Collisional diffusion in toroidal plasmas with elongation and triangularity
Martin, P.; Castro, E.; Haines, M. G.
2007-05-15
Collisional diffusion is analyzed for plasma tokamaks with different ellipticities and triangularities. Improved nonlinear equations for the families of magnetic surfaces are used here. Dimensionless average velocities are calculated as a function of the inductive electric field, elongation, triangularity, and Shafranov shift. Confinement has been found to depend significantly on triangularity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugama, H.; Nunami, M.; Nakata, M.; Watanabe, T.-H.
2017-02-01
A novel gyrokinetic formulation is presented by including collisional effects into the Lagrangian variational principle to yield the governing equations for background and turbulent electromagnetic fields and gyrocenter distribution functions, which can simultaneously describe classical, neoclassical, and turbulent transport processes in toroidal plasmas with large toroidal flows on the order of the ion thermal velocity. Noether's theorem modified for collisional systems and the collision operator given in terms of Poisson brackets are applied to derivation of the particle, energy, and toroidal momentum balance equations in the conservative forms, which are desirable properties for long-time global transport simulation.
Collisionality Scaling of Main-ion Toroidal and Poloidal Rotation in Low Torque DIII-D Plasmas
B A Grierson, et al
2013-05-10
In tokamak plasmas with low levels of toroidal rotation, the radial electric fi eld Er is a combination of pressure gradient and toroidal and poloidal rotation components, all having similar magnitudes. In order to assess the validity of neoclassical poloidal rotation theory for determining the poloidal rotation contribution to Er , Dα emission from neutral beam heated tokamak discharges in DIII-D [J.L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42 , 614 (2002)] has been evaluated in a sequence of low torque (electron cyclotron resonance heating and balanced diagnostic neutral beam pulse) discharges to determine the local deuterium toroidal rotation velocity. By invoking the radial force balance relation the deuterium poloidal rotation can be inferred. It is found that the deuterium poloidal low exceeds the neoclassical value in plasmas with collisionality νi < 0: 1, being more ion diamagnetic, and with a stronger dependence on collisionality than neoclassical theory predicts. At low toroidal rotation, the poloidal rotation contribution to the radial electric fi eld and its shear is signi cant. The eff ect of anomalous levels of poloidal rotation on the radial electric fi eld and cross fi eld heat transport is investigated for ITER parameters.
Cary, J.R.; Shasharina, S.G.
1993-03-01
Progress is reported in three general areas of confinement plasma physics: (1) An accurate theory was developed for the trapping/detrapping process in tokamaks with ripple and stellarators. (2) The alpha particle distribution was determined for the situation where both collisions and collisionless chaotic (ripple) transport are present. Transport of the toroidally trapped particles in rippled tokamaks with up-down asymmetry was studied.
Collisional damping of the geodesic acoustic mode with toroidal rotation. I. Viscous damping
Gong, Xueyu; Xie, Baoyi; Chen, You; Yu, Jiangmei; Yu, Jun; Guo, Wenfeng
2016-03-15
With the dispersion relation derived for the geodesic acoustic mode in toroidally rotating tokamak plasmas using the fluid model, the effect of the toroidal rotation on the collisional viscous damping of the geodesic acoustic mode is investigated. It is found that the collisional viscous damping of the geodesic acoustic mode has weak increase with respect to the toroidal Mach number.
Shaing, K. C.
2006-09-15
It is illustrated that plasma transport processes in the direction of the magnetic field are local in the vicinity of the magnetic island in the long mean-free-path regime where the collisionality parameter {nu}{sub *} is larger than 10{sup -2}, and the width of the island is about 3% of the minor radius or smaller. This is because the plasma temperature variation on the magnetic surface that results from the magnetic reconnection is gentle. Both the electron and the ion parallel transport fluxes including parallel heat flow in the banana regime where {nu}{sub *}<1 are calculated using a model Coulomb collision operator that conserves momentum.
Shaing, K. C.
2007-11-15
In Part I [Phys. Fluids B 2, 1190 (1990)] and Part II [Phys. Plasmas 12, 082508 (2005)], it was emphasized that the equilibrium plasma viscous forces when applied for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes are only rigorously valid at the mode rational surface where m-nq=0. Here, m is the poloidal mode number, n is the toroidal mode number, and q is the safety factor. This important fact has been demonstrated explicitly by calculating the viscous forces in the plateau regime in Parts I and II. Here, the effective viscous forces in the banana regime are calculated for MHD modes by solving the linear drift kinetic equation that is driven by the plasma flows first derived in Part I. At the mode rational surface, the equilibrium plasma viscous forces are reproduced. However, it is found that away from the mode rational surface, the viscous forces for MHD modes decrease, a behavior similar to that observed in the viscous forces for the plateau regime. The proper form of the momentum equation that is appropriate for the modeling of the MHD modes is also discussed.
Martin, Pablo; Castro, Enrique; Puerta, Julio
2009-07-26
Non-linear plasma diffusion effects due to hole currents in tokamaks is analyzed in this work. Since the recent discovery of hole currents in tokamaks, this matter has become very important in confinement and instabilities in tokamaks plasmas. The analysis here presented includes non-linear flows as well as hole currents. In the case of low vorticity plasmas our treatment is performed using MHD equations, an it is more suitable for plasmas with very low levels of turbulence, as in the H-mode. The present treatment follows the lines of previous works, and some of the equations and results look like those obtained on these papers. However, the form of the family of the magnetic surfaces is very different to previous treatment, since the hole current modifies those families in a very important way. Elliptic plasmas with triangularity are considered. Pfirsch-Schlueter type currents are obtained for these generalized cases. Diffusion with and without holes are calculated and compared for several values of ellipticity and triangularity. Negative and positive triangularities are considered. In most of the calculations triangularity improves confinement, but the results are different for the positive than for the negative case.
Xie, Baoyi; Yu, Jun; Chen, You; Gong, Xueyu; Guo, Wenfeng
2016-03-15
The collisional damping of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is analytically investigated in toroidally rotating tokamaks by using the gyrokinetic equation. It is found that the toroidal rotation could decrease the collisional damping of the GAM in the small safety factor region and increase the collisional damping of the GAM in the large safety factor region at low ion collision rate; while at high ion collision rate, the toroidal rotation will increase the collisional damping of the GAM with arbitrary safety factor. Furthermore, the change quantity of collisional damping rate of the GAM due to the toroidal rotation at high collision rate is larger than that at low collision rate.
Low Collisionality Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity in Tokamaks and Quasi-symmetric Stellarators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cole, A. J.; Hegna, C. C.; Callen, J. D.
2008-11-01
Non-resonant magnetic perturbations can affect plasma rotation in toroidally confined plasmas through their modification to |B|. Variations along a field line induce nonambipolar radial transport and produce a global neoclassical toroidal viscous force [NTV]. In this work, previously calculated radial particle fluxes for the low-collisionality ``ν'' and ``1/ν'' regimes [1] are unified into a single particle flux (or toroidal viscous force). Provided pitch-angle scattering dominates over collisional energy exchange, the energy component of phase space can be decoupled into independent regions (E >Ec. for ν regime, E < Ec for 1/ν regime, with Ec determined by .νi(Ec) =ɛ,E) within which the perturbed distribution function can be calculated similar to [1]. Using a technique first employed in axisymmetric neoclassical theory [2], the smoothed particle flux is constructed by summing the partial contributions from ν and 1/ν banana drift effects respectively. The complete NTV force is expressed in terms of the equilibrium flows and a temperature-gradient-determined ``intrinsic'' flow. [1] K.C. Shaing, Phys. Plasmas, 10, 1443 (2003). [2] K.T. Tsang, and J.D. Callen, Phys. Fluids 19, 667 (1976).
Toroidal Flow in Tokamak Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Callen, J. D.; Cole, A. J.; Hegna, C. C.
2007-11-01
Many effects influence toroidal flow evolution in tokamak plasmas. Momentum sources and radial diffusion due to axisymmetric neoclassical, paleoclassical and anomalous transport are usually considered. In addition, the toroidal flow can be affected by field errors. Small, non-axisymmetric field errors arise from coil irregularities, active control coils and collective plasma magnetic distortions (e.g., NTMs, RWMs). Resonant field errors cause localized electromagnetic torques near rational surfaces in the plasma, which can lock the plasma to the wall leading to magnetic islands and reduced confinement or disruptions. Their penetration into the plasma is limited by flow-shielding effects; but they can be amplified by the plasma response at high beta. Non-resonant field errors cause magnetic pumping and radial banana drifts, and lead to toroidal flow damping over the entire plasma. Many of these processes can also produce momentum pinch and intrinsic flow effects. This poster will seek to present a coherent picture of all these effects and suggest ways they could be tested and distinguished experimentally.
Fixed boundary toroidal plasma equilibria with toroidal flows
Hu, Yanqiang; Hu, Yemin; Xiang, Nong
2016-04-15
The fixed boundary toroidal plasma equilibria with toroidal flows are investigated by solving the modified Grad-Shafranov equation numerically in the cylindrical coordinate system. For normal equilibrium configurations with geometry and profiles similar to usual tokamaks with no flow, it is found that the effect of flow is to lead to an outward shift of the magnetic flux surfaces, together with the profiles of pressure, and mass and current densities. The shifts could become significant when the toroidal flow Mach number exceeds 0.5. For non-conventional current profiles, even for the usual tokamak geometry, novel current reversal equilibrium configurations may result, sometimes with changed topology in the poloidal flux function. This change in the topology of plasma equilibrium can be attributed to the large toroidal flow. The computed results may correspond to situations of intense tangential injection during the low toroidal current phase in expected experimental situations.
Collisional processes in cometary plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cravens, T. E.
1991-01-01
The interaction of the solar wind with comets is initiated at large distances from the nucleus by the ionization of cometary neutrals. The resulting contamination of the solar wind with cometary ions mass-loads the solar wind flow, causing it to slow down. The plasma-comet interaction is largely collisionless at large cometocentric distances. However, collisional processes become important in the inner coma (within the cometopause). Collisional processes include charge-transfer between solar wind protons and neutrals, ion-neutral friction, electron and ion thermal cooling, and ion-neutral chemistry. For example, the magnetometer on the Giotto spacecraft observed a diamagnetic cavity near closest approach. This cavity is a consequence of the balance between an inward-directed magnetic pressure gradient force and an outward ion-netural frictional force. Thermalization of the cometary ion distribution function by Coulomb collisions is another important process in the inner coma of an active comet.
Edge ambipolar potential in toroidal fusion plasmas
Spizzo, G. Vianello, N.; Agostini, M.; Puiatti, M. E.; Scarin, P.; Spolaore, M.; Terranova, D.; White, R. B.; Abdullaev, S. S.; Schmitz, O.; Cavazzana, R.; Ciaccio, G.
2014-05-15
A series of issues with toroidally confined fusion plasmas are related to the generation of 3D flow patterns by means of edge magnetic islands, embedded in a chaotic field and interacting with the wall. These issues include the Greenwald limit in Tokamaks and reversed-field pinches, the collisionality window for ELM mitigation with the resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in Tokamaks, and edge islands interacting with the bootstrap current in stellarators. Measurements of the 2D map of the edge electric field E{sup r}(r=a,θ,ϕ) in the RFX reversed-field pinch show that E{sup r} has the same helicity of the magnetic islands generated by a m/n perturbation: in fact, defining the helical angle u=mθ−nϕ+ωt, maps show a sinusoidal dependence as a function of u, E{sup r}=E{sup ~r}sin u. The associated E × B flow displays a huge convective cell with v(a)≠0 which, in RFX and near the Greenwald limit, determines a stagnation point for density and a reversal of the sign of E{sup r}. From a theoretical point of view, the question is how a perturbed toroidal flux of symmetry m/n gives rise to an ambipolar potential Φ=Φ{sup ~}sin u. On the basis of a model developed with the guiding center code ORBIT and applied to RFX and the TEXTOR tokamak, we will show that the presence of an m/n perturbation in any kind of device breaks the toroidal symmetry with a drift proportional to the gyroradius ρ, thus larger for ions (ρ{sub i} ≫ ρ{sub e}). Immediately, an ambipolar potential arises to balance the drifts, with the same symmetry as the original perturbation.
Steady state compact toroidal plasma production
Turner, William C.
1986-01-01
Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.
Enhanced toroidal flow stabilization of edge localized modes with increased plasma density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Shikui; Zhu, Ping; Banerjee, Debabrata
2017-09-01
Toroidal flow alone is generally thought to have an important influence on tokamak edge pedestal stability, even though theoretical analysis often predicts merely a weak stabilizing effect of toroidal flow on the edge localized modes (ELMs) in experimental parameter regimes. For the first time, we find from two-fluid MHD calculations that such a stabilization, however, can be significantly enhanced by increasing the edge plasma density. Our finding resolves a long-standing mystery whether or how toroidal rotation can indeed have an effective influence on ELMs, and explains why the ELM mitigation and suppression by toroidal rotation are more favorably achieved in higher collisionality regime in recent experiments. The finding suggests a new control scheme on modulating toroidal flow stabilization of ELMs with plasma density, along with a new additional constraint on the optimal level of plasma density for the desired edge plasma conditions.
Plasma transport coefficients for nonsymmetric toroidal confinement systems
Hirshman, S.P.; Shaing, K.C.; van Rij, W.I.; Beasley, C.O. Jr.; Crume, E.C. Jr.
1986-03-01
A variational principle is developed for computing accurate values of local plasma transport coefficients in nonsymmetric toroidal confinement configurations. Numerical solutions of the linearized drift Fokker-Planck equation are used to obtain the thermodynamic fluxes as functions of collision frequenty and the radial electric field. Effects resulting from the variation of the longitudinal adiabatic invariant J along an orbit (due to particle transitions from helically trapped to toroidally trapped orbits) are treated. The velocity-space distribution resulting from trapped, circulating, and transition particle orbits is well represented by a Legendre polynomial expansion in the pitch angle coordinate. The computational effort is significantly reduced from that required with Monte Carlo methods through use of an efficient treatment of the disparity between the time scales of collisionless and collisional particle dynamics. Numerical computations for a stellarator configuration are presented. 24 refs. 9 figs.
Effects of magnetic islands on bootstrap current in toroidal plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, G.; Lin, Z.
2017-03-01
The effects of magnetic islands on electron bootstrap current in toroidal plasmas are studied using gyrokinetic simulations. The magnetic islands cause little changes of the bootstrap current level in the banana regime because of trapped electron effects. In the plateau regime, the bootstrap current is completely suppressed at the island centers due to the destruction of trapped electron orbits by collisions and the flattening of pressure profiles by the islands. In the collisional regime, small but finite bootstrap current can exist inside the islands because of the pressure gradients created by large collisional transport across the islands. Finally, simulation results show that the bootstrap current level increases near the island separatrix due to steeper local density gradients.
Effects of magnetic islands on bootstrap current in toroidal plasmas
Dong, G.; Lin, Z.
2016-12-19
The effects of magnetic islands on electron bootstrap current in toroidal plasmas are studied using gyrokinetic simulations. The magnetic islands cause little changes of the bootstrap current level in the banana regime because of trapped electron effects. In the plateau regime, the bootstrap current is completely suppressed at the island centers due to the destruction of trapped electron orbits by collisions and the flattening of pressure profiles by the islands. In the collisional regime, small but finite bootstrap current can exist inside the islands because of the pressure gradients created by large collisional transport across the islands. Lastly, simulation resultsmore » show that the bootstrap current level increases near the island separatrix due to steeper local density gradients.« less
Effects of magnetic islands on bootstrap current in toroidal plasmas
Dong, G.; Lin, Z.
2016-12-19
The effects of magnetic islands on electron bootstrap current in toroidal plasmas are studied using gyrokinetic simulations. The magnetic islands cause little changes of the bootstrap current level in the banana regime because of trapped electron effects. In the plateau regime, the bootstrap current is completely suppressed at the island centers due to the destruction of trapped electron orbits by collisions and the flattening of pressure profiles by the islands. In the collisional regime, small but finite bootstrap current can exist inside the islands because of the pressure gradients created by large collisional transport across the islands. Lastly, simulation results show that the bootstrap current level increases near the island separatrix due to steeper local density gradients.
Neoclassical transport in toroidal plasmas with nonaxisymmetric flux surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.
2015-05-01
The capability to treat nonaxisymmetric flux surface geometry has been added to the drift-kinetic code NEO (Belli and Candy 2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 095010). Geometric quantities (i.e. metric elements) are supplied by a recently-developed local 3D equilibrium solver, allowing neoclassical transport coefficients to be systematically computed while varying the 3D plasma shape in a simple and intuitive manner. Code verification is accomplished via detailed comparison with 3D Pfirsch-Schlüter theory. A discussion of the various collisionality regimes associated with 3D transport is given, with an emphasis on non-ambipolar particle flux, neoclassical toroidal viscosity, energy flux and bootstrap current. Finally, we compute the transport in the presence of ripple-type perturbations in a DIII-D-like H-mode edge plasma.
Collisional damping rates for plasma waves
Tigik, S. F. Ziebell, L. F.; Yoon, P. H.
2016-06-15
The distinction between the plasma dynamics dominated by collisional transport versus collective processes has never been rigorously addressed until recently. A recent paper [P. H. Yoon et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 033203 (2016)] formulates for the first time, a unified kinetic theory in which collective processes and collisional dynamics are systematically incorporated from first principles. One of the outcomes of such a formalism is the rigorous derivation of collisional damping rates for Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves, which can be contrasted to the heuristic customary approach. However, the results are given only in formal mathematical expressions. The present brief communication numerically evaluates the rigorous collisional damping rates by considering the case of plasma particles with Maxwellian velocity distribution function so as to assess the consequence of the rigorous formalism in a quantitative manner. Comparison with the heuristic (“Spitzer”) formula shows that the accurate damping rates are much lower in magnitude than the conventional expression, which implies that the traditional approach over-estimates the importance of attenuation of plasma waves by collisional relaxation process. Such a finding may have a wide applicability ranging from laboratory to space and astrophysical plasmas.
Collisional damping rates for plasma waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tigik, S. F.; Ziebell, L. F.; Yoon, P. H.
2016-06-01
The distinction between the plasma dynamics dominated by collisional transport versus collective processes has never been rigorously addressed until recently. A recent paper [P. H. Yoon et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 033203 (2016)] formulates for the first time, a unified kinetic theory in which collective processes and collisional dynamics are systematically incorporated from first principles. One of the outcomes of such a formalism is the rigorous derivation of collisional damping rates for Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves, which can be contrasted to the heuristic customary approach. However, the results are given only in formal mathematical expressions. The present brief communication numerically evaluates the rigorous collisional damping rates by considering the case of plasma particles with Maxwellian velocity distribution function so as to assess the consequence of the rigorous formalism in a quantitative manner. Comparison with the heuristic ("Spitzer") formula shows that the accurate damping rates are much lower in magnitude than the conventional expression, which implies that the traditional approach over-estimates the importance of attenuation of plasma waves by collisional relaxation process. Such a finding may have a wide applicability ranging from laboratory to space and astrophysical plasmas.
Fe XVII Emission from Hot, Collisional Plasmas
Beiersdorfer, P; Bitter, M; von Goeler, S; Hill, K W
2004-12-03
The ratios of the Fe XVII 3s {yields} 2p transitions to that of the dominant 3d {yields} 2p transition measured in high-temperature tokamak plasmas are compared to solar and astrophysical observations. Good agreement is found, indicating that the collisional line formation processes active in opacity-free, low-density, high-temperature laboratory plasmas are a good description of those found in astrophysical plasmas.
Neoclassical transport in toroidal plasmas with nonaxisymmetric flux surfaces
Belli, Emily A.; Candy, Jefferey M.
2015-04-15
The capability to treat nonaxisymmetric flux surface geometry has been added to the drift-kinetic code NEO. Geometric quantities (i.e. metric elements) are supplied by a recently-developed local 3D equilibrium solver, allowing neoclassical transport coefficients to be systematically computed while varying the 3D plasma shape in a simple and intuitive manner. Code verification is accomplished via detailed comparison with 3D Pfirsch–Schlüter theory. A discussion of the various collisionality regimes associated with 3D transport is given, with an emphasis on non-ambipolar particle flux, neoclassical toroidal viscosity, energy flux and bootstrap current. As a result, we compute the transport in the presence of ripple-type perturbations in a DIII-D-like H-mode edge plasma.
Neoclassical transport in toroidal plasmas with nonaxisymmetric flux surfaces
Belli, Emily A.; Candy, Jefferey M.
2015-04-15
The capability to treat nonaxisymmetric flux surface geometry has been added to the drift-kinetic code NEO. Geometric quantities (i.e. metric elements) are supplied by a recently-developed local 3D equilibrium solver, allowing neoclassical transport coefficients to be systematically computed while varying the 3D plasma shape in a simple and intuitive manner. Code verification is accomplished via detailed comparison with 3D Pfirsch–Schlüter theory. A discussion of the various collisionality regimes associated with 3D transport is given, with an emphasis on non-ambipolar particle flux, neoclassical toroidal viscosity, energy flux and bootstrap current. As a result, we compute the transport in the presence ofmore » ripple-type perturbations in a DIII-D-like H-mode edge plasma.« less
Plasma Density Effects on Toroidal Flow Stabilization of Edge Localized Modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Shikui; Zhu, Ping; Banerjee, Debabrata
2016-10-01
Recent EAST experiments have demonstrated mitigation and suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs) with toroidal rotation flow in higher collisionality regime, suggesting potential roles of plasma density. In this work, the effects of plasma density on the toroidal flow stabilization of the high- n edge localized modes have been extensively studied in linear calculations for a circular-shaped limiter H-mode tokamak, using the initial-value extended MHD code NIMROD. In the single MHD model, toroidal flow has a weak stabilizing effects on the high- n modes. Such a stabilization, however, can be significantly enhanced with the increase in plasma density. Furthermore, our calculations show that the enhanced stabilization of high- n modes from toroidal flow with higher edge plasma density persists in the 2-fluid MHD model. These findings may explain the ELM mitigation and suppression by toroidal rotation in higher collisionality regime due to the enhancement of plasma density obtained in EAST experiment. Supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China under Grant Nos. 2014GB124002 and 2015GB101004, the 100 Talent Program and the President International Fellowship Initiative of Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Microwave produced plasma in a Toroidal Device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, A. K.; Edwards, W. F.; Held, E. D.
2010-11-01
A currentless toroidal plasma device exhibits a large range of interesting basic plasma physics phenomena. Such a device is not in equilibrium in a strict magneto hydrodynamic sense. There are many sources of free energy in the form of gradients in plasma density, temperature, the background magnetic field and the curvature of the magnetic field. These free energy sources excite waves and instabilities which have been the focus of studies in several devices in last two decades. A full understanding of these simple plasmas is far from complete. At Utah State University we have recently designed and installed a microwave plasma generation system on a small tokamak borrowed from the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. Microwaves are generated at 2.45 GHz in a pulsed dc mode using a magnetron from a commercial kitchen microwave oven. The device is equipped with horizontal and vertical magnetic fields and a transformer to impose a toroidal electric field for current drive. Plasmas can be obtained over a wide range of pressure with and without magnetic fields. We present some preliminary measurements of plasma density and potential profiles. Measurements of plasma temperature at different operating conditions are also presented.
Neoclassical transport in enhanced confinement toroidal plasmas
Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.
1996-11-01
It has recently been reported that ion thermal transport levels in enhanced confinement tokamak plasmas have been observed to fall below the irreducible minimum level predicted by standard neoclassical theory. This apparent contradiction is resolved in the present analysis by relaxing the basic neoclassical assumption that the ions orbital excursions are much smaller than the local toroidal minor radius and the equilibrium scale lengths of the system.
Pusztai, I.; Fueloep, T.; Candy, J.; Hastie, R. J.
2009-07-15
The stability of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes and the quasilinear fluxes driven by them are analyzed in weakly collisional tokamak plasmas using a semianalytical model based on an approximate solution of the gyrokinetic equation, where collisions are modeled by a Lorentz operator. Although the frequencies and growth rates of ITG modes far from threshold are only very weakly sensitive to the collisionality, the a/L{sub Ti} threshold for stability is affected significantly by electron-ion collisions. The decrease in collisionality destabilizes the ITG mode driving an inward particle flux, which leads to the steepening of the density profile. Closed analytical expressions for the electron and ion density and temperature responses have been derived without expansion in the smallness of the magnetic drift frequencies. The results have been compared with gyrokinetic simulations with GYRO and illustrated by showing the scalings of the eigenvalues and quasilinear fluxes with collisionality, temperature scale length, and magnetic shear.
Trapped ion mode in toroidally rotating plasmas
Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.
1995-04-01
The influence of radially sheared toroidal flows on the Trapped Ion Mode (TIM) is investigated using a two-dimensional eigenmode code. These radially extended toroidal microinstabilities could significantly influence the interpretation of confinement scaling trends and associated fluctuation properties observed in recent tokamak experiments. In the present analysis, the electrostatic drift kinetic equation is obtained from the general nonlinear gyrokinetic equation in rotating plasmas. In the long perpendicular wavelength limit k{sub {tau}}{rho}{sub bi} {much_lt} 1, where {rho}{sub bi} is the average trapped-ion banana width, the resulting eigenmode equation becomes a coupled system of second order differential equations nmo for the poloidal harmonics. These equations are solved using finite element methods. Numerical results from the analysis of low and medium toroidal mode number instabilities are presented using representative TFTR L-mode input parameters. To illustrate the effects of mode coupling, a case is presented where the poloidal mode coupling is suppressed. The influence of toroidal rotation on a TFTR L-mode shot is also analyzed by including a beam species with considerable larger temperature. A discussion of the numerical results is presented.
Asymptotic separation in multispecies collisional plasma shocks.
Bellei, C; Amendt, P A
2014-07-01
When a piston drives a shock in a multicomponent plasma, residual separation of the ion species persists close to the piston-plasma boundary, long after the shock has propagated away from the boundary and has reached a (nearly) steady-state solution. This effect is observed in hybrid particle-in-cell simulations with two kinetic ion species and fluid electrons. It is a consequence of the different dynamics experienced by ions of different mass and charge-to-mass ratio and must be taken into account to properly model the physics of species separation in collisional plasma shocks.
Plasma Properties of Microwave Produced Plasma in a Toroidal Device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Ajay; Edwards, W. F.; Held, Eric
2011-10-01
We have modified a small tokamak, STOR-1M, on loan from University of Saskatchewan, to operate as a low-temperature (~5 eV) toroidal plasma machine with externally induced toroidal magnetic fields ranging from zero to ~50 G. The plasma is produced using microwave discharges at relatively high pressures. Microwaves are produced by a kitchen microwave-oven magnetron operating at 2.45 GHz in continuous operating mode, resulting in pulses ~0.5 s in duration. Initial measurements of plasma formation in this device with and without applied magnetic fields are presented. Plasma density and temperature profiles have been measured using Langmuir probes and the magnetic field profile inside the plasma has been obtained using Hall probes. When the discharge is created with no applied toroidal magnetic field, the plasma does not fill the entire torus due to high background pressure. However, when a toroidal magnetic field is applied, the plasma flows along the applied field, filling the torus. Increasing the applied magnetic field seems to aid plasma formation - the peak density increases and the density gradient becomes steeper. Above a threshold magnetic field, the plasma develops low-frequency density oscillations due to probable excitation of flute modes in the plasma.
Toroidal plasma enhanced CVD of diamond films
Zvanya, John Cullen, Christopher Morris, Thomas Krchnavek, Robert R.; Holber, William Basnett, Andrew Basnett, Robert; Hettinger, Jeffrey
2014-09-01
An inductively coupled toroidal plasma source is used as an alternative to microwave plasmas for chemical vapor deposition of diamond films. The source, operating at a frequency of 400 kHz, synthesizes diamond films from a mixture of argon, methane, and hydrogen. The toroidal design has been adapted to create a highly efficient environment for diamond film deposition: high gas temperature and a short distance from the sample to the plasma core. Using a toroidal plasma geometry operating in the medium frequency band allows for efficient (≈90%) coupling of AC line power to the plasma and a scalable path to high-power and large-area operation. In test runs, the source generates a high flux of atomic hydrogen over a large area, which is favorable for diamond film growth. Using a deposition temperature of 900–1050 °C and a source to sample distance of 0.1–2.0 cm, diamond films are deposited onto silicon substrates. The results showed that the deposition rate of the diamond films could be controlled using the sample temperature and source to sample spacing. The results also show the films exhibit good-quality polycrystalline diamond as verified by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction results show that the samples exhibit diamond (111) and diamond (022) crystallites. The Raman results show that the sp{sup 3} peak has a narrow spectral width (FWHM 12 ± 0.5 cm{sup −1}) and that negligible amounts of the sp{sup 2} band are present, indicating good-quality diamond films.
Hybrid simulations of weakly collisional plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Qian; Reville, Brian; Tzoufras, Michail
2016-10-01
Laser produced plasma experiments can be exploited to investigate phenomena of astrophysical relevance. The high densities and velocities that can be generated in the laboratory provide ideal conditions to investigate weakly collisional or collisionless plasma shock physics. In addition, the high temperatures permit magnetic and kinetic Reynolds numbers that are difficult to achieve in other plasma experiments, opening the possibility to study plasma dynamo. Many of these experiments are based on a classic plasma physics problem, namely the interpenetration of two plasma flows. To investigate this phenomenon, we are constructing a novel multi-dimensional hybrid numerical scheme, that solves the ion distribution kinetically via a Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation, with electrons providing a charge neutralizing fluid. This allows us to follow the evolution on hydrodynamic timescales, while permitting inclusion ofcollisionlesseffects on small scales. It also could be used to study the increasing collisional effects due to the stiff gradient and weakly anisotropic velocity distribution. We present some preliminary validation tests for the code, demonstrating its ability to accurately model key processes that are relevant to laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.
Heat flux viscosity in collisional magnetized plasmas
Liu, C.; Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2015-05-15
Momentum transport in collisional magnetized plasmas due to gradients in the heat flux, a “heat flux viscosity,” is demonstrated. Even though no net particle flux is associated with a heat flux, in a plasma there can still be momentum transport owing to the velocity dependence of the Coulomb collision frequency, analogous to the thermal force. This heat-flux viscosity may play an important role in numerous plasma environments, in particular, in strongly driven high-energy-density plasma, where strong heat flux can dominate over ordinary plasma flows. The heat flux viscosity can influence the dynamics of the magnetic field in plasmas through the generalized Ohm's law and may therefore play an important role as a dissipation mechanism allowing magnetic field line reconnection. The heat flux viscosity is calculated directly using the finite-difference method of Epperlein and Haines [Phys. Fluids 29, 1029 (1986)], which is shown to be more accurate than Braginskii's method [S. I. Braginskii, Rev. Plasma Phys. 1, 205 (1965)], and confirmed with one-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell simulations. The resulting transport coefficients are tabulated for ease of application.
Fine velocity structures collisional dissipation in plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pezzi, Oreste; Valentini, Francesco; Veltri, Pierluigi
2016-04-01
In a weakly collisional plasma, such as the solar wind, collisions are usually considered far too weak to produce any significant effect on the plasma dynamics [1]. However, the estimation of collisionality is often based on the restrictive assumption that the particle velocity distribution function (VDF) shape is close to Maxwellian [2]. On the other hand, in situ spacecraft measurements in the solar wind [3], as well as kinetic numerical experiments [4], indicate that marked non-Maxwellian features develop in the three-dimensional VDFs, (temperature anisotropies, generation of particle beams, ring-like modulations etc.) as a result of the kinetic turbulent cascade of energy towards short spatial scales. Therefore, since collisional effects are proportional to the velocity gradients of the VDF, the collisionless hypothesis may fail locally in velocity space. Here, the existence of several characteristic times during the collisional relaxation of fine velocity structures is investigated by means of Eulerian numerical simulations of a spatially homogeneous force-free weakly collisional plasma. The effect of smoothing out velocity gradients on the evolution of global quantities, such as temperature and entropy, is discussed, suggesting that plasma collisionality can increase locally due to the velocity space deformation of the particle velocity distribution. In particular, by means of Eulerian simulations of collisional relaxation of a spatially homogeneous force-free plasma, in which collisions among particles of the same species are modeled through the complete Landau operator, we show that the system entropy growth occurs over several time scales, inversely proportional to the steepness of the velocity gradients in the VDF. We report clear evidences that fine velocity structures are dissipated by collisions in a time much shorter than global non-Maxwellian features, like, for example, temperature anisotropies. Moreover we indicate that, if small-scale structures
MHD edge instabilities in toroidal plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugiyama, Linda
2015-11-01
Different types of MHD edge instabilities in different toroidal magnetically confined plasmas are compared. Large scale numerical simulations show that the nonlinear evolution of an unstable edge mode in a shaped plasma with a single X-point and a surrounding open field line region has a number of common features in the full resistive MHD model for strongly unstable and weaker instabilities. These include the relation of the nonlinear mode structure and dominant toroidal harmonics to the linear eigenmode spectrum, the effects of the mode on reducing the edge pressure or density gradient, the inward penetration of a ballooning-type perturbation into the plasma interior, and the potential to drive a coherent axisymmetric poloidal rotation of the outer part of the plasma, exhibited at different strengths. The results can be compared to experiment to estimate the usefulness and validity of the MHD model for predicting edge stability and instability properties. Work supported by the U.S. DOE OFES under Awards DE-SC-0007883, DE-FG02-04ER54802, and DE-SC-0008737. Some computation carried out at NERSC.
Plasma current resonance in asymmetric toroidal systems
Hazeltine, R. D.; Catto, Peter J.
2015-09-15
The well-known singularity in the magnetic differential equation for plasma current in an asymmetric toroidal confinement system is resolved by including in the pressure tensor corrections stemming from finite Larmor radius. The result provides an estimate of the amplitude of spikes in the parallel current that occur on rational magnetic surfaces. Resolution of the singularity is shown to depend on both the ambipolarity condition—the requirement of zero surface-averaged radial current—and the form of the magnetic differential equation near the rational surface.
New regime of low ion collisionality in the neoclassical equilibrium of tokamak plasmas
Ramos, J. J.
2015-07-15
The neoclassical description of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma equilibrium is formulated for an unconventionally low ordering of the collisionality that suits realistic thermonuclear fusion conditions. This requires a drift-kinetic analysis to the second order of the ion Larmor radius, which yields a new contribution to the leading solution for the non-Maxwellian part of the ion distribution function if the equilibrium geometry is not up-down symmetric. An explicit geometrical factor weighs this second Larmor-radius order, low-collisionality effect that modifies the neoclassical ion parallel flow, and the ion contribution to the bootstrap current.
Plasma-wall transition in weakly collisional plasmas
Manfredi, G.; Devaux, S.
2008-10-15
This paper reviews some theoretical and computational aspects of plasma-wall interactions, in particular the formation of sheaths. Some fundamental results are derived analytically using a simple fluid model, and are subsequently tested with kinetic simulations. The various regions composing the plasma-wall transition (Debye sheath, collisional and magnetic presheaths) are discussed in details.
Exact collisional moments for plasma fluid theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfefferlé, D.; Hirvijoki, E.; Lingam, M.
2017-04-01
The velocity-space moments of the often troublesome nonlinear Landau collision operator are expressed exactly in terms of multi-index Hermite-polynomial moments of distribution functions. The collisional moments are shown to be generated by derivatives of two well-known functions, namely, the Rosenbluth-MacDonald-Judd-Trubnikov potentials for a Gaussian distribution. The resulting formula has a nonlinear dependency on the relative mean flow of the colliding species normalised to the root-mean-square of the corresponding thermal velocities and a bilinear dependency on densities and higher-order velocity moments of the distribution functions, with no restriction on temperature, flow, or mass ratio of the species. The result can be applied to both the classic transport theory of plasmas that relies on the Chapman-Enskog method, as well as to derive collisional fluid equations that follow Grad's moment approach. As an illustrative example, we provide the collisional ten-moment equations with exact conservation laws for momentum- and energy-transfer rates.
Exact collisional moments for plasma fluid theories
Pfefferlé, D.; Hirvijoki, E.; Lingam, M.
2017-04-01
The velocity-space moments of the often troublesome nonlinear Landau collision operator are expressed exactly in terms of multi-index Hermite-polynomial moments of distribution functions. The collisional moments are shown to be generated by derivatives of two well-known functions, namely, the Rosenbluth-MacDonald-Judd-Trubnikov potentials for a Gaussian distribution. The resulting formula has a nonlinear dependency on the relative mean flow of the colliding species normalised to the root-mean-square of the corresponding thermal velocities and a bilinear dependency on densities and higher-order velocity moments of the distribution functions, with no restriction on temperature, flow, or mass ratio of the species. The result can bemore » applied to both the classic transport theory of plasmas that relies on the Chapman-Enskog method, as well as to derive collisional fluid equations that follow Grad's moment approach. As an illustrative example, we provide the collisional ten-moment equations with exact conservation laws for momentum-and energy-transfer rates.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaing, K. C.; Sabbagh, S. A.
2016-07-01
Theory for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity has been developed to model transport phenomena, especially, toroidal plasma rotation for tokamaks with broken symmetry. Theoretical predictions are in agreement with the results of the numerical codes in the large aspect ratio limit. The theory has since been extended to include effects of finite aspect ratio and finite plasma β. Here, β is the ratio of the plasma thermal pressure to the magnetic field pressure. However, there are cases where the radial wavelength of the self-consistent perturbed magnetic field strength B on the perturbed magnetic surface is comparable to the width of the trapped particles, i.e., bananas. To accommodate those cases, the theory for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity is further extended here to include the effects of the finite banana width. The extended theory is developed using the orbit averaged drift kinetic equation in the low collisionality regimes. The results of the theory can now be used to model plasma transport, including toroidal plasma rotation, in real finite aspect ratio, and finite plasma β tokamaks with the radial wavelength of the perturbed symmetry breaking magnetic field strength comparable to or longer than the banana width.
Stellarator bootstrap current and plasma flow velocity at low collisionality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helander, P.; Parra, F. I.; Newton, S. L.
2017-04-01
The bootstrap current and flow velocity of a low-collisionality stellarator plasma are calculated. As far as possible, the analysis is carried out in a uniform way across all low-collisionality regimes in general stellarator geometry, assuming only that the confinement is good enough that the plasma is approximately in local thermodynamic equilibrium. It is found that conventional expressions for the ion flow speed and bootstrap current in the low-collisionality limit are accurate only in the -collisionality regime and need to be modified in the -regime. The correction due to finite collisionality is also discussed and is found to scale as 2/5$ .
Collisional Drift Waves in Stellarator Plasmas
J.L.V. Lewandowski
2003-10-07
A computational study of resistive drift waves in the edge plasma of a stellarator with an helical magnetic axis is presented. Three coupled field equations, describing the collisional drift wave dynamics in the linear approximation, are solved as an initial-value problem along the magnetic field line. The magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium is obtained from a three-dimensional local equilibrium model. The use of a local magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium model allows for a computationally efficient systematic study of the impact of the magnetic field structure on drift wave stability.
Complexity Reduction of Collisional-Radiative Kinetics for Atomic Plasma
2013-12-23
or disclose the work. 14. ABSTRACT Thermal non- equilibrium processes in partially ionized plasmas can be most accurately modeled by collisional...prohibitively large, making multidimensional and unsteady simulations of non- equilibrium radiating plasma particularly challenging. In this paper, we...published online 23 December 2013) Thermal non- equilibrium processes in partially ionized plasmas can be most accurately modeled by collisional
Perturbing macroscopic magnetohydrodynamic stability for toroidal plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Comer, Kathryn J.
We have introduced a new perturbative technique to rapidly explore the dependence of long wavelength ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities on equilibrium profiles, shaping properties, and wall parameters. Traditionally, these relations are studied with numerical parameter scans using computationally intensive stability codes. Our perturbative technique first finds the equilibrium and stability using traditional methods. Subsequent small changes in the original equilibrium parameters change the stability. We quickly find the new stability with an expansion of the energy principle, rather than with another run of the stability codes. We first semi-analytically apply the technique to the screw pinch after eliminating compressional Alfven wave effects. The screw pinch results validate the approach, but also indicate that allowable perturbations to equilibria with certain features may be restricted. Next, we extend the approach to toroidal geometry using experimental equilibria and a simple constructed equilibrium, with the ideal MHD stability code GATO. Stability properties are successfully predicted from perturbed toroidal equilibria when only the vacuum beyond the plasma is perturbed (through wall parameter variations), rather than the plasma itself. Small plasma equilibrium perturbations to both experimental and simple equilibria result in very large errors to the predicted stability, and valid results are found only over a narrow range of most perturbations. Despite the large errors produced when changing plasma parameters, the wall perturbations revealed two useful applications of this technique. Because the calculations are non-iterative matrix multiplications, the convergence issues that can disrupt a full MHD stability code are absent. Marginal stability, therefore, is much easier to find with the perturbative technique. Also, the perturbed results can be input as the initial guess for the eigenvalue for a full stability code, and improve subsequent
RF plasma heating in toroidal fusion devices
Golant, V.E.; Fedorov, V.I. )
1989-01-01
The purpose of the present book is to provide, in seven chapters, a unified overview of the methods for rf heating of plasmas in toroidal fusion experiments. In Chapter 1 the problem of plasma heating in tokamaks and stellarators is formulated and the requirements for auxiliary heating techniques are described. This chapter also contains a brief review of the results of research on tokamaks and stellarators. Chapter 2 is devoted to a theoretical description of the principal physical effects involved in the rf heating of plasmas, especially the characteristics of wave propagation, of the mechanisms by which waves are absorbed and plasma heating takes place, and of the nonlinear effects that accompany heating. The primary emphasis is on a qualitative physical picture of these effects. Chapters 3-6, in turn, deal with the major rf heating techniques currently under investigation, electron cyclotron (ECH), ion cyclotron (ICH), lower hybrid (LHH), and Alfven wave heating. In each of these chapters the main schemes for heating are described, the results of theoretical analyses and numerical simulations are discussed, the technology of the heating systems is briefly described, and experimental work published through the end of 1984 is reviewed. Finally, in Chapter 7 the different rf heating techniques are compared; they are contrasted with neutral beam injection, and the feasibility of adiabatic compression as a means of heating plasmas is examined. Separate abstracts were prepared for each chapter of this book. 246 refs.
Toroidal band limiter for a plasma containment device
Kelley, George G.
1978-01-01
This invention relates to a toroidal plasma confinement device having poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields for confining a toroidal plasma column with a plasma current induced therein along an endless, circular equilibrium axis in a torus vacuum cavity wherein the improvement comprises the use of a toroidal plasma band limiter mounted within the vacuum cavity in such a manner as to ensure that the plasma energy is distributed more uniformly over the limiter surface thereby avoiding intense local heating of the limiter while at the same time substantially preventing damage to the plasma containment wall of the cavity by the energetic particles diffusing out from the confined plasma. A plurality of poloidal plasma ring limiters are also utilized for containment wall protection during any disruptive instability that might occur during operation of the device.
Weak turbulence theory for collisional plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, P. H.; Ziebell, L. F.; Kontar, E. P.; Schlickeiser, R.
2016-03-01
Plasma is an ionized gas in which the collective behavior dominates over the individual particle interactions. For this reason, plasma is often treated as collisionless or collision-free. However, the discrete nature of the particles can be important, and often, the description of plasmas is incomplete without properly taking the discrete particle effects into account. The weak turbulence theory is a perturbative nonlinear theory, whose essential formalism was developed in the late 1950s and 1960s and continued on through the early 1980s. However, the standard material found in the literature does not treat the discrete particle effects and the associated fluctuations emitted spontaneously by thermal particles completely. Plasma particles emit electromagnetic fluctuations in all frequencies and wave vectors, but in the standard literature, the fluctuations are approximately treated by considering only those frequency-wave number regimes corresponding to the eigenmodes (or normal modes) satisfying the dispersion relations, while ignoring contributions from noneigenmodes. The present paper shows that the noneigenmode fluctuations modify the particle kinetic equation so that the generalized equation includes the Balescu-Lénard-Landau collision integral and also modify the wave kinetic equation to include not only the collisional damping term but also a term that depicts the bremsstrahlung emission of plasma normal modes.
Weak turbulence theory for collisional plasmas.
Yoon, P H; Ziebell, L F; Kontar, E P; Schlickeiser, R
2016-03-01
Plasma is an ionized gas in which the collective behavior dominates over the individual particle interactions. For this reason, plasma is often treated as collisionless or collision-free. However, the discrete nature of the particles can be important, and often, the description of plasmas is incomplete without properly taking the discrete particle effects into account. The weak turbulence theory is a perturbative nonlinear theory, whose essential formalism was developed in the late 1950s and 1960s and continued on through the early 1980s. However, the standard material found in the literature does not treat the discrete particle effects and the associated fluctuations emitted spontaneously by thermal particles completely. Plasma particles emit electromagnetic fluctuations in all frequencies and wave vectors, but in the standard literature, the fluctuations are approximately treated by considering only those frequency-wave number regimes corresponding to the eigenmodes (or normal modes) satisfying the dispersion relations, while ignoring contributions from noneigenmodes. The present paper shows that the noneigenmode fluctuations modify the particle kinetic equation so that the generalized equation includes the Balescu-Lénard-Landau collision integral and also modify the wave kinetic equation to include not only the collisional damping term but also a term that depicts the bremsstrahlung emission of plasma normal modes.
High beta plasma operation in a toroidal plasma producing device
Clarke, John F.
1978-01-01
A high beta plasma is produced in a plasma producing device of toroidal configuration by ohmic heating and auxiliary heating. The plasma pressure is continuously monitored and used in a control system to program the current in the poloidal field windings. Throughout the heating process, magnetic flux is conserved inside the plasma and the distortion of the flux surfaces drives a current in the plasma. As a consequence, the total current increases and the poloidal field windings are driven with an equal and opposing increasing current. The spatial distribution of the current in the poloidal field windings is determined by the plasma pressure. Plasma equilibrium is maintained thereby, and high temperature, high beta operation results.
Efficient hybrid algorithms for collisional plasma simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimits, A. M.; Cohen, B. I.; Caflisch, R. E.; Wang, C. M.; Huang, Y.
2009-11-01
We report on the development of efficient hybrid simulation algorithms for plasma systems that span a wide range of collisionality. Investigations of their performance, using ion-sheath and electron-transport test problems, are presented. In these schemes the distribution function is decomposed of into kinetic and fluid components. The fluid component is treated via Eulerian fluid simulation methods. In one class of algorithms, the kinetic component is treated using a combination of fixed-weight particle-in-cell (PIC) and binary Monte-Carlo collision methods. Particles are created by sampling from the fluid component, and paired for collisions with the kinetic particles. In the other class of algorithms, the kinetic component is treated using evolving-weight delta-f-PIC schemes and collision-field algorithms. The performance these algorithms depends strongly on the particular sets of criteria for (a) exchange between the particle and fluid components and (b) creation, destruction, and retention of the simulation particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaing, K. C.; Lee, H.; Seol, J.; Aydemir, A. Y.
2015-08-01
Theory for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity in the low collisionality regime is extended to the vicinity of the magnetic axis in tokamaks with broken symmetry. The toroidal viscosity is induced by particles drifting off the perturbed magnetic surface under the influence of the symmetry breaking magnetic field. In the region away from the magnetic axis, the drift orbit dynamics is governed by the bounce averaged drift kinetic equation in the low collisionality regimes. In the vicinity of the magnetic axis, it is the drift kinetic equation, averaged over the trapped particle orbits, i.e., potato orbits, that governs the drift dynamics. The orbit averaged drift kinetic equation is derived when collision frequency is low enough for trapped particles to complete their potato trajectories. The resultant equation is solved in the 1 /ν regime to obtain transport fluxes and, thus, toroidal plasma viscosity through flux-force relation. Here, ν is the collision frequency. The viscosity does not vanish on the magnetic axis, and has the same scalings as that in the region away from magnetic axis, except that the fraction of bananas is replaced by the fraction of potatoes. It also has a weak radial dependence. Modeling of plasma flow velocity V for the case where the magnetic surfaces are broken is also discussed.
The effect of sheared toroidal rotation on pressure driven magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas
Hegna, C. C.
2016-05-15
The impact of sheared toroidal rotation on the evolution of pressure driven magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas is investigated using a resistive magnetohydrodynamics model augmented by a neoclassical Ohm's law. Particular attention is paid to the asymptotic matching data as the Mercier indices are altered in the presence of sheared flow. Analysis of the nonlinear island Grad-Shafranov equation shows that sheared flows tend to amplify the stabilizing pressure/curvature contribution to pressure driven islands in toroidal tokamaks relative to the island bootstrap current contribution. As such, sheared toroidal rotation tends to reduce saturated magnetic island widths.
The effect of sheared toroidal rotation on pressure driven magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hegna, C. C.
2016-05-01
The impact of sheared toroidal rotation on the evolution of pressure driven magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas is investigated using a resistive magnetohydrodynamics model augmented by a neoclassical Ohm's law. Particular attention is paid to the asymptotic matching data as the Mercier indices are altered in the presence of sheared flow. Analysis of the nonlinear island Grad-Shafranov equation shows that sheared flows tend to amplify the stabilizing pressure/curvature contribution to pressure driven islands in toroidal tokamaks relative to the island bootstrap current contribution. As such, sheared toroidal rotation tends to reduce saturated magnetic island widths.
Finite toroidal flow generated by unstable tearing mode in a toroidal plasma
Hao, G. Z. Wang, A. K.; Xu, Y. H.; He, H. D.; Xu, M.; Qu, H. P.; Peng, X. D.; Xu, J. Q.; Qiu, X. M.; Liu, Y. Q.; Sun, Y.; Cui, S. Y.
2014-12-15
The neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity torque and electromagnetic torque, generated by tearing mode (TM) in a toroidal plasma, are numerically investigated using the MARS-Q code [Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 042503 (2013)]. It is found that an initially unstable tearing mode can intrinsically drive a toroidal plasma flow resulting in a steady state solution, in the absence of the external momentum input and external magnetic field perturbation. The saturated flow is in the order of 0.5%ω{sub A} at the q=2 rational surface in the considered case, with q and ω{sub A} being the safety factor and the Alfven frequency at the magnetic axis, respectively. The generation of the toroidal flow is robust, being insensitive to the given amplitude of the perturbation at initial state. On the other hand, the flow amplitude increases with increasing the plasma resistivity. Furthermore, the initially unstable tearing mode is fully stabilized by non-linear interaction with the self-generated toroidal flow.
Segmented saddle-shaped passive stabilization conductors for toroidal plasmas
Leuer, J.A.
1990-05-01
A large toroidal vacuum chamber for plasma generation and confinement is lined with a toroidal blanket for shielding using modules segmented in the toroidal direction. To provide passive stabilization in the same manner as a conductive vacuum chamber wall, saddle-shaped conductor loops are provided on blanket modules centered on a midplane of the toroidal chamber with horizontal conductive bars above and below the midplane, and vertical conductive legs on opposite sides of each module to provide return current paths between the upper and lower horizontal conductive bars. The close proximity of the vertical legs provided on adjacent modules without making physical contact cancel the electromagnetic field of adjacent vertical legs. The conductive bars spaced equally above and below the midplane simulate toroidal conductive loops or hoops that are continuous, for vertical stabilization of the plasma even though they are actually segmented. 5 figs.
Segmented saddle-shaped passive stabilization conductors for toroidal plasmas
Leuer, James A.
1990-05-01
A large toroidal vacuum chamber for plasma generation and confinement is lined with a toroidal blanket for shielding using modules segmented in the toroidal direction. To provide passive stabilization in the same manner as a conductive vacuum chamber wall, saddle-shaped conductor loops are provided on blanket modules centered on a midplane of the toroidal chamber with horizontal conductive bars above and below the midplane, and vertical conductive legs on opposite sides of each module to provide return current paths between the upper and lower horizontal conductive bars. The close proximity of the vertical legs provided on adjacent modules without making physical contact cancel the electromagnetic field of adjacent vertical legs. The conductive bars spaced equally above and below the midplane simulate toroidal conductive loops or hoops that are continuous, for vertical stabilization of the plasma even though they are actually segmented.
Collisional Ionization Equilibrium for Optically Thin Plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryans, P.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Savin, D. W.; Badnell, N. R.; Gorczyca, T. W.; Laming, J. M.
2006-01-01
Reliably interpreting spectra from electron-ionized cosmic plasmas requires accurate ionization balance calculations for the plasma in question. However, much of the atomic data needed for these calculations have not been generated using modern theoretical methods and their reliability are often highly suspect. We have utilized state-of-the-art calculations of dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients for the hydrogenic through Na-like ions of all elements from He to Zn. We have also utilized state-of-the-art radiative recombination (RR) rate coefficient calculations for the bare through Na-like ions of all elements from H to Zn. Using our data and the recommended electron impact ionization data of Mazzotta et al. (1998), we have calculated improved collisional ionization equilibrium calculations. We compare our calculated fractional ionic abundances using these data with those presented by Mazzotta et al. (1998) for all elements from H to Ni, and with the fractional abundances derived from the modern DR and RR calculations of Gu (2003a,b, 2004) for Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe, and Ni.
Collisional coupling in counterstreaming laser-produced plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koopman, D. W.; Goforth, R. R.
1974-01-01
The collisional processes which transfer momentum between counterstreaming plasmas are reviewed and applied to the example of a laser-produced plasma expanding into a partially ionized background. Experimental measurements of the dependence of the ion flow field on collisional momentum transfer demonstrate the validity of the simplified treatment of collision processes which have been adopted. A numerical model which simulates the laser-plasma interaction with the background confirms the importance of collisions in previous experimental studies of momentum coupling, and provides some insight into the distinction between collisional and collisionless flow regimes.
Confinement Time Exceeding One Second for a Toroidal Electron Plasma
Marler, J. P.; Stoneking, M. R.
2008-04-18
Nearly steady-state electron plasmas are trapped in a toroidal magnetic field for the first time. We report the first results from a new toroidal electron plasma experiment, the Lawrence Non-neutral Torus II, in which electron densities on the order of 10{sup 7} cm{sup -3} are trapped in a 270 deg. toroidal arc (670 G toroidal magnetic field) by application of trapping potentials to segments of a conducting shell. The total charge inferred from measurements of the frequency of the m=1 diocotron mode is observed to decay on a 3 s time scale, a time scale that approaches the predicted limit due to magnetic pumping transport. Three seconds represents {approx_equal}10{sup 5} periods of the lowest frequency plasma mode, indicating that nearly steady-state conditions are achieved.
Kinetic Stress and Intrinsic Flow in a Toroidal Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Brower, D. L.; Almagri, A. F.; Chapman, B. E.; Fiksel, G.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Sarff, J. S.
2013-02-01
A new mechanism for intrinsic plasma flow has been experimentally identified in a toroidal plasma. For reversed field pinch plasmas with a few percent β (ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure), measurements show that parallel pressure fluctuations correlated with magnetic fluctuations create a kinetic stress that can affect momentum balance and the evolution of intrinsic plasma flow. This implies kinetic effects are important for flow generation and sustainment.
Eulerian simulations of collisional effects on electrostatic plasma waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pezzi, Oreste; Valentini, Francesco; Perrone, Denise; Veltri, Pierluigi
2013-09-01
The problem of collisions in a plasma is a wide subject with a huge historical literature. In fact, the description of realistic plasmas is a tough problem to attack, both from the theoretical and the numerical point of view. In this paper, a Eulerian time-splitting algorithm for the study of the propagation of electrostatic waves in collisional plasmas is presented. Collisions are modeled through one-dimensional operators of the Fokker-Planck type, both in linear and nonlinear forms. The accuracy of the numerical code is discussed by comparing the numerical results to the analytical predictions obtained in some limit cases when trying to evaluate the effects of collisions in the phenomenon of wave plasma echo and collisional dissipation of Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal waves. Particular attention is devoted to the study of the nonlinear Dougherty collisional operator, recently used to describe the collisional dissipation of electron plasma waves in a pure electron plasma column [M. W. Anderson and T. M. O'Neil, Phys. Plasmas 14, 112110 (2007)]. Finally, for the study of collisional plasmas, a recipe to set the simulation parameters in order to prevent the filamentation problem can be provided, by exploiting the property of velocity diffusion operators to smooth out small velocity scales.
Eulerian simulations of collisional effects on electrostatic plasma waves
Pezzi, Oreste; Valentini, Francesco; Perrone, Denise; Veltri, Pierluigi
2013-09-15
The problem of collisions in a plasma is a wide subject with a huge historical literature. In fact, the description of realistic plasmas is a tough problem to attack, both from the theoretical and the numerical point of view. In this paper, a Eulerian time-splitting algorithm for the study of the propagation of electrostatic waves in collisional plasmas is presented. Collisions are modeled through one-dimensional operators of the Fokker-Planck type, both in linear and nonlinear forms. The accuracy of the numerical code is discussed by comparing the numerical results to the analytical predictions obtained in some limit cases when trying to evaluate the effects of collisions in the phenomenon of wave plasma echo and collisional dissipation of Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal waves. Particular attention is devoted to the study of the nonlinear Dougherty collisional operator, recently used to describe the collisional dissipation of electron plasma waves in a pure electron plasma column [M. W. Anderson and T. M. O'Neil, Phys. Plasmas 14, 112110 (2007)]. Finally, for the study of collisional plasmas, a recipe to set the simulation parameters in order to prevent the filamentation problem can be provided, by exploiting the property of velocity diffusion operators to smooth out small velocity scales.
Profiling compact toroid plasma density on CTIX with laser deflection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brockington, Samuel Joseph Erwin
A laser deflectometer measures line-integrated plasma density gradient using laser diodes and amplified point detectors. A laser passing through an optically thin plasma is refracted by an amount proportional to the line-integrated electron density gradient. I have designed, installed, and operated a deflection diagnostic for the Compact Toroid Injection Experiment (CTIX), a plasma rail gun which can create compact toroid (CT) plasmas of controllable density and velocity. The diagnostic design and motivation are discussed, as well as three experiments performed with deflectometry. Thus, my thesis consists of the design of the deflectometer diagnostic, a comparison of its accuracy to interferometer density measurements, and finally a survey of compact toroid density profiles in two dimensions conducted with an array of detectors.
Turbulent acceleration and heating in toroidal magnetized plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garbet, X.; Esteve, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Abiteboul, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Smolyakov, A.
2013-07-01
It is shown that turbulence is responsible for a source of momentum, which cannot be recast as a divergence of a momentum flux. This process is similar to turbulent heating, with similar properties. The sum over all species vanishes up to polarization contributions. Hence, toroidal momentum is transferred from species to species, mediated by turbulence. As for momentum flux, symmetry breaking is needed. Flow shear is investigated as a source of symmetry breaking, leading to a source of momentum proportional to the shear rate. Turbulent acceleration is significant for ion species. It is found that it is proportional to the charge number Z, while turbulent heating scales as Z2/A, where A is the mass number. It is maximum in the edge, where the E × B flow shear rate and turbulence intensity are maximum. When both are large enough, the turbulent torque may overcome the collisional friction between impurities and main ions, thus leading to different toroidal velocities.
Toroidal midplane neutral beam armor and plasma limiter
Kugel, H.W.; Hand, S.W. Jr.; Ksayian, H.
1985-05-31
This invention contemplates an armor shield/plasma limiter positioned upon the inner wall of a toroidal vacuum chamber within which is magnetically confined an energetic plasma in a tokamak nuclear fusion reactor. The armor shield/plasma limiter is thus of a general semi-toroidal shape and is comprised of a plurality of adjacent graphite plates positioned immediately adjacent to each other so as to form a continuous ring upon and around the toroidal chamber's inner wall and the reactor's midplane coil. Each plate has a generally semi-circular outer circumference and a recessed inner portion and is comprised of upper and lower half sections positioned immediately adjacent to one another along the midplane of the plate. With the upper and lower half sections thus joined, a channel or duct is provided within the midplane of the plate in which a magnetic flux loop is positioned. The magnetic flux loop is thus positioned immediately adjacent to the fusing toroidal plasma and serves as a diagnostic sensor with the armor shield/plasma limiter minimizing the amount of power from the energetic plasma as well as from the neutral particle beams heating the plasma incident upon the flux loop.
Achieving Long Confinement in a Toroidal Electron Plasma
Marler, J. P.; Smoniewski, J.; Ha Bao; Stoneking, M. R.
2009-03-30
We observe the m = 1 diocotron mode in a partial toroidal trap, and use it as the primary diagnostic for observing the plasma confinement. The frequency of the m = 1 mode, which is approximately proportional to the trapped charge, decays on a three second timescale. The confinement time exceeds, by at least an order of magnitude, the confinement observed in all other toroidal traps for non-neutral plasmas and approaches the theoretical limit set by magnetic pumping transport. Numerical simulations that include toroidal effects are employed to accurately extract plasma charge, equilibrium position and m = 1 mode amplitude from the experimental data. Future work will include attempts to withdraw the electron source in order to study confinement in a full torus.
Effect of toroidal plasma rotation on double tearing modes in cylindrical geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, R. B.; Lu, X. Q.; Huang, Q. H.; Dong, J. Q.; Gong, X. Y.
2016-12-01
The effect of toroidal plasma rotation on q = 3 double tearing modes (DTMs) was studied numerically in cylindrical geometry using the method of reduced magnetohydrodynamic simulation. The results indicate that toroidal plasma rotation can reduce the growth rate of DTMs, but the magnitude of toroidal velocity has weak effect, especially without shear. When the shear of toroidal velocity exists, the suppression effect becomes better. Whether the velocity flow has shear or not, the growth rate of DTMs decreases as the magnitude of toroidal velocity increases. With the increase of velocity shear, the DTMs grow slowly. And the suppression effect of toroidal plasma rotation in early growth and transition stage is better, which means that the toroidal plasma rotation can suppress the linear growth of islands. Furthermore, the toroidal plasma rotation can suppress the evolution of poloidal stream. And the toroidal velocity shear on the q = 3 rational surface is more dominant than the magnitude of toroidal velocity in determining the DTM characteristics.
Stellarator approach to toroidal plasma confinement
Johnson, J.L.
1981-12-01
An overview is presented of the development and current status of the stellarator approach to controlled thermonuclear confinement. Recent experimental, theoretical, and systems developments have made this concept a viable option for the evolution of the toroidal confinement program. Some experimental study of specific problems associated with departure from two-dimensional symmetry must be undertaken before the full advantages and opportunities of steady-state, net-current-free operation can be realized.
Impurity Transport in a Mixed-Collisionality Stellarator Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helander, P.; Newton, S. L.; Mollén, A.; Smith, H. M.
2017-04-01
A potential threat to the performance of magnetically confined fusion plasmas is the problem of impurity accumulation, which causes the concentration of highly charged impurity ions to rise uncontrollably in the center of the plasma and spoil the energy confinement by excessive radiation. It has long been thought that the collisional transport of impurities in stellarators always leads to such an accumulation (if the electric field points inwards, which is usually the case), whereas tokamaks, being axisymmetric, can benefit from "temperature screening," i.e., an outward flux of impurities driven by the temperature gradient. Here it is shown, using analytical techniques supported by results from a new numerical code, that such screening can arise in stellarator plasmas, too, and indeed does so in one of the most relevant operating regimes, where the impurities are highly collisional while the bulk plasma is at low collisionality.
Impact of plasma poloidal rotation on resistive wall mode instability in toroidally rotating plasmas
Aiba, N.; Shiraishi, J.; Tokuda, S.
2011-02-15
Stability of resistive wall mode (RWM) is investigated in a cylindrical plasma and an axisymmetric toroidal plasma by taking into account not only toroidal rotation but also poloidal rotation. Since the Doppler shifted frequency is responsible for the RWM stability, the modification of this Doppler shifted frequency by poloidal rotation affects the rotation effect on RWM. When a poloidal rotation frequency is not so large, the effect of poloidal rotation on the RWM stability can be approximately treated with the modified toroidal rotation frequency. In a toroidal plasma, this modified frequency is determined by subtracting a toroidal component of the rotation parallel to the magnetic field from the toroidal rotation frequency. The poloidal rotation that counteracts the effect of the Doppler shift strongly reduces the stabilizing effect of toroidal rotation, but by changing the rotational direction, the poloidal rotation enhances this stabilizing effect. This trend is confirmed in not only a cylindrical plasma but also a toroidal plasma. This result indicates that poloidal rotation produces the dependence of the critical toroidal rotation frequency for stabilizing RWM on the rotational direction of toroidal rotation in the same magnetic configuration.
Langmuir probe in collisionless and collisional plasma including dusty plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose, Sayak; Kaur, Manjit; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Ghosh, J.; Saxena, Y. C.; Pal, R.
2017-04-01
Measurements of local plasma parameters in dusty plasma are crucial for understanding the physics issues related to such systems. The Langmuir probe, a small electrode immersed in the plasma, provides such measurements. However, designing of a Langmuir probe system in a dusty plasma environment demands special consideration. First, the probe has to be miniaturized enough so that its perturbation on the ambient dust structure is minimal. At the same time, the probe dimensions must be such that a well-defined theory exists for interpretation of its characteristics. The associated instrumentation must also support the measurement of current collected by the probe with high signal to noise ratio. The most important consideration, of course, comes from the fact that the probes are prone to dust contamination, as the dust particles tend to stick to the probe surface and alter the current collecting area in unpredictable ways. This article describes the design and operation of a Langmuir probe system that resolves these challenging issues in dusty plasma. In doing so, first, different theories that are used to interpret the probe characteristics in collisionless as well as in collisional regimes are discussed, with special emphasis on application. The critical issues associated with the current-voltage characteristics of Langmuir probe obtained in different operating regimes are discussed. Then, an algorithm for processing these characteristics efficiently in presence of ion-neutral collisions in the probe sheath is presented.
Antenna excitation of drift wave in a toroidal plasma
Diallo, A.; Ricci, P.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Mueller, S. H.; Podesta, M.; Poli, F. M.; Skiff, F.
2007-10-15
In a magnetized toroidal plasma, an antenna tunable in vertical wave number is used to excite density perturbations. Coherent detection is performed by means of Langmuir probes to directly determine both the wave vector and the plasma response induced by the antenna. Comparison between the theoretical density response predicted by the generalized Hasegawa-Wakatani model, and the experimentally determined density response enables us the identification of one peak of the plasma response as a drift wave.
Control of impurities in toroidal plasma devices
Ohkawa, Tihiro
1980-01-01
A method and apparatus for plasma impurity control in closed flux plasma systems such as Tokamak reactors is disclosed. Local axisymmetrical injection of hydrogen gas is employed to reverse the normally inward flow of impurities into the plasma.
Does the Bohm Criterion have meaning for collisional plasmas?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Severn, Greg; Yip, Chi-Shung; Nourgostar, Sirous; Hershkowitz, Noah
2014-10-01
Theorists view the Bohm criterion as approximately true, holding only for collisionless plasmas. The question of whether there exists a collisionally modified Bohm Criterion (CMBC) is often answered in the negative, and it is only a question of how the Bohm Criterion fails for the case of finite collisionality. The question is of importance considering that nearly all practical plasma processing applications involve plasmas of finite collisionality. There is, however, very little experimental work to help choose between competing models of how Bohm's Criterion fails. The question of critical importance is this: in plasmas of finite collisionality, do ions reach the Bohm speed at the location where the quasineutral plasma ends and where space charge appears? We have begun to examine the question experimentally in single ion species plasmas, and our goal is to vary the ion-neutral mean free path λ within the interval 1 < λ /λD <103 , where λD is the Debye length, and to present both plasma potential data and ion velocity distribution function profiles, measured by emissive probes and by LIF, respectively, to help us understand and assess the validity of theoretical claims. Work supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-1206421, CBET-0903783, and CBET-0903832, and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grant Nos. DE-FG02- 97ER54437 and DE FG02- 03ER54728.
Toroidal modeling of plasma response to RMP fields in ITER
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, L.; Liu, Y. Q.; Wang, N.; Kirk, A.; Koslowski, H. R.; Liang, Y.; Loarte, A.; Ryan, D.; Zhong, F. C.
2017-04-01
A systematic numerical study is carried out, computing the resistive plasma response to the resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields for ITER plasmas, utilizing the toroidal code MARS-F (Liu et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 3681). A number of factors are taken into account, including the variation of the plasma scenarios (from 15 MA Q = 10 inductive scenario to the 9 MA Q = 5 steady state scenario), the variation of the toroidal spectrum of the applied fields (n = 1, 2, 3, 4, with n being the toroidal mode number), the amplitude and phase variation of the currents in three rows of the RMP coils as designed for ITER, and finally a special case of mixed toroidal spectrum between the n = 3 and n = 4 RMP fields. Two-dimensional parameter scans, for the edge safety factor and the coil phasing between the upper and lower rows of coils, yield ‘optimal’ curves that maximize a set of figures of merit, that are defined in this work to measure the plasma response. Other two-dimensional scans of the relative coil current phasing among three rows of coils, at fixed coil currents amplitude, reveal a single optimum for each coil configuration with a given n number, for the 15 MA ITER inductive plasma. On the other hand, scanning of the coil current amplitude, at fixed coil phasing, shows either synergy or cancellation effect, for the field contributions between the off-middle rows and the middle row of the RMP coils. Finally, the mixed toroidal spectrum, by combining the n = 3 and the n = 4 RMP field, results in a substantial local reduction of the amplitude of the plasma surface displacement.
Experimental Realization of Nearly Steady-State Toroidal Electron Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoneking, M. R.
2008-11-01
Non-neutral plasmas are routinely confined in the uniform magnetic field of a Penning-Malmberg trap for arbitrarily long times and approach thermal equilibrium. Theory predicts that dynamically stable and therefore long-lived equilibria exist for non-neutral plasmas confined in the curved, non-uniform field of a toroidal trap, but that ultimately thermal equilibrium states do not exist. On long timescales, the poloidal ExB rotation through the non-uniform toroidal magnetic field leads to magnetic pumping transport. A new experiment has, for the first time, demonstrated the existence of a stable, long-lived (i.e. nearly steady-state) toroidal equilibrium for pure electron plasmas and is poised to observe the magnetic pumping transport mechanism. Electron plasmas with densities of order 10^6 cm-3 are trapped in the Lawrence Non-neutral Torus II for several seconds. LNT II is a high aspect ratio (Ro/a 10), partially toroidal trap (a 270^o arc with Bo=670 G). The m=1 diocotron mode is launched and detected using isolated segments of a fully-sectored conducting boundary and its frequency is used to determine the total trapped charge as a function of time. The observed confinement time ( 3 s) approaches the theoretical limit ( 6 s) set by the magnetic pumping transport mechanism of Crooks and O'Neil. We also present equilibrium modeling and numerical simulation of the toroidal m=1 mode constrained by experimental data. Future work includes the identification of the dominant transport mechanisms via confinement scaling experiments and measurement of the m=2 mode frequency, and development of a strategy for making a transition to fully toroidal confinement. J.P. Marler and M.R. Stoneking, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 155001 (2008). S.M. Crooks and T.M. O'Neil, Phys Plamas 3, 2533 (1996).
Toroidal Plasma Thruster for Interplanetary and Interstellar Space Flights
N.N. Gorelenkov; L.E. Zakharov; and M.V. Gorelenkova
2001-07-11
This work involves a conceptual assessment for using the toroidal fusion reactor for deep space interplanetary and interstellar missions. Toroidal thermonuclear fusion reactors, such as tokamaks and stellarators, are unique for space propulsion, allowing for a design with the magnetic configuration localized inside toroidal magnetic field coils. Plasma energetic ions, including charged fusion products, can escape such a closed configuration at certain conditions, a result of the vertical drift in toroidal rippled magnetic field. Escaping particles can be used for direct propulsion (since toroidal drift is directed one way vertically) or to create and heat externally confined plasma, so that the latter can be used for propulsion. Deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons with an energy of 14.1 MeV also can be used for direct propulsion. A special design allows neutrons to escape the shield and the blanket of the tokamak. This provides a direct (partial) conversion of the fusion energy into the directed motion of the propellant. In contrast to other fusion concepts proposed for space propulsion, this concept utilizes the natural drift motion of charged particles out of the closed magnetic field configuration.
Noninductively Driven Tokamak Plasmas at Near-Unity Toroidal Beta
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlossberg, D. J.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.
2017-07-01
Access to and characterization of sustained, toroidally confined plasmas with a very high plasma-to-magnetic pressure ratio (βt ), low internal inductance, high elongation, and nonsolenoidal current drive is a central goal of present tokamak plasma research. Stable access to this desirable parameter space is demonstrated in plasmas with ultralow aspect ratio and high elongation. Local helicity injection provides nonsolenoidal sustainment, low internal inductance, and ion heating. Equilibrium analyses indicate βt up to ˜100 % with a minimum |B | well spanning up to ˜50 % of the plasma volume.
Noninductively Driven Tokamak Plasmas at Near-Unity Toroidal Beta
Schlossberg, David J.; Bodner, Grant M.; Bongard, Michael W.; ...
2017-07-01
Access to and characterization of sustained, toroidally confined plasmas with a very high plasma-to-magnetic pressure ratio (βt), low internal inductance, high elongation, and nonsolenoidal current drive is a central goal of present tokamak plasma research. Stable access to this desirable parameter space is demonstrated in plasmas with ultralow aspect ratio and high elongation. Local helicity injection provides nonsolenoidal sustainment, low internal inductance, and ion heating. Equilibrium analyses indicate βt up to ~100% with a minimum |B| well spanning up to ~50% of the plasma volume.
Anomalous toroidal field penetration in Tormac V
Feinberg, B.; Vaucher, B. G.; Shaw, R. S.; Vella, M. C.
1981-07-01
We investigate magnetic field penetration into a cool, collisional, magnetized plasma in Tormac V. Magnetic probe and laser interferometer studies reveal anomalous penetration of the applied toroidal field into a plasma with an initial parallel bias toroidal field. The applied poloidal field, however, formed a well-defined magnetic front which was effective at sweeping up particles. Lastly, strong shear in the vacuum magnetic field does not inhibit the apparent decoupling of the applied toroidal field from the applied poloidal field.
Non-axisymmetric magnetic fields and toroidal plasma confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boozer, Allen H.
2015-02-01
The physics of non-axisymmetry is a far more important topic in the theory of toroidal fusion plasmas than might be expected. (1) Even a small toroidal asymmetry in the magnetic field strength, δ ≡ ∂ln B/∂φ ˜ 10-4, can cause an unacceptable degradation in performance. (2) Nevertheless, asymmetries—even large asymmetries δ ˜ 1—can give beneficial plasma control and circumvent issues, such as magnetic-configuration maintenance and plasma disruptions, that make axisymmetric fusion devices problematic. Viewed from prospectives that are adequate for designing and studying axisymmetric plasmas, the physics of non-axisymmetric plasmas appears dauntingly difficult. Remarkably, Maxwell's equations provide such strong constraints on the physics of toroidal fusion plasmas that even a black-box model of a plasma answers many important questions. Kinetic theory and non-equilibrium thermodynamics provide further, but more nuanced, constraints. This paper is organized so these constraints can be used as a basis for the innovations and for the extrapolations that are required to go from existing experiments to fusion systems. Outlines are given of a number of calculations that would be of great importance to ITER and to the overall fusion program and that could be carried out now with limited resources.
Magnetosonic wave in pair-ion electron collisional plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussain, S.; Hasnain, H.
2017-03-01
Low frequency magnetosonic waves in positive and negative ions of equal mass and opposite charges in the presence of electrons in collisional plasmas are studied. The collisions of ions and electrons with neutrals are taken into account. The nonlinearities in the plasma system arise due to ion and electrons flux, Lorentz forces, and plasma current densities. The reductive perturbation method is applied to derive the Damped Korteweg de Vries (DKdV) equation. The time dependent solution of DKdV is presented. The effects of variations of different plasma parameters on propagation characteristics of magnetosonic waves in pair-ion electron plasma in the context of laboratory plasmas are discussed.
Solitary perturbations in the steep boundary of magnetized toroidal plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, J. E.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, W.; Kim, M. H.; Choi, M.; Lee, J.; Kim, M.; Park, H. K.; Bak, J. G.; Ko, W. H.; Park, Y. S.
2017-03-01
Solitary perturbations (SPs) localized both poloidally and radially are detected within ~100 μs before the partial collapse of the high pressure gradient boundary region (called pedestal) of magnetized toroidal plasma in the KSTAR tokamak device. The SP develops with a low toroidal mode number (typically unity) in the pedestal ingrained with quasi-stable edge-localized mode (QSM) which commonly appears during the inter-collapse period. The SPs have smaller mode pitch and different (often opposite) rotation velocity compared to the QSMs. Similar solitary perturbations are also frequently observed before the onset of complete pedestal collapse, suggesting a strong connection between the SP generation and the pedestal collapse.
Mode converter for electron cyclotron resonance heating of toroidal plasmas
Motley, R.W.; Hsuan, H.; Glanz, J.
1980-09-01
A method is proposed for improving the efficiency of cyclotron resonance heating of a toroidal plasma by ordinary mode radiation from the outside of the torus. Radiation not absorbed in the first pass is reflected from the inside of the torus by a corrugated surface which rotates the polarization by 90/sup 0/, so that a secondary source of extraordinary waves is created in the high field, accessible region of the plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camporeale, E.; Pezzi, O.; Valentini, F.
2015-12-01
The longstanding problem of collisions in plasmas is a very fascinating and huge topic in plasma physics. The 'natural' operator that describes the Coulombian interactions between charged particles is the Landau (LAN) integral operator. The LAN operator is a nonlinear, integro-differential and Fokker-Planck type operator which satisfies the H theorem for the entropy growth. Due to its nonlinear nature and multi-dimensionality, any approach to the solution of the Landau integral is almost prohibitive. Therefore collisions are usually modeled by simplified collisional operators. Here collisional effects are modeled by i) the one-dimensional Lenard-Bernstein (LB) operator and ii) the three-dimensional Dougherty (DG) operator. In the first case i), by focusing on a 1D-1V phase space, we study recurrence effects in a weakly collisional plasma, being collisions modeled by the LB operator. By decomposing the linear Vlasov-Poisson system in the Fourier-Hermite space, the recurrence problem is investigated in the linear regime of the damping of a Langmuir wave and of the onset of the bump-on-tail instability. The analysis is then confirmed and extended to the nonlinear regime through a Eulerian collisional Vlasov-Poisson code. Despite being routinely used, an artificial collisionality is not in general a viable way of preventing recurrence in numerical simulations. Moreover, recursive phenomena affect both the linear exponential growth and the nonlinear saturation of a linear instability by producing a fake growth in the electric field, thus showing that, although the filamentation is usually associated with low amplitude fluctuations contexts, it can occur also in nonlinear phenomena. On the other hand ii), the effects of electron-electron collisions on the propagation of nonlinear electrostatic waves are shown by means of Eulerian simulations in a 1D-3V (one dimension in physical space, three dimensions in velocity space) phase space. The nonlinear regime of the symmetric
Stabilization of global MHD instabilities by toroidal plasma rotation
Chu, M.S.; Miller, R.L.; Bondeson, A.; Luetjens, H.; DeRidder, G.; Sauter, O.
1995-07-01
Theoretical study and experimental observations suggest that rotation can play a crucial role in determining plasma stability. Since conventional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) analysis ignores rotation, more advanced computational tools are being developed to confirm the theoretical understanding and to perform comparison between theory and experiment. In a previous work, the authors reported on the formulation and computation of MHD modes in plasmas with a small (subsonic) toroidal rotation. R.otation is found to have a substantial stabilizing effect under many circumstances. In this work, they extend the formulation in Ref. 4 to include an arbitrary (large) toroidal plasma rotation. It is the purpose of this work to examine the difference between these two formulations and report on results from computations using these formulations.
Collisional Radiative Models for non-Maxwellian plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartgers, Bart; van Dijk, Jan; van der Mullen, Joost
1999-10-01
Collisional Radiative models are a useful tool for studying plasmas. In their simplest form, they are used to calculate an atomic state distribution function (ASDF) from given electron and neutral densities and an electron temperature. Additionally, global ionization and recombination coefficients can be calculated as a function of electron density and temperature. In turn, these coefficients are used as input for the general plasma model
Kinetic model for the collisionless sheath of a collisional plasma
Tang, Xian-Zhu Guo, Zehua
2016-08-15
Collisional plasmas typically have mean-free-path still much greater than the Debye length, so the sheath is mostly collisionless. Once the plasma density, temperature, and flow are specified at the sheath entrance, the profile variation of electron and ion density, temperature, flow speed, and conductive heat fluxes inside the sheath is set by collisionless dynamics, and can be predicted by an analytical kinetic model distribution. These predictions are contrasted here with direct kinetic simulations, showing good agreement.
Toroidal midplane neutral beam armor and plasma limiter
Kugel, Henry W.; Hand, Jr, Samuel W.; Ksayian, Haig
1986-01-01
For use in a tokamak fusion reactor having a midplane magnetic coil on the inner wall of an evacuated toriodal chamber within which a neutral beam heated, fusing plasma is magnetically confined, a neutral beam armor shield and plasma limiter is provided on the inner wall of the toroidal chamber to shield the midplane coil from neutral beam shine-thru and plasma deposition. The armor shield/plasma limiter forms a semicircular enclosure around the midplane coil with the outer surface of the armor shield/plasma limiter shaped to match, as closely as practical, the inner limiting magnetic flux surface of the toroidally confined, indented, bean-shaped plasma. The armor shield/plasma limiter includes a plurality of semicircular graphite plates each having a pair of coupled upper and lower sections with each plate positioned in intimate contact with an adjacent plate on each side thereof so as to form a closed, planar structure around the entire outer periphery of the circular midplane coil. The upper and lower plate sections are adapted for coupling to heat sensing thermocouples and to a circulating water conduit system for cooling the armor shield/plasma limiter.The inner center portion of each graphite plate is adapted to receive and enclose a section of a circular diagnostic magnetic flux loop so as to minimize the power from the plasma confinement chamber incident upon the flux loop.
Toroidal midplane neutral beam armor and plasma limiter
Kugel, Henry W.; Hand Jr, Samuel W.; Ksayian, Haig
1986-02-04
For use in a tokamak fusion reactor having a midplane magnetic coil on the inner wall of an evacuated toriodal chamber within which a neutral beam heated, fusing plasma is magnetically confined, a neutral beam armor shield and plasma limiter is provided on the inner wall of the toroidal chamber to shield the midplane coil from neutral beam shine-thru and plasma deposition. The armor shield/plasma limiter forms a semicircular enclosure around the midplane coil with the outer surface of the armor shield/plasma limiter shaped to match, as closely as practical, the inner limiting magnetic flux surface of the toroidally confined, indented, bean-shaped plasma. The armor shield/plasma limiter includes a plurality of semicircular graphite plates each having a pair of coupled upper and lower sections with each plate positioned in intimate contact with an adjacent plate on each side thereof so as to form a closed, planar structure around the entire outer periphery of the circular midplane coil. The upper and lower plate sections are adapted for coupling to heat sensing thermocouples and to a circulating water conduit system for cooling the armor shield/plasma limiter.The inner center portion of each graphite plate is adapted to receive and enclose a section of a circular diagnostic magnetic flux loop so as to minimize the power from the plasma confinement chamber incident upon the flux loop.
REVIEW ARTICLE: Control of non-axisymmetric toroidal plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boozer, Allen H.
2010-10-01
The control of non-axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, stellarators, has a different character than the control of tokamaks for two reasons. Non-axisymmetric magnetic fields (1) can provide an arbitrarily large fraction of the poloidal magnetic field and (2) can strongly center the plasma in the chamber making it impossible to lose position control. The focus of stellarator design is on plasmas that are stable without feedback, need little or no change in the external magnetic field as the plasma evolves, and require no external power to maintain the desired magnetic configuration. The physics of non-axisymmetric fields is the same whether in a tokamak or a stellarator and whether introduced intentionally or accidentally. Fundamental physics indicates that plasma shape, which is controlled by the distribution of the external magnetic field that is normal to the plasma surface, is the primary control for fusion plasmas. The importance of non-axisymmetric control is set by the importance of toroidal plasma physics. Informed decisions on the development strategy of tokamaks, as well as magnetic fusion in general, require an understanding of the capabilities and difficulties of plasma control at various levels of non-axisymmetric shaping.
Bounce-Transit and Drift Resonance and Neoclassical Toroidal Plasma Viscosity in Tokamaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaing, K. C.; Chu, M. S.; Sabbagh, S. A.
2009-05-01
The importance of the resonance between the bounce frequency of the trapped particles and precession drift frequency in tokamaks to the low frequency magnetohydroynamic instabilities has been recognized for a long time. The resonance is also important in the transport processes as demonstrated by Park, et al. in calculating the neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity [1]. They found that the transport fluxes are independent of the collision frequency, i.e., a resonant plateau regime. Here, we develop a theory for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity to include not only the bounce and drift resonance of the trapped particles but also the transit and drift resonance the circulating particles [2]. In the resonant plateau regime, our results are similar to those obtained by Park, et al., except that bounce average over the trapped particle trajectories is not performed and that the contributions from the circulating particles are included. In the collisional limit, it is found that the resonant plateau regime is connected to the Pfirsch-Schluter regime. [1] PARK, J.-K.,et al., IAEA,Fusion Energy Conference, Geneva, October 2008, Paper EX/5-3Rb. [2] SHAING, K. C., CHU, M. S., and SABBAGH, S. A., (to be submitted to Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion)
Compact toroidal plasmas: simulations and theory
Harned, D.S.
1982-01-01
Realistic FRC equilibria are calculated and their stability to the n = 1 tilting mode is studied. Excluding kinetic effects, configurations ranging from elliptical to racetrack are unstable. Particle simulations of FRCs show that particle loss on open field lines can cause sufficient plasma rotation to drive the n = 2 rotational instability. The allowed frequencies of the shear Alfven wave are calculated for use in heating of spheromaks. An expanded spheromak is introduced and its stability properties are studied. Transport calculations of CTs are described. A power balance model shows that many features of gun generated CT plasmas can be explained by the dominance of impurity radiation. It is shown how the Taylor relaxation theory, applied to gun generated CT plasmas, leads to the possibility of steady state current drive. Lastly, applications of accelerated CTs are considered.
A novel electron density reconstruction method for asymmetrical toroidal plasmas
Shi, N.; Ohshima, S.; Minami, T.; Nagasaki, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Mizuuchi, T.; Okada, H.; Kado, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Konoshima, S.; Sano, F.; Tanaka, K.; Ohtani, Y.; Zang, L.; Kenmochi, N.
2014-05-15
A novel reconstruction method is developed for acquiring the electron density profile from multi-channel interferometric measurements of strongly asymmetrical toroidal plasmas. It is based on a regularization technique, and a generalized cross-validation function is used to optimize the regularization parameter with the aid of singular value decomposition. The feasibility of method could be testified by simulated measurements based on a magnetic configuration of the flexible helical-axis heliotron device, Heliotron J, which has an asymmetrical poloidal cross section. And the successful reconstruction makes possible to construct a multi-channel Far-infrared laser interferometry on this device. The advantages of this method are demonstrated by comparison with a conventional method. The factors which may affect the accuracy of the results are investigated, and an error analysis is carried out. Based on the obtained results, the proposed method is highly promising for accurately reconstructing the electron density in the asymmetrical toroidal plasma.
Neoclassical electron and ion transport in toroidally rotating plasmas
Sugama, H.; Horton, W.
1997-06-01
Neoclassical transport processes of electrons and ions are investigated in detail for toroidally rotating axisymmetric plasmas with large flow velocities on the order of the ion thermal speed. The Onsager relations for the flow-dependent neoclassical transport coefficients are derived from the symmetry properties of the drift kinetic equation with the self-adjoint collision operator. The complete neoclassical transport matrix with the Onsager symmetry is obtained for the rotating plasma consisting of electrons and single-species ions in the Pfirsch{endash}Schl{umlt u}ter and banana regimes. It is found that the inward banana fluxes of particles and toroidal momentum are driven by the parallel electric field, which are phenomena coupled through the Onsager symmetric off-diagonal coefficients to the parallel currents caused by the radial thermodynamic forces conjugate to the inward fluxes, respectively. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Nishimura, S.; Sugama, H.; Maassberg, H.; Beidler, C. D.; Murakami, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Hirooka, S.
2010-08-15
The dependence of neoclassical parallel flow calculations on the maximum order of Laguerre polynomial expansions is investigated in a magnetic configuration of the Large Helical Device [S. Murakami, A. Wakasa, H. Maassberg, et al., Nucl. Fusion 42, L19 (2002)] using the monoenergetic coefficient database obtained by an international collaboration. On the basis of a previous generalization (the so-called Sugama-Nishimura method [H. Sugama and S. Nishimura, Phys. Plasmas 15, 042502 (2008)]) to an arbitrary order of the expansion, the 13 M, 21 M, and 29 M approximations are compared. In a previous comparison, only the ion distribution function in the banana collisionality regime of single-ion-species plasmas in tokamak configurations was investigated. In this paper, the dependence of the problems including electrons and impurities in the general collisionality regime in an actual nonsymmetric toroidal configuration is reported. In particular, qualities of approximations for the electron distribution function are investigated in detail.
Collisional Effects in Complex (Dusty) Plasmas
Khrapak, S. A.
2008-09-07
This is a short overview of recent results demonstrating the importance of ion-neutral collisions for different processes naturally occurring in complex (dusty) plasmas. Most important developments are briefly discussed and relevant references are provided.
The limits of the Bohm criterion in collisional plasmas
Valentini, H.-B.; Kaiser, D.
2015-05-15
The sheath formation within a low-pressure collisional plasma is analysed by means of a two-fluid model. The Bohm criterion takes into account the effects of the electric field and the inertia of the ions. Numerical results yield that these effects contribute to the space charge formation, only, if the collisionality is lower than a relatively small threshold. It follows that a lower and an upper limit of the drift speed of the ions exist where the effects treated by Bohm can form a sheath. This interval becomes narrower as the collisionality increases and vanishes at the mentioned threshold. Above the threshold, the sheath is mainly created by collisions and the ionisation. Under these conditions, the sheath formation cannot be described by means of Bohm like criteria. In a few references, a so-called upper limit of the Bohm criterion is stated for collisional plasmas where the momentum equation of the ions is taken into account, only. However, the present paper shows that this limit results in an unrealistically steep increase of the space charge density towards the wall, and, therefore, it yields no useful limit of the Bohm velocity.
Effects of toroidal field ripple on suprathermal ions in tokamak plasmas
Goldston, R.J.; Towner, H.H.
1980-02-01
Analytic calculations of three important effects of toroidal field ripple on suprathermal ions in tokamak plasmas are presented. In the first process, collisional ripple-trapping, beam ions become trapped in local magnetic wells near their banana tips due to pitch-angle scattering as they traverse the ripple on barely unripple-trapped orbits. In the second process, collisionless ripple-trapping, near-perpendicular untrapped ions are captured (again near a banana tip) due to their finite orbits, which carry them out into regions of higher ripple. In the third process, banana-drift diffusion, fast-ion banana orbits fail to close precisely, due to a ripple-induced variable lingering period near the banana tips. These three mechanisms lead to substantial radial transport of banana-trapped, neutral-beam-injected ions when the quantity ..cap alpha..* identical with epsilon/sin theta/Nqdelta is of order unity or smaller.
Toroidal dust motion in magnetized plasmas
Reichstein, Torben; Pilch, Iris; Piel, Alexander
2010-09-15
In a magnetized anodic plasma, dust particles can be confined in a torus-shaped cloud with a distinct dust-free region (void) in its center. The formation of these clouds and their dynamical behavior are experimentally studied with a new observation geometry. The particles rotate about the major axis of the torus. A refined model for the description of the particle dynamics is presented that accounts for inertia and many-body effects.
Kinetic ion-acoustic solitary waves in collisional plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pezzi, Oreste; Valentini, Francesco; Veltri, Pierluigi
2014-05-01
The excitation and the propagation of solitary waves of ion-acoustic nature are analyzed by means of kinetic Eulerian simulations, in both collision-free and collisional plasmas, composed of kinetic warm protons and linear Boltzmannian electrons. The process of soliton formation is discussed in detail through the description of the time evolution of the electrostatic potential and of the associated phase space portraits of the proton distribution function. We study the effects of collisions on the propagation of solitary waves, by modeling proton-proton interactions through the one-dimensional nonlinear Dougherty operator, which is a collisional operator of the Fokker-Planck type. We show how, in a case of non-negligible collisionality, short spatial scales in the electrostatic potential are dissipated in time and the phase space structures, observed in the distribution function in absence of collisions, are significantly smoothed out. Finally, by exploiting the analogy between ion-acoustic waves in neutral infinite plasma and Trivelpiece-Gould waves in nonneutral plasmas columns, a recipe to observe solitary structures in nonneutral plasma devices is proposed.
Ion loss in weakly collisional three ion species plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hershkowitz, Noah; Yip, Chi-Shung; Severn, Greg
2016-10-01
Ion velocity distribution functions (ivdfs) at sheath-presheath boundaries are studied with laser-induced fluorescence in weakly collisional Xe-Kr-Ar and Xe-Ar-Ne plasmas using tunable diode lasers for Ar + and Xe + ions. The argon and xenon ivdfs are measured at the sheath-presheath boundary near a negatively biased boundary plate. The plasma potential profiles are measured by an emissive probe throughout the sheath and presheath. Relative ion concentrations resulting from the neutral gas mixtures are calculated using G-H. Kim's loss-production balance method. Ne + and Kr + ions are added to plasmas with approximately equal amounts of Ar + and Xr + ions, where Ar + and Xe + ions are previously observed to reach the sheath edge at nearly the system sound speed. In two ion species plasmas, instability enhanced collisional friction was demonstrated to dictate the escape velocities of the ions. When three ion species are present, it is demonstrated that as the concentration of the third ion species increases, Xe + and Ar + ion velocities at the sheath edge deviates from the common sound speed and approach their individual Bohm velocities. These observations are consistent with the predictions of the instability enhanced collisional friction theory This work was supported by NSF under Grant No. 1464741 and U.S. DOE under Grant No. DE-SC00114226.
Renormalized dissipation in plasmas with finite collisionality
Parker, S.E.; Carati, D. |
1995-07-17
A nonlinear truncation procedure for Fourier-Hermite expansion of Boltzmann-type plasma equations is presented which eliminates fine velocity scale, taking into account its effect on coarser scales. The truncated system is then transformed back to ({ital x},{upsilon}) space which results in a renormalized Boltzmann equation. The resulting equation may allow for coarser velocity space resolution in kinetic simulations while reducing to the original Boltzmann equation when fine velocity scales are resolved. To illustrate the procedure, renormalized equations are derived for one dimensional electrostatic plasmas in which collisions are modeled by the Lenard-Bernstein operator.
Renormalized dissipation in plasmas with finite collisionality
Parker, S.E.; Carati, D.
1995-05-01
A nonlinear truncation procedure for Fourier-Hermite expansion of Boltzmann-type plasma equations is presented which eliminates fine velocity scale, taking into account its effect on coarser scales. The truncated system is then transformed back to (x, v) space which results in a renormalized Boltzmann equation. The resulting equation may allow for coarser velocity space resolution in kinetic simulations while reducing to the original Boltzmann equation when fine velocity scales are resolved. To illustrate the procedure, renormalized equations are derived for one dimensional electrostatic plasmas in which collisions are modeled by the Lenard-Bernstein operator.
Theory and application of maximum magnetic energy in toroidal plasmas
Chu, T.K.
1992-02-01
The magnetic energy in an inductively driven steady-state toroidal plasma is a maximum for a given rate of dissipation of energy (Poynting flux). A purely resistive steady state of the piecewise force-free configuration, however, cannot exist, as the periodic removal of the excess poloidal flux and pressure, due to heating, ruptures the static equilibrium of the partitioning rational surfaces intermittently. The rupture necessitates a plasma with a negative q{prime}/q (as in reverse field pinches and spheromaks) to have the same {alpha} in all its force-free regions and with a positive q{prime}/q (as in tokamaks) to have centrally peaked {alpha}'s.
Theory and application of maximum magnetic energy in toroidal plasmas
Chu, T.K.
1992-02-01
The magnetic energy in an inductively driven steady-state toroidal plasma is a maximum for a given rate of dissipation of energy (Poynting flux). A purely resistive steady state of the piecewise force-free configuration, however, cannot exist, as the periodic removal of the excess poloidal flux and pressure, due to heating, ruptures the static equilibrium of the partitioning rational surfaces intermittently. The rupture necessitates a plasma with a negative q{prime}/q (as in reverse field pinches and spheromaks) to have the same {alpha} in all its force-free regions and with a positive q{prime}/q (as in tokamaks) to have centrally peaked {alpha}`s.
Dependence of ELM Control Using RMPs in DIII-D on Plasma Shape and Toroidal Rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, S. L.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Evans, T. E.; Burrell, K. H.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H.; West, W. P.; Moyer, R. A.; Joseph, I.; Watkins, J. G.
2006-10-01
The size and frequency of Type-I ELMs has been controlled in DIII-D H-mode plasmas using n=3 resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) produced by an internal coil. The operating space of ELM control has been expanded to include both low and high triangularity shapes for both low and high pedestal collisionalities. The dependence of the ELM control on density, power, plasma beta and RMP amplitude in an ITER similar shape (ISS) will be compared with previous results [1-3] in a lower average triangularity (LAT) shape. New results showing the effect of toroidal rotation on the RMP assisted ELM control will also be presented and compared with available theories [4] for the screening of the RMP fields by a rotating plasma. 6pt [1] T.E. Evans, Nat. Phys. 2, 419 (2006). [2] T.E. Evans, Phys. Plasmas 13, 056121 (2006). [3] R.A. Moyer, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056119 (2005). [4] R. Fitzpatrick, Phys. Plasmas 5, 3325 (1998)
Experimental realization of nearly steady-state toroidal electron plasmas
Stoneking, M. R.; Ha, B. N.; Smoniewski, J.; Marler, J. P.
2009-05-15
Electron plasmas with densities of 5x10{sup 6} cm{sup -3} are trapped in the Lawrence Non-neutral Torus II (LNT II) for times exceeding 1 s. LNT II is a high aspect ratio (R{sub 0}/a > or approx.10) partially toroidal trap (270 deg. arc, B{sub 0}=670 G). The m=1 diocotron mode is launched and detected using isolated segments of a fully sectored conducting boundary and its frequency is used to determine the total trapped charge as a function of time. The observed confinement time ({approx_equal}3 s) approaches the theoretical limit ({approx_equal}6 s) set by the magnetic pumping transport mechanism of Crooks and O'Neil [Phys. Plasmas 3, 2533 (1996)]. We also present equilibrium modeling and numerical simulations of the toroidal m=1 mode constrained by experimental data. Future work includes the identification of the dominant transport mechanisms via confinement scaling experiments and measurement of the m=2 mode frequency and development of a strategy for making a transition to fully toroidal confinement.
Peeters, A G; Angioni, C; Strintzi, D
2007-06-29
In this Letter, the influence of the "Coriolis drift" on small scale instabilities in toroidal plasmas is shown to generate a toroidal momentum pinch velocity. Such a pinch results because the Coriolis drift generates a coupling between the density and temperature perturbations on the one hand and the perturbed parallel flow velocity on the other. A simple fluid model is used to highlight the physics mechanism and gyro-kinetic calculations are performed to accurately assess the magnitude of the pinch. The derived pinch velocity leads to a radial gradient of the toroidal velocity profile even in the absence of a torque on the plasma and is predicted to generate a peaking of the toroidal velocity profile similar to the peaking of the density profile. Finally, the pinch also affects the interpretation of current experiments.
Solitary perturbations in the steep boundary of magnetized toroidal plasma
Lee, J. E.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, W.; Kim, M. H.; Choi, M.; Lee, J.; Kim, M.; Park, H. K.; Bak, J. G.; Ko, W. H.; Park, Y. S.
2017-01-01
Solitary perturbations (SPs) localized both poloidally and radially are detected within ~100 μs before the partial collapse of the high pressure gradient boundary region (called pedestal) of magnetized toroidal plasma in the KSTAR tokamak device. The SP develops with a low toroidal mode number (typically unity) in the pedestal ingrained with quasi-stable edge-localized mode (QSM) which commonly appears during the inter-collapse period. The SPs have smaller mode pitch and different (often opposite) rotation velocity compared to the QSMs. Similar solitary perturbations are also frequently observed before the onset of complete pedestal collapse, suggesting a strong connection between the SP generation and the pedestal collapse. PMID:28338046
Collisional three-body recombination in strongly coupled ultracold plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vorob'ev, V. S.
2017-07-01
The collisional three-body (e - e - ion) recombination in an ultracold plasma is considered when the temperature T is small and the coupling parameter characterizing the interaction of electrons and ions exceeds unity. For these conditions, we calculate the average energy of the electron and find the recombination coefficient. The latter for small values of the coupling parameter becomes ˜ T-9 /2 and for large ones is inversely proportional to the plasma frequency. We compare the results obtained with different theoretical models and the numerical simulation data of the recombination process.
Fully implicit kinetic modelling of collisional plasmas
Mousseau, Vincent Andrew
1996-05-01
This dissertation describes a numerical technique, Matrix-Free Newton Krylov, for solving a simplified Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation. This method is both deterministic and fully implicit, and may not have been a viable option before current developments in numerical methods. Results are presented that indicate the efficiency of the Matrix-Free Newton Krylov method for these fully-coupled, nonlinear integro-differential equations. The use and requirement for advanced differencing is also shown. To this end, implementations of Chang-Cooper differencing and flux limited Quadratic Upstream Interpolation for Convective Kinematics (QUICK) are presented. Results are given for a fully kinetic ion-electron problem with a self consistent electric field calculated from the ion and electron distribution functions. This numerical method, including advanced differencing, provides accurate solutions, which quickly converge on workstation class machines. It is demonstrated that efficient steady-state solutions can be achieved to the non-linear integro-differential equation, obtaining quadratic convergence, without incurring the large memory requirements of an integral operator. Model problems are presented which simulate plasma impinging on a plate with both high and low neutral particle recycling typical of a divertor in a Tokamak device. These model problems demonstrate the performance of the new solution method.
Quasi-collisional Magneto-optic Effects in Collisionless Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keenan, Brett; Ford, Alex; Medvedev, Mikhail
2016-03-01
High-amplitude, chaotic/turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations are ubiquitous in astrophysical plasmas, where they can be excited by various kinetic-streaming and/or anisotropy-driven instabilities, such as the Weibel instability. These fields typically exist on ``sub-Larmor scales'' -- scales smaller than the electron Larmor radius. Electrons moving through such magnetic fields undergo small-angle stochastic deflections of their pitch-angles, thus establishing diffusive transport on long time-scales. We show that this behavior, under certain conditions, is equivalent to Coulomb collisions in collisional plasmas. The magnetic pitch-angle diffusion coefficient, which acts as an effective ``collision'' frequency, may be substantial in these, otherwise, collisionless environments. We show that this effect, colloquially referred to as the plasma ``quasi-collisionality'', may radically alter the expected radiative transport properties of candidate plasmas. We argue that the modified magneto-optic effects in these plasmas provide an attractive, novel radiative diagnostic tool for the exploration and characterization of small-scale magnetic turbulence.
Modeling collisional processes in plasmas using discontinuous numerical methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Sean
Fluid-based plasma models are typically applied to parameter regimes where a local thermal equilibrium is assumed. The applicability of this regime is valid for many plasmas, however, it is limited to plasma dynamics dominated by collisional effects. This study attempts to extend the validity of the collisional fluid regime using an anisotropic 13-moment fluid model derived from the Pearson type-IV probability distribution. The model explicitly evolves the heat flux hyperbolically alongside the density, momentum, and energy in order to capture dynamics usually restricted to costly kinetic models. Each particle species is modeled individually and collectively coupled through electromagnetic and collision operators. To remove electromagnetic divergence errors inherent to numerical representations of Maxwell's equations, both hyperbolic and parabolic cleaning methods are presented. The plasma models are implemented using high-order finite volume and discontinuous Galerkin numerical methods designed for unstructured meshes. The unstructured code framework, numerical methods, and plasma models were developed in the University of Washington's WARPXM code for use on heterogeneous accelerated clusters.
Harris, J.H.; Murakami, M.; Baylor, L.R.; Bell, J.D.; Bigelow, T.S.; Carreras, B.A.; Colchin, R.J.; Crume, E.C. Jr.; Dominguez, N.; Dory, R.A.; Dunlap, J.L.; Dyer, G.R.; England, A.C.; Glowienka, J.C.; Hillis, D.L.; Hiroe, S.; Howe, H.C.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Isler, R.C.; Jernigan, T.C.; Langley, R.A.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Lee, D.K.; Lyon, J.F.; Ma, C.H.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Simpkins, J.E.; Uckan, T.; Vander Sluis, K.L.; Wilgen, J.B.; Win
1991-01-01
In low-collisionality plasmas confined in tokamaks and stellarators, instabilities driven by particles trapped in inhomogeneities of the magnetic fields could be important in increasing plasma transport coefficients. In the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF), an {ell} = 2, M = 12 field-period stellarator device with major radius R = 2.1 m, average plasma minor radius a = 0.27 m, central and edge rotational transforms {chi}{sub 0} {approx} 0.3, {chi}{sub a} {approx} 1, the effects of electron trapping in the helical stellarator field are expected to be important in plasmas with {bar n}{sub e} {approx} 5 {times} 10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}3}, T{sub e0} {approx} 1 keV. Such plasmas have already been sustained for long-pulses (20 s) using 150--400 kW of 53.2-GHz ECH power at B = 0.95 T. Transport analysis shows that for {rho} = r/a {le} 1/3, the electron anomalous transport is {le}10 times the neoclassical value, while at {rho} = 2/3 it is 10--100 times neoclassical; this is compatible with expectations for transport enhancement due to dissipative trapped-electron modes. 4 refs., 3 figs.
Fluctuations and intermittent poloidal transport in a simple toroidal plasma
Goud, T. S.; Ganesh, R.; Saxena, Y. C.; Raju, D.
2013-07-15
In a simple magnetized toroidal plasma, fluctuation induced poloidal flux is found to be significant in magnitude. The probability distribution function of the fluctuation induced poloidal flux is observed to be strongly non-Gaussian in nature; however, in some cases, the distribution shows good agreement with the analytical form [Carreras et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2664 (1996)], assuming a coupling between the near Gaussian density and poloidal velocity fluctuations. The observed non-Gaussian nature of the fluctuation induced poloidal flux and other plasma parameters such as density and fluctuating poloidal velocity in this device is due to intermittent and bursty nature of poloidal transport. In the simple magnetized torus used here, such an intermittent fluctuation induced poloidal flux is found to play a crucial role in generating the poloidal flow.
Transport scaling in interchange-driven toroidal plasmas
Ricci, Paolo; Rogers, B. N.
2009-06-15
Two-dimensional fluid simulations of a simple magnetized torus are presented, in which the vertical and toroidal components of the magnetic field create helicoidal field lines that terminate on the upper and lower walls of the plasma chamber. The simulations self-consistently evolve the full radial profiles of the electric potential, density, and electron temperature in the presence of three competing effects: the cross-field turbulent transport driven by the interchange instability, parallel losses to the upper and lower walls, and the input of particles and heat by external plasma sources. Considering parameter regimes in which equilibrium ExB shear flow effects are weak, we study the dependence of the plasma profiles--in particular the pressure profile scale length--on the parameters of the system. Analytical scalings are obtained that show remarkable agreement with the simulations.
The acoustic instabilities in magnetized collisional dusty plasmas
Pandey, B. P.; Vladimirov, S. V.; Dwivedi, C. B.
2014-09-15
The present work investigates the wave propagation in collisional dusty plasmas in the presence of electric and magnetic field. It is shown that the dust ion-acoustic waves may become unstable to the reactive instability whereas dust-acoustic waves may suffer from both reactive and dissipative instabilities. If the wave phase speed is smaller than the plasma drift speed, the instability is of reactive type whereas in the opposite case, the instability becomes dissipative in nature. Plasma in the vicinity of dust may also become unstable to reactive instability with the instability sensitive to the dust material: dielectric dust may considerably quench this instability. This has implications for the dust charging and the use of dust as a probe in the plasma sheath.
Turbulent particle transport as a function of toroidal rotation in DIII-D H-mode plasmas
Wang, Xin; Mordijck, Saskia; Zeng, Lei; ...
2016-03-01
In this paper we show how changes in toroidal rotation, by controlling the injected torque, affect particle transport and confinement. The toroidal rotation is altered using the co- and counter neutral beam injection (NBI) in low collisionality H-mode plasmas on DIII-D with dominant electron cyclotron heating (ECH). We find that there is no correlation between the toroidal rotation shear and the inverse density gradient, which is observed on AUG whenmore » $${{T}_{\\text{e}}}/{{T}_{\\text{i}}}$$ is varied using ECH (Angioni et al 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 215003). In DIII-D, we find that in a discharge with balanced torque injection, the $$E\\times B$$ shear is smaller than the linear gyrokinetic growth rate for small $${{k}_{\\theta}}{{\\rho}_{s}}$$ for $$\\rho =0.6$$ –0.85. This results in lower particle confinement. In the co- and counter- injected discharges the $$E\\times B$$ shear is larger or close to the linear growth rate at the plasma edge and both configurations have higher particle confinement. In order to measure particle transport, we use a small periodic perturbative gas puff. This gas puff perturbs the density profiles and allows us to extract the perturbed diffusion and inward pinch coefficients. We observe a strong increase in the inward particle pinch in the counter-torque injected plasma. Lastly, the calculated quasi-linear particle flux, nor the linear growth rates using TGLF agree with experimental observations.« less
Turbulent particle transport as a function of toroidal rotation in DIII-D H-mode plasmas
Wang, Xin; Mordijck, Saskia; Zeng, Lei; Schmitz, Lothar; Rhodes, Terry L.; Doyle, Edward J.; Groebner, Richard; Meneghini, Orso; Staebler, George M.; Smith, Sterling P.
2016-03-01
In this paper we show how changes in toroidal rotation, by controlling the injected torque, affect particle transport and confinement. The toroidal rotation is altered using the co- and counter neutral beam injection (NBI) in low collisionality H-mode plasmas on DIII-D with dominant electron cyclotron heating (ECH). We find that there is no correlation between the toroidal rotation shear and the inverse density gradient, which is observed on AUG when ${{T}_{\\text{e}}}/{{T}_{\\text{i}}}$ is varied using ECH (Angioni et al 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 215003). In DIII-D, we find that in a discharge with balanced torque injection, the $E\\times B$ shear is smaller than the linear gyrokinetic growth rate for small ${{k}_{\\theta}}{{\\rho}_{s}}$ for $\\rho =0.6$ –0.85. This results in lower particle confinement. In the co- and counter- injected discharges the $E\\times B$ shear is larger or close to the linear growth rate at the plasma edge and both configurations have higher particle confinement. In order to measure particle transport, we use a small periodic perturbative gas puff. This gas puff perturbs the density profiles and allows us to extract the perturbed diffusion and inward pinch coefficients. We observe a strong increase in the inward particle pinch in the counter-torque injected plasma. Lastly, the calculated quasi-linear particle flux, nor the linear growth rates using TGLF agree with experimental observations.
Model for a transformer-coupled toroidal plasma source
Rauf, Shahid; Balakrishna, Ajit; Chen Zhigang; Collins, Ken
2012-01-15
A two-dimensional fluid plasma model for a transformer-coupled toroidal plasma source is described. Ferrites are used in this device to improve the electromagnetic coupling between the primary coils carrying radio frequency (rf) current and a secondary plasma loop. Appropriate components of the Maxwell equations are solved to determine the electromagnetic fields and electron power deposition in the model. The effect of gas flow on species transport is also considered. The model is applied to 1 Torr Ar/NH{sub 3} plasma in this article. Rf electric field lines form a loop in the vacuum chamber and generate a plasma ring. Due to rapid dissociation of NH{sub 3}, NH{sub x}{sup +} ions are more prevalent near the gas inlet and Ar{sup +} ions are the dominant ions farther downstream. NH{sub 3} and its by-products rapidly dissociate into small fragments as the gas flows through the plasma. With increasing source power, NH{sub 3} dissociates more readily and NH{sub x}{sup +} ions are more tightly confined near the gas inlet. Gas flow rate significantly influences the plasma characteristics. With increasing gas flow rate, NH{sub 3} dissociation occurs farther from the gas inlet in regions with higher electron density. Consequently, more NH{sub 4}{sup +} ions are produced and dissociation by-products have higher concentrations near the outlet.
On the Toroidal Plasma Rotations Induced by Lower Hybrid Waves
Guan, Xiaoyin; Qin, Hong; Liu, Jian; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2012-11-14
A theoretical model is developed to explain the plasma rotations induced by lower hybrid waves in Alcator C-Mod. In this model, torodial rotations are driven by the Lorentz force on the bulk electron flow across flux surfaces, which is a response of the plasma to the resonant-electron flow across flux surfaces induced by the lower hybrid waves. The flow across flux surfaces of the resonant electrons and the bulk electrons are coupled through the radial electric fi eld initiated by the resonant electrons, and the friction between ions and electrons transfers the toroidal momentum to ions from electrons. An improved quasilinear theory with gyrophase dependent distribution function is developed to calculate the perpendicular resonant-electron flow. Toroidal rotations are determined using a set of fluid equations for bulk electrons and ions, which are solved numerically by a fi nite- difference method. Numerical results agree well with the experimental observations in terms of flow pro file and amplitude. The model explains the strong correlation between torodial flow and internal inductance observed experimentally, and predicts both counter-current and co-current flows, depending on the perpendicular wave vectors of the lower hybrid waves. __________________________________________________
A model Monte Carlo collision operator for toroidal plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukhtar, Q.; Hellsten, T.; Johnson, T.
2013-10-01
In order to simulate radio refquency (RF)-heating in toroidal plasmas in the banana regime a model collision operator has been developed, which relaxes the distribution function towards a prescribed local Maxwellian either determined by experiments or transport codes. The pitch angle scattering by Coulomb collisions gives rise to spatial diffusion in toroidal plasmas because of the coupling between spatial and velocity coordinates. The coupling between the spatial and velocity components results in drift terms in the Monte Carlo formulation of the Fokker-Planck equation due to spatial derivatives of the Jacobian, the fraction of the trapped particles, the density and the temperature profiles. A simple RF operator is used to test the collision operator in conjunction with RF heating. The formation of a high-energy tail on the distribution function during RF heating leads to reduction of the density of the thermal ions as the tail builds up. For central heating this reduction can lead to hollow density profiles of thermal ions. The spatial diffusion caused by the relaxation of the thermal ions towards a prescribed density profile then gives rise to an increase of the density of resonant ions in regions with strong heating where the thermal ions diffuse towards higher energies.
Collisional Damping Of Plasma Waves On A Pure Electron Plasma Column
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, M. W.; O'Neil, T. M.
2009-03-01
The collisional damping of electron plasma waves (or, more precisely, Trivelpiece-Gould waves) on a pure electron plasma column is discussed. The damping in a pure electron plasma differs from that in a neutral plasma, since there are no ions to provide collisional drag. A dispersion equation for the complex wave frequency is derived from Poisson's equation and the drift-kinetic equation with the Dougherty collision operator—a Fokker-Planck operator that conserves particle number, momentum, and energy yet is analytically tractable. In the limit of weak collisionality, for phase velocity comparable to the thermal velocity, Landau damping is recovered. For larger phase velocity, where Landau damping is negligible, the dispersion equation can be solved analytically, yielding the complex frequency ω = (kzωp/k)[1+(3/2)(kλD)2(1+10iα/9)(1+2iα)-1], where ωp is the plasma frequency, kz is the axial wavenumber, k is the total wavenumber, λD is the Debye length, ν is the collision frequency, and α≡νk/ωpkz. This expression spans from the weakly collisional regime (α≪1)) to the strongly collisional regime (α≫1), matching onto fluid results in the latter limit. Note that in the weakly collisional regime the damping rate is given by Im(ω)≅-4ν(kλD)2/3, which is suppressed from the damping rate in a neutral plasma [Im(ω)≅-ν/2] by the factor (kλD)2≪1; this suppression reflects the conservation of electron momentum in the pure electron plasma. In the limit of strong collisionality, the damping is enhanced by cross-field transport resulting from long-range collisions. These collisions are neglected in the kinetic treatment, but their contribution to the damping is estimated from fluid theory.
Simulations of a molecular plasma in collisional-radiative nonequilibrium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cambier, Jean-Luc; Moreau, Stephane
1993-01-01
A code for the simulation of nonequilibrium plasmas is being developed, with the capability to couple the plasma fluid-dynamics for a single fluid with a collisional-radiative model, where electronic states are treated as separate species. The model allows for non-Boltzmann distribution of the electronic states. Deviations from the Boltzmann distributions are expected to occur in the rapidly ionizing regime behind a strong shock or in the recombining regime during a fast expansion. This additional step in modeling complexity is expected to yield more accurate predictions of the nonequilibrium state and the radiation spectrum and intensity. An attempt at extending the code to molecular plasma flows is presented. The numerical techniques used, the thermochemical model, and the results of some numerical tests are described.
Magnetosonic shock wave in collisional pair-ion plasma
Adak, Ashish Khan, Manoranjan; Sikdar, Arnab
2016-06-15
Nonlinear propagation of magnetosonic shock wave has been studied in collisional magnetized pair-ion plasma. The masses of both ions are same but the temperatures are slightly different. Two fluid model has been taken to describe the model. Two different modes of the magnetosonic wave have been obtained. The dynamics of the nonlinear magnetosonic wave is governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burgers' equation. It has been shown that the ion-ion collision is the source of dissipation that causes the Burgers' term which is responsible for the shock structures in equal mass pair-ion plasma. The numerical investigations reveal that the magnetosonic wave exhibits both oscillatory and monotonic shock structures depending on the strength of the dissipation. The nonlinear wave exhibited the oscillatory shock wave for strong magnetic field (weak dissipation) and monotonic shock wave for weak magnetic field (strong dissipation). The results have been discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiments.
Experiments on pure electron plasmas confined in a toroidal geometry
Nakashima, Chihiro; Yoshida, Zensho; Morikawa, Junji; Himura, Haruhiko; Kakuno, Hidekazu; Tahara, Shigeru; Shibayama, Norihisa
1999-12-10
The toroidal magnetic trap has an advantage in achieving long orbit lengths, which allows us to apply a slow process of energy reduction to the trapped particles. On Proto-RT (Prototype Ring Trap), we have demonstrated the confinement of a pure electron plasma without the help of external electric fields. We have injected electrons with the energy of 2 keV inside a separatrix. The electrostatic potential of the electron cloud is of order 100 V. The corresponding density of the electron plasma is calculated to be of order 10{sup 13} m{sup -3}. In order to modulate the kinetic energy of the electrons we are now planning RF assisted injection of electrons.
Collisional Damping of Plasma Waves on a Pure Electron Plasma Column.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, M. W.; O'Neil, T. M.
2007-11-01
Collisional damping of electron plasma waves (Trivelpiece-Gould waves) on a magnetized pure electron plasma column is discussed. Damping in a pure electron plasma differs from damping in a neutral plasma, since there are no ions to provide a collisional drag on the oscillating electrons. A dispersion relation for the complex frequency, φ, is derived from Poisson's equation and the drift-kinetic equation with the Dougherty collision operator. This approximate Fokker-Planck operator conserves particle number, momentum, and energy, and also is analytically tractable. For large phase velocity, where Landau damping is negligible, the dispersion relation yields the complex frequency φ kzφp/ k)[1 3/2)(k λD)^2 (1 10 α/ 9) (1 2 α)-1], where φp is the plasma frequency, kz is the axial wave number, k is the total wave number, λD is the Debye length, ν is the collision frequency and α k / φpkz. This expression spans uniformly from the weakly collisional regime ( α ) to the strongly collisional regime (α> 1 ), matching onto fluid results in the latter limit. For comparison, note that in the weakly collisional regime, the damping rate is given by Im (φ) 4 νk^2 λD^2 / 3, which is suppressed from the damping rate for the case of a neutral plasma [i.e., Im (φ) ˜- ν] by the small factor ( k λD)^2 1.
Electrostatic thermal noise in a weakly ionized collisional plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinović, M. M.; Zaslavsky, A.; Maksimović, M.; Å egan, S.
2017-01-01
Quasi-thermal noise (QTN) spectroscopy is a plasma diagnostic technique which enables precise measurements of local electron velocity distribution function moments. This technique is based on measurements and analysis of voltage fluctuations at the antenna terminals, induced by thermal motion of charged particles. In this work, we accommodate, for the first time, this technique to weakly ionized collisional plasmas. It turns out that the QTN spectrum is modified both at low frequencies, increasing the level of power spectrum, and around the plasma frequency, where collisions damp the plasma oscillations and therefore broaden and reduce the amplitude of so called "plasma peak," while the spectrum at high frequencies is nearly unmodified compared to the collisionless case. Based on these results, we show that QTN spectroscopy enables independent measurements of the collision frequency, electron density, and temperature, provided the ratio of collision frequency to plasma frequency is ν/ωp˜0.1. The method presented here can be used for precise estimation of plasma parameters in laboratory devices and unmagnetized ionospheres, while application in the ionosphere of Earth is possible but limited to small, low-frequency range due to magnetic field influence.
Nonlinear transport processes in tokamak plasmas. I. The collisional regimes
Sonnino, Giorgio; Peeters, Philippe
2008-06-15
An application of the thermodynamic field theory (TFT) to transport processes in L-mode tokamak plasmas is presented. The nonlinear corrections to the linear ('Onsager') transport coefficients in the collisional regimes are derived. A quite encouraging result is the appearance of an asymmetry between the Pfirsch-Schlueter (P-S) ion and electron transport coefficients: the latter presents a nonlinear correction, which is absent for the ions, and makes the radial electron coefficients much larger than the former. Explicit calculations and comparisons between the neoclassical results and the TFT predictions for Joint European Torus (JET) plasmas are also reported. It is found that the nonlinear electron P-S transport coefficients exceed the values provided by neoclassical theory by a factor that may be of the order 10{sup 2}. The nonlinear classical coefficients exceed the neoclassical ones by a factor that may be of order 2. For JET, the discrepancy between experimental and theoretical results for the electron losses is therefore significantly reduced by a factor 10{sup 2} when the nonlinear contributions are duly taken into account but, there is still a factor of 10{sup 2} to be explained. This is most likely due to turbulence. The expressions of the ion transport coefficients, determined by the neoclassical theory in these two regimes, remain unaltered. The low-collisional regimes, i.e., the plateau and the banana regimes, are analyzed in the second part of this work.
Nonlinear transport processes in tokamak plasmas. I. The collisional regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sonnino, Giorgio; Peeters, Philippe
2008-06-01
An application of the thermodynamic field theory (TFT) to transport processes in L-mode tokamak plasmas is presented. The nonlinear corrections to the linear ("Onsager") transport coefficients in the collisional regimes are derived. A quite encouraging result is the appearance of an asymmetry between the Pfirsch-Schlüter (P-S) ion and electron transport coefficients: the latter presents a nonlinear correction, which is absent for the ions, and makes the radial electron coefficients much larger than the former. Explicit calculations and comparisons between the neoclassical results and the TFT predictions for Joint European Torus (JET) plasmas are also reported. It is found that the nonlinear electron P-S transport coefficients exceed the values provided by neoclassical theory by a factor that may be of the order 102. The nonlinear classical coefficients exceed the neoclassical ones by a factor that may be of order 2. For JET, the discrepancy between experimental and theoretical results for the electron losses is therefore significantly reduced by a factor 102 when the nonlinear contributions are duly taken into account but, there is still a factor of 102 to be explained. This is most likely due to turbulence. The expressions of the ion transport coefficients, determined by the neoclassical theory in these two regimes, remain unaltered. The low-collisional regimes, i.e., the plateau and the banana regimes, are analyzed in the second part of this work.
Electromagnetic drift waves dispersion for arbitrarily collisional plasmas
Lee, Wonjae Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.; Angus, J. R.
2015-07-15
The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on resistive and collisionless drift waves are studied. A local linear analysis on an electromagnetic drift-kinetic equation with Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-like collision operator demonstrates that the model is valid for describing linear growth rates of drift wave instabilities in a wide range of plasma parameters showing convergence to reference models for limiting cases. The wave-particle interactions drive collisionless drift-Alfvén wave instability in low collisionality and high beta plasma regime. The Landau resonance effects not only excite collisionless drift wave modes but also suppress high frequency electron inertia modes observed from an electromagnetic fluid model in collisionless and low beta regime. Considering ion temperature effects, it is found that the impact of finite Larmor radius effects significantly reduces the growth rate of the drift-Alfvén wave instability with synergistic effects of high beta stabilization and Landau resonance.
Mechanism for blob generation in the TORPEX toroidal plasma
Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Fasoli, A.; Poli, F. M.; Ricci, P.; Theiler, C.; Brunner, S.; Diallo, A.; Graves, J. P.; Podesta, M.; Mueller, S. H.
2008-05-15
The mechanism for blob generation is detailed in the toroidal magnetized plasma of the TORPEX device [Fasoli et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 055902 (2006)] using an experimental configuration, which features a plasma region dominated by a coherent wave and a region on the low field side characterized by the propagation of blobs. Predictions from linearized 2D drift-reduced Braginskii equations are compared with experimental data, revealing the interchange nature of the coherent wave. The dynamics of blob formation is investigated using time-resolved measurements of two-dimensional profiles of electron density, temperature, plasma potential and ExB velocity. Blobs form from radially elongated structures associated with the interchange wave. When a blob is generated, the following sequence of events is observed: 1) A decrease of local pressure gradient length provides an increase of the interchange mode drive; 2) in response, the interchange mode increases in amplitude and expands in the radial direction forming a radially elongated structure from the wave crest; 3) the elongated structure is convected by the ExB flow and is eventually sheared off, forming a blob on the low field side. The dependence of the blob amplitude upon the minimum pressure radial scale length before the blob ejection is also investigated.
Ion temperature and toroidal rotation in JET's low torque plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernardo, J.; Nave, M. F. F.; Giroud, C.; Reyes Cortes, S.; Bizarro, João P. S.
2016-11-01
This paper reports on the procedure developed as the best method to provide an accurate and reliable estimation of the ion temperature Ti and the toroidal velocity vϕ from Charge-eXchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS) data from intrinsic rotation experiments at the Joint European Torus with the carbon wall. The low impurity content observed in such plasmas, resulting in low active CXRS signal, alongside low Doppler shifts makes the determination of Ti and vϕ particularly difficult. The beam modulation method will be discussed along with the measures taken to increase photon statistics and minimise errors from the absolute calibration and magneto-hydro-dynamics effects that may impact the CXRS passive emission.
Equilibrium and Stability of Partial Toroidal Plasma Discharges
Oz, E.; Myers, C. E.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Kulsrud, R.; Xie, J.
2011-01-04
The equilibrium and stability of partial toroidal flux ropes are studied in detail in the laboratory, motivated by ubiquitous loop structures on the solar surface. The flux ropes studied here are magnetized arc discharges formed in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX). It is found that these loops robustly maintain their equilibrium on time scales much longer than the Alfven time over a wide range of plasma current, guide eld strength, and angle between electrodes, even in the absence of a strapping fi eld. Additionally, the external kink stability of these flux ropes is found to be governed by the Kruskal-Shafranov limit for a flux rope with line-tied boundary conditions at both ends (q > 1).
Collisional damping of plasma waves on a pure electron plasma column
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, M. W.; O'Neil, T. M.
2007-11-01
The collisional damping of electron plasma waves (or Trivelpiece-Gould waves) on a pure electron plasma column is discussed. The damping in a pure electron plasma differs from that in a neutral plasma, since there are no ions to provide collisional drag. A dispersion relation for the complex wave frequency is derived from Poisson's equation and the drift-kinetic equation with the Dougherty collision operator—a Fokker-Planck operator that conserves particle number, momentum, and energy. For large phase velocity, where Landau damping is negligible, the dispersion relation yields the complex frequency ω =(kzωp/k)[1+(3/2)(kλD)2(1+10iα/9)(1+2iα)-1], where ωp is the plasma frequency, kz is the axial wavenumber, k is the total wavenumber, λD is the Debye length, ν is the collision frequency, and α ≡νk/ωpkz. This expression spans from the weakly collisional regime (α≪1) to the moderately collisional regime (α˜1) and in the weakly collisional limit yields a damping rate which is smaller than that for a neutral plasma by the factor k2λD2≪1. In the strongly collisional limit (α≫1), the damping is enhanced by long-range interactions that are not present in the kinetic theory (which assumes pointlike interactions); the effect of these long-range collisions on the damping is discussed.
Toroidal modeling of interaction between resistive wall mode and plasma flow
Liu Yueqiang
2013-02-15
The non-linear interplay between the resistive wall mode (RWM) and the toroidal plasma flow is numerically investigated in a full toroidal geometry, by simultaneously solving the initial value problems for the n = 1 RWM and the n = 0 toroidal force balance equation. Here, n is the toroidal mode number. The neoclassical toroidal viscous torque is identified as the major momentum sink that brakes the toroidal plasma flow during the non-linear evolution of the RWM. This holds for a mode that is initially either unstable or stable. For an initially stable RWM, the braking of the flow, and hence the eventual growth of the mode, depends critically on the initial perturbation amplitude.
An Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Model for Relativistic Weakly Collisional Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandra, Mani; Gammie, Charles F.; Foucart, Francois; Quataert, Eliot
2015-09-01
Black holes that accrete far below the Eddington limit are believed to accrete through a geometrically thick, optically thin, rotationally supported plasma that we will refer to as a radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF). RIAFs are typically collisionless in the sense that the Coulomb mean free path is large compared to {GM}/{c}2, and relativistically hot near the event horizon. In this paper we develop a phenomenological model for the plasma in RIAFs, motivated by the application to sources such as Sgr A* and M87. The model is derived using Israel-Stewart theory, which considers deviations up to second order from thermal equilibrium, but modified for a magnetized plasma. This leads to thermal conduction along magnetic field lines and a difference in pressure, parallel and perpendicular to the field lines (which is equivalent to anisotropic viscosity). In the non-relativistic limit, our model reduces to the widely used Braginskii theory of magnetized, weakly collisional plasmas. We compare our model to the existing literature on dissipative relativistic fluids, describe the linear theory of the plasma, and elucidate the physical meaning of the free parameters in the model. We also describe limits of the model when the conduction is saturated and when the viscosity implies a large pressure anisotropy. In future work, the formalism developed in this paper will be used in numerical models of RIAFs to assess the importance of non-ideal processes for the dynamics and radiative properties of slowly accreting black holes.
Toroidal curvature induced screening of external fields by a resistive plasma response
Liu Yueqiang; Connor, J. W.; Cowley, S. C.; Ham, C. J.; Hastie, R. J.; Hender, T. C.
2012-07-15
Within the single fluid theory for a toroidal, resistive plasma, the favorable average curvature effect [Glasser et al., Phys. Fluids 18, 875 (1975)], which is responsible for the strong stabilization of the classical tearing mode at finite pressure, can also introduce a strong screening effect to the externally applied resonant magnetic field. Contrary to conventional understanding, this screening, occurring at slow plasma rotation, is enhanced when decreasing the plasma flow speed. The plasma rotation frequency, below which this screening effect is observed, depends on the plasma pressure and resistivity. For the simple toroidal case considered here, the toroidal rotation frequency has to be below {approx}10{sup -5}{omega}{sub A}, with {omega}{sub A} being the Alfven frequency. In addition, the same curvature effect leads to enhanced toroidal coupling of poloidal Fourier harmonics inside the resistive layer, as well as reversing the sign of the electromagnetic torque at slow plasma flow.
Toroidal curvature induced screening of external fields by a resistive plasma response
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yueqiang; Connor, J. W.; Cowley, S. C.; Ham, C. J.; Hastie, R. J.; Hender, T. C.
2012-07-01
Within the single fluid theory for a toroidal, resistive plasma, the favorable average curvature effect [Glasser et al., Phys. Fluids 18, 875 (1975)], which is responsible for the strong stabilization of the classical tearing mode at finite pressure, can also introduce a strong screening effect to the externally applied resonant magnetic field. Contrary to conventional understanding, this screening, occurring at slow plasma rotation, is enhanced when decreasing the plasma flow speed. The plasma rotation frequency, below which this screening effect is observed, depends on the plasma pressure and resistivity. For the simple toroidal case considered here, the toroidal rotation frequency has to be below ˜10-5ωA, with ωA being the Alfvén frequency. In addition, the same curvature effect leads to enhanced toroidal coupling of poloidal Fourier harmonics inside the resistive layer, as well as reversing the sign of the electromagnetic torque at slow plasma flow.
A conservative scheme for Vlasov Poisson Landau modeling collisional plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Chenglong; Gamba, Irene M.
2017-07-01
We have developed a deterministic conservative solver for the inhomogeneous Fokker-Planck-Landau equation coupled with the Poisson equation, which is a classical mean-field primary model for collisional plasmas. Two subproblems, i.e. the Vlasov-Poisson problem and homogeneous Landau problem, are obtained through time-splitting methods, and treated separately by the Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin method and a conservative spectral method, respectively. To ensure conservation when projecting between the two different computing grids, a special conservation routine is designed to link the solutions of these two subproblems. This conservation routine accurately enforces conservation of moments in Fourier space. The entire numerical scheme is implemented with parallelization with hybrid MPI and OpenMP. Numerical experiments are provided to study linear and nonlinear Landau Damping problems and two-stream flow problem as well.
Self-focusing of electromagnetic pulsed beams in collisional plasmas
Faisal, Mohammad; Verma, M. P.; Sodha, Mahendra Singh
2008-10-15
In this paper, the self-focusing of an electromagnetic pulsed beam in a collisional plasma has been investigated in the paraxial approximation, following the formalism developed by Akhmanov. The energy balance equation for electrons, the equation expressing the equality of pressure gradient (of electrons and ions) to the force due to space charge field, and the equation for the beam width parameter f (obtained by following Akhmanov's approach) have been simultaneously solved for given initial (z=0) time profile of the pulse to obtain f as a function of {xi} (cz/{omega}r{sub 0}{sup 2}) and t{sup '}=t-z/V{sub g}, where V{sub g} is the group velocity. Both Gaussian and sine time profiles of the pulse have been investigated.
Bohm's criterion in a collisional magnetized plasma with thermal ions
Hatami, M. M.; Shokri, B.
2012-08-15
Using the hydrodynamic model and considering a planar geometry, the modified Bohm's sheath criterion is investigated in a magnetized, collisional plasma consisting of electron and positive ions with finite temperature. It is assumed that the singly charged positive ions enter into the sheath region obliquely, i.e., their velocity at the sheath edge is not normal to the wall, and the electron densities obey Boltzmann relations. It is shown that there are both upper and lower limit for the Bohm entrance velocity of ions in this case and both of these limits depend on the magnitude and direction of the applied magnetic field. To determine the accuracy of our derived generalized Bohm's criterion, it reduced to some familiar physical condition. Also, using this generalized Bohm's criterion, the behavior of the electron and positive ion density distributions are studied in the sheath region.
Transport, equilibrium, and stability of a toroidal edge plasma
McCarthy, D.R.
1992-01-01
The stability and transport of the drift resistive ballooning mode (DRBM) and its impact on the dynamics of a toroidal edge plasma is studied. The linear stability of the DRBM is calculated analytically and numerically, and is found to be unstable over a broad range of mode numbers. The nonlinear dynamics of the mode were studied using a fully linear, three dimensional finite difference code. It was found that the saturated turbulent transport was anomalously large and exhibited a large ballooning-like poloidal asymmetry. The growth and saturation of this mode occurred on the time scale t[sub B] = (c[sub s]/[radical]RL[sub n])[sup [minus]1]. Nonlinear two dimensional axisymmetric toroidal simulations of a tokamak edge and scrape off layer were performed to study the effect of this transport on the edge dynamics. Large parallel flows of order the local sound speed c[sub s] were generated on the longer time scale t[sub s] = (c[sub s]/qR)[sup [minus]1]. The stability of this [open quotes]equilibrium[close quotes] depends upon the parameter [alpha] = p[sub s]qR/aL[sub r]. For [alpha] [much lt] 1, the edge was unstable to the Stringer spin up instability. For weak magnetic pumping (H-mode), a poloidal rotation of order the poloidal sound speed ac[sub s]/qR was generated in the electron diamagnetic drift direction. For strong pumping (L-mode), the rotation opposed the ion diamagnetic drift. The impact of particle sources at various poloidal locations was also studied. For [alpha] > 1 the edge was unstable to the parallel velocity shear instability. The turbulence gave order unity fluctuation levels and was localized inside the last closed flux surface and on the inner side of the torus.
Labit, B.; Furno, I.; Fasoli, A.; Podesta, M.
2008-08-15
A new method for toroidal velocity measurements with Mach probes is presented. This technique is based on the conditional sampling technique, the triggering events being density blobs. A reconstruction of the time resolved two-dimensional profile of electron density, electron temperature, plasma potential, and toroidal velocity is possible with a single point measurement on a shot-to-shot basis.
Collisional and radiative processes in high-pressure discharge plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, Kurt H.; Kurunczi, Peter F.; Schoenbach, Karl H.
2002-05-01
Discharge plasmas at high pressures (up to and exceeding atmospheric pressure), where single collision conditions no longer prevail, provide a fertile environment for the experimental study of collisions and radiative processes dominated by (i) step-wise processes, i.e., the excitation of an already excited atomic/molecular state and by (ii) three-body collisions leading, for instance, to the formation of excimers. The dominance of collisional and radiative processes beyond binary collisions involving ground-state atoms and molecules in such environments allows for many interesting applications of high-pressure plasmas such as high power lasers, opening switches, novel plasma processing applications and sputtering, absorbers and reflectors for electromagnetic waves, remediation of pollutants and waste streams, and excimer lamps and other noncoherent vacuum-ultraviolet light sources. Here recent progress is summarized in the use of hollow cathode discharge devices with hole dimensions in the range 0.1-0.5 mm for the generation of vacuum-ultraviolet light.
On Current Drive and Wave Induced Bootstrap Current in Toroidal Plasmas
Hellsten, T.; Johnson, T.
2008-11-01
A comprehensive treatment of wave-particle interactions in toroidal plasmas including collisional relaxation, applicable to heating or anomalous wave induced transport, has been obtained by using Monte Carlo operators satisfying quasi-neutrality. This approach enables a self-consistent treatment of wave-particle interactions applicable to the banana regime in the neoclassical theory. It allows an extension into a regime with large temperature and density gradients, losses and transport of particles by wave-particle interactions making the method applicable to transport barriers. It is found that at large gradients the relationship between radial electric field, parallel velocity, temperature and density gradient in the neoclassical theory is modified such that coefficient in front of the logarithmic ion temperature gradient, which in the standard neoclassical theory is small and counteracts the electric field caused by the density gradient, now changes sign and contributes to the built up of the radial electric field. The possibility to drive current by absorbing the waves on trapped particles has been studied and how the wave-particle interactions affect the bootstrap current. Two new current drive mechanisms are studied: current drive by wave induced bootstrap current and selective detrapping into passing orbits by directed waves.
Collisional and Radiative Processes in High-Pressure Discharge Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, Kurt
2001-10-01
High-pressure discharge plasmas (HPDPs) with operating pressures up to and exceeding atmospheric pressure have gained prominence in many areas of application such as EM absorbers and reflectors, remediation of waste streams, deposition and surface modification, surface cleaning and sterilization, and light source development. In particular, HPDPs are widely used as sources for the generation of non-coherent UV and VUV light such as excimer emissions in the spectral range from 50 nm to 300 nm using rare gases or rare gas admixed with other gases as the operating medium. In this talk we will discuss several common types of HPDPs (e.g. microhollow cathode discharge plasmas, dielectric barrier discharge plasmas, capillary dielectrode discharge plasmas) that are commonly used for the generation of non-coherent excimer emissions. The main focus of this talk will be on the elucidation of the underlying microscopic collisional and radiative processes in these plasmas that lead to the photon emission and that determine the efficiency and spectral characteristics of various sources. Processes of particular interest are the generation of intense, monochromatic atomic line emissions in the 90 - 130 nm range, in particular the H Lyman-alpha emission at 121.6 nm, from HPDPs in gas mixtures containing high-pressure He, Ne, or Ar with trace amounts (1which may have great potential in photolithography and related applications. The mechanism for the emission of these intense atomic VUV lines are near-resonant energy transfer processes from the excimer molecule to the diatomic gas (H2, O2, N2). This work was supported by the NSF and by DARPA/ARO and carried out in collaboration with P. Kurunczi, K.H. Schoenbach, M. Laroussi, M. Gupta, and N. Masoud. Helpful discussions with U. Kogelschatz and E. Kunhardt are gratefully acknowledged.
Formation of High-Beta Plasma and Stable Confinement of Toroidal Electron Plasma in RT-1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saitoh, Haruhiko
2010-11-01
The Ring Trap 1 (RT-1) device is a laboratory magnetosphere generated by a levitated superconducting magnet. The goals of RT-1 are to realize stable formation of ultra high-beta plasma suitable for burning advanced fusion fuels, and confinement of toroidal non-neutral plasmas including antimatter particles. RT- 1 has produced high-beta plasma in the magnetospheric configuration. The effects of coil levitation and geomagnetic field compensation [Y. Yano et al., Plasma Fusion Res. 4, 039] resulted drastic improvements of the plasma properties, and a maximum local beta value exceeded 70%. Because plasma is generated by electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH) in the present experiment, the plasma pressure is mainly due to hot electrons, whose bremsstrahlung was observed with an x-ray CCD camera. The pressure profiles have rather steep gradient near the superconducting coil in the strong field region. The decay rates of magnetic probe and interferometer signals have different time constants, suggesting multiple temperature components. The energy confinement time estimated from the input RF power and stored magnetic energy is on the order of 1s, which is comparable to the decay time constant of the density of hot electron component. Pure electron plasma experiments are also conducted in RT-1. Radial profiles of electrostatic potential and electron density showed that the plasma rigidly rotates in the toroidal direction in the stable confinement phase. Long time confinement of toroidal non- neutral plasma for more than 300s and inward particle diffusion to strong field regions, caused by the activation of the diocotron (Kelvin-Helmholtz) instability, have been realized [Z. Yoshida et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 235004].
Transport of parallel momentum induced by current-symmetry breaking in toroidal plasmas.
Camenen, Y; Peeters, A G; Angioni, C; Casson, F J; Hornsby, W A; Snodin, A P; Strintzi, D
2009-03-27
The symmetry of a physical system strongly impacts on its properties. In toroidal plasmas, the symmetry along a magnetic field line usually constrains the radial flux of parallel momentum to zero in the absence of background flows. By breaking the up-down symmetry of the toroidal currents, this constraint can be relaxed. The parallel asymmetry in the magnetic configuration then leads to an incomplete cancellation of the turbulent momentum flux across a flux surface. The magnitude of the subsequent toroidal rotation increases with the up-down asymmetry and its sign depends on the direction of the toroidal magnetic field and plasma current. Such a mechanism offers new insights in the interpretation and control of the intrinsic toroidal rotation in present day experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, S. C.; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.
2015-11-01
Over the past 4 years on the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL, we have studied obliquely and head-on-merging supersonic plasma jets of an argon/impurity or hydrogen/impurity mixture. The jets are formed/launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. In successive experimental campaigns, we characterized the (a) evolution of plasma parameters of a single plasma jet as it propagated up to ~ 1 m away from the railgun nozzle, (b) density profiles and 2D morphology of the stagnation layer and oblique shocks that formed between obliquely merging jets, and (c) collisionless interpenetration transitioning to collisional stagnation between head-on-merging jets. Key plasma diagnostics included a fast-framing CCD camera, an 8-chord visible interferometer, a survey spectrometer, and a photodiode array. This talk summarizes the primary results mentioned above, and highlights analyses of inferred post-shock temperatures based on observations of density gradients that we attribute to shock-layer thickness. We also briefly describe more recent PLX experiments on Rayleigh-Taylor-instability evolution with magnetic and viscous effects, and potential future collisionless shock experiments enabled by low-impurity, higher-velocity plasma jets formed by contoured-gap coaxial guns. Supported by DOE Fusion Energy Sciences and LANL LDRD.
Potential around a dust grain in collisional plasma
Moulick, R. Goswami, K. S.
2015-04-15
The ion neutral collision can lead to interesting phenomena in dust charging, totally different from the expectations based on the traditional orbit motion limited theory. The potential around a dust grain is investigated for the collisional plasma considering the presence of ion neutral collisions. Fluid equations are solved for the one dimensional radial coordinate. It is observed that with the gradual increase in ion neutral collision, the potential structure around the dust grain changes its shape and is different from the usual Debye-Hückel potential. The shift however starts from a certain value of ion neutral collision and the electron-ion density varies accordingly. The potential variation is interesting and reconfirms the fact that there exists a region of attraction for negative charges. The collision modeling is done for the full range of plasma, i.e., considering the bulk and the sheath jointly. The potential variation with collision is also shown explicitly and the variation is found to cope up with the earlier observations.
On negative ion-drag force for dust in collisional plasmas
Patacchini, Leonardo; Hutchinson, Ian H.
2008-09-07
The ion-drag force on a dust particle in collisional plasmas is self-consistently calculated using the Particle In Cell code SCEPTIC in the entire range of charge-exchange collisionlality. It is shown that the ion-drag only reverses in the strongly collisional regime, where other forces are of much stronger magnitude than the ion-drag itself.
ATF (Advanced Toroidal Facility) flux surfaces and related plasma effects
Colchin, R.J.; England, A.C.; Harris, J.H.; Hillis, D.L.; Jernigan, T.C.; Murakami, M.; Neilson, G.H.; Rome, J.A.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Anderson, F.S.B.
1989-01-01
Flux surfaces in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) were mapped using an electron beam which was incident on a fluorescent screen. Islands were found at r/a greater than or equal to 0.6, indicating the existence of field errors. Failure of the island size to scale with magnetic field indicated that the islands were intrinsic to the coils. The source of the field errors was found to be uncompensated dipoles in the helical coil feeds. The electron temperature was observed to be very low in the vicinity of the islands. Modifications were made to the helical field buswork to eliminate the field errors, and the flux surfaces were again checked using an electron beam. Islands at r/a greater than or equal to 0.6 were found to be greatly reduced in size, with the residual island at /tau/ = 1/2 scaling to 1 cm at B = 1 T. Initial experiments indicate that the plasma operating space has been extended since the buswork modifications. 4 refs., 3 figs.
Collisional relaxation of bi-Maxwellian plasma temperatures in magnetized plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, Peter H.
2016-07-01
In the literature, collisional processes are customarily discussed within the context of the Boltzmann-Balescu-Lenard-Landau type of collision integral, but such an equation is strictly valid for unmagnetized plasmas. For plasmas immersed in the ambient magnetic field, the foundational equation that describes binary collisions must be generalized to include the effects of magnetic field. The present paper makes use of such an equation in order to describe the collisional relaxation of temperatures under the assumption of bi-Maxwellian velocity distribution function. The formalism derived in the present paper may be useful for studying the effects of binary collisions on the isotropization of temperatures in the solar wind plasma, among possible applications.
Collisional relaxation of bi-Maxwellian plasma temperatures in magnetized plasmas
Yoon, Peter H.
2016-07-15
In the literature, collisional processes are customarily discussed within the context of the Boltzmann-Balescu-Lenard-Landau type of collision integral, but such an equation is strictly valid for unmagnetized plasmas. For plasmas immersed in the ambient magnetic field, the foundational equation that describes binary collisions must be generalized to include the effects of magnetic field. The present paper makes use of such an equation in order to describe the collisional relaxation of temperatures under the assumption of bi-Maxwellian velocity distribution function. The formalism derived in the present paper may be useful for studying the effects of binary collisions on the isotropization of temperatures in the solar wind plasma, among possible applications.
Nonextensive statistics and the sheath criterion in collisional plasmas
Hatami, M. M.
2015-01-15
The Bohm criterion in an electropositive plasma containing nonextensively distributed electrons and warm ions is investigated by using a steady state two-fluid model. Taking into account the ion-neutral collisions and finite temperature of ions, a modified Bohm criterion is derived which limits both maximum and minimum allowable velocity of ions at the sheath edge (u{sub 0i}). It is found that the degree of nonextensivity of electrons (q) and temperature of positive ions (T{sub i}) affect only the lower limit of the entrance velocity of ions into the sheath while the degree of ion collisionality (α) influences both lower and upper limits of the ion velocities at the sheath edge. In addition, depending on the value of q, it is shown that the minimum velocity of positive ions at the sheath edge can be greater or smaller than its Maxwellian counterpart. Moreover, it is shown that, depending on the values of α and T{sub i}, the positive ions with subsonic velocity may enter the sheath for either q > 1 or −1 < q < 1. Finally, as a practical application, the density distribution of charged particles in the sheath region is studied for different values of u{sub 0i}, and it is shown that monotonical reduction of the positive ion density distribution occurs only when the velocity of positive ions at the sheath edge lies between two above mentioned limits.
The Dynamics of an Isolated Plasma Filament at the Edge of a Toroidal Device, Rev. 1
Ryutov, D D
2006-09-28
The dynamics of an isolated plasma filament (an isolated blob) in the far scrape-off layer (SOL) of a toroidal device is described, with a proper averaging of the geometrical parameters as well as plasma parameters along the filament. The analysis is limited to the magnetohydrodynamic description. The effects of the anchored ends and finite plasma resistivity are also discussed.
Role of Pressure Gradient on Intrinsic Toroidal Rotation in Tokamak Plasmas
Yoshida, M.; Kamada, Y.; Takenaga, H.; Sakamoto, Y.; Urano, H.; Oyama, N.; Matsunaga, G.
2008-03-14
The toroidal plasma rotation generated by the external momentum input and by the plasma itself (intrinsic rotation) has been separated through a novel momentum transport analysis in the JT-60U tokamak device. The toroidal rotation, which is not determined by the momentum transport coefficients and the external momentum input, has been observed. It is found that this intrinsic rotation is locally determined by the local pressure gradient and increases with increasing pressure gradient. This trend is almost the same for various plasmas: low and high confinement mode, co and counterrotating plasmas.
Modeling the effect of toroidal plasma rotation on drift-magnetohydrodynamic modes in tokamaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapman, I. T.; Sharapov, S. E.; Huysmans, G. T. A.; Mikhailovskii, A. B.
2006-06-01
A new code, MISHKA-F (Flow), has been developed as an extension of the ideal magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) code MISHKA-1 [Mikhailovskii et al., Plasma Phys. Rep. 23, 844 (1997)] in order to investigate the linear MHD stability of ideal and resistive eigenmodes with respect to the effects of toroidal rotation in tokamaks in general toroidal geometry with the ion diamagnetic drift effect taken into account. Benchmark test results of the MISHKA-F code show good agreement with analytic theory [A. B. Mikhailovskii and S. E. Sharapov, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 42, 57 (2000)] for the stability limits of the ideal n /m=1/1 internal kink mode. The combined stabilizing effects of the ion diamagnetic drift frequency, ω*i, and the toroidal flow shear are also studied. The ω*i stabilization of the internal kink mode is found to be more effective at finite flow shear. Finite-n ballooning modes are studied in plasmas with the toroidal flow shear effect included. The stabilization of the ballooning modes by toroidal rotation is found to agree well with earlier predictions [Webster et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2135 (2004)]. The effect of high flow shear is analyzed for a sawtoothing discharge typical in the Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak (MAST) [Sykes et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1423 (2001)]. It is found that the ideal n =1 internal kink mode can be stabilized by toroidal rotation at values observed experimentally.
Modeling the effect of toroidal plasma rotation on drift-magnetohydrodynamic modes in tokamaks
Chapman, I.T.; Sharapov, S.E.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Mikhailovskii, A. B.
2006-06-15
A new code, MISHKA-F (Flow), has been developed as an extension of the ideal magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) code MISHKA-1 [Mikhailovskii et al., Plasma Phys. Rep. 23, 844 (1997)] in order to investigate the linear MHD stability of ideal and resistive eigenmodes with respect to the effects of toroidal rotation in tokamaks in general toroidal geometry with the ion diamagnetic drift effect taken into account. Benchmark test results of the MISHKA-F code show good agreement with analytic theory [A. B. Mikhailovskii and S. E. Sharapov, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 42, 57 (2000)] for the stability limits of the ideal n/m=1/1 internal kink mode. The combined stabilizing effects of the ion diamagnetic drift frequency, {omega}{sub *i}, and the toroidal flow shear are also studied. The {omega}{sub *i} stabilization of the internal kink mode is found to be more effective at finite flow shear. Finite-n ballooning modes are studied in plasmas with the toroidal flow shear effect included. The stabilization of the ballooning modes by toroidal rotation is found to agree well with earlier predictions [Webster et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2135 (2004)]. The effect of high flow shear is analyzed for a sawtoothing discharge typical in the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) [Sykes et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1423 (2001)]. It is found that the ideal n=1 internal kink mode can be stabilized by toroidal rotation at values observed experimentally.
Modeling of toroidal torques exerted by internal kink instability in a tokamak plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, N.; Liu, Y. Q.; Yu, D. L.; Wang, S.; Xia, G. L.; Dong, G. Q.; Bai, X.
2017-08-01
Toroidal modeling efforts are initiated to systematically compute and compare various toroidal torques, exerted by an unstable internal kink in a tokamak plasma, using the MARS-F/K/Q suite of codes. The torques considered here include the resonant electromagnetic torque due to the Maxwell stress (the EM or JXB torque), the neoclassical toroidal viscous (NTV) torque, and the torque associated with the Reynolds stress. Numerical results show that the relative magnitude of the net resonant electromagnetic and the Reynolds stress torques increases with the equilibrium flow speed of the plasma, whilst the net NTV torque follows the opposite trend. The global flow shear sensitively affects the Reynolds stress torque, but not the electromagnetic and the NTV torques. Detailed examinations reveal dominant contributions to the Maxwell and Reynolds stress torques, in terms of the poloidal harmonic numbers of various perturbation fields, as well as their relative toroidal phasing.
Method to integrate full particle orbit in toroidal plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, X. S.; Xiao, Y.; Kuley, A.; Lin, Z.
2015-09-01
It is important to integrate full particle orbit accurately when studying charged particle dynamics in electromagnetic waves with frequency higher than cyclotron frequency. We have derived a form of the Boris scheme using magnetic coordinates, which can be used effectively to integrate the cyclotron orbit in toroidal geometry over a long period of time. The new method has been verified by a full particle orbit simulation in toroidal geometry without high frequency waves. The full particle orbit calculation recovers guiding center banana orbit. This method has better numeric properties than the conventional Runge-Kutta method for conserving particle energy and magnetic moment. The toroidal precession frequency is found to match that from guiding center simulation. Many other important phenomena in the presence of an electric field, such as E × B drift, Ware pinch effect and neoclassical polarization drift are also verified by the full orbit simulation.
Turbulent Transport in Fusion Plasmas, Effects of Toroidicity and Fluid Closure
Weiland, Jan
2009-11-10
Basic aspects of turbulent transport in toroidal magnetized plasmas are discussed. In particular Kadomtsev's mixing length estimate is found to work well for the Cyclone base case at the experimental gradient. Generalizations to include non-Markovian effects and off diagonal fluxes are given. The importance of toroidal effects is stressed These enter particularly strongly in convective or off diagonal fluxes. This feature applies also to momentum ttransport.
Transition in Electron Physics of Magnetic Reconnection in Weakly Collisional Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, A.; Roytershteyn, V.; Karimabadi, H.; Daughton, W. S.; Egedal, J.; Forest, C.
2013-12-01
Using self-consistent fully kinetic simulations with a Monte-Carlo treatment of the Coulomb collision operator, we explore the transition between collisional and kinetic regimes of magnetic reconnection in high-Lundquist-number current sheets. Recent research in collisionless reconnection has shown that electron kinetic physics plays a key role in the evolution. Large-scale electron current sheets may form, leading to secondary island formation and turbulent flux rope interactions in 3D. The new collisional simulations demonstrate how increasing collisionality modifies or eliminates these electron structures in the kinetic regimes. Additional basic questions that are addressed include how the reconnection rate and the release of magnetic energy into electrons and ions vary with collisionality. The numerical study provides insight into reconnection in dense regions of the solar corona, the solar wind, and upcoming laboratory experiments at MRX (Princeton) and MPDX (UW-Madison). The implications of these results for studies of turbulence dissipation in weakly collisional plasmas are discussed.
Terahertz generation by beating two Langmuir waves in a warm and collisional plasma
Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Qiao, Xin; Cheng, Li-Hong; Tang, Rong-An; Zhang, Ai-Xia; Xue, Ju-Kui
2015-09-15
Terahertz (THz) radiation generated by beating of two Langmuir waves in a warm and collisional plasma is discussed theoretically. The critical angle between the two Langmuir waves and the critical wave-length (wave vector) of Langmuir waves for generating THz radiation are obtained analytically. Furthermore, the maximum radiation energy is obtained. We find that the critical angle, the critical wave-length, and the generated radiation energy strongly depend on plasma temperature and wave-length of the Langmuir waves. That is, the THz radiation generated by beating of two Langmuir waves in a warm and collisional plasma can be controlled by adjusting the plasma temperature and the Langmuir wave-length.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Woo-Pyo; Jung, Young-Dae
2014-06-01
The influence of electron-exchange and quantum screening on the collisional entanglement fidelity for the elastic electron-ion collision is investigated in degenerate quantum plasmas. The effective Shukla-Eliasson potential and the partial wave method are used to obtain the collisional entanglement fidelity in quantum plasmas as a function of the electron-exchange parameter, Fermi energy, plasmon energy and collision energy. The results show that the quantum screening effect enhances the entanglement fidelity in quantum plasmas. However, it is found that the electron-exchange effect strongly suppresses the collisional entanglement fidelity. Hence, we have found that the influence of the electron-exchange reduces the transmission of quantum information in quantum plasmas. In addition, it is found that, although the entanglement fidelity decreases with an increase of the Fermi energy, it increases with increasing plasmon energy in degenerate quantum plasmas.
Quiet Monte Carlo Method for the Simulation of Semi-Collisional Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albright, Brian J.
2001-10-01
The modeling of collisions among particles in a plasma poses a challenge for computer simulation. Traditional simulation methods are able to model well the extremes of highly collisional plasmas (MHD and Hall-MHD simulations) and collisionless plasmas (particle-in-cell simulations). However, the intermediate, semi-collisional regime is more problematic. In semi-collisional plasmas, the collision times are comparable to the dynamical time scales of interest in the system and the collisionality often varies as a function of time or position. Some examples include interpenetrating laser-produced plasmas, tokamak plasmas near edges and divertors, plasmas in the Earth's ionosphere, cometary exospheres, and the interstellar medium. Some PIC plasma simulations have been developed that can, in a limited way, model collisions. These include the early work of Shanny et al. [Phys. Fluids 10, 1281 (1967)], the binary collision model of Takizuka and Abe [J. Comput. Phys. 25 205 (1977)], and the collision field method of Jones et al. [J. Comput. Phys. 117, 194 (1996)]. In this talk, a new approach to particle simulation, called ``quiet direct simulation Monte Carlo'' (QDSMC), will be described that can, in principle, treat plasmas with arbitrary and arbitrarily varying collisionality. The essence of the QDSMC approach is the use of carefully chosen weights for the particles (e.g., Gauss-Hermite, for Maxwellian distributions), which are destroyed each time step after the particle information is deposited onto the grid and then reconstructed at the beginning of the next time step. The method overcomes the usual limitations of particle methods: limited dynamical range and excessive statistical noise. The QDSMC method will be discussed, as will its application as ``proof of principle'' to diffusion, hydrodynamics, and radiation transport. A QDSMC formulation of collisional, kinetic plasma simulation will be outlined, and preliminary results will be presented.
Dawson, John M.; Furth, Harold P.; Tenney, Fred H.
1988-12-06
Method for producing fusion power wherein a neutral beam is injected into a toroidal bulk plasma to produce fusion reactions during the time permitted by the slowing down of the particles from the injected beam in the bulk plasma.
A Hybrid Model for Multiscale Laser Plasma Simulations with Detailed Collisional Physics
2016-11-29
Simulations with Detailed Collisional Physics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Bilyeu...with Detailed Collisional Physics Richard Abrantes1,2, Hai Le1,2, Carl Lederman2, PI: David Bilyeu3 1UCLA 2ERC Inc. 3AFRL/RQRS AFOSR Plasma and...Capture complex physics : excitation/ionization, transport, radiation, etc. • Consistent collision operator across different levels of fidelity. FRC
Air core poloidal magnetic field system for a toroidal plasma producing device
Marcus, Frederick B.
1978-01-01
A poloidal magnetics system for a plasma producing device of toroidal configuration is provided that reduces both the total volt-seconds requirement and the magnitude of the field change at the toroidal field coils. The system utilizes an air core transformer wound between the toroidal field (TF) coils and the major axis outside the TF coils. Electric current in the primary windings of this transformer is distributed and the magnetic flux returned by air core windings wrapped outside the toroidal field coils. A shield winding that is closely coupled to the plasma carries a current equal and opposite to the plasma current. This winding provides the shielding function and in addition serves in a fashion similar to a driven conducting shell to provide the equilibrium vertical field for the plasma. The shield winding is in series with a power supply and a decoupling coil located outside the TF coil at the primary winding locations. The present invention requires much less energy than the usual air core transformer and is capable of substantially shielding the toroidal field coils from poloidal field flux.
Toroidal symmetry of the geodesic acoustic mode zonal flow in a tokamak plasma.
Zhao, K J; Lan, T; Dong, J Q; Yan, L W; Hong, W Y; Yu, C X; Liu, A D; Qian, J; Cheng, J; Yu, D L; Yang, Q W; Ding, X T; Liu, Y; Pan, C H
2006-06-30
The toroidal symmetry of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) zonal flows is identified with toroidally distributed three step Langmuir probes at the edge of the HuanLiuqi-2A (commonly referred to as HL-2A) tokamak plasmas for the first time. High coherence of both the GAM and the ambient turbulence for the toroidally displaced measurements along a magnetic field line is observed, in contrast with the high coherence of the GAM but low coherence of the ambient turbulence when the toroidally displaced measurements are not along the same field line. The radial and poloidal features of the flows are also simultaneously determined. The nonlinear three wave coupling between the high frequency turbulent fluctuations and the flows is demonstrated to be a plausible formation mechanism of the flows.
Degenerate four-wave mixing and phase conjugation in a collisional plasma
Federici, J.F.; Mansfield, D.K.
1986-06-01
Although degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) has many practical applications in the visible regime, no successful attempt has been made to study or demonstrate DFWM for wavelengths longer than 10..mu..m. Recently, Steel and Lam established plasma as a viable DFWM and phase conjugation (PC) medium for infrared, far-infrared, and microwaves. However, their analysis is incomplete since collisional effects were not included. Using a fluid description, our results demonstrate that when collisional absorption is small and the collisional mean-free path is shorter than the nonlinear density grating scale length, collisional heating generates a thermal force which substantially enhances the phase conjugate reflectivity. When the collisional attenuation length becomes comparable to the length of the plasma, the dominant effect is collisional absorption of the pump waves. Numerical estimates of the phase conjugate reflectivity indicate that for modest power levels, gains greater than or equal to1 are possible in the submillimeter to centimeter wavelength range. This suggests that a plasma is a viable PC medium at those long wavelengths. In addition, doubly DFWM is discussed.
System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor
Bers, Abraham
1981-01-01
A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma.
System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor
Fisch, Nathaniel J.
1981-01-01
A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma.
Rodrigues, Paulo; Bizarro, João P S
2007-09-21
For the first time, tokamak equilibria with negative toroidal current flowing in the plasma core are computed consistently with available measurements from typical current-hole discharges. The equilibrium reconstruction, which leads to non-nested configurations where a system of axisymmetric magnetic islands unfolds, yields an overall good agreement between the computed and experimental plasma-pressure profiles, together with an excellent fit to motional-Stark-effect data. Therefore, considering the accuracy limits of present-day experimental results, care must be exercised when ruling out the existence of tokamak equilibria with central toroidal-current reversal, particularly if relying on reconstruction tools that cannot cope with non-nested configurations.
Ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory for localized interchange modes in toroidal anisotropic plasmas
Shi, Tonghui Wan, B. N.; Sun, Y.; Shen, B.; Qian, J. P.; Zheng, L. J.
2016-08-15
Ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory for localized interchange modes is developed for toroidal plasmas with anisotropic pressure. The work extends the existing theories of Johnson and Hastie [Phys. Fluids 31, 1609 (1988)], etc., to the low n mode case, where n is the toroidal mode number. Also, the plasma compressibility is included, so that the coupling of the parallel motion to perpendicular one, i.e., the so-called apparent mass effect, is investigated in the anisotropic pressure case. The singular layer equation is obtained, and the generalized Mercier's criterion is derived.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanno, Ryutaro; Nunami, Masanori; Satake, Shinsuke; Takamaru, Hisanori; Okamoto, Masao
2013-06-01
We investigate how the neoclassical thermal diffusivity of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma is modified by the effect of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), using a drift-kinetic simulation code for calculating the radial thermal diffusivity of ion in the perturbed region under an assumption of zero electric field. Here, the perturbed region is assumed to be generated on and near the resonance surfaces, and is wedged in between the regular closed magnetic surfaces. We find that the dependence of the radial thermal diffusivity on parameters of the toroidal plasma is represented as \\chi_r=\\chi_r^{(0)} \\{1+ c_0\\,(\\omega_b/\
The quest to find the plasma edge and discover a collisionally modified Bohm criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franklin, R. N.; Franklin
2013-10-01
The concepts of `plasma edge' and `collisionally modified Bohm criterion' have occupied attention for many years since the publication of work by Bohm that gave rise to the Bohm criterion. He acknowledged that his description of the plasma-sheath transition was incomplete. We summarize work that shows that neither concept has precision, at the same time giving a critique.
Dusty Plasma Modeling of the Fusion Reactor Sheath Including Collisional-Radiative Effects
Dezairi, Aouatif; Samir, Mhamed; Eddahby, Mohamed; Saifaoui, Dennoun; Katsonis, Konstantinos; Berenguer, Chloe
2008-09-07
The structure and the behavior of the sheath in Tokamak collisional plasmas has been studied. The sheath is modeled taking into account the presence of the dust{sup 2} and the effects of the charged particle collisions and radiative processes. The latter may allow for optical diagnostics of the plasma.
Vlasov simulations of plasma-wall interactions in a magnetized and weakly collisional plasma
Devaux, S.; Manfredi, G.
2006-08-15
A Vlasov code is used to model the transition region between an equilibrium plasma and an absorbing wall in the presence of a tilted magnetic field, for the case of a weakly collisional plasma ({lambda}{sub mfp}>>{rho}{sub i}, where {lambda}{sub mfp} is the ion-neutral mean-free path and {rho}{sub i} is the ion Larmor radius). The phase space structure of the plasma-wall transition is analyzed in detail and theoretical estimates of the magnetic presheath width are tested numerically. It is shown that the distribution near the wall is far from Maxwellian, so that temperature measurements should be interpreted with care. Particular attention is devoted to the angular distribution of ions impinging on the wall, which is an important parameter to determine the level of wall erosion and sputtering.
A multi-species 13-moment model for moderately collisional plasmas
Miller, S. T. Shumlak, U.
2016-08-15
Fluid-based models of collisional transport in multi-species plasmas have typically been applied to parameter regimes where a local thermal equilibrium is assumed. While this parameter regime is valid for low temperature and/or high density applications, it begins to fail as plasmas enter the collisionless regime and kinetic effects dominate the physics. A plasma model is presented that lays the foundation for extending the validity of the collisional fluid regime using an anisotropic 13-moment fluid model derived from the Pearson type-IV probability distribution. The model explicitly evolves the pressure tensor and heat flux vector along with the density and flow velocity to capture dynamics usually restricted to kinetic models. Each particle species is modeled individually and collectively coupled through electromagnetic and collisional interactions.
Turbulence induced radial transport of toroidal momentum in boundary plasma of EAST tokamak
Zhao, N.; Yan, N. Xu, G. S.; Wang, H. Q.; Wang, L.; Ding, S. Y.; Chen, R.; Chen, L.; Zhang, W.; Hu, G. H.; Shao, L. M.; Wang, Z. X.
2016-06-15
Turbulence induced toroidal momentum transport in boundary plasma is investigated in H-mode discharge using Langmuir-Mach probes on EAST. The Reynolds stress is found to drive an inward toroidal momentum transport, while the outflow of particles convects the toroidal momentum outwards in the edge plasma. The Reynolds stress driven momentum transport dominates over the passive momentum transport carried by particle flux, which potentially provides a momentum source for the edge plasma. The outflow of particles delivers a momentum flux into the scrape-off layer (SOL) region, contributing as a momentum source for the SOL flows. At the L-H transitions, the outward momentum transport suddenly decreases due to the suppression of edge turbulence and associated particle transport. The SOL flows start to decelerate as plasma entering into H-mode. The contributions from turbulent Reynolds stress and particle transport for the toroidal momentum transport are identified. These results shed lights on the understanding of edge plasma accelerating at L-H transitions.
Observations of toroidicity-induced Alfvén eigenmodes in a reversed field pinch plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regnoli, G.; Bergsâker, H.; Tennfors, E.; Zonca, F.; Martines, E.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.; Cecconello, M.; Antoni, V.; Cavazzana, R.; Malmberg, J.-A.
2005-04-01
High frequency peaks in the spectra of magnetic field signals have been detected at the edge of Extrap-T2R [P. R. Brunsell, H. Bergsåker, M. Cecconello, J. R. Drake, R. M. Gravestijn, A. Hedqvist, and J.-A. Malmberg, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion, 43, 1457 (2001)]. The measured fluctuation is found to be mainly polarized along the toroidal direction, with high toroidal periodicity n and Alfvénic scaling (f∝B/√mini ). Calculations for a reversed field pinch plasma predict the existence of an edge resonant, high frequency, high-n number toroidicity-induced Alfvén eigenmode with the observed frequency scaling. In addition, gas puffing experiments show that edge density fluctuations are responsible for the rapid changes of mode frequency. Finally a coupling with the electron drift turbulence is proposed as drive mechanism for the eigenmode.
Impact of PF and TF coils misalignment on toroidally asymmetric plasma error fields in TPX
Leuer, J.A.; Luxon, J.L.; Xu, M.F.; Antaya, T.A.
1995-12-31
Error fields from misalignment of the toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) coils in TPX are presented in terms of the outward normal B-field (B{sub {perpendicular}}), expanded in poloidal and toroidal harmonics (m, n), on a simulated, D-shaped, plasma flux surface. Results are reported for n = 1 toroidal mode number and low poloidal mode numbers, m, and for various displacements of the TF and PF coils. In particular, results are given for the m,n = 2,1 error field which interacts with the q = 2 surface to cause locked modes and loss of plasma performance. Based on existing experiments, maximum permissible field errors are 4 G for the 2,1 mode and 8 G for the n = 1; m = 1,3,4 modes. Results are presented for a rigid shift and rotation of a single TF coil and for a rigid, radial shift of each PF coil.
Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Koguchi, Haruhisa; Sakakita, Hajime; Hirano, Yoichi; Kiyama, Satoru
2011-06-15
The magnetic fluctuations and electrostatic probe potential have been measured in the Toroidal Pinch Experiment - RX (TPE-RX) reversed-field pinch plasma [Y. Yagi et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 45, 421 (1999)] (at the plasma surface r/a = 1.00). Fast electrons with energy comparable to or slightly higher than the core electron temperature are observed as many spikes in the electrostatic probe signal. These electrons are diffused by a fluctuating magnetic field from the core region. During the period of mild deepening of the reversal of the edge toroidal field, a significant reduction in the spike signal, increases in electron density and soft x-ray radiation, and a decrease in the D{alpha} line radiation are observed, even though the reduction in magnetic fluctuations is not significant during the same period, which indicates that the mild deepening of the reversal of the toroidal field can improve the confinement of fast electrons.
Ion Collection by a Sphere in a Drifting Collisional Plasma
Haakonsen, Christian Bernt; Hutchinson, Ian H.
2011-11-29
SCEPTIC3D now includes charge-exchange collisions, and is used to examine ion collection by a floating conducting sphere (small compared to the electron debye length) in the presence of a background neutral drift. The enhancement of ion collection at moderate collisionalities seen for the stationary case is weakened as the drift speed increases from the ion thermal speed to the ion sound speed, above which no enhancement is seen.
Goumiri, I. R.; Rowley, C. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Boyer, M. D.; Andre, R.; Kolemen, E.; Taira, K.
2016-02-19
A model-based feedback system is presented to control plasma rotation in a magnetically confined toroidal fusion device, to maintain plasma stability for long-pulse operation. This research uses experimental measurements from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and is aimed at controlling plasma rotation using two different types of actuation: momentum from injected neutral beams and neoclassical toroidal viscosity generated by three-dimensional applied magnetic fields. Based on the data-driven model obtained, a feedback controller is designed, and predictive simulations using the TRANSP plasma transport code show that the controller is able to attain desired plasma rotation profiles given practical constraints on the actuators and the available measurements of rotation.
Nonlinear collisional absorption and induced anisotropy in plasmas heated by an intense laser field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bendib, A.
2017-07-01
The inverse bremsstrahlung absorption of a laser wave by electrons in homogeneous plasmas is investigated in the range α=v02/vt2≤2 , where v0 is the electron quiver velocity and vt is the thermal velocity. For α≪1 , previous results are recovered. In the range α≥1 , the interplay of collisional absorption and induced plasma anisotropy led to significant new results regarding the electron distribution function and the laser wave damping rate. By increasing α, the low-energy electron population increases, while the collisional absorption rate is still reduced. The temperature anisotropy induced by electron heating is also estimated.
Inward transport of a toroidally confined plasma subject to strong radial electric fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Hong, J.; Kim, Y. H.
1977-01-01
Digitally implemented spectral analysis techniques were used to investigate the frequency-dependent fluctuation-induced particle transport across a toroidal magnetic field. When the electric field pointed radially inward, the transport was inward and a significant enhancement of the plasma density and confinement time resulted.
Public Data Set: Non-Inductively Driven Tokamak Plasmas at Near-Unity Toroidal Beta
Schlossberg, David J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000287139448); Bodner, Grant M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000324979172); Bongard, Michael W. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000231609746); Burke, Marcus G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000176193724); Fonck, Raymond J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000294386762); Perry, Justin M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000171228609); Reusch, Joshua A. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000284249422)
2017-06-08
This public data set contains openly-documented, machine readable digital research data corresponding to figures published in D.J. Schlossberg et al., 'Non-Inductively Driven Tokamak Plasmas at Near-Unity Toroidal Beta,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 035001 (2017).
Computer simulation of the toroidal equilibrium and stability of a plasma in three dimensions.
Betancourt, O; Garabedian, P
1975-03-01
A computer program has been written to solve the equations for sharp boundary magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium of a toroidal plasma in three dimensions without restriction to axial symmetry. The numerical method is based on a variational principle that indicates whether the equilibria obtained are stable. Applications have been made to Tokamak, Stellarator, and Scyllac configurations.
Computer Simulation of the Toroidal Equilibrium and Stability of a Plasma in Three Dimensions
Betancourt, Octavio; Garabedian, Paul
1975-01-01
A computer program has been written to solve the equations for sharp boundary magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium of a toroidal plasma in three dimensions without restriction to axial symmetry. The numerical method is based on a variational principle that indicates whether the equilibria obtained are stable. Applications have been made to Tokamak, Stellarator, and Scyllac configurations. PMID:16592233
Hamiltonian guiding center drift orbit calculation for toroidal plasmas of arbitrary cross section
White, R.B.; Chance, M.S.
1984-02-01
A Hamiltonian guiding center drift orbit formalism is developed which permits the efficient calculation of particle trajectories in toroidal devices of arbitrary cross section with arbitrary plasma ..beta... The magnetic field is assumed to be a small perturbation from a zero order toroidal equilibrium field possessing either axial or helical symmetry. The equilibrium field can be modelled analytically or obtained numerically from equilibrium codes. A numerical code based on the formalism is used to study particle orbits in circular and bean-shaped tokamak configurations.
Flux tube train model for local turbulence simulation of toroidal plasmas
Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.; Ishizawa, A.; Nunami, M.
2015-02-15
A new simulation method for local turbulence in toroidal plasmas is developed by extending the conventional idea of the flux tube model. In the new approach, a train of flux tubes is employed, where flux tube simulation boxes are serially connected at each end along a field line so as to preserve a symmetry of the local gyrokinetic equations for image modes in an axisymmetric torus. Validity of the flux tube train model is confirmed against the toroidal ion temperature gradient turbulence for a case with a long parallel correlation of fluctuations, demonstrating numerical advantages over the conventional method in the time step size and the symmetry-preserving property.
Effects of Magnetic Shear on Toroidal Rotation in Tokamak Plasmas with Lower Hybrid Current Drive
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rice, J. E.; Podpaly, Y. A.; Reinke, M. L.; Mumgaard, R.; Scott, S. D.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G. M.; Chouli, B.; Fenzi-Bonizec, C.; Nave, M. F. F.; Diamond, P. H.; Gao, C.; Granetz, R. S.; Hughes, J. W.; Parker, R. R.; Bonoli, P. T.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Giroud, C.; Greenwald, M. J.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Irby, J. H.; Kirov, K.; Mailloux, J.; Marmar, E. S.; Wolfe, S. M.
2013-09-01
Application of lower hybrid (LH) current drive in tokamak plasmas can induce both co- and countercurrent directed changes in toroidal rotation, depending on the core q profile. For discharges with q0<1, rotation increments in the countercurrent direction are observed. If the LH-driven current is sufficient to suppress sawteeth and increase q0 above unity, the core toroidal rotation change is in the cocurrent direction. This change in sign of the rotation increment is consistent with a change in sign of the residual stress (the divergence of which constitutes an intrinsic torque that drives the flow) through its dependence on magnetic shear.
Ha, B. N.; Stoneking, M. R.; Marler, J. P.
2009-03-15
Measurements of the image charge induced on electrodes provide the primary means of diagnosing plasmas in the Lawrence Non-neutral Torus II (LNT II) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 155001 (2008)]. Therefore, it is necessary to develop techniques that determine characteristics of the electron plasma from features of the induced image charge signal. This paper presents a numerical study which finds that the frequency of the image charge signal due to the toroidal version of the m=1 diocotron mode is proportional to the total trapped charge and inversely proportional to magnetic field strength, as in the cylindrical case. In the toroidal case, additional information about the m=1 motion of the plasma can be obtained by analysis of the image charge signal amplitude and shape. Finally, results from the numerical simulations are compared to experimental data from the LNT II and plasma characteristics are reported.
The residual zonal flow in tokamak plasmas toroidally rotating at arbitrary velocity
Zhou, Deng
2014-08-15
Zonal flows, initially driven by ion-temperature-gradient turbulence, may evolve due to the neoclassic polarization in a collisionless tokamak plasma. In our previous work [D. Zhou, Nucl. Fusion 54, 042002 (2014)], the residual zonal flow in a tokamak plasma rotating toroidally at sonic speed is found to have the same form as that of a static plasma. In the present work, the form of the residual zonal flow is presented for tokamak plasmas rotating toroidally at arbitrary velocity. The gyro-kinetic equation is analytically solved for low speed rotation to give the expression of residual zonal flows, and the expression is then generalized for cases with arbitrary rotating velocity through interpolation. The zonal flow level decreases as the rotating velocity increases. The numerical evaluation is in good agreement with the former simulation result for high aspect ratio tokamaks.
Double layer field shaping systems for toroidal plasmas
Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi
1982-01-01
Methods and apparatus for plasma generation, confinement and control such as Tokamak plasma systems are described having a two layer field shaping coil system comprising an inner coil layer close to the plasma and an outer coil layer to minimize the current in the inner coil layer.
Plans to observe magnetic pumping transport in a toroidal electron plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoneking, M. R.
2004-11-01
Electron plasmas with densities of 5× 10^6 cm-3 are trapped for 18 ms in a partially toroidal trap with a purely toroidal magnetic field (B_o=200 G, R_o=43 cm, a=4.5 cm) (M.R. Stoneking et al.,) Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 095003 (2004). The measured confinement time is more than two orders of magnitude longer than all characteristic single-particle drift timescales and unambiguously confirms theoretical expectations that toroidal equilibria exist for non-neutral plasmas. Confinement is believed to be limited by either collisions with neutrals (P ≈ 10-7 Torr) or by transport due to field asymmetries. A new experiment (R_o=15 cm, a=2 cm) is under construction with improved vacuum conditions (P ≈ 10-9 Torr), enhanced magnetic field strength (B ≈ 1 kG), and improved field symmetry. The scientific goals of the new project are 1) to observe the magnetic pumping transport mechanism of Crooks and O'Neil (S.M. Crooks and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Plasmas 3), 2533 (1996)., and 2) to develop a strategy for controlled charge injection into a completely toroidal trap. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation.
Advances in Steady Inductive Helicity Injection for Plasma Startup and Toroidal Current Drive
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Victor, Brian S.; Jarboe, Thomas R.; Hossack, Aaron C.; Ennis, David A.; Nelson, Brian A.; Hansen, Chris J.; Wrobel, Jonathan S.
The Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (HIT-SI) has achieved a breakthrough in the development of a new method of toroidal plasma startup and current drive. HIT-SI accomplishes helicity injection current drive on a spheromak of major radius 0.3 m with two injectors driven sinusoidally at 14.5 kHz. Results include the first sustainment of toroidal plasma current of over 50 kA at up to 3 times the injected currents added in quadrature. Separatrix toroidal currents—currents not linking the helicity injectors—are sustained at up to 40 kA. Toroidal currents persist for up to 0.65 ms after the injectors are turned off. Results are achieved after helium operations condition the alumina plasma-facing surface. The conditioned alumina walls then act to pump the deuterium, thereby reducing the spheromak density. High performance discharges (Itor/Iinj ≥ 2) are characterized by a decrease in the n = 1 mode activity measured by surface probes near the midplane of the confinement volume. Suppression of internal magnetic fields (measured by an internal probe) below the predicted Taylor equilibrium indicates that the magnetic fields in HIT-SI can no longer be described by a zero pressure, constant λ equilibrium.
Observation of the inward propagation of spontaneous toroidal flow from the plasma boundary in LHD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamiya, K.; Ida, K.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Yoshinuma, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Kubo, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Tamura, N.; Masuzaki, S.; Suzuki, C.; Akiyama, T.
2016-10-01
Spontaneous generation of toroidal flow from the separatrix and its inward radial propagation in association with the change in the electron temperature gradient have been observed near the plasma boundary in the modulated electron cyclotron heating (MECH) experiment in the Large Helical Device. The observations presented in this paper provide strongly the supports of the hypothesis for the conversion of the poloidal flow to the toroidal one at the plasma peripheral region, exhibiting a clear delay response on MECH in the time derivation of the toroidal flow ( V ˙ ϕ ≡ ∂ V ϕ / ∂ t ) to the poloidal one ( V ˙ θ ≡ ∂ V θ / ∂ t ) at a normalized radius of ρ ≈ 0.97. The ratio of order unity for | V ˙ ϕ / V ˙ θ | during a conversion phase from poloidal flow into toroidal one is consistent with that predicted by a quasi-stationary theoretical model based on the turbulent instability, regardless of its sign and spatial structure. The present work demonstrates a new dynamic response in the plasma momentum transport and represents a significant confirmation of its non-local nature.
Kinetic analysis of the ion temperature gradient modes in toroidally rotating plasmas
Zheng, L.; Tessarotto, M.
1996-12-01
With the two time scale feature revealed, an analytical method is developed to solve the combined eigenvalue and initial value problem describing the ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes in the toroidally rotating plasmas. With full gyrokinetics and toroidal geometry effects being taken into account in an ordering consistent manner, dispersion relations are obtained for ITG modes both of toroidal and slab-like branches. The results show that the sonic rotation can be harmful for the stability, while subsonic rotation with flow shear can be expected to be stabilizing. The existence of the flow shear leads the time evolution of the fluctuation signals to display two different time scales{emdash}a fast oscillating (either fast or slow growing) signal with its amplitude modulated by a slowly varying envelope, resembling fishbone-like fluctuations. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Turbulence and bias-induced flows in simple magnetized toroidal plasmas
Li, B.; Rogers, B. N.; Ricci, P.; Gentle, K. W.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2011-05-15
Turbulence and bias-induced flows in simple magnetized toroidal plasmas are explored with global three-dimensional fluid simulations, focusing on the parameters of the Helimak experiment. The simulations show that plasma turbulence and transport in the regime of interest are dominated by the ideal interchange instability. The application of a bias voltage alters the structure of the plasma potential, resulting in the equilibrium sheared flows.These bias-induced vertical flows located in the gradient region appear to reduce the radial extent of turbulent structures,and thereby lower the radial plasma transport on the low field side.
Dual-function magnetic structure for toroidal plasma devices
Brown, Robert L.
1978-01-01
This invention relates to a support system wherein the iron core and yoke of the plasma current system of a tokamak plasma containment device is redesigned to support the forces of the magnet coils. The containment rings, which occupy very valuable space around the magnet coils, are utilized to serve as yokes for the core such that the conventional yoke is eliminated. The overall result is an improved aspect ratio, reduction in structure, smaller overall size, and improved access to the plasma ring.
Collisional Thermalization in Strongly Coupled Ultracold Neutral Plasmas
2017-01-25
and powerful diagnostics adopted from ultracold atomic physics experiments. Because of this unique collection of characteristics, ions in ultracold...Transport in Strongly Coupled Systems with Ultracold Plasmas," Atomic Physics Seminar, Yale University, New Haven, CT (12/16). ``From Ultracold Plasmas to...ultracold neutral plasmas, which are formed by photoionizing laser cooled atoms . These are the coldest neutral plasmas every created, and they allow
Hong, Woo-Pyo; Jung, Young-Dae
2014-08-01
The influence of nonthermal shielding on the optically allowed and forbidden anti-screening channels for ion-ion collisional excitations is investigated in astrophysical Lorentzian plasmas. The semiclassical trajectory method and effective interaction Hamiltonian are employed to obtain the transition amplitudes, differential cross-sections, and momentum transfer-dependent effective projectile charges for the optically allowed and forbidden excitation channels as functions of the impact parameter, collision energy, Debye radius, and spectral index of nonthermal astrophysical plasmas. It is found that the nonthermal effect suppresses the ion-ion collisional excitation probability in astrophysical Lorentzian plasmas. Additionally, the influence of nonthermal shielding on the optically allowed transition is found to be more significant than that on the optically forbidden transition. The variations of the nonthermal shielding effects on the optically allowed and forbidden anti-screening channels in astrophysical nonthermal plasmas are also discussed.
Effects of Equilibrium Toroidal Flow on Locked Mode and Plasma Response in a Tokamak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Ping; Huang, Wenlong; Yan, Xingting
2016-10-01
It is widely believed that plasma flow plays significant roles in regulating the processes of mode locking and plasma response in a tokamak in presence of external resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs). Recently a common analytic relation for both locked mode and plasma response has been developed based on the steady-state solution to the coupled dynamic system of magnetic island evolution and torque balance. The analytic relation predicts the size of the magnetic island of a locked mode or a static nonlinear plasma response for a given RMP amplitude, and rigorously proves a screening effect of the equilibrium toroidal flow. To test the theory, we solve for the locked mode and the nonlinear plasma response in presence of RMP for a circular-shaped limiter tokamak equilibrium with constant toroidal flow, using the initial-value, full MHD simulation code NIMROD. The comparison between the simulation results and the theory prediction, in terms of the quantitative screening effects of equilibrium toroidal flow, will be reported and discussed. Supported by National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China Grants 2014GB124002 and 2015GB101004, the 100 Talent Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and U.S. Department of Energy Grants DE-FG02-86ER53218 and DE-FC02-08ER54975.
Chaudhuri, Manis; Khrapak, Sergei A.; Morfill, Gregor E.
2008-09-07
The ion drag force acting on a small absorbing spherical grain has been calculated analytically in highly collisional plasma with slowly drifting ions taking into account plasma production and loss mechanisms in the vicinity of the grain. It is shown that both the magnitude and direction of the ion drag force are strongly influenced by the plasma production and loss mechanisms. The parameter regimes for the 'positive' and 'negative' ion drag forces acting on an absorbing grain have been identified.
A Hybrid Model for Multiscale Laser Plasma Simulations with Detailed Collisional Physics
2017-06-23
electric field produced either directly from the absorption process or via ponderomotive forces. This E- field creates an electron current which could...no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB...the effects of inelastic collisions on the Multi-Fluid description of plasmas. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Electric propulsion; plasma; collisional
Nonlinear evolution of an ion acoustic wave in two-species, moderately collisional plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valeo, E. J.; Berger, R. L.
2004-11-01
The dispersion properties of ion acoustic waves (IAW) in two-species plasma with disparate ion charges and masses has shown a sensitivity to inter-species collisions in the moderate-collisionality regime where the heavy, highly-charged ions are strongly collisional (fluid-like), but where light-ion Landau damping is competitive with light-heavy collisions.(R. Berger, E. Valeo and S. Brunner, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., 47), QP1.98 (2002). The nonlinear evolution of a driven IAW is simulated using a low-noise hybrid simulation technique in which the electrons are a massless fluid, the heavy ions are a cold fluid, and the light ions are evolved using the δ f method with an evolving background distribution. The relative importance of several nonlinear effects in determining the mode amplitude, including (collisionally interrupted) trapping and nonlinear frequency shifts, is assessed.
Formation and evolution of vortices in a collisional strongly coupled dusty plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jana, Sayanee; Banerjee, Debabrata; Chakrabarti, Nikhil
2016-07-01
Formation and evolution of vortices are studied in a collisional strongly coupled dusty plasma in the framework of a Generalized Hydrodynamic model (GH). Here we mainly present the nonlinear dynamical response of this strongly coupled system in presence of dust-neutral collisional drag. It is shown that the interplay between the nonlinear elastic stress and the dust-neutral collisional drag results in the generation of non-propagating monopole vortex for some duration before it starts to propagate like transverse shear wave. It is also found that the interaction between two unshielded monopole vortices having both same (co-rotating) and opposite (counter rotating) rotations result in the formation of two propagating dipole vortices of equal and unequal strength respectively. These results will provide some new understanding on the transport properties in such a strongly coupled system. The numerical simulation is carried out using a de-aliased doubly periodic pseudo-spectral code with Runge-Kutta-Gill time integrator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikkelsen, D. R.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W.; Greenwald, M.; Howard, N.; Podpaly, Y.; Reinke, M.; Rice, J. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Ma, Y.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.
2012-10-01
In nonlinear GYRO simulations of C-Mod plasmas, a turbulently driven pinch produces modest density peaking of all species. The ratio of density at r/a=0.44 and 0.74 is 1.2 for the majority and minority D & H (and electrons), and increases with impurity Z: 1.1 for helium, 1.15 for boron, 1.29 for neon, 1.36 for argon, 1.47 for molybdenum. Density peaking is only weakly affected when the ion temperature profile is varied to align the predicted heat flux to the experimental transport analysis. New simulations will extend the collisionality to the lower part of the experimentally accessible range in C-Mod to study the collisionality dependence of density peaking, and to establish whether much stronger peaking is predicted for lower collisionalities. Simulations based on measured I-mode ion and electron temperature profiles will also be presented.
Honda, M
2004-01-01
I theoretically found eigenmodes and growth rates of relativistic current filamentation instability in collisional regimes, deriving a generalized dispersion relation from self-consistent beam-Maxwell equations. For symmetrically counterstreaming, fully relativistic electron currents, the collisional coupling between electrons and ions creates the unstable modes of growing oscillation and wave, which stand out for long-wavelength perturbations. In the stronger collisional regime, the growing oscillatory mode tends to be dominant for all wavelengths. In the collisionless limit, those modes vanish, while maintaining another purely growing mode that exactly coincides with a standard relativistic Weibel mode. It is also shown that the effects of electron-electron collisions and thermal spread lower the growth rate of the relativistic Weibel instability. The present mechanisms of filamentation dynamics are essential for transport of homogeneous electron beam produced by the interaction of high power laser pulses with plasma.
“Anomalous” collisionality in low-pressure plasmas
Lafleur, T.; Chabert, P.; Booth, J. P.; Turner, M. M.
2013-12-15
Based on a theoretical argument from fundamental kinetic theory, by way of simple worked examples, and through the use of particle-in-cell simulations of capacitively coupled plasmas, we demonstrate that conventional methods for calculating the momentum transfer collision frequency in low-pressure plasmas can be seriously erroneous. This potentially plays an important and previously unconsidered role in many low-pressure discharges, and at least in part provides a possible explanation for anomalous behaviour often encountered in these plasmas.
Estimation of plasma flow and toroidal rotation on SSPX using a passive ion Doppler spectrometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, J. D.; McLean, H. S.; May, M. J.; Morse, E. C.
2008-11-01
We present results of ion Doppler spectrometer (IDS) measurements of helium ion velocity coupled with the MIST 1D impurity transport code calculations to estimate plasma flow and toroidal rotation in the SSPX spheromak. Helium discharges ensured sufficient light. Collection optics view a narrow, near-cylindrical volume with radius ˜ 1cm, and the intensity of collected light decreases as the inverse square of the distance from the plasma to the optic, or solid angle. Light was collected along a chord near the edge (red-shift) as well as a direct radial (null-shift) view through the center. By considering the helium charge state distribution calculated by MIST, and the solid angle of the collection optic to the plasma location, an estimate of the spatial resolution of the IDS was obtained. It was found that 70% of He-II 468.57 nm light collected by the IDS, was localized in a 6 cm radial region. The analysis of several shots indicate that plasma near the edge of the spheromak flows with a toroidal velocity of 5 to 45 km/s during spheromak formation. These flows correspond to a toroidal rotation frequency of 1.7 to 15.6 kHz. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Niknam, A. R. Banjafar, M. R.; Jahangiri, F.; Barzegar, S.; Massudi, R.
2016-05-15
Terahertz (THz) radiation generation by the interaction of two co-propagating high intensity laser beams with a warm collisional inhomogeneous plasma is analytically investigated. By presenting the dielectric permittivity of plasma and taking into account the ponderomotive force, the nonlinear current at THz frequency is obtained. A secondary resonant enhancement of THz radiation is observed, in addition to that occurs at the plasma frequency, which can be tuned by plasma density and temperature. Moreover, we show that for each beat frequency, there exists an optimum temperature at which THz radiation is maximized. It is also shown that the power and efficiency of THz radiation decrease by increasing the collision frequency.
Terahertz generation by two cross focused laser beams in collisional plasmas
Sharma, R. P. Singh, Ram Kishor
2014-07-15
The role of two cross-focused spatial-Gaussian laser beams has been studied for the high power and efficient terahertz (THz) radiation generation in the collisional plasma. The nonlinear current at THz frequency arises on account of temperature dependent collision frequency of electrons with ions in the plasma and the presence of a static electric field (applied externally in the plasma) and density ripple. Optimisation of laser-plasma parameters gives the radiated THz power of the order of 0.23 MW.
Energetically consistent collisional gyrokinetics
Burby, J. W.; Brizard, A. J.; Qin, H.
2015-10-15
We present a formulation of collisional gyrokinetic theory with exact conservation laws for energy and canonical toroidal momentum. Collisions are accounted for by a nonlinear gyrokinetic Landau operator. Gyroaveraging and linearization do not destroy the operator's conservation properties. Just as in ordinary kinetic theory, the conservation laws for collisional gyrokinetic theory are selected by the limiting collisionless gyrokinetic theory.
Nonlocal collisionless and collisional electron transport in low temperature plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaganovich, Igor
2009-10-01
The purpose of the talk is to describe recent advances in nonlocal electron kinetics in low-pressure plasmas. A distinctive property of partially ionized plasmas is that such plasmas are always in a non-equilibrium state: the electrons are not in thermal equilibrium with the neutral species and ions, and the electrons are also not in thermodynamic equilibrium within their own ensemble, which results in a significant departure of the electron velocity distribution function from a Maxwellian. These non-equilibrium conditions provide considerable freedom to choose optimal plasma parameters for applications, which make gas discharge plasmas remarkable tools for a variety of plasma applications, including plasma processing, discharge lighting, plasma propulsion, particle beam sources, and nanotechnology. Typical phenomena in such discharges include nonlocal electron kinetics, nonlocal electrodynamics with collisionless electron heating, and nonlinear processes in the sheaths and in the bounded plasmas. Significant progress in understanding the interaction of electromagnetic fields with real bounded plasma created by this field and the resulting changes in the structure of the applied electromagnetic field has been one of the major achievements of the last decade in this area of research [1-3]. We show on specific examples that this progress was made possible by synergy between full scale particle-in-cell simulations, analytical models, and experiments. In collaboration with Y. Raitses, A.V. Khrabrov, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ, USA; V.I. Demidov, UES, Inc., 4401 Dayton-Xenia Rd., Beavercreek, OH 45322, USA and AFRL, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433, USA; and D. Sydorenko, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. [4pt] [1] D. Sydorenko, A. Smolyakov, I. Kaganovich, and Y. Raitses, IEEE Trans. Plasma Science 34, 895 (2006); Phys. Plasmas 13, 014501 (2006); 14 013508 (2007); 15, 053506 (2008). [0pt] [2] I. D. Kaganovich, Y. Raitses, D. Sydorenko, and
Magnetic Fluctuation-Driven Intrinsic Flow in a Toroidal Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Almagri, A. F.; den Hartog, D. J.; Sarff, J. S.
2012-10-01
Magnetic fluctuations have been long observed in various magnetic confinement configurations. These perturbations may arise naturally from plasma instabilities such as tearing modes and energetic particle driven modes, but they can also be externally imposed by error fields or external magnetic coils. It is commonly observed that large MHD modes lead to plasma locking (no rotation) due to torque produced by eddy currents on the wall, and it is predicted that stochastic field induces flow damping where the radial electric field is reduced. Flow generation is of great importance to fusion plasma research, especially low-torque devices like ITER, as it can act to improve performance. Here we describe new measurements in the MST reversed field pinch (RFP) showing that the coherent interaction of magnetic and particle density fluctuations can produce a turbulent fluctuation-induced kinetic force, which acts to drive intrinsic plasma rotation. Key observations include; (1) the average kinetic force resulting from density fluctuations, ˜ 0.5 N/m^3, is comparable to the intrinsic flow acceleration, and (2) between sawtooth crashes, the spatial distribution of the kinetic force is directed to create a sheared parallel flow profile that is consistent with the measured flow profile in direction and amplitude, suggesting the kinetic force is responsible for intrinsic plasma rotation.
Toroidal {eta}{sub {ital i}}-mode global vortices in a rotating plasma
Pakyari, A.; Pavlenko, V.P.
1996-10-01
Model equations describing dynamics of a toroidal {eta}{sub {ital i}} mode in a rotating plasma are derived. The stationary solution of the model equations is investigated analytically and the condition for global vortex formation is found. The form of the solution is verified numerically and it is shown that the shape of global vortices is affected strongly by the shear of the plasma poloidal rotation. In weak shear, the stationary solution looks like a dipole vortex, while in strong shear, the main part of the plasma cross section is occupied by vortex flow. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Reduction of collisional-radiative models for laser-produced argon plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abrantes, Richard June; Karagozian, Ann; Le, Hai
2016-10-01
The formation of a laser-induced plasma involves a variety of physical phenomena stemming from the laser-plasma interaction. A thorough understanding of these processes encourages improvement and innovation for many applications. In this work, we aim to computationally reduce a previously-developed collisional-radiative (CR) model constructed from the LANL database, which includes all of the relevant collisional and radiative processes for all the ionic stages of argon. The laser is coupled to the plasma via multiphoton ionization and inverse Bremsstrahlung, processes important for electron production and heating. The use of the CR model allows us to identify dominant mechanisms responsible for initial breakdown of the gas and thermal equilibriation processes. The results are compared with experimental data from laser-induced breakdown experiments. Research supported by the AFOSR.
Hysteresis and fast timescales in transport relations of toroidal plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Ida, K.; Inagaki, S.; Kamada, Y.; Kamiya, K.; Dong, J. Q.; Hidalgo, C.; Evans, T.; Ko, W. H.; Park, H.; Tokuzawa, T.; Kubo, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kosuga, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Yun, G. S.; Song, S. D.; Kasuya, N.; Nagashima, Y.; Moon, C.; Yoshinuma, M.; Makino, R.; Tsujimura, T.; Tsuchiya, H.; Stroth, U.
2017-10-01
This article assesses current understanding of hysteresis in transport relations, and its impact on the field. The rapid changes of fluxes compared to slow changes of plasma parameters are overviewed for both core and edge plasmas. The modulation ECH experiment is explained, in which the heating power cycles on-and-off periodically, revealing hysteresis and fast changes in the gradient-flux relation. The key finding is that hystereses were observed simultaneously in both the the gradient-flux and gradient-fluctuation relations. Hysteresis with rapid timescale exists in the channels of energy, electron and impurity densities, and plausibly in momentum. Advanced methods of data analysis are explained. Transport hysteresis can be studied by observing the higher harmonics of temperature perturbation δ Tm in heating modulation experiments. The hysteresis introduces the term δ Tm , which depends on the harmonic number m in an algebraic manner (not exponential decay). Next, the causes of hysteresis and its fast timescale are discussed. The nonlocal-in-space coupling works here, but does not suffice. One mechanism for ‘the heating heats turbulence’ is that the external source S in phase space for heating has its fluctuation in turbulent plasma. This coupling can induce the direct input of heating power into fluctuations. The height of the jump in transport hysteresis is smaller for heavier hydrogen isotopes, and could be one of the origins of isotope effects on confinement. Finally, the impacts of transport hysteresis on the control system are assessed. Control systems must be designed so as to protect the system from sudden plasma loss.
Electron Plasma Confinement in a Partially Toroidal Trap
2002-06-24
2002 American Institute of Physics 0-7354-0050-4/02/$19.00 671 plane superimposed on the cross - field drifts can close the drift orbits. In the tokamak...equipotential contours. Because the plasma is nonneutral, the drift results in a current, J, which when crossed into the magnetic field , B, balances the...equilibrium momentum equation is evident, J x B = Vp. In MHD theory the diamagnetic current crossed into the magnetic field balances the pressure gradient
Ion acoustic shock wave in collisional equal mass plasma
Adak, Ashish; Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil
2015-10-15
The effect of ion-ion collision on the dynamics of nonlinear ion acoustic wave in an unmagnetized pair-ion plasma has been investigated. The two-fluid model has been used to describe the dynamics of both positive and negative ions with equal masses. It is well known that in the dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave, the viscosity mediates wave dissipation in presence of weak nonlinearity and dispersion. This dissipation is responsible for the shock structures in pair-ion plasma. Here, it has been shown that the ion-ion collision in presence of collective phenomena mediated by the plasma current is the source of dissipation that causes the Burgers' term which is responsible for the shock structures in equal mass pair-ion plasma. The dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave is governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation. The analytical and numerical investigations revealed that the ion acoustic wave exhibits both oscillatory and monotonic shock structures depending on the frequency of ion-ion collision parameter. The results have been discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murakami, S.; Itoh, K.; Zheng, L. J.; Van Dam, J. W.; Bonoli, P.; Rice, J. E.; Fiore, C. L.; Gao, C.; Fukuyama, A.
2016-01-01
The averaged toroidal flow of energetic minority ions during ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequencies) heating is investigated in the Alcator C-Mod plasma by applying the GNET code, which can solve the drift kinetic equation with complicated orbits of accelerated energetic particles. It is found that a co-directional toroidal flow of the minority ions is generated in the region outside of the resonance location, and that the toroidal velocity reaches more than 40% of the central ion thermal velocity (Vtor ˜ 300 km/s with PICRF ˜ 2 MW). When we shift the resonance location to the outside of |r /a |˜0.5 , the toroidal flow immediately inside of the resonance location is reduced to 0 or changes to the opposite direction, and the toroidal velocity shear is enhanced at r/a ˜ 0.5. A radial diffusion equation for toroidal flow is solved by assuming a torque profile for the minority ion mean flow, and good agreements with experimental radial toroidal flow profiles are obtained. This suggests that the ICRF driven minority ion flow is related to the experimentally observed toroidal rotation during ICRF heating in the Alcator C-Mod plasma.
Simulation Study of an Extended Density DC Glow Toroidal Plasma Source
Granda-Gutierrez, E. E.; Piedad-Beneitez, A. de la; Lopez-Callejas, R.; Godoy-Cabrera, O. G.; Benitez-Read, J. S.; Pacheco-Sotelo, J. O.; Pena-Eguiluz, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Valencia A, R.; Barocio, S. R.
2006-12-04
Conventional wisdom assigns the DC glow discharge regime to plasma currents below {approx}500 mA values, beyond which the discharge falls into the anomalous glow and the turbulent arc regimes. However, we have found evidence that, during toroidal discharges, this barrier can be ostensibly extended up to 800 mA. Thus, a computer simulation has been applied to the evolution of the main electrical characteristics of such a glow discharge plasma in a toroidal vessel in order to design and construct a respective voltage/current controlled source. This should be able to generate a DC plasma in the glow regime with which currents in the range 10-3-100 A can be experimented and 109-1010 cm-3 plasma densities can be achieved to PIII optimization purposes. The plasma is modelled as a voltage-controlled current source able to be turned on whenever the breakdown voltage is reached across the gap between the anode and the vessel wall. The simulation outcome fits well our experimental measurements showing that the plasma current obeys power laws that are dependent on the power current and other control variables such as the gas pressure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yueqiang; Kirk, A.; Li, Li; In, Y.; Nazikian, R.; Sun, Youwen; Suttrop, W.; Lyons, B.; Ryan, D.; Wang, Shuo; Yang, Xu; Zhou, Lina
2017-05-01
Extensive modelling efforts of the plasma response to the resonant magnetic perturbation fields, utilized for controlling the edge localized mode (ELM), help to identify the edge-peeling response as a key factor, which correlates to the observed ELM mitigation in several tokamak devices, including MAST, ASDEX Upgrade, EAST, and HL-2A. The recently observed edge safety factor window for ELM mitigation in HL-2A experiments is explained in terms of the edge-peeling response. The computed plasma response, based on toroidal single fluid resistive plasma model with different assumption of toroidal flows, is found generally larger in ELM suppressed cases as compared to that of the ELM mitigated cases, in ASDEX Upgrade and DIII-D. The plasma shaping, in particular, the plasma triangularity, contributes to the enhanced plasma response. But the shaping does not appear to be the sole factor—other factors such as the (higher) pedestal pressure and/or current can also lead to increased edge-peeling response.
Mach Probe Wakes are Important in Weakly Magnetized, Collisional Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gosselin, Jordan James; Thakur, Saikat; Sears, Stephanie; McKee, John; Scime, Earl; Tynan, George
2015-11-01
Mach probes are often used as the diagnostic for flow in the scrape off layer (SOL) of tokamaks and in linear devices because of their low cost and ease of construction. However, proper interpretation of the Mach number has been debated, and interpretation methods use different calibration factors for different plasma parameters. The Controlled Shear Decorrelation eXperiment (CSDX) operates in an intermediate magnetization regime. To validate theories in this regime, measurements of the parallel ion velocity were made with Mach probes and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) at magnetic fields from 400 to 1600 gauss. We find that Mach probe measurements indicate higher velocities than LIF at fields above 400 gauss. Reduced downstream plasma density due to probe shadowing is a strong candidate for the cause of the discrepancy. An advective-diffusive model for the geometric shadowing and downstream plasma density is presented. When the model for the density drop is included, the Mach probe results agree with the LIF data. This result should be included by groups using Mach probes to measure parallel velocities in plasmas where the ion-neutral mean free path is shorter than the probe shadow length, Lps = a2Cs /Dperp in linear devices, the SOL, or divertor region of tokamaks. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Awards Number DE-FG02-07ER54912.
Electromagnetic wave propagation through an overdense magnetized collisional plasma layer
Thoma, C.; Rose, D. V.; Miller, C. L.; Clark, R. E.; Hughes, T. P.
2009-08-15
The results of investigations into the feasibility of using a magnetic window to propagate electromagnetic waves through a finite-sized overdense plasma slab are described. We theoretically calculate the transmission coefficients for right- and left-handed circularly polarized plane waves through a uniform magnetized plasma slab. Using reasonable estimates for the plasma properties expected to be found in the ionized shock layer surrounding a hypersonic aircraft traveling in the earth's upper atmosphere (radio blackout conditions), and assuming a 1 GHz carrier frequency for the radio communications channel, we find that the required magnetic field for propagation of right-handed circularly polarized, or whistler, waves is on the order of a few hundred gauss. Transmission coefficients are calculated as a function of sheath thickness and are shown to be quite sensitive to the electron collision frequency. One-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are shown to be in good agreement with the theory. These simulations also demonstrate that Ohmic heating of the electrons can be considerable. Two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations using a simplified waveguide and antenna model illustrate the same general transmission behavior as the theory and one-dimensional simulations. In addition, a net focusing effect due to the plasma is also observed in two and three dimensions. These simulations can be extended to design and analyze more realistic waveguide and antenna models.
Particle pinch and collisionality in gyrokinetic simulations of tokamak plasma turbulence
Angioni, C.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.; Fable, E.; Maslov, M.; Weisen, H.; Peeters, A. G.
2009-06-15
The generic problem of how, in a turbulent plasma, the experimentally relevant conditions of a particle flux very close to the null are achieved, despite the presence of strong heat fluxes, is addressed. Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of plasma turbulence in tokamaks reveal a complex dependence of the particle flux as a function of the turbulent spatial scale and of the velocity space as collisionality is increased. At experimental values of collisionality, the particle flux is found close to the null, in agreement with the experiment, due to the balance between inward and outward contributions at small and large scales, respectively. These simulations provide full theoretical support to the prediction of a peaked density profile in a future nuclear fusion reactor.
Collisional-Radiative Recombination of Ar^+ Ions with Electrons in a Flowing Afterglow Plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skrzypkowski, Miroslaw P.; Golde, Michael F.; Johnsen, Rainer
1998-10-01
Langmuir probe measurements of electron densities, n_e, in an Ar^+/e^- plasma are quantitatively consistent with the semi-empirical rate coefficient for collisional-radiative recombination given by Stevefelt et al.(J. Stevefelt et al., Phys. Rev A 12, 1246 (1975)) : α_cr=1.55×10-10T-0.63 + 6.0×10-9T-2.18n_e^0.37+3.8×10- 9T-4.5ne over the initial electron density range 5×10^9-5×10^10cm-3 at T=300K. Optical emission spectroscopy data reveal transitions from highly-excited states of Ar to Ar(^3P). We believe that the collisional-radiative recombination of Ar^+ ions is responsible for the presence of Ar metastable atoms in flowing afterglow plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdoli-Arani, A.; Moghaddasi, M.
2016-07-01
Acceleration of an externally injected electron inside the collisional plasma-filled cylindrical waveguide during its motion in the fields of the ? mode excited by microwave radiation is studied. The effect of the electron collision frequency with background ions on the deflection angle and energy gain of electron, when it is injected along the direction of the mode propagation is investigated. The fields for the mode, the deflection angle of electron trajectory, due to these fields, and the electron energy gradient are obtained. The results for collisionless and collisional plasma are graphically presented. The numerical results illustrate that the presence of the electron collision term in the dielectric permittivity can reduce the electron's energy gain in the configuration.
Acceleration of compact toroid plasma rings for fusion applications
Hartman, C.W.; Barr, W.L.; Eddleman, J.L.; Gee, M.; Hammer, J.H.; Ho, S.K.; Logan, B.G.; Meeker, D.J.; Mirin, A.A.; Nevins, W.M.
1988-08-26
We describe experimental results for a new type of collective accelerator based on magnetically confined compact torus (CT) plasma rings and discuss applications to both inertial and magnetic fusion. We have demonstrated the principle of CT acceleration in the RACE device with acceleration of 0.5 mg ring masses to 400 km/s and 0.02 mg ring masses to 1400 km/s at greater than or equal to30% efficiency. Scaling the CT accelerator to the multi-megajoule level could provide an efficient, economical driver for inertial fusion (ICF) or magnetically insulated inertial fusion. Efficient conversion to x-rays for driving hohlraum-type ICF targets has been modeled using a radiation-hydrodynamics code. At less demanding conditions than required for ICF, a CT accelerator can be applied to fueling and current drive in tokamaks. Fueling is accomplished by injecting CTs at the required rate to sustain the particle inventory and at a velocity sufficient to penetrate to the magnetic axis before CT dissolution. Current drive is a consequence of the magnetic helicity content of the CT, which is approximately conserved during reconnection of the CT fields with the tokamak. Major areas of uncertainty in CT fueling and current drive concern the mechanism by which CTs will stop in a tokamak plasma and the effects of the CT on energy confinement and magnetic stability. Bounds on the required CT injection velocity are obtained by considering drag due to emission of an Alfven-wave wake and rapid reconnection and tilting on the internal Alfven time scale of the CT. Preliminary results employing a 3-D, resistive MHD code show rapid tilting with the CT aligning its magnetic moment with the tokamak field. Requirements for an experimental test of CT injection and scenarios for fueling a reactor will also be discussed. 14 refs., 4 figs.
The electromagnetic interchange mode in a partially ionized collisional plasma. [spread F region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hudson, M. K.; Kennel, C. F.
1974-01-01
A collisional electromagnetic dispersion relation is derived from two-fluid theory for the interchange mode coupled to the Alfven, acoustic, drift and entropy modes in a partially ionized plasma. The fundamental electromagnetic nature of the interchange model is noted; coupling to the intermediate Alfven mode is strongly stabilizing for finite k sub z. Both ion viscous and ion-neutral stabilization are included, and it was found that collisions destroy the ion finite Larmor radius cutoff at short perpendicular wavelengths.
A collisional-radiative model of iron vapour in a thermal arc plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baeva, M.; Uhrlandt, D.; Murphy, A. B.
2017-06-01
A collisional-radiative model for the ground state and fifty effective excited levels of atomic iron, and one level for singly-ionized iron, is set up for technological plasmas. Attention is focused on the population of excited states of atomic iron as a result of excitation, de-excitation, ionization, recombination and spontaneous emission. Effective rate coefficients for ionization and recombination, required in non-equilibrium plasma transport models, are also obtained. The collisional-radiative model is applied to a thermal arc plasma. Input parameters for the collisional-radiative model are provided by a magnetohydrodynamic simulation of a gas-metal welding arc, in which local thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed and the treatment of the transport of metal vapour is based on combined diffusion coefficients. The results clearly identify the conditions in the arc, under which the atomic state distribution satisfies the Boltzmann distribution, with an excitation temperature equal to the plasma temperature. These conditions are met in the central part of the arc, even though a local temperature minimum occurs here. This provides assurance that diagnostic methods based on local thermodynamic equilibrium, in particular those of optical emission spectroscopy, are reliable here. In contrast, deviations from the equilibrium atomic-state distribution are obtained in the near-electrode and arc fringe regions. As a consequence, the temperatures determined from the ratio of line intensities and number densities obtained from the emission coefficient in these regions are questionable. In this situation, the collisional-radiative model can be used as a diagnostic tool to assist in the interpretation of spectroscopic measurements.
Wave enhancement of electron runaway rate in a collisional plasma
An, Z.; Liu, C.; Lee, Y.; Boyd, D.
1982-06-01
The effects of plasma waves on the electron runaway production rate is studied. For a wave packet with a one-dimensional spectrum directed along the electric field and with a phase velocity range containing the critical velocity v/sub c/ for runaway, the runaway production rate is found to be enhanced by many orders of magnitude. For an isotropic wave spectrum, however, the runaway production rate is reduced because of the wave-enhanced pitch angle scattering.
Nonlinear m = 1 mode and fast reconnection in collisional plasmas
Aydemir, A.Y.
1997-02-01
Time evolution of the m = 1 resistive kink mode is shown to be compromised of two exponential growth phases separated by a transition period during which the growth becomes temporarily algebraic. A modified Sweet-Parker model that takes into account some of the changes in the geometry of the core plasma and the growing island is offered to explain the departure from the algebraic growth of the early nonlinear phase.
Nonlinear m = 1 Mode and Fast Reconnection in Collisional Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aydemir, A. Y.
1997-06-01
Time evolution of the m = 1 resistive kink mode is shown to be comprised of two exponential growth phases separated by a transition period during which the growth becomes temporarily algebraic. A modified Sweet-Parker model that takes into account some of the changes in the geometry of the core plasma and the growing island is offered to explain the departure from the algebraic growth of the early nonlinear phase.
Hydrodynamic Models for Multicomponent Plasmas with Collisional-Radiative Kinetics
2014-12-01
problem is the forward step problem, also known as the Emery problem, or the Mach-3 wind tunnel problem. The problem consists of uniform flow of Mach-3...2011. [50] C. K. Birdsall and A. B. Langdon. Plasma physics via computer simulation. Taylor & Francis, 2005. [51] G. Lapenta. Particle simulations of...space weather. Journal of Computa- tional Physics, 231(3):795–821, February 2012. [52] J. O. Hirschfelder, C. F. Curtiss, and R. B. Bird . The Molecular
Dielectric function of a collisional plasma for arbitrary ionic charge.
Nersisyan, H B; Veysman, M E; Andreev, N E; Matevosyan, H H
2014-03-01
A simple model for the dielectric function of a completely ionized plasma with an arbitrary ionic charge that is valid for long-wavelength high-frequency perturbations is derived using an approximate solution of a linearized Fokker-Planck kinetic equation for electrons with a Landau collision integral. The model accounts for both the electron-ion collisions and the collisions of the subthermal (cold) electrons with thermal ones. The relative contribution of the latter collisions to the dielectric function is treated phenomenologically, introducing some parameter ϰ that is chosen in such a way as to get a well-known expression for stationary electric conductivity in the low-frequency region and fulfill the requirement of a vanishing contribution of electron-electron collisions in the high-frequency region. This procedure ensures the applicability of our model in a wide range of plasma parameters as well as the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation. Unlike the interpolation formula proposed earlier by Brantov et al. [Brantov et al., JETP 106, 983 (2008)], our model fulfills the Kramers-Kronig relations and permits a generalization for the cases of degenerate and strongly coupled plasmas. With this in mind, a generalization of the well-known Lee-More model [Y. T. Lee and R. M. More, Phys. Fluids 27, 1273 (1984)] for stationary conductivity and its extension to dynamical conductivity [O. F. Kostenko and N. E. Andreev, GSI Annual Report No. GSI-2008-2, 2008 (unpublished), p. 44] is proposed for the case of plasmas with arbitrary ionic charge.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ida, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Yoshinuma, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Narushima, Y.; Evans, T. E.; Ohdachi, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, K.
2016-09-01
Bifurcation physics of a magnetic island was investigated using the heat pulse propagation technique produced by the modulation of electron cyclotron heating. There are two types of bifurcation phenomena observed in a large helical device (LHD) and DIII-D. One is a bifurcation of the magnetic topology between nested and stochastic fields. The nested state is characterized by the bi-directional (inward and outward) propagation of the heat pulse with slow propagation speed. The stochastic state is characterized by the fast propagation of the heat pulse with electron temperature flattening. The other bifurcation is between the magnetic island with larger thermal diffusivity and that with smaller thermal diffusivity. The damping of toroidal flow is observed at the O-point of the magnetic island both in helical plasmas and in tokamak plasmas during a mode locking phase with strong flow shears at the boundary of the magnetic island. Associated with the stochastization of the magnetic field, the abrupt damping of toroidal flow is observed in LHD. The toroidal flow shear shows a linear decay, while the ion temperature gradient shows an exponential decay. This observation suggests that this flow damping is due to the change in the non-diffusive term of momentum transport.
Ida, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Yoshinuma, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Narushima, Y.; Evans, T. E.; Ohdachi, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, K.
2016-07-29
Bifurcation physics of the magnetic island was investigated using the heat pulse propagation technique produced by the modulation of electron cyclotron heating. There are two types of bifurcation phenomena observed in LHD and DIII-D. One is a bifurcation of the magnetic topology between nested and stochastic fields. The nested state is characterized by the bi-directional (inward and outward) propagation of the heat pulse with slow propagation speed. The stochastic state is characterized by the fast propagation of the heat pulse with electron temperature flattening. The other bifurcation is between magnetic island with larger thermal diffusivity and that with smaller thermal diffusivity. The damping of toroidal flow is observed at the O-point of the magnetic island both in helical plasmas and in tokamak plasmas during a mode locking phase with strong flow shears at the boundary of the magnetic island. Associated with the stochastization of the magnetic field, the abrupt damping of toroidal flow is observed in LHD. The toroidal flow shear shows a linear decay, while the ion temperature gradient shows an exponential decay. Lastly, this observation suggests that this flow damping is due to the change in the non-diffusive term of momentum transport.
Ida, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Yoshinuma, M.; ...
2016-07-29
Bifurcation physics of the magnetic island was investigated using the heat pulse propagation technique produced by the modulation of electron cyclotron heating. There are two types of bifurcation phenomena observed in LHD and DIII-D. One is a bifurcation of the magnetic topology between nested and stochastic fields. The nested state is characterized by the bi-directional (inward and outward) propagation of the heat pulse with slow propagation speed. The stochastic state is characterized by the fast propagation of the heat pulse with electron temperature flattening. The other bifurcation is between magnetic island with larger thermal diffusivity and that with smaller thermalmore » diffusivity. The damping of toroidal flow is observed at the O-point of the magnetic island both in helical plasmas and in tokamak plasmas during a mode locking phase with strong flow shears at the boundary of the magnetic island. Associated with the stochastization of the magnetic field, the abrupt damping of toroidal flow is observed in LHD. The toroidal flow shear shows a linear decay, while the ion temperature gradient shows an exponential decay. Lastly, this observation suggests that this flow damping is due to the change in the non-diffusive term of momentum transport.« less
Collisional considerations in axial-collection plasma mass filters
Ochs, I. E.; Gueroult, R.; Fisch, N. J.; ...
2017-04-01
The chemical inhomogeneity of nuclear waste makes chemical separations difficult, while the correlation between radioactivity and nuclear mass makes mass-based separation, and in particular plasma-based separation, an attractive alternative. Here, we examine a particular class of plasma mass filters, namely filters in which (a) species of different masses are collected along magnetic field lines at opposite ends of an open-field-line plasma device and (b) gyro-drift effects are important for the separation process. Using an idealized cylindrical model, we derive a set of dimensionless parameters which provide minimum necessary conditions for an effective mass filter function in the presence of ion-ionmore » and ion-neutral collisions. Through simulations of the constant-density profile, turbulence-free devices, we find that these parameters accurately describe the mass filter performance in more general magnetic geometries. We then use these parameters to study the design and upgrade of current experiments, as well as to derive general scalings for the throughput of production mass filters. Most importantly, we find that ion temperatures above 3 eV and magnetic fields above 104 G are critical to ensure a feasible mass filter function when operating at an ion density of 1013 cm–3.« less
Collisional considerations in axial-collection plasma mass filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ochs, I. E.; Gueroult, R.; Fisch, N. J.; Zweben, S. J.
2017-04-01
The chemical inhomogeneity of nuclear waste makes chemical separations difficult, while the correlation between radioactivity and nuclear mass makes mass-based separation, and in particular plasma-based separation, an attractive alternative. Here, we examine a particular class of plasma mass filters, namely filters in which (a) species of different masses are collected along magnetic field lines at opposite ends of an open-field-line plasma device and (b) gyro-drift effects are important for the separation process. Using an idealized cylindrical model, we derive a set of dimensionless parameters which provide minimum necessary conditions for an effective mass filter function in the presence of ion-ion and ion-neutral collisions. Through simulations of the constant-density profile, turbulence-free devices, we find that these parameters accurately describe the mass filter performance in more general magnetic geometries. We then use these parameters to study the design and upgrade of current experiments, as well as to derive general scalings for the throughput of production mass filters. Importantly, we find that ion temperatures above 3 eV and magnetic fields above 104 G are critical to ensure a feasible mass filter function when operating at an ion density of 1013 cm-3.
An experimentally constrained MHD model for a collisional, rotating plasma column
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wright, A. M.; Qu, Z. S.; Caneses, J. F.; Hole, M. J.
2017-02-01
A steady-state single fluid MHD model which describes the equilibrium of plasma parameters in a collisional, rotating plasma column with temperature gradients and a non-uniform externally applied magnetic field is developed. Two novel methods of simplifying the governing equations are introduced. Specifically, a ‘radial transport constraint’ and an ordering argument are applied. The reduced system is subsequently solved to yield the equilibrium of macroscopic plasma parameters in the bulk region of the plasma. The model is benchmarked by comparing these solutions to experimental measurements of axial velocity and density for a hydrogen plasma in the converging-field experiment MAGPIE and overall a good agreement is observed. The plasma equilibrium is determined by the interaction of a density gradient, due to a temperature gradient, with an electric field. The magnetic field and temperature gradient are identified as key parameters in determining the flow profile, which may be important considerations in other applications.
Modeling of Weakly Collisional Parallel Electron Transport for Edge Plasma Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Umansky, M. V.; Dimits, A. M.; Joseph, I.; Omotani, J. T.; Rognlien, T. D.
2014-10-01
The parallel electron heat transport in a weakly collisional regime can be represented in the framework of the Landau-fluid (LF) model. Practical implementation of LF-based transport models has become possible due to the recent invention of an efficient non- spectral method for the non-local closure operators. Here the implementation of a LF based model for the parallel plasma transport is described, and the model is tested for different collisionality regimes against a Fokker-Plank code. The new method appears to represent weakly collisional parallel electron transport more accurately than the conventional flux-limiter based models; on the other hand it is computationally efficient enough to be used in tokamak edge plasma simulations. Implementation of an LF-based model for the parallel plasma transport in the UEDGE code is described, and applications to realistic divertor simulations are discussed. Work performed for U.S. DoE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Measurement of toroidal vessel eddy current during plasma disruption on J-TEXT
Liu, L. J.; Yu, K. X.; Zhang, M. Zhuang, G.; Li, X.; Yuan, T.; Rao, B.; Zhao, Q.
2016-01-15
In this paper, we have employed a thin, printed circuit board eddy current array in order to determine the radial distribution of the azimuthal component of the eddy current density at the surface of a steel plate. The eddy current in the steel plate can be calculated by analytical methods under the simplifying assumptions that the steel plate is infinitely large and the exciting current is of uniform distribution. The measurement on the steel plate shows that this method has high spatial resolution. Then, we extended this methodology to a toroidal geometry with the objective of determining the poloidal distribution of the toroidal component of the eddy current density associated with plasma disruption in a fusion reactor called J-TEXT. The preliminary measured result is consistent with the analysis and calculation results on the J-TEXT vacuum vessel.
Measurement of toroidal vessel eddy current during plasma disruption on J-TEXT.
Liu, L J; Yu, K X; Zhang, M; Zhuang, G; Li, X; Yuan, T; Rao, B; Zhao, Q
2016-01-01
In this paper, we have employed a thin, printed circuit board eddy current array in order to determine the radial distribution of the azimuthal component of the eddy current density at the surface of a steel plate. The eddy current in the steel plate can be calculated by analytical methods under the simplifying assumptions that the steel plate is infinitely large and the exciting current is of uniform distribution. The measurement on the steel plate shows that this method has high spatial resolution. Then, we extended this methodology to a toroidal geometry with the objective of determining the poloidal distribution of the toroidal component of the eddy current density associated with plasma disruption in a fusion reactor called J-TEXT. The preliminary measured result is consistent with the analysis and calculation results on the J-TEXT vacuum vessel.
Measurement of toroidal vessel eddy current during plasma disruption on J-TEXT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, L. J.; Yu, K. X.; Zhang, M.; Zhuang, G.; Li, X.; Yuan, T.; Rao, B.; Zhao, Q.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we have employed a thin, printed circuit board eddy current array in order to determine the radial distribution of the azimuthal component of the eddy current density at the surface of a steel plate. The eddy current in the steel plate can be calculated by analytical methods under the simplifying assumptions that the steel plate is infinitely large and the exciting current is of uniform distribution. The measurement on the steel plate shows that this method has high spatial resolution. Then, we extended this methodology to a toroidal geometry with the objective of determining the poloidal distribution of the toroidal component of the eddy current density associated with plasma disruption in a fusion reactor called J-TEXT. The preliminary measured result is consistent with the analysis and calculation results on the J-TEXT vacuum vessel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Tsuchiya, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Suzuki, C.; Yokoyama, M.; Shimizu, A.; Nagaoka, K.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, K.; The LHD Experiment Group
2017-07-01
Response of the plasma toroidal flow to the forward and backward transition between the nested and the stochastic magnetic field is studied using the charge exchange spectroscopy in the large helical device (LHD). Abrupt damping of toroidal flow associated with a transition from nested magnetic flux surface to a stochastic magnetic field is observed when the magnetic shear at the rational surface decreases to 0.5 after the exchange of the neutral beam injection (NBI) direction from co- to counter-direction in LHD. The stochastization of magnetic field occurs only in a narrow range of magnetic shear near 0.5 and spontaneous back-transition from stochastic to nested magnetic field (healing) is observed in the steady-state phase of magnetic shear. When the NBI direction is changed from counter- to co-direction, the healing of magnetic field occurs associated with the increase of magnetic shear.
Spontaneous three-dimensional magnetic reconnection in merging toroidal plasma experiment
Ii, Toru; Ono, Yasushi
2013-01-15
We investigated a new phenomenon of three-dimensional (3D) magnetic reconnection in TS-4 torus plasma merging experiments by directly measuring the 3D structures of the current sheet. Removal of all toroidal asymmetry of the device reveals that a strong external drive of reconnection inflow increases the toroidal asymmetry of the current sheet only during the reconnection. This spontaneous 3D deformation of the current sheet increases the reconnection outflow as well as the reconnection electric field, probably because local compression of the current sheet to a thickness less than the ion gyroradius triggers its strong dissipation of the current sheet, responsible for the onset of 3D reconnection. These mechanisms indicate that the 3D reconnection is a newly observed spontaneous process of fast reconnection.
Study of plasma equilibrium in toroidal fusion devices using mesh-free numerical calculation method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasouli, C.; Abbasi Davani, F.; Rokrok, B.
2016-08-01
Plasma confinement using external magnetic field is one of the successful ways leading to the controlled nuclear fusion. Development and validation of the solution process for plasma equilibrium in the experimental toroidal fusion devices is the main subject of this work. Solution of the nonlinear 2D stationary problem as posed by the Grad-Shafranov equation gives quantitative information about plasma equilibrium inside the vacuum chamber of hot fusion devices. This study suggests solving plasma equilibrium equation which is essential in toroidal nuclear fusion devices, using a mesh-free method in a condition that the plasma boundary is unknown. The Grad-Shafranov equation has been solved numerically by the point interpolation collocation mesh-free method. Important features of this approach include truly mesh free, simple mathematical relationships between points and acceptable precision in comparison with the parametric results. The calculation process has been done by using the regular and irregular nodal distribution and support domains with different points. The relative error between numerical and analytical solution is discussed for several test examples such as small size Damavand tokamak, ITER-like equilibrium, NSTX-like equilibrium, and typical Spheromak.
Study of plasma equilibrium in toroidal fusion devices using mesh-free numerical calculation method
Rasouli, C.; Abbasi Davani, F.; Rokrok, B.
2016-08-15
Plasma confinement using external magnetic field is one of the successful ways leading to the controlled nuclear fusion. Development and validation of the solution process for plasma equilibrium in the experimental toroidal fusion devices is the main subject of this work. Solution of the nonlinear 2D stationary problem as posed by the Grad-Shafranov equation gives quantitative information about plasma equilibrium inside the vacuum chamber of hot fusion devices. This study suggests solving plasma equilibrium equation which is essential in toroidal nuclear fusion devices, using a mesh-free method in a condition that the plasma boundary is unknown. The Grad-Shafranov equation has been solved numerically by the point interpolation collocation mesh-free method. Important features of this approach include truly mesh free, simple mathematical relationships between points and acceptable precision in comparison with the parametric results. The calculation process has been done by using the regular and irregular nodal distribution and support domains with different points. The relative error between numerical and analytical solution is discussed for several test examples such as small size Damavand tokamak, ITER-like equilibrium, NSTX-like equilibrium, and typical Spheromak.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Xingting; Zhu, Ping; Sun, Youwen
2016-10-01
The characteristic profile and magnitude are predicted in theory for the neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) torque induced by the plasma response to the resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) in a tokamak with an edge pedestal, using the newly developed module coupling the NIMROD and the NTVTOK codes. For a low β equilibrium, the NTV torque is mainly induced by the dominant toroidal mode of plasma response. The NTV torque profile is radially localized and peaked, which is determined by profiles of both the equilibrium temperature and the plasma response fields. In general, the peak of NTV torque profile is found to trace the pedestal location. The magnitude of NTV torque is extremely sensitive to the β of pedestal top; for a given plasma response, the peak value of NTV torque can increase by three orders of magnitude, when the pedestal β increases by only one order of magnitude. This suggests a more significant role of NTV torque in higher plasma β regimes. Supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China under Grant Nos. 2014GB124002 and 2015GB101004, and the 100 Talent Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yueqiang
2016-10-01
The type-I edge localized mode (ELM), bursting at low frequency and with large amplitude, can channel a substantial amount of the plasma thermal energy into the surrounding plasma-facing components in tokamak devices operating at the high-confinement mode, potentially causing severe material damages. Learning effective ways of controlling this instability is thus an urgent issue in fusion research, in particular in view of the next generation large devices such as ITER and DEMO. Among other means, externally applied, three-dimensional resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields have been experimentally demonstrated to be successful in mitigating or suppressing the type-I ELM, in multiple existing devices. In this work, we shall report results of a comparative study of ELM control using RMPs. Comparison is made between the modelled plasma response to the 3D external fields and the observed change of the ELM behaviour on multiple devices, including MAST, ASDEX Upgrade, EAST, DIII-D, JET, and KSTAR. We show that toroidal modelling of the plasma response, based on linear and quasi-linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models, provides essential insights that are useful in interpreting and guiding the ELM control experiments. In particular, linear toroidal modelling results, using the MARS-F code, reveal the crucial role of the edge localized peeling-tearing mode response during ELM mitigation/suppression on all these devices. Such response often leads to strong peaking of the plasma surface displacement near the region of weak equilibrium poloidal field (e.g. the X-point), and this provides an alternative practical criterion for ELM control, as opposed to the vacuum field based Chirikov criteria. Quasi-linear modelling using MARS-Q provides quantitative interpretation of the side effects due to the ELM control coils, on the plasma toroidal momentum and particle confinements. The particular role of the momentum and particle fluxes, associated with the neoclassical toroidal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yang; White, Roscoe B.
1997-10-01
A general method for including various collisional effects, such as the drag and diffusion of test particles due to background plasmas, the effect of particle source and sink, and the like-particle Coloumb collisions, is presented. The marker density g is generally unknown along the particle trajectory, and its evaluation depends on the way particles are initially loaded and new particles are injected into the simulation. The method is demonstrated for the problem of the nonlinear evolution of the toroidicity induced Alfvén eigenmode, driven by energetic α particles. The saturation amplitude is found to scale with the collision rate in a way as predicted by theory.
Nonlinear wave propagation in a strongly coupled collisional dusty plasma.
Ghosh, Samiran; Gupta, Mithil Ranjan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Chaudhuri, Manis
2011-06-01
The propagation of a nonlinear low-frequency mode in a strongly coupled dusty plasma is investigated using a generalized hydrodynamical model. For the well-known longitudinal dust acoustic mode a standard perturbative approach leads to a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) soliton. The strong viscoelastic effect, however, introduced a nonlinear forcing and a linear damping in the KdV equation. This novel equation is solved analytically to show a competition between nonlinear forcing and dissipative damping. The physical consequence of such a solution is also sketched.
Nonlinear wave propagation in a strongly coupled collisional dusty plasma
Ghosh, Samiran; Gupta, Mithil Ranjan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Chaudhuri, Manis
2011-06-15
The propagation of a nonlinear low-frequency mode in a strongly coupled dusty plasma is investigated using a generalized hydrodynamical model. For the well-known longitudinal dust acoustic mode a standard perturbative approach leads to a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) soliton. The strong viscoelastic effect, however, introduced a nonlinear forcing and a linear damping in the KdV equation. This novel equation is solved analytically to show a competition between nonlinear forcing and dissipative damping. The physical consequence of such a solution is also sketched.
Sheath energy transmission in a collisional plasma with collisionless sheath
Tang, Xian-Zhu Guo, Zehua
2015-10-15
Sheath energy transmission governs the plasma energy exhaust onto a material surface. The ion channel is dominated by convection, but the electron channel has a significant thermal conduction component, which is dominated by the Knudsen layer effect in the presence of an absorbing wall. First-principle kinetic simulations reveal a robustly supersonic sheath entry flow. The ion sheath energy transmission and the sheath potential are accurately predicted by a sheath model of truncated bi-Maxwellian electron distribution. The electron energy transmission is further enhanced by a parallel heat flux of the perpendicular degrees of freedom.
X-ray Thomson Scattering for measuring Dense Beryllium Plasma Collisionality
Doppner, T; Fortmann, C; Davis, P F; Kritcher, A L; Landen, O L; Lee, H J; Redmer, R; Regan, S P; Glenzer, S H
2009-10-22
We are developing a target platform that utilizes short-pulse (10 ps) generated hot electrons ({approx}1 MeV) to isochorically heat solid density beryllium up to several 10 eV. X-ray Thomson scattering is employed to characterize the plasma conditions. X-rays from a Cl Ly-{alpha} line source at 2.96 keV are scattered off the plasma in forward direction where the inelastically scattered signal is sensitive to plasma oscillations. Besides Landau-damping the strong energy down-shifted plasmon signal is also broadened by collisions which, in turn, allows to infer the collision rate and thus the conductivity in these plasmas. Recently, we demonstrated that from the ratio of the energy up-shifted to the down-shifted plasmon signals the plasma temperature can be inferred from the detailed balance relation which is based on first principles. Thus from the Plasmon shift and detailed balance we will be able to consistently determine plasma density and temperature, and relate this to the collisionality inferred from the Plasmon broadening. A precise knowledge of the collisionality in the parameter regime we are aiming at with these experiments is important to correctly model the conditions encountered during capsule implosions at the National Ignition Facility.
Collisional processes of interest in MFE plasma research
Olson, R.E.
1990-05-24
Research on this grant is devoted to the calculation of heavy particle collision cross sections needed for diagnostic studies of magnetic fusion plasmas. This work requires the development and testing of new theoretical methods, with the implementation of benchmarked techniques to collisions pertinent to fusion reactors. Within the last context, we have provided charge-exchange-recombination cross sections to specific n,1-levels for diagnostic studies on TFTR and for a major compilation for IAEA. We have also completed a cross section study related to the planned neutral beam current drive for ITER. In addition, calculations were completed to assess the use of He neutral atom angular scattering measurements for JT-60. Also, new theoretical methods have been developed to more accurately calculate cross sections involving either He or H{sub 2} targets and partially stripped multiply-charged ions.
The direct criterion of Newcomb for the ideal MHD stability of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glasser, A. H.
2016-07-01
A method is presented for determining the ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma, based on a toroidal generalization of the method developed by Newcomb for fixed-boundary modes in a cylindrical plasma. For toroidal mode number n ≠ 0 , the stability problem is reduced to the numerical integration of a high-order complex system of ordinary differential equations, the Euler-Lagrange equation for extremizing the potential energy, for the coupled amplitudes of poloidal harmonics m as a function of the radial coordinate ψ in a straight-fieldline flux coordinate system. Unlike the cylindrical case, different poloidal harmonics couple to each other, which introduces coupling between adjacent singular intervals. A boundary condition is used at each singular surface, where m = nq and q ( ψ ) is the safety factor, to cross the singular surface and continue the solutions beyond it. Fixed-boundary instability is indicated by the vanishing of a real determinant of a Hermitian complex matrix constructed from the fundamental matrix of solutions, the generalization of Newcomb's crossing criterion. In the absence of fixed-boundary instabilities, an M × M plasma response matrix W P , with M the number of poloidal harmonics used, is constructed from the Euler-Lagrange solutions at the plasma-vacuum boundary. This is added to a vacuum response matrix W V to form a total response matrix W T . The existence of negative eigenvalues of W T indicates the presence of free-boundary instabilities. The method is implemented in the fast and accurate DCON code.
Graf, A; May, M; Beiersdorfer, P; Magee, E; Lawrence, M; Terry, J; Rice, J
2004-04-29
We present a high throughput (f/3) visible (3500 - 7000 Angstrom) Doppler spectrometer for toroidal rotation velocity measurements of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak plasma. The spectrometer has a temporal response of 1 ms and a rotation velocity sensitivity of {approx}10{sup 5} cm/s. This diagnostic will have a tangential view and map out the plasma rotation at several locations along the outer half of the minor radius (r/a > 0.5). The plasma rotation will be determined from the Doppler shifted wavelengths of D{sub alpha} and magnetic and electric dipole transitions of highly ionized impurities in the plasma. The fast time resolution and high spectral resolving power are possible due to a 6' diameter circular transmission grating that is capable of {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx} 15500 at 5769 Angstrom in conjunction with a 50 {micro}m slit.
Revealing an intermediate region between the collisional radiofrequency plasma bulk and its sheath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beckers, J.; Trienekens, D. J. M.; Kroesen, G. M. W.
2015-03-01
Experimental evidence of the existence of an intermediate region between a capacitively coupled plasma and the collisional space-charge region at its borders is presented. This proof is generated by monitoring—in an airplane carrying out parabolic flights—the trajectory of plasma-confined microparticles. Based on only primary data and without the need for a sophisticated model, our analysis concludes a sharply marked transition from the sheath region into another region with a significantly lower—yet nonzero—space-charge density, i.e., a region which is often called the presheath.
Revealing an intermediate region between the collisional radiofrequency plasma bulk and its sheath.
Beckers, J; Trienekens, D J M; Kroesen, G M W
2015-03-01
Experimental evidence of the existence of an intermediate region between a capacitively coupled plasma and the collisional space-charge region at its borders is presented. This proof is generated by monitoring-in an airplane carrying out parabolic flights-the trajectory of plasma-confined microparticles. Based on only primary data and without the need for a sophisticated model, our analysis concludes a sharply marked transition from the sheath region into another region with a significantly lower-yet nonzero-space-charge density, i.e., a region which is often called the presheath.
Maitra, Sarit; Banerjee, Gadadhar
2014-11-15
The influence of dust size distribution on the dust ion acoustic solitary waves in a collisional dusty plasma is investigated. It is found that dust size distribution changes the amplitude and width of a solitary wave. A critical wave number is derived for the existence of purely damping mode. A deformed Korteweg-de Vries (dKdV) equation is obtained for the propagation of weakly nonlinear dust ion acoustic solitary waves and the effect of different plasma parameters on the solution of this equation is also presented.
Trapped-Particle-Mediated Collisional Damping of Non-Axisymmetric Plasma Waves
Kabantsev, Andrey A.; Driscoll, C. Fred
2006-10-18
Weak axial ripples in magnetic or electric confinement fields in pure electron plasmas cause slow electrons to be trapped locally, and collisional diffusion across the trapping separatrix then causes surprisingly large trapped-particle-mediated (TPM) damping and transport effects. Here, we characterize TPM damping of m{theta} {ne} 0, mz = {+-}1 Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) plasma modes in large amplitude long-lived BGK states. The TPM damping gives {gamma}BGK/{omega} {approx} 10-4, and seems to dominate in regimes of weak collisions.
Numerical study on the stability of weakly collisional plasma in E×B fields
Horký, M.
2015-02-15
Plasma stability in weakly collisional plasmas in the presence of E×B fields is studied with numerical simulations. Different types of ion-neutral collisions are considered in a fully magnetized regime. We study the influence of ion-neutral collisions and the role of collision types on the stability of plasma. It is found that the stability of plasma depends on the type of ion-neutral collisions, with the plasma being unstable for charge exchange collisions, and stable for the elastic scattering. The analysis focuses on the temporal evolution of the velocity phase space, RMS values of the potential fluctuations, and coherent structures in potential densities. For the unstable case, we observe growth and propagation of electrostatic waves. Simulations are performed with a three-dimensional electrostatic particle in cell code.
Fantz, U.; Wuenderlich, D.
2011-05-11
The quantitative analysis of spectroscopic data from low temperature plasmas is strongly supported from collisional radiative (CR) modeling. Low pressure plasmas for basic research in the lab and for industrial use have several aspects in common with the cold edge of magnetic fusion plasmas. On the basis of applications of CR modeling for atomic and molecular hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and diatomic radicals such as CH and C{sub 2}, the relevance of individual processes for data interpretation is demonstrated for ionizing and recombining plasmas. Examples of such processes are opacity, dissociative excitation, dissociative recombination, mutual neutralization, and energy pooling. It is shown that the benchmark of CR modeling with experimental data can be used to identify problems in the ingoing data set of cross sections and rate coefficients. Using the flexible solver Yacora, the capability of CR modeling of low temperature plasmas is highlighted.
Borovsky, J.E.
1987-02-01
The propagation of ultralow-frequency (ulf) electromagnetic signals (Alfven and magnetosonic waves) in collisional, inhomogeneous, magnetized plasmas is analyzed by numerical simulation. The problem is formulated from a Maxwell-equation orbit-theory approach rather than from a magnetohydrodynamic point of view, and the problem is numerically treated in a fully time-dependent manner. Boundary-value-problem behavior is distinguished from initial-value-problem behavior. The propagation of two-dimensional small-amplitude electromagnetic disturbances in plasmas with spatially dependent densities and in plasmas with spatially dependent conductivities is numerically simulated, and when possible, the simulations are compared with theory. Changes in the plasma density lead to changes in the signal speed and to reflections; collisions lead to changes in the signal speed, to reflections, and to attenuations. Theoretical descriptions based upon discontinuities in the media are generally incorrect in predicting the amplitudes of signals reflected from plasma inhomogeneities. 19 refs., 16 figs.
Rotating toroidal equilibria of quasi-neutral and non-neutral plasmas
Hurricane, O.A.
1998-06-01
Starting from the fundamental ion and electron fluid equations, a {open_quotes}master{close_quotes} equilibrium equation set is constructed for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas. These equations retain the effects of different ion and electron densities, temperatures, sheared rotation, and electric forces. The master equation is then examined in various limits including the non-neutral plasma limit. An ordering is assumed which makes the effects of the Reynolds stress, pressure, magnetic stress, and electric field stress all comparable emphasizing the natural transition from the non-neutral case to the quasi-neutral one. For sub-relativistic flows, charge separation effects are only significant for nearly force-free plasmas. A set of equilibrium equations are derived for three different cases: (A) n{sub i}{approx}n{sub e}, (B) n{sub i}{ne}n{sub e}{ne}0, and (C) n{sub i}=0 and n{sub e}{ne}0. In the pure electron plasma case, the resulting equilibrium equation includes the effects of toroidal rotation, poloidal magnetic field, and electron pressure extending the equation of Daugherty and Levy [Phys. Fluids {bold 10}, 155 (1967)]. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}
Electron beam-plasma interaction experiments with the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF)
Murphy, S.M.; Lee, M.C.; Moriarty, D.T.; Riddolls, R.J.
1995-12-31
The laboratory investigation of electron beam-plasma interactions is motivated by the recent space shuttle experiments. Interesting but puzzling phenomena were observed in the shuttle experiments such as the bulk heating of background ionospheric plasmas by the injected electron beams and the excitation of plasma waves in the frequency range of ELF waves. The plasma machine, the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF) can generate a large magnetized plasma with the electron plasma frequency greater than the electron gyrofrequency by a factor of 3--5 similar to the plasma condition in the ionosphere. Short pulses of electron beams are injected into the VTF plasmas in order to simulate the beam injection from spacecrafts in the ionosphere. A Langmuir probe installed at a bottom port of VTF monitors the spatial variation of electron beams emitted from LaB6 filaments. An energy analyzer has been used to determine the particle energy distribution in the VTF plasmas. Several mechanisms will be tested as potential causes of the bulk heating of background plasmas by the injected electron beams as seen in the space shuttle experiments. It is speculated that the observed ELF emissions result from the excitation of purely growing modes detected by the space shuttle-borne detectors. Results of the laboratory experiments will be reported to corroborate this speculation.
Schekochihin, A. A.; Cowley, S. C.; Dorland, W.; Hammett, G. W.; Howes, G. G.; Quataert, E.; Tatsuno, T.
2009-04-23
This paper presents a theoretical framework for understanding plasma turbulence in astrophysical plasmas. It is motivated by observations of electromagnetic and density fluctuations in the solar wind, interstellar medium and galaxy clusters, as well as by models of particle heating in accretion disks. All of these plasmas and many others have turbulentmotions at weakly collisional and collisionless scales. The paper focuses on turbulence in a strong mean magnetic field. The key assumptions are that the turbulent fluctuations are small compared to the mean field, spatially anisotropic with respect to it and that their frequency is low compared to the ion cyclotron frequency. The turbulence is assumed to be forced at some system-specific outer scale. The energy injected at this scale has to be dissipated into heat, which ultimately cannot be accomplished without collisions. A kinetic cascade develops that brings the energy to collisional scales both in space and velocity. The nature of the kinetic cascade in various scale ranges depends on the physics of plasma fluctuations that exist there. There are four special scales that separate physically distinct regimes: the electron and ion gyroscales, the mean free path and the electron diffusion scale. In each of the scale ranges separated by these scales, the fully kinetic problem is systematically reduced to a more physically transparent and computationally tractable system of equations, which are derived in a rigorous way. In the "inertial range" above the ion gyroscale, the kinetic cascade separates into two parts: a cascade of Alfvenic fluctuations and a passive cascade of density and magnetic-fieldstrength fluctuations. The former are governed by the Reduced Magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations at both the collisional and collisionless scales; the latter obey a linear kinetic equation along the (moving) field lines associated with the Alfvenic component (in the collisional limit, these compressive fluctuations
Schekochihin, A. A.; Cowley, S. C.; Dorland, W.; Tatsuno, T.; Hammett, G. W.; Howes, G. G.; Quataert, E.
2009-05-15
This paper presents a theoretical framework for understanding plasma turbulence in astrophysical plasmas. It is motivated by observations of electromagnetic and density fluctuations in the solar wind, interstellar medium and galaxy clusters, as well as by models of particle heating in accretion disks. All of these plasmas and many others have turbulent motions at weakly collisional and collisionless scales. The paper focuses on turbulence in a strong mean magnetic field. The key assumptions are that the turbulent fluctuations are small compared to the mean field, spatially anisotropic with respect to it and that their frequency is low compared to the ion cyclotron frequency. The turbulence is assumed to be forced at some system-specific outer scale. The energy injected at this scale has to be dissipated into heat, which ultimately cannot be accomplished without collisions. A kinetic cascade develops that brings the energy to collisional scales both in space and velocity. The nature of the kinetic cascade in various scale ranges depends on the physics of plasma fluctuations that exist there. There are four special scales that separate physically distinct regimes: the electron and ion gyroscales, the mean free path and the electron diffusion scale. In each of the scale ranges separated by these scales, the fully kinetic problem is systematically reduced to a more physically transparent and computationally tractable system of equations, which are derived in a rigorous way. In the 'inertial range' above the ion gyroscale, the kinetic cascade separates into two parts: a cascade of Alfvenic fluctuations and a passive cascade of density and magnetic-field-strength fluctuations. The former are governed by the reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations at both the collisional and collisionless scales; the latter obey a linear kinetic equation along the (moving) field lines associated with the Alfvenic component (in the collisional limit, these compressive fluctuations
Nonextensive statistics and skin depth of transverse wave in collisional plasma
Hashemzadeh, M.
2016-05-15
Skin depth of transverse wave in a collisional plasma is studied taking into account the nonextensive electron distribution function. Considering the kinetic theory for charge particles and using the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision model, a generalized transverse dielectric permittivity is obtained. The transverse dispersion relation in different frequency ranges is investigated. Obtaining the imaginary part of the wave vector from the dispersion relation, the skin depth for these frequency ranges is also achieved. Profiles of the skin depth show that by increasing the q parameter, the penetration depth decreases. In addition, the skin depth increases by increasing the electron temperature. Finally, it is found that in the high frequency range and high electron temperature, the penetration depth decreases by increasing the collision frequency. In contrast, by increasing the collision frequency in a highly collisional frequency range, the skin depth of transverse wave increases.
Pahari, Sambaran; Lachhvani, Lavkesh Bajpai, Manu; Rathod, Karan; Yeole, Yogesh; Chattopadhyay, P. K.
2015-08-15
A suitable charge-collector has been designed and developed to estimate charge-content of electron plasmas in a Small Aspect Ratio Toroidal Experiment in a C-shaped trap (SMARTEX-C). The electrons are periodically injected and held in the trap with the aid of electrostatic end-fields and a toroidal magnetic field. After a preset “hold” time, the trapped charges are dumped onto a grounded collector (by gating it). As the charges flow along the magnetic field lines onto the collector, the integrated current gives the charge-content of the plasma at the instant of dump. In designing such a charge collector, several challenges peculiar to the geometry of the trap and the nature of the plasma had to be addressed. Instantaneous charge measurements synchronised with the E × B drift of the plasma, along with fast transit times of electrons to the collector (few 100 ns or less) (due to the low aspect ratio of the trap) essentially require fast gating of the collector. The resulting large capacitive transients alongside low charge content (few nC) of such plasmas further lead to increasing demands on response and sensitivity of the collector. Complete cancellation of such transients is shown to be possible, in principle, by including the return path in our measurement circuit but the “non-neutrality” of the plasma acts as a further impediment. Ultimately, appropriate shielding and measurement circuits allow us to (re)distribute the capacitance and delineate the paths of these currents, leading to effective cancellation of transients and marked improvement in sensitivity. Improved charge-collector has thus been used to successfully estimate the time evolution of total charge of the confined electron plasma in SMARTEX-C.
Multiple MHD instabilities in high-β N toroidal plasmas with reversed magnetic shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, T.; Yang, J. F.; Hao, G. Z.; Liu, Y. Q.; Wang, Z. X.; Zheng, S.; Wang, A. K.; He, H. D.
2017-06-01
The toroidal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code MARS-F (Liu et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 3681) is applied to numerically investigate multiple MHD instabilities in high-β N (β N is the beta normalized) toroidal plasmas with reversed magnetic shear, and with different radial separations {{Δ }}{r}s between the two q = 2 rational surfaces. A resistive wall is also taken into account. In the small {{Δ }}{r}s regime, it is found that a finite β N leads to multiple branches of the double tearing mode (DTM). The beta normalized has a stabilizing effect on the most unstable branch. There exists a critical value β Nc , above which the real frequency of the most unstable mode becomes finite due to the favorable average curvature effect (Glasser et al 1975 Phys. Fluids 18 875). Moreover, the critical value β Nc decreases with increasing plasma resistivity η . In the large {{Δ }}{r}s regime, on the other hand, finite beta normalized can help to transform the two DTM branches into an external kink mode (EKM). Increasing β N can also couple two single tearing modes, forming a DTM. In the intermediate {{Δ }}{r}s regime, interestingly, a new branch with EKM structure appears, which successively couples with the other two branches as {{Δ }}{r}s increases, recovering the EKM found in the large {{Δ }}{r}s limit. Characteristics of the eigenmode structures in different {{Δ }}{r}s regimes are compared and analyzed in detail. Furthermore, the properties of the high-β N MHD instabilities, with higher toroidal mode number n, are also investigated. It is found that, in the small {{Δ }}{r}s limit, the growth rate always first increases and then decreases with n, forming a broad n spectrum. The critical value {β }Nc decreases with n. In the large {{Δ }}{r}s limit, however, the growth rate of the n = 2 mode is strongly reduced with increasing β N .
Basic physics of Alfven instabilities driven by energetic particles in toroidally confined plasmas
Heidbrink, W. W.
2008-05-15
Superthermal energetic particles (EP) often drive shear Alfven waves unstable in magnetically confined plasmas. These instabilities constitute a fascinating nonlinear system where fluid and kinetic nonlinearities can appear on an equal footing. In addition to basic science, Alfven instabilities are of practical importance, as the expulsion of energetic particles can damage the walls of a confinement device. Because of rapid dispersion, shear Alfven waves that are part of the continuous spectrum are rarely destabilized. However, because the index of refraction is periodic in toroidally confined plasmas, gaps appear in the continuous spectrum. At spatial locations where the radial group velocity vanishes, weakly damped discrete modes appear in these gaps. These eigenmodes are of two types. One type is associated with frequency crossings of counterpropagating waves; the toroidal Alfven eigenmode is a prominent example. The second type is associated with an extremum of the continuous spectrum; the reversed shear Alfven eigenmode is an example of this type. In addition to these normal modes of the background plasma, when the energetic particle pressure is very large, energetic particle modes that adopt the frequency of the energetic particle population occur. Alfven instabilities of all three types occur in every toroidal magnetic confinement device with an intense energetic particle population. The energetic particles are most conveniently described by their constants of motion. Resonances occur between the orbital frequencies of the energetic particles and the wave phase velocity. If the wave resonance with the energetic particle population occurs where the gradient with respect to a constant of motion is inverted, the particles transfer energy to the wave, promoting instability. In a tokamak, the spatial gradient drive associated with inversion of the toroidal canonical angular momentum P{sub {zeta}} is most important. Once a mode is driven unstable, a wide variety
Self-Consistent Solutions of the Plasma Transport Equations in an Axisymmetric Toroidal System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jardin, S. C.
1981-09-01
A numerical method is presented for solving a recently derived ( S. P. Hirshman and S. C. Jardin, Phys. Fluids22(1979) , 731) reduced set of equations describing two-dimensional transport in tokamak plasmas. The formulation exploits the different diffusion time scales by dividing each time advancement step into two parts. In the first part, the one-dimensional surface averaged partial differential equations are advanced implicitly. In the second part, the two-dimensional generalized differential equation for the toroidal flux surface velocity is inverted directly. Accurate efficient solutions are obtained with only explicit terms coupling these two steps. Solutions are presented illustrating the validity and the accuracy of this method.
Stability Theory of a Confined Toroidal Plasma. Part I. Existence and Uniqueness.
1982-03-01
Kruskal, M. D., and Kulsrud, R. M., An energy principle for hydromagnetic stability problems. Proc. Roy Soc. London Ser A 244, (1958), 17-40. Blank, A...AD-A11A 599 WISCONSIN UNIV-MADISON MATHEMATICS RESEARCH CENTER F/e 20/9 STABILITY THEORY OF A CONFINED TOROIDAL PLASMA. PART 1. EXISTEN--ETCWU) MAR...82 P LAURENCE, M C SHEN 0AA629-80-C-0011I UNCLASSIFIED MRCTSR-2348 ML 1111.08250 111111.25 flf1 .4 !. MRC Technical Sumary Report #2348 - STABILITY
Preparation and magnetic properties of Co-Cr films by toroidal plasma (TP) type sputtering
Takahashi, T. ); Nao, M. )
1989-09-01
The authors describe a new type of sputtering apparatus which can form a stable toroidal plasma developed in order to deposit magnetic films with a homogeneous and dense structure and excellent properties under the conditions of low argon gas pressure, low applied voltage and low substrate temperature around 30 {sup 0}C. All Co-Cr films deposited by this apparatus were composed of hcp phase crystallites with c-axis orientation {Delta}{theta}/sub 50/ ranging from 8 to 13{sup 0}. The saturation magnetization Ms varied from 380 to 780 emu/cc and perpendicular coercivity Hc varied from 100 to 300 Oe.
Local 3-D Toroidal Plasma Tomography Using the Phillips-Tikhonov Regularization Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Junghee; Choe, Wonho
2008-11-01
Tomography is one of a powerful diagnostic method for obtaining the local information from the line-integrated plasma emission in fusion devices. The 3-D tomography is a complicated task compared to the 2-D tomography. Because of the limitation of the spatial distribution of the array detectors around a torus, the regularization algorithm such as the Phillips-Tikhonov method is advantageous to achieve more reliable reconstruction. In this work, we performed a feasibility study of 3-D tomography for toroidal plasmas. Four tangentially-viewing array detectors of each array consisting of 16x16 detector elements were assumed to be implemented. The reconstruction area is configured as 70 cm x 50 cm of poloidal cross-section and 40 toroidal layers, which has spatial resolution of 5 cm. We chose the phantoms which are KSTAR plasma-like profiles combined with the equilibrium flux surfaces with n = 0, 1, 2, 3 modes. The change of the emission peak in each layer in the reconstruction result agrees reasonably well with that of the phantom, with relative error of 5 - 10 %.
Transport Processes in a Cylinder Immersed in a Weakly Collisional, Magnetized Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alt, Andrew; Raitses, Yevgeny
2016-10-01
Plasma-immersed wall experiments were performed in a magnetized xe plasma in a cross-field penning configuration with density and electron temperature around 1012 cm-3 and 2ev. A cylinder with an open end and diameter of 1.4mm was placed across field lines so that electrons were blocked from reaching a wire recessed behind the shield while Ions were unimpeded. This is the configuration of a magnetically insulated baffled probe, a diagnostic for passively measuring plasma potential. The reduction of electron current to the wire causes it to float close to the plasma potential. Electrons have been observed further behind the baffle than expected and possible mechanisms for this have been studied, including a hall effect at the entrance, exb drift inside the volume, and other collisional effects. This work was supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Navpreet; Gupta, Naveen; Singh, Arvinder
2016-12-01
This paper investigates second harmonic generation (SHG) of an intense Cosh-Gaussian (ChG) laser beam propagating through a preformed underdense collisional plasma with nonlinear absorption. Nonuniform heating of plasma electrons takes place due to the nonuniform irradiance of intensity along the wavefront of laser beam. This nonuniform heating of plasma leads to the self-focusing of the laser beam and thus produces strong density gradients in the transverse direction. The density gradients so generated excite an electron plasma wave (EPW) at pump frequency that interacts with the pump beam to produce its second harmonics. To envision the propagation dynamics of the ChG laser beam, moment theory in Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (W.K.B) approximation has been invoked. The effects of nonlinear absorption on self-focusing of the laser beam as well as on the conversion efficiency of its second harmonics have been theoretically investigated.
Wall thickness effect on the resistive wall mode stability in toroidal plasmas
Zheng, L.-J.; Kotschenreuther, M.T.
2005-07-15
The effect of finite wall thickness on the stability of n=1 resistive wall modes in toroidal plasmas is investigated. A fusion reactor-relevant configuration is examined. The investigation employs a novel ideal-magnetohydrodynamics adaptive shooting code for axisymmetric plasmas, extended to take into account the wall thickness. Although finite wall thickness generally reduces the growth rate of the resistive wall modes, no contribution to stabilization is found to be made by the portion of the wall that is located beyond the critical position for perfectly conducting wall stabilization. Thus, when the inner side of the wall lies near the critical wall position, the scaling of the growth rate versus wall thickness in the realistic thick-wall calculation is significantly different from that of the usual thin-wall theory. The thin-wall estimate is relevant only when the wall is brought very close to the plasma and is not too thick.
Development of electrostatic turbulence from drift-interchange instabilities in a toroidal plasma
Poli, F. M.; Podesta, M.; Fasoli, A.
2007-05-15
Electrostatic instabilities develop on TORPEX (TORoidal Plasma EXperiment) [A. Fasoli et al., Phys. of Plasmas, 13, 55902 (2006)] in the bad curvature region and propagate consistently with the drift wave dispersion relation. The wave number and frequency spectra are coherent at the location where the instabilities are generated, then broaden along the ExB convection. The phase coupling between spectral components at different frequencies, measured at different locations over the plasma cross section, indicates that the transition from a coherent to a turbulent spectrum is mainly due to three-wave interaction processes. Nonlinear interactions are measured between the linearly unstable mode and fluctuations with larger frequency, with transfer of energy away from the linearly unstable mode. The results are consistent with a nonlinearity induced by the convection of density fluctuations by the ExB fluctuating velocity.
Plasma blobs in a basic toroidal experiment: Origin, dynamics, and induced transport
Mueller, S. H.; Diallo, A.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Podesta, M.
2007-11-15
Detaching plasma blobs with very similar properties to tokamaks are observed in the basic toroidal plasma experiment TORPEX [A. Fasoli et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 055902 (2006)]. The blobs originate from the breaking of wave crests of a drift-interchange wave, which span over regions characterized by strongly inhomogeneous background parameters. Once decoupled from the wave, the blobs follow a predominantly radial trajectory pattern. The blob-induced cross-field transport can instantaneously exceed the steady-state parallel fluxes by one order of magnitude, while accounting for only 10% of the time-average device losses. If the particles were confined in the parallel direction, as is the case in tokamaks, blobs would constitute the dominant loss mechanism in TORPEX. The presented results show that the presence of grad B is sufficient and neither a magnetic-topology change nor the presence of limiters, both absent in TORPEX, are necessary for the generation of blobs.
Study of micro-instabilities in toroidal plasmas with negative magnetic shear
Dong, J.Q.; Zhang, Y.Z.; Mahajan, S.M.; Guzdar, P.N.
1996-03-01
The micro-instabilities driven by a parallel velocity shear, and a temperature gradient of ions are studied in toroidal plasmas with negative magnetic shear. Both the fluid and the gyro-kinetic formulations are investigated. It is found that for a broad range of parameters, the linear growth rates of the modes are lower, and the threshold temperature gradient {eta}{sub icr} is higher for plasmas with negative magnetic shear compared to plasmas with positive magnetic shear of equal magnitude. The reduction in the growth rate (with negative shear), although not insignificant, does not seem to be enough to account for the dramatic improvement in the confinement observed experimentally. Other possible physical mechanisms for the improved confinement are discussed.
Johns, H. M.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Colgan, J.; ...
2015-09-29
In this study, electron collisional broadening of observed spectral lines depends on plasma electron temperature and density. Including this effect in models of measured spectra is necessary to determine plasma conditions; however, computational limits make accurate line broadening treatments difficult to implement in large-scale plasma modeling efforts. In this paper, we report on improvements to the treatment of electron collisional line broadening and illustrate this with calculations using the Los Alamos ATOMIC code. We implement the Dimitrijevic and Konjevic modified semi-empirical model Dimitrijevic and Konjevic (1986 Astron. and Astrophy. 163 297 and 1987 Astron. Astrophys. 172 345), which we amendmore » by employing oscillator strengths from Hartree–Fock calculations. This line broadening model applies to near-neutral plasmas with electron temperatures of Te ~ 1 eV and electron densities of Ne ~1017 cm-3. We evaluate the D.K.-inspired model against the previous hydrogenic approach in ATOMIC through comparison to NIST-rated measurements for selected neutral and singly-ionized Ca, O, Fe, and Sn lines using both fine-structure and configuration-averaged oscillator strengths. The new D.K.-inspired model is significantly more accurate than the previous hydrogenic model and we find the use of configuration-averaged oscillator strengths a good approximation for applications such as LIBS (laser induced breakdown spectroscopy), for which we demonstrate the use of the D.K.-inspired model.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dressler, Rainer A.; Chiu, Yu-hui; Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus; Srivastava, Rajesh; Sharma, Lalita
2009-09-01
Mestastable Xe atoms play an important role in the collisional radiative processes of dense xenon plasmas, including those of electric thrusters for space vehicles. Recent measurements and calculations of electron-excitation processes out of the 5p56s J = 2 metastable state (1s5 state in Paschen notation) have allowed for the development of a collisional radiative model for Xe near-infrared (NIR) emissions based on the population of the metastable level through 2p-1s5 radiative transitions, and based on depopulation through electron-impact excitation. A modified plasma radiative model incorporating newly computed electron-impact excitation cross sections using both relativistic distorted wave and semi-relativistic Breit-Pauli B-Spline R-matrix methods is presented. The model applies to optically thin, low-density regions of the thruster plasma and is most accurate at electron temperatures below 10 eV. The model is tested on laboratory spectral measurements of the D55 TAL and BHT-200 Hall thruster plasma NIR radiation. The metastable neutral fraction is determined to rise from 0.1 to slightly above 1% as the electron temperature increases from ~2 to 10 eV, reaching a maximum around 15 eV. Electron temperatures derived with the modified model are approximately 20% lower than a previous version of the model that used an approximate approach to account for metastable population and line intensity enhancement.
Collisional damping of helicon waves in a high density hydrogen linear plasma device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caneses, Juan F.; Blackwell, Boyd D.
2016-10-01
In this paper, we investigate the propagation and damping of helicon waves along the length (50 cm) of a helicon-produced 20 kW hydrogen plasma ({{n}\\text{e}}˜ 1-2 × 1019 m-3, {{T}\\text{e}}˜ 1-6 eV, H2 8 mTorr) operated in a magnetic mirror configuration (antenna region: 50-200 G and mirror region: 800 G). Experimental results show the presence of traveling helicon waves (4-8 G and {λz}˜ 10-15 cm) propagating away from the antenna region which become collisionally absorbed within 40-50 cm. We describe the use of the WKB method to calculate wave damping and provide an expression to assess its validity based on experimental measurements. Theoretical calculations are consistent with experiment and indicate that for conditions where Coulomb collisions are dominant classical collisionality is sufficient to explain the observed wave damping along the length of the plasma column. Based on these results, we provide an expression for the scaling of helicon wave damping relevant to high density discharges and discuss the location of surfaces for plasma-material interaction studies in helicon based linear plasma devices.
Ogino, Yousuke; Ohnishi, Naofumi
2010-05-06
A thrust power of a gas-driven laser-propulsion system is obtained through interaction with a propellant gas heated by a laser energy. Therefore, understanding the nonequilibrium nature of laser-produced plasma is essential for increasing available thrust force and for improving energy conversion efficiency from a laser to a propellant gas. In this work, a time-dependent collisional-radiative model for air plasma has been developed to study the effects of nonequilibrium atomic and molecular processes on population densities for an air-driven type laser propulsion. Many elementary processes are considered in the number density range of 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 3}<=N<=10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3} and the temperature range of 300 K<=T<=40,000 K. We then compute the unsteady nature of pulsively heated air plasma. When the ionization relaxation time is the same order as the time scale of a heating pulse, the effects of unsteady ionization are important for estimating air plasma states. From parametric computations, we determine the appropriate conditions for the collisional-radiative steady state, local thermodynamic equilibrium, and corona equilibrium models in that density and temperature range.
Johns, H. M.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Colgan, J.; Judge, E. J.; Barefield II, J. E.; Wiens, R. C.; Clegg, S. M.
2015-09-29
In this study, electron collisional broadening of observed spectral lines depends on plasma electron temperature and density. Including this effect in models of measured spectra is necessary to determine plasma conditions; however, computational limits make accurate line broadening treatments difficult to implement in large-scale plasma modeling efforts. In this paper, we report on improvements to the treatment of electron collisional line broadening and illustrate this with calculations using the Los Alamos ATOMIC code. We implement the Dimitrijevic and Konjevic modified semi-empirical model Dimitrijevic and Konjevic (1986 Astron. and Astrophy. 163 297 and 1987 Astron. Astrophys. 172 345), which we amend by employing oscillator strengths from Hartree–Fock calculations. This line broadening model applies to near-neutral plasmas with electron temperatures of Te ~ 1 eV and electron densities of N_{e} ~10^{17} cm^{-3}. We evaluate the D.K.-inspired model against the previous hydrogenic approach in ATOMIC through comparison to NIST-rated measurements for selected neutral and singly-ionized Ca, O, Fe, and Sn lines using both fine-structure and configuration-averaged oscillator strengths. The new D.K.-inspired model is significantly more accurate than the previous hydrogenic model and we find the use of configuration-averaged oscillator strengths a good approximation for applications such as LIBS (laser induced breakdown spectroscopy), for which we demonstrate the use of the D.K.-inspired model.
Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Fox, W.; Zylstra, A. B.; Stoeckl, C.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.
2015-05-20
An evolution of magnetic reconnection behavior, from fast jets to the slowing of reconnection and the establishment of a stable current sheet, has been observed in strongly-driven, β ≲ 20 laser-produced plasma experiments. This process has been inferred to occur alongside a slowing of plasma inflows carrying the oppositely-directed magnetic fields as well as the evolution of plasma conditions from collisionless to collisional. High-resolution proton radiography has revealed unprecedented detail of the forced interaction of magnetic fields and super-Alfvénic electron jets (V_{jet}~ 20V_{A}) ejected from the reconnection region, indicating that two-fluid or collisionless magnetic reconnection occurs early in time. The absence of jets and the persistence of strong, stable magnetic fields at late times indicates that the reconnection process slows down, while plasma flows stagnate and plasma conditions evolve to a cooler, denser, more collisional state. These results demonstrate that powerful initial plasma flows are not sufficient to force a complete reconnection of magnetic fields, even in the strongly-driven regime.
Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Fox, W.; ...
2015-05-20
An evolution of magnetic reconnection behavior, from fast jets to the slowing of reconnection and the establishment of a stable current sheet, has been observed in strongly-driven, β ≲ 20 laser-produced plasma experiments. This process has been inferred to occur alongside a slowing of plasma inflows carrying the oppositely-directed magnetic fields as well as the evolution of plasma conditions from collisionless to collisional. High-resolution proton radiography has revealed unprecedented detail of the forced interaction of magnetic fields and super-Alfvénic electron jets (Vjet~ 20VA) ejected from the reconnection region, indicating that two-fluid or collisionless magnetic reconnection occurs early in time. Themore » absence of jets and the persistence of strong, stable magnetic fields at late times indicates that the reconnection process slows down, while plasma flows stagnate and plasma conditions evolve to a cooler, denser, more collisional state. These results demonstrate that powerful initial plasma flows are not sufficient to force a complete reconnection of magnetic fields, even in the strongly-driven regime.« less
Electron runaway across a magnetic field in a collisional high-atomic-number plasma
Mosher, D.; Welch, D.R.
1995-12-31
Nonthermal x-ray spectra observed in high-atomic-number z-pinch plasmas indicate that electrons with energies greatly in excess of the plasma temperature are present. A favorite mechanism for the production of these nonthermal electrons is acceleration in inductive electric fields produced by localized collapse of plasma into pinch spots. One problem with this acceleration mechanism is the presence of intense azimuthal magnetic fields embedded in the plasma which impede the runaway of electrons along the electric field. In this work, a fluid model for nonthermal electron flow in dense, high-atomic-number plasmas is employed to determine how collisions affect their energy gain in crossed electric and magnetic fields. The simple scaling laws derived from this model are compared with IPRPO particle-in-cell simulations of the same plasma environment. Large cross-field energy gains are calculated by both models for high-atomic number plasmas where the electron scattering (momentum-transfer) frequency v{sub s} is of order Zv{sub e}, where v{sub e} is the rate associated with collisional energy loss and Z is the plasma ionization level. Once a threshold electric field is exceeded, a large number of scattering collisions across the magnetic field and along the electric field can occur in an energy-loss time and much larger energy gains are possible than in hydrogenic plasmas.
Experimental investigation of plasma flows in open trap with toroidal diverter under ECR discharge
Berezkin, A. V. Bragin, E. Yu. Zhil’tsov, V. A. Kulygin, V. M. Yanchenkov, S. V.
2015-12-15
The results of experimental investigations of plasma flows from an open trap with a toroidal diverter are presented. Cold plasma is generated when introducing microwave power under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR). The radiation is introduced by a waveguide through a vacuum-tight ceramic window across the axis of the device. By means of the Langmuir probes, the spatial distributions of plasma parameters are measured. The highest density is limited to a critical value n{sub c} (∼10{sup 12} cm{sup –3}) for the generator frequency under use. It is found that the temperature and density of the plasma in the trap and in escaping flows are almost independent of the radius when the ECR zone is located near the open-trap confinement region and the density is close to n{sub c}. At the density n < n{sub c}, ring plasma structures, which collapse under the action of a low-frequency instability, are observed near the separatrix. The possible mechanisms of the occurrence of plasma structures and the nature of the plasma streams are discussed.
Experimental investigation of plasma flows in open trap with toroidal diverter under ECR discharge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berezkin, A. V.; Bragin, E. Yu.; Zhil'tsov, V. A.; Kulygin, V. M.; Yanchenkov, S. V.
2015-12-01
The results of experimental investigations of plasma flows from an open trap with a toroidal diverter are presented. Cold plasma is generated when introducing microwave power under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR). The radiation is introduced by a waveguide through a vacuum-tight ceramic window across the axis of the device. By means of the Langmuir probes, the spatial distributions of plasma parameters are measured. The highest density is limited to a critical value n c (~1012 cm-3) for the generator frequency under use. It is found that the temperature and density of the plasma in the trap and in escaping flows are almost independent of the radius when the ECR zone is located near the open-trap confinement region and the density is close to n c. At the density n < n c, ring plasma structures, which collapse under the action of a low-frequency instability, are observed near the separatrix. The possible mechanisms of the occurrence of plasma structures and the nature of the plasma streams are discussed.
Mikkelsen, D. R. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W.; Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E.; Reinke, M. L.; Podpaly, Y.; Ma, Y.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.
2015-06-15
Peaked density profiles in low-collisionality AUG and JET H-mode plasmas are probably caused by a turbulently driven particle pinch, and Alcator C-Mod experiments confirmed that collisionality is a critical parameter. Density peaking in reactors could produce a number of important effects, some beneficial, such as enhanced fusion power and transport of fuel ions from the edge to the core, while others are undesirable, such as lower beta limits, reduced radiation from the plasma edge, and consequently higher divertor heat loads. Fundamental understanding of the pinch will enable planning to optimize these impacts. We show that density peaking is predicted by nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations based on measured profile data from low collisionality H-mode plasma in Alcator C-Mod. Multiple ion species are included to determine whether hydrogenic density peaking has an isotope dependence or is influenced by typical levels of low-Z impurities, and whether impurity density peaking depends on the species. We find that the deuterium density profile is slightly more peaked than that of hydrogen, and that experimentally relevant levels of boron have no appreciable effect on hydrogenic density peaking. The ratio of density at r/a = 0.44 to that at r/a = 0.74 is 1.2 for the majority D and minority H ions (and for electrons), and increases with impurity Z: 1.1 for helium, 1.15 for boron, 1.3 for neon, 1.4 for argon, and 1.5 for molybdenum. The ion temperature profile is varied to match better the predicted heat flux with the experimental transport analysis, but the resulting factor of two change in heat transport has only a weak effect on the predicted density peaking.
Entropy production and Onsager symmetry in neoclassical transport processes of toroidal plasmas
Sugama, H.; Horton, W.
1996-01-01
Entropy production and Onsager symmetry in neoclassical transport processes of magnetically confined plasmas are studied in detail for general toroidal systems, including nonaxisymmetric configurations. It is found that the flux surface average of the entropy production defined from the linearized collision operator and the gyroangle-averaged distribution function coincides with the sum of the inner products of the thermodynamic forces and the conjugate fluxes consisting of the Pfirsch-Schlueter, banana-plateau, nonaxisymmetric parts of the neoclassical radial fluxes and the parallel current. It is proved from the self-adjointness of the linearized collision operator that the Onsager symmetry is robustly valid for the neoclassical transport equations in the cases of general toroidal plasmas consisting of electrons and multi-species ions with arbitrary collision frequencies. It is shown that the Onsager symmetry holds whether or not the ambipolarity condition is used to reduce the number of the conjugate pairs of the transport fluxes and the thermodynamic forces. The full transport coefficients for the banana-plateau and nonaxisymmetric parts are separately derived, and their symmetry properties are investigated. The nonaxisymmetric transport equations are obtained for arbitrary collision frequencies in the Pfirsch{endash}Schlueter and plateau regimes, and it is directly confirmed that the total banana-plateau and nonaxisymmetric transport equations satisfy the Onsager symmetry. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Self-focusing of intense high frequency electromagnetic waves in a collisional magnetoactive plasma
Niknam, A. R.; Hashemzadeh, M.; Aliakbari, A.; Majedi, S.; Haji Mirzaei, F.
2011-11-15
The self-focusing of an intense electromagnetic beam in a collisional magnetoactive plasma has been investigated by the perturbation method. Considering the relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities and the first three terms of perturbation expansion for the electron density and velocity, the nonlinear wave equation is obtained. This wave equation is solved by applying the source dependent expansion method and the evolution of electromagnetic beam spot-size is discussed. It is shown that the laser spot-size decreases with increasing the collision frequency and external magnetic field strength.
On dust ion acoustic solitary waves in collisional dusty plasmas with ionization effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shalaby, M.; El-Labany, S. K.; El-Shamy, E. F.; Khaled, M. A.
2010-04-01
The propagation of solitary waves in an unmagnetized collisional dusty plasma consisting of a negatively charged dust fluid, positively charged ions, isothermal electrons, and background neutral particles is studied. The ionization, ion loss, ion-neutral, ion-dust, and dust-neutral collisions are considered. Applying a reductive perturbation theory, a damped Korteweg-de Vries (DKdV) equation is derived. On the other hand, at a critical phase velocity, the dynamics of solitary waves is governed by a damped modified Korteweg-de Vries (DMKdV) equation. The nonlinear properties of solitary waves in the two cases are discussed.
Merritt, Elizabeth C. Adams, Colin S.; Moser, Auna L.; Hsu, Scott C. Dunn, John P.; Miguel Holgado, A.; Gilmore, Mark A.
2014-05-15
We report spatially resolved measurements of the oblique merging of two supersonic laboratory plasma jets. The jets are formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns using injected argon, and have electron density ∼10{sup 14} cm{sup −3}, electron temperature ≈1.4 eV, ionization fraction near unity, and velocity ≈40 km/s just prior to merging. The jet merging produces a few-cm-thick stagnation layer, as observed in both fast-framing camera images and multi-chord interferometer data, consistent with collisional shock formation [E. C. Merritt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 085003 (2013)].
Collisional heating of a plasma column slowly forced across a squeeze potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubin, D. H. E.
2016-10-01
When equilibrium plasmas have two or more locally-trapped particle populations, perturbations to the equilibrium can produce phase-space discontinuities in the distribution function that strongly enhance transport, plasma loss, and wave damping. This poster presents a simple version of this process, wherein a plasma is heated as it is slowly forced back and forth across a squeeze potential (at a frequency ω that is small compared to the particle bounce frequency) that traps particles on either side of the squeeze. Adiabatic theory is developed for the distribution function, showing that trapped and passing particles have different responses to the forcing that produces a collisional boundary layer at the separatrix. Expressions for both the adiabatic and non-adiabatic distribution functions are presented, and the heating rate caused by the collisional boundary layer at the separatrix is derived. The heating is proportional to √ (ν ω) , where ν is the collision rate. Supported by NSF Grant PHY-1414570, and DOE Grants DE-SC0002451 and DE-SC0008693.
Shear-Reduction of Collisional Transport in a 2D Point Vortex Gas/Plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubin, D. H. E.
2002-11-01
The two dimensional point vortex gas is a simple but useful paradigm for more complex fluid and plasma flows.(D. Dubin and D. Jin, Phys. Lett. A 284), 112 (2001). This poster presents the theory of the collisional diffusion and viscosity coefficients for a point vortex gas, in an applied shear flow. We show that the transport coefficients are reduced in the presence of shear, just as for the shear reduction of transport observed in fusion plasmas. Here however, fluctuations are collisional rather than turbulent, allowing a rigorous calculation of the transport. When there are several species of point vortices, we find that Onsager relations require that the diffusive flux conserves the total vorticity density ρ (r) (proportional to charge density in the plasma analogue). Surprisingly, the diffusive flux concentrates vortices with large positive (or negative) circulations at maxima (or minima) of ρ (r). On a slower timescale, the momentum flux due to viscosity drives the system to a global thermal equilibrium state.
Moser, Auna L. Hsu, Scott C.
2015-05-15
We present results from experiments on the head-on merging of two supersonic plasma jets in an initially collisionless regime for the counter-streaming ions. The plasma jets are of either an argon/impurity or hydrogen/impurity mixture and are produced by pulsed-power-driven railguns. Based on time- and space-resolved fast-imaging, multi-chord interferometry, and survey-spectroscopy measurements of the overlapping region between the merging jets, we observe that the jets initially interpenetrate, consistent with calculated inter-jet ion collision lengths, which are long. As the jets interpenetrate, a rising mean-charge state causes a rapid decrease in the inter-jet ion collision length. Finally, the interaction becomes collisional and the jets stagnate, eventually producing structures consistent with collisional shocks. These experimental observations can aid in the validation of plasma collisionality and ionization models for plasmas with complex equations of state.
Laser-pulse compression in a collisional plasma under weak-relativistic ponderomotive nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Mamta; Gupta, D. N.
2016-05-01
We present theory and numerical analysis which demonstrate laser-pulse compression in a collisional plasma under the weak-relativistic ponderomotive nonlinearity. Plasma equilibrium density is modified due to the ohmic heating of electrons, the collisions, and the weak relativistic-ponderomotive force during the interaction of a laser pulse with plasmas. First, within one-dimensional analysis, the longitudinal self-compression mechanism is discussed. Three-dimensional analysis (spatiotemporal) of laser pulse propagation is also investigated by coupling the self-compression with the self-focusing. In the regime in which the laser becomes self-focused due to the weak relativistic-ponderomotive nonlinearity, we provide results for enhanced pulse compression. The results show that the matched interplay between self-focusing and self-compression can improve significantly the temporal profile of the compressed pulse. Enhanced pulse compression can be achieved by optimizing and selecting the parameters such as collision frequency, ion-temperature, and laser intensity.
Laser-pulse compression in a collisional plasma under weak-relativistic ponderomotive nonlinearity
Singh, Mamta; Gupta, D. N.
2016-05-15
We present theory and numerical analysis which demonstrate laser-pulse compression in a collisional plasma under the weak-relativistic ponderomotive nonlinearity. Plasma equilibrium density is modified due to the ohmic heating of electrons, the collisions, and the weak relativistic-ponderomotive force during the interaction of a laser pulse with plasmas. First, within one-dimensional analysis, the longitudinal self-compression mechanism is discussed. Three-dimensional analysis (spatiotemporal) of laser pulse propagation is also investigated by coupling the self-compression with the self-focusing. In the regime in which the laser becomes self-focused due to the weak relativistic-ponderomotive nonlinearity, we provide results for enhanced pulse compression. The results show that the matched interplay between self-focusing and self-compression can improve significantly the temporal profile of the compressed pulse. Enhanced pulse compression can be achieved by optimizing and selecting the parameters such as collision frequency, ion-temperature, and laser intensity.
Ponderomotive self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in warm collisional plasma
Jafari Milani, M. R.; Niknam, A. R.; Farahbod, A. H.
2014-06-15
The propagation characteristics of a Gaussian laser beam through warm collisional plasma are investigated by considering the ponderomotive force nonlinearity and the complex eikonal function. By introducing the dielectric permittivity of warm unmagnetized plasma and using the WKB and paraxial ray approximations, the coupled differential equations defining the variations of laser beam parameters are obtained and solved numerically. Effects of laser and plasma parameters such as the collision frequency, the initial laser intensity and its spot size on the beam width parameter and the axis laser intensity distribution are analyzed. It is shown that, self-focusing of the laser beam takes place faster by increasing the collision frequency and initial laser spot size and then after some distance propagation the laser beam abruptly loses its initial diameter and vastly diverges. Furthermore, the modified electron density distribution is obtained and the collision frequency effect on this distribution is studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mogavero, Federico; Schekochihin, Alexander A.
2014-06-01
In weakly collisional plasmas such as the intracluster medium (ICM), the viscous stress and the rate of change of the magnetic energy are proportional to the local pressure anisotropy, so subject to constraints imposed by the pressure-anisotropy-driven microinstabilities (mirror and firehose) and controlled by the local instantaneous plasma β. The dynamics of such plasmas can be dramatically different from a conventional magnetohydrodynamic fluid. The plasma is expected to stay locally marginal with respect to the instabilities, but how it does this remains an open question. Two models of magnetic field evolution are investigated. In the first, marginality is achieved via suppression of the rate of change of the field. In the second, the instabilities give rise to anomalous collisionality, reducing pressure anisotropy to marginal - at the same time decreasing viscosity and so increasing the turbulent rate of strain. Implications of these two models are studied in a simplified zero-dimensional setting. In the first model, the field grows explosively but on a time-scale that scales with the initial β, while in the second, dynamical field strength can be reached in one large-scale turbulence turnover time regardless of the initial seed. Both models produce very intermittent fields. Both also suffer from fairly strong constraints on their applicability: for typical cluster-core conditions, scale separation between the fluid motions (with account of suppressed viscous stress) and the miscoscale fluctuations break down at β ˜ 104-105. At larger β (weaker fields), a fully collisionless plasma dynamo theory is needed to justify field growth from a tiny primordial seed. However, the models discussed here are appropriate for studying the structure of the currently observed field as well as large-scale dynamics and thermodynamics of the magnetized ICM or similarly dilute astrophysical plasmas.
Oz, E.; Myers, C. E.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Kulsrud, R. M.; Xie, J.
2011-07-19
The stability properties of partial toroidal flux ropes are studied in detail in the laboratory, motivated by ubiquitous arched magnetic structures found on the solar surface. The flux ropes studied here are magnetized arc discharges formed between two electrodes in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) [Yamada et al., Phys. Plasmas, 4, 1936 (1997)]. The three dimensional evolution of these flux ropes is monitored by a fast visible light framing camera, while their magnetic structure is measured by a variety of internal magnetic probes. The flux ropes are consistently observed to undergo large-scale oscillations as a result of an external kink instability. Using detailed scans of the plasma current, the guide field strength, and the length of the flux rope, we show that the threshold for kink stability is governed by the Kruskal-Shafranov limit for a flux rope that is held fixed at both ends (i.e., qa = 1).
Symmetry breaking in MAST plasma turbulence due to toroidal flow shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fox, M. F. J.; van Wyk, F.; Field, A. R.; Ghim, Y.-c.; Parra, F. I.; Schekochihin, A. A.; the MAST Team
2017-03-01
The flow shear associated with the differential toroidal rotation of tokamak plasmas breaks an underlying symmetry of the turbulent fluctuations imposed by the up–down symmetry of the magnetic equilibrium. Using experimental beam-emission-spectroscopy measurements and gyrokinetic simulations, this symmetry breaking in ion-scale turbulence in MAST is shown to manifest itself as a tilt of the spatial correlation function and a finite skew in the distribution of the fluctuating density field. The tilt is a statistical expression of the ‘shearing’ of the turbulent structures by the mean flow. The skewness of the distribution is related to the emergence of long-lived density structures in sheared, near-marginal plasma turbulence. The extent to which these effects are pronounced is argued (with the aid of the simulations) to depend on the distance from the nonlinear stability threshold. Away from the threshold, the symmetry is effectively restored.
On the interplay between neoclassical tearing modes and nonlocal transport in toroidal plasmas
Ji, X. Q.; Xu, Y.; Hidalgo, C.; Diamond, P. H.; Liu, Yi; Pan, O.; Shi, Z. B.; Yu, D. L.
2016-01-01
This Letter presents the first observation on the interplay between nonlocal transport and neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) during transient nonlocal heat transport events in the HL-2A tokamak. The nonlocality is triggered by edge cooling and large-scale, inward propagating avalanches. These lead to a locally enhanced pressure gradient at the q = 3/2 (or 2/1) rational surface and hence the onset of the NTM in relatively low β plasmas (βN < 1). The NTM, in return, regulates the nonlocal transport by truncation of avalanches by local sheared toroidal flows which develop near the magnetic island. These findings have direct implications for understanding the dynamic interaction between turbulence and large-scale mode structures in fusion plasmas. PMID:27595773
Liu, Wei; Hsu, Scott; Li, Hui
2009-01-01
We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low {beta} compact toroid (CT) injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into CT fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). A regime is identified in terms of CT injection speed and CT-to-background magnetic field ratio that appears promising for precise core fueling. Shock-dominated regimes, which are probably unfavorable for tokamak fueling, are also identified. The CT penetration depth is proportional to the CT injection speed and density. The entire CT evolution can be divided into three stages: (1) initial penetration, (2) compression in the direction of propagation and reconnection, and (3) coming to rest and spreading in the direction perpendicular to injection. Tilting of the CT is not observed due to the fast transit time of the CT across the background plasma.
CENTORI: A global toroidal electromagnetic two-fluid plasma turbulence code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knight, P. J.; Thyagaraja, A.; Edwards, T. D.; Hein, J.; Romanelli, M.; McClements, K. G.
2012-11-01
A new global two-fluid electromagnetic turbulence code, CENTORI, has been developed for the purpose of studying magnetically-confined fusion plasmas on energy confinement timescales. This code is used to evolve the combined system of electron and ion fluid equations and Maxwell equations in toroidal configurations with axisymmetric equilibria. Uniquely, the equilibrium is co-evolved with the turbulence, and is thus modified by it. CENTORI is applicable to tokamaks of arbitrary aspect ratio and high plasma beta. A predictor-corrector, semi-implicit finite difference scheme is used to compute the time evolution of fluid quantities and fields. Vector operations and the evaluation of flux surface averages are speeded up by choosing the Jacobian of the transformation from laboratory to plasma coordinates to be a function of the equilibrium poloidal magnetic flux. A subroutine, GRASS, is used to co-evolve the plasma equilibrium by computing the steady-state solutions of a diffusion equation with a pseudo-time derivative. The code is written in Fortran 95 and is efficiently parallelised using Message Passing Interface (MPI). Illustrative examples of output from simulations of a tearing mode in a large aspect ratio tokamak plasma and of turbulence in an elongated conventional aspect ratio tokamak plasma are provided.
Ion confinement and transport in a toroidal plasma with externally imposed radial electric fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Hong, H. Y.
1979-01-01
Strong electric fields were imposed along the minor radius of the toroidal plasma by biasing it with electrodes maintained at kilovolt potentials. Coherent, low-frequency disturbances characteristic of various magnetohydrodynamic instabilities were absent in the high-density, well-confined regime. High, direct-current radial electric fields with magnitudes up to 135 volts per centimeter penetrated inward to at least one-half the plasma radius. When the electric field pointed radially toward, the ion transport was inward against a strong local density gradient; and the plasma density and confinement time were significantly enhanced. The radial transport along the electric field appeared to be consistent with fluctuation-induced transport. With negative electrode polarity the particle confinement was consistent with a balance of two processes: a radial infusion of ions, in those sectors of the plasma not containing electrodes, that resulted from the radially inward fields; and ion losses to the electrodes, each of the which acted as a sink and drew ions out of the plasma. A simple model of particle confinement was proposed in which the particle confinement time is proportional to the plasma volume. The scaling predicted by this model was consistent with experimental measurements.
Scotti, Filippo; Roquemore, A. L.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.
2012-10-01
A pair of two dimensional fast cameras with a wide angle view (allowing a full radial and toroidal coverage of the lower divertor) was installed in the National Spherical Torus Experiment in order to monitor non-axisymmetric effects. A custom polar remapping procedure and an absolute photometric calibration enabled the easier visualization and quantitative analysis of non-axisymmetric plasma material interaction (e.g., strike point splitting due to application of 3D fields and effects of toroidally asymmetric plasma facing components).
Budny, R.; Chang, Z.; Fu, G.Y.; Nazikian, R.
1998-07-09
The toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE) in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [K. Young, et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 26, 11 (1984)]deuterium-tritium plasmas are analyzed using the NOVA-K code [C.Z. Cheng, Phys. Reports 211, 1 (1992)]. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental measurements in detail. In most cases, the theory agrees with the observations in terms of mode frequency, mode structure, and mode stability. However, one mode with toroidal mode number n = 2 is observed to be poloidally localized on the high field side of the magnetic axis with a mode frequency substantially below the TAE frequency.
2002-06-24
UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP012554 TITLE: Non-Collisional Kinetic Model for Non-Neutral Plasmas in a...following report: TITLE: Non-Neutral Plasma Physics 4. Workshop on Non-Neutral Plasmas [2001] Held in San Diego, California on 30 July-2 August 2001...Kinetic Model for Non-Neutral Plasmas in a Penning Trap: General Properties and Stationary Solutions Gianni G.M. Coppa, Paolo Ricci Istituto
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panis, Theodoros; Fasoli, Ambrogio; Testa, Duccio; Mellet, Nicolas; Sharapov, Sergei
2010-11-01
In tokamak burning plasma experiments such as ITER, it is expected that Alfvén eigenmode (AE) instabilities of, typically, medium and high toroidal mode number n will be triggered by populations of energetic ions, such as α-particles. The stability of this specific class of AEs is studied experimentally in the Joint European Torus by observing the plasma response to antenna-driven frequency-sweeping perturbations at the plasma edge. During the 2008/9 experimental campaigns, the complete set of the new antennas was operated and medium-n AEs were excited under various plasma conditions. A big collection of damping rate measurements of, mainly, toroidal AEs (TAEs) has been obtained following the technical optimization of the diagnostic. A subset of these measurements are compared to different plasma models, as implemented in the codes LEMan and CASTOR, allowing the identification of the background plasma damping mechanisms that come into play.
Energetically consistent collisional gyrokinetics
Burby, J. W.; Brizard, A. J.; Qin, H.
2015-10-30
Here, we present a formulation of collisional gyrokinetic theory with exact conservation laws for energy and canonical toroidal momentum. Collisions are accounted for by a nonlinear gyrokinetic Landau operator. Gyroaveraging and linearization do not destroy the operator's conservation properties. Just as in ordinary kinetic theory, the conservation laws for collisional gyrokinetic theory are selected by the limiting collisionless gyrokinetic theory. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.
Energetically consistent collisional gyrokinetics
Burby, J. W.; Brizard, A. J.; Qin, H.
2015-10-30
Here, we present a formulation of collisional gyrokinetic theory with exact conservation laws for energy and canonical toroidal momentum. Collisions are accounted for by a nonlinear gyrokinetic Landau operator. Gyroaveraging and linearization do not destroy the operator's conservation properties. Just as in ordinary kinetic theory, the conservation laws for collisional gyrokinetic theory are selected by the limiting collisionless gyrokinetic theory. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.
Fully kinetic simulations of magnetic reconnction in semi-collisional plasmas
Daughton, William S; Roytershteyn, Vadim S; Albright, Brian J; Yin, Lin; Bowers, Kevin J; Karimabadi, Homa
2009-01-01
The influence of Coulomb collisions on the dynamics of magnetic reconnection is examined using fully kinetic simulations with a Monte-Carlo treatment of the Fokker-Planck collision operator. This powerful first-principles approach offers a bridge between kinetic and fluid regimes, which may prove useful for understanding the applicability of various fluid models. In order to lay the necessary groundwork, the collision algorithm is first carefully bench marked for a homogeneous plasma against theoretical predictions for beam-plasma interactions and electrical resistivity. Next, the collisional decay of a current layer is examined as a function of guide field, allowing direct comparisons with transport theory for the parallel and perpendicular resistivity as well as the thermoelectric force. Finally, the transition between collisional and collision less reconnection is examined in neutral sheet geometry. For modest Lundquist numbers S {approx}< 1000, a distinct transition is observed when the thickness of the Sweet-Parker layers falls below the ion inertia length {delta}{sub sp} {approx}< d,. At higher Lundquist number, deviations from the Sweet-Parker scaling are observed due to the growth of plasmoids (secondary-islands) within the elongated resistive layer. In certain cases, this instability leads to the onset of fast reconnection sooner than expected from {delta}{sub sp} {approx} d, condition. After the transition to fast reconnection, elongated electron current layers are formed which are unstable to the formation of new plasmoids. The structure and time-dependence of the electron diffusion region in these semi-collisional regimes is profoundly different than reported in two-fluid simulations.
Liang, G. Y.; Li, F.; Wang, F. L.; Zhong, J. Y.; Zhao, G.; Wu, Y.
2014-03-10
Several laboratory facilities were used to benchmark theoretical spectral models that are extensively used by astronomical communities. However, there are still many differences between astrophysical environments and laboratory miniatures that can be archived. Here we setup a spectral analysis system for astrophysical and laboratory plasmas to make a bridge between them, and we investigate the effects from non-thermal electrons and the contributions from a metastable level population on level populations and charge stage distribution for coronal-like, photoionized, and geocoronal plasmas. Test applications to laboratory measurement (i.e., electron beam ion trap plasma) and astrophysical observation (i.e., Comet, Cygnus X-3) are presented. A time evolution of the charge stage and level population are also explored for collisional and photoionized plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grach, V. S.; Garasev, M. A.
2015-07-01
We consider the interaction of a isolated conducting sphere with a collisional weakly ionized plasma in an external field. We assume that the plasma consists of two species of ions neglecting of electrons. We take into account charging of the sphere due to sedimentation of plasma ions on it, the field of the sphere charge and the space charge, as well as recombination and molecular diffusion. The nonstationary problem of interaction of the sphere with the surrounding plasma is solved numerically. The temporal dynamics of the sphere charge and plasma perturbations is analyzed, as well as the properties of the stationary state. It is shown that the duration of transient period is determined by the recombination time and by the reverse conductivity of ions. The temporal dynamics of the sphere charge and plasma perturbations is determined by the intensity of recombination processes relative to the influence of the space charge field and diffusion. The stationary absolute value of the sphere charge increases linearly with the external electric field, decreases with the relative intensity of recombination processes and increases in the presence of substantial diffusion. The scales of the perturbed region in the plasma are determined by the radius of the sphere, the external field, the effect of diffusion, and the relative intensity of recombination processes. In the limiting case of the absence of molecular diffusion and a strong external field, the properties of the stationary state coincide with those obtained earlier as a result of approximate solution.
Grach, V. S. Garasev, M. A.
2015-07-15
We consider the interaction of a isolated conducting sphere with a collisional weakly ionized plasma in an external field. We assume that the plasma consists of two species of ions neglecting of electrons. We take into account charging of the sphere due to sedimentation of plasma ions on it, the field of the sphere charge and the space charge, as well as recombination and molecular diffusion. The nonstationary problem of interaction of the sphere with the surrounding plasma is solved numerically. The temporal dynamics of the sphere charge and plasma perturbations is analyzed, as well as the properties of the stationary state. It is shown that the duration of transient period is determined by the recombination time and by the reverse conductivity of ions. The temporal dynamics of the sphere charge and plasma perturbations is determined by the intensity of recombination processes relative to the influence of the space charge field and diffusion. The stationary absolute value of the sphere charge increases linearly with the external electric field, decreases with the relative intensity of recombination processes and increases in the presence of substantial diffusion. The scales of the perturbed region in the plasma are determined by the radius of the sphere, the external field, the effect of diffusion, and the relative intensity of recombination processes. In the limiting case of the absence of molecular diffusion and a strong external field, the properties of the stationary state coincide with those obtained earlier as a result of approximate solution.
How LIF has helped to understand ion loss at the boundaries of weakly collisional plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hershkowitz, N.; Ko, E.; Wang, X.; Oksuza, L.; Halab, A.; Servern, G.
2003-10-01
Recent experiments in weakly collisional multi-dipole plasmas with one and two positive ion species have provided a much better understanding of ion motion in presheaths near the boundaries of such plasmas. Plasma potential was determined with emissive probes, ion density with Langmuir probes and diode laser LIF, ion drift velocity with Mach probes calibrated with LIF, and directly with LIF, and from the phase velocity of ion acoustic waves. LIF provided measurements of the ion velocity distribution functions and showed that ion-neutral charge exchange results in ion "heating" near boundaries. LIF showed that Ar ions in Ar-He plasma exit the plasma at the plasma/sheath boundary with a velocity greater than the Ar ion Bohm velocity. In single species plasma, the same diagnostic shows Ar average ion exit velocity equals the Bohm velocity. ^A Suleyman Demirel University, Physics Dept., Isparta Turkey ^B KACST, Space Research Institute, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia *Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-97ER 54437
Collisional relaxation of a strongly magnetized two-species pure ion plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chim, Chi Yung; O'Neil, Thomas M.; Dubin, Daniel H.
2014-04-01
The collisional relaxation of a strongly magnetized pure ion plasma that is composed of two species with slightly different masses is discussed. We have in mind two isotopes of the same singly ionized atom. Parameters are assumed to be ordered as Ω1,Ω2≫|Ω1-Ω2|≫v¯ij/b ¯ and v¯⊥j/Ωj≪b ¯, where Ω1 and Ω2 are two cyclotron frequencies, v¯ij=√T∥/μij is the relative parallel thermal velocity characterizing collisions between particles of species i and j, and b ¯=2 e2/T∥ is the classical distance of closest approach for such collisions, and v ¯⊥j/Ωj=√2T⊥j/mj /Ωj is the characteristic cyclotron radius for particles of species j. Here, μij is the reduced mass for the two particles, and T∥ and T⊥j are temperatures that characterize velocity components parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. For this ordering, the total cyclotron action for the two species, I1=∑i ∈1m1v⊥i2/(2Ω1) and I2=∑i∈2m2v⊥i2/(2Ω2) are adiabatic invariants that constrain the collisional dynamics. On the timescale of a few collisions, entropy is maximized subject to the constancy of the total Hamiltonian H and the two actions I1 and I2, yielding a modified Gibbs distribution of the form exp[-H /T∥-α1I1-α2I2]. Here, the αj's are related to T∥ and T⊥j through T⊥j=(1/T∥+αj/Ωj)-1. Collisional relaxation to the usual Gibbs distribution, exp[-H /T∥], takes place on two timescales. On a timescale longer than the collisional timescale by a factor of (b ¯2Ω12/v¯112)exp{5[3π(b¯|Ω1-Ω2|/v ¯12)]2/5/6}, the two species share action so that α1 and α2 relax to a common value α. On an even longer timescale, longer than the collisional timescale by a factor of the order exp {5[3π(v¯11)]2/5/6}, the total action ceases to be a good constant of the motion and α relaxes to zero.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barni, R.; Caldirola, S.; Fattorini, L.; Riccardi, C.
2017-03-01
The analysis of the anomalous transport in magnetised plasmas has pointed out the substantial contribution of intermittent burst events corresponding to positive density fluctuations propagating outwards to the edges of the devices. Much less attention was paid to negative density fluctuation structures, which could be named depletions or voids, whose propagation could contribute to the global anomalous transport, in particular, when a non-negligible diffuse plasma background is present in magnetized plasma device edges. Here, we discuss the results of an experimental investigation aimed to study the spatio-temporal evolution of density depletion structures propagating inwards in a magnetized plasma column simply magnetized toroidal device. Evidence of this behavior was gathered by a conditional sampling analysis applied to time series of plasma fluctuations. We observe that a significant fraction of void structures, after being ejected outside the main plasma column, gets pulled inwards and disappears by merging at the column edge. On the other hand, a smaller fraction as well as most of the positive density structures, after ejection, ends up advected towards the edges of the device and gets lost from the main plasma column. These behaviors testify the richness and complexity of density structure evolution in magnetized plasma turbulence.
Nonlinear coherent structures of Alfvén wave in a collisional plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jana, Sayanee; Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil
2016-07-01
The Alfvén wave dynamics is investigated in the framework of two-fluid approach in a compressible collisional magnetized plasma. In the finite amplitude limit, the dynamics of the nonlinear Alfvén wave is found to be governed by a modified Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation (mKdVB). In this mKdVB equation, the electron inertia is found to act as a source of dispersion, and the electron-ion collision serves as a dissipation. The collisional dissipation is eventually responsible for the Burgers term in mKdVB equation. In the long wavelength limit, this weakly nonlinear Alfvén wave is shown to be governed by a damped nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Furthermore, these nonlinear equations are analyzed by means of analytical calculation and numerical simulation to elucidate the various aspects of the phase-space dynamics of the nonlinear wave. Results reveal that nonlinear Alfvén wave exhibits the dissipation mediated shock, envelope, and breather like structures. Numerical simulations also predict the formation of dissipative Alfvénic rogue wave, giant breathers, and rogue wave holes. These results are discussed in the context of the space plasma.
Nonlinear coherent structures of Alfvén wave in a collisional plasma
Jana, Sayanee; Chakrabarti, Nikhil
2016-07-15
The Alfvén wave dynamics is investigated in the framework of two-fluid approach in a compressible collisional magnetized plasma. In the finite amplitude limit, the dynamics of the nonlinear Alfvén wave is found to be governed by a modified Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation (mKdVB). In this mKdVB equation, the electron inertia is found to act as a source of dispersion, and the electron-ion collision serves as a dissipation. The collisional dissipation is eventually responsible for the Burgers term in mKdVB equation. In the long wavelength limit, this weakly nonlinear Alfvén wave is shown to be governed by a damped nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Furthermore, these nonlinear equations are analyzed by means of analytical calculation and numerical simulation to elucidate the various aspects of the phase-space dynamics of the nonlinear wave. Results reveal that nonlinear Alfvén wave exhibits the dissipation mediated shock, envelope, and breather like structures. Numerical simulations also predict the formation of dissipative Alfvénic rogue wave, giant breathers, and rogue wave holes. These results are discussed in the context of the space plasma.
Nonlinear Coherent Structures of Alfvén Wave in a Collisional Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jana, Sayanee; Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil
2016-10-01
The Alfvén wave dynamics is investigated in the framework of Lagrangian two-fluid model in a cold magnetized collisional plasma in presence of finite electron inertia. In the quasi-linear limit, the dynamics of the nonlinear Alfvén wave is shown to be governed by a modified Korteweg-de Vries Burgers (mKdVB) equation. In this mKdVB equation, the electron inertia is found to act as a source of dispersion and the electro-ion collision serves as a dissipation. In the long wavelength limit, we have also investigated wave modulation characteristics of the nonlinear Alfvén wave. The dynamics of this modulated wave is shown to be governed by a damped nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). These nonlinear equations are analysed by means of analytical and numerical simulation to elucidate the various aspects of the phase-space dynamics of the nonlinear wave. Results reveal that nonlinear Alfvén wave exhibits shock, envelope and breather like structures. Numerical simulations also predict the formation of Alfvénic rogue waves, rogue wave holes and giant breathers. These results could be useful for understanding the salient features of the Alfvénic magnetic field structures from observational data in very low- βmagnetized collisional plasmas in space and laboratory.
A model for particle confinement in a toroidal plasma subject to strong radial electric fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roth, J. R.
1977-01-01
The approach adopted in the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus experiment is to confine and heat a toroidal plasma by the simultaneous application of strong dc magnetic fields and electric fields. Strong radial electric fields (about 1 kV/cm) are imposed by biasing the plasma with up to 12 negative electrode rings which surround its minor circumference. The plasma containment is consistent with a balance of two processes: a radial infusion of ions in those sectors not containing electrode rings, resulting from the radially inward electric fields; and ion losses to the electrode rings, each of which acts as a sink and draws ions out the plasma in the manner of a Langmuir probe in the ion saturation regime. The highest density on axis which has been observed so far in this steady-state plasma is 6.2 trillion particles per cu cm, for which the particle containment time is 2.5 msec. The deuterium ion kinetic temperature for these conditions was in the range of 360 to 520 eV.
A model for particle confinement in a toroidal plasma subject to strong radial electric fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roth, J. R.
1977-01-01
A toroidal plasma is confined and heated by the simultaneous application of strong d.c. magnetic fields and electric fields. Strong radial electric fields (about 1 kilovolt per centimeter) are imposed by biasing the plasma with up to 12 negative electrode rings which surround its minor circumference. The plasma containment is consistent with a balance of two processes: a radial infusion of ions in those sectors not containing electrode rings, resulting from the radially inward electric fields; and ion losses to the electrode rings, each of which acts as a sink and draws ions out the plasma in the manner of a Langmuir probe in the ion saturation regime. The highest density on axis which has been observed so far in this steady-state plasma is 6.2 x 10 to the 12th power particles per cubic centimeter, for which the particle containment time is 2.5 milliseconds. The deuterium ion kinetic temperature for these conditions was in the range of 360 to 520 eV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stults, Joshua
This research presents a numerical framework for diagnosing electron properties in collisional plasmas. Microwave diagnostics achieved a significant level of development during the middle part of the last century due to work in nuclear weapons and fusion plasma research. With the growing use of plasma-based devices in fields as diverse as space propulsion, materials processing and fluid flow control, there is a need for improved, flexible diagnostic techniques suitable for use under the practical constraints imposed by plasma fields generated in a wide variety of aerospace devices. Much of the current diagnostic methodology in the engineering literature is based on analytical diagnostic, or forward, models. The Appleton-Hartree formula is an oft-used analytical relation for the refractive index of a cold, collisional plasma. Most of the assumptions underlying the model are applicable to diagnostics for plasma fields such as those found in Hall Thrusters and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators. Among the assumptions is uniform material properties, this assumption is relaxed in the present research by introducing a flexible, numerical model of diagnostic wave propagation that can capture the effects of spatial gradients in the plasma state. The numerical approach is chosen for its flexibility in handling future extensions such as multiple spatial dimensions to account for scattering effects when the spatial extent of the plasma is small relative to the probing beam's width, and velocity dependent collision frequency for situations where the constant collision frequency assumption is not justified. The numerical wave propagation model (forward model) is incorporated into a general tomographic reconstruction framework that enables the combination of multiple interferometry measurements. The combined measurements provide a quantitative picture of the spatial variation in the plasma properties. The benefit of combining multiple measurements in a coherent
H-mode plasmas at very low aspect ratio on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thome, K. E.; Bongard, M. W.; Barr, J. L.; Bodner, G. M.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Kriete, D. M.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.; Schlossberg, D. J.
2017-02-01
H-mode is obtained at A˜ 1.2 in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment via Ohmic heating, high-field-side fueling, and low edge recycling in both limited and diverted magnetic topologies. These H-mode plasmas show the formation of edge current and pressure pedestals and a doubling of the energy confinement time to {{H}98y,2}˜ 1 . The L-H power threshold {{P}\\text{LH}} increases with density, and there is no {{P}\\text{LH}} minimum observed in the attainable density space. The power threshold is equivalent in limited and diverted plasmas, consistent with the FM3 model. However, the measured {{P}\\text{LH}} is ˜ 15 × higher than that predicted by conventional International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) scalings, and {{P}\\text{LH}}/{{P}\\text{ITPA08}} increases as A\\to 1 . Small ELMs are present at low input power {{P}\\text{IN}}˜ {{P}\\text{LH}} , with toroidal mode number n≤slant 4 . At {{P}\\text{IN}}\\gg {{P}\\text{LH}} , they transition to large ELMs with intermediate 5. The dominant-n component of a large ELM grows exponentially, while other components evolve nonlinearly and can damp prior to the crash. Direct measurements of the current profile in the pedestal region show that both ELM types exhibit a generation of a current-hole, followed by a pedestal recovery. Large ELMs are shown to further expel a current-carrying filament. Small ELM suppression via injection of low levels of helical current into the edge plasma region is also indicated.
H-mode plasmas at very low aspect ratio on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment
Thome, Kathleen E.; Bongard, Michael W.; Barr, Jayson L.; ...
2016-09-30
H-mode is obtained atmore » $$A\\sim 1.2$$ in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment via Ohmic heating, high-field-side fueling, and low edge recycling in both limited and diverted magnetic topologies. These H-mode plasmas show the formation of edge current and pressure pedestals and a doubling of the energy confinement time to $${{H}_{98y,2}}\\sim 1$$ . The L–H power threshold $${{P}_{\\text{LH}}}$$ increases with density, and there is no $${{P}_{\\text{LH}}}$$ minimum observed in the attainable density space. The power threshold is equivalent in limited and diverted plasmas, consistent with the FM3 model. However, the measured $${{P}_{\\text{LH}}}$$ is $$\\sim 15\\,\\,\\times $$ higher than that predicted by conventional International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) scalings, and $${{P}_{\\text{LH}}}/{{P}_{\\text{ITPA}08}}$$ increases as $$A\\to 1$$ . Small ELMs are present at low input power $${{P}_{\\text{IN}}}\\sim {{P}_{\\text{LH}}}$$ , with toroidal mode number $$n\\leqslant 4$$ . At $${{P}_{\\text{IN}}}\\gg {{P}_{\\text{LH}}}$$ , they transition to large ELMs with intermediate 5 < n < 15. The dominant-n component of a large ELM grows exponentially, while other components evolve nonlinearly and can damp prior to the crash. Direct measurements of the current profile in the pedestal region show that both ELM types exhibit a generation of a current-hole, followed by a pedestal recovery. Large ELMs are shown to further expel a current-carrying filament. Small ELM suppression via injection of low levels of helical current into the edge plasma region is also indicated.« less
H-mode plasmas at very low aspect ratio on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment
Thome, Kathleen E.; Bongard, Michael W.; Barr, Jayson L.; Bodner, Grant M.; Burke, Marcus G.; Fonck, Raymonf J.; Kriete, David M.; Perry, Justin M.; Reusch, Joshua A.; Schlossberg, David J.
2016-09-30
H-mode is obtained at $A\\sim 1.2$ in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment via Ohmic heating, high-field-side fueling, and low edge recycling in both limited and diverted magnetic topologies. These H-mode plasmas show the formation of edge current and pressure pedestals and a doubling of the energy confinement time to ${{H}_{98y,2}}\\sim 1$ . The L–H power threshold ${{P}_{\\text{LH}}}$ increases with density, and there is no ${{P}_{\\text{LH}}}$ minimum observed in the attainable density space. The power threshold is equivalent in limited and diverted plasmas, consistent with the FM3 model. However, the measured ${{P}_{\\text{LH}}}$ is $\\sim 15\\,\\,\\times $ higher than that predicted by conventional International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) scalings, and ${{P}_{\\text{LH}}}/{{P}_{\\text{ITPA}08}}$ increases as $A\\to 1$ . Small ELMs are present at low input power ${{P}_{\\text{IN}}}\\sim {{P}_{\\text{LH}}}$ , with toroidal mode number $n\\leqslant 4$ . At ${{P}_{\\text{IN}}}\\gg {{P}_{\\text{LH}}}$ , they transition to large ELMs with intermediate 5 < n < 15. The dominant-n component of a large ELM grows exponentially, while other components evolve nonlinearly and can damp prior to the crash. Direct measurements of the current profile in the pedestal region show that both ELM types exhibit a generation of a current-hole, followed by a pedestal recovery. Large ELMs are shown to further expel a current-carrying filament. Small ELM suppression via injection of low levels of helical current into the edge plasma region is also indicated.
H-mode plasmas at very low aspect ratio on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment
Thome, Kathleen E.; Bongard, Michael W.; Barr, Jayson L.; Bodner, Grant M.; Burke, Marcus G.; Fonck, Raymonf J.; Kriete, David M.; Perry, Justin M.; Reusch, Joshua A.; Schlossberg, David J.
2016-09-30
H-mode is obtained at $A\\sim 1.2$ in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment via Ohmic heating, high-field-side fueling, and low edge recycling in both limited and diverted magnetic topologies. These H-mode plasmas show the formation of edge current and pressure pedestals and a doubling of the energy confinement time to ${{H}_{98y,2}}\\sim 1$ . The L–H power threshold ${{P}_{\\text{LH}}}$ increases with density, and there is no ${{P}_{\\text{LH}}}$ minimum observed in the attainable density space. The power threshold is equivalent in limited and diverted plasmas, consistent with the FM3 model. However, the measured ${{P}_{\\text{LH}}}$ is $\\sim 15\\,\\,\\times $ higher than that predicted by conventional International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) scalings, and ${{P}_{\\text{LH}}}/{{P}_{\\text{ITPA}08}}$ increases as $A\\to 1$ . Small ELMs are present at low input power ${{P}_{\\text{IN}}}\\sim {{P}_{\\text{LH}}}$ , with toroidal mode number $n\\leqslant 4$ . At ${{P}_{\\text{IN}}}\\gg {{P}_{\\text{LH}}}$ , they transition to large ELMs with intermediate 5 < n < 15. The dominant-n component of a large ELM grows exponentially, while other components evolve nonlinearly and can damp prior to the crash. Direct measurements of the current profile in the pedestal region show that both ELM types exhibit a generation of a current-hole, followed by a pedestal recovery. Large ELMs are shown to further expel a current-carrying filament. Small ELM suppression via injection of low levels of helical current into the edge plasma region is also indicated.
An analytic model of toroidal half-wave oscillations: Implication on plasma density estimates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulusu, Jayashree; Sinha, A. K.; Vichare, Geeta
2015-06-01
The developed analytic model for toroidal oscillations under infinitely conducting ionosphere ("Rigid-end") has been extended to "Free-end" case when the conjugate ionospheres are infinitely resistive. The present direct analytic model (DAM) is the only analytic model that provides the field line structures of electric and magnetic field oscillations associated with the "Free-end" toroidal wave for generalized plasma distribution characterized by the power law ρ = ρo(ro/r)m, where m is the density index and r is the geocentric distance to the position of interest on the field line. This is important because different regions in the magnetosphere are characterized by different m. Significant improvement over standard WKB solution and an excellent agreement with the numerical exact solution (NES) affirms validity and advancement of DAM. In addition, we estimate the equatorial ion number density (assuming H+ atom as the only species) using DAM, NES, and standard WKB for Rigid-end as well as Free-end case and illustrate their respective implications in computing ion number density. It is seen that WKB method overestimates the equatorial ion density under Rigid-end condition and underestimates the same under Free-end condition. The density estimates through DAM are far more accurate than those computed through WKB. The earlier analytic estimates of ion number density were restricted to m = 6, whereas DAM can account for generalized m while reproducing the density for m = 6 as envisaged by earlier models.
Experimental characterization of drift-interchange instabilities in a simple toroidal plasma
Poli, F. M.; Brunner, S.; Diallo, A.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Mueller, S. H.; Plyushchev, G.; Podesta, M.
2006-10-15
Low frequency electrostatic instabilities are investigated on TORPEX [Fasoli, Labit, McGrath, Mueller, Podesta, and Poli, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 48, 119 (2003)], a toroidal device for basic plasma physics experiments with a toroidal magnetic field 100 mT and a small vertical magnetic field ({<=}4 mT). A two-dimensional (2D) profile of the frequency and amplitude of density and potential fluctuations is reconstructed using electrostatic probes with high space and time resolution. The measured phase velocity, corrected for the Doppler shift induced by the ExB drift, is consistent with the electron diamagnetic drift velocity. The local dispersion relation, measured along and across the magnetic field, is in agreement with the predictions of a linear kinetic slab model for drift waves. Unstable modes are generated in regions of unfavorable curvature, where the pressure gradient is colinear with the magnetic field gradient. It is demonstrated that the curvature of the magnetic field lines is essential for driving the observed instabilities, which are therefore identified as drift-interchange modes.
Energetic particle driven geodesic acoustic mode in a toroidally rotating tokamak plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Haijun
2017-01-01
Energetic particle (EP) driven geodesic acoustic modes (EGAMs) in toroidally rotating tokamak plasmas are analytically investigated using the hybrid kinetic-fluid model and gyrokinetic equations. By ignoring high-order terms and ion Landau damping, the kinetic dispersion relation is reduced to the hybrid one in the large safety factor limit. There is one high-frequency branch with a frequency larger than {ωt0} , the transit frequency of EPs with initial energy, which is always stable. Two low-frequency solutions with a frequency smaller than {ωt0} are complex conjugates in the hybrid limit. In the presence of ion Landau damping, the growth rate of the unstable branch is decreased and the damping rate of the damped branch is increased. The toroidal Mach number is shown to increase {{ Ω }\\text{r}} , the normalized real frequency of both branches. Although not affecting the instability critical condition, the Mach number decreases the growth rate when {{ Ω }\\text{r}} is larger than a critical value Ω \\text{r}\\text{cri} and enlarges the growth rate when {{ Ω }\\text{r}}< Ω \\text{r}\\text{cri} . The ion Landau damping effect is negligible for large M. But the discrepancy between the kinetic dispersion relation and the hybrid one becomes ignorable only for q≳ 7 .
Experimental characterization of drift-interchange instabilities in a simple toroidal plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poli, F. M.; Brunner, S.; Diallo, A.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Müller, S. H.; Plyushchev, G.; Podestà, M.
2006-10-01
Low frequency electrostatic instabilities are investigated on TORPEX [Fasoli, Labit, McGrath, Müller, Podestà, and Poli, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 48, 119 (2003)], a toroidal device for basic plasma physics experiments with a toroidal magnetic field 100mT and a small vertical magnetic field (⩽4mT). A two-dimensional (2D) profile of the frequency and amplitude of density and potential fluctuations is reconstructed using electrostatic probes with high space and time resolution. The measured phase velocity, corrected for the Doppler shift induced by the E×B drift, is consistent with the electron diamagnetic drift velocity. The local dispersion relation, measured along and across the magnetic field, is in agreement with the predictions of a linear kinetic slab model for drift waves. Unstable modes are generated in regions of unfavorable curvature, where the pressure gradient is colinear with the magnetic field gradient. It is demonstrated that the curvature of the magnetic field lines is essential for driving the observed instabilities, which are therefore identified as drift-interchange modes.
Coupled dust drift acoustic shock and soliton in collisional four component magnetized dusty plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farooq, M.; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Jan, Qasim
2017-09-01
Low frequency electrostatic coupled dust drift dust acoustic waves are studied in an inhomogeneous, collisional four component dust magnetoplasma composed of dust components of opposite polarity, along with Boltzmannian ions and electrons. The nonlinear evolution equation in the form of an ordinary differential equation and its limiting cases are derived and solved using the Tanh-method. The numerical analysis of the obtained solutions is studied for both laboratory and cosmic plasma systems. It is observed that, depending on the values of the plasma parameters like ion and electron temperatures, and charge number, both rarefactive and compressive shock and solitary waves may exist. It is shown that the concepts of a critical ion and electron temperatures/density in the nonlinear equations treatment, and of a changeover from compressive to rarefactive shock and soliton characters, correspond to the formation of rarefactive regimes, at which the electric stresses maximize and density minimizes.
Rotation of weakly collisional plasmas in tokamaks, operated with Alfv{acute e}n waves
Tsypin, V.S.; Elfimov, A.G.; de Azevedo, C.A.; de Assis, A.S.
1996-12-01
The effect of the kinetic Alfv{acute e}n waves on weakly collisional plasma rotation in tokamaks has been studied for the plateau and banana regimes. The quasistationary rotation velocities and radial electric field have been found. The estimation of these quantities for the Phaedrus-T tokamak [S. Wukitch {ital et} {ital al}., Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 77}, 294 (1996)] and for the Joint European Torus (JET) [A. Fasoli {ital et} {ital al}., Nucl. Fusion, {bold 36}, 258 (1996)] has been presented. It is shown that the kinetic Alfv{acute e}n waves, which are needed for current drive, change weakly the quasistationary rotation velocities and radial electric field, as found from the experimental data of these tokamaks. In conditions with increased rf power, the plasma rotation and radial electric field can essentially grow up. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ross, J. S.; Higginson, D. P.; Ryutov, D.; Fiuza, F.; Hatarik, R.; Huntington, C. M.; Kalantar, D. H.; Link, A.; Pollock, B. B.; Remington, B. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Swadling, G. F.; Turnbull, D. P.; Weber, S.; Wilks, S.; Froula, D. H.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Morita, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Takabe, H.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C.; Gregori, G.; Meinecke, J.; Levy, M. C.; Koenig, M.; Spitkovsky, A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Lahmann, B.; Zylstra, A. B.; Park, H.-S.
2017-05-01
A study of the transition from collisional to collisionless plasma flows has been carried out at the National Ignition Facility using high Mach number (M >4 ) counterstreaming plasmas. In these experiments, CD-CD and CD-CH planar foils separated by 6-10 mm are irradiated with laser energies of 250 kJ per foil, generating ˜1000 km /s plasma flows. Varying the foil separation distance scales the ion density and average bulk velocity and, therefore, the ion-ion Coulomb mean free path, at the interaction region at the midplane. The characteristics of the flow interaction have been inferred from the neutrons and protons generated by deuteron-deuteron interactions and by x-ray emission from the hot, interpenetrating, and interacting plasmas. A localized burst of neutrons and bright x-ray emission near the midpoint of the counterstreaming flows was observed, suggesting strong heating and the initial stages of shock formation. As the separation of the CD-CH foils increases we observe enhanced neutron production compared to particle-in-cell simulations that include Coulomb collisions, but do not include collective collisionless plasma instabilities. The observed plasma heating and enhanced neutron production is consistent with the initial stages of collisionless shock formation, mediated by the Weibel filamentation instability.
The effect of radial inhomogeneity on the collisional power absorption in helicon plasma sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soltani, B.; Habibi, M.; Zakeri-khatir, H.
2016-02-01
The paper reports on the effects of plasma radial inhomogeneity on the power absorption in a helicon plasma source, which are computationally investigated by the CST Microwave Studio code. RF (13.56 MHz) power deposition was studied using three designs of antennas, namely, the Nagoya type-III, the fractional helix, and the single loop. Argon was used as the plasma working gas at the operating pressure of 15 mTorr. We have focused on the collisional power absorption utilizing WKB approximation to describe the plasma inhomogeneity. The obtained results show that the radial inhomogeneity has different effects on the power absorption at the low and the high magnetic fields. It is found that at low magnetic fields (i.e., B 0 = 0.01 T ) , there is a specific density ( n c ) ranging from 5 × 10 18 m - 3 to 1 × 10 19 m - 3 , before and after which the radial inhomogeneity decreases and increases the absorbed power, respectively. On the other hand, at high magnetic fields (i.e., B 0 = 0.1 T ), the inhomogeneity has no regular effect on the power absorption in various plasma densities. In addition, for a given plasma density (e.g., n = 10 18 m - 3 ), as the magnetic field increases, the radial inhomogeneity effect on the power absorption would decrease for the Nagoya type-III and the fractional helix designs. However, for the single loop antenna design, this effect is negligible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, L.; Grierson, B.; Logan, N.; Nazikian, R.
2016-10-01
Application of RMPs to low collisionality (ν*e < 0.4) ITER shape plasmas on DIII-D leads to a rapid reduction in stored energy due to density pumpout that is sometimes followed by a gradual recovery in the plasma stored energy. Understanding this confinement recovery is essential to optimize the confinement of RMP plasmas in present and future devices such as ITER. Transport modeling using TRANSP+TGLF indicates that the core a/LTi is stiff in these plasmas while the ion temperature gradient is much less stiff in the pedestal region. The reduction in the edge density during pumpout leads to an increase in the core ion temperature predicted by TGLF based on experimental data. This is correlated to the increase in the normalized ion heat flux. Transport stiffness in the core combined with an increase in the edge a/LTi results in an increase of the plasma stored energy, consistent with experimental observations. For plasmas where the edge density is controlled using deuterium gas puffs, the effect of the RMP on ion thermal confinement is significantly reduced. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Theory of Collisional Two-Stream Plasma Instabilities in the Solar Chromosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madsen, Chad Allen; Dimant, Yakov; Oppenheim, Meers; Fontenla, Juan
2014-06-01
The solar chromosphere experiences intense heating just above its temperature minimum. The heating increases the electron temperature in this region by over 2000 K. Furthermore, it exhibits little time variation and appears widespread across the solar disk. Although semi-empirical models, UV continuum observations, and line emission measurements confirm the existence of the heating, its source remains unexplained. Potential heating sources such as acoustic shocks, resistive dissipation, and magnetic reconnection via nanoflares fail to account for the intensity, persistence, and ubiquity of the heating. Fontenla (2005) suggested turbulence from a collisional two-stream plasma instability known as the Farley-Buneman instability (FBI) could contribute significantly to the heating. This instability is known to heat the plasma of the E-region ionosphere which bears many similarities to the chromospheric plasma. However, the ionospheric theory of the FBI does not account for the diverse ion species found in the solar chromosphere. This work develops a new collisional, two-stream instability theory appropriate for the chromospheric plasma environment using a linear fluid analysis to derive a new dispersion relationship and critical E x B drift velocity required to trigger the instability. Using a 1D, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium, radiative transfer model and careful estimates of collision rates and magnetic field strengths, we calculate the trigger velocities necessary to induce the instability throughout the chromosphere. Trigger velocities as low as 4 km s^-1 are found near the temperature minimum, well below the local neutral acoustic speed in that region. From this, we expect the instability to occur frequently, converting kinetic energy contained in neutral convective flows from the photosphere into thermal energy via turbulence. This could contribute significantly to chromospheric heating and explain its persistent and ubiquitous nature.
Optimization of confinement in a toroidal plasma subject to strong radial electric fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roth, J. R.
1977-01-01
The toroidal ring of plasma contained in the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus facility may be biased to positive or negative potentials approaching 50 kV by applying dc voltages of the respective polarity to 12 or fewer midplane electrode rings. The radial electric fields, which are responsible for raising the ions to high energies by E x B/B-squared drift, then point out of or into the plasma. A preliminary report is given on the identification and optimization of independent variables which affect the ion density and confinement time in the Bumpy Torus plasma. The independent variables include the polarity, position, and number of the midplane electrode rings, the method of gas injection, and the polarity and strength of a weak vertical magnetic field. Some characteristic data taken under conditions where most of the independent variables were optimized are presented. The highest value of the electron number density on the plasma axis is 3.2 trillion per cu cm, the highest ion heating efficiency is 47%, and the longest particle containment time is 2.0 msec.
Magnetic topology and current channels in plasmas with toroidal current density inversions
Ciro, D.; Caldas, I. L.
2013-10-15
The equilibrium magnetic field inside axisymmetric plasmas with inversions on the toroidal current density is considered. Previous works have shown that internal regions with negative current density lead to non-nested magnetic surfaces inside the plasma. Following these results, we derive a general expression relating the positive and negative currents inside the non-nested surfaces. This is done in terms of an anisotropy parameter that is model-independent and is based in very general properties of the magnetic field. We demonstrate that the positive currents in axisymmetric islands screen the negative one in the plasma center by reaching about twice its magnitude. Further, we illustrate these results by developing a family of analytical local solutions for the poloidal magnetic field in a region of interest that contains the inverted current. These local solutions exhibit non-nested magnetic surfaces with a combined current of at least twice the magnitude of the negative one, as prescribed from the topological arguments, and allow to study topological transitions driven by geometrical changes in the current profile. To conclude, we discuss the signatures of internal current density inversions in a confinement device and show that magnetic pitch measurements may be inappropriate to differentiate current reversals and small current holes in plasmas.
Evolution of plasma loops in a semi-toroidal pinch experiment
Mackel, F. Ridder, S.; Tenfelde, J.; Tacke, T.; Soltwisch, H.
2015-04-15
The FlareLab experiment is a pulsed-power discharge generating magnetized plasma loops similar to a pinch experiment in a semi-toroidal configuration. After gas breakdown along a circular magnetic guide field, the structure expands in its major radius as the plasma becomes highly conductive and the discharge current rises. Photographs, current and electron density measurements reveal a significant broadening in the lateral direction leading to an increasing departure from radial symmetry of plasma parameters in the cross section. It is shown that the luminosity is related to both high electron density and high current density. Simultaneous measurements of current density and electric field reveal a high parallel resistivity of the plasma leading to fast diffusion across the magnetic field. Indications for anomalous resistivity are found by comparison with the Spitzer formula. As the experiment differs from a z-pinch experiment only by the semi-circular shape of the current path, the observed evolution is unexpected and might be of more fundamental significance.
Public Data Set: H-mode Plasmas at Very Low Aspect Ratio on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment
Thome, Kathreen E. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Oak Ridge Associated Universities] (ORCID:0000000248013922); Bongard, Michael W. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000231609746); Barr, Jayson L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000177685931); Bodner, Grant M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000324979172); Burke, Marcus G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000176193724); Fonck, Raymond J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000294386762); Kriete, David M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000236572911); Perry, Justin M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000171228609); Reusch, Joshua A. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000284249422); Schlossberg, David J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000287139448)
2016-09-30
This data set contains openly-documented, machine readable digital research data corresponding to figures published in K.E. Thome et al., 'H-mode Plasmas at Very Low Aspect Ratio on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment,' Nucl. Fusion 57, 022018 (2017).
Synchronization of Geodesic Acoustic Modes and Magnetic Fluctuations in Toroidal Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, K. J.; Nagashima, Y.; Diamond, P. H.; Dong, J. Q.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Yan, L. W.; Cheng, J.; Fujisawa, A.; Inagaki, S.; Kosuga, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Wang, Z. X.; Wei, L.; Huang, Z. H.; Yu, D. L.; Hong, W. Y.; Li, Q.; Ji, X. Q.; Song, X. M.; Huang, Y.; Liu, Yi.; Yang, Q. W.; Ding, X. T.; Duan, X. R.
2016-09-01
The synchronization of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) and magnetic fluctuations is identified in the edge plasmas of the HL-2A tokamak. Mesoscale electric fluctuations (MSEFs) having components of a dominant GAM, and m /n =6 /2 potential fluctuations are found at the same frequency as that of the magnetic fluctuations of m /n =6 /2 (m and n are poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively). The temporal evolutions of the MSEFs and the magnetic fluctuations clearly show the frequency entrainment and the phase lock between the GAM and the m /n =6 /2 magnetic fluctuations. The results indicate that GAMs and magnetic fluctuations can transfer energy through nonlinear synchronization. Such nonlinear synchronization may also contribute to low-frequency zonal flow formation, reduction of turbulence level, and thus confinement regime transitions.
Gyrokinetic study of electromagnetic effects on toroidal momentum transport in tokamak plasmas
Hein, T.; Angioni, C.; Fable, E.; Candy, J.; Peeters, A. G.
2011-07-15
The effect of a finite {beta}{sub e} = 8{pi}n{sub e}T{sub e}/B{sup 2} on the turbulent transport of toroidal momentum in tokamak plasmas is discussed. From an analytical gyrokinetic model as well as local linear gyrokinetic simulations, it is shown that the modification of the parallel mode structure due to the nonadiabatic response of passing electrons, which changes the parallel wave vector k{sub ||} with increasing {beta}{sub e}, leads to a decrease in size of both the diagonal momentum transport as well as the Coriolis pinch under ion temperature gradient turbulence conditions, while for trapped electron modes, practically no modification is found. The decrease is particularly strong close to the onset of the kinetic ballooning modes. There, the Coriolis pinch even reverses its direction.
Self-regulated oscillation of transport and topology of magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas
Ida, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Evans, T. E.; Inagaki, S.; Austin, M. E.; Shafer, M. W.; Ohdachi, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Itoh, S. -I.; Itoh, K.
2015-11-04
The coupling between the transport and magnetic topology is an important issue because the structure of magnetic islands, embedded in a toroidal equilibrium field, depends on the nature of the transport at the edge of the islands. Measurements of modulated heat pulse propagation in the DIII-D tokamak have revealed the existence of self-regulated oscillations in the radial energy transport into magnetic islands that are indicative of bifurcations in the island structure and transport near the q = 2 surface. Large amplitude heat pulses are seen in one state followed by small amplitude pulses later in the discharge resulting in a repeating cycle of island states. These two states are interpreted as a bifurcation of magnetic island with high and low heat pulse accessibility. In conclusion, this report describes the discovery of a bifurcation in the coupled dynamics between the transport and topology of magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas.
Self-regulated oscillation of transport and topology of magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas
Ida, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Evans, T. E.; ...
2015-11-04
The coupling between the transport and magnetic topology is an important issue because the structure of magnetic islands, embedded in a toroidal equilibrium field, depends on the nature of the transport at the edge of the islands. Measurements of modulated heat pulse propagation in the DIII-D tokamak have revealed the existence of self-regulated oscillations in the radial energy transport into magnetic islands that are indicative of bifurcations in the island structure and transport near the q = 2 surface. Large amplitude heat pulses are seen in one state followed by small amplitude pulses later in the discharge resulting in amore » repeating cycle of island states. These two states are interpreted as a bifurcation of magnetic island with high and low heat pulse accessibility. In conclusion, this report describes the discovery of a bifurcation in the coupled dynamics between the transport and topology of magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas.« less
Self-regulated oscillation of transport and topology of magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas
Ida, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Evans, T. E.; Inagaki, S.; Austin, M. E.; Shafer, M. W.; Ohdachi, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.
2015-01-01
The coupling between the transport and magnetic topology is an important issue because the structure of magnetic islands, embedded in a toroidal equilibrium field, depends on the nature of the transport at the edge of the islands. Measurements of modulated heat pulse propagation in the DIII-D tokamak have revealed the existence of self-regulated oscillations in the radial energy transport into magnetic islands that are indicative of bifurcations in the island structure and transport near the q = 2 surface. Large amplitude heat pulses are seen in one state followed by small amplitude pulses later in the discharge resulting in a repeating cycle of island states. These two states are interpreted as a bifurcation of magnetic island with high and low heat pulse accessibility. This report describes the discovery of a bifurcation in the coupled dynamics between the transport and topology of magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas. PMID:26530273
Self-regulated oscillation of transport and topology of magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas.
Ida, K; Kobayashi, T; Evans, T E; Inagaki, S; Austin, M E; Shafer, M W; Ohdachi, S; Suzuki, Y; Itoh, S-I; Itoh, K
2015-11-04
The coupling between the transport and magnetic topology is an important issue because the structure of magnetic islands, embedded in a toroidal equilibrium field, depends on the nature of the transport at the edge of the islands. Measurements of modulated heat pulse propagation in the DIII-D tokamak have revealed the existence of self-regulated oscillations in the radial energy transport into magnetic islands that are indicative of bifurcations in the island structure and transport near the q = 2 surface. Large amplitude heat pulses are seen in one state followed by small amplitude pulses later in the discharge resulting in a repeating cycle of island states. These two states are interpreted as a bifurcation of magnetic island with high and low heat pulse accessibility. This report describes the discovery of a bifurcation in the coupled dynamics between the transport and topology of magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Kamiya, K.; Kasuya, N.
2015-07-01
The solitary radial electric field in the edge of toroidal plasma is studied based on the electric field bifurcation model. Results are applied to tokamak and helical plasmas, and the dependence of the electric field structure on the plasma parameters and geometrical factors is analyzed. The order of magnitude estimate for tokamak plasma is not far from experimental observations. It is shown that, in helical plasmas, the height of electric field structure is reduced substantially owing to the ripple particle transport, while the width is influenced less. The implications of the results for the limit of achievable gradient in the H-mode pedestal are also discussed.
Energetic-Ion-Driven Toroidal Alfv{acute e}n Eigenmodes Observed in a Heliotron/Torsatron Plasma
Takechi, M.; Takagi, S.; Matsunaga, G.; Ohkuni, K.; Shimizu, M.; Toi, K.; Ohdachi, S.; Akiyama, R.; Fujisawa, A.; Gotoh, M.; Idei, H.; Iguchi, H.; Isobe, M.; Kojima, M.; Kubo, S.; Lee, S.; Minami, T.; Morita, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Nishimura, S.; Okamura, S.; Osakabe, M.; Sasao, M.; Takahashi, C.; Tanaka, K.; Yoshimura, Y.; Darrow, D.S.; Kondo, T.
1999-07-01
Toroidal Alfv{acute e}n eigenmodes (TAEs) of low toroidal mode number, n=1 and 2, are observed in neutral-beam-heated plasmas in the compact helical system heliotron/torsatron. The observed frequency is proportional to the computed TAE frequency and lies near the lower bound of the innermost TAE gap. The modes are excited only when the beam velocity exceeds about half the central Alfv{acute e}n velocity and when the net plasma current induced by coinjected neutral beams is in the required range. The modes are localized in the plasma core region, between 0.2 and 0.6 of the plasma minor radius. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society }
Effects of edge dc biasing on plasma rotation and transport in a toroidal geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fredriksen, Åshild; Riccardi, Claudia; Magni, Simone
2006-02-01
We report results from experiments performed to study how a change in boundary conditions affects the plasma state in the toroidal geometry of the Blaamann device in Tromso. The boundary condition was changed by applying a dc bias on a limiter extended around the entire poloidal circumference of the plasma column. Two distinctly different plasma potential states were found. One state was associated with a bias at or negative with respect to the floating potential of the limiter, and a small ion-saturation current. The other state was associated with a positive bias with respect to the floating potential, near or in the electron saturation regime of the limiter. In the latter case the potential minimum in the middle of the cross-section was significantly less negative than in the case of ion-saturation current to the limiter. On the other hand, the grounded limiter provided the best confinement properties, for which the density maximum was significantly higher than for both more positive and more negative biases. This state also had the lowest fluctuation levels, and near zero poloidal velocities close to the boundaries, as well as the smallest radial, anomalous particle transport.
Effects of Edge DC Biasing on Plasma Rotation and Transport in a Toroidal Geometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fredriksen, Ashild; Riccardi, Claudia
2005-10-01
We report results from experiments performed to study how a change in boundary conditions is affecting the plasma states in the toroidal geometry of the Blaamann device in Tromso. The boundary condition was changed by applying a DC bias on a limiter extended around the entire poloidal circumference of the plasma column. Two distinctly different plasma potential states were found. One state was associated with a bias at or negative with respect to the floating potential of the limiter, and a small ion saturation current. The other state was associated with a positive bias with respect to the floating potential, near or in the electron saturation regime of the limiter. In the latter case the potential minimum in the middle of the cross-section was significantly less negative than in the case of ion-saturation current to the limiter. On the other hand, the grounded limiter provided the best confinement properties, for which the density maximum was significantly higher than for both more positive and more negative biases. This state also had the lowest fluctuation levels, and near zero poloidal velocities close to the boundaries, as well as the smallest radial, anomalous particle transport.
A collisional-radiative model for low-pressure weakly magnetized Ar plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Xi-Ming; Tsankov, Tsanko; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Marchuk, Oleksandr
2016-09-01
Collisional-radiative (CR) models are widely investigated in plasma physics for describing the kinetics of reactive species and for optical emission spectroscopy. This work reports a new Ar CR model used in low-pressure (0.01-10 Pa) weakly magnetized (<0.1 Tesla) plasmas, including ECR, helicon, and NLD discharges. In this model 108 realistic levels are individually studied, i.e. 51 lowest levels of the Ar atom and 57 lowest levels of the Ar ion. We abandon the concept of an ``effective level'' usually adopted in previous models for glow discharges. Only in this way the model can correctly predict the non-equilibrium population distribution of close energy levels. In addition to studying atomic metastable and radiative levels, this model describes the kinetic processes of ionic metastable and radiative levels in detail for the first time. This is important for investigation of plasma-surface interaction and for optical diagnostics using atomic and ionic line-ratios. This model could also be used for studying Ar impurities in tokamaks and astrophysical plasmas.
Transition from collisional drift-wave to multi-instability turbulence in a helicon plasma device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty Thakur, S.; Ashourvan, A.; Cui, L.; Diamond, P.; Holland, C.; Hong, R.; Tynan, G.; Vaezi, P.; McKee, J.; Scime, E.; Sears, S.
2015-11-01
Recent studies in the Controlled Shear Decorrelation eXperiment reported a sharp non-monotonic global transition in the plasma dynamics during the transition to broadband turbulence. Using a combination of probes, high speed imaging and laser induced fluorescence, we find that below a threshold magnetic field, the plasma is dominated by density gradient driven resistive drift waves. Above this threshold a new global equilibrium occurs, characterized by steepened density and ion temperature gradients and both azimuthal and parallel velocity shear layers, along with multiple plasma instabilities. At the center, high azimuthal mode number fluctuations are observed rotating in the ion diamagnetic drift direction, while in the density gradient region, drift waves propagate in the electron diamagnetic direction. Outside of this zone, velocity shear-driven fluctuations are observed. Simultaneously a very bright helicon blue core forms, and appears to be associated with a radial particle transport barrier. This new regime shows very rich plasma dynamics including intermittency, blobs, radial transport barrier, inward particle flux against density gradients etc. Above the threshold conditions, linear stability analysis show co-existence of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability and velocity shear instability together with collisional electron drift waves. Supported by CMTFO # DE-SC0008378, US DoE # DE-FG02-04ER54738 and NSF # PHY-1360278.
Space-charge waves in magnetized and collisional quantum plasma columns confined in carbon nanotubes
Bagheri, Mehran; Abdikian, Alireza
2014-04-15
We study the dispersion relation of electrostatic waves propagating in a column of quantum magnetized collisional plasma embraced completely by a metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes. The analysis is based on the quantum linearized hydrodynamic formalism of collective excitations within the quasi-static approximation. It is shown when the electronic de Broglie's wavelength of the plasma is comparable in the order of magnitude to the radius of the nanotube, the quantum effects are quite meaningful and our model anticipates one acoustical and two optical space-charge waves which are positioned into three propagating bands. With increasing the nanotube radius, the features of the acoustical branch remain unchanged, yet two distinct optical branches are degenerated and the classical behavior is recovered. This study might provide a platform to create new finite transverse cross section quantum magnetized plasmas and to devise nanometer dusty plasmas based on the metallic carbon nanotubes in the absence of either a drift or a thermal electronic velocity and their existence could be experimentally examined.
Bellemans, A.; Munafò, A.; Magin, T. E.; Degrez, G.; Parente, A.
2015-06-15
This article considers the development of reduced chemistry models for argon plasmas using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based methods. Starting from an electronic specific Collisional-Radiative model, a reduction of the variable set (i.e., mass fractions and temperatures) is proposed by projecting the full set on a reduced basis made up of its principal components. Thus, the flow governing equations are only solved for the principal components. The proposed approach originates from the combustion community, where Manifold Generated Principal Component Analysis (MG-PCA) has been developed as a successful reduction technique. Applications consider ionizing shock waves in argon. The results obtained show that the use of the MG-PCA technique enables for a substantial reduction of the computational time.
Application of a hybrid collisional radiative model to recombining argon plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benoy, D. A.; van der Mullen, J. A. M.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; van der Sijde, B.; Schram, D. C.
1993-02-01
A collisional radiative model, in which a hybrid cut-off technique is used, is applied to recombining plasmas to study the atomic state distribution (ASDF) and the recombination coefficient. Computations of the ASDF using semi-empirical rate coefficients of Vriens and Smeets (V-S) and Drawin (D) are compared with experimental values measured at various positions in a free expanding argon arc jet. Apart from the shock position, where the calculated results are too low, the model calculations are higher than the experimental results. The volumetric recombination coefficient has a Te exp -4 and a Te exp -4.8 dependence when semiempirical rate coefficients of, respectively, V-S and D are used. The differences between the models based on the rate coefficients of V-S and D indicate that the recombination flow is sensitive to the low temperature behavior of the rate coefficients.
Khorashadizadeh, S. M. Taheri Boroujeni, S.; Niknam, A. R.
2015-11-15
In this paper, we have investigated the nonlinear interaction between high-frequency surface plasmons and low-frequency ion oscillations in a semi-bounded collisional quantum plasma. By coupling the nonlinear Schrodinger equation and quantum hydrodynamic model, and taking into account the ponderomotive force, the dispersion equation is obtained. By solving this equation, it is shown that there is a modulational instability in the system, and collisions and quantum forces play significant roles on this instability. The quantum tunneling increases the phase and group velocities of the modulated waves and collisions increase the growth rate of the modulational instability. It is also shown that the effect of quantum forces and collisions is more significant in high modulated wavenumber regions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uttamsing Rajput, Rajendrasing; Alona, Khaustova; Loyan, Andriy V.
2017-03-01
Electric propulsion offers higher specific impulse compared to the chemical propulsion systems. It reduces the overall propellant mass and enables high operational lifetimes. Scientific Technological Center of Space Power and Energy (STC SPE), KhAI is involved in designing, manufacturing and testing of stationary plasma thrusters (SPT). Efforts are made to perform plasma diagnostics with corona and collisional radiative models (C-R model), as expected corona model falls short below 4 eV because of the heavy particle collisions elimination, whereas the C-R model's applicability is confirmed. Several tests are performed to analyze the electron temperature at various operational parameters of thruster like discharge voltage and mass flow rate. SPT-20M8 far and near-field plumes diagnostics are performed. Feasibility of C-R model by comparing its result to optical emission spectroscopy (OES) to investigate the electron temperature is validated with the probe measurements within the 10% of discrepancy.
Heavy ion beam probing—diagnostics to study potential and turbulence in toroidal plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melnikov, A. V.; Krupnik, L. I.; Eliseev, L. G.; Barcala, J. M.; Bravo, A.; Chmyga, A. A.; Deshko, G. N.; Drabinskij, M. A.; Hidalgo, C.; Khabanov, P. O.; Khrebtov, S. M.; Kharchev, N. K.; Komarov, A. D.; Kozachek, A. S.; Lopez, J.; Lysenko, S. E.; Martin, G.; Molinero, A.; de Pablos, J. L.; Soleto, A.; Ufimtsev, M. V.; Zenin, V. N.; Zhezhera, A. I.; T-10 Team; TJ-II Team
2017-07-01
Heavy ion beam probing (HIBP) is a unique diagnostics to study the core plasma potential and turbulence. Advanced HIBPs operate in the T-10 tokamak and TJ-II flexible heliac with fine focused (<1 cm) and intense (100 µA) beams. They provide measurements in the wide density interval {{\\overline{n}}\\text{e}} = (0.3-5) × 1019 m-3, in a wide range of Ohmic and electron cyclotron resonance heated (ECRH) discharges with various currents at T-10, and in the wide range of magnetic configurations with ECR and neutral beam injection (NBI) heating at TJ-II. Time evolution of the radial profiles and/or local values of plasma parameters from high field side (HFS) to low field side (LFS), -1 < ρ < 1, is observed in TJ-II by 125 keV Cs+ ions in a single shot, while LFS (+0.2 < ρ < 1) is observed in T-10 by 300 keV Tl+ ions. Multi-slit energy analyzers provide simultaneously data on the plasma potential φ (by the beam extra energy), plasma density n e (by the beam current), poloidal magnetic field B pol (by the beam toroidal shift), poloidal electric filed E pol that allows one to derive the electrostatic turbulent particle flux ΓE×B. The cross-phase of density oscillations produces the phase velocity of their poloidal propagation or rotation; also it gives the poloidal mode number. Dual HIBP, consisting of two identical HIBPs located ¼ torus apart provide the long-range correlations of core plasma parameters. Low-noise high-gain electronics allows us to study broadband turbulence and quasi-coherent modes like geodesic acoustic modes and Alfvén eigenmodes.
THE STABILITY OF WEAKLY COLLISIONAL PLASMAS WITH THERMAL AND COMPOSITION GRADIENTS
Pessah, Martin E.; Chakraborty, Sagar E-mail: sagarc@iitk.ac.in
2013-02-10
Over the last decade, substantial efforts have been devoted to understanding the stability properties, transport phenomena, and long-term evolution of weakly collisional, magnetized plasmas which are stratified in temperature. The insights gained via these studies have led to a significant improvement of our understanding of the processes that determine the physical evolution and observational properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) permeating galaxy clusters. These studies have been carried out under the assumption that the ICM is a homogeneous medium. This, however, might not be a good approximation if heavy elements are able to sediment in the inner region of the galaxy cluster. Motivated by the need to obtain a more complete picture of the dynamical properties of the ICM, we analyze the stability of a weakly collisional, magnetized plane-parallel atmosphere which is stratified in both temperature and composition. This allows us to discuss for the first time the dynamics of weakly collisional environments where heat conduction, momentum transport, and ion-diffusion are anisotropic with respect to the direction of the magnetic field. We show that depending on the relative signs and magnitudes of the gradients in the temperature and the mean molecular weight, the plasma can be subject to a wide variety of unstable modes which include modifications to the magnetothermal instability (MTI), the heat-flux-driven buoyancy instability (HBI), and overstable gravity modes previously studied in homogeneous media. We also find that there are new modes which are driven by heat conduction and particle diffusion. We discuss the astrophysical implications of our findings for a representative galaxy cluster where helium has sedimented. Our findings suggest that the core insulation that results from the magnetic field configurations that arise as a natural consequence of the HBI, which would be MTI stable in a homogeneous medium, could be alleviated if the mean molecular
Elements of Neoclassical Theory and Plasma Rotation in a Tokamak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smolyakov, A.
2015-12-01
The following sections are included: * Introduction * Quasineutrality condition * Diffusion in fully ionized magnetized plasma and automatic ambipolarity * Toroidal geometry and neoclassical diffusion * Diffusion and ambipolarity in toroidal plasmas * Ambipolarity and equilibrium poloidal rotation * Ambipolarity paradox and damping of poloidal rotation * Neoclassical plasma inertia * Oscillatory modes of poloidal plasma rotation * Dynamics of the toroidal momentum * Momentum diffusion in strongly collisional, short mean free path regime * Diffusion of toroidal momentum in the weak collision (banana) regime * Toroidal momentum diffusion and momentum damping from drift-kinetic theory and fluid moment equations * Comments on non-axisymmetric effects * Summary * Acknowledgments * Appendix: Trapped (banana) particles and collisionality regimes in a tokamak * Appendix: Hierarchy of moment equations * Appendix: Plasma viscosity tensor in the magnetic field: parallel viscosity, gyroviscosity, and perpendicular viscosity * Appendix: Closure relations for the flux surface averaged parallel viscosity in neoclassical (banana and plateau) regimes * References
Matsunaga, G.; Kawada, S.; Kotani, J.; Toi, K.; Suzuki, C.; Matsuoka, K.
2005-06-10
A novel method of exciting shear Alfven waves using electrodes inserted in a plasma was developed for basic study of Alfven eigenmodes in a heliotron/torsatron plasma. The electrodes can induce excitation current along the confinement field line, and generate magnetic perturbations perpendicular to the confinement field. By sweeping the frequency of the current in a cold plasma, the toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmode was resonantly excited at the predicted frequency and radial location. Plasma response to the applied magnetic perturbations indicates a fairly large damping rate caused by continuum damping.0.
Advanced Power Conversion Efficiency in Inventive Plasma for Hybrid Toroidal Reactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hançerlioğullari, Aybaba; Cini, Mesut; Güdal, Murat
2013-08-01
Apex hybrid reactor has a good potential to utilize uranium and thorium fuels in the future. This toroidal reactor is a type of system that facilitates the occurrence of the nuclear fusion and fission events together. The most important feature of hybrid reactor is that the first wall surrounding the plasma is liquid. The advantages of utilizing a liquid wall are high power density capacity good power transformation productivity, the magnitude of the reactor's operational duration, low failure percentage, short maintenance time and the inclusion of the system's simple technology and material. The analysis has been made using the MCNP Monte Carlo code and ENDF/B-V-VI nuclear data. Around the fusion chamber, molten salts Flibe (LI2BeF4), lead-lithium (PbLi), Li-Sn, thin-lityum (Li20Sn80) have used as cooling materials. APEX reactor has modeled in the torus form by adding nuclear materials of low significance in the specified percentages between 0 and 12 % to the molten salts. In this study, the neutronic performance of the APEX fusion reactor using various molten salts has been investigated. The nuclear parameters of Apex reactor has been searched for Flibe (LI2BeF4) and Li-Sn, for blanket layers. In case of usage of the Flibe (LI2BeF4), PbLi, and thin-lityum (Li20Sn80) salt solutions at APEX toroidal reactors, fissile material production per source neutron, tritium production speed, total fission rate, energy reproduction factor has been calculated, the results obtained for both salt solutions are compared.
Tokamak with liquid metal toroidal field coil
Ohkawa, Tihiro; Schaffer, Michael J.
1981-01-01
Tokamak apparatus includes a pressure vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within the pressure vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside said liner. Electric current is passed through the liquid metal over a conductive path linking the toroidal space to produce a toroidal magnetic field within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof. Toroidal plasma is developed within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Idomura, Yasuhiro
2017-08-01
An electron heating modulation numerical experiment based on a global full-f gyrokinetic model shows that transitions from ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) turbulence to trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence induced by electron heating generate density peaking and rotation changes. Toroidal angular momentum balance during the rotation changes is revealed by direct observation of toroidal angular momentum conservation, in which in addition to ion turbulent stress, ion neoclassical stress, radial currents, and toroidal field stress of ions and electrons are important. Toroidal torque flipping between ITG and TEM phases is found to be related to reversal of the ion radial current, which indicates the coupling of particle and momentum transport channels. The ion and electron radial currents are balanced to satisfy the ambipolar condition, and the electron radial current is cancelled by the electron toroidal field stress, which indirectly affects toroidal torque.
Camenen, Y; Bortolon, A; Duval, B P; Federspiel, L; Peeters, A G; Casson, F J; Hornsby, W A; Karpushov, A N; Piras, F; Sauter, O; Snodin, A P; Szepesi, G
2010-09-24
The first experimental evidence of parallel momentum transport generated by the up-down asymmetry of a toroidal plasma is reported. The experiments, conducted in the Tokamak à Configuration Variable, were motivated by the recent theoretical discovery of ion-scale turbulent momentum transport induced by an up-down asymmetry in the magnetic equilibrium. The toroidal rotation gradient is observed to depend on the asymmetry in the outer part of the plasma leading to a variation of the central rotation by a factor of 1.5-2. The direction of the effect and its magnitude are in agreement with theoretical predictions for the eight possible combinations of plasma asymmetry, current, and magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Askinazi, L. G.; Bulanin, V. V.; Kornev, V. A.; Krikunov, S. V.; Lebedev, S. V.; Tukachinsky, A. S.; Vildjunas, M. I.; Zhubr, N. A.
2011-03-01
The results of the experimental study of confinement mode bifurcation performed on the TUMAN-3M tokamak are reported. As a trigger of confinement mode switching, plasma current ramp-up/-down or magnetic compression/decompression is used. It is found that the possibility and direction of confinement mode switching are correlated not with plasma current profile perturbation (peaking or broadening) but with the sign of toroidal electric field perturbation. A model connecting confinement bifurcation and toroidal electric field perturbation through the perturbation of the radial electric field is used to describe the phenomena observed in all eight scenarios investigated. This model ascribes the radial electric field generation to the non-compensated Ware drift of banana electrons at the TUMAN-3M peripheral plasma, where \
Collisional damping of helicon waves in a high density hydrogen linear plasma device
Caneses, Juan F.; Blackwell, Boyd D.
2016-09-28
In this paper, we investigate the propagation and damping of helicon waves along the length (~50 cm) of a helicon-produced 20 kW hydrogen plasma ( ~1-2 1019 m-3, ~1-6 eV, H2 8 mTorr) operated in a magnetic mirror configuration (antenna region: 50-200 G and mirror region: 800 G). Experimental results show the presence of traveling helicon waves (~10 G and ~ 10-15 cm) propagating away from the antenna region which become collisionally absorbed within 40 to 50 cm. We describe the use of the WKB method to calculate wave damping and provide an expression to assess its validity based onmore » experimental measurements. By comparing theory and experiment, we show that for the conditions associated with this paper classical collisions are sufficient to explain the observed wave damping along the length of the plasma column. Based on these results, we provide an expression for the scaling of helicon wave damping relevant to high density discharges and discuss the location of surfaces for plasma-material interaction studies in our device (MAGPIE).« less
Collisional damping of helicon waves in a high density hydrogen linear plasma device
Caneses, Juan F.; Blackwell, Boyd D.
2016-09-28
In this paper, we investigate the propagation and damping of helicon waves along the length (~50 cm) of a helicon-produced 20 kW hydrogen plasma ( ~1-2 1019 m-3, ~1-6 eV, H2 8 mTorr) operated in a magnetic mirror configuration (antenna region: 50-200 G and mirror region: 800 G). Experimental results show the presence of traveling helicon waves (~10 G and ~ 10-15 cm) propagating away from the antenna region which become collisionally absorbed within 40 to 50 cm. We describe the use of the WKB method to calculate wave damping and provide an expression to assess its validity based on experimental measurements. By comparing theory and experiment, we show that for the conditions associated with this paper classical collisions are sufficient to explain the observed wave damping along the length of the plasma column. Based on these results, we provide an expression for the scaling of helicon wave damping relevant to high density discharges and discuss the location of surfaces for plasma-material interaction studies in our device (MAGPIE).
SPEX (Plasma Code Spectral Fitting Tool). Collisional ionization for atoms and ions of H to Zn.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urdampilleta, I.; Kaastra, J. S.
2017-03-01
Every observation of astrophysical objects involving a spectrum requires atomic data for the interpretation of line fluxes, ratios and ionization state of the emitting plasma. One of processes which determines it is collisional ionization. In this study an update of the direct ionization (DI) and excitation-autoionization (EA) processes is discussed for the H to Zn-like isoelectronic sequences. The previous assessments were performed by Dere (2007, A&A 466, 771) for H to Zn isoelectronc sequences, Arnaud & Raymond (1992, ApJ. 398, 394) for Fe and Arnaud & Rothenflug (1985, A&AS, 60, 425). However, in the last years new laboratory measurements and theoretical calculations of ionization cross sections have become accessible. We provide a review, extension and update of this previous work and fit the cross sections of all individuals shells of all ions from H to Zn. These data are described using an extension of Younger's formula, suitable for integration over a Maxwellian velocity distribution to derive the subshell ionization rate coefficients. These ionization rate coefficients are included together with the radiative recombination rates data (Mao et al. 2016, A&AS, 27568) and a change-exchange model (Gu et al. 2016, A&A 588, A52, 11) into the high-resolution plasma code and spectral fit tool SPEX V3.0 (Kaastra et al. 1996, UV and X-ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas).
Collisional damping of helicon waves in a high density hydrogen linear plasma device
Caneses, Juan F.; Blackwell, Boyd D.
2016-09-28
In this paper, we investigate the propagation and damping of helicon waves along the length (~50 cm) of a helicon-produced 20 kW hydrogen plasma ( ~1-2 1019 m-3, ~1-6 eV, H2 8 mTorr) operated in a magnetic mirror configuration (antenna region: 50-200 G and mirror region: 800 G). Experimental results show the presence of traveling helicon waves (~10 G and ~ 10-15 cm) propagating away from the antenna region which become collisionally absorbed within 40 to 50 cm. We describe the use of the WKB method to calculate wave damping and provide an expression to assess its validity based on experimental measurements. By comparing theory and experiment, we show that for the conditions associated with this paper classical collisions are sufficient to explain the observed wave damping along the length of the plasma column. Based on these results, we provide an expression for the scaling of helicon wave damping relevant to high density discharges and discuss the location of surfaces for plasma-material interaction studies in our device (MAGPIE).
2D Bounce-Averaged Collisional Viscosity of a Single-Species Plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubin, Daniel H. E.; O'Neil, T. M.
1998-11-01
The collisional viscosity of a nonneutral plasma has recently been evaluated in the regime ωb >> ω_r, and rc << λD where ωb and ωr are the axial bounce and rotation frequencies, rc is the cyclotron radius and λD is the Debye length.(Daniel H.E. Dubin and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Plasmas 5), 1305 (1998). In this regime guiding centers bounce rapidly along the magnetic field between the ends of the plasma and the viscosity arises primarily from the 2D E × B drift motion of interacting charged rods (bounce-averaged charges). The new theory predicts a cross-field viscous particle flux (arising from radial variations in the rotation frequency) that scales as 1/B and is orders of magnitude larger than the classical flux which scales as 1/B^4. This 1/B scaling agrees with recent experiments.(J.M. Kriesel and C.F. Driscoll, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 42), 1956 (1997). Our theory differs from previous work(Daniel H.E. Dubin and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60), 1286 (1988); J.B. Taylor and B. MacNamara, Phys. Fluids 14, 1492 (1971). in that the finite length of the rods is taken into account in order to obtain a nonzero viscous flux for the case of a monotonic rotation frequency profile.
Collisional relaxation of a strongly magnetized two-species pure ion plasma
Chim, Chi Yung; O’Neil, Thomas M.; Dubin, Daniel H.
2014-04-15
The collisional relaxation of a strongly magnetized pure ion plasma that is composed of two species with slightly different masses is discussed. We have in mind two isotopes of the same singly ionized atom. Parameters are assumed to be ordered as Ω{sub 1},Ω{sub 2}≫|Ω{sub 1}−Ω{sub 2}|≫v{sup ¯}{sub ij}/b{sup ¯} and v{sup ¯}{sub ⊥j}/Ω{sub j}≪b{sup ¯}, where Ω{sub 1} and Ω{sub 2} are two cyclotron frequencies, v{sup ¯}{sub ij}=√(T{sub ∥}/μ{sub ij}) is the relative parallel thermal velocity characterizing collisions between particles of species i and j, and b{sup ¯}=2e{sup 2}/T{sub ∥} is the classical distance of closest approach for such collisions, and v{sup ¯}{sub ⊥j}/Ω{sub j}=√(2T{sub ⊥j}/m{sub j})/Ω{sub j} is the characteristic cyclotron radius for particles of species j. Here, μ{sub ij} is the reduced mass for the two particles, and T{sub ∥} and T{sub ⊥j} are temperatures that characterize velocity components parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. For this ordering, the total cyclotron action for the two species, I{sub 1}=∑{sub i∈1}m{sub 1}v{sub ⊥i}{sup 2}/(2Ω{sub 1}) and I{sub 2}=∑{sub i∈2}m{sub 2}v{sub ⊥i}{sup 2}/(2Ω{sub 2}) are adiabatic invariants that constrain the collisional dynamics. On the timescale of a few collisions, entropy is maximized subject to the constancy of the total Hamiltonian H and the two actions I{sub 1} and I{sub 2}, yielding a modified Gibbs distribution of the form exp[−H/T{sub ∥}−α{sub 1}I{sub 1}−α{sub 2}I{sub 2}]. Here, the α{sub j}’s are related to T{sub ∥} and T{sub ⊥j} through T{sub ⊥j}=(1/T{sub ∥}+α{sub j}/Ω{sub j}){sup −1}. Collisional relaxation to the usual Gibbs distribution, exp[−H/T{sub ∥}], takes place on two timescales. On a timescale longer than the collisional timescale by a factor of (b{sup ¯2}Ω{sub 1}{sup 2}/v{sup ¯}{sub 11}{sup 2})exp(5[3π(b{sup ¯}|Ω{sub 1}−Ω{sub 2}|/v{sup ¯}{sub 12})]{sup 2/5}/6), the two
Nonlinear interaction of fast particles with Alfven waves in toroidal plasmas
Candy, J.; Borba, D.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Kerner, W.; Berk, H.L.
1996-12-17
A numerical algorithm to study the nonlinear, resonant interaction of fast particles with Alfven waves in tokamak geometry has been developed. The scope of the formalism is wide enough to describe the nonlinear evolution of fishbone modes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes and ellipticity-induced Alfven eigenmodes, driven by both passing and trapped fast ions. When the instability is sufficiently weak, it is known that the wave-particle trapping nonlinearity will lead to mode saturation before wave-wave nonlinearities are appreciable. The spectrum of linear modes can thus be calculated using a magnetohydrodynamic normal-mode code, then nonlinearly evolved in time in an efficient way according to a two-time-scale Lagrangian dynamical wave model. The fast particle kinetic equation, including the effect of orbit nonlinearity arising from the mode perturbation, is simultaneously solved of the deviation, {delta}f = f {minus} f{sub 0}, from an initial analytic distribution f{sub 0}. High statistical resolution allows linear growth rates, frequency shifts, resonance broadening effects, and nonlinear saturation to be calculated quickly and precisely. The results have been applied to an ITER instability scenario. Results show that weakly-damped core-localized modes alone cause negligible alpha transport in ITER-like plasmas--even with growth rates one order of magnitude higher than expected values. However, the possibility of significant transport in reactor-type plasmas due to weakly unstable global modes remains an open question.
Linear global gyrokinetic simulations of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes in KSTAR plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahzad, M.; Rizvi, H.; Ryu, C. M.
2016-12-01
Excitation of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) in KSTAR tokamak plasmas has been studied by using the GENE code. Verification and benchmark analysis are performed for Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) excited by the energetic particles (EPs) in comparison with the AEs from the GYGLES code, and excellent agreements are found. In addition, the threshold value of the EP density gradient to destabilize the TAE has been investigated. For the plasma equilibrium of KSTAR discharge (10574), TAEs of n = 2 are found to be excited by coupling of adjoining poloidal harmonics (5, 6), (6, 7), and (7, 8). The dependence of the growth rate and frequency of the TAE on the EP density gradient is examined. It is found that the threshold value of EP density gradient increases with the higher poloidal mode coupling, of which location moves outward in the radial direction. The growth rates of TAEs with higher poloidal mode numbers are smaller than those with lower poloidal mode numbers, indicating that perpendicular wavenumbers play an important role. The efficiency of the EP drive for the TAE decreases for a higher poloidal mode coupling. At a higher EP density gradient, TAEs with higher poloidal harmonics are less unstable due to the decrease in the radial extents of the modes.
Lin, Zhili; Chen, Xudong; Ding, Panfeng; Qiu, Weibin; Pu, Jixiong
2017-04-03
The ponderomotive interaction of high-power laser beams with collisional plasma is modeled in the nonrelativistic regime and is simulated using the powerful finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for the first time in literature. The nonlinear and dissipative dielectric constant function of the collisional plasma is deduced that takes the ponderomotive effect into account and is implemented in the discrete framework of FDTD algorithms. Maclaurin series expansion approach is applied for implementing the obtained physical model and the time average of the square of light field is extracted by numerically evaluating an integral identity based on the composite trapezoidal rule for numerical integration. Two numerical examples corresponding to two different types of laser beams, Gaussian beam and vortex Laguerre-Gaussian beam, propagating in collisional plasma, are presented for specified laser and plasma parameters to verify the validity of the proposed FDTD-based approach. Simulation results show the anticipated self-focusing and attenuation phenomena of laser beams and the deformation of the spatial density distributions of electron plasma along the beam propagation path. Due to the flexibility of FDTD method in light beam excitation and accurate complex material modeling, the proposed approach has a wide application prospect in the study of the complex laser-plasma interactions in a small scale.
Measurement of Collisional Cross-Field Heat Transport in a Nonneutral Plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hollmann, E. M.; Anderegg, F.; Driscoll, C. F.
1998-11-01
Cross-magnetic-field heat transport has been measured for a steady-state Mg^+ ion plasma confined in a Penning-Malmberg trap. The measured thermal diffusivity is up to 200 times larger than the classical value, but agrees well with long-range collisional theory.(D.H.E. Dubin and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78), 3868 (1997). This measurement uses two lasers: a strong (1 mW) beam to initially create localized ion heating (or cooling); and a weak (<=0.1 mW) beam to obtain the temperature T as the heat pulse spreads. The local thermal diffusivity \\chi is calculated from the measured T (r,t). The classical theory of heat conductivity describes collisions with impact parameters less than a cyclotron radius, i.e. ρ < r_c; in contrast, the enhanced heat transport arises from long-range collisions with impact parameter rc < ρ < λ_D. The thermal diffusivity has been measured over temperature and density ranges of 5 × 10-4 < T < 5 eV and 10^6 < n < 1.3 × 10^8 cm-3, at fields 1 < B < 4;Tesla. The measured diffusivity shows no variation with n or B, and agrees quantitatively with the long-range collisional prediction of \\chi_raisebox-.8ex lr ∝ T-1/2; but disagrees strongly with the classical prediction of \\chi_raisebox-.6ex c ∝ nB-2 T-1/2.
Resonant magnetic perturbations of edge-plasmas in toroidal confinement devices
Evans, T. E.
2015-11-13
Controlling the boundary layer in fusion-grade, high-performance, plasma discharges is essential for the successful development of toroidal magnetic confinement power generating systems. A promising approach for controlling the boundary plasma is based on the use of small, externally applied, edge resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields (δmore » $$b_⊥^{ext}$$ ≈ $$10^{-4}$$ → $$10^{-3}$$ T). A long-term focus area in tokamak fusion research has been to find methods, involving the use of non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations to reduce the intense particle and heat fluxes to the wall. Experimental RMP research has progressed from the early pioneering work on tokamaks with material limiters in the 1970s, to present day research in separatrix-limited tokamaks operated in high-confinement mode, which is primarily aimed at the mitigation of the intermittent fluxes due edge localized modes. At the same time the theoretical research has evolved from analytical models to numerical simulations, including the full 3D complexities of the problem. Following the first demonstration of ELM suppression in the DIII-D tokamak during 2003, there has been a rapid worldwide growth in theoretical, numerical and experimental edge RMP research resulting in the addition of ELM control coils to the ITER baseline design [A. Loarte, et al., Nucl. Fusion 54 (2014) 033007]. This review provides an overview of edge RMP research including a summary of the early theoretical and numerical background along with recent experimental results on improved particle and energy confinement in tokamaks triggered by edge RMP fields. The topics covered make up the basic elements needed for developing a better understanding of 3D magnetic perturbation physics, which is required in order to utilize the full potential of edge RMP fields in fusion relevant high performance, H-mode, plasmas.« less
Resonant magnetic perturbations of edge-plasmas in toroidal confinement devices
Evans, T. E.
2015-11-13
Controlling the boundary layer in fusion-grade, high-performance, plasma discharges is essential for the successful development of toroidal magnetic confinement power generating systems. A promising approach for controlling the boundary plasma is based on the use of small, externally applied, edge resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields (δ$b_⊥^{ext}$ ≈ $10^{-4}$ → $10^{-3}$ T). A long-term focus area in tokamak fusion research has been to find methods, involving the use of non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations to reduce the intense particle and heat fluxes to the wall. Experimental RMP research has progressed from the early pioneering work on tokamaks with material limiters in the 1970s, to present day research in separatrix-limited tokamaks operated in high-confinement mode, which is primarily aimed at the mitigation of the intermittent fluxes due edge localized modes. At the same time the theoretical research has evolved from analytical models to numerical simulations, including the full 3D complexities of the problem. Following the first demonstration of ELM suppression in the DIII-D tokamak during 2003, there has been a rapid worldwide growth in theoretical, numerical and experimental edge RMP research resulting in the addition of ELM control coils to the ITER baseline design [A. Loarte, et al., Nucl. Fusion 54 (2014) 033007]. This review provides an overview of edge RMP research including a summary of the early theoretical and numerical background along with recent experimental results on improved particle and energy confinement in tokamaks triggered by edge RMP fields. The topics covered make up the basic elements needed for developing a better understanding of 3D magnetic perturbation physics, which is required in order to utilize the full potential of edge RMP fields in fusion relevant high performance, H-mode, plasmas.
Resonant magnetic perturbations of edge-plasmas in toroidal confinement devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, T. E.
2015-12-01
Controlling the boundary layer in fusion-grade, high-performance, plasma discharges is essential for the successful development of toroidal magnetic confinement power generating systems. A promising approach for controlling the boundary plasma is based on the use of small, externally applied, edge resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields (δ b\\bot\\text{ext}≈ {{10}-4}\\to {{10}-3}~\\text{T} ). A long-term focus area in tokamak fusion research has been to find methods, involving the use of non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations to reduce the intense particle and heat fluxes to the wall. Experimental RMP research has progressed from the early pioneering work on tokamaks with material limiters in the 1970s, to present day research in separatrix-limited tokamaks operated in high-confinement mode, which is primarily aimed at the mitigation of the intermittent fluxes due edge localized modes (ELMs). At the same time, theoretical research has evolved from analytical models to numerical simulations, including the full 3D complexities of the problem. Following the first demonstration of ELM suppression in the DIII-D tokamak during 2003, there has been a rapid worldwide growth in theoretical, numerical and experimental edge RMP research resulting in the addition of ELM control coils to the ITER baseline design (Loarte et al 2014 Nucl. Fusion 54 033007). This review provides an overview of edge RMP research including a summary of the early theoretical and numerical background along with recent experimental results on improved particle and energy confinement in tokamaks triggered by edge RMP fields. The topics covered make up the basic elements needed for developing a better understanding of 3D magnetic perturbation physics, which is required in order to utilize the full potential of edge RMP fields in fusion relevant high performance, H-mode, plasmas.
Amplitude limits and nonlinear damping of shear-Alfvén waves in high-beta low-collisionality plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Squire, J.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Quataert, E.
2017-05-01
This work, which extends Squire et al (Astrophys. J. Lett. 2016 830 L25), explores the effect of self-generated pressure anisotropy on linearly polarized shear-Alfvén fluctuations in low-collisionality plasmas. Such anisotropies lead to stringent limits on the amplitude of magnetic perturbations in high-β plasmas, above which a fluctuation can destabilize itself through the parallel firehose instability. This causes the wave frequency to approach zero, ‘interrupting’ the wave and stopping its oscillation. These effects are explored in detail in the collisionless and weakly collisional ‘Braginskii’ regime, for both standing and traveling waves. The focus is on simplified models in one dimension, on scales much larger than the ion gyroradius. The effect has interesting implications for the physics of magnetized turbulence in the high-β conditions that are prevalent in many astrophysical plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sonnino, Giorgio; Peeters, Philippe; Sonnino, Alberto; Nardone, Pasquale; Steinbrecher, György
2015-01-01
In previous works, we derived stationary density distribution functions (DDF) where the local equilibrium is determined by imposing the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle, under the scale invariance restrictions, and the minimum entropy production theorem. In this paper we demonstrate that it is possible to reobtain these DDF solely from the MaxEnt principle subject to suitable scale invariant restrictions in all the variables. For the sake of concreteness, we analyse the example of ohmic, fully ionized, tokamak-plasmas, in the weak-collisional transport regime. In this case we show that it is possible to reinterpret the stationary distribution function in terms of the Prigogine distribution function where the logarithm of the DDF is directly linked to the entropy production of the plasma. This leads to the suggestive idea that also the stationary neoclassical distribution functions, for magnetically confined plasmas in the collisional transport regimes, may be derived solely by the MaxEnt principle.
Moser, Auna L.; Hsu, Scott C.
2015-05-01
We present results from experiments on the head-on merging of two supersonic plasma jets in an initially collisionless regime for the counter-streaming ions [A. L. Moser & S. C. Hsu, Phys. Plasmas, submitted (2014)]. The plasma jets are of either an argon/impurity or hydrogen/impurity mixture and are produced by pulsed-power-driven railguns. Based on time- and space-resolved fast-imaging, multi-chord interferometry, and survey-spectroscopy measurements of the overlapping region between the merging jets, we observe that the jets initially interpenetrate, consistent with calculated inter-jet ion collision lengths, which are long. As the jets interpenetrate, a rising mean-charge state causes a rapid decrease inmore » the inter-jet ion collision length. Finally, the interaction becomes collisional and the jets stagnate, eventually producing structures consistent with collisional shocks. These experimental observations can aid in the validation of plasma collisionality and ionization models for plasmas with complex equations of state.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baalrud, S. D.; Hegna, C. C.; Callen, J. D.
2009-11-01
Ion-ion streaming instabilities are excited in the presheath region of plasmas with multiple ion species if the ions are much colder than the electrons. Streaming instabilities onset when the relative fluid flow between ion species exceeds a critical speed, δVc, of order the ion thermal speeds. Using a generalized Lenard-Balescu theory that accounts for instability-enhanced collective responses [1], one is able to show the instabilities rapidly enhance the collisional friction between ion species far beyond the contribution from Coulomb collisions alone. This strong frictional force determines the relative fluid speed between species. When this condition is combined with the Bohm criterion generalized for multiple ion species, the fluid speed of each ion species is determined at the sheath edge. For each species, this speed differs from the common ``system'' sound speed by a factor that depends on the species concentrations, masses and δVc.[4pt] [1] S.D. Baalrud, J.D. Callen, and C.C. Hegna, Phys. Plasmas 15, 092111 (2008).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, M. T.; Hossain, M. Mofazzal
2017-01-01
The time-dependent model of ion motion is used to propose an analytical model for dual frequency (DF) capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) sheath driven by a pulsed source and a radio-frequency source. In this model, the sheath is considered to be collisional. In this model, the time dependent terms of ion fluid equations are ignored, but the electric field, ion motion and ion density remain time dependent. Electron profile is assumed to be step-like. Analytical expressions for electron sheath width and sheath potential have been developed. The calculated sheath width and potential are compared with the dual radio frequency driven time dependent models of capacitively coupled plasma sheath. From the temporal evaluation of sheath motion and potential, it has been found that pulse driven sheath has higher sheath potential and sheath width than that of conventional radio frequency driven DF CCP. Moreover, it is also found that ion energy spread can be reduced using pulsed power. From the temporal investigation of sheath motion and potential, it has been found that the duty cycle of the pulse power significantly affects sheath width and sheath potential.
Closure and transport theory for high-collisionality electron-ion plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.
2013-04-01
Systems of algebraic equations for a high-collisionality electron-ion plasma are constructed from the general moment equations with linearized collision operators [J.-Y. Ji and E. D. Held, Phys. Plasmas 13, 102103 (2006) and J.-Y. Ji and E. D. Held, Phys. Plasmas 15, 102101 (2008)]. A systematic geometric method is invented and applied to solve the system of equations to find closure and transport relations. It is known that some closure coefficients of Braginskii [S. I. Braginskii, Reviews of Plasma Physics (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1965), Vol. 1] are in error up to 65% for some finite values of x (cyclotron frequency × electron-ion collision time) and have significant error in the large-x limit [E. M. Epperlein and M. G. Haines, Phys. Fluids 29, 1029 (1986)]. In this work, fitting formulas for electron coefficients are obtained from the 160 moment (Laguerre polynomial) solution, which converges with increasing moments for x ≤100 and from the asymptotic solution for large x-values. The new fitting formulas are practically exact (less than 1% error) for arbitrary x and Z (the ion charge number, checked up to Z = 100). The ion coefficients for equal electron and ion temperatures are moderately modified by including the ion-electron collision operator. When the ion temperature is higher than the electron temperature, the ion-electron collision and the temperature change terms in the moment equations must be kept. The ion coefficient formulas from 3 moment (Laguerre polynomial) calculations, precise to less than 0.4% error from the convergent values, are explicitly written.
Simulation of laser-driven plasma beat-wave propagation in collisional weakly relativistic plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaur, Maninder; Nandan Gupta, Devki
2016-11-01
The process of interaction of lasers beating in a plasma has been explored by virtue of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations in the presence of electron-ion collisions. A plasma beat wave is resonantly excited by ponderomotive force by two relatively long laser pulses of different frequencies. The amplitude of the plasma wave become maximum, when the difference in the frequencies is equal to the plasma frequency. We propose to demonstrate the energy transfer between the laser beat wave and the plasma wave in the presence of electron-ion collision in nearly relativistic regime with 2D-PIC simulations. The relativistic effect and electron-ion collision both affect the energy transfer between the interacting waves. The finding of simulation results shows that there is a considerable decay in the plasma wave and the field energy over time in the presence of electron-ion collisions.
Intrinsic rotation driven by non-Maxwellian equilibria in Tokamak plasmas.
Barnes, M; Parra, F I; Lee, J P; Belli, E A; Nave, M F F; White, A E
2013-08-02
The effect of small deviations from a Maxwellian equilibrium on turbulent momentum transport in tokamak plasmas is considered. These non-Maxwellian features, arising from diamagnetic effects, introduce a strong dependence of the radial flux of cocurrent toroidal angular momentum on collisionality: As the plasma goes from nearly collisionless to weakly collisional, the flux reverses direction from radially inward to outward. This indicates a collisionality-dependent transition from peaked to hollow rotation profiles, consistent with experimental observations of intrinsic rotation.
Intrinsic Rotation Driven by Non-Maxwellian Equilibria in Tokamak Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnes, M.; Parra, F. I.; Lee, J. P.; Belli, E. A.; Nave, M. F. F.; White, A. E.
2013-08-01
The effect of small deviations from a Maxwellian equilibrium on turbulent momentum transport in tokamak plasmas is considered. These non-Maxwellian features, arising from diamagnetic effects, introduce a strong dependence of the radial flux of cocurrent toroidal angular momentum on collisionality: As the plasma goes from nearly collisionless to weakly collisional, the flux reverses direction from radially inward to outward. This indicates a collisionality-dependent transition from peaked to hollow rotation profiles, consistent with experimental observations of intrinsic rotation.
Neoclassical and anomalous transport in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas with electrostatic turbulence
Sugama, H.; Horton, W.
1995-08-01
Neoclassical and anomalous transport fluxes are determined for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas with weak electrostatic fluctuations. The neoclassical and anomalous fluxes are defined based on the ensemble-averaged kinetic equation with the statistically averaged nonlinear term. The anomalous forces derived from that quasilinear term induce the anomalous particle and heat fluxes. The neoclassical banana-plateau particle and heat fluxes and the bootstrap current are also affected by the fluctuations through the parallel anomalous forces and the modified parallel viscosities. The quasilinear term, the anomalous forces, and the anomalous particle and heat fluxes are evaluated from the fluctuating part of the drift kinetic equation. The averaged drift kinetic equation with the quasilinear term is solved for the plateau regime to derive the parallel viscosities modified by the fluctuations. The entropy production rate due to the anomalous transport processes is formulated and used to identify conjugate pairs of the anomalous fluxes and forces, which are connected by the matrix with the Onsager symmetry. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.
Sheared velocity flows as a source of pressure anisotropy in low collisionality plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Sarto, Daniele; Pegoraro, Francesco; Cerri, Silvio Sergio; Califano, Francesco; Tenerani, Anna
2015-04-01
Non-Maxwellian metaequilibrium states may exist in low-collisionality plasmas as evidenced by direct (particle distributions) and indirect (e.g., instabilities driven by pressure anisotropy) satellite and laboratory measurements. These are directly observed in the solar wind (e.g. [1]), in magnetospheric reconnection events [2], in magnetically confined plasmas [3] or in simulations of Vlasov turbulence [4]. By including the full pressure tensor dynamics in a fluid plasma model, we show that a sheared velocity field can provide an effective mechanism that makes an initial isotropic state anisotropic. We discuss how the propagation of "magneto-elastic" waves can affect the pressure tensor anisotropization and the small scale formation that arise from the interplay between the gyrotropic terms due to the magnetic field and flow vorticity, and the non-gyropropic effect of the flow strain tensor. We support this analysis by a numerical integration of the nonlinear equations describing the pressure tensor evolution. This anisotropization mechanism might provide a good candidate for the understanding of the observed correlation between the presence of a sheared velocity flow and the signature of pressure anisotropies which are not yet explained within the standard models based e.g. on the CGL paradigm (see also [5]). Examples of these signatures are provided by the threshold lowering of ion-Weibel instabilities in the geomagnetic tail, observed in concomitance to the presence of a velocity shear in the near-earth plasma profile [6], or by the relatively stronger anisotropization measured for core protons in the fast solar wind [4,7] or in "space simulation" laboratory plasma experiments [3]. 1] E. Marsch et al., Journ. Geophys. Res. 109, A04120 (2004); Yu. V. Khotyainstev at el., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 165001 (2011). [2] N. Aunai et al., Ann. Geophys. 29, 1571 (2011); N. Aunai et al., Journ. Geophys. Res. 116, A09232 (2011). [3] E.E. Scime et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 2157
MHD Stability Studies of Current-Carrying Plasmas in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knowlton, S. F.; Hartwell, G. J.; Watts, C.; Hanson, J. D.
2000-10-01
A new stellarator experiment, the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH), will be built to study MHD instability and disruptions in current-carrying stellarator plasmas. Current-driven MHD instabilities in stellarators are of interest because the bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlüter currents may potentially destabilize external kink modes in high β stellarators such as LHD (J. L. Johnson et al, Phys. Plasmas 6, 2513 (1999)). On the other hand, helical coils could prove to provide a measure of passive disruption control in tokamaks. The CTH experiment at Auburn University will use ohmic current to investigate both ideal (vertical and kink) and resistive current-driven instabilities in a low aspect ratio (Ap \\underline> 4), low-β stellarator. The configuration of the CTH device is highly flexible, with the edge vacuum rotational transform variable from ι_V(a)= 0.2 to 0.75, and the current-generated transform ι_J(a) \\underline> 0.5. The rotational transform profile can be altered with several sets of vertical field coils. Stability will be investigated with ohmic currents Ip \\underline< 50 kA applied to RF-generated stellarator plasmas in which both peaked and hollow, bootstrap-like current profiles will be generated. The low-field (Bo \\underline< 0.5T) target plasmas in CTH will be generated by ICRF at ω=ω_ci using a Nagoya Type-III antenna. The expected RF power is P_RF \\underline˜ 250 kW at a frequency ω/2π=10 MHz. The susceptibility of the current-driven stellarator plasma to disruptions and their severity will experimentally determined. The CTH design is relatively simple, with a circular vacuum vessel (Ro =0.75m, a_v= 0.28 m) and a cast aluminum helical coil support to ensure coil placement accuracy. The winding of the CTH coils is scheduled to begin in summer of 2001 and ohmic operation is expected to begin in early 2003.
Chen, Y.; White, R.B.
1997-10-01
A general method for including various collisional effects, such as the drag and diffusion of test particles due to background plasmas, the effect of particle source and sink, and the like-particle Coloumb collisions, is presented. The marker density g is generally unknown along the particle trajectory, and its evaluation depends on the way particles are initially loaded and new particles are injected into the simulation. The method is demonstrated for the problem of the nonlinear evolution of the toroidicity induced Alfv{acute e}n eigenmode, driven by energetic {alpha} particles. The saturation amplitude is found to scale with the collision rate in a way as predicted by theory.{copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Anomalous collisional absorption of laser pulses in underdense plasma at low temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kundu, M.
2015-04-01
In a previous paper [M. Kundu, Phys. Plasmas 21, 013302 (2014), 10.1063/1.4862038], fractional collisional absorption (α ) of laser light in underdense plasma was studied by using a classical scattering model of electron-ion collision frequency νei, where total velocity v =√{vth2+v02 } (with vth and v0 as the thermal and the ponderomotive velocity of an electron) dependent Coulomb logarithm lnΛ (v ) was shown to be responsible for the anomalous (unconventional) increase of νei and α (∝νei ) with the laser intensity I0 up to a maximum value about an intensity Ic in the low temperature (Te<15 eV ) regime and a conventional ≈I0-3 /2 decrease when I0≫Ic . One may object that the anomalous increase in νei and α were partly due to the artifact introduced in lnΛ through the maximum cutoff distance bmax∝v . In this work, we show similar anomalous increase in νei and α versus I0 (in the low temperature and underdense density regime) with more accurate quantum and classical kinetic models of νei without using lnΛ , but with a proper choice of the total velocity dependent inverse cutoff length kmax∝v2 (classical) or kmax∝v (quantum). For a given I0<5 ×1014Wcm -2 , νei versus Te also exhibits so far unnoticed identical anomalous increase as νei versus I0, even if the conventional kmax∝vth2 or kmax∝vth (without v0) is chosen. The total velocity dependent kmax in the kinetic models, as proposed here, is found to explain the anomalous increase of α with I0 measured in some earlier laser-plasma experiments.
Resonant scattering as a sensitive diagnostic of current collisional plasma models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogorzalek, Anna; Zhuravleva, Irina; Allen, Steven W.; Pinto, Ciro; Werner, Norbert; Mantz, Adam; Canning, Rebecca; Fabian, Andrew C.; Kaastra, Jelle S.; de Plaa, Jelle
2017-08-01
Resonant scattering is a subtle process that suppresses fluxes of some of the brightest optically thick X-ray emission lines produced by collisional plasmas in galaxy clusters and massive early-type galaxies. The amplitude of the effect depends on the turbulent structure of the hot gas, making it a sensitive velocity probe. It is therefore crucial to properly model this effect in order to correctly interpret high resolution X-ray spectra. Our measurements of resonant scattering with XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer in giant elliptical galaxies and with Hitomi in the center of Perseus Cluster show that the potentially rich inference from this effect is limited by the uncertainties in the atomic data underlying plasma codes such as APEC and SPEX. Typically, the effect is of the order of 10-20%, while the discrepancy between the two codes is of similar order or even higher. Precise knowledge of the emissivity and oscillator strengths of lines emitted by Fe XVII and Fe XXV, as well as their respective uncertainties propagated through plasma codes are key to understanding gas dynamics and microphysics in giant galaxies and cluster ICM, respectively. This is especially crucial for massive ellipticals, where sub-eV resolution would be needed to measure line broadening precisely, making resonant scattering an important velocity diagnostic in these systems for the foreseeable future. In this poster, I will summarize current status of resonant scattering measurements and show how they depend on the assumed atomic data. I will also discuss which improvements are essential to maximize scientific inference from future high resolution X-ray spectra.
Sheared velocity flows as a source of pressure anisotropy in low collisionality plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Sarto, D.; Pegoraro, F.; Califano, F.
2014-12-01
Non-Maxwellian metaequilibrium states may exist in low-collisionality plasmas as evidenced by direct (particle distributions) and indirect (e.g., instabilities driven by pressure anisotropy) satellite and laboratory measurements. These are directly observed in the solar wind (e.g. [1]), in magnetospheric reconnection events [2], in magnetically confined plasmas [3] or in simulations of Vlasov turbulence [4]. By including the full pressure tensor dynamics in a fluid plasma model, we show that a sheared velocity field can provide an effective mechanism that makes an initial isotropic state anisotropic. We discuss how the propagation of magneto-elastic waves can affect the pressure tensor anisotropization and the small scale formation that arise from the interplay between the gyrotropic terms due to the magnetic field and the flow vorticity and the non-gyropropic effect of the flow strain tensor. We support this analysis by a numerical integration of the nonlinear equations describing the pressure tensor evolution. This anisotropization mechanism might provide a good candidate for the understanding of the observed correlation between the presence of a sheared velocity flow and the signature of pressure anisotropies which are not yet explained within the standard models based e.g. on the CGL paradigm. Examples of these signatures are provided e.g. by the threshold lowering of ion-Weibel instabilities in the geomagnetic tail, observed in concomitance to the presence of a velocity shear in the near-earth plasma profile [5], or by the relatively stronger anisotropization measured for core protons in the fast solar wind [4,6] or in "space simulation" laboratory plasma experiments [3]. [1] E. Marsch et al., Journ. Geophys. Res. 109, A04120 (2004); Yu. V. Khotyainstev at el., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 165001 (2011). [2] N. Aunai et al., Ann. Geophys. 29, 1571 (2011); N. Aunai et al., Journ. Geophys. Res. 116, A09232 (2011). [3] E.E. Scime et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 2157 (2000). [4
Gupta, D. N.; Islam, M. R.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Jang, D. G.; Suk, H.
2013-12-15
Self-focusing a laser beam in collisional plasma is investigated under the weak relativistic-ponderomotive nonlinearity. In this case, the plasma equilibrium density is modified and it causes generation of the nonlinearity due to the Ohmic heating of electrons, collisions, and the weak relativistic-ponderomotive force during the interaction of the laser beam with the plasma. Our theoretical and simulation results show that a significant nonlinearity in laser self-focusing can occur under the weak relativistic-ponderomotive regime for some appropriate simulation parameters.
Collisional Transport in a Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak -- Beyond the Drift Kinetic Formalism
D.A. Gates; R.B. White
2004-01-28
Calculations of collisional thermal and particle diffusivities in toroidal magnetic plasma confinement devices order the toroidal gyroradius to be small relative to the poloidal gyroradius. This ordering is central to what is usually referred to as neoclassical transport theory. This ordering is incorrect at low aspect ratio, where it can often be the case that the toroidal gyroradius is larger than the poloidal gyroradius. We calculate the correction to the particle and thermal diffusivities at low aspect ratio by comparing the diffusivities as determined by a full orbit code (which we refer to as omni-classical diffusion) with those from a gyroaveraged orbit code (neoclassical diffusion). In typical low aspect ratio devices the omni-classical diffusion can be up to 2.5 times the calculated neoclassical value. We discuss the implications of this work on the analysis of collisional transport in low aspect ratio magnetic confinement experiments.
Bertelli, N.; Valeo, E. J.; Green, D. L.; ...
2017-04-03
At the power levels required for significant heating and current drive in magnetically-confined toroidal plasma, modification of the particle distribution function from a Maxwellian shape is likely (Stix 1975 Nucl. Fusion 15 737), with consequent changes in wave propagation and in the location and amount of absorption. In order to study these effects computationally, both the finite-Larmor-radius and the high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW), versions of the full-wave, hot-plasma toroidal simulation code TORIC (Brambilla 1999 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 41 1 and Brambilla 2002 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44 2423), have been extended to allow the prescription of arbitrary velocity distributionsmore » of the form f(v(parallel to), v(perpendicular to) , psi, theta). For hydrogen (H) minority heating of a deuterium (D) plasma with anisotropic Maxwellian H distributions, the fractional H absorption varies significantly with changes in parallel temperature but is essentially independent of perpendicular temperature. On the other hand, for HHFW regime with anisotropic Maxwellian fast ion distribution, the fractional beam ion absorption varies mainly with changes in the perpendicular temperature. The evaluation of the wave-field and power absorption, through the full wave solver, with the ion distribution function provided by either a Monte-Carlo particle and Fokker-Planck codes is also examined for Alcator C-Mod and NSTX plasmas. Non-Maxwellian effects generally tend to increase the absorption with respect to the equivalent Maxwellian distribution.« less
Bertelli, N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Valeo, E.J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Green, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gorelenkova, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Phillips, C.K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Podesta, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)] (ORCID:0000000349750585); Lee, J.P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Wright, J.C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Jaeger, E.F. [XCEL Engineering Inc., 1066 Commerce Park Drive, Oak Ridge, TN 37830, United States of America
2017-05-01
At the power levels required for significant heating and current drive in magnetically-confined toroidal plasma, modification of the particle distribution function from a Maxwellian shape is likely [T. H. Stix, Nucl. Fusion, 15 737 (1975)], with consequent changes in wave propagation and in the location and amount of absorption. In order to study these effects computationally, both the finite-Larmor-radius and the high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW), versions of the full-wave, hot-plasma toroidal simulation code TORIC [M. Brambilla, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 41, 1 (1999) and M. Brambilla, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44, 2423 (2002)], have been extended to allow the prescription of arbitrary velocity distributions of the form f(v||, v_perp, psi , theta). For hydrogen (H) minority heating of a deuterium (D) plasma with anisotropic Maxwellian H distributions, the fractional H absorption varies significantly with changes in parallel temperature but is essentially independent of perpendicular temperature. On the other hand, for HHFW regime with anisotropic Maxwellian fast ion distribution, the fractional beam ion absorption varies mainly with changes in the perpendicular temperature. The evaluation of the wave-field and power absorption, through the full wave solver, with the ion distribution function provided by either aMonte-Carlo particle and Fokker-Planck codes is also examined for Alcator C-Mod and NSTX plasmas. Non-Maxwellian effects generally tends to increase the absorption with respect to the equivalent Maxwellian distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertelli, N.; Valeo, E. J.; Green, D. L.; Gorelenkova, M.; Phillips, C. K.; Podestà, M.; Lee, J. P.; Wright, J. C.; Jaeger, E. F.
2017-05-01
At the power levels required for significant heating and current drive in magnetically-confined toroidal plasma, modification of the particle distribution function from a Maxwellian shape is likely (Stix 1975 Nucl. Fusion 15 737), with consequent changes in wave propagation and in the location and amount of absorption. In order to study these effects computationally, both the finite-Larmor-radius and the high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW), versions of the full-wave, hot-plasma toroidal simulation code TORIC (Brambilla 1999 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 41 1 and Brambilla 2002 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44 2423), have been extended to allow the prescription of arbitrary velocity distributions of the form f≤ft({{v}\\parallel},{{v}\\bot},\\psi,θ \\right) . For hydrogen (H) minority heating of a deuterium (D) plasma with anisotropic Maxwellian H distributions, the fractional H absorption varies significantly with changes in parallel temperature but is essentially independent of perpendicular temperature. On the other hand, for HHFW regime with anisotropic Maxwellian fast ion distribution, the fractional beam ion absorption varies mainly with changes in the perpendicular temperature. The evaluation of the wave-field and power absorption, through the full wave solver, with the ion distribution function provided by either a Monte-Carlo particle and Fokker-Planck codes is also examined for Alcator C-Mod and NSTX plasmas. Non-Maxwellian effects generally tend to increase the absorption with respect to the equivalent Maxwellian distribution.
Ramos, J. J.
2010-08-15
A closed theoretical model to describe slow, macroscopic plasma processes in a fusion-relevant collisionality regime is set forward. This formulation is a hybrid one, with fluid conservation equations for particle number, momentum and energy, and drift-kinetic closures. Intended for realistic application to the core of a high-temperature tokamak plasma, the proposed approach is unconventional in that the ion collisionality is ordered lower than in the ion banana regime of neoclassical theory. The present first part of a two-article series concerns the electron system, which is still equivalent to one based on neoclassical electron banana orderings. This system is derived such that it ensures the precise compatibility among the complementary fluid and drift-kinetic equations, and the rigorous treatment of the electric field and the Fokker-Planck-Landau collision operators. As an illustrative application, the special limit of an axisymmetric equilibrium is worked out in detail.
Particle transport in low-collisionality H-mode plasmas on DIII-D
Mordijck, Saskia; Wang, Xin; Doyle, Edward J.; ...
2015-10-05
In this article we show that changing from an ion temperature gradient (ITG) to trapped electron mode (TEM) dominant turbulence regime (based on linear gyrokinetic simulations) results experimentally in a strong density pump-out (defined as a reduction in line-averaged density) in low collisionality, low power H-mode plasmas. We vary the turbulence drive by changing the heating from pre-dominantly ion heatedusing neutral beam injection to electron heated using electron cyclotron heating, which changes the Te/Ti ratio and the temperature gradients. Perturbed gas puff experiments show an increase in transport outside ρ = 0.6, through a strong increase in the perturbed diffusionmore » coefficient and a decrease in the inward pinch. Linear gyrokinetic simulations with TGLF show an increase in the particle flux outside the mid-radius. In conjunction an increase in intermediate-scale length density fluctuations is observed, which indicates an increase in turbulence intensity at typical TEM wavelengths. However, although the experimental changes in particle transport agree with a change from ITG to TEM turbulence regimes, we do not observe a reduction in the core rotation at mid-radius, nor a rotation reversal.« less
Particle transport in low-collisionality H-mode plasmas on DIII-D
Mordijck, Saskia; Wang, Xin; Doyle, Edward J.; Rhodes, Terry L.; Schmitz, Lothar; Zeng, Lei; Staebler, Gary M.; Petty, Clinton C.; Groebner, Richard J.; Ko, W. -H.; Grierson, Brian A.; Solomon, Wayne M.; Tala, Tuomas; Salmi, Antti; Chrystal, Colin; Diamond, P. H.; McKee, George R.
2015-10-05
In this article we show that changing from an ion temperature gradient (ITG) to trapped electron mode (TEM) dominant turbulence regime (based on linear gyrokinetic simulations) results experimentally in a strong density pump-out (defined as a reduction in line-averaged density) in low collisionality, low power H-mode plasmas. We vary the turbulence drive by changing the heating from pre-dominantly ion heatedusing neutral beam injection to electron heated using electron cyclotron heating, which changes the T_{e}/T_{i} ratio and the temperature gradients. Perturbed gas puff experiments show an increase in transport outside ρ = 0.6, through a strong increase in the perturbed diffusion coefficient and a decrease in the inward pinch. Linear gyrokinetic simulations with TGLF show an increase in the particle flux outside the mid-radius. In conjunction an increase in intermediate-scale length density fluctuations is observed, which indicates an increase in turbulence intensity at typical TEM wavelengths. However, although the experimental changes in particle transport agree with a change from ITG to TEM turbulence regimes, we do not observe a reduction in the core rotation at mid-radius, nor a rotation reversal.
Sheath and boundary conditions in a collisional magnetized warm electronegative plasma
Li, Jing-ju; Ma, J. X.; Wei, Zi-an
2013-06-15
The characteristics of a weakly collisional sheath in a warm electronegative plasma in the presence of an oblique magnetic field are investigated using a fluid model including the effects of ionization and ion-neutral collisions. The general sheath criterion imposed on the entrance velocity component of the positive ions perpendicular to the wall at the sheath-presheath edge is derived and discussed. It is shown that the boundary conditions are crucial to the sheath structure. Without including the entrance velocity components parallel to the wall, a pulse-like structure in the positive-ion density distribution near the sheath-presheath edge appears if the magnetic field is strong. With inclusion of all velocity components at the edge, the pulse-like structure disappears, resulting in a smooth sheath profile. It is also found that increasing the temperature and decreasing the concentration of the negative ions will increase the sheath thickness, and increasing the magnetic field will decrease the sheath thickness.
An advanced time-dependent collisional-radiative model of helium plasma discharges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Claustre, J.; Boukandou-Mombo, C.; Margot, J.; Matte, J.-P.; Vidal, F.
2017-10-01
A new spatially averaged time-dependent collisional-radiative model for helium plasmas, coupled to the electron Boltzmann equation (EBE), has been developed. Its main novelties are: (1) full time dependence for both the multi-species kinetics and the EBE. It is shown that this is necessary to correctly simulate discharges where the parameters vary on nanoseconds-microsecond timescales. (2) All electron processes are accounted for accurately. In particular, for the various ionization and recombination processes, free electrons are added or removed at the appropriate energy, with the appropriate interpolation on the energy grid. (3) The energy dependence of the electron loss by ambipolar diffusion is taken into account approximately. (4) All of the processes which are known to be important in helium discharges for pressure P≤slant 760 Torr are included, and 42 energy levels up to n = 6, where n is the main quantum number, are taken into account. Atomic and molecular ions, as well as excimers, are also included. (5) The gas temperature is calculated self-consistently. The model is validated through comparisons with known numerical steady-state results of Santos et al (2014 J. Phys. D. 47 265201) which they compared to their experimental results, and good agreement is obtained for their measured quantities. It is then applied to post-discharge decay cases with very short power decay times. The time evolution of the population densities and reaction rates are analyzed in detail with emphasis on the observed large increase of the metastable density.
Collisional thermalization of hydrogen and helium in solar-wind plasma.
Maruca, B A; Bale, S D; Sorriso-Valvo, L; Kasper, J C; Stevens, M L
2013-12-13
In situ observations of the solar wind frequently show the temperature of α particles (fully ionized helium) Tα to significantly differ from that of protons (ionized hydrogen) Tp. Many heating processes in the plasma act preferentially on α particles, even as collisions among ions act to gradually establish thermal equilibrium. Measurements from the Wind spacecraft's Faraday cups reveal that, at r=1.0 AU from the Sun, the observed values of the α-proton temperature ratio, θαp≡Tα/Tp, has a complex, bimodal distribution. This study applied a simple model for the radial evolution of θαp to these data to compute expected values of θαp at r=0.1 AU. These inferred θαp values have no trace of the bimodality seen in the θαp values measured at r=1.0 AU but are instead consistent with the actions of the known mechanisms for α-particle preferential heating. This result underscores the importance of collisional processes in the dynamics of the solar wind and suggests that similar mechanisms may lead to preferential α-particle heating in both slow and fast wind.
Iordanova, Snejana Paunska, Tsvetelina
2016-02-15
A collisional radiative model of low-pressure hydrogen plasmas is elaborated and applied in optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics of a single element of a matrix source of negative hydrogen ions. The model accounts for the main processes determining both the population densities of the first ten states of the hydrogen atom and the densities of the positive hydrogen ions H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sub 3}{sup +}. In the calculations, the electron density and electron temperature are varied whereas the atomic and molecular temperatures are included as experimentally obtained external parameters. The ratio of the H{sub α} to H{sub β} line intensities is calculated from the numerical results for the excited state population densities, obtained as a solution of the set of the steady-state rate balance equations. The comparison of measured and theoretically obtained ratios of line intensities yields the values of the electron density and temperature as well as of the degree of dissociation, i.e., of the parameters which have a crucial role for the volume production of the negative ions.
Formation of collisional sheath in electronegative plasma with two species of positive ions
Moulick, R. Goswami, K. S.
2015-03-15
Sheath formation is investigated for electronegative plasma in presence of two species of positive ions in collisional environment. The gas under consideration is a mixture of oxygen and argon. Argon is the considered as having fixed volume and impact of collision is studied with increasing pressure of oxygen. Fluid equations are solved for three species namely, the two positive ions and a negative ion. Electrons are considered to follow Boltzmann distribution. Collision is modeled by constant mean free path model and has been used as a parameter. It has been found that collision enhances the sheath formation. The negative ion core is nearly unaffected by the presence of collision and is governed by the electric potential. The negative flux field is, however, affected by the presence of collision and shows a steady behavior in front of the wall. The two positive ions are heavily affected by the presence of collision and the modeling is such that their equilibrium densities can be estimated by solving simultaneous cubic equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kontar, Eduard P.; Jeffrey, Natasha L. S.; Emslie, A. Gordon; Bian, N. H.
2015-08-01
Extending previous studies of nonthermal electron transport in solar flares, which include the effects of collisional energy diffusion and thermalization of fast electrons, we present an analytic method to infer more accurate estimates of the accelerated electron spectrum in solar flares from observations of the hard X-ray spectrum. Unlike for the standard cold-target model, the spatial characteristics of the flaring region, especially the necessity to consider a finite volume of hot plasma in the source, need to be taken into account in order to correctly obtain the injected electron spectrum from the source-integrated electron flux spectrum (a quantity straightforwardly obtained from hard X-ray observations). We show that the effect of electron thermalization can be significant enough to nullify the need to introduce an ad hoc low-energy cutoff to the injected electron spectrum in order to keep the injected power in non-thermal electrons at a reasonable value. Rather, the suppression of the inferred low-energy end of the injected spectrum compared to that deduced from a cold-target analysis allows the inference from hard X-ray observations of a more realistic energy in injected non-thermal electrons in solar flares.
Kontar, Eduard P.; Jeffrey, Natasha L. S.; Bian, N. H.; Emslie, A. Gordon
2015-08-10
Extending previous studies of nonthermal electron transport in solar flares, which include the effects of collisional energy diffusion and thermalization of fast electrons, we present an analytic method to infer more accurate estimates of the accelerated electron spectrum in solar flares from observations of the hard X-ray spectrum. Unlike for the standard cold-target model, the spatial characteristics of the flaring region, especially the necessity to consider a finite volume of hot plasma in the source, need to be taken into account in order to correctly obtain the injected electron spectrum from the source-integrated electron flux spectrum (a quantity straightforwardly obtained from hard X-ray observations). We show that the effect of electron thermalization can be significant enough to nullify the need to introduce an ad hoc low-energy cutoff to the injected electron spectrum in order to keep the injected power in non-thermal electrons at a reasonable value. Rather, the suppression of the inferred low-energy end of the injected spectrum compared to that deduced from a cold-target analysis allows the inference from hard X-ray observations of a more realistic energy in injected non-thermal electrons in solar flares.
Temporal description of aluminum laser-induced plasmas by means of a collisional-radiative model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morel, Vincent; Bultel, Arnaud; Chéron, Bruno G.
2014-05-01
A 0D numerical approach including a Collisional-Radiative model is elaborated in the purpose of describing the behavior of the nascent plasma resulting from the interaction between a laser pulse (λ = 532 nm, τ = 4 ns and F = 6.5 J cm-2) with an aluminum sample. The species considered are Al, Al+, Al2+ and Al3+ on their different excited states and free electrons. Both groups of particles are characterized by their translation temperature in thermal non-equilibrium state. Besides, each population density is assumed to be in chemical non-equilibrium and behaves freely through the seven involved elementary processes (electron impact induced excitation and ionization, elastic collisions, multi-photon ionization, inverse laser Bremsstrahlung, direct electron Bremsstrahlung and spontaneous emission). Atoms passing from sample to gas phase are described by considering classical vaporization phenomena so that the surface temperature is limited to values less than the critical point. The relative role of the elementary processes is discussed and the time-evolution of the excitation of the species is analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sonnino, G.
2011-03-01
Fully ionized L-mode tokamak plasmas in the fully collisional (Pfirsch-Schlüter) and in the low-collisional (banana) nonlinear transport regimes are analyzed. We derive the expressions for particles and heat losses together with the steady-state particle distribution functions in the several collisional transport regimes. The validity of the nonlinear closure equations, previously derived, has been indirectly tested by checking that the obtained particle distribution functions are indeed solutions of the nonlinear, steady-state, Vlasov-Landau gyro-kinetic equations. A quite encouraging result is the fact that, for L-mode tokamak plasmas a dissymmetry appears between the ion and electron transport coefficients: the latter submits to a nonlinear correction, which makes the radial electron coefficients much larger than the former. In particular we show that when the L-mode JET plasma is out of the linear region, the Pfirsch-Schlüter electron transport coefficients are corrected by an amplification factor, which may reach values of order 102. Such a correction is absent for ions. On the contrary, in the banana regime, the ion transport coefficients are increased by a factor 2 and the nonlinear corrections for electrons are negligible. These results are in line with experiments.
Evans, T. E.
2016-03-01
Controlling the boundary layer in fusion-grade, high-performance, plasma discharges is essential for the successful development of toroidal magnetic confinement power generating systems. A promising approach for controlling the boundary plasma is based on the use of small, externally applied, edge resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields (δmore » $$b_⊥^{ext}$$ ≈ $$10^{-4}$$ → $$10^{-3}$$ T). A long-term focus area in tokamak fusion research has been to find methods, involving the use of non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations to reduce the intense particle and heat fluxes to the wall. Experimental RMP research has progressed from the early pioneering work on tokamaks with material limiters in the 1970s, to present day research in separatrix-limited tokamaks operated in high-confinement mode, which is primarily aimed at the mitigation of the intermittent fluxes due edge localized modes. At the same time the theoretical research has evolved from analytical models to numerical simulations, including the full 3D complexities of the problem. Following the first demonstration of ELM suppression in the DIII-D tokamak during 2003, there has been a rapid worldwide growth in theoretical, numerical and experimental edge RMP research resulting in the addition of ELM control coils to the ITER baseline design [A. Loarte, et al., Nucl. Fusion 54 (2014) 033007]. This review provides an overview of edge RMP research including a summary of the early theoretical and numerical background along with recent experimental results on improved particle and energy confinement in tokamaks triggered by edge RMP fields. The topics covered make up the basic elements needed for developing a better understanding of 3D magnetic perturbation physics, which is required in order to utilize the full potential of edge RMP fields in fusion relevant high performance, H-mode, plasmas.« less
Plasma size and collisionality scaling of ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakata, Motoki; Idomura, Yasuhiro
2013-11-01
Fixed-flux (FF), fixed-gradient (FG) and local fluxtube (FT) gyrokinetic simulations are systematically compared for ion-temperature-gradient (ITG)-driven turbulence. The collisionality (ν*) dependence of ion heat diffusivity is verified through the inter-model comparisons. When the temperature gradient is far from the nonlinear critical value, the FF and FT models give a weak ν*-dependence, while the FG model shows a strong ν*-dependence. The entropy transfer analysis on the zonal-flow saturation mechanisms in the quasi-steady state of the FT simulation provides clear insights on the different ν*-dependence of the turbulent transport and zonal-flow shearing rate in the far-above- and near-critical cases. It has also been revealed that the FG model provides the strong ν*-dependence through the change of ITG-mode stability due to ν*-dependent heating/sink by the adaptive heat source, where the velocity distribution function is deformed. The plasma size (ρ*) scan in the FF simulations show a Bohm-like transport scaling even in a local limit regime, ρ*-1 ⩾ 300, where profile-shear effects are weak. It has been clarified that the transient variations of local power balance are essential mechanisms leading to the Bohm-like heat transport even at similar mean temperature gradients, where the burst amplitude and its frequency increase with the plasma size and the heating power. The mechanism is unique to the FF model. Comparisons of statistical characteristics in the local limit regime show differences in frequency spectra and probability density functions of the heat flux, while zonal-flow structures and avalanche propagations properties are similar among these models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Rameswar; Storelli, A.; Gürcan, Ö. D.; Hennequin, P.; Vermare, L.; Morel, P.; Singh, R.
2015-12-01
Starting from the Braginskii equations, relevant for the tokamak edge region, a complete set of nonlinear equations for the geodesic acoustic modes (GAM) has been derived which includes collisionality, plasma beta and external sources of particle, momentum and heat. Local linear analysis shows that the GAM frequency increases with collisionality at low radial wave number {{k}\\text{r}} and decreases at high {{k}\\text{r}} . GAM frequency also decreases with plasma beta. Radial profiles of GAM frequency for two Tore Supra shots, which were part of a collisionality scan, are compared with these calculations. A discrepancy between experiment and theory is observed, which seems to be explained by a finite {{k}\\text{r}} for the GAM when flux surface averaged density < n> and temperature < T> are assumed to vanish. It is shown that this agreement is incidental and self-consistent inclusion of < n> and < T> responses enhances the disagreement more with {{k}\\text{r}} at high {{k}\\text{r}} . So the discrepancy between the linear GAM calculation and experiment, (which also persist for more ‘complete’ linear models such as gyrokinetics) can probably not be resolved by simply adding a finite {{k}\\text{r}} .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hershkowitz, N.; Yip, C.-S.; Severn, G. D.
2011-05-01
Recent experiments have shown that ions in weakly collisional plasmas containing two ion species of comparable densities approximately reach a common velocity at the sheath edge equal to the bulk plasma ion sound velocity. A recent theory [S. D. Baalrud, C. C. Hegna, and J. D. Callen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 205002 (2009)] suggests that this is a consequence of collisional friction between the two ion species enhanced by the two stream instability. The theory finds that the difference in velocities at the sheath edge depends on the relative concentrations of the two ions. The difference in velocities is small, with both species approaching to the bulk sound velocity, when the concentrations are comparable, and is large, with each species reaching its own Bohm velocity, when the relative concentration differences are large. To test these findings, drift velocities of Ar and Xe ions were measured with laser-induced fluorescence in Ar-Xe and He-Xe plasmas and combined with ion acoustic wave and plasma potential data. In addition, electron temperature was varied by a Maxwell demon [K. R. MacKenzie et al., App. Phys. Lett. 18, 529 (1971)]. The predictions were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data. The generalized Bohm criterion in two ion species plasmas is also verified in a wider variety of relative ion concentrations.
SELF-ORGANIZATION OF RECONNECTING PLASMAS TO MARGINAL COLLISIONALITY IN THE SOLAR CORONA
Imada, S.; Zweibel, E. G.
2012-08-20
We explore the suggestions by Uzdensky and Cassak et al. that coronal loops heated by magnetic reconnection should self-organize to a state of marginal collisionality. We discuss their model of coronal loop dynamics with a one-dimensional hydrodynamic calculation. We assume that many current sheets are present, with a distribution of thicknesses, but that only current sheets thinner than the ion skin depth can rapidly reconnect. This assumption naturally causes a density-dependent heating rate which is actively regulated by the plasma. We report nine numerical simulation results of coronal loop hydrodynamics in which the absolute values of the heating rates are different but their density dependences are the same. We find two regimes of behavior, depending on the amplitude of the heating rate. In the case that the amplitude of heating is below a threshold value, the loop is in stable equilibrium. Typically, the upper and less dense part of a coronal loop is collisionlessly heated and conductively cooled. When the amplitude of heating is above the threshold, the conductive flux to the lower atmosphere required to balance collisionless heating drives an evaporative flow which quenches fast reconnection, ultimately cooling and draining the loop until the cycle begins again. The key elements of this cycle are gravity and the density dependence of the heating function. Some additional factors are present, including pressure-driven flows from the loop top, which carry a large enthalpy flux and play an important role in reducing the density. We find that on average the density of the system is close to the marginally collisionless value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xinyi, Wang; Shali, Xiao; jian, Lu; Yufen, Wu; Jun, Shi; Jiayu, Qian; Shenye, Liu; Minxi, Wei; Bolun, Chen
2016-04-01
Based on the Bragg law and imaging principle of bent crystal, the imaging properties of the monochromic backlighting system with a toroidally bent crystal were studied via ray-tracing simulations and experiments. Comparison experiments with both toroidally and spherically bent crystals using a Cr line as the backlighter were performed, showing that using toroidally bent crystal, a 2D image with the same magnifications in meridional and sagittal directions can be obtained with higher spatial resolution. Experiments with laser-produced plasmas using Mica crystal were carried out on the Shenguang II laser facility. Five laser beams were focused onto a Ti planar target producing a line at 4.75 keV as the backlighter and an image of a metal grid with size of 200 μm × 200 μm was recorded with an x-ray image plate. A spatial resolution of 40 μm was demonstrated with a magnification of 3 due to the restriction of the target chamber size. 10 μm spatial resolution might be possible if the detector can be located outside the chamber to enlarge the magnification.
Plasma pressure effect on the multiple low-shear toroidal Alfven eigenmodes
Marchenko, V. S.
2009-04-15
It is shown that there is a critical thermal pressure gradient at which the polarizations of the multiple low-shear toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) are reversed. Below the critical value, the TAE spectrum consists of two bands of the even (odd) modes located in the upper (lower) part of the toroidal Alfven gap, which is consistent with the zero-pressure limit [J. Candy, B. N. Breizman, J. W. Van Dam, and T. Ozeki, Phys. Lett. A 215, 299 (1996)]. Above the critical pressure, the odd (even) TAEs appear in the upper (lower) part of the gap.
Using coherent population trapping in test atoms for magnetic field measurements in toroidal plasmas
Akhmedzhanov, R. A.; Gushchin, L. A.; Zelensky, I. V.; Litvak, A. G.; Tokman, M. D.
2007-09-15
A way to measure the profile of the safety factor in toroidal controlled-fusion setups has been developed. The method is based on measuring the ratio of the poloidal magnetic field and the toroidal one locally, based on a modification of the optical resonance-fluorescence signal. The effect of partial suppression of resonance fluorescence is used, which depends on the orientation of the magnetic field relative to the laser beam, and takes place in case of coherent population trapping in test atoms with the Zeeman split-level structure, as affected by double-frequency laser radiation.
Matsuyama, A.; Isaev, M. Yu.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakajima, N.; Hanatani, K.; Cooper, W. A.; Tran, T. M.
2009-05-15
To evaluate the bootstrap current in nonaxisymmetric toroidal plasmas quantitatively, a {delta}f Monte Carlo method is incorporated into the moment approach. From the drift-kinetic equation with the pitch-angle scattering collision operator, the bootstrap current and neoclassical conductivity coefficients are calculated. The neoclassical viscosity is evaluated from these two monoenergetic transport coefficients. Numerical results obtained by the {delta}f Monte Carlo method for a model heliotron are in reasonable agreement with asymptotic formulae and with the results obtained by the variational principle.
Theiler, C.; Diallo, A.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Ricci, P.; Podesta, M.; Poli, F. M.
2008-04-15
Intermittent cross-field particle transport events (ITEs) are studied in the basic toroidal device TORPEX [TORoidal Plasma EXperiment, A. Fasoli et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 055902 (2006)], with focus on the role of the density gradient. ITEs are due to the intermittent radial elongation of an interchange mode. The elongating positive wave crests can break apart and form blobs. This is not necessary, however, for plasma particles to be convected a considerable distance across the magnetic field lines. Conditionally sampled data reveal two different scenarios leading to ITEs. In the first case, the interchange mode grows radially from a slab-like density profile and leads to the ITE. A novel analysis technique reveals a monotonic dependence between the vertically averaged inverse radial density scale length and the probability for a subsequent ITE. In the second case, the mode is already observed before the start of the ITE. It does not elongate radially in a first stage, but at a later time. It is shown that this elongation is preceded by a steepening of the density profile as well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Migliano, P.; Zarzoso, D.; Artola, F. J.; Camenen, Y.; Garbet, X.
2017-09-01
The analytical treatment of plasma kinetic linear instabilities in toroidal geometry is commonly tackled employing a power series expansion of the resonant part of the dispersion relation. This expansion is valid under the assumption that the modulus of the mode frequency is smaller than the magnitude of the frequencies characterising the system (the drift, bounce and transit frequencies for example). We will refer to this approximation as high frequency approximation (HFA). In this paper the linear plasma dispersion relation is derived in the framework of the gyro-kinetic model, for the electrostatic case, in the local limit, in the absence of collisions, for a non rotating plasma, considering adiabatic electrons, in toroidal circular geometry, neglecting the parallel dynamics effect. A systematic analysis of the meaning and limitations of the HFA is performed. As already known, the HFA is not valid for tokamak relevant parameters. A new way to approximate the resonant part of the dispersion relation, called here Improved high frequency approximation (IHFA), is therefore proposed. A quantitative analysis of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability is presented. The IHFA is shown to be applicable to the treatment of the ITG instability in tokamaks.
Federspiel, L.; Labit, B.; Ricci, P.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Theiler, C.
2009-09-15
The existence of a critical pressure gradient needed to drive the interchange instability is experimentally demonstrated in the simple magnetized torus TORoidal Plasma EXperiment [A. Fasoli et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 055902 (2006)]. This gradient is reached during a scan in the neutral gas pressure p{sub n}. Around a critical value for p{sub n}, depending on the magnetic configuration and on the injected rf power, a small increase in the neutral gas pressure triggers a transition in the plasma behavior. The pressure profile is locally flattened, stabilizing the interchange mode observed at lower neutral gas densities. The measured value for the critical gradient is close to the linear theory estimate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chim, Chi Yung
First in Chapter 2, we discuss the collisional relaxation of a strongly magnetized pure ion plasma that is composed of two species with slightly different masses, but both with singly-ionized atoms. In a limit of high cyclotron frequencies O j, the total cyclotron action Ij for the two species are adiabatic invariants. In a few collisions, maximizing entropy yields a modified Gibbs distribution of the form exp[-H/T ∥-alpha1 I 1-alpha2I2]. Here, H is the total Hamiltonian and alphaj's are related to parallel and perpendicular temperatures through T ⊥j=(1/T∥ +alphaj/Oj) -1. On a longer timescale, the two species share action so that alpha 1 and alpha2 relax to a common value alpha. On an even longer timescale, the total action ceases to be a constant of the motion and alpha relaxes to zero. Next, weak transport produces a low density halo of electrons moving radially outward from the pure electron plasma core, and the m = 1 mode begins to damp algebraically when the halo reaches the wall. The damping rate is proportional to the particle flux through the resonant layer at the wall. Chapter 3 explains analytically the new algebraic damping due to both mobility and diffusion transport. Electrons swept around the resonant "cat's eye" orbits form a dipole (m = 1) density distribution, setting up a field that produces ExB-drift of the core back to the axis, that is, damps the mode. Finally, Chapter 4 provides a simple mechanistic interpretation of the resonant wave-particle interaction of Landau. For the simple case of a Vlasov plasma oscillation, the non-resonant electrons are driven resonantly by the bare electric field from the resonant electrons, and this complex driver field is of a phase to reduce the oscillation amplitude. The wave-particle resonant interaction also occurs in 2D ExB-drift waves, such as a diocotron wave. In this case, the bare electric field from the resonant electrons causes ExB-drift motion back in the core plasma, thus damping the wave.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christenson, Michael; Szott, Matthew; Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Sovinec, Carl; Ruzic, David
2016-10-01
The ThermoElectric-driven Liquid-metal plasma-facing Structures (TELS) device at the University of Illinois is a theta-pinched, plasma-material interaction test stand used to simulate extreme events in the edge and divertor regions of a tokamak plasma. Previous measurements of the electron and ion temperatures have shown that the isotropic heat load on target ranges between 0.1 and 0.2 MJ m-2 over a pulse lasting 0.2 ms. While this compares well to the heat loads from Type 1 ELMs in larger toroidal devices, it is still much less than the energy deposition from Type 1 ELMs expected in ITER, which are in excess of 1 MJ m-2. To this end, a compact toroid (CT) injector has been proposed as a modification to the existing TELS device. By using an externally applied bias field to force reconnection at the muzzle of the coaxial plasma accelerator source that drives ionization, NIMROD MHD simulations have shown a peak magnetic flux of 3.5 mWb is reached 0.025 ms into the pulse - more than sufficient to form a CT. Early calorimetry and magnetic field measurements indicate that a new plasma structure has been formed in the magnetized coaxial plasma source. This work presents the current results of CT generation with respect to the bias field strength as well as the coaxial source geometry. DOE OFES DE-SC0008587, DE-SC0008658, DE-FG02-99ER54515.
Sedaghat, M.; Ettehadi-Abari, M.; Shokri, B. Ghorbanalilu, M.
2015-03-15
Laser absorption in the interaction between ultra-intense femtosecond laser and solid density plasma is studied theoretically here in the intensity range Iλ{sup 2}≃10{sup 14}−10{sup 16}Wcm{sup −2}μm{sup 2}. The collisional effect is found to be significant when the incident laser intensity is less than 10{sup 16}Wcm{sup −2}μm{sup 2}. In the current work, the propagation of a high frequency electromagnetic wave, for underdense collisional plasma in the presence of an external magnetic field is investigated. It is shown that, by considering the effect of the ponderomotive force in collisional magnetized plasmas, the increase of laser pulse intensity leads to steepening of the electron density profile and the electron bunches of plasma makes narrower. Moreover, it is found that the wavelength of electric and magnetic fields oscillations increases by increasing the external magnetic field and the density distribution of electrons also grows in comparison with the unmagnetized collisional plasma. Furthermore, the spatial damping rate of laser energy and the nonlinear bremsstrahlung absorption coefficient are obtained in the collisional regime of magnetized plasma. The other remarkable result is that by increasing the external magnetic field in this case, the absorption coefficient increases strongly.
Hutchinson, I. H.
2007-07-15
It is shown that the numerical solutions presented in a recent paper discussing a highly simplified model of collisional particle collection are unnecessary because simple analytic solutions of the quantities presented are available.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, K. J.; Shi, Yuejiang; Liu, H.; Diamond, P. H.; Li, F. M.; Cheng, J.; Chen, Z. P.; Nie, L.; Ding, Y. H.; Wu, Y. F.; Chen, Z. Y.; Rao, B.; Cheng, Z. F.; Gao, L.; Zhang, X. Q.; Yang, Z. J.; Wang, N. C.; Wang, L.; Jin, W.; Xu, J. Q.; Yan, L. W.; Dong, J. Q.; Zhuang, G.; J-TEXT Team
2016-07-01
The acceleration of the co-current toroidal rotations around resonant surfaces by resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) through turbulence is presented. These experiments were performed using a Langmuir probe array in the edge plasmas of the J-TEXT tokamak. This study aims at understanding the RMP effects on edge toroidal rotations and exploring its control method. With RMPs, the flat electron temperature T e profile, due to magnetic islands, appears around resonant surfaces (Zhao et al 2015 Nucl. Fusion 55 073022). When the resonant surface is closer to the last closed flux surface, the flat T e profile vanishes with RMPs. In both cases, the toroidal rotations significantly increase in the direction of the plasma current around the resonant surfaces with RMPs. The characteristics of turbulence are significantly affected by RMPs around the resonant surfaces. The turbulence intensity profile changes and the poloidal wave vector k θ increases with RMPs. The power fraction of the turbulence components in the ion diamagnetic drift direction increases with RMPs. The measurements of turbulent Reynolds stresses are consistent with the toroidal flows that can be driven by turbulence. The estimations of the energy transfer between the turbulence and toroidal flows suggest that turbulence energy transfers into toroidal flows. The result has the implication of the intrinsic rotation being driven by RMPs via turbulence.
Patacchini, Leonardo; Hutchinson, Ian H.
2008-07-11
The ion drag force on a spherical dust particle immersed in a flowing plasma with an external electric field is self-consistently calculated using the particle-in-cell code SCEPTIC in the entire range of charge-exchange collisionality. Our results, not based on questionable approximations, extend prior analytic calculations valid only in a few limiting regimes. Particular attention is given to the force direction, shown never to be directed opposite to the flow except in the continuum limit, where other forces are of a much stronger magnitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krychowiak, M.; Mertens, Ph; König, R.; Schweer, B.; Brezinsek, S.; Schmitz, O.; Brix, M.; Samm, U.; Wolf, R.; Klinger, T.
2010-05-01
Local values of the electron density and temperature in the edge of a fusion plasma can be derived with high space and time resolution by the use of line radiation of atomic helium beams. The accuracy of this method is mainly limited by the uncertainties in the collisional-radiative (CR) model which is needed in order to obtain both plasma parameters from the measured relative intensities of atomic helium lines. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy on a thermal helium beam in the edge plasma of the tokamak TEXTOR in Jülich was applied to validate the CR model of helium. By use of a high-power, pulsed laser system (a dye laser pumped by an excimer laser) several laser excitation schemes starting from the n=2 levels have been tried. The fluorescence light was observed at the laser wavelength and elsewhere in the spectrum providing information on population densities of initial levels as well as on collisional population transfer between excited levels. This paper summarises the results of the measurements, showing principal limits and possible improvements of this experimental validation method of the CR model of the diagnostic helium beam.
Héron, A.; Adam, J. C.
2015-07-15
We present a set of 2D collisional particle-in-cell simulations of the interaction of ultra-intense laser pulses with over-dense cold collisional plasmas. The size of these simulations is about 100 times as large as those previously published. This allows studying the transport of energetic particles on time scale of the order of 400 fs without perturbations due to the influence of boundary effects and performing a very detailed analysis of the physics of the transport. We confirm the existence of a threshold in intensity close to the relativistic threshold above which the beam of energetic particles diverges when it penetrates the cold plasma. We also study the applicability of Ohm's law to compute the electric field, which is the method commonly used in hybrid codes. The heating of the cold plasma is then studied and we show that half of the heating is anomalous, i.e., not given by standard Joule effect. We discuss the previously published results in the light of these new simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapper, Gernot; Kasilov, Sergei V.; Kernbichler, Winfried; Martitsch, Andreas F.; Heyn, Martin F.; Marushchenko, Nikolai B.; Turkin, Yuriy
2016-11-01
The Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD) efficiency is usually modeled in the collisionless limit. While such models are sufficient for plasmas with rather low collisionality, they might underestimate the current drive in plasmas at low temperatures likely to occur at the initial phase of high density device operation. In this paper, the impact of finite collisionality effects on the wave-induced current drive is studied for a high-mirror configuration of Wendelstein 7-X using a combination of the drift kinetic equation solver NEO-2 and the ray-tracing code TRAVIS for a realistic set of plasma parameter profiles. The generalized Spitzer function, which describes the ECCD efficiency in phase space, is modeled with help of NEO-2, which uses the full linearized Coulomb collision operator, including energy and momentum conservation. Within this approach, the linearized drift kinetic equation is solved by means of the field line integration technique without any simplifications on device geometry. The results of the ray-tracing code TRAVIS using the ECCD efficiency from NEO-2 within the adjoint approach show a significant difference for the driven current when compared to commonly used collisionless models for the ordinary as well as the extraordinary second harmonic mode.
Properties of toroidal Alfvén eigenmode in DIII-D plasma
Wang, Zhixuan; Lin, Zhihong Holod, Ihor; Heidbrink, W. W.; Deng, Wenjun; Xiao, Y.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, W.; Van Zeeland, M.
2015-02-15
Linear properties of the toroidal Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) excited by energetic particles (EP) in a DIII-D tokamak experiment have been studied in global gyrokinetic particle simulations treating self-consistently kinetic effects of EP, thermal ions, and electrons. Simulation results of the TAE frequency and mode structure agree very well with the experimental measurements. The non-perturbative EP contribution induces a radial localization of the TAE mode structure, a break-down of mode radial symmetry, as well as a frequency dependence on the toroidal mode number. The simulations further demonstrate the dependence of the growth rate and mode structure on EP pressure gradients. The in-out asymmetry of the mode structure and the experimental identification of the poloidal harmonics have also been clarified.
Effects of Toroidal Forces in Current Loops Embedded in a Background Plasma.
1987-12-29
loop in stable MHD equilibrium described by c’V x B - Vp = 0 where the major radial forces as well as the minor e radial forces arc explicitly...dimensional semi-toroidal equilibria previously identified. ’’It is found that somec equilibrium loops are u~nstable jo such perturbations. resulting in...pressure gradient and drag force due to the ambient gas. For the equilibrium loops studied, the motion is found to be subsonic. Time evolution of the
NOVA: a nonvariational code for solving MHD stability of axisymmetric toroidal plasmas
Cheng, C.Z.; Chance, M.S.
1986-04-01
A nonvariational approach for determining the ideal MHD stability of axisymmetric toroidal confinement systems is presented. The code (NOVA) employs cubic B-spline finite elements and Fourier expansion in a general flux coordinate (psi, theta, zeta) system. Better accuracy and faster convergence were obtained in comparison with the variational PEST and ERATO codes. The nonvariational approach can be extended to problems having non-Hermitian eigenmode equations where variational energy principles cannot be obtained.
An overview of intrinsic torque and momentum transport bifurcations in toroidal plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diamond, P. H.; Kosuga, Y.; Gürcan, Ö. D.; McDevitt, C. J.; Hahm, T. S.; Fedorczak, N.; Rice, J. E.; Wang, W. X.; Ku, S.; Kwon, J. M.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Abiteboul, J.; Wang, L.; Ko, W. H.; Shi, Y. J.; Ida, K.; Solomon, W.; Jhang, H.; Kim, S. S.; Yi, S.; Ko, S. H.; Sarazin, Y.; Singh, R.; Chang, C. S.
2013-10-01
An overview of the physics of intrinsic torque is presented, with special emphasis on the phenomenology of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks, its theoretical understanding, and the variety of momentum transport bifurcation dynamics. Ohmic reversals and electron cyclotron heating-driven counter torque are discussed in some detail. Symmetry breaking by lower single null versus upper single null asymmetry is related to the origin of intrinsic torque at the separatrix.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sciamma, Ella Marion
A spectroscopic diagnostic tool has been developed to determine the electron temperature and the neutral density in helium, hydrogen and argon plasmas from absolutely calibrated spectroscopic measurements. For each gas, a method of analysis which uses models specific to each species present in the plasma (neutral atom or singly ionized atom) has been defined. The experimental electron density is used as an input parameter to the models, and the absolutely calibrated spectroscopic data are processed beforehand to obtain the populations of the upper excited levels corresponding to the observed spectral lines. For helium plasmas, the electron temperature is inferred from the experimental helium ion excited level p = 4 population using a corona model, and then the neutral density is determined from the experimental helium neutral excited level populations using a collisional-radiative model for helium neutrals. For hydrogen plasmas, combinations of the electron temperature and the neutral density are determined from the experimental hydrogen neutral excited level populations using a collisional-radiative model specific to hydrogen atoms. For argon plasmas, the electron temperature is inferred from the experimental argon ion excited level populations using a collisional-radiative model for argon ions, and then the neutral density is determined from the experimental argon neutral excited level populations using a collisional-radiative model for argon neutrals. This diagnostic tool was applied to three experiments with different geometries and plasma conditions to test the validity of each data analysis method. The helium and hydrogen data analysis methods were tested and validated on helium and hydrogen plasmas produced in the VASIMR experiment, a plasma propulsion system concept. They gave electron temperatures and neutral densities that were consistent with other diagnostics and theory. The argon diagnostic tool was tested on argon plasmas produced in the VASIMR
Oz, E.; Myers, C. E.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Kulsrud, R. M.; Xie, J.
2011-10-15
The stability properties of partial-toroidal flux ropes are studied in detail in the laboratory, motivated by ubiquitous arched magnetic structures found on the solar surface. The flux ropes studied here are magnetized arc discharges formed between two electrodes in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) [Yamada et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)]. The three dimensional evolution of these flux ropes is monitored by a fast visible light framing camera, while their magnetic structure is measured by a variety of internal magnetic probes. The flux ropes are consistently observed to undergo large-scale oscillations as a result of an external kink instability. Using detailed scans of the plasma current, the guide field strength, and the length of the flux rope, we show that the threshold for kink stability is governed by the Kruskal-Shafranov limit for a flux rope that is held fixed at both ends (i.e., q{sub a} = 1).
Plyushchev, G.; Diallo, A.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Mueller, S. H.; Podesta, M.; Poli, F. M.; Boehmer, H.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhang, Y.
2006-10-15
A specific experimental apparatus consisting of an ion source and a detector for the investigation of the interaction between suprathermal ions and drift-wave turbulence is developed on the toroidal plasma experiment. Due to the low plasma temperature ({approx}5 eV), a spatially localized, small-size ion source ({approx}4 cm) mounted inside the vacuum vessel with relatively low ion energy ({approx}100 eV-1 keV) can be used. The source consists of an aluminosilicate Li-6 ion emitter (6 mm diameter, 10-30 {mu}A current) installed on a two-dimensional (2D) poloidally moving system. The location, energy, and current density profile of the ion beam will be measured using a 2D movable gridded energy analyzer.
Bitter, M.; Scott, S.; Wong, K.L.; Goldston, R.J.; Grek, B.; von Goeler, S.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hill, K.W.; Hsuan, H.; Johnson, D.
1986-07-01
The time history of the central toroidal plasma rotation velocity in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) experiments with auxiliary heating by neutral deuterium beam injection and major-radius compression has been measured from the Doppler shift of the emitted TiXXI-K..cap alpha.. line radiation. The experiments were conducted for neutral beam powers in the range from 2.1 to 3.8 MW and line-averaged densities in the range from 1.8 to 3.0 x 10/sup 19/ m/sup -2/. The observed rotation velocity increase during compression is in agreement with results from modeling calculations which assume classical slowing-down of the injected fast deuterium ions and momentum damping at the rate established in the precompression plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bortolon, A.; Camenen, Y.; Karpushov, A. N.; Duval, B. P.; Andrebe, Y.; Federspiel, L.; Sauter, O.; the TCV Team
2013-02-01
An alternative experimental spectroscopic measurement of poloidal plasma rotation in toroidally confined plasmas is proven effective in the TCV tokamak. Charge exchange recombination measurements of the toroidal rotation profile over the full mid-plane plasma diameter are used to infer the complete bi-dimensional flow structure of the intrinsic C6+ impurity, which includes its poloidal component. For divergence free flows, the difference between the toroidal rotation frequency ft = ut/R at the inboard and outboard locations on the same flux surface is proportional to the poloidal rotation. This indirect measurement provides increased accuracy as the measured quantity ft,in - ft,out≈4qup/Raxis(q is the local safety factor) is larger than the intrinsic uncertainties of a direct spectroscopic measurement of poloidal velocity. The method is applied in a variety of TCV ohmic and electron cyclotron heated L-mode plasmas in the banana-plateau collisionality regime (0.2<\
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuroda, Kengoh; Wada, Manato; Uchida, Masaki; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Takashi
2016-02-01
In toroidal electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas under a weak external vertical field {{B}\\text{V}} a part of the pressure driven vertical charge separation current returns along the helical field lines, generating a toroidal current. The rest circulates via the conducting vacuum vessel. Only the toroidal current contributes to the production of a closed flux surface. Both the toroidal and vertical currents are an equilibrium current that provides a radial force by the interaction with the vertical field and the toroidal field, respectively, to counter-balance the outward pressure ballooning force. We have done experiments using 2.45 GHz microwaves in the low aspect ratio torus experiment (LATE) device to investigate in what way and how much the toroidal current is generated towards the initiation of a closed flux surface. In steady discharges by {{P}\\text{inj}}=1.5 kW under various {{B}\\text{V}} both the pressure and the toroidal current become large with {{B}\\text{V}} . When {{B}\\text{V}}=6.8 G, a toroidal current of 290 A is generated and the vertical field is reduced to 1.2 G inside the current channel, being close to the initiation of a closed flux surface. In this plasma the return current does not obey Ohm’s law. Instead, the return current flows so that the electric force on the electron fluid is balanced with the pressure gradient along the field lines. Near the top and bottom boundaries superthermal electrons flow beyond the potential barrier onto the walls along the field lines. In another discharge by the low power of {{P}\\text{inj}}=1.0 kW under {{B}\\text{V}}=8.3 G, both the toroidal current and the pressure steadily increase for an initial duration of 1.1 s and then abruptly jump, generating an initial closed flux surface. While the counter force from the vertical current is initially dominant, that from the toroidal current gradually increases and becomes four times larger than that from the vertical current just before the initiation
Qiu, Hui-Bin; Song, Hai-Ying; Liu, Shi-Bing
2015-09-15
Nonlinear Raman forward scattering of an intense short laser pulse with a duration shorter than the plasma period propagating through a homogenous collisional nonextensive distributed plasma in the presence of a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to both the direction of propagation and electric vector of the radiation field is investigated theoretically when ponderomotive, relativistic, and collisional nonlinearities are taken into account. The governing equations for nonlinear wave in the context of nonextensive statistics are given, the nonextensive coupled equations describing the nonlinear Raman forward scattering instability are solved by the Fourier transformation method, and the growth rate of the nonlinear Raman forward scattering instability is obtained. The results in the case q → 1 are consistent with those in the framework of the Maxwellian distribution. It is found that the instability growth rate first decreases on increasing electron thermal velocity, minimizes at a critical thermal velocity, and then increases steeply; the critical temperature dependents on the nonextensive parameter, and the greater nonextensive parameter, correspond to the greater critical temperature; when the thermal velocity of electron is less than the critical speed, the instability growth rate is found to be enhanced as the nonextensive parameter increases; but when the thermal velocity is greater than the critical speed, the instability growth rate decreases on increasing the nonextensive parameter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanti Das, Tushar; Saha, Asit; Pal, Nikhil; Chatterjee, Prasanta
2017-07-01
The effect of dust ion collisional frequency on dust ion acoustic waves (DIAWs) is investigated in a magnetized collisional dusty plasma with isothermal electrons considering an external periodic perturbation. Employing the reductive perturbation technique, the damped Kadomtsev-Petviashili equation is derived to describe the dynamic oscillations of DIAWs in the presence of collisions between dusts and ions. It is perceived that the dust ion collisional frequency significantly changes the dynamics of the DIAWs and plays a crucial role in the transition from quasiperiodic motion to limit cycle oscillation. This study may be helpful to understand the effect of dust ion collisional frequency on the features of DIAWs in planetary rings, interstellar clouds, and comet tails.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frassinetti, L.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; Saarelma, S.; Boom, J. E.; Delabie, E.; Flanagan, J.; Kempenaars, M.; Giroud, C.; Lomas, P.; Meneses, L.; Maggi, C. S.; Menmuir, S.; Nunes, I.; Rimini, F.; Stefanikova, E.; Urano, H.; Verdoolaege, G.; Contributors, JET
2017-01-01
A dimensionless collisionality scan in low-triangularity plasmas in the Joint European Torus with the ITER-like wall (JET-ILW) has been performed. The increase of the normalized energy confinement (defined as the ratio between thermal energy confinement and Bohm confinement time) with decreasing collisionality is observed. Moreover, at low collisionality, a confinement factor H98, comparable to JET-C, is achieved. At high collisionality, the low normalized confinement is related to a degraded pedestal stability and a reduction in the density-profile peaking. The increase of normalized energy confinement is due to both an increase in the pedestal and in the core regions. The improvement in the pedestal is related to the increase of the stability. The improvement in the core is driven by (i) the core temperature increase via the temperature-profile stiffness and by (ii) the density-peaking increase driven by the low collisionality. Pedestal stability analysis performed with the ELITE (edge-localized instabilities in tokamak equilibria) code has a reasonable qualitative agreement with the experimental results. An improvement of the pedestal stability with decreasing collisionality is observed. The improvement is ascribed to the reduction of the pedestal width, the increase of the bootstrap current and the reduction of the relative shift between the positions of the pedestal density and pedestal temperature. The EPED1 model predictions for the pedestal pressure height are qualitatively well correlated with the experimental results. Quantitatively, EPED1 overestimates the experimental pressure by 15-35%. In terms of the pedestal width, a correct agreement (within 10-15%) between the EPED1 and the experimental width is found at low collisionality. The experimental pedestal width increases with collisionality. Nonetheless, an extrapolation to low-collisionality values suggests that the width predictions from the KBM constraint are reasonable for ITER.
Collisional stochastic ripple diffusion of alpha particles and beam ions on TFTR
Redi, M.H.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; White, R.B.; Budny, R.V.; Janos, A.C.; Owens, D.K.; Schivell, J.F.; Scott, S.D.; Zweben, S.J.
1995-07-01
Predictions for ripple loss of fast ions from TFTR are investigated with a guiding center code including both collisional and ripple effects. A synergistic enhancement of fast ion diffusion is found for toroidal field ripple with collisions. The total loss is calculated to be roughly twice the sum of ripple and collisional losses calculated separately. Discrepancies between measurements and calculations of plasma beta at low current and large major radius are resolved when both effects are included for neutral beam ions. A 20--30% reduction in alpha particle heating is predicted for q{sub a} = 6--14, R = 2.6 m DT plasmas on TFTR due to first orbit and collisional stochastic ripple diffusion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Shimin; Mei, Liquan; He, Yaling; Li, Ying
2016-02-01
The nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves is theoretically reported in a collisional plasma containing strongly coupled ions and nonthermal electrons featuring Tsallis distribution. For this purpose, the nonlinear integro-differential form of the generalized hydrodynamic model is used to investigate the strong-coupling effect. The modified complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with a linear dissipative term is derived for the potential wave amplitude in the hydrodynamic regime, and the modulation instability of ion-acoustic waves is examined. When the dissipative effect is neglected, the modified complex Ginzburg-Landau equation reduces to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Within the unstable region, two different types of second-order ion-acoustic rogue waves including single peak type and rogue wave triplets are discussed. The effect of the plasma parameters on the rogue waves is also presented.
A stringent limit on the amplitude of Alfvénic perturbations in high-beta low-collisionality plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Squire, Jonathan; Quataert, Eliot; Schekochihin, Alexander
2016-10-01
It is shown that low-collisionality plasmas cannot support linearly polarized shear-Alfvén fluctuations above a critical amplitude δB⊥ /B0 β - 1 / 2 , where β is the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure. Above this cutoff, a developing fluctuation will generate a pressure anisotropy that is sufficient to destabilize itself through the parallel firehose instability. This causes the wave frequency to approach zero, interrupting the fluctuation before any oscillation. The magnetic field lines rapidly relax into a sequence of angular zig-zag structures. Such a restrictive bound on shear-Alfvén-wave amplitudes has far-reaching implications for the physics of magnetized turbulence in the high- β conditions prevalent in many astrophysical plasmas, as well as for the solar wind at 1 AU where β > 1 .
A Stringent Limit on the Amplitude of Alfvénic Perturbations in High-beta Low-collisionality Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Squire, J.; Quataert, E.; Schekochihin, A. A.
2016-10-01
It is shown that low-collisionality plasmas cannot support linearly polarized shear-Alfvén fluctuations above a critical amplitude δ {B}\\perp /{B}0∼ {β }-1/2, where β is the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure. Above this cutoff, a developing fluctuation will generate a pressure anisotropy that is sufficient to destabilize itself through the parallel firehose instability. This causes the wave frequency to approach zero, interrupting the fluctuation before any oscillation. The magnetic field lines rapidly relax into a sequence of angular zig-zag structures. Such a restrictive bound on shear-Alfvén-wave amplitudes has far-reaching implications for the physics of magnetized turbulence in the high-β conditions prevalent in many astrophysical plasmas, as well as for the solar wind at ∼1 au where β ≳ 1.
Current density and poloidal magnetic field for toroidal elliptic plasmas with triangularity
Martin, P.; Haines, M.G.; Castro, E.
2005-08-15
Changes in the poloidal magnetic field around a tokamak magnetic surface due to different values of triangularity and ellipticity are analyzed in this paper. The treatment here presented allows the determination of the poloidal magnetic field from knowledge of the toroidal current density. Different profiles of these currents are studied. Improvements in the analytic forms of the magnetic surfaces have also been found. The treatment has been performed using a recent published system of coordinates. Suitable analytic equations have been used for the elliptic magnetic surfaces with triangularity and Shafranov shift.
A Kilogauss-scale, High-vacuum Toroidal Electron Plasma Experiment
Marler, J. P.; Stoneking, M. R.
2006-10-18
We describe in detail the newly constructed Lawrence Non-Neutral Torus (LNT) II apparatus. The LNT II features an improved toroidal magnetic field magnitude ({approx} 1 kG) and base vacuum pressure (<10-9 Torr). A segmented Au-plated Al electrode shell contributes to the reduction in field asymmetries and enables enhanced diagnostic capabilities. Additionally, the electron source is located on a retractable bellows for study of confinement dynamics in a complete torus. Conservative estimates suggest confinement times on the order of 1 second are achievable which would represent almost two orders of magnitude improvement over measurements made with the previous apparatus.
Complete fluid equations for low-n singular modes in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas
Glasser, A.H.
1990-01-01
The goal of this work is to develop a complete linear theory of the singular region, including all important dynamical effects. The present phase of the work treats the more collision fluid regime. A later phase will treat the less collisional gyrokinetic regime. This paper concerns the derivation and form of the fluid equations for the singular region of low-n modes. Later work will treat high-n ballooning modes. In addition, the ordering in the present work must be amended before it is applicable to the neighborhood of the field reversal surface of the RFP.
Matsumoto, T; Sekiguchi, J; Asai, T; Gota, H; Garate, E; Allfrey, I; Valentine, T; Morehouse, M; Roche, T; Kinley, J; Aefsky, S; Cordero, M; Waggoner, W; Binderbauer, M; Tajima, T
2016-05-01
A compact toroid (CT) injector was developed for the C-2 device, primarily for refueling of field-reversed configurations. The CTs are formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylindrical electrodes and a bias coil for creating a magnetic field. First, a plasma ring is generated by a discharge between the electrodes and is accelerated by Lorenz self-force. Then, the plasma ring is captured by an interlinkage flux (poloidal flux). Finally, the fully formed CT is ejected from the MCPG. The MCPG described herein has two gas injection ports that are arranged tangentially on the outer electrode. A tungsten-coated inner electrode has a head which can be replaced with a longer one to extend the length of the acceleration region for the CT. The developed MCPG has achieved supersonic CT velocities of ∼100 km/s. Plasma parameters for electron density, electron temperature, and the number of particles are ∼5 × 10(21) m(-3), ∼40 eV, and 0.5-1.0 × 10(19), respectively.
Matsumoto, T. Sekiguchi, J.; Asai, T.; Gota, H.; Garate, E.; Allfrey, I.; Valentine, T.; Morehouse, M.; Roche, T.; Kinley, J.; Aefsky, S.; Cordero, M.; Waggoner, W.; Binderbauer, M.; Tajima, T.
2016-05-15
A compact toroid (CT) injector was developed for the C-2 device, primarily for refueling of field-reversed configurations. The CTs are formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylindrical electrodes and a bias coil for creating a magnetic field. First, a plasma ring is generated by a discharge between the electrodes and is accelerated by Lorenz self-force. Then, the plasma ring is captured by an interlinkage flux (poloidal flux). Finally, the fully formed CT is ejected from the MCPG. The MCPG described herein has two gas injection ports that are arranged tangentially on the outer electrode. A tungsten-coated inner electrode has a head which can be replaced with a longer one to extend the length of the acceleration region for the CT. The developed MCPG has achieved supersonic CT velocities of ∼100 km/s. Plasma parameters for electron density, electron temperature, and the number of particles are ∼5 × 10{sup 21} m{sup −3}, ∼40 eV, and 0.5–1.0 × 10{sup 19}, respectively.
Tracy, Mark David
1993-01-08
Collective Thomson scattering from ion-acoustic waves at 266nm is used to obtain spatially resolved, two-dimensional electron density, sound speed, and radial drift profiles of a collisional laser plasma. An ultraviolet diagnostic wavelength minimizes the complicating effects of inverse bremsstrahlung and refractive turning in the coronal region of interest, where the electron densities approach n_{c}/10. Laser plasmas of this type are important because they model some of the aspects of the plasmas found in high-gain laser-fusion pellets irradiated by long pulse widths where the laser light is absorbed mostly in the corona. The experimental results and LASNEX simulations agree within a percent standard deviation of 40% for the electron density and 50% for the sound speed and radial drift velocity. Thus it is shown that the hydrodynamics equations with classical coefficients and the numerical approximations in LASNEX are valid models of laser-heated, highly collisional plasmas. The versatility of Thomson scattering is expanded upon by extending existing theory with a Fokker-Planck based model to include plasmas that are characterized by (0 ≤ k_{ia}λ_{ii} ≤ ∞) and ZT_{e}/T_{i}, where k_{ia} is the ion- acoustic wave number, λ_{ii} is the ion-ion mean free path, Z is the ionization state of the plasma, and T_{e}. T_{i} are the electron and ion temperatures in electron volts respectively. The model is valid for plasmas in which the electrons are approximately collisionless, (k_{ia}λ_{ei}, k_{ia}λ_{ee} ≥ 1), and quasineutrality holds, (α ≥1), where α = 1/kλ_{DE} and λ_{De} is the electron Debye length. This newly developed model predicts the lineshape of the ion-acoustic Thomson spectra and when fit to experimental data provides a direct measurement of the relative thermal flow velocity between the electrons and ions.
Physical Mechanism of the Lower-Hybrid-Drift Instability in a Collisional Plasma.
1981-01-30
to excite the instability LIHIliA and USSAKOW, 1979a, 1980; SPERLING and GOLDMAN, 1980]. The analysis of theL! coLlisional effects are fairly complex...instability which elucidates the. physical mechanism of the mode and the effects of collisions. For pedagogical purposes we consider an over-simplified...The influence of finite electron temperature effects is discussed in Section III. The equilibrium drift is V = V where d cT /CB) , n / x is theVdi ey
Toroidal rotation studies in KSTAR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, S. G.; Lee, H. H.; Yoo, J. W.; Kim, Y. S.; Ko, W. H.; Terzolo, L.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.; KSTAR Team
2014-10-01
Investigation of the toroidal rotation is one of the most important topics for the magnetically confined fusion plasma researches since it is essential for the stabilization of resistive wall modes and its shear plays an important role to improve plasma confinement by suppressing turbulent transport. The most advantage of KSTAR tokamak for toroidal rotation studies is that it equips two main diagnostics including the high-resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) and charge exchange spectroscopy (CES). Simultaneous core toroidal rotation and ion temperature measurements of different impurity species from the XICS and CES have shown in reasonable agreement with various plasma discharges in KSTAR. It has been observed that the toroidal rotation in KSTAR is faster than that of other tokamak devices with similar machine size and momentum input. This may due to an intrinsically low toroidal field ripple and error field of the KSTAR device. A strong braking of the toroidal rotation by the n = 1 non-resonant magnetic perturbations (NRMPs) also indicates these low toroidal field ripple and error field. Recently, it has been found that n = 2 NRMPs can also damp the toroidal rotation in KSTAR. The detail toroidal rotation studies will be presented. Work supported by the Korea Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning under the KSTAR project.
Goumiri, I R; Rowley, C W; Sabbagh, S A; Gates, D A; Boyer, M D; Gerhardt, S P; Kolemen, E; Menard, J E
2017-05-01
A model-based feedback system is presented enabling the simultaneous control of the stored energy through βn and the toroidal rotation profile of the plasma in National Spherical Torus eXperiment Upgrade device. Actuation is obtained using the momentum from six injected neutral beams and the neoclassical toroidal viscosity generated by applying three-dimensional magnetic fields. Based on a model of the momentum diffusion and torque balance, a feedback controller is designed and tested in closed-loop simulations using TRANSP, a time dependent transport analysis code, in predictive mode. Promising results for the ongoing experimental implementation of controllers are obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goumiri, I. R.; Rowley, C. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Gates, D. A.; Boyer, M. D.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kolemen, E.; Menard, J. E.
2017-05-01
A model-based feedback system is presented enabling the simultaneous control of the stored energy through βn and the toroidal rotation profile of the plasma in National Spherical Torus eXperiment Upgrade device. Actuation is obtained using the momentum from six injected neutral beams and the neoclassical toroidal viscosity generated by applying three-dimensional magnetic fields. Based on a model of the momentum diffusion and torque balance, a feedback controller is designed and tested in closed-loop simulations using TRANSP, a time dependent transport analysis code, in predictive mode. Promising results for the ongoing experimental implementation of controllers are obtained.
Goumiri, I. R.; Rowley, C. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; ...
2017-02-23
In this study, a model-based feedback system is presented enabling the simultaneous control of the stored energy through βn and the toroidal rotation profile of the plasma in National Spherical Torus eXperiment Upgrade device. Actuation is obtained using the momentum from six injected neutral beams and the neoclassical toroidal viscosity generated by applying three-dimensional magnetic fields. Based on a model of the momentum diffusion and torque balance, a feedback controller is designed and tested in closed-loop simulations using TRANSP, a time dependent transport analysis code, in predictive mode. Promising results for the ongoing experimental implementation of controllers are obtained.
Futatani, Shimpei; Bos, Wouter J. T.; Morales, Jorge A.
2015-05-15
It can be shown that in the presence of a toroidal magnetic field induced by poloidal coils, combined with the electromagnetic field induced by a central solenoid, no static equilibrium is possible within the MHD description, as soon as non-zero resistivity is assumed. The resulting dynamic equilibrium was previously discussed for the case of spatially homogeneous resisitivity. In the present work, it is shown how a spatial inhomogeneity of the viscosity and resisitivity coefficients influences this equilibrium. Parameters in both the stable, tokamak-like regime and unstable, reversed field pinch-like regime are considered. It is shown that, whereas the magnitudes of the velocity and magnetic field fluctuations are strongly modified by the spatial variation of the transport coefficients, the qualitative flow behaviour remains largely unaffected.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Lujing; Wang, Younian; Z, L. Miskvic
2004-08-01
The characteristics of collisional radio-frequency (rf) sheath dynamics over an electrode with a cylindrical hole is simulated by means of a self-consistent model which consists of two-dimensional time-dependent fluid equations coupled with Poisson equation. In addition, an equivalent-circuit model is coupled to the fluid equations in order to self-consistently determine relationship between the instantaneous potential at the rf-biased electrode and the sheath thickness. Two-dimensional profiles of the potential, the ion fluid velocity, and the distributions of the ion and electron densities within the sheath are computed under various discharge conditions, such as the discharge powers and the gas pressures. The results show that the existence of the cylindrical hole on the electrode significantly affects the sheath structure and generates a potential trap in the horizontal direction, which is particularly strong when the sheath thickness is comparable to the depth of the hole. Moreover, it is found that the collisional effects have a significant influence on the sheath characteristics.
Stability of the toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmode in axisymmetric toroidal equilibria
Fu, G.Y.; Cheng, C.Z.; Wong, K.L.
1993-09-01
The stability of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) is investigated in general tokamak equilibria with finite aspect ratio and finite plasma beta. The finite orbit width of the hot particles and the collisional damping of the trapped electrons are included. For the trapped hot particles, the finite orbit width is found to be stabilizing. For the circulating hot particles, the finite orbit width effect is stabilizing for larger values of v{sub h}/v{sub A} (> 1) and destabilizing for smaller values of v{sub h}/v{sub A} (< 1), where v{sub h} is the hot particle speed and v{sub A} is the Alfven speed. The collisional damping of the trapped electrons is found to have a much weaker dependence on the collision frequency than the previous analytic results. The contribution of the curvature term to the trapped electron collisional damping is negligible compared to that of the parallel electric field term for typical parameters. The calculated critical hot particle beta values for the TAE instability are consistent with the experimental measurements.
On energetic-particle excitations of low-frequency Alfvén eigenmodes in toroidal plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Liu; Zonca, Fulvio
2017-07-01
It is well-known that, within the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description, there exist two low-frequency Alfvén continuous spectra in toroidal plasma devices, such as tokamaks. The corresponding three accumulation frequencies are the beta-induced Alfvén eigenmode (BAE) frequency, the ion-sound wave (ISW) frequency, and the zero frequency accumulation point at vanishing parallel wave number, k∥ = 0. To form localized discrete eigenmodes, the plasma with a normal magnetic shear must be ideal MHD unstable. The zero-frequency branch then corresponds to the ideal MHD unstable discrete mode, while the BAE and ISW discrete eigenmode frequencies could be significantly shifted away from the respective accumulation frequencies. Energetic-particle (EP) effects can be analyzed and understood as an effective potential well via the generalized fishbone linear dispersion relation. In particular, it is demonstrated that, for an ideal MHD stable plasma, EPs could play the roles of both discretization and destabilization, and their effect is generally non-perturbative. The theoretical results further predict that EPs preferentially excite the BAE branch over the ISW branch. The zero-frequency branch, meanwhile, becomes the well-known fishbone dispersion relation, giving rise to energetic-particle modes. Extensions to the case of reversed magnetic shear as well as the kinetic effects will also be discussed.
Nersisyan, Hrachya B.; Deutsch, Claude; Das, Amal K.
2011-03-15
The results of a theoretical investigation of the low-velocity stopping power of ions in a magnetized collisional and classical plasma are reported. The stopping power for an ion is calculated through the linear-response (LR) theory. The collisions, which lead to a damping of the excitations in the plasma, are taken into account through a number-conserving relaxation time approximation in the LR function. In order to highlight the effects of collisions and magnetic field, we present a comparison of our analytical and numerical results obtained for nonzero damping or magnetic field with those for vanishing damping or magnetic field. It is shown that the collisions remove the anomalous friction obtained previously [Nersisyan et al., Phys. Rev. E 61, 7022 (2000)] for the collisionless magnetized plasmas at low ion velocities. One of the major objectives of this paper is to compare and to contrast our theoretical results with those obtained through a diffusion coefficient formulation based on the Dufty-Berkovsky relation evaluated for a magnetized one-component plasma modeled with target ions and electrons.
Gupta, Naveen Singh, Arvinder; Singh, Navpreet
2015-11-15
This paper presents a scheme for second harmonic generation of an intense q-Gaussian laser beam in a preformed parabolic plasma channel, where collisional nonlinearity is operative with nonlinear absorption. Due to nonuniform irradiance of intensity along the wavefront of the laser beam, nonuniform Ohmic heating of plasma electrons takes place. Due to this nonuniform heating of plasma, the laser beam gets self-focused and produces strong density gradients in the transverse direction. The generated density gradients excite an electron plasma wave at pump frequency that interacts with the pump beam to produce its second harmonics. The formulation is based on a numerical solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger wave equation in WKB approximation followed by moment theory approach. A second order nonlinear differential equation governing the propagation dynamics of the laser beam with distance of propagation has been obtained and is solved numerically by Runge Kutta fourth order technique. The effect of nonlinear absorption on self-focusing of the laser beam and conversion efficiency of its second harmonics has been investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodero, A.; García, M. C.
2017-09-01
In this work we propose a new method allowing gas temperature determination in argon non-thermal plasma jets, based on the measurement of the collisional broadening of different argon atomic lines corresponding to transitions into both resonance levels s2 and s4 of the 3p54s configuration. The method was developed for fourteen lines: Ar I 978.45, 935.42, 922.45, 852.14, 840.82, 826.45, 750.39 (corresponding to transitions falling to level s2) and 965.77, 842.46, 810.37, 800.62, 751.46, 738.40, 727.29 nm (corresponding to transitions falling to level s4). A carefully study of the relative importance of all broadening mechanisms to the whole profile for these lines, under a broad range of experimental conditions, revealed that for electron densities and gas temperature lower than 1015 cm-3 and 2000 K, the Stark and Doppler broadenings can be neglected in the method, but the van der Waals contribution should not be ever discarded for gas temperature determination. The gas temperature of a microwave non-thermal plasma jet was determined using nine of these lines. Results were consistent with each other, and with those obtained from the rotational temperature derived from OH ro-vibrational band. Also, the influence of the air entrance on the collisional broadening of the lines has been studied and the way the method should be modified to include this effect is indicated.
Ohkawa, Tihiro; Baker, Charles C.
1981-01-01
In a plasma device having a toroidal plasma containment vessel, a toroidal field-generating coil system includes fixed linking coils each formed of first and second sections with the first section passing through a central opening through the containment vessel and the second section completing the linking coil to link the containment vessel. A plurality of removable unlinked coils are each formed of first and second C-shaped sections joined to each other at their open ends with their bights spaced apart. The second C-shaped section of each movable coil is removably mounted adjacent the second section of a linking coil, with the containment vessel disposed between the open ends of the first and second C-shaped sections. Electric current is passed through the linking and removable coils in opposite sense in the respective adjacent second sections to produce a net toroidal field.
Wakefields generated by collisional neutrinos in neutral-electron-positron plasma
Tinakiche, Nouara
2013-02-15
A classical fluid description is adopted to investigate nonlinear interaction between an electron-type neutrino beam and a relativistic collisionless unmagnetized neutral-electron-positron plasma. In this work, we consider the collisions of the neutrinos with neutrals in the plasma and study their effect on the generation of wakefields in this plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarez Laguna, A.; Lani, A.; Deconinck, H.; Mansour, N. N.; Poedts, S.
2016-08-01
We present a Finite Volume scheme for solving Maxwell's equations coupled to magnetized multi-fluid plasma equations for reactive and collisional partially ionized flows on unstructured meshes. The inclusion of the displacement current allows for studying electromagnetic wave propagation in a plasma as well as charge separation effects beyond the standard magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) description, however, it leads to a very stiff system with characteristic velocities ranging from the speed of sound of the fluids up to the speed of light. In order to control the fulfillment of the elliptical constraints of the Maxwell's equations, we use the hyperbolic divergence cleaning method. In this paper, we extend the latter method applying the CIR scheme with scaled numerical diffusion in order to balance those terms with the Maxwell flux vectors. For the fluids, we generalize the AUSM+-up to multiple fluids of different species within the plasma. The fully implicit second-order method is first verified on the Hartmann flow (including comparison with its analytical solution), two ideal MHD cases with strong shocks, namely, Orszag-Tang and the MHD rotor, then validated on a much more challenging case, representing a two-fluid magnetic reconnection under solar chromospheric conditions. For the latter case, a comparison with pioneering results available in literature is provided.
Beckers, J.; Stoffels, W. W.; Dijk, J. van; Kroesen, G. M. W.; Ockenga, T.; Wolter, M.; Kersten, H.
2011-03-18
We used microparticles under hypergravity conditions, induced by a centrifuge, in order to measure nonintrusively and spatially resolved the electric field strength as well as the particle charge in the collisional rf plasma sheath. The measured electric field strengths demonstrate good agreement with the literature, while the particle charge shows decreasing values towards the electrode. We demonstrate that it is indeed possible to measure these important quantities without changing or disturbing the plasma.
Collisional Scaling of the Energy Transfer in Drift-Wave Zonal Flow Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmid, B.; Manz, P.; Ramisch, M.; Stroth, U.
2017-02-01
The collisionality scaling of density and potential coupling together with zonal flow energy transfer and spectral power is investigated at the stellarator experiment TJ-K. With a poloidal probe array, consisting of 128 Langmuir probes, density and potential fluctuations are measured on four neighboring flux surfaces simultaneously over the complete poloidal circumference. By analyzing Reynolds stress and pseudo-Reynolds stress, it is found that, for increasing collisionality, the coupling between density and potential decreases which hinders the zonal flow drive. Also, as a consequence, the nonlinear energy transfer, as well as the zonal flow contribution to the complete turbulent spectrum, decreases the same way. This is in line with theoretical expectations and is a first experimental verification of the importance of collisionality for large-scale structure formation in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas.
Collisional Scaling of the Energy Transfer in Drift-Wave Zonal Flow Turbulence.
Schmid, B; Manz, P; Ramisch, M; Stroth, U
2017-02-03
The collisionality scaling of density and potential coupling together with zonal flow energy transfer and spectral power is investigated at the stellarator experiment TJ-K. With a poloidal probe array, consisting of 128 Langmuir probes, density and potential fluctuations are measured on four neighboring flux surfaces simultaneously over the complete poloidal circumference. By analyzing Reynolds stress and pseudo-Reynolds stress, it is found that, for increasing collisionality, the coupling between density and potential decreases which hinders the zonal flow drive. Also, as a consequence, the nonlinear energy transfer, as well as the zonal flow contribution to the complete turbulent spectrum, decreases the same way. This is in line with theoretical expectations and is a first experimental verification of the importance of collisionality for large-scale structure formation in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabbagh, S. A.; Berkery, J. W.; Park, Y. S.; Bell, R. E.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Goumiri, I.; Evans, T. E.; Ferraro, N.; Jeon, Y. M.; Ko, W.; Shaing, K. C.; Sun, Y.
2014-10-01
Three-dimensional magnetic fields producing non-resonant magnetic braking allow control of the plasma rotation profile, ωφ, in tokamaks. Experimental angular momentum alteration created by 3D field configurations with dominant n = 2 and n = 3 components in NSTX is compared to theoretical neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) torque density profiles, TNTV. Large radial variations of TNTV are typically found when flux surface displacements are computed using ideal MHD assumptions. In contrast, experimentally measured TNTV does not show strong torque localization. This may be explained by ion banana width orbit-averaging effects. A favorable characteristic for ωφ control clearly illustrated by KSTAR experiments is the lack of hysteresis of ωφ when altered by non-resonant NTV. Results from a model-based rotation controller designed using NBI and NTV from the applied 3D field as actuators are shown. The dependence of TNTV on δB2 significantly constrains the allowable field amplification in plasma response models when compared to experiment. Initial analysis shows that the single fluid model in the M3D-C1 resistive MHD code produces a flux surface-averaged δB consistent with the experimentally measured TNTV. Supported by US DOE Contracts DE-FG02-99ER54524 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Solar wind collisional heating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pezzi, Oreste
2017-06-01
To properly describe heating in weakly collisional turbulent plasmas such as the solar wind, interparticle collisions should be taken into account. Collisions can convert ordered energy into heat by means of irreversible relaxation towards the thermal equilibrium. Recently, Pezzi et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 116, 2016a, 145001) showed that the plasma collisionality is enhanced by the presence of fine structures in velocity space. Here, the analysis is extended by directly comparing the effects of the fully nonlinear Landau operator and a linearized Landau operator. By focusing on the relaxation towards the equilibrium of an out of equilibrium distribution function in a homogeneous force-free plasma, here it is pointed out that it is significant to retain nonlinearities in the collisional operator to quantify the importance of collisional effects. Although the presence of several characteristic times associated with the dissipation of different phase space structures is recovered in both the cases of the nonlinear and the linearized operators, the influence of these times is different in the two cases. In the linearized operator case, the recovered characteristic times are systematically larger than in the fully nonlinear operator case, this suggesting that fine velocity structures are dissipated more slowly if nonlinearities are neglected in the collisional operator.
Wakefields generated by collisional neutrinos in neutral-electron-positron-ion plasma
Tinakiche, Nouara
2015-12-15
A classical fluid description is adopted to investigate nonlinear interaction between an electron-type neutrino beam and a relativistic collisionless unmagnetized neutral-electron-positron-ion plasma. In this work, we consider the collisions of the neutrinos with neutrals in the plasma and study their effect on the generation of wakefields in presence of a fraction of ions in a neutral-electron-positron plasma. The results obtained in the present work are interpreted and compared with previous studies.
Transport equations in tokamak plasmas
Callen, J. D.; Hegna, C. C.; Cole, A. J.
2010-05-15
Tokamak plasma transport equations are usually obtained by flux surface averaging the collisional Braginskii equations. However, tokamak plasmas are not in collisional regimes. Also, ad hoc terms are added for neoclassical effects on the parallel Ohm's law, fluctuation-induced transport, heating, current-drive and flow sources and sinks, small magnetic field nonaxisymmetries, magnetic field transients, etc. A set of self-consistent second order in gyroradius fluid-moment-based transport equations for nearly axisymmetric tokamak plasmas has been developed using a kinetic-based approach. The derivation uses neoclassical-based parallel viscous force closures, and includes all the effects noted above. Plasma processes on successive time scales and constraints they impose are considered sequentially: compressional Alfven waves (Grad-Shafranov equilibrium, ion radial force balance), sound waves (pressure constant along field lines, incompressible flows within a flux surface), and collisions (electrons, parallel Ohm's law; ions, damping of poloidal flow). Radial particle fluxes are driven by the many second order in gyroradius toroidal angular torques on a plasma species: seven ambipolar collision-based ones (classical, neoclassical, etc.) and eight nonambipolar ones (fluctuation-induced, polarization flows from toroidal rotation transients, etc.). The plasma toroidal rotation equation results from setting to zero the net radial current induced by the nonambipolar fluxes. The radial particle flux consists of the collision-based intrinsically ambipolar fluxes plus the nonambipolar fluxes evaluated at the ambipolarity-enforcing toroidal plasma rotation (radial electric field). The energy transport equations do not involve an ambipolar constraint and hence are more directly obtained. The 'mean field' effects of microturbulence on the parallel Ohm's law, poloidal ion flow, particle fluxes, and toroidal momentum and energy transport are all included self-consistently. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dan, Li; Guo, Li-Xin; Li, Jiang-Ting; Chen, Wei; Yan, Xu; Huang, Qing-Qing
2017-09-01
The expression of complex dielectric permittivity for non-magnetized fully ionized dusty plasma is obtained based on the kinetic equation in the Fokker-Planck-Landau collision model and the charging equation of the statistical theory. The influences of density, average size of dust grains, and balanced charging of the charge number of dust particles on the attenuation properties of electromagnetic waves in fully ionized dusty plasma are investigated by calculating the attenuation constant. In addition, the attenuation characteristics of weakly ionized and fully ionized dusty plasmas are compared. Results enriched the physical mechanisms of microwave attenuation for fully ionized dusty plasma and provide a theoretical basis for future studies.
Modeling the Compression of Merged Compact Toroids by Multiple Plasma Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thio, Y. C. Francis; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ron; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
A fusion propulsion scheme has been proposed that makes use of the merging of a spherical distribution of plasma jets to dynamically form a gaseous liner. The gaseous liner is used to implode a magnetized target to produce the fusion reaction in a standoff manner. In this paper, the merging of the plasma jets to form the gaseous liner is investigated numerically. The Los Alamos SPHINX code, based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method is used to model the interaction of the jets. 2-D and 3-D simulations have been performed to study the characteristics of the resulting flow when these jets collide. The results show that the jets merge to form a plasma liner that converge radially which may be used to compress the central plasma to fusion conditions. Details of the computational model and the SPH numerical methods will be presented together with the numerical results.