 and HASBS550, respectively, confirms the applicability of the treated water for domestic purposes. HAMBS550 and HASBS550 show maximum removal of 88.3 and 88.5 %, respectively, at initial fluoride concentration of 10 mg/L, pH 3, and adsorbent dose of 70 g/L.

  5. 21. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, December 28, 1920. Negative #D ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, December 28, 1920. Negative #D & H 21849 Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. INTERIOR VIEW OF BREAKER, MIDDLE FLOOR AREA, SHOWING DETAIL OF INSTALLATION OF FINE COAL SHAKERS AT TIME OF BREAKER CONSTRUCTION - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  6. 12. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, circa 1922 Original photograph can ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, circa 1922 Original photograph can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton Pennsylvania. VIEW DEPICTING PORTION OF BREAKER NO. 2 NORTH FACADE AT FAR LEFT, WITH CONVEYOR LINE TO BREAKER NO. 1 AT FAR RIGHT, LOOKING SOUTH - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  7. 18. INTERIOR VIEW OF BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR VIEW OF BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING EAST The flywheel of the 1908 Allis-Chalmers Corliss steam engine and flywheel are in the foreground. The engine is a horizontal slide valve type with a 24 inch bore and 48 inch stroke. It was direct connected to the Dickson Guibal fan which rotated at 69 revolutions per minute. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  8. Hydraulic theory for a debris flow supported on a collisional shear layer.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, J. T.; Askari, E.

    1999-09-01

    We consider a heap of grains driven by gravity down an incline. We assume that the heap is supported at its base on a relatively thin carpet of intensely sheared, highly agitated grains that interact through collisions. We adopt the balance laws, constitutive relations, and boundary conditions of a kinetic theory for dense granular flows and determine the relationship between the shear stress, normal stress, and relative velocity of the boundaries in the shear layer in an analysis of a steady shearing flow between identical bumpy boundaries. This relationship permits us to close the hydraulic equations governing the evolution of the shape of the heap and the velocity distribution at its base. We integrate the resulting equations numerically for typical values of the parameters for glass spheres. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Front-end module readout and control electronics for the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, M.N.; Allen, M.D.; Boissevain, J.

    1997-11-01

    Front-end module (FEM) readout and control are implemented as modular, high-density, reprogrammable functions in the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector. FEM control is performed by the heap manager, an FPGA-based circuit in the FEM unit. Each FEM has 256 channels of front-end electronics, readout, and control, all located on an MCM. Data readout, formatting, and control are performed by the heap manager along with 4 interface units that reside outside the MVD detector cylinder. This paper discusses the application of a generic heap manager and the addition of 4 interface module types to meet the specific control and data readout needs of the MVD. Unit functioning, interfaces, timing, data format, and communication rates will be discussed in detail. In addition, subsystem issues regarding mode control, serial architecture and functions, error handling, and FPGA implementation and programming will be presented.

  10. Mortality in an extended follow-up of British coal workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCalman; L; Miller; G, B.

    2009-02-01

    The Pneumoconiosis Field Research (PFR) programme was established in the 1950s, to evaluate effects of coal mining exposures on the health and mortality of British coal workers. Surveys of working miners were carried out at 5-yearly intervals, initially in 24 collieries but later concentrating on 10, collecting detailed work histories and health information for each recruit. Here we report on cause-specific mortality in a cohort of almost 18,000 men from 10 British collieries, followed up for periods up to 47 years, yielding over 516,000 life-years of follow-up. External analyses compared cause-specific death rates in the cohort to those of the population of the regions in which the collieries were situated, using Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs). The causes investigated included lung cancer, stomach cancer, non-malignant respiratory disorders and cardiovascular disorders. SMRs showed evidence of an initial healthy worker effect diminishing over time. Several causes, including non-malignant respiratory disease and lung cancer, showed a significant deficit of mortality at the start of the study period with an excess in the latter part of the follow-up period. In these results, effects of working conditions are likely to be confounded with smoking habits. Overall, we believe our results may be generalised to the British coal industry since nationalisation.

  11. 46 CFR 174.310 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... most severe loading condition, and the: (1) Specific gravity of the dredge spoil, from 1.02 up to and... with a maximum specific gravity for the areas of operation. (2) When calculating the vessel's...

  12. Microbiological spoilage of mayonnaise and salad dressings.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, C P; Rogers, R; Hesseltine, C W

    1971-05-01

    Saccharomyces bailii was isolated from two-thirds of the spoiled mayonnaise and salad dressing samples examined. Most of the rest were spoiled by Lactobacillus fructivorans. However, one sample contained large numbers of both S. bailii and L. plantarum. Two of the spoiled samples also contained small numbers of bacilli. Bacillus subtilis, B. pumilis, B. polymyxa, B. megaterium, and B. licheniformis were found in one sample and B. subtilis and B. pumilis in another. Small numbers of B. subtilis and B. licheniformis were also present in one unspoiled sample. Several media were evaluated for the isolation of L. fructivorans. S. bailii and L. fructivorans vigorously fermented glucose. The concentration of glucose in the spoiled samples ranged from 0 to 38.5 g/kg and from 1.3 to 17.8 g/kg for the unspoiled samples.

  13. Nonlocal charge of the CP/sup n/-1 model and its supersymmetric extension to all orders

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla, E.; Abdalla, M.C.B.; Gomes, M.

    1983-02-15

    We prove that the conservation of quantum nonlocal charge of the CP/sup n/-1 model is spoiled by an anomaly calculable to all orders in the 1/n expansion, while for its supersymmetric extension it is restored.

  14. Smell Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dental problems Exposure to certain chemicals, such as insecticides and solvents Numerous medications, including some common antibiotics ... fire, spoiled food, or the odor of a natural gas leak or dangerous fumes. When their smell ...

  15. 30 CFR 816.105 - Backfilling and grading: Thick overburden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to restore the disturbed area to its approximate original contour. More than sufficient spoil and... permittee at a minimum shall: (1) Restore the approximate original contour and then use the remaining...

  16. 30 CFR 816.105 - Backfilling and grading: Thick overburden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to restore the disturbed area to its approximate original contour. More than sufficient spoil and... permittee at a minimum shall: (1) Restore the approximate original contour and then use the remaining...

  17. 30 CFR 816.105 - Backfilling and grading: Thick overburden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to restore the disturbed area to its approximate original contour. More than sufficient spoil and... permittee at a minimum shall: (1) Restore the approximate original contour and then use the remaining...

  18. 30 CFR 816.105 - Backfilling and grading: Thick overburden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to restore the disturbed area to its approximate original contour. More than sufficient spoil and... permittee at a minimum shall: (1) Restore the approximate original contour and then use the remaining...

  19. 30 CFR 816.105 - Backfilling and grading: Thick overburden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to restore the disturbed area to its approximate original contour. More than sufficient spoil and... permittee at a minimum shall: (1) Restore the approximate original contour and then use the remaining...

  20. 30 CFR 700.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... services to be rendered. Extreme danger means a condition that could reasonably be expected to cause... piles, spoil banks, culm banks, tailings, holes or depressions, repair areas, storage areas,...

  1. 30 CFR 700.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... services to be rendered. Extreme danger means a condition that could reasonably be expected to cause... piles, spoil banks, culm banks, tailings, holes or depressions, repair areas, storage areas,...

  2. 30 CFR 700.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... services to be rendered. Extreme danger means a condition that could reasonably be expected to cause... piles, spoil banks, culm banks, tailings, holes or depressions, repair areas, storage areas,...

  3. The Jouissance of English Department Politics: A Tale of Shem and Shaun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Henry R.

    1993-01-01

    Considers the role of the English department malcontent, who constantly seems to spoil any chance of departmental consensus. Discusses the typical life of the English department. Analyzes departmental disputes with the aid of Jacques Lacan's notion of "jouissance." (HB)

  4. 40 CFR 113.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Contingency Plans. (h) Oil means oil of any kind or in any form, including but not limited to, petroleum, fuel oil, sludge, oil refuse, and oil mixed with wastes other than dredged spoil. (i) Remove or...

  5. 40 CFR 113.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Contingency Plans. (h) Oil means oil of any kind or in any form, including but not limited to, petroleum, fuel oil, sludge, oil refuse, and oil mixed with wastes other than dredged spoil. (i) Remove or...

  6. 40 CFR 761.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... fluids; solvents; oils; waste oils; heat transfer fluids; hydraulic fluids; paints or coatings; sludges; slurries; sediments; dredge spoils; soils; materials containing PCBs as a result of spills; and...

  7. 40 CFR 110.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... oil or oil and other matter of any kind in any form other than dredged spoil having a combined specific gravity equivalent to or greater than water; United States means the States, the District...

  8. 40 CFR 110.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... oil or oil and other matter of any kind in any form other than dredged spoil having a combined specific gravity equivalent to or greater than water; United States means the States, the District...

  9. Explosion-assisted preparation of dispersed gold-bearing different-grade ore for selective mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trubachev, AI; Zykov, NV

    2017-02-01

    It is found that there are transient zones (between quality and off-quality ore areas) with the respective content of useful component in an ore body, and a variant of explosive treatment of such zones before the selective mining is put forward. Practicability of two processing technologies is evaluated: processing of high-grade and low-grade ore from the transient zones and heap leaching of metals from the low-grade and impoverished ore. Open mining technology is conventional truck-and-shovel scheme, with distributed ore flows to processing plant and (or) to heap leaching, which generally enhances the mine efficiency.

  10. Limit laws for Zipf's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2011-01-01

    In this communication we establish stochastic limit laws leading from Zipf's law to Pareto's and Heaps' laws. We consider finite ensembles governed by Zipf's law and study their asymptotic statistics as the ensemble size tends to infinity. A Lorenz-curve analysis establishes three types of limit laws for the ensembles' statistical structure: 'communist', 'monarchic', and Paretian. Further considering a dynamic setting in which the ensembles grow stochastically in time, a functional central limit theorem analysis establishes a Gaussian approximation for the ensembles' stochastic growth. The Gaussian approximation provides a generalized and corrected formulation of Heaps' law.

  11. Smoothed breastfeeding durations and waiting time to conception.

    PubMed

    Singh, K K; Suchindran, C M; Singh, R S

    1994-01-01

    Breastfeeding beyond the resumption of mother's menstruation plays a significant role in the proximate determinants of fertility. Breastfeeding and postpartum amenorrhoea data collected from retrospective surveys usually exhibit digit preferences. Here, these heaping errors were smoothed by B-spline and used in multivariate models of risk of conception to investigate the contraceptive effect of breastfeeding. The data used come from a 1987 Indian survey. Results show that lactation, after mother's menses resume, reduces the risk of conception. Heaping in breastfeeding data attenuates this relationship. When adjustment is made, breastfeeding reduced the rate of conception by 47 per cent; the reduction, with adjusted data, was 63 per cent.

  12. An Evaluation of Concurrent Priority Queue Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    node is the corresponding index in the array. and node i occupies location i. The left child of node i. LCHILD(i). occupies location 2z and its right... child , RCHILD(i), occupies location 2i + 1. The parent of node i is at I- Associated with the heap are data fields lastelern and fulllevel, in which...then 14 p = rchild(p) 15 1 = -j 16 else 17 p ! child (p) 18 end 19 j/2 20 end 21 key[p] = nkey 22 end insert Figure 2.2: Insert operation on binary heap

  13. U.S. Navy Harbor Maintenance Dredging Atlas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Yorktown; and Naval Supply Center - Cheatham Annex, Williamsburg. However, 90% of the composite dredging at these facilities is done at the Norfolk Naval...upland spoil site. The offshore spoil site is still open and EPA approved, but the EPA permit is for land disposal only. See DREDGING COSTS section of... Composite baseline dredging report. Port Hueneme, Calif., 1976. 12. . NESO Report 11-005: Philadelphia baseline dredging report vol 1. Port Hueneme, Calif

  14. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (<5-m depth) from sludge-treated spoil (pH 5.9) were not elevated relative to untreated spoil (pH 4.4). In contrast, concentrations of nitrate were elevated in vadose water samples from sludge-treated spoil, frequently exceeding 10 mg/L. Downgradient decreases in nitrate to less than 3 mg/L and increases in sulfate concentrations in underlying ground water could result from oxidation of pyrite by nitrate. Thus, sewage sludge added to pyritic spoil can increase the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  15. Study on fire-extinguishing of spontaneous combustion wastes and reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, P.; Chai, X.

    1994-12-31

    Spoil banks of coal mining have become an important aspect for environmental pollution. Toxic and pernicious gases resulting from the spontaneous combustion of wastes are much more serious pollutants. The authors have gained certain experience in preventing the spontaneous combustion of spoil banks and in fighting fires. The paper describes a revegetation test for the spoil bank. Using a spoil bank in the frigid and arid area in Shanxi, the paper describes the tests and results of the physical and chemical characteristics of the wastes and thoroughly analyzes the influence these characteristics have on the revegetation of the spoil bank. Revegetation promotes weathering of the wastes and mitigates erosion of the spoil bank. It was found that the wastes do not store adequate water, so that in the early stage of planting, irrigation is recommended. The pH of the wastes is suitable for plant growth, but in the case of fire fighting, care should be taken to mitigate the damage to lime emulsion alkalinity.

  16. Impacts of dredged material disposal on a tropical soft-bottom benthic assemblage.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Motta, J J; Collins, J

    2004-02-01

    The soft-bottom benthic macrofauna in a spoil-ground of dredged material in Cleveland Bay, North Queensland, Australia, was studied to detect possible impacts of the disposal of sediments. The spatial distribution of the assemblage was studied in relation to the source of the impact at 28 stations on four occasions during 1998 and 1999. Additionally, environmental variables were measured on each occasion at each station. Macrobenthic assemblages inside the spoil-ground were different from assemblages outside the spoil ground only immediately after (15 days) the disposal of dredged material. Given the decrease in the abundance of organisms and number of species, it is suggested that this effect was due to direct burial of the macrobenthic assemblage inside the spoil-ground. Macrobenthic assemblages inside the spoil ground were not different from assemblages outside the spoil ground 3 months after dumping. These results suggest that the soft-bottom macrobenthic assemblages may respond quickly to the disturbance associated with the dumping of dredged material.

  17. Impacts of dredged-material disposal on the coastal soft-bottom macrofauna, Saronikos Gulf, Greece.

    PubMed

    Katsiaras, N; Simboura, N; Tsangaris, C; Hatzianestis, I; Pavlidou, A; Kapsimalis, V

    2015-03-01

    Dredged sediments derived by the low course and estuary of the metropolitan river of Athens (Kifissos River) were dumped every day for 21 months to an open-sea site in the Saronikos Gulf. The spoil-ground and surrounding area was monitored prior, during and post to dumping for 24 months, over 6-month intervals. Dumping significantly changed the granulometry of the pre-existing superficial sediments to finer-grained only in the spoil ground and increased the sediment contamination load (aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals) throughout the study area. Microtox® SPT showed that sediment toxicity levels were high at almost all sampling stations. During dumping, burial of natural soft-bottom habitats degraded severely the communities of the spoil-ground resulting in an almost azoic state, as well as significantly declined the species number and abundance of benthic communities in locations up to 3.2 km away from the spoil-ground, due to dispersion of the spoil and smothering. Benthic indices on the surrounding sites were significantly correlated with hydrocarbon concentrations and sediment toxicity levels. Post to dumping, the macrofauna communities of the spoil-ground were still significantly degraded, but the surrounding areas showed patterns of recovery. However, the high concentrations of aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and levels of toxicity persisted in the sediments after the ceasing of dumping operations in the study area, implying the ecological hazard imposed on the area.

  18. MRI of pancreatic metastases from renal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kelekis, N.L.; Semelka, R.C.; Siegelman, E.S.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to describe the MR features of pancreatic metastases from renal cancer. Five patients with pancreatic metastases from renal cancer were imaged with MR. Imaging was performed on a 1.5 T MR imager using excitation-spoiled fat-suppressed T1-weighted SE images (all patients), T1-weighted spoiled GE images (all patients), T2-weighted fast SE (one patient) and excitation-spoiled fat-suppressed T2-weighted fast SE (one patient) images, serial postgadolinium spoiled GE images (all patients), and postcontrast excitation-spoiled fat-suppressed T1-weighted SE images (two patients). Multiple pancreatic lesions (n = 6) were present in two patients, solitary tumors in two patients, and diffuse micronodular pancreatic enlargement in one patient. All lesions were hypointense compared to normal pancreas on T1-weighted fat-suppressed SE images. Lesions were high in ST on T2-weighted images in two of two patients. All lesions demonstrated enhancement on the immediate postgadolinium spoiled GE images with the smaller tumors (<1.5 cm, three individual and the micronodular tumors) showing diffuse enhancement and the larger tumors (>1.5 cm, five tumors) showing pre-dominantly rim enhancement. Pancreatic metastases from renal cell carcinoma have distinctive MR features that include diffuse enhancement in small lesions and rim enhancement in large lesions on immediate postgadolinium images and high SI on T2-weighted images. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Environmental impacts and regulatory policy implications of spray disposal of dredged material in Louisiana wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.; Cowan, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The capabilities of a new wetland dredging technology were assessed along with associated newly developed state and federal regulatory policies to determine if policy expectations realistically match the technological achievement. Current regulatory practices require amelioration of spoil bank impacts upon abandonment of an oil/gas well, but this may not occur for many years or decades, if at all. Recently, a dreding method (high-pressure spray spoil disposal) was developed that does not create a spoil bank in the traditional sense. Its potential for reducing environmental impacts was recognized immediately by regulatory agencies for whom minimizing spoil bank impacts is a major concern. The use of high-pressure spray disposal as a suitable alternative to traditional dreding technology has been adopted as policy even though its value as a management tool has never been tested or verified. A qualitative evaluation at two spoil disposal sites in saline marsh indicates that high-pressure spray disposal may indeed have great potential to minimize impacts, but most of this potential remains unverified. Also, some aspects of current regulatory policy may be based on unrealistic expectations as to the ability of this new technology to minimize or eliminate spoil bank impacts.

  20. Hydrologic investigation and remediation of a post-remining acidic seep

    SciTech Connect

    Aljoe, W.W.; Linberg, N.A.

    1996-12-31

    Surface remining of coal pillars in abandoned underground workings in the Pittsburgh seam in southwestern Pennsylvania has often resulted in post-remining discharges whose water quality is the same or better than the pre-existing discharges. However, at one such operation in Washington County, PA, an increase in contaminant loading occurred at an outcrop seep after remining. This problem was believed to be at least partly related to a small unstrapped area of the old deep mine workings immediately upgradient from the seep. A hydrologic investigation that included a chemical tracer test, slug tests in the remined spoil, and water quality monitoring indicated that the mine pool in the old workings discharged through the seep. However, the water in the mine pool and much of the remined spoil was consistently alkaline; this suggested that the acidic water may have originated in other areas of the spoil and old workings, and passed rapidly to the seep through a highly transmissive portion of the spoil. Acting on this assumption, the mine operator successfully implemented a remediation scheme in which the spoil was excavated to intercept the acidic spoil water. The excavation was then re-emplaced with an anoxic limestone drain at its base. The drain now serves both to add alkalinity to the water and to divert the seep to an area where metals can be removed easily via precipitation in wetlands.

  1. Volatiles produced by microorganisms isolated from refrigerated chicken at spoilage.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, L R; Silverman, G J; Angelini, P; Merritt, C; Esselen, W B

    1976-01-01

    Volatile components present at spoilage of refrigerated chicken breasts were identified using high-vacuum-low-temperature distillation techniques followed by analysis with combined temperature-programmed gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A comparison was made of the compounds detected from both irradiated and non-irradiated muscle stored at 2 and 10 degrees C under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Isolates were randomly selected from the spoiled poultry, identified, and evaluated for their ability to produce volatile spoilage noted when grown on radiation-sterilized chicken. Several isolates that produced off-odors on sterile chicken breasts were examined. Twenty-two compounds were associated with spoilage. Some of the compounds found on both irradiated and unirradiated samples were considered to play only a minor role in the spoilage aroma or were present in low concentrations, since the aroma of spoiled irradiated chicken lacked the harsh odor notes typical of spoiled unirradiated chicken. Fifteen of the 22 compounds were considered to be unique to unirradiated, aerobically spoiled samples. Nine of these compounds, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, heptadiene, methanol, and ethanol, were found on chicken spoiled at both 2 and 10 degrees C. xylene, benzaldehyde, and 2,3-dithiahexane were detected only in samples stored at 2 degrees C and methyl thiolacetate, 2-butanone, and ethyl propionate were associated with 10 degrees C spoilage. Fifty-eight isolates randomly selected from fresh, radiation-pasteurized, and unirradiated spoiled poultry were classified taxonomically, and 10 of them, which produced spoilage odors on sterilized chicken breasts, were selected for subsequent analysis of their volatiles. Isolates identified as Pseudomonas putrefaciens and Pseudomonas species that were members of groups I and II of Shewan's classification, as well as Flavobacterium and oxidative

  2. Research. Getting Acculturated at the Speedway Ballroom and Grill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Wayne

    1987-01-01

    Discusses D. Durkin's 1979 study of reading comprehension instruction and J. Heap's critique of the study in a recent issue of "Journal of Reading Behavior." Asserts that the traditional reading lesson is a vehicle for acculturation or teaching cultural knowledge and logic. (SRT)

  3. Perceptions of a Learner's Self-Expressive Speech by an Instructor and the Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Reiko

    2007-01-01

    Learners' spontaneous speech beyond interaction patterns such as teacher's initiation-learner's response-teacher's evaluation (I-R-E/F) (Heap, 1988; Mehan, 1979; Ohta, 1999) helps lead them to negotiated interaction (Boulima, 1999), which is effective for foreign language learning. This study examines both an instructor's and a learner's…

  4. New ideas on the mechanism of the initial stage of the autoxidation and spontaneous heating of solid combustible minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, I.V.; Gavrilov, Yu.V.; Kamneva, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a study of the main steps in the initial stage of the autoxidation of solid combustible minerals as a complex redox process have been generalized. Spontaneously heating heaps of fuels are considered as natural macrogalvanic cells with spontaneous discharge. The main directions of the realization of electrochemical ideas have been formulated.

  5. Kindling: The Amazon e-Reader as an Educational Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brezicki, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The revolutionary electronic reading device, Amazon's Kindle, is already obsolete. Such is the breakneck speed of technology that the machine touted to spell the death of printed books is already heading for the scrap heap, replaced by e-readers like the iPad that access the Internet, make phone calls, download movies, and connect users with all…

  6. Found and Missed: Failing to Recognize a Search Target despite Moving It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solman, Grayden J. F.; Cheyne, J. Allan; Smilek, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We present results from five search experiments using a novel "unpacking" paradigm in which participants use a mouse to sort through random heaps of distractors to locate the target. We report that during this task participants often fail to recognize the target despite moving it, and despite having looked at the item. Additionally, the missed…

  7. 78 FR 23782 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Gibellini Mine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Gibellini Mine Project, a proposed open pit vanadium mine, processing, and associated facilities, located on.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: American Vanadium US, Inc. proposes to construct, operate, reclaim, and close an open pit, heap leach, vanadium mining operation known as the Gibellini Mine Project. The proposed...

  8. CSTutor: A Sketch-Based Tool for Visualizing Data Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Sarah; Laviola, Joseph J., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    We present CSTutor, a sketch-based interface designed to help students understand data structures, specifically Linked Lists, Binary Search Trees, AVL Trees, and Heaps. CSTutor creates an environment that seamlessly combines a user's sketched diagram and code. In each of these data structure modes, the user can naturally sketch a data structure on…

  9. Using Data to Guide Action for School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Comprehensive Center, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Schools and school districts are data-rich environments, with heaps of data on student demographics, achievement, outcomes, and perceptions. With so much data available, it can be easy to get caught up in the sheer enormity of the data sets. A cohesive data analysis and decision-making process can help schools, districts, and additional…

  10. The storage of sewage sludge: influence of liming on the evolution of copper chemical fractions.

    PubMed

    Aarab, T; Smeyers, M; Remy, M; Godden, B; Delhaye, J P

    2006-01-01

    Sewage sludge re-used in agriculture has to be stabilized and is often stored for several months before land spreading. Stabilization treatment may affect the behaviour of heavy metals such as Cu, which is an element potentially toxic to the environment. In the present study, the chemical forms of copper have been investigated in heaps of limed and unlimed sludge coming from the wastewater treatment plant of Roselies (Belgium). These limed and unlimed aerobically digested sludges were stored during 4 mo in controlled conditions close to field ones. The sequential extraction procedure developed by Tessier was used to determine the copper chemical forms of representative samples taken in the outer shell and in the depth of the heaps. The physico-chemical properties (pH, organic matter, dry matter and temperature) of these samples were also monitored. This study shows that liming transforms part of organically-bound copper into both exchangeable and residual copper. These changes mainly occur during the first 2 wk of storage. After several months of storage, copper passes from the residual fraction to the exchangeable and oxide fractions. During the whole experiment, changes occur faster in the outer shell than in the depth of the heaps. Thus, we demonstrate that the distribution of the copper forms depends on the storage time and it is different in the outer shell from that in the depth of the heaps.

  11. Seven Ways to Kill RTI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Brandi

    2013-01-01

    The Response to Intervention initiative is in danger of failing and being thrown on the ash heaps of countless education reform initiatives, but not because it is poorly structured, rather on account of poor implementation. Among the implementation mistakes are seven that can be watched for and avoided. (Contains 3 tables.)

  12. 117. Photocopied August 1978. VIEW OF EAST FOREBAY SHOWING COMPLETED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. Photocopied August 1978. VIEW OF EAST FOREBAY SHOWING COMPLETED APRON. NOVEMBER 24, 1926. CLAY LEFT OVER FROM REFILLING THE AREA BETWEEN FOREBAY FLOOR SILLS IS SHOWN HEAPED AGAINST THE FOREBAY WALL TO PROVIDE AN EXTRA MEASURE OF PROTECTION. (1051) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  13. Sptrace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Sptrace is a general-purpose space utilization tracing system that is conceptually similar to the commercial Purify product used to detect leaks and other memory usage errors. It is designed to monitor space utilization in any sort of heap, i.e., a region of data storage on some device (nominally memory; possibly shared and possibly persistent) with a flat address space. This software can trace usage of shared and/or non-volatile storage in addition to private RAM (random access memory). Sptrace is implemented as a set of C function calls that are invoked from within the software that is being examined. The function calls fall into two broad classes: (1) functions that are embedded within the heap management software [e.g., JPL's SDR (Simple Data Recorder) and PSM (Personal Space Management) systems] to enable heap usage analysis by populating a virtual time-sequenced log of usage activity, and (2) reporting functions that are embedded within the application program whose behavior is suspect. For ease of use, these functions may be wrapped privately inside public functions offered by the heap management software. Sptrace can be used for VxWorks or RTEMS realtime systems as easily as for Linux or OS/X systems.

  14. Project Golden Gate: towards real-time Java in space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvorak, Daniel; Bollella, Greg; Canham, Tim; Carson, Vanessa; Champlin, Virgil; Giovannoni, Brian; Indictor, Mark; Meyer, Kenny; Murray, Alex; Reinholtz, Kirk

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the problem domain and our experimentation with the first commercial implementation of the Real Time Specification for Java. The two main issues explored in this report are: (1) the effect of RTSJ's non-heap memory on the programming model, and (2) performance benchmarking of RTSJ/Linux relative to C++/VxWorks.

  15. Promoting Health Literacy through the Health Education Assessment Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Eva; Hudson, Nancy; Deal, Tami B.; Pateman, Beth; Middleton, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Council of Chief State School Officers' State Collaborative on Assessment and Student Standards Health Education Assessment Project (SCASS-HEAP) allows states to pool financial and human resources to develop effective ready-to-use health education assessment resources through a collaborative process. The purpose of this article is…

  16. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN EXPERIMENT FOR ASSESSING CYANIDE IN GOLD MINING WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gold mining wastes treated by heap leaching cyanidization typically contain several metallo-cyanide species. Accurate measurement of total cyanide by the most common methods in such a case may be hampered by the inadequate recoveries that occur for certain cyanide compounds (e.g....

  17. Using Data to Guide Action for School Improvement: Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Comprehensive Center, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Schools and school districts are data-rich environments, with heaps of data on student demographics, achievement, outcomes, and perceptions. With so much data available, it can be easy to get caught up in the sheer enormity of the data sets. A cohesive data analysis and decision-making process can help schools, districts, and additional…

  18. Teaching Pablo Neruda and Bei Dao: The Lens of Leaving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Amanda Leigh

    2003-01-01

    Explains how the author invites young poets to tromp through the landscape of their minds in search of all things broken by using two of her favorite poems: Pablo Neruda's "Ode to Broken Things" and Bei Dao's "Comet." Outlines how the students write their own poems dealing with loss. Notes that for poets, a heap of broken images becomes an immense…

  19. Can We Be Garbage Free?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Hagadone, Perky

    2013-01-01

    The happy chatter and clatter of students bounce off the lunchroom walls at a Northside Elementary School in Sandpoint, Idaho as children eagerly gobble their food and slurp their drinks. Boys and girls with crinkled brown bag lunches filled with disposable products sit next to students with trays heaped with hot lunch and all manner of synthetic…

  20. Bully, Bullied, Bystander...and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coloroso, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Bullying is seldom the only factor in a teenager's suicide. Often, mental illness and family stresses are involved. But bullying does plainly play a role in many cases. These students feel that they have no way out of the pain heaped on them by their tormentors so they turn the violence inward with a tragic and final exit. Bullying involves three…

  1. Exploring the Properties of Liquids. Grade 5. Revised. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defendorf, Jean, Ed.

    This unit contains 14 lessons on the properties of liquids for fifth graders. It describes materials, supplementary materials, use of process skill terminology, unit objectives, vocabulary, and background information for teachers. Lessons are: (1) "Heaping and Drops/Cohesion"; (2) "Beading of Liquid Columns/Cohesion"; (3)…

  2. Advanced fuel hydrocarbon remediation national test location. Demonstration of hot air vapor extraction for fuel hydrocarbon cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, J.; Lory, E.

    1997-03-01

    Hot air vapor extration (HAVE) is a fast track, innovative environmental cleanup technolgy that uses a combination of thermal, heap pile, and vapor extraction techniques to remove and destroy hydrocarbon contamination in soil. This technology is very effective in cleaning soils contaminated with gasoline, diesel, heavy oil, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).

  3. Encoding Ownership Types in Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Nicholas; Noble, James

    Ownership types systems organise the heap into a hierarchy which can be used to support encapsulation properties, effects, and invariants. Ownership types have many applications including parallelisation, concurrency, memory management, and security. In this paper, we show that several flavours and extensions of ownership types can be entirely encoded using the standard Java type system.

  4. Safety aspects of handling and using fecal material from urine-diversion toilets--a field investigation.

    PubMed

    Austin, L M; Cloete, T E

    2008-04-01

    The most advantageous approach to pathogen destruction in a urine-diversion toilet vault is to maximize the effects of various environmental factors (i.e., pH, temperature, moisture content, type of bulking agent, and storage time). To quantify these effects, a field experiment was set up, consisting of 6 urine-diversion toilet vaults, each with a different combination of feces and bulking agent (soil, ash, wood shavings, sodium hydroxide, or straw) and ventilation (ventpipe/no ventpipe). The pH of the mixes varied from 6.37 to 10.09. Temperature probes, which were connected to a data logger, were inserted to the heaps, and the logger monitored over a period of nearly 10 months. Mean heap temperatures ranged from 16.8 degrees C in winter to 27.6 degrees C in summer. In addition, samples were taken at intervals from the various heaps in the vaults and also from an open heap exposed to the elements. The samples were subjected to microbiological testing to quantify the pathogen dieoff over time. In the vaults, there was a 3log10 (99.9%) reduction of total coliform between 130 and 250 days, fecal coliform between 100 and 250 days, and fecal streptococci from 125 days and longer. In the open heap, these times varied, from 115 days for both total and fecal coliform, to 140 days for fecal streptococci. Viable Ascaris ova were reduced to zero between 44 and 174 days in the vaults and by 44 days in the open heap. The results of this research showed that ventilation of the vault by means of a ventpipe does not result in any meaningful difference in the vault temperature or the rate of pathogen dieoff. While the type of bulking agent used does not significantly affect the temperature of the heap, it does have an effect on the rate of pathogen dieoff. The ordinary soil mix was seen to give the best results, and this was ascribed to the effect of competing microorganisms in the soil itself. It is concluded that, for safety, vaults of urine-diversion toilets should be sized for

  5. Air circulation and cooling effect through artificial screes : a preliminary case study (Fribourg, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorthe, J.; Abbet, D.; Delaloye, R.

    2009-04-01

    Keywords: Air circulation; sorted gravel heap; thermal regime; temperature measurements; electrical resistivity tomography Occurrences and thermal impacts of air circulation throughout a natural porous medium have been detected and investigated for the last decade in many talus slopes located in mid-latitude regions (e.g. in the Swiss Alps and Prealps). The process makes sporadic permafrost to occur far below the regional lower limit of discontinuous permafrost. It is commonly accepted that connected systems of large voids facilitates the movement of air. Which void size and structure do prevent the circulation of air and the significant cooling of the ventilated terrain is still a remaining open question. The investigation of artificial gravel heaps consisting each of material of different grain-size could provide key data to solve the problem. By the end of a 4-week period of cold weather (daily mean temperature often colder than -5°C) in December 2008 / January 2009, with 10-20 cm deep laying snow cover, investigations similar to those performed on natural talus slopes (visual observations, ground surface temperature measurements, 2D electrical resistivity tomography) have been carried out on 8 artificial gravel heaps from 2 to12 m high located in a gravel pit close to Fribourg (620 m a.s.l., Switzerland). The study was aimed to analyse the air circulation and its impact on the thermal regime of the artificial screes depending on the grain-size of the consisting material (>4 mm to 16-32 mm), the volume (10-2000 m3) and the porosity of the heaps. The first results of this ongoing study can be resumed hereafter. Any evidence of air circulation was not observed on the heaps with a grain-size <4 mm and a volume smaller than 30m3. Conversely, the three gravel heaps (900-2000 m3) with grain-size larger than 8-11 mm were affected by intense air circulation and showed the same evidences as those observed on natural talus slopes: on the one hand the top of each heap was

  6. Restoring coastal wetlands that were ditched for mosquito control: a preliminary assessment of hydro-leveling as a restoration technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Thomas J.; Tiling, Ginger; Leasure, Pamela S.

    2007-01-01

    The wetlands surrounding Tampa Bay, Florida were extensively ditched for mosquito control in the 1950s. Spoil from ditch construction was placed adjacent to the wetlands ditches creating mound-like features (spoil-mounds). These mounds represent a loss of 14% of the wetland area in Tampa Bay. Spoil mounds interfere with tidal flow and are locations for non-native plants to colonize (e.g., Schinus terebinthifolius). Removal of the spoil mounds to eliminate exotic plants, restore native vegetation, and re-establish natural hydrology is a restoration priority for environmental managers. Hydro-leveling, a new technique, was tested in a mangrove forest restoration project in 2004. Hydro-leveling uses a high pressure stream of water to wash sediment from the spoil mound into the adjacent wetland and ditch. To assess the effectiveness of this technique, we conducted vegetation surveys in areas that were hydro-leveled and in non-hydro-leveled areas 3 years post-project. Adult Schinus were reduced but not eliminated from hydro-leveled mounds. Schinus seedlings however were absent from hydro-leveled sites. Colonization by native species was sparse. Mangrove seedlings were essentially absent (≈2 m−2) from the centers of hydro-leveled mounds and were in low density on their edges (17 m−2) in comparison to surrounding mangrove forests (105 m−2). Hydro-leveling resulted in mortality of mangroves adjacent to the mounds being leveled. This was probably caused by burial of pneumatophores during the hydro-leveling process. For hydro-leveling to be a useful and successful restoration technique several requirements must be met. Spoil mounds must be lowered to the level of the surrounding wetlands. Spoil must be distributed further into the adjacent wetland to prevent burial of nearby native vegetation. Finally, native species may need to be planted on hydro-leveled areas to speed up the re-vegetation process.

  7. Evaluation of reclaimed abandoned bentonite mine lands

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, K.D.; Schuman, G.E.; Vance, G.F.

    1999-07-01

    In 1985, the Abandoned Mined Land Division of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality began reclamation of 4,148 ha of abandoned bentonite mined lands. Calcium amendments and sawmill wood wastes were applied to the regraded spoils to enhance water infiltration, displacement of Na on the clay spoil, and leaching of the displaced Na and other soluble salts. Revegetation of these lands was generally successful, but after several years small areas (0.1--0.2 ha) began to show signs of vegetation die-back and to prescribe corrective treatment options. A randomized block design was imposed on study areas near Upton, Colony, and Greybull, Wyoming to characterize spoil chemical properties of good, moderate, and dead vegetation zones, which were subjectively delineated by visual vegetation cover and density differences. Spoil analyses indicated exchangeable-sodium (Na) concentrations were high and the dead vegetation zones exhibited exchangeable-sodium-percentages (ESP) above 50%, while surrounding good vegetation zones exhibited ESP values <10%. This coupled with low soluble-Na concentrations (<2 cmol/kg) suggests insufficient calcium (Ca) amendments were initially applied to ameliorate the sodic conditions of the spoil. The sampling design used to determine Ca amendment rates, which consisted of a composite of 5 spoil cores taken from each 0.8 ha area, was apparently insufficient to account for the highly heterogeneous spoil material that occurred throughout these abandoned bentonite reclamation sites. To revegetate these small degraded sites, additional Ca amendment would be necessary and reseeding would be required. However, the authors recommend further monitoring of the affected sites to determine if unfavorable conditions continue to degrade the reclaimed landscape before any attempt is made to rehabilitate the affected sites. If the degraded sites are stable, further Remediation efforts are not warranted because small areas of little or no vegetation are

  8. Fate of process solution cyanide and nitrate at three nevada gold mines inferred from stable carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.A.; Grimes, D.J.; Rye, R.O.

    2000-01-01

    Stable isotope methods have been used to identify the mechanisms responsible for cyanide consumption at three heap-leach operations that process Carlin-type gold ores in Nevada, U.S.A. The reagent cyanide had ??15N values ranging from -5 to -2??? and ??13C values from -60 to -35???. The wide ??13C range reflects the use by different suppliers of isotopically distinct natural-gas feedstocks and indicates that isotopes may be useful in environmental studies where there is a need to trace cyanide sources. In heap-leach circuits displaying from 5 to 98% consumption of cyanide, barren-solution and pregnant-solution cyanide were isotopically indistinguishable. The similarity is inconsistent with cyanide loss predominantly by HCN offgassing (a process that in laboratory experiments caused substantial isotopic changes), but it is consistent with cyanide retention within the heaps as solids, a process that caused minimal isotopic changes in laboratory simulations, or with cyanide oxidation, which also appears to cause minimal changes. In many pregnant solutions cyanide was carried entirely as metal complexes, which is consistent with ferrocyanides having precipitated or cyanocomplexes having been adsorbed within the heaps. It is inferred that gaseous cyanide emissions from operations of this type are less important than has generally been thought and that the dissolution or desorption kinetics of solid species is an important control on cyanide elution when the spent heaps undergo rinsing. Nitrate, nitrite and ammonium had ??15N values of 1-16???. The data reflect isotopic fractionation during ammonia offgassing or denitrification of nitrate - particularly in reclaim ponds - but do not indicate the extent to which nitrate is derived from cyanide or from explosive residues. ?? The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy 2000.

  9. Optical tailoring of xFEL beams

    SciTech Connect

    West, Gavin; Coffee, R.

    2015-08-20

    There is an inherent exibility unique to free electron lasers (FELs) that lends well to experimental approaches normally too difficult for other light sources to accomplish. This includes the ability to optically shape the electron bunch prior to final its acceleration for the final FEL process. Optical pulse shaping of the electron bunch can enable both femtosecond and attosecond level FEL pulse control. Pulse shaping is currently implemented, not optically but mechanically, in LCLS-I with an adjustable foil slit that physically spoils the momentum phase of the electron bunch. This selectively suppresses the downstream FEL process ofspoiled electrons. Such a mechanical spoiling method fails for both the soft x-ray regime as well as the high repetition rates that are planned in LCLS-II. Our proposed optical spoiling method circumvents this limitation by making use of the existing ultrafast laser beam that is typically used for adjusting the energy spread for the initial electron bunch. Using Fourier domain shaping we can nearly arbitrarily shape the laser pulses to affect the electron bunch. This can selectively spoil electrons within each bunch. Here we demonstrate the viability of this approach with a programmable acousto-optic dispersive filter. This method is not only well suited for LCLS-II but also has several advantages over mechanical spoiling, including lack of radiation concerns, experiment specific FEL pulse shapes, and real-time adjustment for applications that require high duty-cycle variation such as lock-in amplification of small signals.

  10. Rapid Gradient-Echo Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Gradient echo sequences are widely used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for numerous applications ranging from angiography to perfusion to functional MRI. Compared with spin-echo techniques, the very short repetition times of gradient-echo methods enable very rapid 2D and 3D imaging, but also lead to complicated “steady states.” Signal and contrast behavior can be described graphically and mathematically, and depends strongly on the type of spoiling: fully balanced (no spoiling), gradient spoiling, or RF-spoiling. These spoiling options trade off between high signal and pure T1 contrast while the flip angle also affects image contrast in all cases, both of which can be demonstrated theoretically and in image examples. As with spin-echo sequences, magnetization preparation can be added to gradient-echo sequences to alter image contrast. Gradient echo sequences are widely used for numerous applications such as 3D perfusion imaging, functional MRI, cardiac imaging and MR angiography. PMID:23097185

  11. Characterisation of microbial deep spoilage in Iberian dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Martín, Alberto; Benito, María J; Hernández, Alejandro; Pérez-Nevado, Francisco; Córdoba, Juan J; Córdoba, María G

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the micro-organisms involved in overlooked "bone taint" spoilage of dry-cured Iberian hams. The physico-chemical characteristics of spoiled hams with 12 and 24 months of ripening, showing initial signs of alteration, were analyzed and their correlations with microbial counts studied. The spoilage potential of different microbial groups was assessed by the relationship between the microbial counts and the proteolysis level of spoilage as observed in the degradation of myofribrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractions and in the changes in free amino acids. Non-enteric gram-negative bacteria (NEGN) were the dominant microbial group, showing a positive correlation with the moisture of spoiled hams. The Catalase-positive cocci (GPCP) growth was favoured by high NaCl concentrations in the spoiled hams, whereas the counts of Enterobacteriaceae were negatively affected by high NaCl concentration. The highest proteolytic microorganisms were the Gram-negative microbial groups playing Enterobacteriaceae a major role in the undesirable changes of the texture properties of the spoiled hams. With respect to the sensorial analysis, a synergy between NEGN and GPCP was observed in most of the strongly spoiled samples.

  12. [Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in identification of wine spoilage].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xian-De; Dong, Da-Ming; Zheng, Wen-Gang; Jiao, Lei-Zi; Lang, Yun

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, fresh and spoiled wine samples from three wines produced by different companies were studied u- sing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We analyzed the physicochemical property change in the process of spoil- age, and then, gave out the attribution of some main FTIR absorption peaks. A novel determination method was explored based on the comparisons of some absorbance ratios at different wavebands although the absorbance ratios in this method were relative. Through the compare of the wine spectra before and after spoiled, the authors found that they were informative at the bands of 3,020~2,790, 1,760~1,620 and 1,550~800 cm(-1). In order to find the relation between these informative spectral bands and the wine deterioration and achieve the discriminant analysis, chemometrics methods were introduced. Principal compounds analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used for classifying different-quality wines. And partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to identify spoiled wines and good wines. Results showed that FTIR technique combined with chemometrics methods could effectively distinguish spoiled wines from fresh samples. The effect of classification at the wave band of 1 550-800 cm(-1) was the best. The recognition rate of SIMCA and PLSDA were respectively 94% and 100%. This study demonstrates that Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is an effective tool for monitoring red wine's spoilage and provides theoretical support for developing early-warning equipments.

  13. Investigation of relationship between barometric pressure and coal and gas outburst events in underground coal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yönet, Sinem; Esen, Olgun; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outburst is a serious risk which occurs during the mine production. This accident results both ejection of high volumes of gas and high amount of coal into the mine production area, and death of mining workers for many years in Turkey. Outburst of gas, coal and rock can be defined as sudden release of coal and rock accompanied by large quantities of gas into the working face or other mine workings. It is a phenomena that influenced by geological structure such as folds, joints of rocks or coal seams, is also still investigated for many years. Zonguldak Coal Basin is the main part of the Upper Carboniferous bituminous coal basin of Turkey. Much of the bituminous coal mining has thus been concentrated in the Zonguldak Basin which is located on the Black Sea coast. The coal field has been disturbed by tectonic activity, first by Hercynian and later by Alpine orogenesis resulting in folding and faulting of strata. This formation has a complex structural geology which consists mostly fault zones, anticlinal and syncline strata and because of this a large amount of methane gases are adsorbed or accumulated in strata or in coal fractures, pores and micropores. There are 5 Collieries exists in Zonguldak Coalfield and coal and gas outbursts were occurred only in two collieries such as Karadon and Kozlu Mines. In addition at a number of 90 coal and gas outburst events were experienced in these collieries. Based on the analysis of data, oscillation at barometric pressure and temperature values at the location of Kozlu and Karadon Mines were seen when coal and gas outburst events were occurred. In this study, barometric pressure and temperature changes are investigated at Kozlu and Karadon Mines. Also the relationship between the variation at temperature with barometric pressure and coal and gas outbursts are evaluated. It can be understand that this investigation depends to field observations and macroscopic considerations and on the purpose of predicting the

  14. 11. EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE LOOKING EAST The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE LOOKING EAST The airway (on the left) leads from the Baltimore shaft to the New Fan House. The metal housing (center foreground) encases a single entry Duplex Conoidal fan, made by the Buffalo Forge Company. The Duplex Conoidal fan had two parts: a disk fan which drew air up the airway and a centrifugal fan set at a right angle to it which exhausted the air. The engine house (on the right) contains a direct connected Corliss engine. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  15. New 48-inch line gives Wales more gas supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    A new 11-mile, 48-in pipeline will not only supply an even flow of gas from the British Gas national grid to towns in the Wales Gas district but also serve as a daily storage facility by means of nightime linepacking at 700 psi. The largest diameter gas line to be constructed in the UK, the pipeline is confined to a 165-ft wide corridor leading through wet and dry moorland, farms, reclaimed colliery tips, and bogs. Construction engineers took care to protect archeological features along the route and to restore the land to its original condition.

  16. UK mining invests, suppliers profit

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-15

    In the midst of a major economic crisis in the United Kingdom, equipment suppliers have been reporting a number of considerable purchases by British coal mining companies. In December 2008, Liebherr-Great Britain delivered the first two of four Rq350 Litronic hydraulic excavators for use at the Broken Cross opencast coal site in Lanarkshire, Scotland. Ten Terex TR100 rigid haulers were delivered to the site in late 2008. Hatfield Colliery at Stainforth, South Yorkshire, has been reopened by PowerFuel. The main equipment for two longwall faces was supplied by Joy Mining Machinery UK Ltd. 2 photos.

  17. 13. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST This ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST This view, taken in the southern airway, shows the circular brick-work surrounding the air intake, the cast iron shaft support, and one of the 1883 Guibal fan cast iron spiders. Three cast iron spiders support the ten feet by eleven feet wooden paddles. Remnants of the catwalk with its screen grating lead to the inner door of the airlock. Note also the support beams and reinforced concrete roof. The concrete floor of the airway has deteriorated. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  18. Autopsy studies of coal miners' lungs. Phase 2. Final report August 77-July 80

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckley, V.A.; Chapman, J.S.; Collings, P.L.; Douglas, A.N.; Fernie, J.M.

    1981-11-01

    This report is based on a post mortem study of the lungs and hearts of various groups of coal workers drawn from an original cohort of 500 men. The men had worked in collieries which took part in Pneumoconiosis Field Research and which covered the range of mining conditions in Britain. The aim of the study was to relate pathological evidence of pneumoconiosis, emphysema and bronchitis and the radiographic appearances of pneumoconiosis to both the dust retained in the lung and the respirable dust to which the men were exposed. Also included were studies of right-sided heart disease and respiratory function during life in relation to lung pathology.

  19. 16. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING EAST This overview of the 1883 Pittston Engine and Machine Company steam engine includes the flywheel and pillowblock in the foreground, with the shaft and cylinder in the background. The engine is a horizontal, slide valve type of 30 inch bore and 60 inch stroke that turned the fan at 49 revolutions per minute. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  20. 6. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING WEST The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING WEST The engine house is on the right. The end of the 1883 Pittston Steam Engine cylinder head and steam chest is visible in the doorway. Although its stairs are missing, the iron framing of a porch stands in front of what was a doorway. The entrance door to the north airlock is visible inside the enlarged window. The end view of the upshaft chimney shows the brick ribbing for support, the brick corbelling, and concrete capstones. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA